Gauffin, Karl; Vinnerljung, Bo; Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Hjern, Anders
To investigate whether socio-economic status (SES) in childhood and school failure at 15 years of age predict illicit drug abuse in youth and young adulthood. Register study in a Swedish national cohort born 1973-88 (n = 1,405,763), followed from age 16 to 20-35 years. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for any indication of drug abuse. Our outcomes were hospital admissions, death and criminality associated with illicit drug abuse. Data on socio-demographics, school grades and parental psychosocial problems were collected from censuses (1985 and 1990) and national registers. School failure was defined as having mean school grades from the final year in primary school lower than -1 standard deviation and/or no grades in core subjects. School failure was a strong predictor of illicit drug abuse with an HR of 5.87 (95% CI: 5.76-5.99) after adjustment for age and sex. Childhood SES was associated with illicit drug abuse later in life in a stepwise manner. The lowest stratum had a HR of 2.28 (95% CI: 2.20-2.37) compared with the highest stratum as the reference, when adjusted for other socio-demographic variables. In the fully adjusted model, the effect of SES was greatly attenuated to an HR of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.19-1.28) in the lowest SES category, while the effect of school failure remained high with an HR of 4.22 (95% CI: 4.13-4.31). School failure and childhood socio-economic status predict illicit drug abuse independently in youth and young adults in Sweden. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan
Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse by twin sibling modeling. The authors followed up with epidemiological analyses to identify shared environmental influences on drug abuse. Drug abuse was defined using public medical, legal, or pharmacy records. Twin and sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, or municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. The authors predicted concordance for drug abuse by years of co-residence until the older sibling turned 21 and risk for future drug abuse in adolescents living with parental figures as a function of family-level socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. The best twin sibling fit model predicted substantial heritability for drug abuse in males (55%) and females (73%), with environmental factors shared by siblings operating only in males and accounting for 23% of the variance in liability. For each year of living in the same household, the probability of sibling concordance for drug abuse increased 2%-5%. When not residing in the same household, concordance was predicted from residence in the same small residential area or municipality. Risk for drug abuse was predicted both by family socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. Controlling for family socioeconomic status, each year of living in a high social deprivation neighborhood increased the risk for drug abuse by 2%. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse is highly heritable. A substantial proportion of the shared environmental effect on drug abuse comes from community-wide rather than household-level influences. Genetic effects demonstrated in twin studies have led to molecular analyses to elucidate biological pathways. In a parallel manner, environmental effects can be followed up by
Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J
While drug abuse (DA) is strongly familial, we still have limited knowledge about the causes of its cross-generational transmission. We examined DA ascertained from national registers in offspring of three family types from the Swedish population [intact (n = 2,111,074), 'not-lived-with' (n = 165,315, where biological parents never lived with their offspring) and 'step' (n = 124,800 offspring)], which reflected, respectively, the effects of genes + rearing, genes only and rearing only. We replicated these results in three high-risk co-relative designs. Combined across mothers and fathers, the hazard ratio (HR) for DA in offspring given DA in parents was 3.52 in intact, 2.73 in 'not-lived-with' and 1.79 in stepfamilies. In 968 biological full or half-sibling pairs one of whom was reared by and the other never lived with their parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in the reared than 'not-lived-with' child (HR 1.57). In 64 offspring pairs of a parent with DA, the HR for DA was greater in a reared biological v. step-parented non-biological child (HR 3.33). In 321 pairs of offspring of a parent with DA one of whom was a not-lived-with biological child and the second a step-parented non-biological child, the HR for DA was greater in the biological v. stepchild (HR 1.80). Both genetic and environmental factors contribute substantially to parent-offspring resemblance for DA. The general population contains informative family constellations that can complement more traditional adoption designs in clarifying the sources of parent-offspring resemblance.
... or injuries among Americans. Abused drugs include Methamphetamine Anabolic steroids Club drugs Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social ...
Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Kristina; Ohlsson, Henrik; Palmér, Karolina; Maes, Hermine; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Jan
Prior research suggests that drug abuse (DA) is strongly influenced by both genetic and familial environmental factors. No large-scale adoption study has previously attempted to verify and integrate these findings. To determine how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for DA. Follow-up in 9 public databases (1961-2009) of adopted children and their biological and adoptive relatives. Sweden. The study included 18 115 adopted children born between 1950 and 1993; 78,079 biological parents and siblings; and 51,208 adoptive parents and siblings. Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. Risk for DA was significantly elevated in the adopted offspring of biological parents with DA (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.66-2.62), in biological full and half siblings of adopted children with DA (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.64; and odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.19-1.67, respectively), and in adoptive siblings of adopted children with DA (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.43-2.65). A genetic risk index (including biological parental or sibling history of DA, criminal activity, and psychiatric or alcohol problems) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental history of divorce, death, criminal activity, and alcohol problems, as well as an adoptive sibling history of DA and psychiatric or alcohol problems) both strongly predicted the risk for DA. Including both indices along with sex and age at adoption in a predictive model revealed a significant positive interaction between the genetic and environmental risk indices. Drug abuse is an etiologically complex syndrome strongly influenced by a diverse set of genetic risk factors reflecting a specific liability to DA, by a vulnerability to other externalizing disorders, and by a range of environmental factors reflecting marital instability, as well as psychopathology and criminal behavior in the adoptive home. Adverse environmental effects on DA are more pathogenic in individuals
... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...
Kendler, Kenneth S.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
IMPORTANCE Peer deviance (PD) strongly predicts externalizing psychopathologic conditions but has not been previously assessable in population cohorts. We sought to develop such an index of PD and to clarify its effects on risk of drug abuse (DA). OBJECTIVES To examine how strongly PD increases the risk of DA and whether this community-level liability indicator interacts with key DA risk factors at the individual and family levels. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Studies of future DA registration in 1 401 698 Swedish probands born from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 1985, and their adolescent peers in approximately 9200 small community areas. Peer deviance was defined as the proportion of individuals born within 5 years of the proband living in the same small community when the proband was 15 years old who eventually were registered for DA. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. RESULTS Peer deviance was associated with future DA in the proband, with rates of DA in older and male peers more strongly predictive than in younger or female peers. The predictive power of PD was only slightly attenuated by adding measures of community deprivation, collective efficacy, or family socioeconomic status. Probands whose parents were divorced were more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of high PD environments. A robust positive interaction was also seen between genetic risk of DA (indexed by rates of DA in first-, second-, and third-degree relatives) and PD exposure. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE With sufficient data, PD can be measured in populations and strongly predicts DA. In a nationwide sample, risk factors at the level of the individual (genetic vulnerability), family (parental loss), and community (PD) contribute substantially to risk of DA. Individuals at elevated DA risk because of parental divorce or high genetic liability are more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of PD. Although the effect of our PD
Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin
with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety disorders at first admission. The predicted cumulative incidence of drug related death was significantly higher in opiate......Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
The authors sought to clarify the sources of parent-offspring resemblance for drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior, using a novel genetic-epidemiological design. Using national registries, the authors identified rates of drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior in 41,360 Swedish individuals born between 1960 and 1990 and raised in triparental families comprising a biological mother who reared them, a "not-lived-with" biological father, and a stepfather. When each syndrome was examined individually, hazard rates for drug abuse in offspring of parents with drug abuse were highest for mothers (2.80, 95% CI=2.23-3.38), intermediate for not-lived-with fathers (2.45, 95% CI=2.14-2.79), and lowest for stepfathers (1.99, 95% CI=1.55-2.56). The same pattern was seen for alcohol use disorders (2.23, 95% CI=1.93-2.58; 1.84, 95% CI=1.69-2.00; and 1.27, 95% CI=1.12-1.43) and criminal behavior (1.55, 95% CI=1.44-1.66; 1.46, 95% CI=1.40-1.52; and 1.30, 95% CI=1.23-1.37). When all three syndromes were examined together, specificity of cross-generational transmission was highest for mothers, intermediate for not-lived-with fathers, and lowest for stepfathers. Analyses of intact families and other not-lived-with parents and stepparents showed similar cross-generation transmission for these syndromes in mothers and fathers, supporting the representativeness of results from triparental families. A major strength of the triparental design is its inclusion, within a single family, of parents who provide, to a first approximation, their offspring with genes plus rearing, genes only, and rearing only. For drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior, the results of this study suggest that parent-offspring transmission involves both genetic and environmental processes, with genetic factors being somewhat more important. These results should be interpreted in the context of the strengths and limitations of national registry data.
... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...
... CNS depressants are used to treat anxiety, tension, panic attacks, and sleep disorders. How they work: CNS ... most common result of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse medications can become addicted just ...
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
Peer deviance (PD) strongly predicts externalizing psychopathologic conditions but has not been previously assessable in population cohorts. We sought to develop such an index of PD and to clarify its effects on risk of drug abuse (DA). To examine how strongly PD increases the risk of DA and whether this community-level liability indicator interacts with key DA risk factors at the individual and family levels. Studies of future DA registration in 1,401,698 Swedish probands born from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 1985, and their adolescent peers in approximately 9200 small community areas. Peer deviance was defined as the proportion of individuals born within 5 years of the proband living in the same small community when the proband was 15 years old who eventually were registered for DA. Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. Peer deviance was associated with future DA in the proband, with rates of DA in older and male peers more strongly predictive than in younger or female peers. The predictive power of PD was only slightly attenuated by adding measures of community deprivation, collective efficacy, or family socioeconomic status. Probands whose parents were divorced were more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of high PD environments. A robust positive interaction was also seen between genetic risk of DA (indexed by rates of DA in first-, second-, and third-degree relatives) and PD exposure. With sufficient data, PD can be measured in populations and strongly predicts DA. In a nationwide sample, risk factors at the level of the individual (genetic vulnerability), family (parental loss), and community (PD) contribute substantially to risk of DA. Individuals at elevated DA risk because of parental divorce or high genetic liability are more sensitive to the pathogenic effects of PD. Although the effect of our PD measure on DA liability cannot be explained by standard measures of community or family risk, we cannot, with
Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E
The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.
Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness
Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth
Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.
The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…
Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming
Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed. PMID:17904621
Schuckit, Marc A.
This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)
Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.
Title: Criminal legislation of drug abuse Author: Mgr. Markéta Tukinská Supervisor: Prof. JUDr. Jiří Jelínek, CSc. Abstract: Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. The production and illegal trade of drugs is the domain of international organized crime. Illegal weapon trade and human trafficking often follow these activities. The drug abuse means serious threat for the society. It doesn't mean danger only for the drug addict, who is suffering from health problems, which are following the addictio...
... medications and sedatives, such as alprazolam (Xanax) and diazepam (Valium), and hypnotics, such as zolpidem (Ambien), used to ... to other substances, including alcohol and tobacco Family history of substance abuse problems Younger age, especially the ...
Gashi, Sanije; Ramadani, Naser; Berisha, Merita; Gashi, Musli; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Hoxha, Rina
Currently the drug abuse has become one of the most serious problems in many countries. The drugs abuse is also widespread in less developed societies. This problem is present in Kosova too with the tendency of rising. The of this research was to show the number of drug abusers in Prishtina region, the type of drugs used, the way of drug administration, then survey of the age, sex, marital status, residence of the drug abusers including their social status (employment, profession and economical status). During the surveyed period the number of hospitalized drug abusers in Neuropsychiatry clinic was 39. 25.5% of them were hospitalized more than ones, with 367 stay days with average treatment period of 7.5 days. Average age of those hospitalized for the first time was 27.9 years of age. 64.1% of them were 25-34 years old. 97.4% of the hospitalized were male. 32 (82.1%) patient were from Prishtina, 5 from Ferizaj and 1 from F. Kosova and Kacanik. During the surveyed period there was no patient hospitalized from other cities of Prishtina Region (Besiana, Drenas, Kastriot, Lipjan, Shtime and Shterpc).
Mar 2, 1974 ... Little drug abuse. Group 2. Extrovert. Less gregarious. Not aggressive. Rebellious of authority. Much body contact sport. Academically mixed. Drug abuse-for 'kicks'. COMPETITIVE GAMES. DRUG ABUSE. Fig. I. The school as an universal set. understanding of the strategy of the opposition will provide.
Nelson, J E
Drug abusers in the working population range from the functional to the dysfunctional. Functional drug-abusing employees may work as productive members of a company for years without incident or detection. Cases have been documented of long-term heroin addicts with stable 10- and 20-year work histories., Studies of drug addicts in treatment with known work histories reveal that such persons can, and do, hold a broad range of jobs in the work force. In a study by Levy of 95 former addicts with histories of simultaneous employment and undetected drug abuse (including on-the-job use by 91 of the 95 addicts), the following occupations were found: bank teller; mail clerk; secretary; delivery man; stock clerk; college registrar; typist; baker; nurses aide; medical supply clerk; messenger; pharmacy clerk; receptionist; teletype operator; men's clothing salesman; truck driver; busboy; telephone installer; roofer; clothing designer; assembly line worker; waitress; auto mechanic; security officer; postal worker; credit collector; plant manager; and rigger. Reports from CODAP, a Federal statistical system covering drug treatment programs, indicate that about 20% of opiate users admitted to treatment were employed full time at the time of admission. Caplovitz found that the stable worker-addict is more similar in basic characteristics to other workers than to nonworking addicts.
... Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join ... the age of 65 years, the amount of alcohol considered to increase health risks is either more than 7 standard drinks per ...
Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.
Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte
Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Los Angeles City Schools, CA.
These guidelines were developed to assist administrators, teachers, and other staff members of the Los Angeles Public Schools in the formulation of an effective program designed to alleviate drug abuse. Staff responsibilities are spelled out. Specific attention is directed to the problems of drug abuse, drug possession and drug selling. The…
Garrido-González, Iria; Bugarín-González, Rosendo; Machín-Fernández, Antonio Javier
To determine the patterns of substance abuse of students attending the Lugo School of Nursing. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study in the classroom carried out by survey research in April 2015. 61.5% of students participated (185), 83.2% of whom were females. The first addictive substance consumed by participants was tobacco (at 15 years old). In the last month cigarettes were consumed by 36.2% of students, while alcohol was consumed by 89.9% (58.4% of the total got drunk). 2.2% were consuming tranquilizers/hypnotics in the same time period. The most widely used illegal drug was cannabis (17.8%) and then cocaine (2.2%). There is a significant correlation between illegal drug consumption and being male, smoking cigarettes or drinking alcohol, living alone or with friends (not family), have poor academic performance and public drinking (botellón). There were no association between illegal drugs and sports or reading. Polydrug use was also studied: a 16.2% declared to have consumed alcohol and cannabis simultaneously, and a 4.9% alcohol and cocaine. Consumption patterns are similar compared to the general population in that age group, with some of them being higher. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures in order to prevent substance abuse at the university level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug abuse education course. 550.51... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the drug abuse education course. All institutions provide a drug abuse education course to: (1) Inform...
Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.
Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…
American Education, 1983
Mrs. Reagan discusses effects of drug use among teenagers and offers suggestions to teachers, parents, and students for combating drug abuse. She stresses parent involvement and the formation of parent peer groups, as well as teachers' responsibilities. (NJ)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) is a nationally representative public health surveillance system that has monitored drug related emergency department (ED)...
Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.
Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…
Drug Pollution - The Problem of Abuse*. A. D. BE SUSA , M.B., B.CH., Department at Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. SUMMARY. Some of the aetiological factors are given as well as an outline of the extent of drug abuse in many countries, age of addiction and also the role of the medical ...
Gauntlett, S L
The Salvation Army has been involved in the control of drug abuse since it was founded over 120 years ago, when alcohol was the predominant concern. Today, alcohol is still the most commonly abused substance, but the Salvation Army is increasingly tackling other forms of substance abuse as well. High priority is given to prevention of all levels and by all means through a network of over 200 specialized rehabilitation centres throughout the world, in addition to programmes within hostels for the homeless, where there is a high proportion of alcohol and other substance abusers. The Salvation Army endeavours to help drug-dependent persons to abstain from using drugs and achieve a healthy and happy life. It is of the view that, as drug dependence is usually a manifestation of deeper needs, the spiritual component is vital in dealing with drug abuse of all types.
Swahnberg, Katarina; Wijma, Barbro
The study aim was to apprehend staff's perception of abuse in healthcare (AHC) after an intervention based on 'Forum Play', and make comparisons to preintervention interviews and interviews with male and female patients...
Full Text Available Four young males with chronic non pitting swelling of lower legs associated with multiple ulcers, scars and pigmentation after parenteral drug abuse were observed in the Dermatovenereology department during last one year. Three of them had active ulcers which healed with withdrawal of offending drug, use of systemic and topical antibiotics and B-complex. All cases were referred to the deaddiction centre. The characteristic clinical features helped in the diagnosis even before history of drug abuse was obtained.
Jadidi, Nadjme; Nakhaee, Nouzar
Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centre...
Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara
Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
National School Safety Center, Sacramento, CA.
Drug abuse in schools, and to a lesser extent, alcohol and tobacco abuse are the topics of this paper. The paper is divided into the following sections: (1) prevalence of drug abuse; (2) student attitudes and beliefs; (3) drug laws and school rules; (4) student searches and drug testing; (5) drug epidemic reaches very young; (6) tobacco abuse; (7)…
Daniela Luiza Baconi
Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex disease characterized by compulsive and uncontrollable desire to seek and consume the drug. In time, drug-related terminology has undergone many changes, arising from the deepening of the mechanisms of action, but also about the need for a greater precision in the definition. Drug dependence can be assigned not only to pharmacological effects of the drugs of abuse, but also to their interaction with each particular neurological and psychological constitution. The research on the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction processes allows both a better understanding of current pharmacotherapy and the development of new treatment strategies in drug abuse and dependence. In this review we intend to present the current concepts related to drug abuse and dependence.
... Family Checkup Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at ... Family Center at the University of Oregon, highlight parenting skills that are important in preventing the initiation ...
E. Y. Ponomareva
Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.
E. Y. Ponomareva
Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.
... Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Substance Use > Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Ages & Stages Listen Español ...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...
Prevalence And Determinants Of Drug Abuse Among Youths In A Rural Community In North Western Nigeria. ... The result indicated that youth in the study area abuse drugs such Tramadol and Marijuana and farming occupation was a determinant of drug abuse. For effective control of drug abuse in the study area, there is ...
Full Text Available Narcotics is a highly addictive drug that acts as a stimulant or depresant for the central nervous system. The prevalence of various diseases found to be higher in the group of drug users then those who not use drugs such as endocarditis, hepatitis and HIV. Further evidence that the drug effects the oral health which includes the effect of the hard tissues by increased incidence of caries and periodontitis and the effect of the soft tissues in the form of leukoplakia and oral mucosal fibrosis, reduced production, especially the parotid salivary glands in amphetamine and cannabis users. In addition to the drug is a predisposing of oral infections such as candidiasis and gingivitis. Reduced volume of saliva on abusers may result in reduced immune function of saliva in maintaining oral health. Consequently the drug abusers increased number of bacteria and fungi in the oral cavity, including anaerobic bacteria and Candida albicans, especially in cases of abuse of cannabis. Gingival plaque formation and the growing colonies of anaerobic bacteria may increase the occurrence of gingivitis in the drug abusers. Lack of awareness of drug abusers in oral hygiene causing the gingivitis develops into periodontitis followed by alveolar bone loss.
Talsma, Marijke; Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Östberg, Anna-Lena
The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of suspected child abuse among Swedish general practitioners (GPs), and to investigate factors influencing them in their decision whether or not to report to child protective services (CPS). A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Primary health care centres in western Sweden. 177 GPs and GP trainees. Demographic and educational background, education on child abuse, attitudes to reporting and CPS, previous experience of reporting suspected child abuse, and need of support. Despite mandatory reporting, 20% of all physicians had at some point suspected but not reported child abuse. Main reasons for non-reporting were uncertainty about the suspicion and use of alternative strategies; for instance, referral to other health care providers or follow-up of the family by the treating physician. Only 30% of all physicians trusted CPS's methods of investigating and acting in cases of suspected child abuse, and 44% of all physicians would have wanted access to expert consultation. There were no differences in the failure to report suspected child abuse that could be attributed to GP characteristics. However, GPs educated abroad reported less frequently to CPS than GPs educated in Sweden. This study showed that GPs see a need for support from experts and that the communication and cooperation between GPs and CPS needs to be improved. The low frequency of reporting indicates a need for continued education of GPs and for updated guidelines including practical advice on how to manage child abuse.
Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran
Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.
Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.
A study of student attitudes toward drug abuse and the drug abuser was conducted, using a modified version of Marcus's "Alcoholism Questionnaire." One hundred twenty-two college students participated. Mean factor scores (MFS) were developed for the nine factors tested. Marcus's "safe operating criterion" (ignore MFS differences…
Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Christensen, Jakob; Jensen, Kimmo
γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse that causes euphoria, anxiolysis and hypnosis. The recent rise in the recreational intake of GHB, as well as its association with “drug rape”, has turned the attention to GHB in acute hospital settings. Acutely admitted GHB intoxicated patients may display...
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.
abuse among young people incorporates all levels, and what began as the use of drugs in African traditional society ... this study, drug abuse refers to the intake of mood-altering substances in a manner that is considered .... Another study on social psychology of drug abuse also suggests that children whose parents abuse ...
Reddy, Madhavi K.; Anderson, Bradley J; Liebschutz, Jane; Stein, Michael D.
Those who have experienced abuse may be prone to engaging in risky sexual behavior and risky drug use. The relationship between sexual abuse and risky behavior has been well established in the literature, but the association between physical abuse and risky drug use has been equivocal. We hypothesize that the experience of PTSD symptoms following physical abuse leads to risky drug use. Therefore, we examined the associations among physical abuse history, PTSD symptoms, and HIV-related drug ri...
Nielsen, David A.; Utrankar, Amol; Reyes, Jennifer A.; Simons, Daniel D; Kosten, Thomas R.
Drug addiction continues to be a serious medical and social problem. Vulnerability to develop an addiction to drugs is dependent on genetic, environmental, social and biological factors. In particular, the interactions of environmental and genetic factors indicate the significance of epigenetic mechanisms, which have been found to occur in response to illicit drug use or as underlying factors in chronic substance abuse and relapse. Epigenetics is defined as the heritable and possibly reversib...
Medina-Mora, M E; Tapia, C R; Rascón, M L; Solache, G; Otero, B R; Lazcano, F; Mariño, M C
Abuse of alcoholic beverages and tobacco appear to constitute priority public health problems in Mexico, while abuse of other drugs is sufficiently widespread to justify concern. More specifically, a recent national survey (11) found that over 10% of the male subjects 18 to 65 years old met established international criteria for alcohol dependence, while about a quarter of those surveyed were active smokers. A total of 4.3% said they had used one or more drugs other than tobacco or alcohol at some time in their lives.
Nielsen, David A; Utrankar, Amol; Reyes, Jennifer A; Simons, Daniel D; Kosten, Thomas R
Drug addiction continues to be a serious medical and social problem. Vulnerability to develop an addiction to drugs is dependent on genetic, environmental, social and biological factors. In particular, the interactions of environmental and genetic factors indicate the significance of epigenetic mechanisms, which have been found to occur in response to illicit drug use or as underlying factors in chronic substance abuse and relapse. Epigenetics is defined as the heritable and possibly reversible modifications in gene expression that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. This review discusses the various types of epigenetic modifications and their relevance to drug addiction to elucidate whether epigenetics is a predisposing factor, or a response to, developing an addiction to drugs of abuse.
Mastropietro, David J; Muppalaneni, Srinath; Omidian, Hossein
This study aimed to determine whether selected superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) could be used as a suitable alternative to thwart extraction, filtration, and syringeability attempts for abuse. Many abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) rely on high molecular weight polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) to provide crush and extraction resistance. However, these polymers suffer from slow dissolution kinetics, and are susceptible to a variety of abuse conditions. Several commercially available SAPs were evaluated for swelling behavior in extraction solvents, and tableting properties. Post-compaction abuse properties were evaluated by recoverable volume and syringeability after solvent extraction. Drug release and percent drug extraction were conducted using tramadol HCl as a model drug. Certain SAPs had the ability to rapidly imbibe solvent and effectively stop extraction processes in a variety of solvents, including water and water/alcohol mixtures. Tablets containing SAP and drug showed no effect on drug release in vitro. SAPs possess adequate properties for tableting, and maintain their high and fast swelling properties after compaction. The fast and extensive interactions of SAPs with aqueous medium are a major advantage over non-crosslinked high molecular weight viscosifying agents such as poly(ethylene oxide).
Bengtsson Boström, Kristina; Östberg, Anna-Lena
Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of suspected child abuse among Swedish general practitioners (GPs), and to investigate factors influencing them in their decision whether or not to report to child protective services (CPS). Design. A cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting. Primary health care centres in western Sweden. Subjects. 177 GPs and GP trainees. Main outcome measures. Demographic and educational background, education on child abuse, attitudes to reporting and CPS, previous experience of reporting suspected child abuse, and need of support. Results. Despite mandatory reporting, 20% of all physicians had at some point suspected but not reported child abuse. Main reasons for non-reporting were uncertainty about the suspicion and use of alternative strategies; for instance, referral to other health care providers or follow-up of the family by the treating physician. Only 30% of all physicians trusted CPS's methods of investigating and acting in cases of suspected child abuse, and 44% of all physicians would have wanted access to expert consultation. There were no differences in the failure to report suspected child abuse that could be attributed to GP characteristics. However, GPs educated abroad reported less frequently to CPS than GPs educated in Sweden. Conclusions. This study showed that GPs see a need for support from experts and that the communication and cooperation between GPs and CPS needs to be improved. The low frequency of reporting indicates a need for continued education of GPs and for updated guidelines including practical advice on how to manage child abuse. PMID:25676563
Byrd, Oliver E.
