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Sample records for swedish community pharmacies

  1. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    of prescribed medicines at Swedish community pharmacies. METHOD: Non-participant observations and audio recordings were used as data-collecting methods. The content of the dialog was categorized into 2 deductively decided main categories-medicinal and non-medicinal issues-and 12 inductively decided...... in Swedish community pharmacies. Forty percent of the dialog concerns non-medical issues and almost half of the encounter was silent. CONCLUSION: Medicines are an essential treatment method in healthcare, and pharmaceutical expertise is available to patients who enter a community pharmacy. The results...

  2. Exploring the relationship between safety culture and reported dispensing errors in a large sample of Swedish community pharmacies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordén-Hägg, Annika; Kälvemark-Sporrong, Sofia; Lindblad, Åsa Kettis

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to investigate a possible relationship between reported dispensing errors and safety culture, taking into account demographic and pharmacy variables, in Swedish community pharmacies...

  3. Trends in pharmacy staff's perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-10-01

    All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community pharmacies prior to and after the 2009 changes in regulation of the Swedish community pharmacy market. Questionnaires targeted at pharmacy staff before and after the changes in regulation (in 2008, 2011/12, and 2012/13 respectively) used four identical items, making comparisons of some aspects possible. All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed no significant differences. The comparison carried out in this study indicates a negative effect in Swedish community pharmacies on safety and quality issues, as experienced by pharmacy staff. It is recommended that the possible effects of healthcare reforms are assessed before implementation, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions.

  4. Trends in pharmacy staff’s perception of patient safety in Swedish community pharmacies after re-regulation of conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nordén-Hägg, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Background: All changes in the regulation of pharmacies have an impact on the work carried out in pharmacies and also on patient safety, regardless of whether this is the intention or not. Objective: To compare staff apprehension regarding some aspects of patient safety and quality in community......, in order to counteract conceivable decline in factors including patient safety and working conditions....... possible. Results: All four items demonstrated a significant decrease in the first survey after the changes as compared to before. In the second survey significant differences were found on the two items representing safety climate whereas the items representing team climate and management showed...

  5. Reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Winblad, Ulrika; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, a reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector took place, and a fundamental change in ownership and structure followed. The reregulation provides an opportunity to reveal the politicians' views on pharmacies. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze the political arguments...... for the reregulation of the Swedish pharmacy sector in 2009. The method used was a qualitative content analysis of written political documents regarding the reregulation. The primary rationales for the reregulation were better availability, efficiency, price pressure, and safe usage of medicines. During...... are better equipped to perform public activities. The results point to that the reform was done almost solely in order to introduce private ownership in the pharmacy sector, and was not initiated in order to solve any general problems, or to enhance patient outcomes of medicine use....

  6. The influence of generic substitution on the content of patient-pharmacist communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Ahmed, Ban

    2017-01-01

    for differences in time spent on different categories. KEY FINDINGS: In encounters where generic substitution occurred more time (19.2 s) was spent on non-medical (for instance administrative or economical) issues (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 4.8-33.6). However, the total time of the encounter...... to those with only elementary school education. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of generic substitution was correlated with more time spent on communicating on non-medical, but not on medical, issues. No extra time was spent on medical information for the groups normally overrepresented among those with low health......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to study the relationship between the length and content of patient-pharmacist communication in community pharmacies, and generic substitution. METHODS: The study was conducted in six community pharmacies in Sweden. Non-participant observations with audio recordings...

  7. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Lo Tommy; Björk, H Thony

    2006-06-01

    To describe the organization and delivery of community pharmacy and medical care, as well as pharmaceutical care practice and research, in Sweden. The Swedish retail pharmacy system of 800 community pharmacies and nearly 80 hospital pharmacies is unique in that it is organized into one single, government-owned chain, known as Apoteket AB. The pharmacy staff consists of pharmacists, prescriptionists, and pharmacy technicians. Some activities related to pharmaceutical care have been directed toward specific patient groups during annual theme campaigns. In the past few years, there has been a growing emphasis on the identification, resolution, and documentation of drug-related problems (DRPs) in Swedish pharmacy practice. A classification system for documenting DRPs and pharmacy interventions was developed in 1995 and incorporated into the software of all community pharmacies in 2001. A national DRP database (SWE-DRP) was established in 2004 to collect and analyze DRPs and interventions on a nationwide basis. Recently, a new counseling technique composed of key questions to facilitate the detection of DRPs has been tested successfully. Patient medication profiles are kept in 160 pharmacies, and a new national register of drugs dispensed to patients became available in 2006. Most pharmaceutical care studies in Sweden have focused on DRPs and resulting pharmacy interventions. Swedish community pharmacy DRP work is in the international forefront but there is a potential for further developing cognitive services, given the beneficial organization of the country's pharmacies into one single pharmacy chain. The introduction of patient medication profiles has been both late and slow and has only had a marginal effect on pharmaceutical care practice so far. The universities do not appear to have any desire to influence the practice of pharmacy and could potentially take on a more active role in preparing pharmacy students for patient-oriented services. Current threats to

  8. Service preferences differences between community pharmacy and supermarket pharmacy patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Angela; Weck Marciniak, Macary; Jarvis, Janice

    2005-01-01

    Differences in service preferences between patrons of supermarket and chain pharmacies were determined. Subjects fell into two groups: patrons of a supermarket chain's pharmacies and patrons of the same supermarket chain who patronized other community chain pharmacies for prescription drug purchases. Subjects were asked to prioritize services in terms of convenience and impact on pharmacy selection. Differences in service preferences emerged. Community pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate easy navigation through a pharmacy and 24 X 7 hours of operation as key services. Supermarket pharmacy patrons were more likely to rate one-stop shopping and adequate hours of operation as priorities. Both groups rated basic services such as maintenance of prescription and insurance information as priorities. Pharmacies should stress the delivery of basic services when trying to attract customers.

  9. Pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward pharmaceutical service quality at community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Savickas, Arūnas

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze pharmacy specialists' attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at Lithuanian community pharmacies. Between April and June 2009, a total of 471 Lithuanian community pharmacy specialists completed a questionnaire designed to evaluate their attitudes toward the quality of pharmaceutical services at community pharmacies. The main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted by principal component analysis. Two main dimensions of pharmaceutical service quality were extracted: pharmacotherapeutic aspects (provision of information about drug therapy, possible side effects, health promotion, the amount of time spent with a patient, and the ascertainment that a patient understood the provided information) and socioeconomic aspects (considering patient's needs and financial capabilities, making a patient confident with the services provided). Pharmacy specialists evaluated the quality of both dimensions positively, but the quality of the first dimension was rated significantly worse than that of the second dimension. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at independent pharmacies were more positive toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects as compared to the specialists working at chain or state pharmacies. Pharmacotherapeutic aspects were rated better by pharmacy specialists, aged ≥ 55 years, than those younger than 45 years. Moreover, the attitudes of 45-54-year-old pharmacy specialists toward the socioeconomic aspects were more positive as compared with those of 35-44-year olds. Pharmacists rated the socioeconomic aspects of pharmaceutical service quality worse as compared with pharmacy technicians. The attitudes of pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with 6-9 specialists were more negative toward pharmacotherapeutic aspects than those of the pharmacies with 1-2 specialists. Pharmacy specialists working at pharmacies with ≥ 10 specialists reported lower scores of socioeconomic

  10. Community pharmacy: an untapped patient data resource

    OpenAIRE

    Wright DJ; Twigg MJ

    2016-01-01

    David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opport...

  11. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  12. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy Preference Evaluation Questionnaire (ComPETe): A Pilot Survey in a Malaysia City. ... the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health products among customers frequenting eight ...

  13. Developing patient education in community pharmacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.T.G.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of patient education in the community pharmacy. The research questions concentrate on the determinants of technicians’ patient education behavior and the effects of a one-year lasting intervention program on the patient education activities in the pharmacy.

  14. Community pharmacy: an untapped patient data resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright DJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available David John Wright, Michael James Twigg School of Pharmacy, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Abstract: As community pharmacy services become more patient centered, they will be increasingly reliant on access to good quality patient information. This review describes how the information that is currently available in community pharmacies can be used to enhance service delivery and patient care. With integration of community pharmacy and medical practice records on the horizon, the opportunities this will provide are also considered. The community pharmacy held patient medication record, which is the central information repository and has been used to identify non-adherence, prompts the pharmacist to clinically review prescriptions, identify patients for additional services, and identify those patients at greater risk of adverse drug events. While active recording of patient consultations for treatment over the counter may improve the quality of consultations and information held, the lost benefits of anonymity afforded by community pharmacies need to be considered. Recording of pharmacy staff activities enables the workload to be monitored, remuneration to be justified, critical incidents to be learned from, but is not routine practice. Centralization of records between community pharmacies enables practices to be compared and consistent problems to be identified. By integrating pharmacy and medical practice records, patient behavior with respect to medicines can be more closely monitored and should prevent duplication of effort. When using patient information stored in a community pharmacy, it is, however, important to consider the reason why the information was recorded in the first instance and whether it is appropriate to use it for a different purpose without additional patient consent. Currently, community pharmacies have access to large amounts of information, which, if stored and used appropriately, can significantly enhance the

  15. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitadpakorn S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy

  16. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was

  17. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  18. Discounting of medicines in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Loc P; Vitry, Agnes I; Moss, John R

    2014-11-01

    There are many medicines listed on the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in which point of sale price is less than the level of the general patient co-payment. In these circumstances, the patient covers the total cost of the medicine from their own pocket with no government subsidy. The aim of the present study was to compare the consumer prices of under general co-payment prescription medicines between banner group pharmacies with open discounting policies and community pharmacies without; and to assess the impact of the April 2012 PBS price disclosure policies on the discounts offered. The consumer prices of 31 under co-payment medicines were collected from banner group pharmacy websites and individual pharmacies both before and after April 2012. PBS maximum prices were obtained from the PBS website. Absolute and relative price differences between PBS and pharmacy groups were calculated. Before April 2012, banner group pharmacies provided discounts to patients of around 40% per prescription, whereas other pharmacies provided discounts of around 15%. Total price savings were on average $9 per prescription at banner group pharmacies and $3.50 at other pharmacies. Percentage discounts did not change greatly after April 2012, when price decreases occurred on the PBS. Banner group pharmacies with pricing strategies are able to provide greater discounts to patients compared with other pharmacies. Community pharmacies still have the ability to provide substantial discounts after the April 2012 price reductions. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: There is currently little known about the under co-payment medicines market in Australia and the price discounts available to patients. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD?: This research shows that patients who purchase under co-payment medicines are able to save money if they purchase from pharmacies with openly advertised discounting policies. Price reductions related to the implementation of the price disclosure policy had a

  19. Community Pharmacies As Possible Centres For Routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Pharmacies As Possible Centres For Routine Immunization. R I Aderemi-Williams, C I Igwilo. Abstract. Background: Nigeria has embraced the primary healthcare movement and has committed its resources to the provision of cost effective community based primary healthcare strategy which recognizes the need ...

  20. Assessing safety culture in pharmacies: the psychometric validation of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in a national sample of community pharmacies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordén-Hägg, Annika; Sexton, J Bryan; Kälvemark-Sporrong, Sofia; Ring, Lena; Kettis-Lindblad, Åsa

    2010-04-11

    Safety culture assessment is increasingly recognized as an important component in healthcare quality improvement, also in pharmacies. One of the most commonly used and rigorously validated tools to measure safety culture is the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; SAQ. This study presents the validation of the SAQ for use in Swedish pharmacies. The psychometric properties of the translated questionnaire are presented The original English language version of the SAQ was translated and adapted to the Swedish context and distributed by e-mail. The survey was carried out on a national basis, covering all 870 Swedish community pharmacies. In total, 7,244 questionnaires were distributed. Scale psychometrics were analysed using Cronbach alphas and intercorrelations among the scales. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. SAQ data from 828 community pharmacies in Sweden, including 4,090 (60.22%) pharmacy personnel out of 6,683 eligible respondents, were received. There were 252 (28.97%) pharmacies that met the inclusion criteria of having at least 5 respondents and a minimum response rate of 60% within that pharmacy.The coefficient alpha value for each of the SAQ scales ranged from .72 to .89. The internal consistency results, in conjunction with the confirmatory factor analysis results, demonstrate that the Swedish translation of the SAQ has acceptable to good psychometric properties. Perceptions of the pharmacy (Teamwork Climate, Job Satisfaction, Perceptions of Management, Safety Climate, and Working Conditions) were moderately to highly correlated with one another whereas attitudes about stress (Stress Recognition) had only low correlations with other factors. Perceptions of management showed the most variability across pharmacies (SD = 26.66), whereas Stress Recognition showed the least (SD = 18.58). There was substantial variability ranging from 0% to 100% in the percent of positive scores for each of the factors across the 252 pharmacies. The

  1. The Faculties of Pharmacy Schools Should Make an Effort to Network with Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    By law, medical faculties are mandated to have a designated partner hospital for the purposes of student practical training. In contrast, pharmacy faculties do not have such a legal requirement for student training in a community pharmacy setting. Nevertheless, there are several public and private universities that do have community pharmacies. However, there is no national university that has established both an educational hospital and a community pharmacy. When Kanazawa University (KU) established a graduate school with a clinical pharmacy course, the faculty of KU deemed it necessary to set up an independent community pharmacy for the purpose of practical training. Thus, in 2003, the Acanthus Pharmacy was set up as the first educational community pharmacy in Japan, managed by a nonprofit organization, with the permission of the Ishikawa Pharmaceutical Association and local community pharmacists. Since that time, Acanthus has managed a clinical pharmacy practice for students from both the undergraduate and graduate schools of KU. From 2006, the undergraduate pharmacy program was changed to a 6-year program, and the Acanthus Pharmacy has continued its roles in educating undergraduate pharmaceutical students, medical students, and as a site of early exposure for KU freshmen. From our experience, it is important to have a real clinical environment available to university pharmacy faculty and students, especially in training for community pharmacy practices.

  2. An Elective Course in Community Pharmacy Management with Practitioner Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Joseph B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A course in community pharmacy management that involves community pharmacy managers in the instruction of the course found a high degree of pharmacist interest in course projects and in participation in the program. (MSE)

  3. Community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzier, Sophie; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacists can use medication records to assist individuals who are loyal to their pharmacy in better managing their pharmacotherapy. However, the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with severe mental illness such as schizophrenia remains unknown. To assess the extent of community pharmacy loyalty among individuals with schizophrenia and identify factors associated with loyalty. Using the Quebec Health Insurance Board databases, a cohort study of individuals with schizophrenia who claimed an antipsychotic drug for the first time between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2005 was conducted. Such individuals were considered loyal to their community pharmacy if they filled all their prescriptions for any drug at the same community pharmacy during the second year after antipsychotics initiation. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with community pharmacy loyalty (measured in the first year after antipsychotics initiation). Of the 6159 individuals in the study, 57.8% were loyal to one pharmacy. Men were more likely to be loyal (Adjusted OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), as were individuals aged 30-64 years and those aged ≥65 years, when compared to individuals 20-29 years (1.70; 1.48-1.95 and 2.39; 1.97-2.90, respectively). Individuals who filled their antipsychotics on a weekly basis were also more likely to be loyal (1.39; 1.18-1.63). Factors associated with non-loyalty were welfare beneficiary status (0.79; 0.70-0.89), having substance-use disorder (0.69; 0.60-0.80), a greater number of different types of drugs (5-8 types = 0.76; 0.66-0.87; 9-51 = 0.59; 0.50-0.69), and emergency department visits (0.71; 0.60-0.82). Results suggest that medication records in community pharmacies are incomplete for 42.2% of individuals with schizophrenia. Individuals more likely to experience more severe illness were also those less likely to be loyal. Given the potentially severe consequences of medication-related problems

  4. Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., B.C.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program’s (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services.Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners’ services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project.Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients’ unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients’ belief they do not need clinical services, and patients’ unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services.Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target

  5. Community Pharmacy Marketing: Strategies for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As community pharmacies are implementing increasingly more clinical services they are faced with a new challenge of marketing these services. This article discusses The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy Clinical Partners Program's (Clinical Partners experiences in marketing clinical services to patients, barriers encountered through these experiences, and presents suggestions for future marketing of services. Experience: Clinical Partners developed two targeted marketing projects and evaluated impact on patient enrollment in services. In January 2008, the pharmacy ran a series of radio advertisements, newspaper print advertisements, and face to face marketing in the community with the focus of each being patient care services. During this project five individuals expressed interest in Clinical Partners' services. Four indicated that they heard about Clinical Partners through the radio ad and one through the pharmacy website, though none chose to enroll in services. In 2009 Clinical Partners focused on marketing MTM in the form of a comprehensive medication review to current patients already enrolled in its anticoagulation management service. Following a three month period, 6 patients (8% of the 71 patients receiving the marketing intervention chose to enroll in MTM. Four additional patients have enrolled in MTM since conclusion of the project. Discussion: These projects and a review of available literature revealed barriers that pharmacies encounter when marketing clinical services to patients in an outpatient setting including patients' unawareness of the role a pharmacist can play outside dispensing medications, patients' belief they do not need clinical services, and patients' unwillingness to pay a pharmacist out of pocket for services. Future Implications: To overcome these identified challenges, community pharmacies should consider integration of marketing techniques such as tailoring marketing to a target population

  6. Assessing Consumer Preference using Community Pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the consumer preference for community pharmacy (CP) for filling prescription, and purchasing over-the-counter (OTC) and health products among customers frequenting eight departmental stores located in a Malaysian city. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Wakaf Bharu, ...