Summaries are presented of over 150 articles in the recent medical and psychiatric literature. Topics covered are: effects of drugs, tobacco, alcohol, drugs used in medicine, vapor sniffing, marijuana, barbiturates, tranquilizers, amphetamines, methamphetamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, other hallucinogens, heroin and the opiates, psychiatric…
Hall, James A.; Vaughan Sarrazin, Mary S.; Huber, Diane L.; Vaughn, Thomas; Block, Robert I.; Reedy, Amanda R.; Jang, MiJin
Objective: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, strengths-based model of case management for clients in drug abuse treatment. Method: 503 volunteers from residential or intensive outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to one of three conditions of Iowa Case Management (ICM) plus treatment as usual…
Carlin, Albert S.; Stauss, Fred F.
Polydrug (non-opiate-drug) abusers have previously been classified by a variety of typologies that can be characterized as either descriptive, functional, or a combination of both. This investigation proposes two objective scoring systems that classify polydrug users on a streetwise/straight dimension and on a self-medication/recreational-use…
Giordano, G N; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J; Kendler, K S
Although cannabis abuse (CA) is known to be associated with schizophrenia, the causal nature of this association is unclear, with prodromal effects complicating its interpretation. From Swedish national registry databases, we used a co-relative case-control design with full-sibling, half-sibling and first-cousin comparisons, alongside a general Swedish population sample. Using ICD codes, 5456 individuals with an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia (2000-2010) were matched with five schizophrenia-free controls. We further identified first-cousin, half-sibling and full-sibling pairs discordant for CA and statistically extrapolated results for discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Within the general Swedish population, CA was strongly associated with later schizophrenia [odds ratio (OR) 10.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.99-12.11]. This association was substantially attenuated both by increasing temporal delays between CA exposure and schizophrenia diagnosis and by controlling for increasing degrees of familial confounding. Extrapolated discordant MZ pairs suggested that fully controlling for confounding familial factors reduced the association between CA and later schizophrenia to more modest levels (ORs of approximately 3.3 and 1.6 with 3- and 7-year temporal delays respectively). Opiate, sedative, cocaine/stimulant and hallucinogen abuse were also strongly associated with subsequent schizophrenia in the general population. After controlling for familial confounding, only cocaine/stimulant exposure remained associated. CA has an appreciable causal impact on future risk for schizophrenia. However, population-based estimates of cannabis-schizophrenia co-morbidity substantially overestimate their causal association. Predictions of the cases of schizophrenia that might be prevented by reduced cannabis consumption based on population associations are therefore likely to be considerably overestimated.
Otterman, Gabriel; Lainpelto, Katrin; Lindblad, Frank
To examine whether case characteristics of alleged child physical abuse, such as severity, influence criminal investigation procedures and judicial outcomes. We identified all police-reported cases of nonfatal child physical abuse during 2006 in a Swedish metropolitan area (n = 158). Case characteristics were abstracted from police records. Over half (56%) of the victims were boys, and the median age group was 9-12 years. The severity of the alleged violence was low in 8% of cases, moderate in 51% and high in 41%. Suspects were interviewed in 53% of cases, with fathers more likely to be interviewed than mothers. Children were forensically interviewed in 52% of cases, with 9% physically examined by a clinician and 2.5% by a forensic specialist. Seven per cent of the cases were prosecuted and 1.3% resulted in summary punishment. We found no association between severity of alleged abuse and whether the suspect was interviewed, the child was forensically interviewed or physically examined or whether the perpetrator was prosecuted. Despite the high severity of alleged violence, physical examination rates were low, suggesting a need for criminal investigative procedures on child physical abuse to be reviewed in Sweden. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
KEY WORDS: Drug abuse, microbial infections, immune system. INTRODUCTION. Drugs of abuse such as cocaine, heroine, ... Pulmonary diseases caused by. Haemophilus,. Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and ... Cigarette smoke is made up of two components, the vapor and particulate phases. Nicotine (particulate) is.
E B Berezina
Full Text Available The characteristics of representations of young people about alcohol and drug abuse are analyzed in the article. The authors reveal the key elements of the representations of alcoholism and drug abuse, discuss their differences and similarities.
... NIAAA Mini-Convention: Frontiers in Addiction Research: The Science of Astrocytes, Stress Response, and Translational Research NIDA launches two adolescent substance use screening tools See More News Drug Research Articles Meetings and Events See All Upcoming Meetings NIDA ...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug use and abuse. 638.511 Section 638.511... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.511 Drug use and abuse. The Job... and education programs related to drug and alcohol use and abuse. ...
drug abuse among secondary school students in nine schools in Kisumu town, western. Kenya. The objective of this ... influence on drug abuse and to establish the reasons why students abuse drugs. Nine schools were ..... Prior authority to conduct study was obtained from the Education Office and the head teachers of ...
Full Text Available Background. Parenteral drug abuse is the most common cause of infected femoral artery pseudoaneurysms (IFAP. This complication of intravenous drug abuse is not only limb threatening but can also be life threatening. The management of the IFAP is difficult and controversial. Generally speaking, ligation and excision of the pseudoaneurysm without revascularization is accepted procedure in majority of the patients. However it is not regarded as an appropriate procedure for cases where the high probability of amputation is expected from acute interruption of the femoral artery flow.Patients, methods and results. We present three cases of young (average 20 years, range 18–24 patients with IFAP, in which a primary reconstruction was performed due to absence of doppler signal over pedal arteries after ligation of common femoral artery. In two of them complications in form of haemorrhage and repeated infection developed in late postoperative period. The first one, had an excision and ligation while the second one had a reconstruction made by means of a silver impregnated dacron prosthesis. None of the patients required an amputation.Conclusions. Overall prognosis and prognosis of the reconstruction in parenteral drug abuse patients is uncertain because there is a high incidence of postoperative drug injection despite aggressive drug rehabilitation.
Mousavi, Fariba; Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Archer, Trevor; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice
.... Current research shows that there is an increase in young people's drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils' attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use...
Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.
This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…
Full Text Available The intention of this article is to demonstrate, within the framework of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980a, how slang words associated with substance abuse are conceptualized via metaphors. This study analyses recreational drug slang terms found in the Drug Slang Dictionary in order to reveal categories of metaphors involved in drug users’ language. The results of the data analysis effectively reveal that, within a thematic approach, classes of metaphor are coded to enable connections between metaphorical concepts and drug addicts’ physiological experiences in order to present their personal meanings and cognitive processes. The study also involves drug addicts’ narratives to identify conceptual metaphors in their experiences. Notably, it is argued within this research that figurative language use is also connected to the cultural background of users to a great extent.
DrugAbuse Sciences is developing naltrexone depot, a sustained-release (SR) injectable formulation of naltrexone for the potential treatment of alcoholism and opiate addiction. This formulation was developed to help alcoholics and heroin addicts overcome the problems with compliance experienced with the daily-administered tablet form of naltrexone . Phase III trials of naltrexone depot for the treatment of alcoholics and phase II trials of naltrexone depot for injectable suspension (Naltrel) for the treatment of opiate addiction are ongoing .
Scafidi, F A; Field, T; Prodromidis, M; Rahdert, E
The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered to 55 disadvantaged adolescent mothers who abused drugs during pregnancy and 49 nondrug-abusing disadvantaged adolescent mothers. Results suggested that the drug-abusing mothers were depressed (BDI = 14) while the nondrug-abusing mothers were nondepressed (BDI = 6). In addition, the drug-abusing mothers reported more mental and physical health problems, more problematic family and peer relationships, poorer social skills, more aggressive behavior, less constructive use of leisure time, and a lower educational and vocational status than did nondrug-abusing adolescent mothers. A multiple regression analysis of POSIT scales indicated that the best predictors of drug abuse during pregnancy were mental health status, leisure and recreational activities, and peer relationships. These results highlight the utility of administering the POSIT to identify stressors that place pregnant adolescents at risk for drug abuse.
Rogers, Jeremy S; Rehrer, Seth J; Hoot, Nathan R
Opioid analgesics are widely used in health care, yet have significant potential for abuse. High doses are associated with potentially fatal respiratory depression, which caused 21,314 deaths in the United States in 2011. Acetylfentanyl, a synthetic opioid agonist closely related to fentanyl, recently emerged as a drug of abuse linked to numerous deaths in North America. A 36-year-old male developed the habit of using a propylene glycol electronic cigarette filled with acetylfentanyl to aid relaxation. He purchased the drug online in a manner that appeared legal to him, which compromised his insight about the danger of the substance. He had been using the e-cigarette with increasing frequency while on medical leave, and his wife reported finding him weakly responsive on more than one occasion. At approximately 3 am, the family activated 911 for altered mental status. His presentation included respiratory depression, pinpoint pupils, hypoxemia, and a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 6. He responded to serial doses of intravenous naloxone with improvement in his mental status and respiratory condition. Due to the need for repeated dosing, he was placed on a naloxone infusion and recovered uneventfully in intensive care. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Complications from emerging drugs of abuse, like acetylfentanyl, frequently present first to emergency departments. Prompt recognition and treatment can help avoid morbidity and mortality. Acetylfentanyl can be managed effectively with naloxone, although higher than conventional dosing may be required to achieve therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran
The purpose of this study was to investigate lifetime prevalence and characteristics of self-reported child sexual abuse and associations between child sexual abuse, gender, sociodemographic data, and consensual sexual experiences. A questionnaire was completed by 4,339 Swedish high school seniors. Three categories of child sexual abuse were…
... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes of... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a...
Full Text Available A simple random survey of 9863 population out of the total 70,000 population is one slum pocket of Bombay revealed drug dependence in 104 persons. Out of 104, 83.65% smoked ′brown sugar′ 10.68% used cannabis and 5.77% opium. Most of the addicts (95.2% belonged to large families. Family history of alcoholism and drug abuse was present in 41.35%. Parental deprivation was additional contributing factor in 30.7%.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.
Schulden, Jeffrey D; Lopez, Marsha F; Compton, Wilson M
Research on the epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders provides continued critical insights into the distribution and determinants of drug use and drug use disorders in the United States. This research serves as a foundation for understanding the etiology of these disorders, helping to disentangle the complex interrelationship of developmental, genetic, and environmental risk and protective factors. Building on an understanding of this research in substance abuse epidemiology, it is important for clinicians to understand the unique trends in drug use in the overall communities that they serve and the unique risk factors for given individuals. The generally high prevalence of substance use disorders, along with their high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders and with the HIV epidemic, make prevention, evaluation, and referral for treatment for drug abuse an important part of routine clinical practice in a range of clinical settings, including primary care, psychiatric, and emergency department settings. Ongoing efforts to ensure insurance coverage parity for the treatment of mental health and substance use disorders offer the promise of continued improvements in the integration and availability of such services in the broader US health care system.
Ortiz, Óscar Medina
Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
The drugs mostly used by the students were coffee and analgesics while Indian hemp, alcohol and cigarettes were abused sparingly. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the students concerning drug abuse was fair, many of the respondents had positive attitudes to using illegal drugs and the drugs mostly used were the ...
... check their patients' past prescriptions and identify likely drug abusers. "The main issue is getting providers to change their prescribing behavior. The majority of opioids that people abuse start in the medical system as a legitimate ...
Mavroforou, A; Giannoukas, A; Michalodimitrakis, E
Alcohol and drug abuse among physicians are important and persistent problems. The aim of this study was to highlight the magnitude of the problem and the factors related to alcohol and/or drug abuse, and to underline the importance of methods for prevention, early recognition, and treatment. The literature shows that the problem has a multifactorial origin. Occupational stress and ability to manage it play an important role. Easy access to drugs and the possibility of self-prescribing may have a contributory role. Anaesthesiologists, surgeons, and general practice physicians are the most vulnerable specialties, probably because of the stressful and competitive environment in which they work. The consequences may be devastating to users and their families, and may be life-threatening to their patients. Establishment of monitoring programmes may help define the magnitude of the problem, the contributory factors and prevention and early identification. Additionally, initiation of special education in medical schools about alcohol and drug use and management of the occupational stresses are all of paramount importance and may help thwart problems at earlier stages.
Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D
Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period of maturation, rapid brain development, and developmental changes in neurobiological, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral processes. Although behavioral therapies available for adolescent substance abuse have increased, effectiveness research in this area lags considerably behind that of clinical research on treatment for drug-abusing adults. Behavioral treatment approaches show significant promise for treating drug-abusing adolescents, but many have not incorporated innovations in neuroscience on brain development, cognitive processes, and neuroimaging. Linking developmental neuroscience with behavioral treatments can create novel drug abuse interventions and increase the effectiveness of existing interventions for substance-abusing adolescents. Contemporary research on brain development, cognition, and neuroscience is ripe for translation to inform developmentally sensitive drug abuse treatments for adolescents. Neuroscientists and interventionists are challenged to build mutual collaborations for integration of neuroscience and drug abuse treatment for adolescents. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Wunsch, Martha J; Nakamoto, Kent; Goswami, Anil; Schnoll, Sidney H
Non-medical use of prescription medications is on the rise across the U.S., particularly in rural areas. In this study of 233 prisoners and probationers in southwestern Virginia, we add to an emerging profile of individuals abusing prescription medications. In this retrospective review of 2000-2004 augmented Addiction Severity Index data, those abusing prescription medications reported increased illicit drug and alcohol abuse, poly-drug abuse, psychiatric problems, and arrests for property crimes. Forty percent reported abuse of OxyContin, a drug implicated in a number of deaths in this region. Compared to non-users, OxyContin users were younger, more likely to be female, and more likely to abuse benzodiazepines, methadone, cocaine, and heroin. Longevity of abuse of these other drugs belies suggestions that OxyContin was acting as a "gateway" drug leading naïve users into addiction and risk of death.
Kurtz, Steven P; Inciardi, James A; Surratt, Hilary L; Cottler, Linda
This study examines the nature, extent and consequences of prescription drug abuse among 143 ecstasy users in Miami. Participants were recruited through nightclub and college campus outreach, and through respondent referrals. Instrumentation included the Risk Behavior Assessment, Substance Abuse Module and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Median age was 23, 42% were female and 50% Hispanic. An arrest history was reported by 44%, and 33% reported prior drug/alcohol treatment. Prescription drug abuse was reported by 87%; alprazolam (57%), oxycodone (36%), hydrocodone (32%) and diazepam (30%) were cited most often. Prescription drug abusers were more likely to report polydrug use, drug treatment histories, risky drug use behaviors, and symptoms of depression. They also reported numerous physical, psychological and social consequences of prescription drug abuse. Additional studies among larger samples are needed to understand the processes of prescription drug access and the extent of integration in club drug using cultures.
Drug abuse is both a personal and a public issue, raising questions about individual rights and the boundaries of law, as well as about national sovereignty and international control. Ethical issues that arise under these headings may be related to certain broad ethical positions. The implications of adopting utilitarian assumptions may be contrasted with basing ethics on a theory of individual rights, closely related to a theory of human nature. Neither position justifies a libertarian presumption against control, for, first, an individual decision to expose one's mind and personality to the control of drugs cannot be ethically justified and, second, there are no ethical reasons, nor any compelling arguments from social and political theory, for decriminalizing non-medical drug use.
Perry, Jennifer L; Carroll, Marilyn E
Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct that has recently been recognized as a factor contributing to enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present review, we focus on two facets of impulsivity (and tasks that measure them): (1) impulsive choice (delay discounting task) and (2) inhibitory failure (go/no-go, stop signal reaction time, and five-choice serial reaction time tasks). We also describe how performance on each of these tasks is associated with drug-related behavior during phases of drug abuse that capture the essential features of addiction (acquisition, escalation, and reinstatement of drug-seeking after drug access has terminated). Three hypotheses (H) regarding the relationship between impulsivity and drug abuse are discussed: (1) increased levels of impulsivity lead to drug abuse (H1), (2) drugs of abuse increase impulsivity (H2), and (3) impulsivity and drug abuse are associated through a common third factor (H3). Impulsivity expressed as impulsive choice or inhibitory failure plays a role in several key transition phases of drug abuse. There is evidence to support all three nonexclusive hypotheses. Increased levels of impulsivity lead to acquisition of drug abuse (H1) and subsequent escalation or dysregulation of drug intake. Drugs of abuse may increase impulsivity (H2), which is an additional contributor to escalation/dysregulation. Abstinence, relapse, and treatment may be influenced by both H1 and H2. In addition, there is a relationship between impulsivity and other drug abuse vulnerability factors, such as sex, hormonal status, reactivity to nondrug rewards, and early environmental experiences that may impact drug intake during all phases of addiction (H3). Relating drug abuse and impulsivity in phases of addiction via these three hypotheses provides a heuristic model from which future experimental questions can be addressed.
Sun, Hong-qiang; Bao, Yan-ping; Zhou, Shuang-jiang; Meng, Shi-qiu; Lu, Lin
Drug abuse has resulted in a huge burden on public health and the economy in China. Since the reemergence of drug abuse in China in the 1980s, the number of drug addicts has increased dramatically, especially the proportion of users of synthetic drugs, such as amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS). Further, the proportion of opiate addicts has decreased among the new initiates. This review describes the new pattern of drug abuse and the resultant intervention strategy in China. The demographics regarding drug abuse in China point to a trend of younger users, and indicate that Internet and telephone are facilitating drug trafficking. Furthermore, polydrug use is common. Many heroin addicts have used ATS and other synthetic drugs, and some synthetic drug abusers have used opiate drugs too. HIV infection and psychosis comorbidity are primarily associated with drug abuse in China. Although opiate drug use and its associated harm have been controlled effectively in some areas, the synthetic drugs and new designer drugs have complicated the drug abuse scene. A national system of management and intervention for synthetic drugs and associated diseases urgently needs to be established in China.
Negus, S Stevens; Miller, Laurence L
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Mark, P M; St Pierre, A; McCleary, M; Peterson, K; Palan, P
Drug abuse in the obstetric population of a large urban HMO is discussed. Marijuana metabolites were detected in 9.1% of urines submitted for routine pregnancy testing, while cocaine use was detected in 1.3%. A separate group of urines submitted for urine culture at the time of the first obstetric visit were tested and showed levels of 5.0% and 0.2%, respectively. Cocaine use was associated in an estimated 1-2% of all live births. The unexpected magnitude of this problem led to the creation of an outreach clinic and a process of care. The preliminary experience of our program forms the basis of this report.
Wynn, Gary H; Cozza, Kelly L; Zapor, Michael J; Wortmann, Glenn W; Armstrong, Scott C
The third in a series reviewing the HIV/AIDS antiretroviral drugs, this report summarizes the interactions between antiretrovirals and common drugs of abuse. In an overview format for primary care physicians and psychiatrists, the metabolism and drug interactions in the context of antiretroviral therapy are presented for the following drugs of abuse: alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, GHB (liquid X), ketamine (special K), LSD (acid), MDMA (Ecstasy), opiates, PCP (angel dust), and THC (marijuana).
Drug Abuse: A seminar organised at the Government Secondary School, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria as a community development service Summary: Drug abuse is the use against its action. It is worst when hard drugs are used and this is common among the youths and schoolchildren resulting in untoward effects and even ...
Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.
This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.
Full Text Available Objectives: There are researches to point epidemiology of addiction to drugs, chemical and solvent abuse in elderlies. Drug and Solvent abuse is considered as one of these addictions. This study was point to chemical abuse among elderly population of Ahwaz an Iranian city during year of 2007. Methods & Materials: Research method is description-exploration with use to questionnaire, clinical interview and survey of medical and clinical reports among volunteer clients. Statistical community is all elderly population at one of citizen region in Ahwaz city (Iran. Seventy four dossiers were considered via random sampling; with 30 Elder volunteer clients been interviewed and replied to Elderly Drug Abuse Questionnaire (EDAQ. Results: Signification of hypothesis with X2 test was considered significant relation between age and addiction record variables to solvent abuse; this relation is very significant to second value of drug's derivations such as Morphine, Codeine, Tebaine and Heroine. Interview showed psychological dependent due to appeal them to solvent abuse. Kind of abuse among elderly was snuffing and abuse of medicine drugs which were been recommended to them by their physician. Conclusion: Although study of solvent and chemical abuse's epidemiology pointed less average of this addiction in samples, should be considered important and notice in studies. Finally, researchers were suggested to avoid of this new drug abuse and so to control behavior and interaction of these addicted and their behavior development; it's better to control on distribution of solvent and glue materials and recommending of medicine drug via physicians visiting exderlies.
Brown, B. Bradford
Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. Date...
Full Text Available The causes of drug abuse and criminal behavior are closely linked. Not surprisingly, there is a high percentage of prisoners who during sentence execution abuse or are dependent on drugs. Antisocial personality disorder can be considered a common predictor of committing criminal offenses and drug abuse. A review of studies has revealed a high prevalence of inmates who use drugs while serving a sentence. Also, prison environment represents only a new context of the continuum of drug abuse by inmates. There are different theoretical approaches in explaining this phenomenon. Treatment programs based on empirically validated principles that guarantee the effectiveness, may be one strategy for solving the problem of drug abuse in prisons, with multiple positive effects.
Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.; Ding, Y.S.; Logan, J.; Wang, G.J.
There is overwhelming evidence that addiction is a disease of the brain (Leshner, 1997). Yet public perception that addiction is a reflection of moral weakness or a lack of willpower persists. The insidious consequence of this perception is that we lose sight of the fact that there are enormous medical consequences of addiction including the fact that a large fraction of the total deaths from cancer and heart disease are caused by smoking addiction. Ironically the medical school that educates physicians in addiction medicine and the cancer hospital that has a smoking cessation clinic are vanishingly rare and efforts at harm reduction are frequently met with a public indignation. Meanwhile the number of people addicted to substances is enormous and increasing particularly the addictions to cigarettes and alcohol. It is particularly tragic that addiction usually begins in adolescence and becomes a chronic relapsing problem and there are basically no completely effective treatments. Clearly we need to understand how drugs of abuse affect the brain and we need to be creative in using this information to develop effective treatments. Imaging technologies have played a major role in the conceptualization of addiction as a disease of the brain (Fowler et al., 1998a; Fowler et al., 1999a). New knowledge has been driven by advances in radiotracer design and chemistry and positron emission tomography (PET) instrumentation and the integration of these scientific tools with the tools of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. This topic cuts across the medical specialties of neurology, psychiatry, cancer and heart disease because of the high medical, social and economic toll that drugs of abuse, including and especially the legal drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, take on society. In this chapter we will begin by highlighting the important role that chemistry has played in making it possible to quantitatively image the movement of drugs as well as their effects on the human brain
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) series measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to...
Methadone maintenance therapy as evidence based drug abuse planning in developed countries: Can developing countries afford and learn from this experience? ... However, various studies and preventive approaches have been tried in the US on drug abusers in order to prevent the associated adverse health outcomes.
... 167650.html '12-Step' Strategy Boosts Success of Teen Drug Abuse Program Messages from recovering peers made an ... 7, 2017 MONDAY, Aug. 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Drug and alcohol abuse treatment for teens and young adults may be more effective when ...
Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa
With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…
Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora
The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…
Philadelphia Psychiatric Center, PA.
A study was conducted of phencyclidine use by a national sample of 2,750 youthful drug abuse clients representing 97 drug abuse treatment programs. Data from this 1976-1977 client survey indicated that phencyclidine use is widespread. More than 31% of the subjects reported current or past use of phencyclidine, with males and females having similar…
The motivation for this study was to find out the prevalence of drug use and abuse among youths in Calabar. The study also focused on the type of drugs that are mostly used and abused. Two research questions were posed one hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The subjects (2500 in all) were drawn from 15 post ...
The purpose of the study was to survey drug abuse problems among students of selected secondary schools in Ile-Ife in Osun State. Specifically, the study was to find out the reasons for drug abuse among students. The major instrument used to collect needed information was the questionnaire which was distributed to ...
Drugs of abuse, like alcohol, opiates, cocaine and cannabis, are used by many young people for their presumed aphrodisiac properties. It is well known, instead, that, apart from the subjective effects, they negatively affect the sexual response. Alcohol has direct toxic effects on the gonads (testes and ovaries) and the liver (it increases the catabolism of testosterone and its transformation in estrogens). Besides, it inhibits the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonads axis (HPG). The opioids inhibit the HPG axis and increase the prolactin levels which, in turn, interferes with the male and female sexual response. The acute effects of cocaine are stimulants mainly for its dopaminergic properties but in the long run it causes sexual dysfunctions (erectile, etc.) mainly due to hyperprolactinemia. Cannabis, at high doses, could inhibit the HPG axis and reduce fertility. The knowledge of these effects should be better disseminated among subjects at risk for deterrent purposes.
Kumar, Santosh; Rao, P S S; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil
Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse.
Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price; Wiegmann, Wendy; Kepple, Nancy J
Although drug use is considered a risk factor for child maltreatment, very little work has examined how the drug environment may affect physical abuse and neglect by parents. Utilizing information from a telephone survey with 2,597 respondents from 43 cities with valid police data on narcotics incidents, we analyzed the relationship between drug use, drug availability, and child maltreatment using multilevel models. City-level rates of drug abuse and dependence were related to more frequent physical abuse. Parents who use drugs in areas with greater availability of drugs reported more physical abuse and physical neglect. Emotional support was protective of all types of maltreatment. While most child welfare interventions focus on reducing parental drug use in order to reduce child abuse, these findings suggest environmental prevention or neighborhood strengthening approaches designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs may also reduce child abuse through multiple mechanisms.
Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.
Musiał, Barbara; Czaja-Bulsa, Grazyna; Szechter-Grycewicz, Aneta; Brodzińska, Beata; Marasz, Agata
The aim of this work was to determine the extent and causes of drinking and drug abuse by the youth. A questionnaire was administered to 918 students aged 13-16 years from five gymnasia in Stettin. The results were analyzed statistically. In the group of 918 students, 76% were alcohol drinkers and 15% abused psychoactive substances. Among causes of drinking and drug abuse were family and personal problems, impressing colleagues, fashion, advertisements, and stress. Alcohol drinking and drug abuse are not only a response to personal and family problems, but also the result of role models accepted by gymnasium students. Lack of control and support within the family are factors liberating alcohol consumption and drug abuse among the youth.
Anne Marie Ciobanu
Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.
Medina-Mora, M E; Tapia, C R; Rascón, M L; Solache, G; Otero, B R; Lazcano, F; Mariño, M C
As a country that produces marijuana and opium, and as a route for cocaine traffic to the United States of America, Mexico is experiencing serious social and health problems related to the trafficking, use, and abuse of these drugs and other dependency-producing substances. In 1988 a national survey of addiction was undertaken in which information was collected on the prevalence of the use of alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, opium, heroin, narcotic analgesics, sedatives, and tranquilizers. A sample was identified in the population between the ages of 12 and 65 living in urban areas of more than 2,500 inhabitants, which account for approximately 65% of the country's total population. This sample consisted of 12,557 persons. According to the results of the survey, 51% of the population between 18 and 65 years of age use alcoholic beverages and 24.7% of the entire study population are active smokers. In addition, 43% had used one or more drugs other than tobacco or alcohol at some time. Prevalence of marijuana use was 2.6%, while the rates for tranquilizers, inhalants, and amphetamines were identical (0.7%). For cocaine the rate was 0.3%, and for heroin, 0.1%.
Scott, M J; Scott, M J
The use of huge self-administered dosages of anabolic-androgenic steroids by athletes and body builders is widespread in the United States, increasing at a rapid rate among athletes of both sexes and involving an ever-expanding age group. Athletes are very wary of revealing steroid use to their physicians, so a high index of suspicion is a prerequisite in diagnosing the use of these agents. Since many of the side effects of steroids are manifested in the skin, dermatologists are in a unique and favorable position to detect their use, if they are aware of such clinical signs. Once alerted to this possibility during a dermatologic examination, the dermatologist has an excellent opportunity to make users aware of the potential hazards and dangers of taking such drugs. Counselling these athletes can do much to stem the tide against the rising problem of drug abuse. It is a worthwhile service to sports in general as well as to the patient's personal health. Many of our conclusions are based on our personal experience with elite and Olympic athletes in almost every sport, body builders, and junior high school, high school, and college students and athletes.
From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…
Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.
This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services, provided...
Felicilda-Reynaldo, Faye D
Prescription drug abuse/misuse is increasing. Nonmedical use of prescription medications, especially opioid analgesics, now is considered an epidemic in the United States. Medical-surgical nurses are in a strategic position to help address substance abuse problems in patients.
they face. The early and middle teens bring a loosening of family ties, a diminution of parental authority, increasing responsibility, and sexual ...years of armember’s service. In FY 83 this lai tia* abuse and other drug use. In fact, the succ- ss of the v , * i4_I atfl,,ctive 0rug abuse t’, ducation
Waldron, Holly Barrett; Kern-Jones, Sheryl; Turner, Charles W.; Peterson, Thomas R.; Ozechowski, Timothy J.
In the first phase of a two-part treatment development study, families with a treatment-resistant, drug-abusing adolescent (n=42) were offered 12 sessions of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT). This parent-focused intervention was designed to help parents facilitate their adolescents' entry in treatment and support adolescents' subsequent behavior change and to improve parent and family functioning. In the second phase, successfully engaged adolescents (n=30) were offered 12 sessions of a multicomponent individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting substance use and related problem behaviors. Measures were collected at pre- and post-treatment for parents and adolescents, with an additional follow-up assessment for parents at 3-months post-treatment. Parents in the CRAFT intervention experienced a significant reduction in negative symptoms and 71% of parents were successful in engaging their resistant youth in treatment. The CBT intervention for the engaged youth was associated with a statistically significant, but not clinically significant, reduction in marijuana use. PMID:17306722
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) survey is designed to capture data on emergency department (ED) episodes that are induced by or related to the use of an...
-26- effects of drug problem, and how to guide and guard them from tasting and experimenting illicit drugs. Based on this background information, the study sets out to examine the role of libraries in curbing drug/substance abuse among adolescent boys in. Nigeria. Adolescence has been widely acknowledged by scholars ...
Studies have shown that there are correlative observations between the use of these drugs and increased levels of microbial infections among drug users. These correlations appears to have effects on the immune system and are receptor mediated, directly or indirectly. The numerous drugs of abuse and the attendant ...
Fernando Perez del Río
Full Text Available This article reviews several studies on the relationship between having been sexually abused in childhood (CSA and adult drug addiction. In this approach to the subject, seventeen studies and three books that relate the two variables are discussed. It is concluded that there is proof of higher incidence of sexual abuse during childhood among women with addiction problems, and the importance of approaching sexuality and affectiveness in the evaluation of treatment of drug addiction patients is stressed.
Rebolledo, Ever Agustín Osorio; Medina, Neris Marina Ortega de; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
This study aims to identify risk factors associated with licit and illicit drug abuse among adolescent students in various public institutions. A descriptive study was carried out in Naguanagua, Carabobo, Venezuela and applied the Test Drug Use Screening Inventory questionnaire to an age-stratified sample, involving students between 12 and 17 years old. High-risk areas associated with drugs abuse were family and mental health, while recreation, behavior and school are considered moderate risks. Peers, social abilities and drug use were identified as low-risk factors. The Total Severity Score is high, which may indicate that Venezuelan adolescents present higher risks for licit and illicit drugs abuse. At the same time, they present lower drug use rates, that is, the presence of protective factors interact with and modify the risk factors.
... cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Mechanism for Time-Sensitive Drug Abuse...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Time Sensitive Drug Abuse Research (R01... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, 6001 Executive Blvd., Room 4238...
Swedberg, Michael D B
Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit
Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.
Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.
José Luis Carballo; Ainhoa Coloma-Carmona; Dana Mrozowicz-Gaudyn; Verónica Vidal-Arenas; Carlos van-der Hofstadt; Jesús Rodríguez-Marín
The increase in the prescription of opioid analgesics is related to increased rates of opioid abuse and the negative consequences of medication misuse. Several international health organisations recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary patient assessment for the duration of the opioid treatment in order to identify and prevent medication abuse. Due to the lack of specific clinical guidelines in the Spanish National Health System, the aim of this paper is to present a proposal for psychol...
Schiffer, Wynne K. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Liebling, Courtney N.B.; Patel, Vinal; Dewey, Stephen L. [Medical Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)
Although imaging studies in and of themselves have significant contributions to the study of human behavior, imaging in drug abuse has a much broader agenda. Drugs of abuse bind to molecules in specific parts of the brain in order to produce their effects. Positron emission tomography (PET) provides a unique opportunity to track this process, capturing the kinetics with which an abused compound is transported to its site of action. The specific examples discussed here were chosen to illustrate how PET can be used to map the regional distribution and kinetics of compounds that may or may not have abuse liability. We also discussed some morphological and functional changes associated with drug abuse and different stages of recovery following abstinence. PET measurements of functional changes in the brain have also led to the development of several treatment strategies, one of which is discussed in detail here. Information such as this becomes more than a matter of academic interest. Such knowledge can provide the bases for anticipating which compounds may be abused and which may not. It can also be used to identify biological markers or changes in brain function that are associated with progression from drug use to drug abuse and also to stage the recovery process. This new knowledge can guide legislative initiatives on the optimal duration of mandatory treatment stays, promoting long-lasting abstinence and greatly reducing the societal burden of drug abuse. Imaging can also give some insights into potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to manage the reinforcing effects of addictive compounds, as well as into protective strategies to minimize their toxic consequences.
Wills, P; Fastbom, J; Claesson, C B; Cornelius, C; Thorslund, M; Winblad, B
To describe the use of cardiovascular drugs in an older population with respect to age, sex, housing type, and creatinine clearance. A cross-sectional survey. All residents of a district of Stockholm (Kungsholmen), Sweden, aged 75 and older, living in institutions or at home. Cardiovascular drug use, serum creatinine, electrolytes, height, weight, and symptoms. A total of 43 cardiovascular (CV) drugs were used. The most common drugs were digoxin (used by 18.2%), furosemide (16.4%), and glyceryl trinitrate (12.4%). Drugs with an antihypertensive effect accounted for 61% of all CV drugs. CV drug use increased with age for cardiac glycosides and diuretics, but decreased with age for calcium antagonists and beta-blockers. Drug doses tended to be less than the recommended daily dose except for a few drugs, e.g., furosemide. There was a trend toward decreasing dose with increasing age, but this was not significant. Diuretics were the only CV drugs used more often in women. People living in institutional care used the least amount of CV drugs. The dose of drugs taken did not appear to be related to estimated creatinine clearance. Comparisons between drug use and complaint of symptoms showed a strong correlation between the use of cardiac glycosides and anorexia, calcium antagonists and constipation, and nitrates and vertigo. There were weaker correlations with cardiac glycosides and visual disturbances and with potassium sparing diuretics and a high potassium. CV drugs are used commonly in older people. We suggest that the symptoms correlating with cardiac glycoside use may be signs of unrecognized toxicity, and this may relate to our finding that drug use is often not tailored to renal function as measured by creatinine clearance.
Sutanto, Azizah, Afina; Widyaningsih, Purnami; Saputro, Dewi Retno Sari
Drug abuse in the world quite astonish and tend to increase. The increase and decrease on the number of drug abusers showed a pattern of spread that had the same characteristics with patterns of spread of infectious disease. The susceptible infected removed (SIR) and susceptible exposed infected removed (SEIR) epidemic models for infectious disease was developed to study social epidemic. In this paper, SEIR model for disease epidemic was developed to study drug abuse epidemic with rehabilitation treatment. The aims of this paper were to analogize susceptible exposed infected isolated recovered (SEIIrR) model on the drug abusers, to determine solutions of the model, to determine equilibrium point, and to do simulation on β. The solutions of SEIIrR model was determined by using fourth order of Runge-Kutta algorithm, equilibrium point obtained was free-drug equilibrium point. Solutions of SEIIrR showed that the model was able to suppress the spread of drug abuse. The increasing value of contact rate was not affect the number of infected individuals due to rehabilitation treatment.
Küme, Tuncay; Karakükcü, Çiğdem; Pınar, Aslı; Coşkunol, Hakan
The aim of this review is to inform about the scopes and requirements of drug abuse testing. Drug abuse testing is one of the tools for determination of drug use. It must fulfill the quality and safety requirements in judgmental legal and administrative decisions. Drug abuse testing must fulfill some requirements like selection of the appropriate test matrix, appropriate screening test panel, sampling in detection window, patient consent, identification of the donor, appropriate collection site, sample collection with observation, identification and control of the sample, specimen custody chain in preanalytical phase; analysis in authorized laboratories, specimen validity tests, reliable testing METHODS, strict quality control, two-step analysis in analytical phase; storage of the split specimen, confirmation of the split specimen in the objection, result custody chain, appropriate cut-off concentration, the appropriate interpretation of the result in postanalytical phase. The workflow and analytical processes of drug abuse testing are explained in last regulation of the Department of Medical Laboratory Services, Ministry of Health in Turkey. The clinical physicians have to know and apply the quality and safety requirements in drug abuse testing according to last regulations in Turkey.
José Luis Carballo
Full Text Available The increase in the prescription of opioid analgesics is related to increased rates of opioid abuse and the negative consequences of medication misuse. Several international health organisations recommend comprehensive and multidisciplinary patient assessment for the duration of the opioid treatment in order to identify and prevent medication abuse. Due to the lack of specific clinical guidelines in the Spanish National Health System, the aim of this paper is to present a proposal for psychological assessment based on the main psychological tools currently available for assessing opioid abuse. The assessment guidelines have been established based on the psychological variables that can predict and prolong the abuse, classifying all of the variables depending on the current stage of the therapeutic process for each patient. Although there are instruments with good psychometric properties, further research is necessary to adapt, translate and validate these instruments for use in the Spanish population. Future studies are also needed to investigate intervention and prevention strategies in depth in order to reduce the likelihood of abuse in patients treated with opioids.
Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
for the majority of the participants. The addicts obtained a better body image, became more sensitive to physical pain and disorders and reduced their drug intake during the training period. The long-term effect showed that five of the 20 abusers interviewed reported that they still had not taken drugs, 10 had...... is considered as a success in treatments with drug abusers, usually characterized by a low compliance and commitment. The results of the participants who completed the programme (n = 20) showed an increased oxygen uptake of an average of 10%, improved self-reported quality of life and a higher energy level...... downgraded their intake, four experienced no change at all and one died through an overdose. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that physical exercise can provide important support in the treatment of drug abuse and that the main problem is maintaining change in behaviour and peer group influence to ensure long...
(16.9%), methamphetamine (tik) (12.8%), crack cocaine (9.6%), cannabis and. Mandrax (3.4%), heroin/opiates (9.2%), and prescription and OTC drugs (2.6%). There has been an increase in admissions for the treatment of substance abuse. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in. South Africa is relatively low compared.
Hawkins, J. David; And Others
A test was conducted of a supplemental skills training and social-network-development aftercare program with 130 drug abusers from four residential therapeutic communities. The intervention produced positive effects on subjects' performance at the conclusion of treatment. Performance improved in situations involving avoidance of drug use, coping…
... fullstory_166386.html Heart Infections Spike as Injection-Drug Abuse Climbs: CDC Typical endocarditis patient is white, young and from a rural area, report says To use the sharing features on this page, please ... white injection drug users in rural areas are increasingly being hospitalized ...
The increasing scourge of drug abuse among adolescents is a major challenge facing mankind. As the importance of health education in disease prevention is enormous, drug misuse prevention programme requires introducing innovations, flexibility and reinforcement which will be effective in shortest possible time among ...
Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile
Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…
Before, the use of illicit drugs was blamed on family background and peer influence. This research aimed at finding if there is a relationship between depression and drug abuse. The researchers also assessed the prevalence of these variables among senior secondary schools students in Calabar, Cross River State.
Downey, Ann M.
Explored the hypothesis that the increased use, misuse, and abuse of drugs is one of the myriad explanations for the escalation in youth suicidal behavior during the past 25 years. Used clinical case histories and research results to exemplify the impact of heightened drug usage as an argument for the upsurge in youth suicide. (Author/LLL)
Hursh, S R
The concepts of behavioral economics have proven useful for understanding the environmental control of overall levels of responding for a variety of commodities, including reinforcement by drug self-administration. These general concepts are summarized for application to the analysis of drug-reinforced behavior and proposed as the basis for future applications. This behavioral agenda includes the assessment of abuse liability, the assay of drug-reinforcer interactions, the design of drug abus...
Nordmann, Sandra; Frauger, Elisabeth; Pauly, Vanessa; Rouby, Frank; Mallaret, Michel; Micallef, Joëlle; Thirion, Xavier
Drugs affecting the central nervous system form a unique group of products for surveillance because they could be misused, abused or diverted. Considering the characteristics of this behaviour that is often concealed, specific post-marketing surveillance systems have been developed to monitor abuse of prescription drugs in some countries. The purpose of this review is to list and to describe post-marketing surveillance systems, according their methodology, in France and in foreign countries. These programs are based on adverse effect notifications, medical or legal consequences of abuse, general or specific population-based survey, professional networks or medication databases. Some programs use simultaneously several information sources. In conclusion, the multifaceted nature, the diversity and the inventiveness of post-marketing surveillance systems reflects the complexity of the abuse issue. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
injecting drug abusers. KEY WORDS: Malawi, drug abuse, cannabis, HIV epidemiology, non injecting drug use, sexually transmitted infection. INTRODUCTION .... was given the authority to treat the patients with STIs using Malawi government ...
Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa. Methods. Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use records, and a rapid situation assessment was conducted. Twenty-one key informant interviews were conducted in all 9 provinces among provincial substance abuse co-ordinators, and one manager per treatment centre from a sample of treatment centres. Three focus groups were conducted and 46 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres in Free State and North West provinces. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory, and quantitative data analysed using SPSS. Results. Treatment records show that the most frequent substance of abuse was alcohol (51%, followed by cannabis (21%, crack/cocaine (9.6%, heroin/opiates (7.9%, methamphetamine (Tik (4.5%, prescription/over-the-counter drugs (2.0%, and cannabis/mandrax (1.7%. More substance abusers were male, of lower education, white or black, than were female, more highly educated, coloured and Indian/Asian. Key informant interviews showed that females are the ‘hidden’ substance abusers and tend not to be identified in research statistics and at treatment centres. Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors contributing to substance abuse. The age of initiation of substance abuse using non-drugs such as glue was 9 years old, alcohol 10 - 12 years old, dagga 11 - 12 years old, poly-drug use (alcohol, tobacco and dagga 14 years old, and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin at 16 - 17 years old, as reported by key informants. Family care and support, improved socio-economic conditions and increased law enforcement would help to discourage substance
Nicholson, K L; Balster, R L
There has been increasing attention in the United States to problems of abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), with some evidence for problems in other parts of the world as well. In vitro and animal research show that, while GHB shares some properties with abused central nervous system depressant drugs, it has unique aspects of its pharmacology as well, including actions at a specific neural receptor which probably mediates many of its effects. Abuse potential assessment of GHB using standard animal models has not yielded a picture of a highly abusable substance, but little human testing has yet been done. Very little systematic data exist on tolerance and dependence with GHB, but both have been seen in human users. Quantitative data on the prevalence of GHB abuse is incomplete, but various qualitative measures indicate that a mini-epidemic of abuse began in the late 1980s and continues to the present. GHB is often included with the group of 'club drugs', and can be used as an intoxicant. It also has been used as a growth promoter and sleep aid and has been implicated in cases of 'date rape', usually in combination with alcohol. Undoubtedly the easy availability of GHB and some of its precursors has contributed to its popularity. Recent changes in the control status of GHB in the US may reduce its availability with as yet unknown consequences for the scope of the public health problem. Drug abuse experts need to familiarize themselves with GHB as possibly representing a new type of drug abuse problem with some unique properties.
Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Svikis, Dace S; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan
The authors sought to determine whether pregnancy is an intrinsic motivator for cessation of drug abuse. The authors conducted prospective cohort, co-relative, co-spouse, and within-person analyses of registration for drug abuse during pregnancy among Swedish women born between 1980 and 1990 who gave birth between ages 20 and 35 (N=149,512). Drug abuse was assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. In the population, rates of drug abuse were lower during pregnancy (unadjusted odds ratio=0.67, 95% CI=0.60, 0.74). Compared with population results, the negative association between pregnancy and drug abuse was moderately stronger in cousins (odds ratio=0.49, 95% CI=0.39, 0.62) and substantially stronger in siblings (odds ratio=0.35, 95% CI=0.24, 0.51) discordant for pregnancy. The estimated odds ratio for drug abuse in pregnancy-discordant monozygotic twins was even stronger, at 0.17 (95% CI=0.10, 0.31). Within individuals, the odds ratio for drug abuse while pregnant compared with an equivalent prepregnancy interval was similar to that seen in pregnancy-discordant monozygotic twins, at 0.22 (95% CI=0.19, 0.26). Compared with cohabiting fathers, mothers had a greater reduction in risk for drug abuse during pregnancy (odds ratio=0.40, 95% CI=0.34, 0.47). Pregnancy was more protective in women with low parental education and without a cohabiting, actively drug-abusing father. Compared with prepregnancy baseline, within-individual analyses indicate that risk for drug abuse is also substantially reduced in the postpartum period, for example, the odds ratio for postpartum days 0-242 was 0.13 (95% CI=0.11, 0.16). Risk for drug abuse in women is substantially reduced during pregnancy. Multiple analyses suggest that this association is largely causal, suggesting that pregnancy is indeed a strong intrinsic motivator for drug abuse cessation. Similar strong protective effects may be present in the immediate postpartum period. Our results have implications for our
Jalali, Farzad; Afshari, Reza; Babaei, Ali
Hyoscine N-butyl bromide/scopolamine (H/S) is a type of anticholinergic agent that is commonly used as an antispasmodic drug. We have evaluated the effects of crushed H/S smoking in prisoners who illicitly abused this drug. All imprisoned cases with at least a 3-month history of HS were evaluated from April 2012 to September 2012. Demographic information, history, and clinical findings were studied. In total, 36 male cases with a mean (SD, min-max) age of 33.3 (3.6, 27-42) years were included. All subjects were cigarette smokers with a history of substance abuse and were under Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT). The majority (75%) of participants smoked H/S tablet with pin, and others used aluminum foil. Hallucinations were the most common neurological features. Amnesia (88%), insomnia (83%), palpitation (86%), flushing (86%), irritability (94%), and inability to concentrate (91%) were the most common findings. Among them, auditory (61%), visual (72%), and tactile (72%) hallucinations were reported. This is the first case study of hyoscine smoking abuse. We found that H/S acts similar to other hallucinogens. Concurrent abuse of H/S in cases under MMT could be a future trend of abuse. Clinicians should be aware of abuse potential of H/S in treatment of some patients for drug overdose.
Örtqvist, Anne K.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Wettermark, Björn; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.; Ye, Weimin; Almqvist, Catarina
Purpose: Validated measures of asthma and eczema at the population level remain a challenge. Our aim was to ascertain if register - based information on asthma/eczema medicat ion can function as a proxy for an asthma/eczema diagnosis and to validate register - based asthma diagnoses. Methods: Information was requested on all 0 - 45 year old individuals with reported asthma/eczema medication and/or diagnoses in the Swedish Prescribed Drug R...
Arvidsson, Per I; Sandberg, Kristian; Sakariassen, Kjell S
The Science for Life Laboratory Drug Discovery and Development Platform (SciLifeLab DDD) was established in Stockholm and Uppsala, Sweden, in 2014. It is one of ten platforms of the Swedish national SciLifeLab which support projects run by Swedish academic researchers with large-scale technologies for molecular biosciences with a focus on health and environment. SciLifeLab was created by the coordinated effort of four universities in Stockholm and Uppsala: Stockholm University, Karolinska Institutet, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Uppsala University, and has recently expanded to other Swedish university locations. The primary goal of the SciLifeLab DDD is to support selected academic discovery and development research projects with tools and resources to discover novel lead therapeutics, either molecules or human antibodies. Intellectual property developed with the help of SciLifeLab DDD is wholly owned by the academic research group. The bulk of SciLifeLab DDD's research and service activities are funded from the Swedish state, with only consumables paid by the academic research group through individual grants.
With the exception of breath analysis for alcohol there exist no other widely used, clinically-proven drug screening methods applied to these latter...documentation. The system is capable of identifying all common drugs of abuse except cannabinoids, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and psilocybin ...combined with LSD, diphenhydramine (Benadryl), mari- huana or other drugs. Methods of detection: TLC, GLC, EMIT, RIA. Psilocybin (’magic mushrooms
Gururajan, Anand; Manning, Elizabeth E; Klug, Maren; van den Buuse, Maarten
There is considerable evidence to suggest that the abuse of illicit drugs, particularly cannabis and methamphetamine, has aetiological roles in the pathogenesis of psychosis and schizophrenia. Factors that may increase susceptibility to the propsychotic effects of these drugs include the age at which the abuse starts as well as family history of genetic polymorphisms relevant to the pathophysiology of this disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanisms involved in drug abuse-associated psychosis remain largely unclear. This paper presents an overview of the available evidence, including clinical, animal model, and molecular studies, with a focus on brain regions and neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine and glutamate, previously implicated in psychosis. It is clear that further studies are urgently needed to provide a greater insight into the mechanisms that mediate the long-term and neurodevelopmental effects of cannabis and methamphetamine. A dialogue between basic science and clinical research may help to identify at-risk individuals and novel pathways for treatment and prevention.