  7. Fellowships in community pharmacy research: Experiences of five schools and colleges of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margie E; Frail, Caitlin K; Gernant, Stephanie A; Bacci, Jennifer L; Coley, Kim C; Colip, Lauren M; Ferreri, Stefanie P; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Rodis, Jennifer L; Smith, Megan G; Smith, Randall B

    2016-01-01

    To describe common facilitators, challenges, and lessons learned in 5 schools and colleges of pharmacy in establishing community pharmacy research fellowships. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Schools and colleges of pharmacy with existing community partnerships identified a need and ability to develop opportunities for pharmacists to engage in advanced research training. Community pharmacy fellowships, each structured as 2 years long and in combination with graduate coursework, have been established at the University of Pittsburgh, Purdue University, East Tennessee State University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and The Ohio State University. Program directors from each of the 5 community pharmacy research fellowships identified common themes pertaining to program structure, outcomes, and lessons learned to assist others planning similar programs. Common characteristics across the programs include length of training, prerequisites, graduate coursework, mentoring structure, and immersion into a pharmacist patient care practice. Common facilitators have been the existence of strong community pharmacy partnerships, creating a fellowship advisory team, and networking. A common challenge has been recruitment, with many programs experiencing at least one year without filling the fellowship position. All program graduates (n = 4) have been successful in securing pharmacy faculty positions. Five schools and colleges of pharmacy share similar experiences in implementing community pharmacy research fellowships. Early outcomes show promise for this training pathway in growing future pharmacist-scientists focused on community pharmacy practice. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Christiane; Schulz, Martin

    2006-04-01

    To discuss the provision of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Germany including community pharmacy, organization and delivery of health services, pharmacy education, community pharmacy services, research in community pharmacy, and future plans for community pharmacy services. In Germany, cognitive pharmaceutical services have been developed for more than 12 years. Several studies and programs have shown that pharmaceutical care and other pharmaceutical services are feasible in community pharmacy practice and that patients benefit from these services. In 2003, a nationwide contract was established between representatives of the community pharmacy owners and the largest German health insurance fund. In this so-called family pharmacy contract, remuneration of pharmacists for provision of pharmaceutical care services was successfully negotiated for the first time. In 2004, a trilateral integrated care contract was signed that additionally included general practitioners, combining the family pharmacy with the family physician. Within a few months, the vast majority (>17 000) of community pharmacies have registered to participate in this program. German community pharmacies are moving from the image of mainly supplying drugs toward the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services.

  9. Quality of Handoffs in Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Ephrem; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2017-04-27

    The aims of the study were to characterize handoffs in community pharmacies and to examine factors that contribute to perceived handoff quality. A cross-sectional study of community pharmacists in a Midwest State of the United States. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on participant and practice setting characteristics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 445 completed surveys were returned (response rate, 82%). In almost half of the time, handoffs that occur in a community pharmacy setting were inaccurate or incomplete. Nearly half of the time handoffs occur in environments full of interruptions and distractions. More than 90% of the respondents indicated that they have undergone no formal training on proper ways of handing off information. Nearly 40% of respondents reported that their pharmacy dispensing technology does not have adequate functionality to support handing off information and that at least 50% of the time, poor handoffs result in additional work to the pharmacist because of the need for complete information before providing patient care. Multivariate analysis showed that being very familiar with patients, lower daily prescription volume, not having a 24-hour operation, and larger percentage of handoffs occurring in a synchronous fashion are all associated with better handoff quality. Handoffs occur frequently and are problematic in community pharmacies. Current pharmacy environments offer limited support to conduct good handoffs, and as a result, pharmacists report loss of information. This could present as a significant patient safety hazard. Future interventions should target facilitating better communication during shift changes.

  10. Community pharmacy incident reporting: a new tool for community pharmacies in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Certina; Hung, Patricia; Lee, Gary; Kadija, Medina

    2010-01-01

    Incident reporting offers insight into a variety of intricate processes in healthcare. However, it has been found that medication incidents are under reported in the community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Incident Reporting (CPhIR) program was created by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada specifically for incident reporting in the community pharmacy setting in Canada. The initial development of key elements for CPhIR included several focus-group teleconferences with pharmacists from Ontario and Nova Scotia. Throughout the development and release of the CPhIR pilot, feedback from pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was constantly incorporated into the reporting program. After several rounds of iterative feedback, testing and consultation with community pharmacy practitioners, a final version of the CPhIR program, together with self-directed training materials, is now ready to launch. The CPhIR program provides users with a one-stop platform to report and record medication incidents, export data for customized analysis and view comparisons of individual and aggregate data. These unique functions allow for a detailed analysis of underlying contributing factors in medication incidents. A communication piece for pharmacies to share their experiences is in the process of development. To ensure the success of the CPhIR program, a patient safety culture must be established. By gaining a deeper understanding of possible causes of medication incidents, community pharmacies can implement system-based strategies for quality improvement and to prevent potential errors from occurring again in the future. This article highlights key features of the CPhIR program that will assist community pharmacies to improve their drug distribution system and, ultimately, enhance patient safety.

  11. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Vendla, Kaidi; Vetka, Andre; Bell, J Simon; Hamilton, David

    2008-07-01

    To describe practice and research related to pharmaceutical care in Estonia following the country's restoration of independence from Russia in 1991. The transition from a Soviet to a free market economy has impacted the healthcare and pharmacy systems in Estonia. Following independence, ownership of community pharmacies was transferred from the State government to individual pharmacists. However, pharmacy ownership is no longer restricted to pharmacists and recent years have seen the emergence of large pharmacy chains. The number of community pharmacies in Estonia increased from 270 in 1992 to 523 in 2007. In addition to dispensing, Estonian pharmacies retain a focus on compounding of extemporaneous products and supply of herbal medications. Research into pharmaceutical care has addressed topics including pharmaceutical policy and the quality of pharmacy services provided at community pharmacies. There has been limited pressure to date from the governmental institutions and patient organizations to introduce extended pharmaceutical services. However, the trend toward providing health services in primary care will create greater responsibilities and new opportunities for community pharmacists. Recent inclusion of clinical pharmacy and interprofessional learning in the undergraduate pharmacy curriculum will help ensure ongoing development of the profession and high-quality pharmacy services in the future. Pharmaceutical care services in Estonian community pharmacies have become more patient-oriented over the past 17 years. However, community pharmacies continue to retain a focus on traditional roles.

  12. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herborg, Hanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Frøkjaer, Bente

    2007-01-01

    pharmacy organizations. Reimbursement is sought at the national level, as well as from payers in the new local authority structures in Denmark. The trend in research focuses on collaborative health care, on developing and documenting the value of community pharmacy services, and on optimizing services......OBJECTIVE: To review the current status of Danish community pharmacy in both practice and research and discuss future trends. FINDINGS: Denmark has a social welfare system that provides health care, social services, and pensions to its population. Medical care and surgery are free. Prescription...... medicines are reimbursed by an average of 56%. Community pharmacies are privately owned, but the health authorities regulate drug prices and the number of pharmacies. At present, Denmark has 322 pharmacies, corresponding to 1 pharmacy per 16,700 inhabitants. All pharmacies provide prescription and over...

  13. Facilitating Community Engagement in Academic Pharmacy Careers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Palombi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recognized value of community engagement in academic pharmacy, the implementation of sustainable and fruitful community partnerships can be challenging. This manuscript will highlight a junior faculty member’s journey with community engagement, sharing the ways that community engagement can guide an academic career and the benefits of community engagement in teaching, research and service. Also highlighted is the role – and argued responsibility - of the academic institution in community engagement, as well as an identification of the barriers that might be interfering with pharmacy faculty community engagement. Considerations for the development of faculty members striving to more fully incorporate engagement into their teaching, research, and service are provided. Conflict of Interest I declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Commentary

  14. Value of community pharmacy residency programs: college of pharmacy and practice site perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Bonnarens, Joseph K; Brown, Lawrence M; Goode, Jean-Venable Kelly R

    2010-01-01

    To describe and compare perceptions of key informants representing U.S. colleges/schools of pharmacy and community pharmacy practice sites regarding (1) value associated with community pharmacy residency programs (CPRPs) and (2) barriers to offering CPRPs . Descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study. United States, June 13, 2009, through July 13, 2009. 554 respondents to a Web-based survey. Key informants representing the following four organizational groups were surveyed: (1) colleges/schools of pharmacy participating in CPRPs, (2) colleges/schools of pharmacy not participating in CPRPs, (3) CPRP community pharmacy practice sites, and (4) non-CPRP community pharmacy practice sites. Value of CPRPs to participating pharmacies, value of CPRPs to participating colleges/schools of pharmacy, and barriers to offering CPRPs. Overall, 267 key informants from colleges/schools of pharmacy and 287 key informants from pharmacy practice sites responded to the survey (n = 554 total respondents). Of these, 334 responders provided data that were usable for analysis. The most important types of value to the respondents were altruistic in nature (e.g., pharmacy education development, pharmacy profession development, community engagement). However, barriers to offering CPRPs were more practical and included challenges related to accreditation and operational issues. Further, evidence indicated that (1) lack of leadership, (2) lack of revenue generated from such programs, and (3) the cost of reimbursement for residents may be fundamental, multidimensional barriers to implementing CPRPs. Guidelines for starting and continuing CPRPs, "industry norms" that would require CPRP training for certain types of employment, and creation of models for patient care revenue would help develop and position CPRPs in the future.

  15. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christian E L; Phipps, Denham L; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-06-06

    Our aim was to explore how members of community pharmacy staff perceive and experience the role of procedures within the workplace in community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in England and Wales. 24 community pharmacy staff including pharmacists and pharmacy support staff were interviewed regarding their view of procedures in community pharmacy. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. 3 main themes were identified. According to the 'dissemination and creation of standard operating procedures' theme, community pharmacy staff were required to follow a large amount of procedures as part of their work. At times, complying with all procedures was not possible. According to the 'complying with procedures' theme, there are several factors that influenced compliance with procedures, including work demands, the high workload and the social norm within the pharmacy. Lack of staff, pressure to hit targets and poor communication also affected how able staff felt to follow procedures. The third theme 'procedural compliance versus using professional judgement' highlighted tensions between the standardisation of practice and the professional autonomy of pharmacists. Pharmacists feared being unsupported by their employer for working outside of procedures, even when acting for patient benefit. Some support staff believed that strictly following procedures would keep patients and themselves safe. Dispensers described following the guidance of the pharmacist which sometimes meant working outside of procedures, but occasionally felt unable to voice concerns about not working to rule. Organisational resilience in community pharmacy was apparent and findings from this study should help to inform policymakers and practitioners regarding factors likely to influence the implementation of procedures in community pharmacy settings. Future research should focus on exploring community pharmacy employees' intentions and attitudes towards rule-breaking behaviour and the impact this

  16. Community pharmacists and Colleges of Pharmacy: the Ohio partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A

    2005-01-01

    To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.

  17. Community Pharmacy Users' Characteristics, Reasons for Visit to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nx 6110

    Many respondents did not have adequate knowledge of all the major roles of the pharmacist. Respondents generally held positive views and opinions of community pharmacies and community pharmacists. Key words: Community pharmacy, consumer perceptions, Zimbabwe. INTRODUCTION. Worldwide, pharmacists play ...

  18. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Nitadpakorn S; Farris KB; Kittisopee T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmace...

  19. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P vaccination rates were higher among community pharmacy patients, there were racial disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations among both community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Increased emphasis on educational campaigns among pharmacists and their patients, especially minorities, may be needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS; Brandon T. Jennings, Pharm.D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP) Partner for Promotion (PFP) program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materi...

  1. The Redesign of a Community Pharmacy Internship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattin, Anthony J; Kelling, Sarah E; Szyskowski, Jim; Izor, Michelle L; Findley, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacy internships provide students with practical experiences that lead to enhancement of clinical skills and personal growth. To describe the design and implementation of a structured 10-week summer pharmacy internship program in a supermarket chain pharmacy. The pharmacy leadership team developed and piloted a new format of the pharmacy internship during the summer of 2013. Pharmacy students in professional year 1 (P1), 2 (P2), and 4 (P4) were invited to apply for a paid internship. Pharmacy students were recruited from all colleges of pharmacy in the state of Michigan. The goal of the new program was to create a focused learning opportunity that encouraged students to develop knowledge, skills, and abilities about patient care, pharmacy management, and working within a team. A total of 19 interns were recruited (P1 = 7, P2 = 7, and P4 = 5). Students practiced 40 hours per week and participated in the medication dispensing process and employee biometrics screening program. Interns provided approximately 500 assessments on pharmacy employees and all P1 and P2 interns completed a patient care project. The restructured internship program provided pharmacy students with a 10-week program that exposed them to many aspects of community pharmacy practice. The program needs future refinement and assessment measures to verify interns improve skills throughout the program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Tobacco and alcohol sales in community pharmacies: policy statements from U.S. professional pharmacy associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.

  3. Assessment of the attitude of community pharmacists and pharmacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate community pharmacists' and pharmacy technicians' counselling practices regarding diarrhea in Istanbul-Turkey using a simulated patient study. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of one hundred community pharmacies located in two different districts of Istanbul, Turkey. Diarrhea cases ...

  4. Promoting weight management services in community pharmacy: perspectives of the pharmacy team in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted

  5. Pharmacy ownership in Canada: implications for the authority and autonomy of community pharmacy managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Roy Thomas; Perepelkin, Jason

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the number of independently owned pharmacies has declined even as the total number of pharmacies in Canada has increased. With increasing corporate ownership, there is concern that this trend will adversely affect the profession's ability to influence pharmacy practice and practice change. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers in terms of professional and employer authority, managerial autonomy, decision making, and amount of control. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, Scheffe post hoc tests, and general linear modeling were used to determine significant differences among groups based on ownership type. In total, 646 of 1961 questionnaires from pharmacy managers were completed and returned (response rate 32.9%). Respondents rated their authority similarly across ownership types. Autonomy, decision-making capabilities, and control needed to carry out the professional role appear most limited among corporate respondents and, to a lesser extent, franchise managers. Pharmacy managers currently perceive a high level of authority; but with limited autonomy among corporate managers, it is unclear whether this authority is sufficient to prevent the subordination of both patient and professional interests to financial interests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacy student driven detection of adverse drug reactions in the community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig; Bjerrum, Ole Jannik

    2011-04-01

    Post-marketing safety studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) form an important part of pharmacovigilance. Countries having a formal pharmacovigilance system to a large extent rely on voluntary ADR reporting from health professionals through spontaneous report systems. The contribution of pharmacists in ADR reporting, although varies significantly among countries. Pharmacists in community pharmacies are in a unique position for detection of experienced ADRs by the drug users. The study reports from a study on community pharmacy internship students' proactive role in ADR detection through direct encountering and questioning with drug users. Pharmacy students undertaking internship in a community pharmacy were approached. Thirteen students from nine community pharmacies participated in the project as data collectors. Prior to the study students attended an educational seminar focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. Hundred and twenty eight ibuprofen users participated in the study out of who thirty three reported forty five ADRs possibly linked to ibuprofen use. The reported ADRs followed earlier reported patterns of distribution with gastric pain showing up as the most commonly reported symptom followed by heartburn, nausea, diarrhoea and constipation. Through adequate training community pharmacy internship students get competencies and are capable of detecting and reporting ADRs through direct questions to drug users. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The organizational framework of community pharmacies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves

    2015-10-01

    The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.

  8. Pharmacy Student Learning Through Community Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Kristen Finley; Barnes, Jeremiah; Fitzpatrick, Alyse; Sobota, Micah J

    2015-07-01

    The Ohio Northern University American Society of Consultant Pharmacists chapter provides students the opportunity to apply classroom knowledge with learning through community service. One such program took place at the Lima Towers Apartment Community from September 18, 2014, to October 2, 2014, in Lima, Ohio. Three evening educational sessions focused on a different health topic: 1) mental health, 2) medication adherence/brown bag, and 3) healthy lifestyle choices/nutrition/smoking cessation. All three programs were structured identically, starting with dinner, followed by educational intervention, survey, blood pressure checks, and medication reviews. Two pharmacists and 16 pharmacy students implemented the program. Participants completed a total of 76 satisfaction surveys for the three programs, which were included in the data analysis. The average age of the participants was 65 years; 82% (n = 63) were female. Data demonstrated that 94% (n = 72) "learned something new," while 96% (n = 74) would "recommend the program to a friend/family member." The collected data showed the vast majority of participants from the surrounding community found value in the presentations performed by students, especially with regard to the new information they received and its perceived benefits. In light of such successes, we encourage other student chapters to implement similar community outreach events. ASCP student members can make a strong, positive impact in the community while learning in a nontraditional environment.

  9. Medication adherence communications in community pharmacies: A naturalistic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Nathaniel M; Young, Gary J; Hall, Judith A; Noland, Carey; Kim, Ayoung; Peterson, Conner; Hong, Mina; Hale, John

    2016-03-01

    To describe the extent of pharmacy detection and monitoring of medication non-adherence, and solutions offered to improve adherence. Participants were 60 residents of the Boston area who had a generic chronic medication with 30 day supplies from their usual pharmacy. Participants received a duplicate prescription which they filled at a different pharmacy. For 5 months, participants alternated between the two pharmacies, creating gaps in their refill records at both pharmacies but no gaps in their medication adherence. Participants followed a scripted protocol and after each pharmacy visit reported their own and the pharmacy staff's behavior. Across 78 unique community pharmacies and 260 pharmacy visits, pharmacies were inconsistent and inadequate in asking if participants had questions, discussing the importance of adherence, providing adequate consultations with new medication, and detecting and intervening on non-adherence. Insurers rarely contacted the participants about adherence concerns. There is a need for more structured intervention systems to ensure pharmacists are consistently and adequately educating patients and detecting/managing potential medication non-adherence. The present study calls for more attention to building infrastructure in pharmacy practice that helps pharmacists more consistently identify, monitor, and intervene on medication adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Community health integration through pharmacy process and ergonomics redesign (CHIPPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Michelle A; Caldwell, Barrett S

    2018-01-01

    As the expansion and utilisation of community pharmacy systems increases, so does the risk for an adverse drug event to occur. In attempts to mitigate this risk, many community pharmacies implement health information technology (IT); however, there are challenges in integrating the wider systems components necessary for a successful implementation with minimal unintended consequences. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Community Health Integration through Pharmacy Process and Ergonomics Redesign (CHIPPER) framework, which explores the multiple angles of health IT integration to support medication delivery processes in community pharmacy systems. Specifically, CHIPPER identifies the information flows that occur between different parts of the system (initiation, upstream, midstream and downstream) with varying end-users and tasks related to medication delivery processes. In addition to the justification and presentation of the CHIPPER model, this paper reviews several broad applications for CHIPPER and presents two example studies that demonstrate the CHIPPER framework. Practitioner Summary: Most medication delivery in the US occurs through outpatient-based community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacies are challenged by inconsistent and incomplete information flow and technology integration between providers, pharmacy practitioners and patients. This paper presents a framework for improved healthcare systems engineering analysis of pharmacy practice, with case study examples.

  11. Innovative Community Pharmacy Practice Models in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberg, Nathan; Huggins, Drew; Michaels, Natasha; Moose, Joe

    2017-01-01

    There are several different types and sizes of community pharmacies ranging from large chains to small individually owned pharmacies. Community pharmacies are located in supermarkets, drugstores, big box stores, and even shopping malls in neighborhoods across North Carolina. Pharmacists are the most accessible health professionals and the ones that many patients see most frequently. Many pharmacists provide services long after other health care professionals' offices have closed. The traditional role of the pharmacist-the health care professional who dispenses prescriptions written by doctors-is changing. In recent years many pharmacists have developed services to help manage highly complex patient populations and improve health care outcomes. The profiles below highlight four innovative community pharmacies in North Carolina that show the potential community pharmacies have to improve quality, outcomes, and cost of care. ©2017 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  12. Patient responses to inhaler advice given by community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Aarup, Kristine Hallberg Friis; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The value of counseling in community pharmacy depends on its ability to help patients improve their use of medicine and thereby health status, by their adherence to recommendations. Studies showing how patients respond to daily pharmacy counseling are, however, scarce. The aim......, this aspect should be investigated further, as this could help staff providing adequate counseling to patients. Further, pharmacy staff should focus more on supporting patients implementing their health advice at home....

  13. Relationship between E-Prescriptions and Community Pharmacy Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand how community pharmacists use electronic prescribing (e-prescribing) technology; and to describe the workflow challenges pharmacy personnel encounter as a result of using e-prescribing technology. Design Cross-sectional qualitative study. Setting Seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin from December 2010 to March 2011 Participants 16 pharmacists and 14 pharmacy technicians (in three chain and four independent pharmacies). Interventions Think-aloud protocol and pharmacy group interviews. Main outcome measures Pharmacy staff description of their use of e-prescribing technology and challenges encountered in their daily workflow related to this technology. Results Two contributing factors were perceived to influence e-prescribing workflow: issues stemming from prescribing or transmitting software, and issues from within the pharmacy. Pharmacies experienced both delays in receiving, and inaccurate e-prescriptions from physician offices. Receiving an overwhelming number of e-prescriptions with inaccurate or unclear information resulted in significant time delays for patients as pharmacists contacted physicians to clarify wrong information. In addition, pharmacy personnel reported that lack of formal training and the disconnect between the way pharmacists verify accuracy and conduct drug utilization review and the presentation of e-prescription information on the computer screen significantly influenced the speed of processing an e-prescription. Conclusion E-prescriptions processing can hinder pharmacy workflow. As the number of e-prescriptions transmitted to pharmacies increases due to legislative mandates; it is essential that the technology that supports e-prescriptions (both on the prescriber and pharmacy operating systems) be redesigned to facilitate pharmacy workflow processes and to prevent unintended consequences, such as increased medication errors, user frustration, and stress. PMID:23229979

  14. An exploration of the utility of appraisals for the revalidation of pharmacy professionals in community pharmacy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Samuel D; Jacobs, Sally; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Elvey, Rebecca; Hassell, Karen; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    With revalidation in pharmacy in the United Kingdom fast approaching, appropriate systems of revalidation in community pharmacy are required. With little known about the potential use of appraisals for evaluating fitness to practice in pharmacy professionals (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in this sector, research was undertaken to explore their potential utility in a revalidation process. To examine existing structures and processes in community pharmacy appraisals in Great Britain (ie, England, Scotland, and Wales) and consider the views of pharmacy stakeholders on if, and how, appraisals could contribute to revalidation of pharmacy professionals. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with senior staff (eg, superintendents and professional development managers) from chain community pharmacies as well as pharmacy managers/owners from independent pharmacies. Senior staff from locum agencies and pharmacy technician stakeholders were also interviewed. Appraisals were in place for pharmacists in most chain pharmacies but not in independent pharmacies. Locum pharmacists were not appraised, either by the companies they worked for or by the locum agencies. Pharmacy managers/owners working in independent pharmacies were also not appraised. Pharmacy technicians were appraised in most chain pharmacies but only in some independent pharmacies. Where appraisals were in operation, they were carried out by line managers who may or may not be a pharmacist. Appraisals did not seem to cover areas relevant to fitness to practice but instead focused more on performance related to business targets. This was particularly true for those in more senior positions within the organization such as area managers and superintendent pharmacists. Existing systems of appraisal, on their own, do not seem to be suitable for revalidating a pharmacy professional. Considerable changes to the existing appraisal systems in community pharmacy and employer engagement may be necessary

  15. Pharmacists’ social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson, PhD, RPh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers’ view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.

  16. Self-medication with antibiotics in the Republic of Srpska community pharmacies: pharmacy staff behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković-Peković, Vanda; Grubiša, Nataša

    2012-10-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics adds to the global risk of increased spread of bacterial resistance. Attitudes and behavior of health professionals also may reinforce self-medication with antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-medication with antibiotics is possible in our community pharmacies and to what extent, and to evaluate the behavior and service of pharmacy health professionals regarding non-prescription antibiotic dispensation. An observational, cross-section study was conducted, and pseudo-patient methodology was used to establish the kind of professional service provided in case of patient's explicit demand to buy an antibiotic for treatment of self-diagnosed upper respiratory tract infection. Of the total 318 community pharmacies, 131 (41%) were visited and included in the study. Non-prescription antibiotics were dispensed in 76 (58%) pharmacies. Counseling and symptomatic therapy was offered in 88 (67%) pharmacies. In 25% of pharmacies, no symptomatic therapy was offered; instead, only an antibiotic was sold. Amoxicillin was sold in 85% of cases and, mostly, the one of 1.30 Euro per pack. Both oral and written use instructions were given in 78% cases, whereas none was given in 3% of cases. Self-medication with antibiotics occurs in our community pharmacies, despite being illegal. Pharmacy staff behavior can be a factor that puts patients at risk for self-medication with antibiotics. Community pharmacies are failing their tasks in enhancing rational use of antibiotics. Such a practice may be a consequence of weak enforcement and control over the legislation and professional standards. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacy practice has transcended from largely a dispensary practice to pharmaceutical care practice. The capacity of community pharmacies to deliver pharmaceutical care was studied using pretested self survey methods. Ninety five percent (95%) of the respondents always educated customers on drug related needs, ...

  18. Pharmacy practice and injection use in community pharmacies in Pokhara city, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog

    2014-04-28

    Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to

  19. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct customer segments that varied in the consumer preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and OTCs, the evaluation of pharmaceutical services and products, and demographic characteristics.

  20. Migraine management in community pharmacies: practice patterns and knowledge of pharmacy personnel in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengcharoen, Woranuch; Lerkiatbundit, Sanguan

    2013-10-01

    To describe practice behavior and understanding among pharmacy personnel, both pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff, in the management of mild and moderate migraines. Migraine is recognized as a prevalent and chronic neurological disorder. In developing countries, such as Thailand, community pharmacies are a widely used source of health care for various illnesses including migraine. However, the quality of migraine management and knowledge among pharmacy personnel is unclear. Cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 142 randomly selected community pharmacies in a city in the south of Thailand. Simulated clients visited the pharmacies twice, at least 1 month apart, to ask for the treatment of mild and moderate migraines. After the encounters, question asking, drug dispensing, and advice giving by pharmacy staff were recorded. Subsequently, the providers in 135 pharmacies participated in the interview to evaluate their knowledge in migraine management. The majority of pharmacy personnel were less likely to ask questions in cases of mild migraine when compared with moderate attack (mean score [full score = 12] 1.8 ± 1.6 vs 2.6 ± 1.5, respectively, P knowledge on migraine management. Pharmacists had better knowledge on question asking (mild migraine 5.1 ± 2.1 vs 3.1 ± 1.3, respectively, P knowledge on advice giving but poorer drug dispensing in moderate migraine according to the guidelines, relative to non-pharmacists (20.5% vs 40.3%, P = .014). A large number of community pharmacists and non-pharmacist staff had inappropriate practice behavior and understanding. Continuing education and interventions are important to improve the practice and knowledge of pharmacy personnel, particularly the pharmacists. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  1. Adopting an Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiential Educational Model Across Colleges of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Rodis, Pharm.D., BCPS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the experience of sharing an experiential model of education and practice development between two colleges of pharmacy and to provide a framework to guide faculty in this type of collaboration.Case Study: The Ohio State University College of Pharmacy (OSU COP Partner for Promotion (PFP program was developed in response to the need for advancing practice in the community pharmacy setting. After successful implementation of this program, the PFP program design and materials were shared, adapted, and implemented at the University of Utah College of Pharmacy (Utah COP. Collaborating faculty developed a framework based on lessons learned through this experience which proposes key guiding strategies as considerations to address prior to embarking on sharing any aspect of an educational program or model between institutions. Each step of the framework is described and applied to the process followed by The OSU COP and Utah COP in sharing the PFP program. Additional considerations related to transfer of educational models are discussed.Results/Conclusion: Sharing the education model and materials associated with the PFP program between institutions has enhanced experiential opportunities for students and helped develop residency training sites in the community setting. In addition, the relationship between the two colleges has contributed to faculty development, as well as an increase in community pharmacy service development with community pharmacy partners at each institution. It is hoped this experience will help guide collaborations between other colleges of pharmacy to enhance education of future pharmacists while positively impacting pharmacy practice, teaching, and research by faculty.

  2. Changes to supervision in community pharmacy: pharmacist and pharmacy support staff views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Fay; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Willis, Sarah C; Noyce, Peter R

    2013-11-01

    Pharmacists now offer increasing levels and ranges of clinical, diagnostic and public health services, which may require a pharmacist to be absent from the pharmacy premises. Currently, in the UK, many pharmacy activities legally require the direct supervision and physical presence of the pharmacist. This study aimed to explore the potential for changes to supervision, allowing pharmacist absence, and greater utilisation of pharmacy support staff. Four nominal group discussions were conducted in May 2012 with community pharmacists (CPs), community pharmacy support staff, hospital pharmacists and hospital pharmacy support staff, involving 21 participants. Participants were asked to generate pharmacy activities, which they felt could/could not be safely performed by support staff in the absence of a pharmacist, followed by a discussion of these items and voting using an agreement scale. A written record of the items generated and voting scores was made and the group discussion elements were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The selling of general sales list medicines, assembly of prescriptions and provision of public health services received a high level of agreement between groups, as activities that could be performed. There was greater disagreement about the safety of support staff selling pharmacy medicines and handing out checked and bagged prescription items to patients. Group discussion revealed some of the main challenges to supervision changes, including CPs' perceptions about their presence being critical to patient safety, reluctance to relinquish control, concerns about knowing and trusting the competencies of support staff, and reluctance by support staff to take greater professional responsibility. The findings of this study aim to inform a future consultation on changes to pharmacy supervision in the UK. The empowerment of pharmacy technicians as a professional group may be key to any future change; this may require

  3. Frequency and consequences of violence in community pharmacies in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, D

    2012-09-11

    BackgroundViolence in community pharmacies in Ireland is thought to be common but underreported. The frequency and consequences of violence has not been studied previously.AimsTo establish the frequency and nature of violence in community pharmacies over 12 months, and to investigate the impact of violence on employees and possible consequence for the industry.MethodsA two-part survey was distributed to community pharmacies in Ireland in 2011 (n = 200). The first part related to pharmacy demographics, the frequency of various violent events (verbal abuse, threats etc.), the respondents\\' worry regarding violence and its impact on their co-workers. The second part concerned individual employees\\' subjective response to a violent event, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R).ResultsFifty-seven per cent of the pharmacies responded, with 77% reporting some violent event (verbal or physical), over the past year. Eighteen per cent reported physical assault, and 63% were worried about workplace violence. There was no association between late night opening hours or pharmacy size and violence frequency. Positive statistically significant correlations were present between all types of violence and absenteeism and employee fear levels. An IES-R score could be calculated for 75 respondents; the median IES-R score was 8 with 19% reporting clinically significant scores.ConclusionsViolence is common in Irish community pharmacies and impacts on employees and the industry.