Li, Ling; Zhang, Xiang; Levine, Berry; Li, Guohua; Zielke, H Ronald; Fowler, David R
The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Maryland recorded a total of 149 drug abuse deaths of teenagers aged 13-19 years between 1991 and 2006. Of these deaths, 96 (64.4%) were caused by the use of narcotic drugs only, 29 (19.5%) by both narcotics and cocaine, four (2.7%) by both narcotics and methylenedioxymethamphetamine, six (4.0%) by cocaine only, and 14 (9.4%) by volatile substances (e.g., butane, Freon, nitrous oxide, and propane). The annual death rate from drug abuse for teenagers increased from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population in 1991 to 2.7 deaths per 100,000 population in 2006 (chi-square test for time trend, pteenager drug abuse deaths occurred in 1999 and since has remained at a higher rate. Further analysis revealed that the increase in drug abuse deaths was attributable to a large degree to narcotic drugs, particularly heroin/morphine and methadone, and was confined to teenagers residing in the suburban and rural areas. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.
Filges, Trine; Andersen, Ditte; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
trials. Meta-analytic methods were used to quantitatively synthesize study results. Results: The search yielded five studies that met inclusion criteria. MDFT was found to be more effective than other treatments on drug abuse problem severity and drug use frequency in the short run but not in the long...... run and demonstrated positive effects on treatment retention compared to control conditions. Discussion: While additional research is needed, the review offers support for MDFT as a treatment to young nonopioid drug abusers. The number of studies included in this review was limited, however......Purpose: This review evaluates the evidence of the effects of multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) on drug use reduction in young people for the treatment of nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review of randomized and nonrandomized...
... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Development of Alternate Drug Delivery...
... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Drugged Driving: Future Research...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, SecuRX: Preventing Prescription Drug..., Office of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Room 4228, MSC 9550, ] 6001...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse--Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel SecuRX: Preventing Prescription Drug... of Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4227, MSC 9550, 6001...
Murnane, Kevin Sean
Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also characterized in vivo drug interactions with specific protein targets in the brain, including neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. In vivo determinations of cerebral blood flow and metabolism have localized brain circuits implicated in the effects of abused drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Moreover, determinations of the predisposing factors to chronic drug use and long-term neurobiological consequences of chronic drug use, such as potential neurotoxicity, have led to novel insights regarding the pathology and treatment of drug addiction. However, similar approaches clearly need to be extended to drug classes other than stimulants. Although dopaminergic systems have been extensively studied, other neurotransmitter systems known to play a critical role in the pharmacological effects of abused drugs have been largely ignored in nonhuman primate PET neuroimaging. Finally, the study of brain activation with PET neuroimaging has been replaced in humans mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There has been some success in implementing pharmacological fMRI in awake nonhuman primates. Nevertheless, the unique versatility of PET imaging will continue to complement the systems-level strengths of fMRI, especially in the context of nonhuman primate drug abuse research. PMID:21317354
Lauren P Tamburro
Full Text Available Fentanyl, a powerful opioid analgesic introduced over 50 years ago, has a major role in modern anesthesia and chronic pain relief but has also gained a major role in illicit use. After a spike in fentanyl abuse between 2005 and 2007, fentanyl deaths decreased until 2010, with the introduction of “abuse-deterrent” OxyContin. Our data indicate a recent rise in fentanyl-related deaths beginning in 2013, which follows national trends. With the re-emergence of the synthetic narcotic analgesic of high potency as a popular drug of abuse and the alarmingly increasing mortality associated with its abuse, there are profound implications for public health, health care providers, law enforcement, and the society in general.
Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713
Leung, Leslie T F; Papp, Anthony
Accelerants are flammable substances that may cause explosion when added to existing fires. The relationships between drug abuse and accelerant-related burns are not well elucidated in the literature. Of these burns, a portion is related to drug manufacturing, which have been shown to be associated with increased burn complications. 1) To evaluate the demographics and clinical outcomes of accelerant-related burns in a Provincial Burn Centre. 2) To compare the clinical outcomes with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. 3) To analyze a subgroup of patients with history of drug abuse and drug manufacturing. Retrospective case control study. Patient data associated with accelerant-related burns from 2009 to 2014 were obtained from the British Columbia Burn Registry. These patients were compared with a control group of non-accelerant related burns. Clinical outcomes that were evaluated include inhalational injury, ICU length of stay, ventilator support, surgeries needed, and burn complications. Chi-square test was used to evaluate categorical data and Student's t-test was used to evaluate mean quantitative data with the p value set at 0.05. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate factors affecting burn complications. Accelerant-related burns represented 28.2% of all burn admissions (N=532) from 2009 to 2014. The accelerant group had higher percentage of patients with history of drug abuse and was associated with higher TBSA burns, ventilator support, ICU stay and pneumonia rates compared to the non-accelerant group. Within the accelerant group, there was no difference in clinical outcomes amongst people with or without history of drug abuse. Four cases were associated with methamphetamine manufacturing, all of which underwent ICU stay and ventilator support. Accelerant-related burns cause significant burden to the burn center. A significant proportion of these patients have history of drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights
Full Text Available AIM - To analyse the Swedish drug question by examining dominant concepts used to portray the problem in the years 1839-2011. Theoretically, we understand these concepts as ideological tools that shape the political initiatives and administrative efforts to deal with the problem. The study is based on two kinds of source material: articles in medical journals from the years 1839-1964 and public reports on vagrancy, the alcohol problem, mental health and the drug problem from the years 1882-2011.
Keim, Sarah A; McNamara, Kelly; Kwiek, Jesse J; Geraghty, Sheela R
Human milk purchased via the Internet poses a potential risk of recipient infant exposure to drugs, but this risk has not been quantitated by research. Our objective was to test milk we purchased via the Internet for 13 common classes of drugs of abuse to explore the extent of possible exposure to recipient infants. Samples (n = 102) of milk purchased via the Internet were tested for 13 groups of drugs that are commonly abused using immunoassay screening to identify suspected positives, followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for confirmation. Sellers' advertisements were abstracted for statements about drug use or abstinence. Most (71%) sellers stated in their advertisement that they abstained from some type(s) of drugs (prescription or illicit), but 29% indicated nothing about drug use or abstinence. No sellers admitted to illicit drug use in their advertisement. No samples tested positive for the selected drugs of interest (prevalence = 0%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0, 2.9). We did not detect any of the selected drugs in 102 milk samples. Our sample was too small to detect less commonly used drugs and to provide a narrow confidence interval around the prevalence estimate and did not include milk shared at no cost. Thus, these findings are exploratory and cannot rule out the possibility of drugs being present in other milk available via the Internet.
Rates of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions for drugs reported in children: a cross-sectional study with data from the Swedish adverse drug reaction database and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.
Wallerstedt, Susanna M; Brunlöf, Gertrud; Sundström, Anders
Knowledge of drug safety is limited in the paediatric population, especially for drugs not used as labelled. Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) may be an important source for increased knowledge, but the extent of the overall rate of reporting in children is not known. The main objective of the study was to determine the extent of the spontaneous reporting of ADRs in children with a focus on drugs not used as labelled; this involved investigations of reporting rates of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) per 1000 treated individuals for drugs reported in children, to compare these between drugs labelled and not labelled for use in children, and to compare the rates for children with those of adults. ICSRs (extracted from the Swedish ADR database) and number of treated individuals (extracted from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register) were analysed for a 2-year period (2006-7). For drugs with one or more ICSR regarding children, rates of ICSRs per 1000 treated individuals were determined and compared between children (10% of the volume was sold over-the-counter or for in-hospital use were excluded. The overall reporting ratio of aggregated ICSRs per 1000 treated individuals was calculated between drugs not labelled and drugs labelled for use in children, separately for children and adults. The overall reporting ratio was also calculated between children and adults, separately for drugs labelled and drugs not labelled for use in children. A total of 255 (children) and 1402 (adults) ICSRs concerning 94 drugs were included in the analysis. Seventy-four (29%) and 711 (51%) ICSRs in children and adults, respectively, were registered as serious (p rates of ICSRs per 1000 treated individuals varied between (range) 0.01-6.45 (children) and 0.01-6.39 (adults). For 17 of the drugs (18%) the rates of ICSRs per treated individual were significantly higher for children than for adults, and for 2 of the drugs (2%) the result was the opposite. The overall
Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit
Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.
It's a drug prevention conversation--and program--that was largely missing as recently as a decade ago in most middle and high schools. In those days, the principal concern of health educators and disciplinarians alike was to keep students from misusing alcohol and illegal street drugs such as ecstasy, cocaine and even heroine. But driven by the…
California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.
This guide to kindergarten through 12th grade drug abuse prevention curricula and programs addresses the need for thorough training of all school personnel, including teachers, counselors, nurses, administrators, and school board members. The first chapter discusses what can realistically be expected of school-based substance abuse prevention…
depression are those with behaviour problems, genetic problems, those who have problems with their parents, those experiencing academic problems, health challenges, those who abuse drugs etc. Symptoms of depression can be observed in various aspects of human life example cognitive (e.g problem of concentration,.
The problem of drug abuse is both international and multifactorial. Traditional approaches toward finding a solution have so far achieved little. Lateral thinking, a recent concept providing freedom from the constraints of logic, offers the basis for a different kind of evaluation of the problem. The normal concepts are reversed ...
van der Aa, M.; Bijlsma, L.; Emke, E.; Dijkman, E.; van Nuijs, A.L.N.; van de Ven, B.M.; Hernández, F.; Versteegh, A.; de Voogt, P.
A screening campaign of drugs of abuse (DOA) and their relevant metabolites in the aqueous environment was performed in the Netherlands. The presence of DOA, together with the potential risks for the environment and the possible human exposure to these compounds through consumption of drinking water
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment.
Recently, the media have issued numerous reports about the apparent increase in OxyContin abuse and addiction. OxyContin has been heralded as a miracle drug that allows patients with chronic pain to resume a normal life. It has also been called pharmaceutical heroin and is thought to have been responsible for a number of deaths and robberies in…
Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane
Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…
Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology ... Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors ...
... of the extent of drug abuse in many countries, age of addiction and also the role of the medical practitioner. The main problem facing the profession in South Africa, at this stage, is to educate the public in the dangers of dagga. Five principles are described-considerable variation in potency and effect, evidence of addiction ...
... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...
This study is designed to investigate the frequently abused drugs amongst secondary school students in Nigeria. Out of the 78 existing secondary schools in Edo State, twenty four (24) were randomly selected through systematic random sampling procedure. In the selected schools, 720 students (i.e.) 370 males and 350 ...
Negus, S. Stevens; Miller, Laurence L.
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug...
Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail
A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
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Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined with the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) collected at initial admission and in follow-up interviews included information on drug use, body image, self-confidence and motivation to change behaviour. The completion rate of the participants during the training period was on average 52%, which is considered as a success in treatments with drug abusers, usually characterized by a low compliance and commitment. The results of the participants who completed the programme (n = 20) showed an increased oxygen uptake of an average of 10%, improved self-reported quality of life and a higher energy level for the majority of the participants. The addicts obtained a better body image, became more sensitive to physical pain and disorders and reduced their drug intake during the training period. The long-term effect showed that five of the 20 abusers interviewed reported that they still had not taken drugs, 10 had downgraded their intake, four experienced no change at all and one died through an overdose. The results show that physical exercise can provide important support in the treatment of drug abuse and that the main problem is maintaining change in behaviour and peer group influence to ensure long-term change.
Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A
Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.
Fuller, John R.; LaFountain, Marc J.
Addresses an often overlooked area of drug abuse: performance-enhancing drugs in sport, used for different reasons than for recreation. Examines the seriousness and prevalence of performance-enhancing drugs and presents the results of a series of interviews with steroid users to determine their attitudes. Discusses the implications of the…
Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.
This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…
Schäfer, M; Schnack, B; Soyka, M
Sexual or physical abuse of children are discussed as possible causes or risk-factors for psychiatric disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug addiction. The aim of this study was to identify possible differences between sexually or physically abused and non-abused patients with polytoxic drug abuse. 100 patients with polytoxic drug abuse were interviewed during their therapy about a history of sexual abuse prior to the age of sixteen. Using different questionnaires we tried to find possible differences between drug users being sexually abused or not and risk factors for later drug addiction. 70% of the female and 56% of the male drug users had been sexually abused as children, 40% of the male and 50% of the female participants had a history of severe sexual abuse with sexual intercourse. In over 50% friends or relatives were the perpetrators committed the crime, in no case the parents had. More than 40% showed also a history of physical abuse. Significantly more drug users than alcohol abusers had a sexual trauma. Especially severe sexual abuse was associated with abuse of hard illegal drugs. Furthermore, we could find significantly more symptoms such as autoaggressive and suicidal behaviour, social isolation, reduced emotional binding to others, tendency to be persistently victimized, prostitution and violence against others in the group of sexually abused. Many of these symptoms are not only characteristic of addiction, but can be found also in other psychiatric diseases such as borderline and eating disorder. In conclusion, we could not find a significant correlation between sexual abuse and later drug addiction. 80% of the drug users themselves did not relate the fact of being sexually abused as child to later drug abuse. However, there seems to be a positive correlation between sexual abuse and a more severe addiction to illegal drugs as well as higher rates of symptoms with a negative course of the disease. For this group of patients
Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina
Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the
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Trezza, V.; Baarendse, P.J.J.; Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126514917
Rationale Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is
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Filges, Trine; Rasmussen, Pernille; Andersen, Ditte
The main objectives of this review are to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of MDFT on drug abuse reduction for young people (aged 11-21 years) in treatment for non-opioid drug abuse, and if possible to examine moderators of drug abuse reduction effects, specifically analysing whether...
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Montoya-Filardi, A; Mazón, M
Recreational drug abuse represents a serious public health problem. Neuroimaging traditionally played a secondary role in this scenario, where it was limited to detecting acute vascular events. However, thanks to advances in knowledge about disease and in morphological and functional imaging techniques, radiologists have now become very important in the diagnosis of acute and chronic neurological complications of recreational drug abuse. The main complications are neurovascular disease, infection, toxicometabolic disorders, and brain atrophy. The nonspecific symptoms and denial of abuse make the radiologist's involvement fundamental in the management of these patients. Neuroimaging makes it possible to detect early changes and to suggest an etiological diagnosis in cases with specific patterns of involvement. We aim to describe the pattern of abuse and the pathophysiological mechanisms of the drugs with the greatest neurological repercussions as well as to illustrate the depiction of the acute and chronic cerebral complications on conventional and functional imaging techniques. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Petersson, Frida J M; Tikkanen, Ronny; Schmidt, Axel J
Men who have sex with men (MSM) is a population that is less frequently the target of drug research in a Scandinavian context. This study aims to explore: (1) the existence of club drug use among a sample of Swedish MSM, and (2) associations between club drug use and sociodemographic, sociosexual, and sexual risk behavior. Data were drawn from a larger European study on MSM and HIV but the analytic sample consisted of the 3,004 MSM who resided in Sweden. SPSS 20.0 statistical software was used to perform the analysis. The primary outcome variable was a dichotomous measure of having used club drugs in the past 12 months vs. not. The independent variables were categorized into three domains, sociodemographic, sociosexual, and sexual risk behavior. The analysis was undertaken as a univariable analysis. Results show that club drug use exists in the Swedish MSM population and is particularly prevalent among gay identified, younger MSM from metropolitan areas, and among men with diagnosed HIV or other STIs. Moreover, club drug use was common among the men that had more sexual partners and took more sexual risks. These men were also more likely to have been diagnosed with an STI. MSM who use club drugs have to be acknowledged in the Swedish drug policy context, as well as within clinical practice. Further research is needed to develop an understanding of the social and contextual dimensions involved in club drug use among Swedish MSM.
Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve
The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…
the study showed that during a 12 month period, 42.7 percent of the subjects used marijuana; 29.4 percent used other psychedelic drugs ; 28 percent used...L02,7 - <* 00 IO lie ivwn = ustub Uspqu m amaans md o set ~ .’-b t so views of d at Del. 4w my of Ift opiu Th it) ha hem demsi bY .w qp 3tm e wt.s DRUG ...4. TITLE (and Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Drug Abuse in the Military Impacts I I i dIndividual National Security 6. PERFORMING ORG
Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni
The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.
This study examines how online discussions on drug policy are formulating an oppositional cannabis discourse in an otherwise prohibitionist country like Sweden. The focus of the paper is to identify demands for an alternative cannabis policy as well as analysing how these demands are linked to governance. The empirical material is 56 discussion-threads from the online message-board Flashback Forum that were active during the first eight months of 2012. Discourse theory was used to locate the discourse, and governmentality theory was used to locate the political belonging of the discourse. On Flashback Forum demands for a new cannabis policy are articulated in opposition to Swedish prohibitionist discourse. The oppositional discourse is constructed around the nodal points cannabis, harm, state and freedom that fill legalisation/decriminalisation/liberalisation with meaning. The nodal points are surrounded by policy demands that get their meaning through the particular nodal. These demands originate from neo-liberal and welfarist political rationalities. Neo-liberal and welfarist demands are mixed, and participants are simultaneously asking for state and individual approaches to handle the cannabis issue. Swedish online discourse on cannabis widens the scope beyond the confines of drug policy to broader demands such as social justice, individual choice and increased welfare. These demands are not essentially linked together and many are politically contradictory. This is also significant for the discourse; it is not hegemonised by a political ideology. The discourse is negotiated between the neo-liberal version of an alternative policy demanding individual freedom, and the welfarist version demanding social responsibility. This implies the influence of the heritage from the social-democratic discourse, centred on state responsibility, which have been dominating Swedish politics in modern times. Consequently, this study refutes that the demand for a new cannabis
di Clemente, Riccardo; Pietronero, Luciano
We introduce a statistical agent based model to describe the phenomenon of drug abuse and its dynamical evolution at the individual and global level. The agents are heterogeneous with respect to their intrinsic inclination to drugs, to their budget attitude and social environment. The various levels of drug use were inspired by the professional description of the phenomenon and this permits a direct comparison with all available data. We show that certain elements have a great importance to start the use of drugs, for example the rare events in the personal experiences which permit to overcame the barrier of drug use occasionally. The analysis of how the system reacts to perturbations is very important to understand its key elements and it provides strategies for effective policy making. The present model represents the first step of a realistic description of this phenomenon and can be easily generalized in various directions.
Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte
.1% in 2012, and this group was significantly younger at the time of death than those without psychotropics in the blood. Conclusion: Suspected dual diagnosis patients have increased in number. They die earlier than their drug addict counterparts. Methadone remains the leading cause of death in all......Introduction: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease – dual diagnosis – suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug...... addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. Methods: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according...
Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002–2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992–1997 (c2 45.3, p<0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000-2007 [67.6% as against 38.5% in ...
Full Text Available Background. Illicit drug use influences people’s lives and elicits unwanted behaviour. Current research shows that there is an increase in young people’s drug use in Sweden. The aim was to investigate Swedish high-school pupils’ attitudes, impulsiveness and gender differences linked to drug use. Risk and protective factors relative to drug use were also a focus of interest.Method. High school pupils (n = 146 aged 17–21 years, responded to the Adolescent Health and Development Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and Knowledge, and the Attitudes and Beliefs. Direct logistic, multiple regression analyses, and Multivariate Analysis of Variance were used to analyze the data.Results. Positive Attitudes towards drugs were predicted by risk factors (odds ratio = 37.31 and gender (odds ratio = .32. Risk factors (odds ratio = 46.89, positive attitudes towards drugs (odds ratio = 4.63, and impulsiveness (odds ratio = 1.11 predicted drug usage. Risk factors dimensions Family, Friends and Individual Characteristic were positively related to impulsiveness among drug users. Moreover, although boys reported using drugs to a greater extent, girls expressed more positive attitude towards drugs and even reported more impulsiveness than boys.Conclusion. This study reinforces the notion that research ought to focus on gender differences relative to pro-drug attitudes along with testing for differences in the predictors of girls’ and boys’ delinquency and impulsiveness. Positive attitudes towards drugs among adolescents seem to be part of a vicious circle including risk factors, such as friendly drug environments (e.g., friends who use drugs and unsupportive family environments, individual characteristics, and impulsiveness.
... Abuse and Addiction Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction Past Issues / Fall ... mission to lead the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and ...
Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan
Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bardo, Michael T; Compton, Wilson M
The current review examined recent literature to determine our state of knowledge about the potential ability of physical activity serve as a protectant against drug abuse vulnerability. Both preclinical and clinical studies were examined using either associational or random assignment study designs. In addition to examining drug use as an outcome variable, the potential neural mediators linking physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability were examined. Several important conclusions may be drawn. First, the preclinical evidence is solid in showing that physical activity in various forms is able to serve as both a preventive and treatment intervention that reduces drug use, although voluntary alcohol drinking appears to be an exception to this conclusion. Second, the clinical evidence provides some evidence, albeit mixed, to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on tobacco dependent individuals. In contrast, there exists only circumstantial evidence that physical activity may reduce use of drugs other than nicotine, and there is essentially no solid information from random control studies to know if physical activity may prevent initiation of problem use. Finally, both preclinical and clinical evidence shows that various brain systems are altered by physical activity, with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) serving as one potential node that may mediate the putative link between physical activity and drug abuse vulnerability. It is concluded that novel neurobehavioral approaches taking advantage of novel techniques for assessing the physiological impact of physical activity are needed and can be used to inform the longitudinal random control studies that will answer definitively the question posed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J
This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research Programs, National Institutes... Institute on Drug Abuse, Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; P50 Centers of Excellence. Date: February 22-23, 2012. Time: 9 a.m. to 2 p...
Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Abuse Treatment Referral...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…
Cameron, Paul; Landess, Thomas; Cameron, Kirk
In 2003, the U.S. Supreme Court said same-sex sexual activity could not be prohibited by law. Analyzing data from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse (N= 12,381) and comparing those who engaged in four recreational activities-homosexual sex, illegal drug use, participation in prostitution, and smoking --against those who abstained, participants (1) were more frequently disruptive (e.g., more frequently criminal, drove under the influence of drugs or alcohol, used illegal drugs, took sexual risks), (2) were less frequently productive (e.g., less frequently had children in marriage, more frequently missed work), and (3) generated excessive costs (e.g., more promiscuous, higher consumers of medical services). Major sexuality surveys have reported similar findings for homosexuals. Societal discrimination inadequately accounts for these differences since parallel comparisons of black and white subsamples produced a pattern unlike the differences found between homosexuals and nonhomosexuals.
Covey, Dan P.; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Garris, Paul A.
Phasic increases in brain dopamine are required for cue-directed reward seeking. While compelling within the framework of appetitive behavior, the view that illicit drugs hijack reward circuits by hyper-activating these dopamine transients is inconsistent with established psychostimulant pharmacology. However, recent work reclassifying amphetamine (AMPH), cocaine, and other addictive dopamine-transporter inhibitors (DAT-Is) supports transient hyper-activation as a unifying hypothesis of abused drugs. We argue here that reclassification also identifies generating burst firing by dopamine neurons as a keystone action. Unlike natural rewards, which are processed by sensory systems, drugs act directly on the brain. Consequently, to mimic natural reward and exploit reward circuits, dopamine transients must be elicited de novo. Of available drug targets, only burst firing achieves this essential outcome. PMID:24656971
Peterson, Dana Mark
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Over the past decade, DoD surveys have shown a significant decrease in drug abuse within the Navy. This research considers the important elements of this reduction and conducts a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Navy's drug abuse prevention programs. The primary question asks, What is the most effective and efficient method to prevent drug abuse in the Navy?'. The analysis reveals that drug testing and a strict 'zero tolerance...
Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady
This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Drug abuse has become a global issue of concern. It affects not only individual users, but also their families and communities. Data were retrieved from the database of the Taiwan Surveillance System of Drug Abuse and Addiction Treatment (SSDAAT from 2002 to 2011, and 147,660 cases reported by medical institutions in Taiwan were reviewed. This study showed that the top five reported abused drugs by medical institutions during the last decade were heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, ketamine, and zolpidem. Heroin and methamphetamine continued to be the first two abused drugs reported by medical institutions. Heroin abuse was significant, but has shown a downward trend. However, emerging abused drugs, such as ketamine and zolpidem, presented upward trends. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA abuse seems to have re-emerged and has increased gradually since 2010. Injection without needle sharing has become the most common route of administration of abused drugs since 2002. The majority of causes for these reported drug abuses were drug dependence, followed by peer influence and stress relief. Hepatitis C was the most commonly reported infectious disease, followed by hepatitis B and AIDS in the drug abusers reported by medical institutions. It should be noted that access to drugs via the Internet increased year by year, and this is clearly an area needing constant monitoring.