  4. Service quality in community pharmacy: an exploration of determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Although various instruments have been developed to measure customer satisfaction with community pharmacy services, there is limited research regarding pharmacy staffs' understanding of service quality and its determinants. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of pharmacy staff regarding the factors that constitute a high level of service quality using the service quality determinants proposed by the Conceptual Model of Service Quality. Structured interviews were conducted with 27 pharmacy assistants and 6 pharmacists in 3 community pharmacies in Sydney. The interview questions focused on the participants' perceptions of consumer expectations, the translation of these perceptions into service quality specifications, the actual service delivery, and the communication to customers. From the pharmacy staff perspective, service quality is significantly limited by insufficient internal communication and control processes that impede role clarity and the resolution of conflicting role expectations among customer service personnel. Participants indicated that these problems could be alleviated through the implementation of more transparent, realistic, measurable, and accepted quality specifications by pharmacy management. The study indicates that the extent to which pharmacy management sets, maintains, and communicates service quality specifications to staff directly affects role clarity, role conflict, and organizational commitment among customer service staff, which in turn directly influence the level of service quality provided to the customers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Qualitative study on the implementation of professional pharmacy services in Australian community pharmacies using framework analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullin, Joanna C; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2016-08-25

    Multiple studies have explored the implementation process and influences, however it appears there is no study investigating these influences across the stages of implementation. Community pharmacy is attempting to implement professional services (pharmaceutical care and other health services). The use of implementation theory may assist the achievement of widespread provision, support and integration. The objective was to investigate professional service implementation in community pharmacy to contextualise and advance the concepts of a generic implementation framework previously published. Purposeful sampling was used to investigate implementation across a range of levels of implementation in community pharmacies in Australia. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using a framework methodology. Data was charted using implementation stages as overarching themes and each stage was thematically analysed, to investigate the implementation process, the influences and their relationships. Secondary analyses were performed of the factors (barriers and facilitators) using an adapted version of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and implementation strategies and interventions, using the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) discrete implementation strategy compilation. Six stages emerged, labelled as development or discovery, exploration, preparation, testing, operation and sustainability. Within the stages, a range of implementation activities/steps and five overarching influences (pharmacys' direction and impetus, internal communication, staffing, community fit and support) were identified. The stages and activities were not applied strictly in a linear fashion. There was a trend towards the greater the number of activities considered, the greater the apparent integration into the pharmacy organization. Implementation factors varied over the implementation stages, and additional factors were added

  6. Drug-related problems and pharmacy interventions in community practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, Tommy; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, Arne

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To document types and number of drug-related problems identified by community pharmacy personnel in Sweden; (2) to determine relationships among the types and number of problems identified and the gender, age and number of prescribed drugs in patients; and (3) to document...... contacted, the physician nearly always approved the recommendation made by the pharmacy staff. Conclusion. The results led to suggestions as to how pharmacy practitioners can augment pharmaceutical care through drug-related problem detection....... the interventions made by pharmacy personnel with patients and prescribers. Method. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn nationwide in Sweden; 144 (63 per cent) of the employees fulfilling the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented drug...

  7. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment in Australian Community Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Namara, Kevin P; Peterson, Gregory M; Hughes, Josie; Krass, Ines; Versace, Vincent; Clark, Robyn A; Dunbar, James

    2017-07-01

    Population screening and monitoring of cardiovascular risk is suboptimal in Australian primary care. The role of community pharmacy has increased considerably, but without any policy framework for development. The aim of this study was to explore the nature of community pharmacy-based screening models in Australia, capacity to increase delivery of pharmacy screening, and barriers and enablers to increasing capacity. An online survey weblink was emailed to pharmacy managers at every quality-accredited pharmacy in Australia by the Quality Pharmacy Care Program. The 122-item survey explored the nature of screening services, pharmacy capacity to deliver services, and barriers and enablers to service delivery in considerable detail. Adaptive questioning was used extensively to reduce the participant burden. Pharmacy location details were requested to facilitate geo-coding and removal of duplicate entries. A descriptive analysis of responses was undertaken. There were 294 valid responses from 4890 emails, a 6% response rate. Most pharmacies (79%) had private counselling areas. Blood pressure assessment was nearly universal (96%), but other common risk factor assessments were offered by a minority. Most did not charge for assessments, and 59% indicated capacity to provide multiple risk factor assessments. Fewer than one in five (19%) reported any formal arrangements with general practice for care coordination. Financial viability was perceived as a key barrier to service expansion, amid concerns of patient willingness to pay. Support from government and non-governmental organisations for their role was seen as necessary. There appears to be a critical mass of pharmacies engaging in evidence-based and professional services. Considerable additional support appears required to optimise performance across the profession. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. An investigation on pharmacy functions and services affecting satisfaction of patients with prescriptions in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hidehiko; Nakajima, Fumio; Tada, Yuichirou; Yoshikawa, Emi; Iwahashi, Yoshiki; Fujita, Kenji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2009-05-01

    Various functions expected by patient expects are needed with progress in the system for separation of dispensing and prescribing functions. In this investigation, the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy function were analyzed quantitatively. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 178 community pharmacies. Questions on pharmacy functions and services totaled 87 items concerning information service, amenities, safety, personnel training, etc. The questionnaires for patients had five-grade scales and composed 11 items (observed variables). Based on the results, "the percentage of satisfied patients" was determined. Multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between patient satisfaction and pharmacy functions or services provided, to confirm patient's evaluation of the pharmacy, and how factors affected comprehensive satisfaction. In correlation analysis, "the number of pharmacists" and "comprehensive satisfaction" had a negative correlation. Other interesting results were obtained. As a results of factor analysis, three latent factors were obtained: the "human factor," "patients' convenience," and "environmental factor," Multiple regression analysis showed that the "human factor" affected "comprehensive satisfaction" the most. Various pharmacy functions and services influence patient satisfaction, and improvement in their quality increases patient satisfaction. This will result in the practice of patient-centered medicine.

  9. The I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model: professional pharmacy unshackled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Greg L; Waitzman, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    To describe a mechanism by which pharmacists could create a disruptive innovation to provide professional primary care services via a Web-based delivery model. Several obstacles have prevented pharmacists from using available technology to develop business models that capitalize on their clinical skills in primary care. Community practice has experienced multiple sustaining innovations that have improved dispensing productivity but have not stimulated sufficient demand for pharmacy services to disrupt the marketplace and provide new opportunities for pharmacists. Pharmacists are in a unique position to bridge the gap between demand for basic primary medical care and access to a competent medical professional. Building on the historic strengths of community pharmacy practice, modern pharmacists could provide a disruptive innovation in the marketplace for primary care by taking advantage of new technology and implementing the I-Tribe Community Pharmacy Practice Model (I-Tribe). This model would directly connect pharmacists to patients through an interactive, secure Web presence that would liberate the relationship from geographic restrictions. The I-Tribe is a disruptive innovation that could become the foundation for a vibrant market in pharmacist professional service offerings. The I-Tribe model could benefit society by expanding access to primary medical care while simultaneously providing a new source of revenue for community practice pharmacists. Entrepreneurial innovation through I-Tribe pharmacy would free pharmacists to become the care providers envisioned by the profession's thought leaders.

  10. Pharmacy Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Drug Therapy Services in Nonmetropolitan Community Pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkari, Abhijit S.; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.; Bonnarens, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Higher prevalence of chronic diseases and reduced access to other health professionals in rural areas suggest that rural Medicare enrollees will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services (DTS). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe non-metropolitan community pharmacy sites in Wisconsin, the provision of DTS at…

  11. A Bibliometric Study of Community Pharmacy-Based Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze community pharmacy based research in Arab countries. Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Scopus was conducted. Data from Jan 01, 2003 till December 31, 2013 was searched for documents with specific words pertaining to “community pharmacy” in any one of the 13 Middle ...

  12. Practice of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Jordan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe the current role played by pharmacists in delivering pharmaceutical care (PC) in community pharmacies in Jordan (current activities and practices undertaken in the community and extent of provision of PC standards), pharmacists' perspectives on PC implementation and barriers to implementing PC ...

  13. Community pharmacies as sites of adult vaccination: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, Randall C; Buttenheim, Alison M; Armstrong, Allison; Feemster, Kristen A

    2016-12-01

    Vaccine-preventable deaths among adults remain a major public health concern, despite continued efforts to increase vaccination rates in this population. Alternative approaches to immunization delivery may help address under-vaccination among adults. This systematic review assesses the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of community pharmacies as sites for adult vaccination. We searched 5 electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane, LILACS) for studies published prior to June 2016 and identified 47 relevant articles. We found that pharmacy-based immunization services (PBIS) have been facilitated by state regulatory changes and training programs that allow pharmacists to directly provide vaccinations. These services are widely accepted by both patients and pharmacy staff, and are capable of improving access and increasing vaccination rates. However, political and organizational barriers limit the feasibility and effectiveness of vaccine delivery in pharmacies. These studies provide evidence to inform policy and organizational efforts that promote the efficacy and sustainability of PBIS.

  14. A quantitative professionalism policy in a community pharmacy introductory pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtaynberg, Jane; Rivkin, Anastasia; Shah, Bupendra; Rush, Sharon

    2013-12-16

    To determine whether implementing a quantitative professionalism policy would lead to improved behaviors in an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and to evaluate students' attitudes about professionalism expectations in the IPPE. A policy using quantitative parameters for assessing unprofessional behaviors was developed and implemented in the community pharmacy IPPE after discrepancies were identified in the way professional expectations were assessed. The quantitative professionalism policy reduced the number of assignments submitted post deadline (p<0.05). There was no change in students' attitudes towards professional behaviors after the implementation of the policy. The quantitative professionalism policy was effective in changing some of the students' professional behaviors in an IPPE.

  15. [Medical and entrepreneurial character of the community pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovecká, Ivona; Minarovič, Igor; Mináriková, Daniela; Snopková, Miroslava; Lehocká, Lubica; Foltán, Viliam

    2014-04-01

    Community pharmacy provides citizens with pharmaceutical care and runs its health care business on the market with state regulatory interventions. These restrictions affect its stability and because of that it has to be constantly monitored. The convenient way of monitoring the financial health of a community pharmacy is the use of financial analysis and its outcomes that are profitability, liquidity, debt and productivity ratios. The aim of this paper was to determine the economic situation in the public pharmacy services in Slovakia. A representative set of community pharmacies was established that reflected the criteria of localization by regions in Slovakia, the size of the city or municipality and the legal form of the subject. The financial analysis for the years 2007-2012 showed a declining return on sales (in 2012 to 1.98 %), a decreasing current liquidity (in 2012 to 1.87 %), a declining quick ratio (in 2012 to 1.08 %), a decrease in the time receivables turnover (in 2012 to 53.8 days), a slight increase in the inventory turnover time - days sales in inventory (in 2012 to 36.5 days) and increased turnover time commitments - liabilities turnover (in 2012 to 86.3 days). community pharmacy financial health profitability liquidity productivity.

  16. Disposal practices for unused medications in New Zealand community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Alfred Y C; Peake, Barrie M; Braund, Rhiannon

    2011-09-01

    One of the recommended methods for households to dispose of unused medications in many countries is to return them to community pharmacies. However, such a practice will only reduce the environmental levels of pharmaceuticals if the medications are also disposed of and destroyed properly by the pharmacies. This study reports the results of a questionnaire sent to New Zealand community pharmacists regarding disposal practices for unused or expired medications in their workplaces. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected community pharmacies from all areas of New Zealand. The participants were asked how they disposed of a variety of medications. In addition, participants were also asked about whether they knew how unused medications were destroyed if their pharmacy used a third-party contractor or distributor to dispose of them. Of the 265 respondents, 80.4% and 61.1% respectively reported that solid and semi-solid medications were removed by contractors. However liquid and Class B controlled drugs were predominantly disposed of down the pharmacy sink. Over 60% of the participating pharmacists indicated that they believed the contractors incinerated the collected pharmaceutical waste, and over 90% of the participating pharmacists indicated their wish for a state-run disposal and destruction system. Liquid medications and Class B controlled drugs, which were commonly reported to be disposed of down the sewage system, may increase the potential for environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals in New Zealand. There is a need for increased environmental awareness amongst community pharmacists in New Zealand.

  17. Pharmacies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...

  18. Promoting direct patient care services at community pharmacies through advanced pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Rosemin; Kwong, Mona; Collins, John B

    2013-12-01

    To determine the relative benefits of three different models of advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in successfully integrating the delivery of direct patient care into students' final year community pharmacy clerkships. All fourth-year pharmacy students at the University of British Columbia were divided into one of three study arms for their community APPE: a 2 × 4-week rotation in a traditional format, a 1 × 8-week rotation where their preceptors had experienced a 2-day education course and a 1 × 8-week rotation with both preceptor education plus a 5-day pre-APPE in-store orientation and peer debriefing. All 123 students conducted patient consultations and documented their care. Students in the pre-APPE + preceptor education arm provided nearly double the number of direct patient consultations than did students in the preceptor-education-only arm or the traditional 2 × 4-week arm. Numbers of drug-related problems identified and interventions performed per patient consult did not differ across study arms. Pre-APPE orientation activities provided an enhanced learning environment, promoted greater student engagement, provided care to more patients, increased preceptor preparedness and enhanced in-store patient-centred care practice. Certain of these learning activities can also form part of third- and fourth-year introductory pharmacy practice experiences to prepare students for their final-year APPE. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  19. Could community pharmacies help to improve youth health? Service availability and views of pharmacy personnel in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Clark, Terryann

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the availability of youth-relevant community pharmacy services in New Zealand (NZ), and the opinions of pharmacy personnel on the appropriateness of these services for young people aged 12-24. Pharmacist and pharmacy support staff (PSS) questionnaires were developed collaboratively with a Youth Advisory Group (YAG) and were mailed to 500 randomly selected community pharmacies in NZ. Response rates for questionnaires were 50.5 % for pharmacists and 37.0 % for PSS. The majority of community pharmacies in NZ offer public health services relevant to youth health including emergency contraception, condoms, smoking cessation, weight management and harm reduction services for drug use. Not all pharmacy personnel believed these services are appropriate for youth, particularly for those aged 16 or under. PSS appeared less likely than pharmacists to feel services were appropriate. Community pharmacies are offering an increasing range of youth-relevant health services, and may, therefore, be able to improve youth healthcare access. More research is required to investigate the barriers to young people accessing services from pharmacies, and also the challenges for pharmacy personnel in providing services to this age group.

  20. The Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research: a network of community and hospital pharmacies in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Ellen S; Blom, Lyda; Philbert, Daphne; Rump, Willem; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2014-08-01

    Practice-based networks can serve as effective mechanisms for the development of the profession of pharmacists, on the one hand by supporting student internships and on the other hand by collection of research data and implementation of research outcomes among public health practice settings. This paper presents the characteristics and benefits of the Utrecht Pharmacy Practice network for Education and Research, a practice based research network affiliated with the Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Utrecht University. Yearly, this network is used to realize approximately 600 student internships (in hospital and community pharmacies) and 20 research projects. To date, most research has been performed in community pharmacy and research questions frequently concerned prescribing behavior or adherence and subjects related to uptake of regulations in the pharmacy setting. Researchers gain access to different types of data from daily practice, pharmacists receive feedback on the functioning of their own pharmacy and students get in depth insight into pharmacy practice.

  1. Randomized, community-based pharmacy intervention to expand services beyond sale of sterile syringes to injection drug users in pharmacies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Natalie D; Amesty, Silvia; Rivera, Alexis V; Harripersaud, Katherine; Turner, Alezandria; Fuller, Crystal M

    2013-09-01

    Structural interventions may help reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV. In 2009 to 2011, we randomized pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe access program in minority communities to intervention (pharmacy enrolled and delivered HIV risk reduction information to injection drug users [IDUs]), primary control (pharmacy only enrolled IDUs), and secondary control (pharmacy did not engage IDUs). Intervention pharmacy staff reported more support for syringe sales than did control staff. An expanded pharmacy role in HIV risk reduction may be helpful.

  2. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sect...

  3. Practice of pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies in Jordan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe the current role played by pharmacists in delivering pharmaceutical care (PC) in community pharmacies in ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexedby Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International ..... of interprofessional workshops focussing on the roles of the different ...

  4. How do Community Pharmacies Recover from E-prescription Errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K.; Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of e-prescribing is increasing annually, with over 788 million e-prescriptions received in US pharmacies in 2012. Approximately 9% of e-prescriptions have medication errors. Objective To describe the process used by community pharmacy staff to detect, explain, and correct e-prescription errors. Methods The error recovery conceptual framework was employed for data collection and analysis. 13 pharmacists and 14 technicians from five community pharmacies in Wisconsin participated in the study. A combination of data collection methods were utilized, including direct observations, interviews, and focus groups. The transcription and content analysis of recordings were guided by the three-step error recovery model. Results Most of the e-prescription errors were detected during the entering of information into the pharmacy system. These errors were detected by both pharmacists and technicians using a variety of strategies which included: (1) performing double checks of e-prescription information; (2) printing the e-prescription to paper and confirming the information on the computer screen with information from the paper printout; and (3) using colored pens to highlight important information. Strategies used for explaining errors included: (1) careful review of patient’ medication history; (2) pharmacist consultation with patients; (3) consultation with another pharmacy team member; and (4) use of online resources. In order to correct e-prescription errors, participants made educated guesses of the prescriber’s intent or contacted the prescriber via telephone or fax. When e-prescription errors were encountered in the community pharmacies, the primary goal of participants was to get the order right for patients by verifying the prescriber’s intent. Conclusion Pharmacists and technicians play an important role in preventing e-prescription errors through the detection of errors and the verification of prescribers’ intent. Future studies are needed

  5. Shopper marketing: a new challenge for Spanish community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, Diana; Avello, Maria; Abril, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Changes that have occurred over the past few decades in retailing and in the health care sector--namely, a drastic reduction in drug profit-margins, and a more critical use of health services by patients--have created a scenario characterized by rising competitiveness. This new context is necessitating community pharmacies (hereafter, pharmacies) to improve their business model through new strategies. Shopper marketing has proven invaluable in other retail settings and therefore, could be a critical element for new practices in pharmacies. First, to analyze how shopping experiences in pharmacies based on new practices in shopper marketing affect shopping behavior. Second, to study the mediating effect of customer satisfaction on the relationship between shopping experiences and shopping behavior. A self-reported questionnaire was developed to measure four concepts: hedonic experience (enjoyable), functional experience (goal-oriented), customer satisfaction and shopping behavior. Data were collected from 28 different pharmacies dispersed throughout Spain. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships in the theoretical model. First, the measurement model was estimated to assess model fit, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity. Then, the parameters of the structural model were estimated and the mediation effects were subsequently tested. Functional experience and hedonic experience each significantly and positively correlate with consumer satisfaction and with customer shopping behavior (purchases and loyalty). Moreover, the effects of each type of experience on shopping behavior are partially mediated by customer satisfaction. The results suggest that even in Spanish pharmacies, which have traditionally been considered as strictly functional retailers, ensuring customer satisfaction and enhancing shopping behavior now demand more than just functional experiences. Moreover, a customer's experience at a pharmacy can itself trigger a

  6. Marketing activity in the community pharmacy sector - A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Ardalan; Carter, Stephen R; Schneider, Carl R

    2018-02-01

    Community pharmacy ownership requires engaging with marketing strategies to influence consumer behaviour. There is a plethora of information from trade journals, expert opinion, and published discussion surrounding this issue. Despite this, evidence relating to the efficacy of marketing activity within the pharmacy sector is scant. To review how marketing activity has been conceptualised in the community pharmacy sector and to determine the evidence for the effect of marketing activity. Seven databases were systematically searched using a scoping review framework with the reporting protocol of PRISMA-P. The search yielded 33 studies that were analysed for year of publication, journal, country of focus, and framework of marketing. The majority of marketing research papers focused on the United States and were published in healthcare journals. These were various marketing strategy elements, including; segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning. Also evident was research regarding marketing mix, which predominately involved the "4Ps" model. Actual marketing activity comprised little of the research. Research into marketing activity in community pharmacy is limited, and little evidence is available to show the effects of such activities. Future research needs to demonstrate the causality for the effect of marketing activities on consumer behaviour and economic outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Community home healthcare in 6-year pharmacy education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoh, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    As we enter more and more into a super-aging society, the requirement for home healthcare will increase. Pharmacists must work along with doctors and nurses in the field of home healthcare. Within the 6-year pharmacy curriculum, we must educate students as medicinal professionals who will join a medical team to serve the community. The Good Practice (GP) program, which has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology, continues to be offered in our university. As a part of this program, students learn home healthcare in the community in cooperation with Yubari Medical Center. In addition, our students (pharmacy) can study community medicine together with students from Tenshi College (nursing and nutrition) in an optional class made available in Yubari during their summer vacation. According to the results of our survey after these programs, students have achieved a deep recognition of the importance of community medicine and cooperation with other medical staff in contributing to community home healthcare. We carry out these programs under agreements of collaboration with Yubari Medical Center and Tenshi College. We will talk today about training for pharmaceutical care in the community and the effect of training through this class on pharmacy education.

  8. Preceptors' Need For Support In Tutoring Pharmacy Students in Finnish Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Löfhjelm

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A pharmacy degree in Finland includes a six-month obligatory internship. The internship is integrated with theoretical studies and adds up to 30 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS credits of the BSc (Pharm degree. Learning is supported by reflective assignments from the university. The preceptors have an important role in organizing the internship and tutoring students successfully in community pharmacy settings. Objective: to assess whether the preceptors of University of Helsinki’s teaching pharmacies need pedagogic support in tutoring and if so, in which core pharmaceutical tasks or tutoring skills. Methods: The survey was sent to all preceptors of University of Helsinki´s teaching pharmacies (n=326 in 2011 (response rate 58%, n=190. The data was analyzed statistically using Excel (version 12.3.6. The open-ended questions were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Results: The majority of preceptors found their skills in tutoring the students mainly good. However, assessment of learning (27% of the respondents, giving feedback (23% and organizing the learning situations supportive for learning (23% were the areas in which the preceptors mostly indicated a need for support. Teaching current care guidelines and pharmaceutical care (36% and multi-professional collaboration (28% were the areas in which the preceptors expressed that they needed to update their skills. Conclusions: The faculty should focus the support on the pedagogic skills of preceptors, particularly in improving their skills in assessment of learning and in reflective dialogue. In addition, their skills in teaching clinical and patient care aspects of pharmacy practice should be enhanced. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings

  9. An audit of drug shortages in a community pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, E M; Guinane, M; Nugent, F; Halley, O; Parsons, C

    2015-06-01

    There are no firm data on drug shortages in Irish community pharmacy. This prospective observational study aimed to characterise the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. The primary aim was to determine numbers and durations of drug shortages. Secondary aims included comparing these shortages with Irish Pharmacy Union (IPU) drug shortage lists and determining the frequency with which notifications were received prior to shortages. Further secondary aims were to examine relationships between causes of drug shortages and drug costs and between causes of drug shortages and shortage durations. The study took place in a community pharmacy in a Limerick City suburb between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected daily regarding drugs that were dispensed, but unavailable to purchase. Suppliers/manufacturers provided data on the reasons for shortages. 65/1,232 dispensed drugs (5.3%) were in short supply over the study period. Median shortage duration was 13 days (interquartile range 4-32 days) and median cost was 8.10. Numbers of unavailable drugs by month varied from 13 to 38. Monthly IPU drug shortage lists identified between six and eight of these shortages depending on the month. Two notifications were received from suppliers/manufacturers regarding shortages. Parallel exports had the highest mean costs (mean 38.05) and manufacturing problems were associated with the longest durations (mean 57.44 days). This study highlights the drug shortage problem in an Irish community pharmacy. We propose that enhanced communication between all stakeholders is the most worthwhile solution. Further studies are needed.

  10. Evaluation of a community pharmacy delivered oral contraception service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Judith; Adams, Christine; Aziz, Najia; Holmes, Jo; Jawad, Ruhi; Whittlesea, Cate

    2013-04-01

    In the UK half of all pregnancies are unplanned and half of teenage pregnancies terminated. Southwark and Lambeth have the highest teenage conception rates in London. In 2009, many teenage pregnancies in Southwark led to terminations. A contraception service was established where qualified pharmacists supplied oral contraception (OC) using a patient group direction (PGD). This service evaluation aimed to assess this service delivered in five community pharmacies. Monthly data were submitted by each pharmacy to the Primary Care Trust on consultations, pills supplied, initial or subsequent supply and client referral. For specified periods consultation time was collected and a clinical notes audit undertaken. Client satisfaction was determined using a structured questionnaire returned to the pharmacy. Mystery shoppers were employed to assess the service. A total of 741 consultations were undertaken by seven pharmacists at five community pharmacies (October 2009-June 2011) with many (45.5%) occurring following emergency contraception supply. The mean consultation time was 19 minutes . Combined OC was most commonly supplied with nearly half (46.1%) of initial supplies to first-time pill users. Most consultations (92.2%) were with women aged under 30 years, with 22.5% aged under 20. Most consultations were with black or black British clients. Of the 99 women who completed the satisfaction questionnaires, most clients were very satisfied or satisfied with the service and felt comfortable talking to the pharmacist about contraception. Trained pharmacists were clinically competent and provided OC in community pharmacy according to a PGD. This service was accessed by the target population; young women using emergency hormonal contraception who had not previously used OC. Clients were largely very satisfied with the service.

  11. Mapping the terrain: A conceptual schema for a mental health medication support service in community pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shane Scahill; Jane L Fowler; H. Laetitia Hattingh; Fiona Kelly; Wheeler, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mental health–related problems pose a serious issue for primary care, and community pharmacy could make a significant contribution, but there is a dearth of information. Methods: This article reports synthesis of the literature on mental health interventions across a range of pharmacy models, and pharmacy services in contexts beyond mental health. To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was report...

  12. Community pharmacy customer segmentation based on factors influencing their selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct

  13. Challenges in the management of community pharmacies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kho BP

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation. Objective: The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia, and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation. Results: Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers’ knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced. Conclusion: Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists

  14. Strategies for Employee Learning in Professional Service Firms: A Study of Community Pharmacies in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotey, Bernice; Saini, Bandana; While, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated employee learning strategies in community pharmacies in Australia and the factors that explain differences among pharmacies in the strategies employed. A qualitative methodology was applied, involving semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, or senior employees of 12 pharmacies. The findings revealed learning…

  15. Building Community Pharmacy Work System Capacity for Medication Therapy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer, Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions within and outside of the pharmacy profession frequently arise about a community pharmacy’s capacity to provide patient-care services and maximize contributions to public health. It is surmised that community pharmacy locations must possess specific attributes and have identifiable resources within the location to effectively initiate and optimize their capacity to deliver patient care services in conjunction with medication distribution and other services. The purpose of this paper is to describe three research domains that can help pharmacies make the transition from “traditional” business models to “patient care centered” practices: (1 Work System Design, (2 Entrepreneurial Orientation, and (3 Organizational Flexibility. From these research domains, we identified 21 Work System Design themes, 4 dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation, and 4 types of Organizational Flexibility that can be used in combination to assist a practice location in transforming its business model to a “patient care centered” practice. The self-assessment tools we described in this paper could help realign an organization’s activities to initiate and optimize capacity for patient care.

  16. Does deregulation in community pharmacy impact accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs? Evidence from nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Habimana, Katharina; Arts, Danielle

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the impact of deregulation in community pharmacy on accessibility of medicines, quality of pharmacy services and costs. We analysed and compared community pharmacy systems in five rather deregulated countries (England, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden) and four rather regulated countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Spain). Data were collected by literature review, a questionnaire survey and interviews. Following a deregulation, several new pharmacies and dispensaries of Over-the-Counter (OTC) medicines tended to be established, predominantly in urban areas. Unless prevented by regulation, specific stakeholders, e.g. wholesalers, were seen to gain market dominance which limited envisaged competition. There were indications for an increased workload for pharmacists in some deregulated countries. Economic pressure to increase the pharmacy turnover through the sale of OTC medicines and non-pharmaceuticals was observed in deregulated and regulated countries. Prices of OTC medicines were not found to decrease after a deregulation in pharmacy. Access to pharmacies usually increases after a deregulation but this is likely to favour urban populations with already good accessibility. Policy-makers are recommended to take action to ensure equitable accessibility and sustainable competition in a more deregulated environment. No association between pharmaceutical expenditure and the extent of regulation/deregulation appears to exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Employing the nominal group technique to explore the views of pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women on community pharmacy weight management services and educational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate how pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel about community pharmacy involvement in weight management, and to identify what pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women want in weight management educational resources. Three homogenous and one heterogeneous nominal group (NG) sessions of up to 120-min duration were conducted with nine women, ten pharmacists and eight pharmacy assistants. The NG technique was used to conduct each session to determine the most important issues that should be considered surrounding community pharmacy weight management services and development of any educational resources. The heterogeneous NG session was used to finalise what women, pharmacists and pharmacy assistants want in educational resources. Overall, pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women believe that pharmacy staff have an important role in the management of overweight and obesity because of their accessibility, trust and the availability of products in pharmacy. Regarding the most suitable healthcare professional(s) to treat overweight and obesity, the majority of participants believed that no one member of the healthcare team was most suitable and that overweight and obesity needs to be treated by a multidisciplinary team. The importance of having weight management educational resources for pharmacy staff and women that come from trustworthy resources without financial gain or commercialisation was also emphasised. Pharmacists, pharmacy assistants and women feel that community pharmacies have a definite role to play in weight management. Pharmacy-specific weight management educational resources that are readily available to pharmacy staff and women are highly desirable. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota, U.S. from 1992 through 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of community pharmacy market dynamics is important for monitoring access points for pharmacist services. The purpose of this study was to describe (1) changes in pharmacy mix (independent versus chain) between 1992 and 2002 and between 2002 and 2012 for 87 counties in Minnesota (state in U.S.) and (2) the number (and proportion) of community pharmacies in Minnesota for the years 1992, 2002, and 2012 using a new categorization method developed specifically for this study. Data included licensure records for 1992, 2002, and 2012 from the State of Minnesota Board of Pharmacy and county level demographics for 1990, 2000 and 2010 from the US Census Bureau. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize findings over time and to describe associations between study variables. The ratio of independent pharmacies to chain pharmacies changed from approximately 2:1 in 1992 to 1:2 in 2012. The primary market factors associated with changes in the number of community pharmacies per county were (1) the metropolitan designation of the county and (2) whether the population density (persons/square mile) was increasing or decreasing. The face of community pharmacy in Minnesota changed between 1992 and 2012. By 2012, pharmacies were located in traditional retail pharmacies, mass merchandiser outlets, supermarkets, and clinics/medical centers. Furthermore, specialty pharmacies grew in proportion to meet patient needs. Between 1992 and 2012, the market dynamics of community pharmacies in Minnesota was characterized by vigorous market entry and exit. In light of recent health reform that is exhibiting characteristics such as continuity-of-care models, performance-based payment, technology advances, and the care of patients becoming more "ambulatory" (versus in-patient), we suggest that the market dynamics of community pharmacies will continue to exhibit vigorous market entry and exit in this new environment. It is proposed that the community pharmacy categories developed

  19. Flexibility in community pharmacy: a qualitative study of business models and cognitive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Wilson, Laura K; Roberts, Alison S; Benrimoj, Shalom I

    2010-04-01

    To identify the capacity of current pharmacy business models, and the dimensions of organisational flexibility within them, to integrate products and services as well as the perceptions of viability of these models. Fifty-seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with community pharmacy owners or managers and support staff in 30 pharmacies across Australia. A framework of organisational flexibility was used to analyse their capacity to integrate services and perceptions of viability. Data were analysed using the method of constant comparison by two independent researchers. The study found that Australian community pharmacies have used the four types of flexibility to build capacity in distinct ways and react to changes in the local environment. This capacity building was manifested in four emerging business models which integrate services to varying degrees: classic community pharmacy, retail destination pharmacy, health care solution pharmacy and networked pharmacy. The perception of viability is less focused on dispensing medications and more focused on differentiating pharmacies through either a retail or services focus. Strategic flexibility appeared to offer pharmacies the ability to integrate and sustainably deliver services more successfully than other types, as exhibited by health care solution and networked pharmacies. Active support and encouragement to transition from being dependent on dispensing to implementing services is needed. The study showed that pharmacies where services were implemented and showed success are those strategically differentiating their businesses to become focused health care providers. This holistic approach should inevitably influence the sustainability of services.