Friedman, A S; Glickman, N W
The relationship to treatment outcome, as measured by reduction in drug use, of specific characteristics and elements of 30 drug-free outpatient programs for adolescents is reported. Admission and discharge data were obtained from National Institute on Drug Abuse-Client Oriented Data Acquisition Process on 5789 adolescents in the 30 programs. A partial cross-validation study was conducted by analyzing separately for two annual client subsamples. The program, not the individual clients, was the unit of analysis. While controlling for differences between programs on their client populations, multiple regression analysis indicated that the following characteristics of programs were found to predict the outcome criterion variable, to a statistically significant degree: treat a large number of adolescent clients; have a special school for school dropouts; have a relatively large budget; employ counselors or therapists who have at least 2 years' experience in working with adolescent drug abusers; provide special services such as vocational counseling, recreational services, and birth control services; use such therapy methods as crisis intervention, gestalt therapy, music/art therapy, and group confrontation; and be perceived by the clients as allowing and encouraging free expression and spontaneous action by clients. There was a high degree of replication of these findings across the two annual subsamples of clients; and the amount of variance in the treatment outcome criterion variable accounted for by the above-listed program characteristics was quite impressive.
Rodríguez, Jorge; Fernández, Ana María; Hernández, Enrique; Valdés, Macarena; Villalón, Marcelo; Ramírez, Sergio; Ramírez, Rafael; Valenzuela, Catalina; Cardemil, Sebastián
Peer methodology (PM) is an adaptation of the privileged access interviewer methodology and is used for prevalence studies. PM estimates higher drug consumption frequencies among school and college students than self reports, since it minimizes underreporting. To assess drug abuse among students using PM. A random sample of 234 school students of middle and low-middle socioeconomic status, aged 9 to 14 years (53% women) were interviewed using PM about drug consumption. The frequency of illicit drug consumption during the last year was 29% and 15% during the last month (current consumption). The consumption of tobacco and alcohol was 20% and 18% respectively during the last year. The figures for the last month were 11% and 8% respectively. The beginning age for smoking and alcohol consumption were 11.1 +/-1.5 and 11.3+/- 1.8 years respectively. The frequency of illicit drug consumption was 3.5%. Illicit drug users began illicit drug consumption at earlier ages their non user peers. There is a high frequency of illicit drug consumption among school age children.
Bashirian, Saeid; Hidarnia, Alireza; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim
Drug abuse is one of the important challenges in the field of mental health and adolescence health promotion. Because of the social and medical cost of drug abuse and its consequences among youth people, it is necessary to intervene effectively. This theoretical based study explained predictability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) on drug abuse related behaviors among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hamadan City, western Iran, in 2011 among 650 male high school students, recruited randomly. All data were gathered by using self-report written questionnaires include attitudes, subjective, norms, perceived behavioral control and intention not to use drugs as theoretical constructs of TPB and drug abuse related behaviors. According to the logistic regression analysis, attitude and subjective norms were the most influential predictors of intention to drug abuse. There was a significant relationship between drug abuse smoking experience (OR = 27.24 95% CI: 10.25, 72.40; P = 0.001), having parents of drug users (OR = 8.63 95% CI: 3.42, 21.81; P = 0.001), and having friends who had experienced drug (OR =1 1.06 95% CI: 4.24, 28.85; P = 0.001). Drug abuse preventative programs need to apply comprehensive theoretical based efforts for drug abuse preventative manipulations in school settings. Theory of planned behavior can be used properly and effectively for planning and implementing drug abuse prevention programs in adolescents.
This document describes major provisions of the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988, a federal law relating to enforcement of controlled substances laws which authorizes over two billion dollars for anti-drug activities. Provisions of the Act relating primarily to drug abuse education, prevention or treatment and regulation of the manufacture,…
Ford, S L; Steiner, R R; Thiericke, R; Young, R; Soine, W H
An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test. The combination of Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood with delta(9)-THC did not contribute further to the impairment of the mice on the rotorod. This data suggests that the abuse potential for Dragon's Blood incense alone or in combination with marihuana is minimal.
Zeynep Özözen Ayas
Full Text Available At the present time the incidence of illicit drug use increases worldwide among young adults. Abuse of these substances is a rare cause of stroke in young adults. Cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and amphetamines use increase the risk of stroke. Cannabis sativa induce main effects by delta-9-hydrocannabinol. The main mechanism of marijuana-related stroke in young patients is vasospazm. The other possible mechanisms are systemic hypotension, impaired cerebral autoregulation, alteration of cerebral blood flow, cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation. In this article a 25-year-old young male patient with paresia and paresthesia of right side who had chronic abuse of marijuana is reported. Clinicians must be alert about marijuana can be seriously harmful to cerebrovascular system in chronic use.
Allison, Daniel C; Holtom, Paul D; Patzakis, Michael J; Zalavras, Charalampos G
The literature contains variable reports on the causative organisms of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in patients with injecting drug abuse and on the rate of oxacillin-resistant S aureus. It is important to have a clear notion of the organisms to initiate empiric antimicrobial therapy. We therefore determined the spectrum of organisms in bone and joint infections in patients who were injecting drug users. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 215 patients (154 male, 61 female) with a history of injecting drug abuse and concurrent bone and/or joint infection from 1998 to 2005. The mean age was 43 years (range, 23-83 years). Osteomyelitis was present in 127 of the 215 patients (59%), septic arthritis in 53 (25%), and both in 35 (16%). The lower extremity was most commonly involved (141 cases, 66%), with osteomyelitis of the tibia present in 70 patients (33%) and septic knee arthritis in 30 patients (14%). Cultures yielded predominately Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus in 52% and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus in 20%. The proportion of oxacillin-resistant S aureus among S aureus infections increased from 21% in 1998 to 73% in 2005. Gram-negative organisms were present in 19% of infections and anaerobes in 13%. Patients with osteomyelitis had a higher prevalence of polymicrobial infections (46% versus 15%), infections due to Gram-negative organisms (24% versus 9%), and anaerobic infections (19% versus 6%) compared to patients with septic arthritis. These findings suggest broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic therapy, including vancomycin, should be considered for bone and joint infections in patients with injecting drug abuse. Level IV, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Eduardo Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi
Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Embora seja um problema crescente na população mundial, existem poucos trabalhos publicados sobre o uso de drogas durante a gravidez. OBJETIVOS: Abordar de maneira objetiva as drogas de abuso (álcool, cocaína, maconha e tabaco mais comumente utilizadas pelas mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica (MEDLINE, LILACS dos textos mais recentes abordando o uso de drogas de abuso em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. RESULTADOS: Foram descritas as principais conseqüências da utilização de drogas de abuso, tanto para a mãe quanto para o bebê. CONCLUSÕES: Trata-se de um problema de saúde pública pouco discutido, devendo envolver uma equipe multidisciplinar em sua abordagem. A publicação de mais trabalhos se faz necessária, a fim de se estabelecer a melhor estratégia de intervenção nesta população.BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that it has being a growing problem worldwide, very few works and papers have been published on drug use during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To objectively address the most commonly abused drugs (alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and tobacco by women of a reproductive age. METHODS: A literature review (MEDLINE, LILACS of the most recent papers on drug abuse by women of reproductive age was carried out. RESULTS: The primary consequences of drug abuse both for the mother and the infant are described. CONCLUSIONS: This is a little discussed major public health issue which requires the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. The publication of a greater number of papers on the problem is necessary in order to establish the best strategy for addressing intervention in this population.
Use of illicit drugs by pregnant women may result in serious adverse effects in their infants. We have noticed a sudden increase in the number of infants presenting with signs suggestive of neonatal abstinence in Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital. Here we report two neonates who were born to mothers addicted ...
Youngsters like to experiment with risky life stiles, without adequate knowledge about long-term health effects. Bosnia and Herzegovina is currently going through transition period and is a postwar society with various risk factors for drug abuse (economic, social and health factors). The main objective of the research was to show parents behavior related to drug abuse of their children, and to describe if there is parental support to such kind of behavior. This study covers 368 adolescents: 170 males, 198 females, aged 12-17, with equal urban and rural distribution. The research tool used was Q2004 (K.B. Kelly 2000). EPI info was used for statistical analysis. Research is epidemiological and was done in urban and rural areas of Sarajevo Canton. Out of total number of individuals involved in the study 25.8% were found to be cigarette smokers, 39.4% consumed alcohol, and 2.2% consumed marijuana. Alcohol abuse is more present in urban rather than in rural types of communities. (56.6%; 43.4%; p = 0.0001). Of all age groups examined, alcohol abuse is most frequent in males (53.1%; 46.9%). and high school age group (69.0%; 31.0%). Passive parental support to alcohol consumers is surprisingly high (> 50%). It is determined that parents (particularly fathers) use tobacco and alcohol, and passively support similar behavior of their children. More than one quarter of parents (26.2%) are aware that their children drink alcohol. These results could be used to develop an appropriate prevention strategy. It is necessary to be aware of all relevant risk factors.
Marini, J L; Bridges, C I; Sheard, M H
Preincarceration drug-use patterns were investigated retrospectively in 58 male prisoners, average age 18.6 years, of whom 50% were White, 43% Black, and 7% Hispanic. Fifty-five percent were classified as drug-dependent, 36% as regular, and 9% as casual users of at least one drug. Classification according to numbers of "hard" drugs used regularly gave equal percentages of subjects using none, one to two, or more than two (polydrug users). The polydrug users were predominantly White and often used amphetamines or hallucinogens, while those using one to two "hard" drugs regularly were predominantly Black, eschewed hallucinogens, and preferred narcotics.
Hallgren, Mats; Andréasson, Sven
Local communities are increasingly targeted for alcohol and drug prevention campaigns. This study describes some of the key findings from the Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial (2003-2007) and lessons learned following an evaluation of the trial's effectiveness. The paper focuses mainly on changes in youth drinking and related harms. This was a pre- to post-intervention effect study comparing six trial communities that received added training and technical support with six control communities where regular prevention efforts were supported by national alcohol and drug action plans. A repeated, cross-sectional survey of 8092 youths aged 15-19 years assessed changes in alcohol consumption, binge drinking, perceived alcohol availability, access to alcohol via parents and adult attitudes towards the supply of alcohol to youths. National registry data were used to assess changes in hospital admissions due to alcohol intoxication. Overall, there were few significant improvements in the six trial communities compared with the control communities. The absence of program effects was largely attributable to the selection of strategies (in particular, school and parental programs) lacking evidence of effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption at the aggregate level. Prevention programs based on efficacy studies need to be tested in community-based effectiveness trials before being disseminated. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Berry, Alessandra; Raggi, Carla; Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca
A growing body of literature shows that a link exists between substance abuse and stress and that the crosstalk of sex hormones with the neuroendocrine system might differently prime vulnerability to drug addiction in male and female subjects. Thus, understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction and the identification of sex-driven determinants in vulnerability to drug abuse may help to better devise and/or implement strategic (pharmacological, behavioural, social) interventions to prevent or face the issue of addiction. Differences between sexes can be found at all stages of life (in both the animal model and human studies) and may account for genetic, epigenetic and environmental/hormonal factors that in turn affect the functionality of the whole organism leading also to a sex-driven differential vulnerability or resilience to non-communicable pathologies. These include the onset and precipitation of stress-related psychiatric disorders as well as "substance-related and addictive disorders" (as defined in the DSM-V). This paper reviews the scientific literature highlighting significant differences in male and female subjects in stress and neuroendocrine function and the implications for sex-dependent differential vulnerability to drug addiction.
Full Text Available Cannabinoids (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are the active ingredient of marijuana (cannabis which is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the USA. In addition to being known and used as recreational drugs, cannabinoids are produced endogenously by neurons in the brain (endocannabinoids and serve as important signaling molecules in the nervous system and the rest of the body. Cannabinoids have been implicated in bodily processes both in health and disease. Recent pharmacological and physiological experiments have described novel aspects of classic brain signaling mechanisms or revealed unknown mechanisms of cellular communication involving the endocannabinoid system. While several forms of signaling have been described for endocannabinoids, the most distinguishing feature of endocannabinoids is their ability to act as retrograde messengers in neural circuits. Neurons in the main olfactory bulb express high levels of cannabinoid receptors. Here, we describe the cellular mechanisms and function of this novel brain signaling system in regulating neural activity at synapses in olfactory circuits. Results from basic research have the potential to provide the groundwork for translating the neurobiology of drug abuse to the realm of the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of addiction, specifically marijuana substance use disorder.
Ompad, Danielle C.; Ikeda, Robin M.; Shah, Nina; Fuller, Crystal M.; Bailey, Susan; Morse, Edward; Kerndt, Peter; Maslow, Carey; Wu, Yingfeng; Vlahov, David; Garfein, Richard; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Objectives. We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. Methods. We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. Results. The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and White (52.8%). Mean age and age at first injection were 23.7 and 19.6 years, respectively; 307 participants (14.3%) reported childhood sexual abuse. After adjustment for gender, race/ethnicity, noninjection drug use before first injection drug use, and recruitment site, childhood sexual abuse was independently associated with younger age at first injection. Conclusions. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with earlier initiation of injection drug use. These data emphasize the need to integrate substance abuse prevention with postvictimization services for children and adolescents. PMID:15798133
Milman, Doris H.; And Others
This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...
... Rx: Prescription Drug Abuse Infographic Challenge'' Authority: 15 U.S.C. 3719. SUMMARY: The ``Data Rx... the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) statutory authority, described in 42 U.S.C. 285o. The... abuse and the treatment of drug abusers. Consistent with this authority, one of NIDA's strategic goals...
Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.
This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Notice of Closed Meetings... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Phased Services Research Studies of Drug...
Isaac Chun-Jen Chen
Conclusion: Although the prevalence of drug abuse-related accidents was low, and only three patient deaths were reported in this study, many patients presented to the EDs with severe effects and later required hospitalization. Better and timely management of such patients will help to minimize the adverse health impacts associated with drug abuse. Governmental agencies and all healthcare professionals should also work together to fight against the surging trend of drug abuse in Taiwan.
Kerry J Redican
Full Text Available Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse.Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders.Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco-done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers.Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed.
Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh
Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected thro...
Mahdi Moshki; Tahere Hassanzade; Parvaneh Taymoori
Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected ...
Manubay, Jeanne M.; Muchow, Carrie; Sullivan, Maria A.
The epidemic of prescription drug abuse has reached a critical level, which has received national attention. Physicians must learn strategies to effectively treat chronic pain, and help reduce the rates of prescription drug abuse. This chapter will provide insight into the epidemiology of prescription drug abuse, explain regulatory issues, and provide guidelines for the assessment and management of pain, particularly with chronic opioid therapy. The use of informed consent forms, treatment ag...
Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte
Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease - dual diagnosis - suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48.1% in 2012, and this group was significantly younger at the time of death than those without psychotropics in the blood. Suspected dual diagnosis patients have increased in number. They die earlier than their drug addict counterparts. Methadone remains the leading cause of death in all subpopulations. Possible causes are misuse of treatment and/or illegally bought methadone, wrongly assigned cause of death due to unknown tolerance and/or polydrug toxicity in combination with psychotropic medicine. none. not relevant.
Wotring, C. Edward; And Others
Summarizes an evaluation of the impact of the 1976-77 Florida Drug Abuse television campaign, targeted at middle- and upper-class individuals. The article reports audience viewing frequency of the TV campaign announcements, differences between viewers and nonviewers, plus viewing and reaction differences between target and nontarget audience…
Results: The results show that there is a positive and significant relationship between loneliness and the difficulty in emotion regulation with drug abuse. The Enter regression analysis for prediction of the drug abuse shows that the loneliness predicts .09 and the difficulty in emotional regulation predicts .08 of the drug abuse variances (P≤ .05. Conclusion: Therefore, it is recommended to university and cultural instructional planners to pay attention to variables of loneliness and emotional regulation as drug abuse risk factors and introduce especial and preventer programs in this subject.
Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…
Brown, B. Bradford; Chiang, Chi-Pang
Compared 21 older clients of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggested that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single elderly who lived alone. (JAC)
... § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these... abuse and neglect to State or local authorities The prohibitions of this section do not apply to any... abuse and neglect to the appropriate State or local authorities. (f) Penalty for first and subsequent...
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L
We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Lee, Sooyeun; Han, Eunyoung; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun
In order to aid the interpretation of hair results from methamphetamine (MA) abusers the MA and amphetamine (AP) concentrations in 2070 hair samples were statistically evaluated. The MA and AP concentrations in hair were put into three groups arbitrarily representing low, medium and high ranges and the metabolite-to-parent drug ratios of each group were examined. The concentration ranges proposed here were also applied to the interpretation of five authentic cases. The low, medium and high ranges of MA were 0.5-4.2, 4.2-24.5 and 24.5-608.9 ng/mg and those of AP were 0.1-0.4, 0.4-1.7 and 1.7-41.4 ng/mg. The AP-to-MA ratios showed large variation but a tendency that it decreased as the MA ranges increased. This evaluation was very useful to presume the severity of individuals' MA abuse and to provide law enforcement agencies more understandable information. It could also facilitate the court's decision regarding specific circumstances surrounding the drug-related crimes.
Kendler, K S; Ohlsson, H; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predisposes to drug abuse (DA) and twin studies suggest shared genetic effects. We here seek to determine, using adoption and adoption-like samples, the magnitude of the cross-generational transmission from DA in parents to ADHD in their children and clarify the degree to which this arises from genetic v. rearing effects. We ascertained ADHD and DA from multiple Swedish registries. Statistical analysis was performed by Cox and path models. Risk for ADHD was significantly and similarly increased in the offspring of biological mothers and fathers with DA who did v. did not rear their offspring. Risk for ADHD was not elevated in the offspring of adoptive or step-parents with DA. Cross-generational transmission was observed from DA in parents to ADHD in their children. An analysis of adoptive and adoptive-like parent-offspring relationships suggested that this transmission results from genetic and not from rearing effects.
Wastesson, J W; Ringbäck Weitoft, G; Parker, M G; Johnell, K
We examined educational disparities in use of osteoporosis drugs in a nationwide population of Swedes aged 75-89 years old. Individuals with high education were more likely to receive osteoporosis drug treatment than lower educated individuals, particularly among women. This study aims to investigate whether educational level is associated with use of osteoporosis drugs in the general population of older men and women in Sweden, also after adjustment for fractures. By record linkage of The Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, The Swedish Patient Register, and The Swedish Education Register, we obtained information on filling of prescriptions for osteoporosis drugs (bisphosphonates, calcium/vitamin D combinations, and selective estrogen receptor modulators) from July to October 2005, osteoporotic fractures from 1998 to 2004, and educational level for 645,429 people aged 75-89 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether education was associated with use of osteoporosis drug therapy. Higher education was associated with use of osteoporosis drugs for both men [odds ratio (OR)(high education vs low), 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.35] and women (OR(high education vs low), 1.57; 95% CI, 1.52-1.61), after adjustment for age, osteoporotic fractures, and comorbidity (i.e., number of other drugs). Among those who had sustained a fracture (n = 57,613), the educational differences in osteoporosis drug treatment were more pronounced in women than men. Further, women were more likely to receive osteoporosis drug treatment after osteoporotic fracture. Uptake of osteoporosis drug therapy seems to be unequally distributed in the elderly population, even in a country with presumably equal access to health care.
Crouch, Barbara Insley; Caravati, E Martin; Booth, Jeremy
Trends in child and teen nonprescription drug abuse reported to a regional poison control center over a 10-year period were examined. Human exposures to toxic substances reported to the Utah Poison Control Center between January 1990 and December 1999 were reviewed. Cases were selected for analysis if the exposure involved a nonprescription drug, the patient was 6-19 years old, and the reason for exposure was intentional abuse. Frequencies and cross-tabulations were calculated to identify trends in nonprescription drug abuse. There were 2214 reports of intentional drug abuse among children and teenagers 6-19 years old. Of those, 844 (38.1%) involved nonprescription drugs. The percentage of exposures Involving nonprescription products varied every year and declined over time. Exposures were slightly more common In males (51.7%). The site of exposure was a residence in 65% of cases and a school in 10% of cases. The majority of patients with exposures (68.4%) were treated In a health care facility. The most common types of nonprescription medications abused were drugs with anticholinergic properties, caffeine, dextromethorphan, and nonprescription stimulants. Reports of the Intentional abuse of nonprescription drugs by children and teenagers were common at a regional poison control center. There was significant variation in the type of nonprescription medication most commonly abused. The knowledge of these trends may assist public health policymakers, physicians, pharmacists, and child educators in their attempts to curb nonprescription drug abuse. drugs.
Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.
Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,
Fugelstad, Anna; Annell, Anders; Ågren, Gunnar
To study long-term mortality and causes of death in a cohort of drug users in relation to main type of drug use and HIV-status. A total of 1640 hospitalized drug users in Stockholm was followed up from 1985 to the end of 2007. The mortality was compared with the general Swedish population and hazard ratios (HR) for the main risk indicators were calculated. The causes of death were studied, using information from death certificates. 630 persons died during the observation period. The Standard Mortality Ratio (SMR) was 16.1 (males 13.8, females 18.5). The crude mortality rate was 2.0 % (males 2.2% and females 1.5%). The mortality rate was higher in heroin users than among amphetamine users, HR 1.96, controlled for age and other risk factors. The mortality rate among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was high (4.9 %), HR 2.64, compared with HIV-negative individuals. Most of the deaths were from other causes than acquired immune deficiency syndrome. One-third of deaths (227) were caused by heroin intoxication. The number of deaths from HIV-related causes decreased after 1996, when highly active anti-retroviral therapy was introduced. In all, there were 92 HIV-related deaths. Deaths from natural causes increased during the observation period. The SMR was highest for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. The results indicate a correlation between amphetamine use and death from cerebral haemorrhage. A high proportion of natural deaths were alcohol-related. The death rate among illicit drug users was persistently high. Alcohol consumption was a contributing factor to premature death. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik
.... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...
Herzberg, David; Guarino, Honoria; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Bennett, Alex S
Observers describe today's "epidemic" of pharmaceutical drug abuse as a recent phenomenon, but we argue that it is only the most recent of three waves stretching back more than a century. During each wave, policies have followed a similar pattern: voluntary educational campaigns, followed by supply-side policing and--sometimes--public health responses that would today be understood as "harm reduction." These experiences suggest that only broad-based application of all three approaches to users of all drugs (not just pharmaceutical drugs) can produce a reduction in drug-related harm rather than merely shifting it from one type of drug to another. This has rarely happened because policy has been shaped by the racially charged division of drug users into deserving and morally salvageable victims, or fearsome and morally repugnant criminals.
Trezza, Viviana; Baarendse, Petra J J; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J
Social factors influence drug abuse. Conversely, drugs of abuse alter social behavior. This is especially pertinent during post-weaning development, when there are profound changes in the social repertoire, and the sensitivity to the positive and negative effects of drugs of abuse is altered. This study aimed to provide an overview of our current understanding of the interaction between drugs of abuse and juvenile/adolescent social behavior. We first provide evidence that a characteristic form of juvenile and adolescent social behavior, i.e., social play behavior, has reinforcing properties and is affected by drugs of abuse. Next, social risk factors for drug use and addiction are described, including antisocial personality traits and early social insults. Last, we discuss research that investigates social influences on drug use, as well as the consequences of perinatal drug exposure on later social interactions. Social play behavior is highly rewarding in laboratory animals, and it is affected by low doses of opioids, cannabinoids, ethanol, nicotine, and psychostimulants. In humans, antisocial personality traits, most prominently in the form of conduct disorder, are a prominent risk factor for drug addiction. Preclinical studies have consistently shown altered sensitivity to drugs as a result of social isolation during post-weaning development. The social environment of an individual has a profound, but complex, influence on drug use, and perinatal drug exposure markedly alters later social interactions. The studies reviewed here provide a framework to understand the interaction between drugs of abuse and adolescent social interaction, at the preclinical and the clinical level.
... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville...: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award (R25.... Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852...
Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John
State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…
Winters, Ken C.; Leitten, Willa; Wagner, Eric; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary
Background: Promising and encouraging results have been recently reported on the use of briefer interventions for adolescent drug abusers. Because middle- and high-school-based drug abuse intervention programs have grown in popularity over the past several decades, the use of brief interventions (BIs) in school settings merits consideration.…
Kim, Dong-Hyun; So, Wi-Young
Background: Recreational drug abuse control has long been a major goal of global health and social welfare organizations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible associations between recreational drug abuse and Korean adolescents' school records. Methods: In 2012, 74,186 seventh- through twelfth-grade students participated…
An extensive amount of literature is available on drugs of abuse. However, current knowledge on cellular and molecular mechanisms of actions is insufficient and hampers treatment of intoxicated patients. Drugs of abuse cause 100.000 hospital admissions yearly only in the US. Therefore, we
Klisch, Yvonne; Bowling, Kristi G.; Miller, Leslie M.; Ramos, Miguel A.
Two online science education games, in which players learn about the risks of prescription drug abuse in the context of investigating crimes, were evaluated to determine shifts of prescription drug abuse attitudes attributable to game exposure. High school students from grades 11 and 12 (n = 179) were assigned to one of the games and participated…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Special...
This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…
VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.
This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…
... Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, an abuse potential assessment is part of the general evaluation of... sponsor submits a marketing application for a drug with abuse potential to FDA for review, the sponsor is... time a marketing application is submitted to FDA for review, the sponsor signs a statement agreeing not...
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Katsuki, Takeo; Mackey, Tim Ken; Cuomo, Raphael
... to drugs of abuse via online pharmacies. Tweets were collected over a 2-week period from April 1-14, 2015, by applying NUPM keyword filters for both generic/chemical and street names associated with drugs of abuse using the Twitter public...