  20. Strategies and steps fostering the success of medication management services in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Deborah L; Frail, Caitlin K; Palombi, Laura C; Von Hoff, Bethany A; Conway, Jeannine M; Sorensen, Todd D

    2016-01-01

    To identify and describe the steps and strategies that community pharmacies with established medication management services have used to integrate medication management services into their practice settings. Qualitative case study with semistructured interviews and focus groups. Community pharmacy organizations in Minnesota. Pharmacists and pharmacy leadership from 4 different pharmacy organizations including independent, chain, and health system pharmacies. Not applicable. Qualitative case study analysis of community pharmacy management and pharmacists' perceptions of the factors that led to the establishment and sustainability of their medication management programs. Focus groups and interviews were undertaken with 25 pharmacists and pharmacy leaders from 4 distinct community pharmacy organizations from April to June 2015. Five themes emerged, representing specific implementation and continuation stages of medication management services in community practice: Deciding to Act, Setting the Stage, Executing the Service, Sticking to It, and Continuing to Grow. This study sheds light on key stages that have commonly occurred across community pharmacies that are delivering medication management services. The results of this work may serve as a road map for other community pharmacies looking to integrate medication management services into their own practice settings. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Language issues in the community pharmacy: a perspective from Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M Louise; John, Dai N; Jones, Arwyn T; Jones, Elen H; Wilkins, M Lowri

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to obtain the views of Welsh speakers to explore the role of the Welsh language in community pharmacies in bilingual communities in Wales. Two communities with a high proportion of Welsh speakers were purposively identified for the research: one in North Wales and one in West Wales. Stage 1: semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Welsh speakers to identify key themes. Data collection continued until no new themes emerged. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded manually and analysed thematically. Stage 2: self-complete questionnaire developed based on the interview results. The anonymous, bilingual questionnaire and covering letter, with a postage-paid envelope, were delivered to 500 homes (250 in each community) for completion by the person in the household who visited a pharmacy most often. There was no follow-up mailing due to anonymity. Data were analysed using SPSS version 12. Results from both interviews (n = 36) and questionnaires (response rate was 52%, 82% of whom were Welsh speakers) found that the majority of Welsh speakers in the study were able to understand English but preferred to use Welsh in the pharmacy. They would find it easier to explain symptoms and would ask more about their medication if they could speak Welsh with the pharmacist. In addition, the study participants would generally feel more at ease with a Welsh-speaking pharmacist and would feel they were getting a better service if they could use their first language. This study of Welsh speakers indicates that language choice is important for bilingual people who may prefer to use their native, minority language for consultation with health professionals. Further, it is clear that a concordant partnership between patient and pharmacist is less likely where one party is using a language with which they are not confident or comfortable. Pharmacists need to be aware of the linguistic needs and preferences of bilingual clients.

  2. Mapping the terrain: A conceptual schema for a mental health medication support service in community pharmacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scahill, Shane; Fowler, Jane L; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2015-01-01

    .... To best inform the design of a community pharmacy medication support intervention for mental health consumers, the literature was reported as a conceptual schema and subsequent recommendations...

  3. A Lifestyle Medicine Clinic in a Community Pharmacy Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lenz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases continue to be a significant burden to the health care system. Pharmacists have been able to show that drug therapy for patients with chronic diseases can be improved through medication therapy management (MTM services but have yet to become significantly involved in implementing lifestyle modification programs to further control and prevent chronic conditions. A novel and innovative lifestyle medicine program was started by pharmacists in a community pharmacy in 2008 to more comprehensively prevent and manage chronic conditions. The lifestyle medicine program consists of designing seven personalized programs for patients to address physical activity, nutrition, alcohol consumption, weight control, stress management, sleep success, and tobacco cessation (if needed. The lifestyle medicine program complements existing MTM services for patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or diabetes. This program is innovative because pharmacists have developed and implemented a method to combine lifestyle medicine with MTM services to not only manage chronic conditions, but prevent the progression of those conditions and others. Several innovative tools have also been developed to enhance the effectiveness of a lifestyle medicine program. This manuscript describes the program's pharmacy setting, pharmacy personnel, participants and program details as well as the tools used to integrate a lifestyle medicine program with MTM services. Type: Clinical Experience

  4. The raison d'etre for the community pharmacy and the community pharmacist in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisell, Kristin; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who...... are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks....... Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines...

  5. Community pharmacy patient perceptions of a pharmacy-initiated mobile technology app to improve adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Kristen L; Liu, Yifei; Lindsey, Cameron C; Hartwig, David Matthew; Stoner, Steven C

    2015-10-01

    To determine patient perceptions of using a demonstration application (app) of mobile technology to improve medication adherence and to identify desired features to assist in the management of medications. A qualitative study using key informant interviews was conducted in a community pharmacy chain for patients aged 50 and older, on statin therapy and owning a smart device. Three main themes emerged from 24 interviews at four pharmacy locations, which included benefits, barriers and desired features of the app. Benefits such as accessibility, privacy, pros of appearance and beneficiaries were more likely to lead to usage of the app. Barriers that might prevent usage of the app were related to concerns of appearance, the burden it might cause for others, cost, privacy, motivation and reliability. Specific features patients desired were categorized under appearance, customization, communication, functionality, input and the app platform. Patients provided opinions about using a mobile app to improve medication adherence and assist with managing medications. Patients envisioned the app within their lifestyle and expressed important considerations, identifying benefits to using this technology and voicing relevant concerns. App developers can use patient perceptions to guide development of a mobile app addressing patient medication-related needs. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to community pharmacy: A framework for implementation research on pharmacy services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Sarah J; Curran, Geoffrey M; Swan, Holly; Teeter, Benjamin S; Thomas, Jeremy

    Community pharmacies are an increasingly important health care setting with opportunities for improving quality and safety, yet little is understood about determinants of implementation in this setting. This paper presents an implementation framework for pharmacy based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). This study employed a critical review of 45 articles on professional services provided in community pharmacies, including medication therapy management (MTM), immunizations, and rapid HIV testing. The relevant domains and associated constructs for pharmacy services were as follows. Intervention Characteristics ultimately depend on the specific service; of particular note for pharmacy are relative advantage and complexity. The former because implementation of services can pose a cost-benefit challenge where dispensing is the primary role and the latter because of the greater challenge implementing multi-faceted services like MTM compared to a discrete service like immunizations. "In terms of Outer Setting, pharmacies are affected by patient needs and acceptance, and external policies and incentives such as reimbursement and regulations. For Inner Setting, structural characteristics like pharmacy type, size and staff were important as was pharmacists' perception of their role and available resources to provide the service. Key Characteristics of Individuals include training, preparedness, and self-efficacy of the pharmacist for providing a new service. Few studies revealed relevant Process constructs, but if they did it was primarily related to engaging (e.g., champions). As pharmacists' roles in health care are continuing to expand, a framework to inform implementation research in community pharmacy (and other) settings is crucially needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges to UK community pharmacy: a bio-photographic study of workspace in relation to professional pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, F L; Doel, M A; Jerzembek, G S

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a novel, qualitative, bio-photographic study with intertextual analysis highlighting the relationship between community pharmacy workspace and practice. Sixteen pharmacists working across pharmacy types such as independent shops, large and small pharmacy chains and multiple pharmacies such as those in supermarkets participated in data capture and feedback consultation. Findings disclosed workspaces unfit for purpose and a workforce ill at ease with their new professional identity, involving increasingly complex tasks in health provision and retail. There was conflict between delegating to others and taking personal responsibility, and there were pressures from a demanding public within the context of a target-driven, litigious society. The study highlights that innovative, mixed methods in this context reveal nuanced, rich data.

  8. Exploration of over the counter sales of antibiotics in community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: pharmacy professionals’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Beedemariam Gebretekle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the counter sale of antibiotics is a global problem and it is increasingly recognized as a source of antibiotic misuse and is believed to increase treatment costs, adverse effects of treatment and emergence of resistance. The increasing trend of over the counter sale of antibiotics in Ethiopia calls for exploration of why such dispensing is practiced. This study aims to explore reasons for over the counter sale of antibiotics in the community pharmacies of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in five randomly selected community pharmacies of Addis Ababa. One pharmacy professional from each pharmacy were interviewed at the spot using semi-structured, open-ended interview checklist. Besides, observation of professionals’ dispensing practice was made for at least one hour in the same community pharmacies using an observation checklist. Findings were categorized into specific themes that were developed following the objectives. This was facilitated by use of OpenCode 3.6 software. Results All participants pointed out that antibiotics were frequently dispensed without prescription and contend that the trend of such dispensing has been increasing. The findings indicated that the nonprescription sales of antibiotics were common for Amoxicillin, Ciprofloxacin and Cotrimoxazole. The poor, less educated and younger groups of the population were reported to frequently request antibiotics without prescription. The main reasons for nonprescription sale of antibiotics by pharmacy professionals were found to be related to pharmacy owner’s influence to maximize revenue, customer’s pressure, weak regulatory mechanism and professional conflicts of interest. Conclusion The study shows that nonprescription sale of antibiotics was common practice at least in Addis Ababa. The main reasons for this malpractice were the need to maximize revenue and weak regulatory mechanism. Hence, strong

  9. Factors influencing the current practice of self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Fisher, Colleen; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2016-05-13

    Research has shown that the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in Indonesia is suboptimal. To improve the performance of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies, the factors that influence current practice need to be understood. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, pharmacy owners, and counter attendants. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings. The current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations is directly influenced by the professionalism of pharmacy staff and patient responses to the consultations. These factors are in turn affected by the organisational context of the pharmacy and the external pharmacy environment. The organisational context of the pharmacy includes staffing, staff affordability, and the availability of time and facilities in which to provide consultations. The external pharmacy environment includes the number of trained pharmacy staff in the research setting, the relevance of pharmacy education to the needs of pharmacy practice, the support offered by the Indonesian Pharmacists Association, a competitive business environment, and the policy environment. Complex and inter-related factors influence the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies in this research setting. Multiple strategies will be required to improve consultation practices.

  10. Use of chronic disease management algorithms in Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Jackson, David; Pilloto, Louis; Nielsen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, standardized chronic disease management algorithms are available for medical practitioners, nursing practitioners and nurses through a range of sources including prescribing software, manuals and through government and not-for-profit non-government organizations. There is currently no standardized algorithm for pharmacist intervention in the management of chronic diseases.. To investigate if a collaborative community pharmacists and doctors' model of care in chronic disease management could improve patients' outcomes through ongoing monitoring of disease biochemical markers, robust self-management skills and better medication adherence. This project was a pilot pragmatic study, measuring the effect of the intervention by comparing the baseline and the end of the study patient health outcomes, to support future definitive studies. Algorithms for selected chronic conditions were designed, based on the World Health Organisation STEPS™ process and Central Australia Rural Practitioners' Association Standard Treatment Manual. They were evaluated in community pharmacies in 8 inland Australian small towns, mostly having only one pharmacy in order to avoid competition issues. The algorithms were reviewed by Murrumbidgee Medicare Local Ltd, New South Wales, Australia, Quality use of Medicines committee. They constitute a pharmacist-driven, doctor/pharmacist collaboration primary care model. The Pharmacy owners volunteered to take part in the study and patients were purposefully recruited by in-store invitation. Six out of 9 sites' pharmacists (67%) were fully capable of delivering the algorithm (each site had 3 pharmacists), one site (11%) with 2 pharmacists, found it too difficult and withdrew from the study, and 2 sites (22%, with one pharmacist at each site) stated that they were personally capable of delivering the algorithm but unable to do so due to workflow demands. This primary care model can form the basis of workable collaboration between doctors

  11. Students as catalysts to increase community pharmacy-led direct patient care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Jennifer L; Ulbrich, Timothy R; Jennings, Brandon T; Elswick, Betsy M; McKinley, Rebekah Jackowski

    2015-01-01

    To describe the impact on community pharmacy service development of a faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative program offered by five U.S. colleges. Colleges of pharmacy and community pharmacies in Arizona, Illinois, Ohio, Utah, and West Virginia. Partner for Promotion (PFP) is an elective, longitudinal advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) focused on enhancement of community pharmacy management skills, specifically the development and implementation of direct patient care services. This faculty-student-pharmacist collaborative model has been implemented in five U.S. colleges of pharmacy beyond the originating institution. Data on pharmacy demographics and the impact of PFP on service creation and longevity at these partnering schools were reported via annual online surveys completed by faculty directors at each partnering college of pharmacy. Over a 3-year period, 19 pharmacy teams across five states worked to create a total of 15 direct patient care services, 12 of which were still being offered to patients at the time of data collection (80% longevity). The PFP program guided 38 students through the process of developing and implementing a sustainable service at a community pharmacy. All participating faculty from partnering colleges of pharmacy (100%) indicated that PFP model materials were "very useful" (4-point Likert scale; 1, not useful, to 4, very useful), and all five colleges plan to continue offering the program moving forward. The PFP model of training and service development can have a positive impact on the pharmacy profession, serve as an avenue for training students in the development of clinical services, and be a catalyst for establishing the growth of community pharmacy as a patient-centered, service-oriented partner in the health care system.