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Khalily, Muhammad Tahir
This paper describes moves towards the coordination of efforts to respond to the worsening drug abuse situation in Pakistan which affects all segments of society. The efforts reported seek to rectify inconsistencies in treatment policy resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes. Examples of collaborative strategies with encouraging results need further underpinning and expansion. There is, however, a lack of realization at the policy level of the need to effect changes in treatment formulated on a consistent and evidence-based approach. Policy has therefore been reviewed and proposals made for a comprehensive treatment strategy in line with international best practices to deal with this problem effectively and efficiently. Establishment of an addiction study centre at university level to continue professional and academic development is suggested.
Pagano, Anna; Lee, Juliet P; García, Victor; Recarte, Carlos
Access to study populations is a major concern for drug use and treatment researchers. Spaces related to drug use and treatment have varying levels of researcher accessibility based on several issues, including legality, public versus private settings, and insider/outsider status. Ethnographic research methods are indispensable for gaining and maintaining access to hidden or "hard-to-reach" populations. Here, we discuss our long-term ethnographic research on drug abuse recovery houses created by and for Latino migrants and immigrants in Northern California. We take our field work experiences as a case study to examine the problem of researcher access and how ethnographic strategies can be successfully applied to address it, focusing especially on issues of entrée, building rapport, and navigating field-specific challenges related to legality, public/private settings, and insider/outsider status. We conclude that continued funding support for ethnography is essential for promoting health disparities research focused on diverse populations in recovery from substance use disorders.
Allana M. Krolikowski
Full Text Available Methamphetamine and MDMA have been called safe drugs of abuse. Worldwide there is an increased consumption of these drugs, which has become a focus of research in South Africa. As the number of methamphetamine users has increased in many African countries, it is essential that emergency care practitioners are able to diagnose and manage intoxication with methamphetamine, MDMA, and other derivatives. The most common presentations include restlessness, agitation, hypertension, tachycardia, and headache while hyperthermia, hyponatraemia, and rhabdomyolysis are among the most common serious complications. Most deaths are secondary to hyperthermia complicated by multiple organ failure. A number of laboratory analyses should be obtained if locally available. We provide a review of the current recommended general and specific management approaches. Benzodiazepines are the first line therapy for hyperthermia, agitation, critical hypertension, and seizures. Patients with serious complications are best managed in an intensive care unit if available. Emergency centres should create protocols and/or further train staff in the recognition and management of intoxication with these ‘not so safe’ drugs.
Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.
Licata, Stephanie C.; Rowlett, James K.
Benzodiazepine-type drugs (benzodiazepines and the newer non-benzodiazepines) are similar to older sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as the barbiturates, in that they act at the GABAA receptor (9, 188). Unfortunately, benzodiazepine-type drugs also retain the liability for abuse and dependence associated with the earlier anxiolytics (133, 208). Action at GABAA receptors likely plays a key role in both the therapeutic as well as abuse-related effects of this important class of drugs. While the extent to which therapeutic efficacy and abuse potential can be dissociated is not yet understood fully, the biochemical processes underlying these behavioral effects are even less understood. A more comprehensive understanding of the etiology of benzodiazepine-type drug-induced abuse and dependence is likely to provide information that can inform drug development strategies to help design anxiolytics and hypnotics that have maximum clinical benefit with reduced abuse potential. Thus, this review will explore issues related to the abuse and dependence potential of benzodiazepine-type drugs and the role that GABAA receptors play in this phenomenon. Further, this review will discuss putative intracellular events that may occur as a result of the interaction between benzodiazepine-type drugs and GABAA receptors, and how those events may ultimately give rise to the abuse-related behaviors associated with these drugs. PMID:18295321
Inessa Aleksandrovna Gurban
Full Text Available The paper considers issues of the assessment of the socioeconomic consequences of drug abuse in today’s conditions, which have the following features — the approaching of drug-dealers to legalize the drug market, develop the illegal drug market and their analogs and derivatives by the introduction of modern production technologies and distribution of psychoactive agents. Key tendencies observed in the contemporary world in the field of dynamics of the drug market development, which are reflected in the regions of Russia including the Ural Federal District are revealed. The procedure of assessment of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse including assessment of drug consumers’ expenses and their surrounding people; and also; maintenance costs of the state bodies supervising drug trafficking; expenses for health care and other social expenses connected to drug use; damage to individuals of drug abuse distribution; expenses of private institutions and establishments; socioeconomic impact of drug abuse distribution. The technique uses a tool allowing to carry out a calculation (a heroin equivalent, i.e. the drugs withdrawn by law enforcement agencies and the subsequent calculation of the corresponding number of consumers of each type of drug. This method is aimed at increasing the accuracy of estimates received. On the basis of results calculated according to offered technique, the shares of socioeconomic expenses of drug abuse concerning the income of the cumulative consolidated budget and a gross regional product of the Ural Federal District are defined.
This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed. Copyright © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Full Text Available Danièle Debruyne,1,2 Reynald Le Boisselier1 1Centre for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence - Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, 2Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre Côte de Nacre, Caen, France Abstract: New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs. SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as “herbal smoking blends” or “herbal incense” under brand names like “Spice” or “K2”. Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes. For the past 5 years, an ever increasing number of compounds, representative of different chemical classes, have been promoted and now represent a large assortment of new popular drugs of abuse, which are difficult to properly identify. Their legal status varies by country with many government institutions currently pushing for their control. The in vitro binding to CB1/CB2 receptors is usually well-known and considerable differences have been found in the CB1 versus CB2 selectivity and potency within the different SCs, with several structure-activity relations being evident. Desired effects by CB1 agonist users are relaxation/recreative, however, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or psychiatric/neurological side effects are commonly reported. At present there is no specific antidote existing if an overdose of designer drugs was to occur, and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Management of acute toxic effects is mainly symptomatic and extrapolated from experience with cannabis. Keywords: synthetic cannabinoids, chemistry, analysis, pharmacology, toxicology, dependence, medical care
Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.
This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433
Mushanyu, J; Nyabadza, F; Muchatibaya, G; Stewart, A G R
The abuse of drugs is now an epidemic globally whose control has been mainly through rehabilitation. The demand for drug abuse rehabilitation has not been matched with the available capacity resulting in limited placement of addicts into rehabilitation. In this paper, we model limited rehabilitation through the Hill function incorporated into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Not every member of the community is equally likely to embark on drug use, risk structure is included to help differentiate those more likely (high risk) to abuse drugs and those less likely (low risk) to abuse drugs. It is shown that the model has multiple equilibria, and using the centre manifold theory, the model exhibits the phenomenon of backward bifurcation whose implications to rehabilitation are discussed. Sensitivity analysis and numerical simulations are performed. The results show that saturation in rehabilitation will in the long run lead to the escalation of drug abuse. This means that limited access to rehabilitation has negative implications in the fight against drug abuse where rehabilitation is the main form of control. This suggests that increased access to rehabilitation is likely to lower the drug abuse epidemic.
Nyabadza, Farai; Coetzee, Lezanie
The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.
Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.
... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...) Comply with the requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR...
Zalaf, Marília Rita Ribeiro; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa
This article deals with the abuse of alcohol and other drugs in the students' dormitories of the University of São Paulo. The purposes of the study were to understand how the health-disease process of the dwellers occurs, regarding drug use, and to analyze the underlying manifestations to the gender issues related to drug use by students. The analysis is supported by the Social Determination Theory. Data collection occurred through semi-structured interviews focusing on the history of the health-disease process related to the abuse of alcohol and other drugs, before and after the students moved into the USP students' dormitories - Conjunto Residencial da USP (CRUSP). With the results obtained, the students' dormitories were identified as another element that favors the abuse of drugs, allied to depression, unemployment and the particular characteristics of this academic space. Gender stereotypes related to drug abuse, such as female subalternity, prejudice and culpability were shown to exist in the students' dormitories.
Forrest, A R
OBJECTIVE: To review the ethical and legal implications of the involvement of medical practitioners in workplace screening for drug misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace screening for drugs of abuse raises many ethical issues. If screening is considered as being part of medical practice with the involvement of occupational health physicians, as suggested by the Faculty of Occupational Medicine, then the ethical requirements of a normal medical consultation are fully applicable. The employee's full and informed consent to the process must be obtained and the employee should have an unfettered right of access to all the relevant records and to the urine sample he/she has provided in the event that he/she wishes to challenge the opinion expressed by the physician. If the process is not part of medical practice then employees should have the same rights as they would have if required to provide intimate body samples in the course of a criminal investigation, given the potentially serious consequences of an erroneous positive finding for their livelihood. PMID:9055156
Forman, Robert F; Marlowe, Douglas B; McLellan, A Thomas
The Internet is a vital medium for communication, entertainment, and commerce, with more than 1 billion individuals connected worldwide. In addition to the many positive functions served by the Internet, it also has been used to facilitate the illicit sale of controlled substances. No-prescription websites (NPWs) offer--and then actually sell--controlled substances over the Internet without a valid prescription. NPW monitoring studies have focused primarily on the availability of prescription opioid medications, although many other drugs of abuse also are available online. Research indicates that these NPW sites are prevalent. Google or Yahoo searches simply using the term "Vicodin" return 40% to 50% NPWs in the top 100 sites. Thus, NPWs represent an important development in the sale of illicit drugs because of the ease with which controlled substances can be sold with relative anonymity. The emergence of NPWs requires new law enforcement and public health initiatives; continued monitoring efforts will determine whether efforts to reduce the availability of NPWs are successful.
Tommasello Anthony C
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
Objective To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13–19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS®) System. Method Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all intentional exposures from 2007 through 2009 were used to describe adolescent prescription opioid (oxycodone, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol) and stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamines) exposures. Results A total of 16,209 intentional adolescent exposures to prescription drugs were identified, 68% to opioids and 32% to stimulants. The mean age was 16.6 years (SD ± 1.7 years). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of drug mentions involved females. The five most frequently misused or abused drugs were hydrocodone (32%), amphetamines (18%), oxycodone (15%), methylphenidate (14%), and tramadol (11%). Of all exposures, 38%were classified as suspected suicidal. Of adolescents who intentionally exposed themselves to prescription drugs, 30% were treated in a health care facility, 2,792 of whom were admitted to the hospital, including 1,293 to the intensive care unit. A total of 17.2% of intentional exposures were associated with no effect, 38.9% minor effects, 23.3% moderate effects, 3.6% major effects, and 0.1% were associated with death. Oxycodone and methadone were associated with the most deaths. No deaths were associated with exposures to stimulants. Conclusions Prescription drug misuse and abuse poses an important health problem and results in thousands of hospitalizations of adolescents per year. Further work is needed to develop focused interventions and educational programs to prevent prescription drug abuse and misuse by adolescents. PMID:23357446
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...
Ross, Virginia; DeJong, William
Of all drugs abused on college and university campuses, alcohol causes the greatest harm. Other drugs (the prevention field uses the term "other drugs" to distinguish them from alcohol, which also is a drug) also take a significant toll--diminishing the quality of campus life, undermining academic performance, compromising students' health and…
Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.
Low, W Y; Zulkifil, S N; Yusof, K; Batumalai, S; Aye, K W
Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessment of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2,591 respondents aged 13 years and above from households were surveyed throughout the 11 states and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur in Peninsula Malaysia. The results revealed that the respondents are moderately knowledgeable on drug abuse, especially information pertaining to treatment, rehabilitation and aftercare services, including education to families against drug abuse. The public possess a negative attitude towards drug dependents. Majority felt that drug addicts do not have the will power to rid themselves of drugs and they also lack a supportive family network system. Many believe that the most vulnerable group are the adolescents. Respondents were aware of the type of drugs commonly abused, although they failed to realise their long-term effects. Respondents do not attribute low education, large family and marginal income to the background of drug dependents. The findings showed gaps and misconceptions in terms of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the public. Accurate knowledge on, and right attitudes and perceptions towards drug related issues would certainly benefit the public in timely prevention of drug abuse.
Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities. © 2013 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2013 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.
Full Text Available Drug abuse (DA and addiction is a complex illness, broadly viewed as a neurobiological impairment with genetic and environmental factors that influence its development and manifestation. Abused substances can disrupt the activity of neurons by interacting with many proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. A few medicines that target the central nervous system (CNS can also modulate DA related proteins, such as GPCRs, which can act in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substance(s and increase side effects. To fully explore the molecular interaction networks that underlie DA and to effectively modulate the GPCRs in these networks with small molecules for DA treatment, we built a drug-abuse domain specific chemogenomics knowledgebase (DA-KB to centralize the reported chemogenomics research information related to DA and CNS disorders in an effort to benefit researchers across a broad range of disciplines. We then focus on the analysis of GPCRs as many of them are closely related with drug abuse. Their distribution in human tissues was also analyzed for the study of side effects caused by abused drugs. We further implement our computational algorithms/tools to explore DA targets, DA mechanisms and pathways involved in polydrug addiction and to explore polypharmacological effects of the GPCR ligands. Finally, the polypharmacology effects of GPCR-targeted medicines for drug abuse treatment were investigated and such effects can be exploited for the development of drugs with polypharmacophore for drug abuse intervention. The chemogenomics database and the analysis tools will help us better understand the mechanism of drugs abuse and facilitate to design new medications for system pharmacotherapy of drug abuse.
Weiss, R D; Griffin, M L; Mirin, S M
The authors empirically studied the self-medication hypothesis of drug abuse by examining drug effects and motivation for drug use in 494 hospitalized drug abusers. Most patients reported that they used drugs in response to depressive symptoms and experienced mood elevation, regardless of their drug of choice. Drug use to relieve depressive symptoms was far more likely in men if they had major depression, but was equally common in women with and without major depression. Information regarding a history of self-medication may thus be more helpful in diagnosing major depression in men than in women. Difficulties in diagnosing psychiatric disorders in substance abusers are discussed, as are the limitations of obtaining retrospective data on drug-using behavior. The implications of these limitations on the generalizability of the findings are reviewed.
Full Text Available Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension and psychiatric
Reisman, Richard M.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Atherly, Adam J.; Christopher R. Flowers
Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Des...
Spangler, David C; Loyd, Catherine M; Skor, Emily E
Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective cough suppressant, available without a prescription in the United States since 1958. Due to a perceived prevalence of abuse of dextromethorphan by teens, in 2007 the Drug Enforcement Administration requested the Food and Drug Administration evaluate whether dextromethorphan should be recommended for scheduling under the Controlled Substances Act. The Food and Drug Administration held an Advisory Committee meeting in 2010 to provide a scientific and medical evaluation of dextromethorphan and its abuse potential. To address reports of abuse, particularly by teens in the United States, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association initiated an abuse mitigation plan in 2010 with specific goals related to awareness of the behavior, perception of risk, social disapproval, and access to the products. In identifying abuse interventions, experts acknowledge that substance abuse among teens is a highly complex behavior and indicate that the best course of action is to address prevention by focusing on the factors that impact teen behavior. It is noteworthy that the annual prevalence of over-the-counter cough medicine abuse has sharply decreased since 2010. While a true cause-and-effect relationship cannot be assured, the Consumer Healthcare Products Association and its member companies believe that the increased awareness of the issue since the 2010 Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee meeting, and the subsequent implementation of a well-delivered and targeted abuse mitigation plan that addressed the levers influencing teen decisions is contributing to the observed reduction in abuse. During the period of 2010-2015, reported abuse of dextromethorphan by 8(th), 10(th), and 12(th) graders decreased 35 %. The authors believe this reduction supports the view of the Consumer Healthcare Products Association at the outset of the abuse mitigation plan effort and today: Controlled substance scheduling or prescription requirements would
Howland, Robert H
Benzodiazepine drugs are controversial because of safety and abuse liability concerns, although they have clinically relevant pharmacological differences. The current article reviews studies pertaining to the pharmacology, safety, and abuse liability of oxazepam. Compared to other benzodiazepine drugs, oxazepam has a favorable safety and abuse liability profile, which may be related to its pharmacology. Oxazepam is more slowly absorbed and enters the brain more slowly than other benzodiazepine drugs; it does not have active metabolites and does not accumulate with chronic dosing; its metabolism is not affected by age or by mild/moderate liver disease; and it is not prone to drug-drug interactions. Oxazepam also binds to the translocator protein, which stimulates the synthesis of neurosteroids, and this effect may contribute to its reduced abuse liability. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah
Full Text Available This review gives an overview of the developments in the analysis of drugs of abuse and other illicit substances by Raman spectroscopy for forensic purpose. The review covers the brief overview of basic principle and instrumentation of Raman spectroscopy along with selected and recent applications for characterization of drugs of abuse using this technique. These applications show the potential value of Raman spectroscopy in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace amounts of drugs of abuse and other illicit substances on different matrices such as cloth, currency notes, fiber etc., without extensive sample preparation in a non-destructive manner.
Paakki, P; Stockmann, H; Kantola, M; Wagner, P; Lauper, U; Huch, R; Elovaara, E; Kirkinen, P; Pasanen, M
We evaluated the impact of maternal drug abuse at term on human placental cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated (Phase I) xenobiotic and steroid-metabolizing activities [aromatase, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD), pyrene 1-hydroxylase (P1OH), and testosterone hydroxylase], and androstenedione-forming isomerase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase (Phase II), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in vitro. Overall, the formation of androstenedione, P1OH, and testosterone hydroxylase was statistically significant between control and drug-abusing subjects; we observed no significant differences in any other of the phase I and II activities. In placentas from drug-abusing mothers, we found significant correlations between ECOD and P1OH activities (p abuse drugs but did smoke cigarettes), the P1OH activity correlated with ECOD, EROD (p abusing mothers and the significant correlation between P1OH and ECOD activities, but not with aromatase or EROD activities) indicate that maternal drug abuse results in an additive effect in enhancing placental xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes when the mother also smokes cigarettes; this may be due to enhancing a "silent" CYP form, or a new placental CYP form may be activated. The change in the steroid metabolism profile in vitro suggests that maternal drug abuse may alter normal hormonal homeostasis during pregnancy. PMID:10656854
Crossin, Rose; Cairney, Sheree; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R
Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse. We retrospectively analysed drug use and growth data from 118 Indigenous males; 86 chronically sniffed petrol as adolescents. Petrol sniffing was the earliest drug used (mean 13 years) and increased the likelihood and earlier use of other drugs. Petrol sniffing significantly impaired height and weight and was associated with meeting 'failure to thrive' criteria; growth diagnostically out-performed serum toluene. Adolescent inhalant abuse increases the risk for subsequent and earlier drug use. It also impairs growth such that individuals meet 'failure to thrive' criteria, representing an improved diagnostic model for inhalant abuse. Implications for Public Health: Improved diagnosis of adolescent inhalant abuse may lead to earlier detection and enhanced health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.
Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Giordano, James; Boswell, Mark V; Fellows, Bert; Manchukonda, Rajeev; Pampati, Vidyasagar
Psychopathology (depression, anxiety, somatization disorder) and substance abuse (opioid misuse and illicit drug use) are common in patients with chronic pain and present problems for public health and clinical management. Despite a body of literature describing various methods for identifying psychopathology, opioid misuse, and illicit drug use in chronic pain patients, the relationship between psychopathologies, substance abuse, and chronic pain has not been well characterized. This report describes a total of 500 consecutive pain patients prescribed and receiving stable doses of opioids. The patients were evaluated for psychopathology, opioid abuse, and illicit drug use during the course of regular pain management treatment. The relationships between psychopathology and drug abuse and/or illicit drug use in chronic pain patients were examined, and psychological evaluation for depression, anxiety, and somatization disorder was performed. Depression, anxiety, and somatization disorder were documented in 59, 64, and 30 percent of chronic pain patients, respectively. Drug abuse was significantly higher in patients with depression as compared to patients without depression (12 percent with depression versus 5 percent without). Current illicit drug use was higher in women with depression (22 percent) than women without depression (14 percent) and in men with or without depression (12 percent). Current illicit drug use was also higher in men with somatization disorder (22 percent) than men without (9 percent). This study demonstrated that the presence of psychological features of depression and somatization disorder may be markers of substance abuse diathesis in chronic pain patients.
Andersen, Stine Linding; Lönn, Stefan; Vestergaard, Peter; Törring, Ove
Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) may have teratogenic effects, but more evidence is needed on the risk and types of birth defects after the use of methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU). This study aimed to evaluate the association between the use of ATDs in early pregnancy and birth defects. Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study. The study included 684 340 children live-born in Sweden from 2006 to 2012. Exposure groups defined by maternal ATD use in early pregnancy were MMI (n = 162); PTU (n = 218); MMI and PTU (n = 66); ATD before or after, but not in pregnancy (n = 1551) and non-exposed (never ATD (n = 682 343)). Outcome was cumulative incidence of birth defects diagnosed before two years of age. The cumulative incidence of birth defects was not significantly different in children exposed to MMI (6.8%, P = 0.6) or PTU (6.4%, P = 0.4) vs non-exposed (8.0%). For subtypes of birth defects, MMI was associated with an increased incidence of septal heart defects (P = 0.02). PTU was associated with ear (P = 0.005) and obstructive urinary system malformations (P = 0.006). A case of choanal atresia was observed after exposure to both MMI and PTU. The incidence of birth defects in children born to mothers who received ATD before or after, but not in pregnancy, was 8.8% and not significantly different from non-exposed (P = 0.3), MMI exposed (P = 0.4) or PTU exposed (P = 0.2). MMI and PTU were associated with subtypes of birth defects previously reported, but the frequency of ATD exposure in early pregnancy was low and severe malformations described in the MMI embryopathy were rarely observed. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.
Seely, Kathryn A; Prather, Paul L; James, Laura P; Moran, Jeffery H
The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). Unfortunately, pharmacological research into the design of effective THC analogs has been hampered by psychiatric side effects. THC-based drug design of a less academic nature, however, has led to the marketing of "synthetic marijuana," labeled as K2 or "Spice," among other terms, which elicits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to THC, the active ingredients of K2/Spice preparations are widely unregulated. The K2/Spice "phenomenon" provides a context for considering whether marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or merely perpetuate drug abuse.
Hanson, Carl Lee; Cannon, Ben; Burton, Scott; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe
Prescription drug abuse has become a major public health problem. Relationships and social context are important contributing factors. Social media provides online channels for people to build relationships that may influence attitudes and behaviors. To determine whether people who show signs of prescription drug abuse connect online with others who reinforce this behavior, and to observe the conversation and engagement of these networks with regard to prescription drug abuse. Twitter statuses mentioning prescription drugs were collected from November 2011 to November 2012. From this set, 25 Twitter users were selected who discussed topics indicative of prescription drug abuse. Social circles of 100 people were discovered around each of these Twitter users; the tweets of the Twitter users in these networks were collected and analyzed according to prescription drug abuse discussion and interaction with other users about the topic. From November 2011 to November 2012, 3,389,771 mentions of prescription drug terms were observed. For the 25 social circles (n=100 for each circle), on average 53.96% (SD 24.3) of the Twitter users used prescription drug terms at least once in their posts, and 37.76% (SD 20.8) mentioned another Twitter user by name in a post with a prescription drug term. Strong correlation was found between the kinds of drugs mentioned by the index user and his or her network (mean r=0.73), and between the amount of interaction about prescription drugs and a level of abusiveness shown by the network (r=0.85, PTwitter users who discuss prescription drug abuse online are surrounded by others who also discuss it-potentially reinforcing a negative behavior and social norm.
Bempechat, Janine; And Others
Drug and alcohol abuse and teenage pregnancy are two behaviors manifested by at-risk children that are both a cause and a result of their lack of success in school and possible subsequent dropping out. The distinction between substance use and abuse may be determined using the following criteria: (1) age of onset; (2) physiological responses; (3)…
Grobler, R.; Khatite, M.
This study inquires into some of the factors that might predispose the use and abuse of drugs among secondary school learners in a township school. The objective of this research is to identify these factors and to offer a few suggestions on how the abuse may be prevented. A quantitative research strategy is used and a document analysis technique…
Trimble, Joseph E.
Summarizes the literature regarding alcohol and drug abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives noting four major knowledge gaps in the literature. Discusses abuse prevention efforts among American Indians and notes research questions to be considered regarding primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts. Makes eight recommendations…
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT). 550.56 Section 550.56 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF... abuse problem who did not choose to volunteer for RDAP may be required to participate in TDAT as a...
The urine samples from both men and women were tested for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Urine samples from women were also tested for pregnancy. The blood samples were tested for HIV. The study found a higher prevalence of HIV among non-injecting drug abusers, with those who abused alcohol being more likely to ...
Drug abuse is becoming a serious problem. The course of the alarming rate of the abuse especially among the youth can be traced to the high unemployment among the youth, the frustration of highly qualified students not having access for further education and the general economic situation in the country. Marijuana has ...