  12. Role Model Ambulatory Care Clinical Training Site in a Community-Based Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarian, Edward O.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary project provided ambulatory care clinical training for pharmacy and nursing students in community-based pharmacies, promoting early detection and medical follow-up of common health problems within the community. Students learned new clinical skills in patient health assessment, new diagnostic technologies, patient education…

  13. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dale B; Farris, Karen B

    2006-01-01

    To describe the state of community pharmacy, including patient care services, in the US. Chain pharmacies, including traditional chains, mass merchandisers, and supermarkets, comprise more than 50% of community pharmacies in the US. Dispensing of drugs remains the primary focus, yet the incidence of patients being counseled on medications appears to be increasing. More than 25% of independent community pharmacy owners report providing some patient clinical care services, such as medication counseling and chronic disease management. Most insurance programs pay pharmacists only for dispensing services, yet there are a growing number of public and private initiatives that reimburse pharmacists for cognitive services. Clinical care opportunities exist in the new Medicare prescription drug benefit plan, as it requires medication therapy management services for specific enrollees. The private market approach to healthcare delivery in the US, including pharmacy services, precludes national and statewide strategies to change the basic business model. To date, most pharmacies remain focused on dispensing prescriptions. With lower dispensing fees and higher operating costs, community pharmacies are focused on increasing productivity and efficiency through technology and technicians. Pharmacists remain challenged to establish the value of their nondispensing-related pharmaceutical care services in the private sector. As the cost of suboptimal drug therapy becomes more evident, medication therapy management may become a required pharmacy benefit in private drug insurance plans. Pharmacy school curricula, as well as national and state pharmacy associations, continually work to train and promote community pharmacists for these roles. Practice research is driven primarily by interested academics and, to a lesser degree, by pharmacy associations. Efficient dispensing of prescriptions is the primary focus of community pharmacies in the US. Some well designed practice-based research

  14. Reflections on the role of the pharmacy regulatory authority in enhancing quality related event reporting in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality-related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice. This study was aimed to gain a better understanding of the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies, and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (Deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven Deputy registrars/Practice managers, and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may help to mitigate this conflict

  15. Medication therapy management services in North Carolina community pharmacies: current practice patterns and projected demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Roth, Mary T; Brouwer, Emily S; Herndon, Susan; Christensen, Dale B

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the types of cognitive services offered and the number of patients being served in community pharmacies, determine the number of pharmacies that plan to offer medication therapy management (MTM) services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit, and assess whether current and expected practices will meet the potential needs of enrollees. Cross-sectional study. North Carolina in January 2005. 1,593 community pharmacy managers. Survey using a Web-based tool. Provision of cognitive services and number of patients for whom services are provided. A total of 262 (16%) pharmacy managers provided usable responses. Approximately 42% of respondents (n = 110) indicated that they provide some type of cognitive service. Comprehensive MTM services, or services consistent with the professionwide consensus definition, were provided by 31% of respondents (n = 81). Independent pharmacies were more likely to offer some type of service compared with chain pharmacies (58% versus 31%, respectively; P Pharmacy managers with a doctor of pharmacy degree were less likely than pharmacy managers with a bachelor's degree to offer services in their pharmacies (P = .02), and pharmacies with pharmacists on staff who had received certificate training were more likely to offer cognitive services (P = .03). Of all respondents, 28% (n = 73) indicated that they planned to offer MTM services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. Comparing these results with those of a 1999 survey of North Carolina pharmacists that used some of the same items, the percentage of community pharmacies that provide cognitive services has increased in the intervening years but remains low. Among the services being offered in 2005, most were focused on patient education and training, coordinating and integrating care, and medication regimen reviews. Implementation of MTM services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit should hasten the development and offering of these

  16. Exploring communications around medication review in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaae, Susanne; Sørensen, Ellen Westh; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2011-06-01

    Investigation into aspects that influence outcomes of medication reviews have been called for. The aim of this study was to assess how pharmacy internship students in a Danish medication review and reconciliation model communicated with both diabetes patients and the patients' General Practitioners (GPs) when conveying the results of the review by writing letters to the different parties. Special attention was drawn to how differences in health care provider and patient perspectives of the disease as well as inclusion of the patient in the decision making process is influenced by the identified practices of communication. 18 Danish community pharmacies with The Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen. Number of identified drug related problems, life-world problems and solutions to these described in the letters sent to patients and their GPs were registered. Further a qualitative documentary analysis was conducted by analyzing the letters using the theory of transactional analysis, developed by Berne. Identified and conveyed drug related and life-world related problems when comparing patients' letters with GPs' letters. Whether students assumed a superior, inferior or equal role in relation to the recipient of the letter and compared whether students assumed the same role in relation to patients and GPs. 18 pairs of patient and GP letters were analyzed. The analysis showed that students conveyed more drug-related problems to GPs than to patients. Furthermore, students assumed an equal relationship to GPs, whereas they frequently took superior positions when writing to patients. Students reported lifestyle problems both to GPs and to patients. Pharmacy students in a Danish medication review and reconciliation model managed to detect and address lifestyle problems of patients to their GPs, thereby facilitating the merger of their professional-technical perspective with the life

  17. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain A; Ibrahim MIM

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan. Objective The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group d...

  18. Uptake of Quality-Related Event Standards of Practice by Community Pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea C; Overmars, Craig; MacMaster, Kaleigh; Mahaffey, Thomas; Zwicker, Bev; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Quality-related events (QREs), including medication errors and near misses, are an inevitable part of community pharmacy practice. As QREs have significant implications for patient safety, pharmacy regulatory authorities across North America are increasing their expectations regarding QRE reporting and learning. Such expectations, commonly encapsulated as standards of practice (SoP), vary greatly between pharmacy jurisdictions and may range from the simple requirement to document QREs occurring within the pharmacy, all the way to requiring that quality improvement plans have been put in place. This research explores the uptake of QRE reporting and learning SoP and how this uptake varies based on pharmacy characteristics including location, prescription volume, and pharmacy type. Secondary data analysis of 91 community pharmacy assessments in Nova Scotia, Canada, was used to explore uptake of QRE standards. Overall, pharmacies are performing relatively well on reporting QREs. However, despite initial success with basic QRE reporting, community pharmacy uptake of QRE learning activities is lagging. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. A national survey exploring oral healthcare service provision across Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christopher R; Abdullah, Nabilah; Ford, Pauline J; Taing, Meng-Wong

    2017-09-28

    This study investigated pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current practices and perspectives with regard to oral healthcare provision across Australian community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study. A questionnaire for each pharmacist and pharmacy assistant cohort was developed and administered by online or postal means. Pearson's χ(2) test was used to examine relationships between categorical variables. Pharmacists and pharmacy assistants working within 2100 randomly selected Australian community pharmacies. The overall response rate was 58.5% (644/1100) for the pharmacist cohort and 28% (280/1000) for the pharmacy assistant cohort. This represents pharmacy staff responses from 803 community pharmacies across Australia (approximately 14.6%, 803/5500 of community pharmacies nationally). Overall, the majority of pharmacists (80.2%; 516/644) and pharmacy assistants (83.6%; 234/280) reported providing oral health advice/consultations to health consumers up to five times each week. More than half of community pharmacists and pharmacy assistants were involved in identifying signs and symptoms for oral health problems; and the majority believed health consumers were receptive to receiving oral health advice. Additionally, more than 80% of pharmacists and 60% of pharmacy assistants viewed extended oral healthcare roles positively and supported integrating them within their workplace; extended roles include provision of prevention, early intervention and referral to oral healthcare services. The most commonly reported barriers to enhance pharmacy staff involvement in oral healthcare within Australian community pharmacies include lack of knowledge, ongoing training and resources to assist practice. This study highlights that Australian pharmacists have an important role in oral health and provides evidence supporting the need for growing partnerships/collaborations between pharmacy and dental healthcare professionals and organisations to develop, implement and evaluate

  20. Improving medication adherence: a framework for community pharmacy-based interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle J

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Janice Pringle,1 Kim C Coley2 1Program Evaluation and Research Unit, Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Evidence supports that patient medication adherence is suboptimal with patients typically taking less than half of their prescribed doses. Medication nonadherence is associated with poor health outcomes and higher downstream health care costs. Results of studies evaluating pharmacist-led models in a community pharmacy setting and their impact on medication adherence have been mixed. Community pharmacists are ideally situated to provide medication adherence interventions, and effective strategies for how they can consistently improve patient medication adherence are necessary. This article suggests a framework to use in the community pharmacy setting that will significantly improve patient adherence and provides a strategy for how to apply this framework to develop and test new medication adherence innovations. The proposed framework is composed of the following elements: 1 defining the program's pharmacy service vision, 2 using evidence-based, patient-centered communication and intervention strategies, 3 using specific implementation approaches that ensure fidelity, and 4 applying continuous evaluation strategies. Within this framework, pharmacist interventions should include those services that capitalize on their specific skill sets. It is also essential that the organization's leadership effectively communicates the pharmacy service vision. Medication adherence strategies that are evidence-based and individualized to each patient's adherence problems are most desirable. Ideally, interventions would be delivered repeatedly over time and adjusted when patient's adherence circumstances change. Motivational interviewing principles are particularly well

  1. Community pharmacy owners' views of star ratings and performance measurement: In-depth interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C

    2016-01-01

    The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these

  2. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  3. Community pharmacy and mail order cost and utilization for 90-day maintenance medication prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Nikhil; Duncan, Ian; Rubinstein, Elan; Ahmed, Tamim; Pegus, Cheryl

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies promote mail order programs that typically dispense 90-day quantities of maintenance medications, marketing this feature as a key cost containment strategy to address plan sponsors' rising prescription drug expenditures. In recent years, community pharmacies have introduced 90-day programs that provide similar cost advantages, while allowing these prescriptions to be dispensed at the same pharmacies that patients frequent for 30-day quantities. To compare utilization rates and corresponding costs associated with obtaining 90-day prescriptions at community and mail order pharmacies for payers that offer equivalent benefits in different 90-day dispensing channels. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional investigation using pharmacy claims and eligibility data from employer group clients of a large PBM between January 2008 and September 2010. We excluded the following client types: government, third-party administrators, schools, hospitals, 340B (federal drug pricing), employers in Puerto Rico, and miscellaneous clients for which the PBM provided billing services (e.g., the pharmacy's loyalty card program members). All employer groups in the sample offered 90-day community pharmacy and mail order dispensing and received benefits management services, such as formulary management and mail order pharmacy, from the PBM. We further limited the sample to employer groups that offered equivalent benefits for community pharmacy and mail order, defined as groups in which the mean and median copayments per claim for community and mail order pharmacy, by tier, differed by no more than 5%. Enrollees in the sample were required to have a minimum of 6 months of eligibility in each calendar year but were not required to have filled a prescription in any year. We evaluated pharmacy costs and utilization for a market basket of 14 frequently dispensed therapeutic classes of maintenance medications. The proportional share of claims for

  4. The relevance of political prestudies for implementation studies of cognitive services in community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Søndergaard, Birthe

    2009-01-01

    of the analysis. Researchers and practitioners in the field of pharmacy practice research are increasingly being encouraged to take into account the specific political and societal climate which often plays a defining role in the success or failure of cognitive services implementation in community pharmacies...... or failure of these services.......BACKGROUND: Studies of cognitive services implementation in the pharmacy sector traditionally focus on individual and/or organizational factors to explain why some pharmacies are successful and others are not. The social and political context of the origins of these services is rarely part...

  5. Investigating the impact of the universal healthcare coverage programme on community pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    2017-10-09

    The introduction of Universal Healthcare Coverage (JKN) in 2014 has changed the landscape of the Indonesian healthcare and affected the community pharmacy sector. This paper investigates perceptions of healthcare and pharmacy stakeholders about the impact of JKN on the practice of pharmacists and pharmacy in both public (Puskesmas) and private (Community or Retail pharmacy) settings. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted from February to August 2016 involving 29 participants representing key stakeholders from different provinces in Indonesia. While JKN was actually designed with good policy objectives for pharmacy integration within primary care network, it has created some unintended and unanticipated distortion in the healthcare system which may be detrimental to the community pharmacy sector. In fact, community pharmacy practice is still limited to dispensing and continued to be hampered by ongoing challenges mainly pharmacists' absence, lack of clinical competence and limited support from regulation changes. It is a missed opportunity for pharmacists to play a greater role in primary care services indicating the need for an overhaul to pharmacy education and policy system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Campus to Community Linkages: Roles, Commitments, and Responsibilities of a Pharmacy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Maurice S.; Lewis, Henry, III; Kirksey, Otis W.; Harris, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    The Florida A & M University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Services' commitment to community outreach is evidenced in these program emphases: acceptance and retention portfolios for students and pharmacies; effective recruiting of local students into college programs; attention to critical health care deficiencies; applied research;…

  7. An evaluation of the quality of Turkish community pharmacy web sites concerning HON principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegenoglu, Selen; Sozen, Bilge; Aslan, Dilek; Calgan, Zeynep; Cagirci, Simge

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to find all the existing Web sites of Turkish community pharmacies and evaluate their "quality" in terms of Health on the Net (HON) Code of conduct principles. Multiple Internet search engines were used (google.com, yahoo.com, altavista.com, msn.com). While searching on the Internet, "eczane (pharmacy)" and "eczanesi (pharmacy of)" key words were used. The Internet search lasted for 2 months starting from March 1, 2007 until May 1, 2007. SPSS ver. 11.5 statistical program (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL) was used for data entry and analysis. At the end of the Internet search via all the indicated search engines, a total of 203 (all different from each other) community pharmacy Web sites were determined; of these, 14 were under construction and 6 were not accessible. As a result, 183 community pharmacy Web sites were included in the study. All of the Web sites could be accessed (100%). However, the availability of some characteristics of the pharmacies were quite poor. None of the pharmacies met all of the HON principles. Only 11 Web sites were appropriate in terms of complementarity (6.0%). Confidentiality criteria was met by only 14 pharmacies (7.7%). Nine pharmacies (4.9%) completed the "attribution" criteria. Among 183 pharmacy Web sites, the most met HON principle was the "transparency of authorship" (69 pharmacy Web sites; 37.7%). Because of the results of our study, the Turkish Pharmacists Association can take a pioneer role to apply some principles such as HON code of conduct in order to increase the quality of Turkish community pharmacists' Web sites.

  8. Association between community pharmacy loyalty and persistence and implementation of antipsychotic treatment among individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongo, Frank E; Moisan, Jocelyne; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Lesage, Alain; Dossa, Anara Richi; Lauzier, Sophie

    2016-12-28

    Non-adherence is a major obstacle to optimal treatment of schizophrenia. Community pharmacists are in a key position to detect non-adherence and put in place interventions. Their role is likely to be more efficient when individuals are loyal to a single pharmacy. To assess the association between the level of community pharmacy loyalty and persistence with and implementation of antipsychotic drug treatment among individuals with schizophrenia. A cohort study using databases from the Quebec health insurance board (Canada) was conducted among new antipsychotic users insured by Quebec's public drug plan. Level of community pharmacy loyalty was assessed as the number of pharmacies visited in the year after antipsychotics initiation. Persistence was defined as having an antipsychotic supply in the user's possession on the 730th day after its initiation and implementation as having antipsychotics in the user's possession for ≥80% of the days in the second year after antipsychotics initiation (among persistent only). Generalized linear models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). 6,251 individuals were included in the cohort and 54.1% had their drug prescriptions filled in >1 pharmacy. When compared to those who had their prescriptions filled in a single pharmacy, those who had their prescriptions filled in ≥4 different pharmacies were 22% more likely to be non-persistent (aPR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.10-1.37) and 49% more likely to have an antipsychotic for <80% of the days (aPR = 1.49; 95%IC = 1.28-1.74). This first exploration of community pharmacy loyalty in the context of severe mental illness indicates that this healthcare organisation factor might be associated with antipsychotics persistence and implementation. Identification of individuals with low community pharmacy loyalty and initiatives to optimize community pharmacy loyalty could contribute to enhanced persistence and implementation. Copyright

  9. Implementation of a community pharmacy-based falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Carri; Blalock, Susan J; Ferreri, Stefanie; Roth, Mary T; Demby, Karen B

    2011-10-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal unintentional injury among older adults in the United States. Multifaceted falls prevention programs, which have been reported to reduce the risk for falls among older adults, usually include a medication review and modification component. Based on a literature search, no randomized trials that have examined the effectiveness of this component have been published. The aim of this article was to report on a retrospective process evaluation of data from a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effectiveness of a medication review intervention, delivered through community pharmacies, on the rate of falls among community-dwelling older adults. Patients were recruited through 32 pharmacies in North Carolina. Participants were community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls based on age (≥ 65 years), number of concurrent medications (≥ 4), and medication classes (emphasis on CNS-active agents). The process evaluation measured the recruitment of patients into the study, the process through which the intervention was delivered, the extent to which patients implemented the recommendations for intervention, and the acceptance of pharmacists' recommendations by prescribing physicians. Of the 7793 patients contacted for study participation, 981 (12.6%) responded to the initial inquiry. A total of 801 (81.7%) participated in an eligibility interview, of whom 342 (42.7%) were eligible. Baseline data collection was completed in 186 of eligible patients (54.4%), who were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 93) or the control group (n = 93). Pharmacists delivered a medication review to 73 of the patients (78.5%) in the intervention group, with 41 recommendations for changes in medication, of which 10 (24.4%) were implemented. Of the 31 prescribing physicians contacted with pharmacists' recommendations, 14 (45.2%) responded, and 10 (32.3%) authorized the changes. Based on the findings from the

  10. A Quantitative Professionalism Policy in a Community Pharmacy Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Shtaynberg, Jane; Rivkin, Anastasia; Shah, Bupendra; Rush, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether implementing a quantitative professionalism policy would lead to improved behaviors in an introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and to evaluate students’ attitudes about professionalism expectations in the IPPE.