Mosayeb Yarmohamadi Vasel
Full Text Available Objectives: Drug injection carries with it many risks and therefore it is important to understand the initiating factors of injection and its origins. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the initiation of injection drug use among substance abusers. Methods: Study method was a cross-sectional study. The research statistics universe constitutes all people suffering from a substance dependence disorder with a pattern of injection use in Tehran and Hamedan. This study was conducted among 216 individuals with substance dependence disorders who were selected from harm reduction centers in Tehran and Hamedan. The sampling selection method was simply random. The instruments used for data collection included: demographic information, patterns of drug use and initiation of injection scales. Results: In this study, the average age of initiation to injections was 22.5 years. Factors associated with initiation of drug injection included: acquired more pleasure, easier use, faster effect of injection, ineffective previous use method, curiosity, peer pressure, lack of availability of the drug, poverty, and low quality drugs. Discussion: Results of this study indicate that initiation factors to drug injection are multifaceted (Psychological, Social, Economic and Environmental, therefore, injection interventionists should consider all these factors for prevention, treatment and harm reduction.
... situations (like the loss of a job or marriage problems) may lash out at others inappropriately. Also, ... and learn ways to stop. What Are the Effects of Abuse? When people are abused, it can ...
Huskinson, Sally L; Naylor, Jennifer E; Rowlett, James K; Freeman, Kevin B
Examination of a drug's abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M
Drug abuse has crossed geographic, economic and social borders, and it remains one of the major problems facing our society today. The prevalence of recreational drug abuse among young adults (including women) has increased markedly over the past two decades. Nearly 90% of drug abusing women are of childbearing age. Consequently, it is not surprising to find pregnant women with a history of drug addiction. Obstetricians and obstetric anesthesiologists become involved in the care of drug abusing patients either in emergency situations, such as placental abruption, uterine rupture or fetal distress, or in more controlled situations, such as request for labor analgesia. The diverse clinical manifestations of maternal substance abuse may result in life-threatening complications and significantly impact the peripartum care of these patients. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader will be able to list the most commonly abused substances during pregnancy, to describe the various effects of particular substances on pregnancy including the mechanism of desired effect for various substances, and to outline the obstetric anesthesia recommendations for the various substances abused during pregnancy.
... Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852 (Virtual Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Research Education Program for Clinical... grant applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard...
... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel Training and Career Development... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville... of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, (Virtual Meeting...
Einstein, Stanley; And Others
The article outlines a plan to train a cadre of teachers extensively in various facets of drug abuse during the summer of 1970 at four federally sponsored programs, or at programs developed in each state. (Author)
... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Conference... and program developments in the drug abuse field. Place: National Institutes of Health, Neuroscience... days in advance of the meeting. Interested individuals and representatives of organizations may submit...
Mahdi Moshki; Tahere Hassanzade; Parvaneh Taymoori
.... Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods...
Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh
.... Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors...
Voluse, Andrew C; Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Mark B; Simco, Edward R
The psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), an 11-item self-report questionnaire developed to screen individuals for drug problems, are evaluated. The measure, developed in Sweden and evaluated there with individuals with severe drug problems, has not been evaluated with less severe substance abusers or with clinical populations in the United States. Participants included 35 drug abusers in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program, 79 drug abusers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, and 39 alcohol abusers from both treatment settings who did not report a drug abuse problem. The DUDIT was found to be a psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measure with high convergent validity (r=.85) when compared with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10), and to have a Cronbach's alpha of .94. In addition, a single component accounted for 64.91% of total variance, and the DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of .90 and .85, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 8. Additionally, the DUDIT showed good discriminant validity as it significantly differentiated drug from alcohol abusers. These findings support the DUDIT as a reliable and valid drug abuse screening instrument that measures a unidimensional construct. Further research is warranted with additional clinical populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Substance abuse is a worldwide problem and public health issue with attendant health, social, and economic consequences. However, the types of substances and pattern of abuse vary from place to place and with time. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of substance use with the specific ...
VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.
This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mobility limitations outlines types of problems with mobility and their incidence. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are examined, emphasizing that this population is generally at higher risk for alcohol and other drug-related problems. Possible solutions to…
VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.
This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental retardation begins with a definition of mental retardation and developmental disability. The implications of alcohol and other drug use for individuals with mental retardation are noted, emphasizing that this population does not use alcohol or other drugs as…
Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati VK; Arias, Adriana Y; Kalaichezian, Aarthi; Sagar, Vidya; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan PN
Background HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Methods Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, an...
Esmaeel, Hend M.; Radwan, Rania A.
Background: The progressively rising issue of drug abuse in Egypt among young adults could affect the outcome of a well known problem encountered in such age group as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Objective: To assess the impact of an oral drug abuse on the outcome of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 65 male patients, mean age 25.85 ± 5.08, admitted to the inpatient chest department, Sohag University hospital with...
Haller, Deborah L; Miles, Donna R
This study examined associations between childhood abuse and personality disturbances in 228 drug-dependent women. Thirty-six percent denied abuse, 50% reported emotional, 42% physical, and 42% sexual abuse. Million Clinical Multiarial Inventory (MCMI-III) scores > 74 provided evidence of personality disturbance and scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales measuring somatic complaints, depression, anxiety and postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) served as covariates. Emotional and physical abuse survivors were at increased risk for borderline, masochistic, and avoidant disturbances and decreased risk for narcissistic disturbances. Emotional abuse survivors were also less likely to be sadistic whereas physical abuse survivors were more likely to be paranoid. Sexual abuse survivors were twice as likely be antisocial; however, no association was found with borderline personality. Finally, an increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances was observed among those experiencing multiple types of abuse. Childhood trauma predisposes drug-dependent women to develop troublesome personality characteristics that are independent of drug addiction and other psychological problems associated with childhood trauma.
Full Text Available The assumption regarding the effectiveness of educational prevention programs as inevitable segments of social policy in the domain of drug abuse prevention in school population is based on the compatibility of the information presented during educational lectures and the students' actual knowledge of drug abuse problem. Qualitative research was conducted with the aim to determine the scope of primary school children's knowledge of different aspects of drug abuse, and with the aim to draw conclusions about the structure and content of educational prevention programs which could be applied to primary school children with regard to general principles of prevention program planning based on previous test results. The data was collected from groups of participants by applying the discussion technique. The sample consisted of 640 eighth grade students from nine Belgrade primary schools. Research results, obtained by summarizing and analyzing the statements, indicate that the participants are very well informed on the types, effects, consequences and causes of drug abuse, but know little about laws and services they could contact for help. Apart from that, certain misconceptions regarding drug abuse are widespread in the population of the assessed students. Practical implications for planning educational programs of drug abuse prevention in primary school students were determined from the obtained research results with regard to the principle of prevention programs effectiveness.
Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Wazaify, Mayyada; Yousef, Al-Motassem; Tahaineh, Linda
The aim of this study was to investigate abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs in community pharmacies in Jordan by random distribution of a structured questionnaire to 405 pharmacies (November 2005-January 2006). Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows (version 14.0). Most respondents (94.1%) suspected that some level of abuse/misuse occurred in their pharmacy, which was highest for decongestants, cough/cold preparations, benzodiazepines, and antibiotics. Abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs is present in Jordan, but current methods for controlling the problem are ineffective, and better methods should be developed. The study's limitations are noted..
Wing Leung, K; Wong, Zack C F; Ho, Janet Y M; Yip, Ada W S; Cheung, Jerry K H; Ho, Karen K L; Duan, Ran; Tsim, Karl W K
The aim of this study is to reveal the habits of drug abusers in hair samples from drug rehabilitation units in Hong Kong. With the application of LC-MS/MS technology, a total of 1,771 hair samples were analyzed during the period (Jan 2012 to Mar 2016) of hair testing service provided to fourteen drug rehabilitation units including non-governmental organizations (NGOs), rehabilitation centers and medical clinics. Hair samples were analyzed for abused drugs and their metabolites simultaneously, including ketamine, norketamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, norcocaine, codeine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, phencyclidine and methadone. The results showed that ketamine (77.2%), cocaine (21.3%) and methamphetamine (16.5%) were the frequently detected drugs among those drug abusers, which are consistent with the reported data. In addition, the usage of multiple drugs was also observed in the hair samples. About 29% of drug positive samples were detected with multiple drug use. Our studies prove that our locally developed hair drug testing method and service can be a valid tool to monitor the use of abused drugs, and which could facilitate the rehabilitation program management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article, which was prepared on the basis of two documents (E/CN.7/1987/9 and E/1987/17-E/CN.7/1987/18) of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, summarizes information on drug abuse and measures to reduce the illicit demand for drugs at the global level and by region. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs noted at its February 1987 session that the drug abuse situation continued to deteriorate in most parts of the world. The most striking feature of the problem was the escalation of heroin and cocaine abuse, but the abuse of other substances also continued to spread. The injection of drugs had contributed significantly to the increasing spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. The age of first users was falling from adolescence to preadolescence and even earlier. Young users were experimenting with a variety of substances, most often with those that were easy to obtain. In most countries, drug abuse had spread to all social strata. The majority of abusers were males, but the proportion of female abusers was growing.
Willuhn, Ingo; Wanat, Matthew J.; Clark, Jeremy J.; Phillips, Paul E. M.
Abuse of psychoactive substances can lead to drug addiction. In animals, addiction is best modeled by drug self-administration paradigms. It has been proposed that the crucial common denominator for the development of drug addiction is the ability of drugs of abuse to increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Studies using in vivo microdialysis and chronoamperometry in the behaving animal have demonstrated that drugs of abuse increase tonic dopamine concentrations in the NAcc. However, it is known that dopamine neurons respond to reward-related stimuli on a subsecond timescale. Thus, it is necessary to collect neurochemical information with this level of temporal resolution, as achieved with in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), to fully understand the role of phasic dopamine release in normal behavior and drug addiction. We review studies that investigated the effects of drugs of abuse on NAcc dopamine levels in freely-moving animals using in vivo microdialysis, chronoamperometry and FSCV. After a brief introduction of dopamine anatomy and signal transduction, and a section on current theories of dopamine in natural goal-directed behavior, a discussion of techniques for the in vivo assessment of extracellular dopamine behaving animals is presented. Then, we review studies using these techniques to investigate changes in phasic and tonic dopamine signaling in the NAcc during 1) response-dependent and –independent administration of abused drugs, 2) drug-conditioned stimuli and operant behavior in self-administration paradigms, 3) drug withdrawal, and 4) cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. These results are then integrated with current ideas on the role of dopamine in addiction with an emphasis on a model illustrating phasic and tonic NAcc dopamine signaling during different stages of drug addiction. This model predicts that phasic dopamine release in response to drug-related stimuli will be enhanced over
Full Text Available Background: About 8 percent of Iranian adult population are illicit drug abusers. Affected persons grow more each day. Ominous consequences such as divorce, prostitution, murder and other crimes and infectious diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis take place following drug abuse, as well as a loss equall to 29% of national income for our country. Traditional treatment methods wasted too much time and cost. professional inpatient clinics are not adequate for admission of all care seekers. Rapid detoxification methods are supposed to be better alternatives. Materials and Methods: 140 male drug abusers in two matched groups were assessed from March to September, 2005. They used heroin or opium. Both groups were scheduled for detoxification and were closely observed for 3 months thereafter. First group received Clonidine, Benzodiazepine and Naltrexone besides symptom relieving modalities in first 4 days of treatment. Naltrexone was continued in maintenance dose for one month. Second group received Methadone for one month. Results: Clients age was between 18 to 73 years, with mean age 34 years old. Their intelligence quotients were above the lower limit of normal range. There was no significant difference according to these parameters between two groups. Success rate in rapid detoxification group was 55 % and in Methadone group was 50 %. Relapse in rapid detoxification method occurred less frequent and slower (45 % vs. 50%. In Naltrexone group, better success rate was due to less duration of drug abuse and heroin dependency. In Methadone group, therapy had better results in patients with longer drug abuse history and opium addiction. There was no significant difference between success rate and either drug kind or job, marital status or education level. The most serious adverse effect in both groups was hypotension (10% in Naltrexone and 5 % in Methadone groups.
Full Text Available Prescription drug abuse and dependence is an increasing concern for older adults. This article describes issues specific to older adults with late onset abuse or dependence on prescription sedatives and/or opiates.The older adult with late onset should not be viewed as having the same issues as individuals who have a life pat- tern of drug and alcohol abuse/dependence.A chart review of older adults in a treatment program contrasts late onset prescription dependence clients (n=12 and early onset addiction clients (n=104 and outlines differences and similarities between the two samples. Social workers need to understand the specific and changing needs of older adults as they relate to assessment and treatment of drug abuse and dependence.
Navaratnam, V; Foong, K
Monitoring systems are useful epidemiological instruments for assessing the problem of drug abuse. The rapid growth of the drug dependence problem in Malaysia led to increased awareness of the need for a system for continuous monitoring of the situation. Preliminary work on the design of an appropriate monitoring system was initiated in 1976. A fully integrated national reporting system was established in 1978, linking all public services and agencies coming into contact with drug-dependent persons, including law enforcement agencies, drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation centres, and social and welfare institutions. The information system included a mechanism for systematic gathering, processing, analysing and presenting essential data on the prevention, control and management of drug abuse problems. It also included reporting on drug-related events, such as hospitalizations and arrests, as well as data on known drug-dependent persons and new cases of dependence. The system has been used for routine monitoring of the extent, trends, patterns and other characteristics of drug abuse problems in Malaysia, providing basic information for policy-making and programme planning. On the basis of data generated by the system, it was estimated that the prevalence rate of drug-dependent persons per 100,000 population increased from 84.3 in 1976 to 754.6 in 1986. It was estimated that there were 119,001 drug-dependent persons in Malaysia in 1986.
Since the 1970s, media frenzies about drug addiction have focused mainly on illicit drugs taken by rebellious or marginalised addicts, relegating iatrogenic drug abuse, and policies and problems linked to psychotropic pharmaceuticals available by prescription or over-the-counter to the shadows. In this article I go beyond the division between illicit drugs and medicines still configuring both public representations and historiography: using archival materials from the 1960s-1990s in France, I highlight some blind spots in drug history. Firstly I demonstrate the role of pharmaceutical abuse in the career of addicts, and then examine regulation policies, which are the dark side, however complementary, of drug policies and prohibition. Finally, I analyse the role of physicians and pharmacists in this control, and discuss the various professional debates relating to the legal supply of psychoactive drugs. In all these issues, the frame of the Cold War context will also be highlighted.
Readiness to change is a crucial issue in the treatment of substance use disorders. Experiences with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has shown that continuous drug and alcohol use with all its consequences characterize most MMT programs. In a prospective study of drug abusers seeking opiate...
Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse has been known as a growing contributing factor to all types of trauma in the world. The goal of this article is to provide insight into demographic and substance use factors associated with trauma and to determine the prevalence of drug abuse in trauma patients. Methods: Evidence of substance abuse was assessed in trauma patients presenting to Sina trauma hospital over a 3-month period. They were interviewed and provided urine samples to detect the presence of drug/metabolites of opium, morphine, cannabis and heroin by “Morphine Check” kits. Demographic data, mechanisms of injury, history of smoking and drug abuse were recorded. Results: A total of 358 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years were studied. The Patients were predominantly male (94.7%. There was a history of smoking in 136 cases (38%. 58 cases (16.2% reported to abuse drugs (91.5% opium. The commonest route of administration was smoke inhalation (37.2%. Screening by Morphine Check test revealed 95 samples to be positive (26.5%. The preponderance of test-positive cases was among young people (of 20-30 years of age with a history of smoking. Victims of violence and those with penetrating injuries also showed a higher percentage of positive screens (P=0.038 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that drug abuse is a contributing factor to trauma especially in violent injuries and among the young. Regarding the considerable prevalence of drug abuse among trauma patients, it’s highly recommended that all trauma patients be screened for illicit drugs
Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara
To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A
Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.
Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L
This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.
Saadat, Mostafa; Vakili-Ghartavol, Roghayyeh
Consanguineous marriage is the union of individuals having at least one common ancestor. It is well established that consanguinity is a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcome of offspring. In the present case-control study we tested the hypothesis of an association between parental consanguinity marriages and risk of offspring substance abuse. The study was performed in Shiraz (Fars province, Iran). Here 156 male drug abusers (case group) and 264 randomly selected healthy blood donors, matched for age and gender as control group, were included in the study. The prevalence of parental consanguineous marriages in the studied sample was 39.1 and 28.0% among cases and controls, respectively. The difference was statistically significant. The substance abusers were more smokers and drinkers compared with the control group. There was significant negative linear trend between drug abuse and level of education. The participants stratified using drinking habits and then the analysis was carried out separately for drinker and non-drinker subjects. Among drinkers, neither before nor after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguinity did not show association with risk of substance abuse. Among non-drinkers, after adjusting for smoking status and educational level, parental consanguineous marriage was significantly associated with increased risk of substance abuse. Our study supports a significant relationship between parental consanguinity and drug abuse among non-drinker subjects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine, 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine, and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis. In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.
Cone, Edward J; Clarke, Joe; Tsanaclis, Lolita
Testing oral fluid for drugs of abuse has been studied under many conditions but rarely has been evaluated in large population databases. We evaluated oral fluid tests in a database from a commercial laboratory in the United Kingdom composed of 8679 confirmed positive results. The results originated from 635,000 specimens collected over the period of May 2004 through September 2006. Oral fluid specimens were collected with the Intercept oral fluid collection device, screened by enzyme immunoassay, and confirmed by GC-MS or GC-MS-MS. The database was organized by collection settings (legal/treatment, N = 8198 specimens; and workplace, N = 481 specimens) and by drug groups (without consideration of collection setting). The drug groups were as follows (number of confirmed positives): amphetamines (468); benzodiazepines (892); buprenorphine (276); cannabinoids (725); cocaine (1443); methadone (998); and opiates (5739). The goal of the study was to provide drug/metabolite prevalence data, concentrations, and drugs/metabolite patterns encountered in oral fluid. Comparison of results by collection setting indicated differences in relative frequency, primarily for opiates and cannabinoids. Opiate positives were most frequently observed for specimens collected in legal/treatment settings, whereas cannabinoids were most frequently reported in the workplace. An array of information on drug and metabolite occurrences and concentration arose from evaluation of the data by drug groups. Amphetamine was the predominant drug reported for the Amphetamines Group; approximately 10% were also positive for MDA and/or MDMA; and methamphetamine was rarely reported. Multiple combinations of diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and lorazepam were reported for the Benzodiazepine Group. Buprenorphine, an opioid treatment drug, was the predominant analyte reported, but low concentrations of norbuprenorphine were frequently reported. THC was the predominant analyte
Secora, Alex; Trinidad, James Phillip; Zhang, Rongmei; Gill, Rajdeep; Dal Pan, Gerald
Population-based prescription opioid abuse studies in which one drug is compared to another, or drugs are compared across time, often account for the availability of those drugs in the community. The objective of this investigation is to assess consistency in the relative abuse ratios (RARs) across different approaches for adjusting for drug availability. For the years 2004 through 2010, RARs for each of four prescription opioids (hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine) were calculated using negative binomial regression. Measures of abuse (outcome) were misuse/abuse-related emergency department visits obtained from the Drug Abuse Warning Network. Measures of drug availability (offsets) were drug utilization estimates obtained from IMS Health. Separate regression models were run using each of five measures of drug utilization: unique patients (URDD), prescriptions dispensed (RX), tablets dispensed (TD), kilograms (KGs) sold, and morphine-equivalents (MEs) of kilograms sold. These results were compared for consistency. Aside from oxycodone-combination products, across molecules, RARs adjusted by RXs, TDs, and URDDs were generally similar to each other while RARs adjusted by KGs and MEs were different. For example, compared to hydrocodone, oxycodone had statistically significantly increased RARs of 3.6 (95%CI: 2.0-6.5), 3.5 (95%CI: 1.9-6.4), and 2.7 (95%CI: 1.5-5.0) when adjusted by URDDs, RXs, and TDs, respectively, but not when adjusted by KGs or MEs. Different drug utilization adjustment approaches may yield inconsistent RAR estimates in population-based prescription opioid abuse analyses. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Zuleta-Alarcón, Alix; Coffman, John C; Soghomonyan, Suren; Papadimos, Thomas J; Bergese, Sergio D; Moran, Kenneth R
The objective of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse among anesthesia care providers (ACPs) and to describe current approaches to screening, therapy, and rehabilitation of ACPs suffering from non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse. We first performed a search of all literature available on PubMed prior to April 11, 2016. The search was limited to articles published in Spanish and English, and the following key words were used: anesthesiology, anesthesia personnel, AND substance-related disorders. We also searched Ovid MEDLINE® databases from 1946-April 11, 2016 using the following search terms: anesthesiology OR anesthesia, OR nurse anesthetist OR anesthesia care provider OR perioperative nursing AND substance-related disorders. Despite an increased awareness of drug abuse among ACPs and improvements in preventive measures, the problem of non-opioid anesthetic drug abuse remains significant. While opioids are the most commonly abused anesthesia medications among ACPs, the abuse of non-opioid anesthetics is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, and professional demise. Early detection, effective therapy, and long-term follow-up help ACPs cope more effectively with the problem and, when possible, resume their professional activities. There is insufficient evidence to determine the ability of ACPs to return safely to anesthesia practice after rehabilitation, though awareness of the issue and ongoing treatment are necessary to minimize patient risk from potentially related clinical errors.
Donohue, B; Acierno, R; Kogan, E
The present study describes the relationship between depression and several measures of social functioning--including employment, criminal activity, incarceration, marital functioning, and alcohol and drug use--in a population of adult drug abusers. Our investigation extends past work in this area by specifically investigating the effects of depression (as opposed to simple substance use) on social and interpersonal functioning. Predictably, elevated levels of depression were associated with increased use of hard drugs and alcohol, greater levels of institutionalization, reduced attendance at work or school, and lower overall rates of marital satisfaction. Consistent with previous reports, level of marijuana use was not related to severity of depression. It appears that depressed substance abusers experience significantly more social, vocational, and interpersonal dysfunction than their nondepressed counterparts. It is proposed that the efficacy of existing treatment programs for adult drug abusers will be enhanced through the addition of strategies to assess and ameliorate depression.
Methadone maintenance is a relatively new method for treating heroin addiction. Controversy and questions remain about the drug itself and its use of methadone. The author was engaged by The Drug Abuse Council to prepare these descriptions of four methadone programs and the accompanying summary. The evolution of these programs is examined, and the…
Lettieri, Dan J., Ed.; Ludford, Jacqueline P., Ed.
This report reviews five studies dealing with drug abuse and adolescence and presents an overview of the social changes which have contributed to the increased use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. The importance of the longitudinal study as a research tool is emphasized in describing the research projects that deal with the epidemiology of…
Barter, James T.; Werme, Paul H.
This paper is devoted to a selected review of literature on drug abuse and dependence among children and adolescents. It is divided into seven sections, each giving information on studies, both nationally and internationally, on a particular drug. These are: nicotine, alcohol, organic solvents (sniffing of substances such as plastic cement, laquer…
Marais, Petro; Maithya, Redempta
Drug abuse is becoming an increasing problem among students in Kenya. The major cause for concern is that a high proportion of the Kenyan youth in secondary schools are involved in drugs (NACADA 2012). As a result, these young people eventually become addicted, posing a threat to their own health and safety. This study sought to establish the…
Conclusions and importance: An iris abscess is a rare clinical presentation of intravenous drug use-associated endogenous endophthalmitis and as a result may present a diagnostic challenge as it requires a high level of clinical suspicion and a detailed social history to elicit the drug abuse. Early diagnosis and aggressive therapy is the key to better visual outcomes in these patients.
Weight loss is an independent risk factor for mortality in HIV, but the role of drug use in HIV-related weight loss is not well described. We conducted this study to determine the role of drug abuse in HIV-related weight loss. Men (n=304), all of whom were Hispanic, were recruited into one of three ...
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing
Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata
Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... achieve this goal. That is why finding the right treatment for a person's specific needs is critical. ...
A University of Maryland panel on drug abuse hopes its report on drug policies, enforcement, and education will become a prototype for other colleges and universities. It uses four approaches to combat substance abuse: education and counseling, discipline, drug testing, and law enforcement. (MSE)
... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug...
... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive Drug...
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.
Lake, Stephanie; Wood, Evan; Dong, Huiru; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas
Childhood emotional abuse is a known risk factor for various poor social and health outcomes. While people who inject drugs (IDU) report high levels of violence, in addition to high rates of childhood maltreatment, the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and later life violence within this population has not been examined. Cross-sectional data were derived from an open prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Childhood emotional abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine potential associations between childhood emotional abuse and being a recent victim or perpetrator of violence. Between December 2005 and May 2013, 1437 IDU were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, including 465 (32.4%) women. In total, 689 (48.0%) reported moderate to severe history of childhood emotional abuse, whereas 333 (23.2%) reported being a recent victim of violence and 173 (12.0%) reported being a recent perpetrator of violence. In multivariate analysis, being a victim of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.94) and being a perpetrator of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.24) remained independently associated with childhood emotional abuse. We found high rates of childhood emotional abuse and subsequent adult violence among this sample of IDU. Emotional abuse was associated with both victimisation and perpetration of violence. These findings highlight the need for policies and programmes that address both child abuse and historical emotional abuse among adult IDU. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.
Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.
Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25%–50% of all IPV victims in a given year. The present study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism -- a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior -- from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is comprised of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor, reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. PMID:22028251
National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.
The use of anabolic steroids is on the increase among athletes as well as other segments of the population. Data from the "Monitoring the Future" study showed a significant increase from 1998 to 1999 in steroid abuse among middle school students. During the same year, there was a decline in the percentage of 12th graders who believed…
Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Kovalenko, A P; Efimtsev, A Iu; Tarumov, D A; Petrov, A D; Lisianskiĭ, D A
Authors examined 60 female and male patients (average age 25.8±2.7 years) with confirmed diagnosis - drug abuse. Average duration of drug abuse was approximately 9±3.3 years. At the moment of examination patients had been fully in remission for 3 weeks. The following non-invasive procedures were undertaken: stimulation electroneuromyogrphy and brain MRI. Received results showed that drug abuse leads to diffuse lesion of the nervous system, which manifests itself as vegetative disorders, scattered neurological symptoms, polyneuropathy. Authors gave recommendations in the field of military examination with the aim of detection of nervous disorders caused by drug abuse.
Margaret E. Mattson
Full Text Available Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional. Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN for prevalence of emergency department (ED visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA.
Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.
The authors investigated the medical use, illicit use, and diversion of 4 distinct classes of abusable prescription medication (sleeping medication, sedative or anxiety medication, stimulant medication, and pain medication) in a random sample of undergraduate students. In spring 2003, 9,161 undergraduate students attending a large, public,…
Bossong, MG; Van Dijk, JP; Niesink, RJM
Recently, two new ecstasy-like substances, methylone and mCPP, were found in street drugs in the Netherlands by the Drugs Information and Monitoring System (DIMS). Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone) is the main ingredient of a new liquid designer drug that appeared on the Dutch drug market,
Neasta, Jeremie; Barak, Segev; Hamida, Sami Ben; Ron, Dorit
The mammalian (or mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is a serine and threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, survival, and proliferation. mTORC1 is a master controller of the translation of a subset of mRNAs. In the central nervous system mTORC1 plays a crucial role in mechanisms underlying learning and memory by controlling synaptic protein synthesis. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that the mTORC1 signaling pathway promotes neuroadaptations following exposure to a diverse group of drugs of abuse including stimulants, cannabinoids, opiates, and alcohol. We further describe potential molecular mechanisms by which drug-induced mTORC1 activation may alter brain functions. Finally, we propose that mTORC1 is a focal point shared by drugs of abuse to mediate drug-related behaviors such as reward seeking and excessive drug intake, and offer future directions to decipher the contribution of the kinase to mechanisms underlying addiction. Recent studies suggesting that exposure to diverse classes of drugs of abuse as well as exposure to drug-associated memories lead to mTORC1 kinase activation in the limbic system. In turn, mTORC1 controls the onset and the maintenance of pathological neuroadaptions that underlie several features of drug addiction such as drug seeking and relapse. Therefore, we propose that targeting mTORC1 and its effectors is a promising strategy to treat drug disorders. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Heal, David J; Gosden, Jane; Smith, Sharon L
Psychedelics comprise drugs come from various pharmacological classes including 5-HT 2A agonists, indirect 5-HT agonists, e.g. MDMA, NMDA antagonists and κ-opioid receptor agonists. There is resurgence in developing psychedelics to treat psychiatric disorders with high unmet clinical need. Many, but not all, psychedelics are schedule 1 controlled drugs (CDs), i.e. no approved medical use. For existing psychedelics in development, regulatory approval will require a move from schedule 1 to a CD schedule for drugs with medical use, i.e. schedules 2-5. Although abuse of the psychedelics is well documented, a systematic preclinical and clinical evaluation of the risks they pose in a medical-use setting does not exist. We describe the non-clinical tests required for a regulatory evaluation of abuse/dependence risks, i.e. drug-discrimination, intravenous self-administration and physical dependence liability. A synopsis of the existing data for the various types of psychedelics is provided and we describe our findings with psychedelic drugs in these models. FDA recently issued its guidance on abuse/dependence evaluation of drug-candidates . We critically review the guidance, discuss the impact this document will have on non-clinical abuse/dependence testing, and offer advice on how non-clinical abuse/dependence experiments can be designed to meet not only the expectations of FDA, but also other regulatory agencies. Finally, we offer views on how these non-clinical tests can be refined to provide more meaningful information to aid the assessment of the risks posed by CNS drug-candidates for abuse and physical dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available In recent years drug abuse has been recognised as a growing problem in Northern Ireland. The following article examines the family backgrounds of a group of young children (n=388 who were looked-after by social services and looks specifically at a group (n=162 whose family lives have involved adults who misuse drugs. Children from drug-abusing families did not show greater levels of recorded abuse or neglect than the other children in the "looked after" population nor were they more likely to stay within the care system. However, the prevalence of heroin and cocaine use in this population was extremely small. Drug abuse in this population was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse, mental health problems and offending behaviour within the family. There was evidence of a reduction in drug abuse within families over a two year period of social work involvement.
... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...
Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A
The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.
Oral, Resmiye; Bayman, Levent; Assad, Abraham; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Buhrow, Jakob; Austin, Andrea; Bayman, Emine O
Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with
Lewis, John F.; And Others
This manual focuses on legal issues confronting schools in the area of substance abuse and provides practical policy guidance to public school managers in enforcing a substance abuse policy. After a brief introduction, section 2 examines barriers to action, commenting on several myths affecting drug abuse policy. Section 3 deals with substance…
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
Objective: To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS[R])) System. Method: Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all…
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of current research was the study of relationship between commitment to school, attitude toward narcotics, and drug abuse among high school third grade students. Method: The research method was correlational design. 200 males and females students in grade three of high school were selected randomly by use of cluster sampling method in the educational year of 1389-90. Three questionnaires namely: hazardous behaviors, attitude toward narcotics, and commitment to school were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that positive attitudes toward narcotics and lack of commitment to school were correlated to students’ drug abuse positively. Conclusion: Designing student-centered programs in order to change in students' knowledge and attitudes must be taken into account by program-designers for preventing of drug abuse.
Full Text Available Currently, drug abuse and addiction represent a global public health concern with about 13.6 million people using illicit drugs in the USA alone. Substance abuse intervenes in normal brain functioning, causing alterations in memory, behavior and neuronal physiology. Although many studies have been conducted to elucidate the mode of action of different drugs, the heterogeneous modes of drug intake led to a complicated profile of drug-induced brain changes involving neurotoxicity and addiction. Given the complex interplay of genes and proteins in mediating these effects, neuroproteomics analysis has been considered among the methods of choice to complement what has already been discovered and to create targeted therapies. In this review, we will focus on three drugs, namely cocaine, methamphetamine (METH and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA. In the context of neuroproteomics, these drugs have been extensively studied by utilizing different experimental models, including primate and non-primate animals along with postmortem human samples. Even though there are many variations in the results, these drugs were shown to employ common pathways in eliciting their effects. Neuroproteomics analysis of these drugs has led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins involved in metabolism, oxidative stress, cell signaling, cytoskeleton, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Finally, this work will discuss recent findings from our laboratory by looking at a model of chronic methamphetamine abuse and its effect on different brain regions.
Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R
There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse.
Maier, Larissa J; Liechti, Matthias E; Herzig, Fiona; Schaub, Michael P
Neuroenhancement is the use of substances by healthy subjects to enhance mood or cognitive function. The prevalence of neuroenhancement among Swiss university students is unknown. Investigating the prevalence of neuroenhancement among students is important to monitor problematic use and evaluate the necessity of prevention programs. To describe the prevalence of the use of prescription medications and drugs of abuse for neuroenhancement among Swiss university students. In this cross-sectional study, students at the University of Zurich, University of Basel, and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich were invited via e-mail to participate in an online survey. A total of 28,118 students were contacted, and 6,275 students completed the survey. Across all of the institutions, 13.8% of the respondents indicated that they had used prescription drugs (7.6%) or drugs of abuse including alcohol (7.8%) at least once specifically for neuroenhancement. The most frequently used prescription drugs for neuroenhancement were methylphenidate (4.1%), sedatives (2.7%), and beta-blockers (1.2%). Alcohol was used for this purpose by 5.6% of the participants, followed by cannabis (2.5%), amphetamines (0.4%), and cocaine (0.2%). Arguments for neuroenhancement included increased learning (66.2%), relaxation or sleep improvement (51.2%), reduced nervousness (39.1%), coping with performance pressure (34.9%), increased performance (32.2%), and experimentation (20%). Neuroenhancement was significantly more prevalent among more senior students, students who reported higher levels of stress, and students who had previously used illicit drugs. Although "soft enhancers", including coffee, energy drinks, vitamins, and tonics, were used daily in the month prior to an exam, prescription drugs or drugs of abuse were used much less frequently. A significant proportion of Swiss university students across most academic disciplines reported neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of
Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Asami, Takeshi; Kamijo, Atsushi; Iseki, Eizo; Hirayasu, Yoshio; Wada, Kiyoshi
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between childhood tendencies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and illicit drug abuse in Japanese prisoners, and to clarify whether drug abusers with AD/HD prefer methamphetamine (MAP) more than other illicit drugs. The Japanese version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), which is a self-reporting instrument to retrospectively identify childhood tendencies of AD/HD tendencies, was carried given to 413 prisoners without a drug addiction and 282 prisoners with a drug addiction (192, MAP; 53, toluene; and 37, cannabis). WURS scores were compared between prisoners with and without a drug addiction, and between MAP, toluene, and cannabis abusers. Consequently, prisoners with a drug addiction showed significantly higher WURS scores than those without the addiction (P < 0.001). Toluene abusers showed significantly higher WURS scores than cannabis abusers (P < 0.001), and included a higher proportion with scores over cut-off than MAP or cannabis abusers (P = 0.005). In conclusion, a close relationship existed between illicit drug abuse and childhood AD/HD tendencies. Drug-abusing prisoners with AD/HD tendencies were not prone to choose MAP over other illicit drugs.
conformity among non-drug users. Significant positive changes occurred during treatment for both groups on two scales: Emotional Stability and Extraversion...others who used illegal drugs but also by heavier alcohol use and positive feelings about getting drunk. The use of other drugs by individuals heavily...Testing S% . , 1970. 2. Wechsler, H. & Thum , D. Teenage drinking, drug use and social correlates. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1973, 34, 1220
Terzic, Senka, E-mail: email@example.com [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)
A comprehensive study of various psychoactive substances and their metabolites was performed in the wastewater treatment plant of the city of Zagreb (780 000 inhabitants) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The estimation of drug abuse for five different illicit drugs, including heroin, cocaine, marijuana, amphetamine and ecstasy, was made on the basis of their representative excretion rates, which were determined over a period of 8 months. Marijuana (1000 kg/year), heroin (75 kg/year) and cocaine (47 kg/year) were found to be the most frequently consumed illicit drugs, while the consumption of amphetamine-type drugs was much lower (1-3 kg/year). A comparison with other reports indicated that drug abuse profiles in transition countries might be different from those reported for Western Europe, in particular with respect to the comparatively increased consumption of heroin. Enhanced consumption of stimulating drugs (cocaine and ectasy) was systematically detected during weekends. - Wastewater analysis is a promising complementary tool to assess drug abuse patterns.
Cameron, Delroy; Smith, Gary A; Daniulaityte, Raminta; Sheth, Amit P; Dave, Drashti; Chen, Lu; Anand, Gaurish; Carlson, Robert; Watkins, Kera Z; Falck, Russel
The role of social media in biomedical knowledge mining, including clinical, medical and healthcare informatics, prescription drug abuse epidemiology and drug pharmacology, has become increasingly significant in recent years. Social media offers opportunities for people to share opinions and experiences freely in online communities, which may contribute information beyond the knowledge of domain professionals. This paper describes the development of a novel semantic web platform called PREDOSE (PREscription Drug abuse Online Surveillance and Epidemiology), which is designed to facilitate the epidemiologic study of prescription (and related) drug abuse practices using social media. PREDOSE uses web forum posts and domain knowledge, modeled in a manually created Drug Abuse Ontology (DAO--pronounced dow), to facilitate the extraction of semantic information from User Generated Content (UGC), through combination of lexical, pattern-based and semantics-based techniques. In a previous study, PREDOSE was used to obtain the datasets from which new knowledge in drug abuse research was derived. Here, we report on various platform enhancements, including an updated DAO, new components for relationship and triple extraction, and tools for content analysis, trend detection and emerging patterns exploration, which enhance the capabilities of the PREDOSE platform. Given these enhancements, PREDOSE is now more equipped to impact drug abuse research by alleviating traditional labor-intensive content analysis tasks. Using custom web crawlers that scrape UGC from publicly available web forums, PREDOSE first automates the collection of web-based social media content for subsequent semantic annotation. The annotation scheme is modeled in the DAO, and includes domain specific knowledge such as prescription (and related) drugs, methods of preparation, side effects, and routes of administration. The DAO is also used to help recognize three types of data, namely: (1) entities, (2
Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A
Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction.
marijuana, cannabis) or others in the cult group take drugs to keep them going covering their inferiority complex. Such drugs most often than not are unprescribed drugs, which always have some negative effects on the student's health. in some cases ...
Scott, Kevin R; Nelson, Lewis; Meisel, Zachary; Perrone, Jeanmarie
The rising toll of opioid overdoses in the past decade has been declared a prescription drug epidemic by the Centers for Disease Control. In that same period, Internet platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, have grown exponentially, being used primarily by a population similar to new initiates of substance abuse. Researchers have utilized social media to gain insights into use patterns and prevailing attitudes about various substances. Social media has potential to enhance screening, prevention, and treatment of addiction. With future funding, they should be leveraged to advance understanding of prescription drug use and improve treatment and prevention of abuse.
Full Text Available Blood, oral fluid (saliva, urine and hair are the most commonly used biological matrices for drug testing in epidemiological drug research. Other biological matrices may also be used for selected purposes. Blood reflects recent drug intake and may be used to assess impairment. Oral fluid reflects drug presence in blood and thereby also recent intake, but drug concentrations in this matrix cannot be used to accurately estimate concentrations in blood. Urine reflects drug use during the last few days and in some cases for a longer period, but does not indicate the dose size or frequency of use. Hair reflects drug use during several months, but is a poor matrix for detecting use of cannabis. If using a single drug dose, this can be detected in blood and urine if the sample is taken within the detection timeframes, in most cases also in oral fluid. Single drug use is most often insufficient for producing a positive test result in a sample of hair. For cocaine and amphetamine, weekly use may be needed, while for cannabis a positive result is not guaranteed even after daily use. Refusal rates are lowest for oral fluid and highest for blood and hair samples. The analytical costs are lowest for urine and highest for hair. Combined use of questionnaires/interviews and drug testing detects more drug use than when using only one of those methods and is therefore expected to give more accurate data.
Kelleher, K; Chaffin, M; Hollenberg, J; Fischer, E
The purpose of this study was to compare the frequency of substance use disorders and symptoms between adults reporting child physical abuse or neglect and individually matched control subjects in a community sample. In a nested case-control study, 169 adults reporting physical abuse of a child and 209 adults reporting neglect of a child from 11,662 individuals successfully interviewed in a probabilistic survey in four communities were individually matched with control subjects drawn from the participants. Case subjects were compared with control subjects on the number of alcohol- or drug-related symptoms and disorder diagnoses as determined by symptoms from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Respondents reporting either physical abuse or neglect of children were much more likely than their matched control subjects to report substance abuse or dependence. These differences persisted after potential confounding variables were controlled for. Parental substance abuse and dependence, independent of confounding factors, are highly associated with child maltreatment. Inconsistent results in previous studies may have arisen from reliance on referred samples and unstandardized assessment methods. Agencies involved in the care of abused or neglected children and their families should consider incorporating routine substance abuse evaluations with treatment, or referral for treatment, where indicated.
Frauger, Elisabeth; Pochard, Liselotte; Boucherie, Quentin; Giocanti, Adeline; Chevallier, Cécile; Daveluy, Amélie; Gibaja, Valérie; Caous, Anne-Sylvie; Eiden, Céline; Authier, Nicolas; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Guerlais, Marylène; Jouanjus, Émilie; Lepelley, Marion; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pain, Stéphanie; Richard, Nathalie; Micallef, Joëlle
It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. OPPIDUM ('Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications') surveillance system anonymously collects information on drug abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the utility of OPPIDUM system using 2015 data. OPPIDUM is a cross-sectional survey repeated each year since 1995. In 2015, 5003 patients described the modality of use of 10,159 psychoactive drugs. Among them, 77% received an opiate maintenance treatment: 68% methadone (half of them consumed capsule form) and 27% buprenorphine (39% consumed generic form). Brand-name buprenorphine is more often injected than generic buprenorphine (10% vs. 2%) and among methadone consumers 7% of methadone capsule consumers have illegally obtained methadone (vs. 9% for syrup form). The proportion of medications among psychoactive drugs injected is important (42%), with morphine representing 21% of the total psychoactive drugs injected and buprenorphine, 16%. OPPIDUM highlighted emergent behaviors of abuse with some analgesic opioids (like tramadol, oxycodone or fentanyl), pregabalin, or quetiapine. OPPIDUM highlighted variations of drugs use regarding geographic approaches or by drug dependence care centers (like in harm reduction centers). OPPIDUM clearly demonstrated that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible, these data have an interest at regional, national and international levels. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fox, Thomas Peter; Oliver, Govind; Ellis, Sophie Marie
From a public health perspective, substance abuse has long been a source of major concern, both for the individual’s health and for wider society as a whole. The UK has the highest rates of recorded illegal drug misuse in the western world. In particular, it has comparatively high rates of heroin and crack cocaine use. Substances that are considered harmful are strictly regulated according to a classification system that takes into account the harms and risks of taking each drug (see the tabl...
Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M; Studts, Jamie L
Voluntary nurse turnover, which is costly and disrupts patient care, has not been studied as an organizational phenomenon within substance abuse treatment organizations. In this exploratory study, we examined the frequency and correlates of nurse turnover within treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. During face-to-face interviews conducted in 2005-2006, 215 program administrators reported the number of nurses currently employed. Leaders of programs with nursing staff then described the number of nurses who had voluntarily quit in the past year, the degree to which filling vacant nursing positions was difficult, and the average number of days to fill a vacant position. About two thirds of these programs had at least one nurse on staff. In programs with nurses, the average rate of voluntary turnover was 15.0%. Turnover was significantly lower in hospital-based programs and programs offering adolescent treatment but higher in facilities offering residential treatment. Most of the administrators indicated that filling vacant nurse positions was difficult and took more than 2 months to complete. These findings suggest that nurse turnover is a significant issue facing many substance abuse treatment facilities. Efforts to improve retention of the addiction treatment workforce should be expanded to include nursing professionals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Flores Agreda, R
The first part of the article describes the nature and extent of drug abuse in Peru, with particular reference to the illicit cultivation of the coca plant and the national responses to these problems. It is estimated that between 150,000 and 200,000 hectares are under illicit coca plant cultivation, although less than 18,000 hectares are sufficient for meeting the legitimate needs for this plant in the country. It was estimated that 1.3 million children and youth were at risk of drug abuse in 1985. Both the problems and national responses are analysed in the context of historical and current developments that have influenced Peruvian drug abuse control policy, as well as in terms of the adequacy of programmes carried out within the social sectors involved in such control. The second part of the article summarizes the salient points extracted from the new national comprehensive plan for drug abuse control, which is intended to achieve a maximum reduction in drug abuse concurrently with the elimination of drug trafficking and the eradication of illicit coca plant cultivation in the country. The plan clearly defines the objectives, the strategies and the division of responsibilities in its implementation, involving the following four major sectors of activity: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation; control and monitoring of substances used for legitimate purposes; suppression of the illicit drug traffic; and the eradication of illicit coca plant growing together with the promotion of agricultural, agro-industrial and forestial development. It is pointed out that the whole nation needs to be mobilized in the implementation of the plan in order to achieve its objectives fully.
Svetlana V. Konstantinova-Larsen
Full Text Available High drug related mortality has been registered in Norway. Although comparison between countries relies on a standard international coding system of diseases, different practices in verifying cause of death and applying codes could lead to variation. The comparison gives no information on drug findings or drug patterns underlying the cause of deaths. To evaluate deaths involving illicit drugs in Norway, we examined drug patterns in 2735 forensically examined post-mortem samples collected from 15-64 year-old individuals from 2000 to 2009. There were four times as many men as women among the deceased illicit drug users, and the majority were in the age group 25-44 years. The number of deceased showing signs of illicit drug use has gradually declined during the study period. The decline was found among younger individuals, while a larger proportion of the deceased were above 45 years of age in 2009, compared to 2000. Cases positive for heroin, ethanol, ecstasy and flunitrazepam were fewer in 2009, while the prevalence of amphetamine, cannabis, methadone and other opioids has increased. The prevalence of methamphetamine has increased ten fold, and the prevalence of benzodiazepines doubled. Thus, the drug pattern and age of the deceased has changed markedly during the last 10 years. Heroin and ethanol use has partly been substituted by use of amphetamines, cannabis, benzodiazepines and other opioids. This change could possibly be explained by the prolonged survival of drug users on substitution treatment and by the reduced toxicity of consumed drugs.
... for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. The authority to enter into contracts shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent...
... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members...) Persons subject to sex offender registration requirement. The PHA must establish standards that prohibit...
Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C
Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.
Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Khalil, Miral A.
Background & objectives Over the past decade, non-medical use of novel drugs has proliferated worldwide. In most cases these are synthetic drugs first synthesized in academic or pharmaceutical laboratories for research or drug development purposes, but also include naturally occurring substances that do not fit the typical pharmacological or behavioral profile of traditional illicit substances. Perhaps most unique to this generation of new drugs is that they are being sold over the counter and on the Internet as “legal highs” or substitutes for traditional illicit drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA, and LSD. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of novel drugs in current use, including the epidemiology of use and toxicologic and pharmacological properties, and to offer some guidelines to clinicians who see patients experiencing adverse effects from these drugs. Method We review the known scientific literature on recently introduced synthetic drug types, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, and the hallucinogen Salvia divinorum. Results These substances comprise part of a rapidly evolving and controversial drug market that has challenged definitions of what is legal and illegal, has benefitted from open commercial sales without regulatory oversight, and is noteworthy for the pace at which new substances are introduced. Conclusions This emerging trend in substance use presents significant and unique public health and criminal justice challenges. At this time, these substances are not detected in routine drug screens and substance-specific treatment for cases of use-related toxicity are not available. Clinicians are encouraged to learn characteristic signs associated with misuse of novel drugs to recognize cases in their practice, and are recommended to use a symptom-specific approach for treatment in each case. PMID:24921061
Kovatsi, L; Fragou, D; Samanidou, V; Njau, S; Kouidou, S
The abuse of substances such as ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines and heroin is associated with toxic effects on almost every system of the organism. Furthermore, the transition from occasional-recreational use to chronic abuse and addiction is a serious psychiatric disorder with only few chances for effective and definitive treatment since most individuals relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. It is therefore of utmost importance to elucidate the mechanisms by which these substances exert their toxicity and mediate addiction, in order to develop new, efficient therapeutic strategies with a long-term outcome, which are currently lacking. We already know that in a great number of these mechanisms, altered gene function is involved. But, with the new field of epigenetics, there is increasing evidence that changes in the epigenome are responsible for the altered gene function. The advances in the field of epigenetics towards elucidation of the mechanisms underlying toxicity and addiction for ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines and heroin are currently presented and discussed in this review.
Afarin Rahimi Movaghar
Full Text Available In the last decades, the produced science has been significantly increased in the field of drug abuse, globally. The objective of this study was to assess the bibliographic aspects of the science produced in Iran on drug abuse in the last 30 years. All scientific papers published from Iran in a 30-year period (1973-2002 in national as well as international scientific journals were assessed for this study. These papers are indexed in the database for Iranian Mental Health Researches, called IranPsych. The total number of 218 papers on drug and drug abuse were found and assessed by six psychiatrists and psychologists with good inter-rater reliability. About half of these papers were published in the last two years. About half of the papers have been published in the Persian medical journals. One-third have been published in international journals. Overall, 449 authors contributed to the 218 published papers from whom 80 percent had only one paper. Half of the papers were written by only 15 authors (3.3 percent. Most of the authors were Medical Doctors and from Medical Universities. None of the researches was received financial support from pharmacologic industries. This study shows that in recent years, the increase in the publication of the researches conducted on drug abuse has been significant. Nevertheless, according to the high prevalence of drug abuse problem in Iran and improvements in the scientific, as well as executive structures, the whole scientific output is insignificant. The findings guide us to a more systematic approach toward training of researchers and promotion of resaerch in this area. Moreover, more active involvement of social scientists and publication of their research findings are recommended.
Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T
Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ana Paula Dias Pereira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.
Eggert, Leona L.; Herting, Jerald R.
A sample of 124 high school students considered at risk for failure and continued drug use was enrolled in a program intended to determine the effect of teacher and peer social support. It was found that teacher support had a significant effect in decreasing drug use, but peer support had none. (DM)
A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…