  11. The role of community pharmacy-based vaccination in the USA: current practice and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach AT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Albert T Bach, Jeffery A Goad School of Pharmacy, Chapman University, Irvine, California, USA Abstract: Community pharmacy-based provision of immunizations in the USA has become commonplace in the last few decades, with success in increasing rates of immunizations. Community pharmacy-based vaccination services are provided by pharmacists educated in the practice of immunization delivery and provide a convenient and accessible option for receiving immunizations. The pharmacist's role in immunization practice has been described as serving in the roles of educator, facilitator, and immunizer. With a majority of pharmacist-provided vaccinations occurring in the community pharmacy setting, there are many examples of community pharmacists serving in these immunization roles with successful outcomes. Different community pharmacies employ a number of different models and workflow practices that usually consist of a year-round in-house service staffed by their own immunizing pharmacist. Challenges that currently exist in this setting are variability in scopes of immunization practice for pharmacists across states, inconsistent reimbursement mechanisms, and barriers in technology. Many of these challenges can be alleviated by continual education; working with legislators, state boards of pharmacy, stakeholders, and payers to standardize laws; and reimbursement design. Other challenges that may need to be addressed are improvements in communication and continuity of care between community pharmacists and the patient centered medical home. Keywords: immunization, pharmacy practice, pharmacists, continuity of care 

  12. A Bibliometric Study of Community Pharmacy-Based Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    1. 1.1. NA. Patient Education and Counseling. 1. 1.1. 2.305. Patient Preference and Adherence. 1. 1.1. 1.143. Pharmaceutical Journal. 1. 1.1. NA. Pharmacy Practice. 7. 7.5. NA. Pharmacy World and Science. 7. 7.5. 1.215. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 1. 1.1. 2.35. Research Journal of Medical Sciences.

  13. Benefits and tensions in delivering public health in community pharmacies - a qualitative study of healthy living pharmacy staff champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Tsoneva, Jo

    2017-10-01

    Healthy Living Pharmacies (HLP) were introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in a further attempt to deliver public health benefits in community pharmacy settings. Central to the initiative are staff trained as Healthy Living Champions (HLC) and this study sought to explore HLC perceptions of positive and negative aspect of their work and the wider scheme. A qualitative study was undertaken with a purposive sample of HLCs working in pathfinder HCPs in the Sheffield area in 2014. Participants were recruited by email to either a focus group (n = 7) held at a training event or later semi-structured one-to-one interviews in pharmacies (n = 6). Four stages of interpretative phenomenological analysis were used to code and identify themes. Four main themes emerged relating to the positive workforce development impact HLPs had upon HLCs themselves and on perceived customer and patient engagement and benefits. Tensions were identified with existing commercial business demands and negative views overall of the pharmacy setting with a perceived lack of not only integration with other services but also awareness among the public and health care staff. HLCs felt empowered and more confident in initiating conversation about health issues with patients, but identified barriers relating to workload, a lack of time to perform their role, isolation, tensions with non-HLC staff and logistical barriers such as poor Internet access. Delivering public health activities through the HLC role in UK pharmacies is associated with several perceived benefits for different stakeholders, but may be threatened by well recognised barriers in UK pharmacies related to the commercial setting. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of training of dispensers on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in context to storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines in Islamabad, Pakistan.Method: A randomized, controlled, blinded intervention study was designed and implemented. Before the implementation of intervention, a baseline study was performed to assess the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies. The study population included all community pharmacy outlets in Islamabad. Pharmacies of Islamabad which were visited in pre intervention phase (n=118 were divided into two geographical regions: A (intervention and B (control. Thirty pharmacies were randomly selected from each region. Keeping in view the results of the baseline study an educational intervention was designed to improve the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.Results: A significant difference in the overall knowledge of dispensers was observed between the pre-post intervention groups. Knowledge of dispensers regarding storage of drugs, prescription terminologies and status of drugs was improved after the training. On the other hand no significant difference was observed between the pre-post control groups.Conclusion: The study has highlighted that improvements in knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies are possible through suitable interventions. But, results of interventions can only be sustainable through continuous monitoring and reinforcement of the training.

  15. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Malik, Madeeha

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of training of dispensers on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in context to storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines in Islamabad, Pakistan. A randomized, controlled, blinded intervention study was designed and implemented. Before the implementation of intervention, a baseline study was performed to assess the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies. The study population included all community pharmacy outlets in Islamabad. Pharmacies of Islamabad which were visited in pre intervention phase (n=118) were divided into two geographical regions: A (intervention) and B (control). Thirty pharmacies were randomly selected from each region. Keeping in view the results of the baseline study an educational intervention was designed to improve the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. A significant difference in the overall knowledge of dispensers was observed between the pre-post intervention groups. Knowledge of dispensers regarding storage of drugs, prescription terminologies and status of drugs was improved after the training. On the other hand no significant difference was observed between the pre-post control groups. The study has highlighted that improvements in knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies are possible through suitable interventions. But, results of interventions can only be sustainable through continuous monitoring and reinforcement of the training.

  16. Managing Minor Ailments; The Public's Preferences for Attributes of Community Pharmacies. A Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Porteous

    Full Text Available Demand for health services continues to rise. Greater use of community pharmacy services instead of medical services for minor ailments could help relieve pressure on healthcare providers in high-cost settings. Community pharmacies are recognised sources of treatment and advice for people wishing to manage these ailments. However, increasing the public's use of pharmacy services may depend on attributes of pharmacies and their staff. This study aimed to determine the general public's relative preferences for community pharmacy attributes using a discrete choice experiment (DCE.A UK-wide DCE survey of the general public was conducted using face-to-face computer-assisted personal interviews. Attributes and levels for the DCE were informed by a literature review and a cohort study of community pharmacy customers. The context for the experiment was a minor ailment scenario describing flu-like symptoms. The DCE choice sets described two hypothetical community pharmacy services; respondents were asked to choose which (if either of the two pharmacies they would prefer to help them manage symptoms. Data from 1,049 interviews were analysed using an error components logit model. Willingness to pay (WTP, a monetary measure of benefit, was estimated for the different attribute levels.When seeking help or treatment for flu-like symptoms, respondents most valued a pharmacy service that would improve their understanding and management of symptoms (WTP = £6.28, provided by staff who are trained (WTP (pharmacist = £2.63: WTP(trained assistant = £3.22, friendly and approachable (WTP = £3.38. Waiting time, pharmacy location and availability of parking also contributed to respondents' preferences. WTP for a service comprising the best possible combination of attributes and levels was calculated as £55.43.Attributes of a community pharmacy and its staff may influence people's decisions about which pharmacy they would visit to access treatment and advice for

  17. Capacity to deliver pharmaceutical care by community pharmacies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty (40), 20 and 70 percent of the pharmacies had neat physical appearance, adequate parking spaces and consistent professional signs respectively, while 53% had a private consulting area. One hundred percent of the pharmacies had ceiling in the drug storage areas, while 90, and 63% had at least one functional ...

  18. Information Technology Use in Community Pharmacies in Harare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy worldwide. This study was undertaken to determine the pharmacists\\' IT use, utilization patterns and their opinions regarding IT use. The majority of pharmacies had networked computers (71.7%) and internet connections (60.9%). Pharmacists had poor ...

  19. Information Technology Use in Community Pharmacies in Harare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information technology (IT) has transformed the practice of pharmacy worldwide. This study was undertaken to determine ... knowledge and utilization of IT. Key words: Information technology, pharmacy, Harare, Zimbabwe. INTRODUCTION .... tertiary care teaching hospital in Vancouver,. British Columbia [5]. The situation is.

  20. A characterization of the current communication patterns in Danish community pharmacies - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Susanne; Mygind, Anna; Saleem, Sahdia

    2013-01-01

    Community pharmacies have been trying to expand their core function by counseling customers at the counter. This has been challenging given that customers' interest in receiving counseling may be limited....

  1. “Click for Closer Care”: A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    Background: Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain

  2. Medication therapy management services in community pharmacy: a pilot programme in HIV specialty pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenquist, Ashley; Best, Brookie M; Miller, Teresa A; Gilmer, Todd P; Hirsch, Jan D

    2010-12-01

    Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazed Sulaiman Al-Ruthia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies’ purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06% reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  4. Prevalence and types of disease management programs in community pharmacies in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Anandi V; Okamoto, Mark P; Chang, Peter S

    2005-01-01

    To (1) evaluate the prevalence and types of disease management (DM) programs provided by independent and chain community pharmacies in the state of California, (2) examine the interest among community pharmacists in establishing programs, and (3) assess perceived barriers to developing a successful DM program in community pharmacy. An exploratory telephone survey was conducted from February 2003 to February 2004 to collect data from community (primarily independent and chainstore) pharmacies across California. The survey evaluated existence (or lack of) and types of DM programs in community pharmacies in California. Pharmacies that did not have a DM program were queried on their interest and decisionmaking authority in establishing new programs. Pharmacies that had existing DM programs were sent a follow-up survey to determine the details of the DM programs, including challenges in establishing DM programs, reimbursement issues, and program effectiveness. The sample comprised 1,875 pharmacies, 60 (3.2%) of which had existing DM programs. There were significantly more independent pharmacies (37) with DM programs than chain-store pharmacies (23), Ptype of DM program was diabetes, and the second most common type was asthma. Limited time, limited staff, and limited reimbursement were the 3 most commonly reported barriers to establishing new DM programs. About 20% of the sample that did not have a DM program reported interest in developing DM programs, and an equal percentage reported having the decision-making authority to start a program. There were no differences between independent and chain pharmacies on interest (P = 0.234); however, there were significantly more chain pharmacists that did not have the decision-making authority. Of the 18 of 60 pharmacies (30%) that had DM programs and responded to the follow-up survey, 9 respondents (50%) reported monitoring medications as part of their DM program. Fifteen of 18 (83%) perceived lack of reimbursement as a

  5. Dispensing practice in the community pharmacies in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcekus, Laika; Toklu, Hale Zerrin; Demirdamar, Rumeysa; Gumusel, Bulent

    2012-04-01

    Good pharmacy practice is the process of supplying the accurate drug to the right patient for an adequate period of time with the lowest cost to the patient and the community. Pharmacist have a crucial role in promoting good pharmacy practice. To assess the dispensing practice of the community pharmacists in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) regarding RDU and to evaluate the quality of dispensing. Setting Community pharmacies in TRNC. Method The study consists of two parts: a face to face interview and a simulated patient visit to these pharmacies. Rationality indicators (average dispensing time, stock availability and adequate labelling), presence of the pharmacist on the premises, dispenser characteristics, prescription checking, and the provided patient information. The majority of the prescriptions (73.3%) were dispensed by the pharmacists. None of the pharmacy employees had pharmacy based training. Eighty nine percent of the pharmacists believed that their employees could very well dispense drugs on their own. The declared average dispensing time for a prescription of a single drug was 233 s while the measured one was 149 s. Few dispensers in reality warned the patient about potential interactions. The difference between the average dispensing scores of the pharmacists and the non-pharmacist dispensers was not significant. The dispensing practice in the community pharmacies in the Turkish part of Cyprus seems inadequate in terms of GPP.

  6. Impact of educational intervention on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain A; Ibrahim MI; Malik M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of training of dispensers on knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies in context to storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods A randomized, controlled, blinded intervention study was designed and implemented. Before the implementation of intervention, a baseline study was performed to assess the knowledge of dispensers working at community pharmacies. The study population included all...

  7. Investigating influences on current community pharmacy practice at micro, meso, and macro levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    The nature of Australian community pharmacy is continually evolving, raising the need to explore the current situation in order to understand the potential impact of any changes. Although community pharmacy has the potential to play a greater role in health care, it is currently not meeting this potential. To investigate the nature of the contemporary practice of community pharmacy in Australia and examine the potential missed opportunities for role expansion in health care. In-depth semi-structured interviews with a wide-range of key stakeholders within and beyond community pharmacy circles were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed for emerging themes. Twenty-seven key informants across Eastern half of Australia were interviewed between December 2014 and August 2015. Several key elements of the current situation representing the social, economic and policy context of community pharmacy have been identified. These elements operate interdependently, influence micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation and are changing in the current climate. Community pharmacy has untapped potential in primary health care, but it has been slow to change to meet opportunities available in the current situation. As the current situation is complex, interrelated and dynamic with often unintended and unpredictable consequences, this paper suggests that policy makers to consider the micro, meso and macro levels of community pharmacy operation when making significant policy changes. The framework proposed in this study can be a helpful tool to analyze the processes operating at these three levels and their influences on practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Social and economic value of Portuguese community pharmacies in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Jorge; Ferreira, Diana; Afonso-Silva, Marta; Gomes, Marta Vargas; Ferreira, César; Vandewalle, Björn; Marques, Sara; Mota, Melina; Costa, Suzete; Cary, Maria; Teixeira, Inês; Paulino, Ema; Macedo, Bruno; Barbosa, Carlos Maurício

    2017-08-29

    Community pharmacies are major contributors to health care systems across the world. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate community pharmacies services in health care. The purpose of this study was to estimate the social and economic benefits of current and potential future community pharmacies services provided by pharmacists in health care in Portugal. The social and economic value of community pharmacies services was estimated through a decision-model. Model inputs included effectiveness data, quality of life (QoL) and health resource consumption, obtained though literature review and adapted to Portuguese reality by an expert panel. The estimated economic value was the result of non-remunerated pharmaceutical services plus health resource consumption potentially avoided. Social and economic value of community pharmacies services derives from the comparison of two scenarios: "with service" versus "without service". It is estimated that current community pharmacies services in Portugal provide a gain in QoL of 8.3% and an economic value of 879.6 million euros (M€), including 342.1 M€ in non-remunerated pharmaceutical services and 448.1 M€ in avoided expense with health resource consumption. Potential future community pharmacies services may provide an additional increase of 6.9% in QoL and be associated with an economic value of 144.8 M€: 120.3 M€ in non-remunerated services and 24.5 M€ in potential savings with health resource consumption. Community pharmacies services provide considerable benefit in QoL and economic value. An increase range of services including a greater integration in primary and secondary care, among other transversal services, may add further social and economic value to the society.

  9. Health literacy among consumers in community pharmacy: perceptions of pharmacy staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairuz, Therese E; Bellamy, Kim M; Lord, Elisabeth; Ostini, Remo; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2015-10-01

    Low health literacy has important consequences for health status, medication adherence and use of health services. There is little insight from the perspective of pharmacy staff into how they identify the information needs of consumers and particularly the signals and risk factors of limited health literacy that they encounter in their day-to-day communication with consumers. To investigate factors impacting on consumer health literacy, from the perspective of pharmacy staff. The research comprised semi-structured interviews conducted in a convenience sample of pharmacies in the south-east region of Queensland, Australia. Eleven pharmacists and nine pharmacy assistants agreed to participate. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding of the anonymized transcripts was performed using NVivo(®). Codes were analysed into overarching themes and subthemes, which were then re-named and refined through consensus discussion. Three overarching themes were identified from the coding process: complexity of the health system, clarity of information, and dialogue among consumers and health-care professionals. Two of the themes were system related, namely the health system and pharmacy labels; the health literacy issues included lack of clarity, complexity and misunderstanding. The third theme was related to communication. Complexity of the health system, clarity of information and dialogue among consumers and health-care professionals were identified as factors associated with consumers' health literacy. We call for increased engagement between pharmacy staff and consumers with improved focus on areas of potential confusion, such as medicine labels and navigation of the health system, aiming to minimize negative consequences of limited health literacy and optimize patient health outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. E-prescribing: Characterization of Patient Safety Hazards in Community Pharmacies Using a Sociotechnical Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize safety hazards related to e-prescribing in community pharmacies. Methods The Sociotechnical Systems (STS) framework was used to investigate the e-prescribing technology interface in community pharmacies by taking into consideration the social, technical and environmental work elements of a user’s interaction with technology. This study focused specifically on aspects of the social subsystem. Study Design and Setting The study employed a cross-sectional qualitative design and was conducted in seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Direct observations, think aloud protocols, and group interviews were conducted with 14 pharmacists and 16 technicians, and audio-recorded. Recordings were transcribed and subjected to thematic content analysis guided by the sociotechnical systems theoretical framework. Results Three major themes that may increase the potential for medication errors with e-prescribing were identified and described. The three themes included: (1) increased cognitive burden on pharmacy staff, such as having to memorize parts of e-prescriptions or having to perform dosage calculations mentally; (2) interruptions during the e-prescription dispensing process; and (3) communication issues with prescribers, patients, and among pharmacy staff. Pharmacy staff reported these consequences of e-prescribing increased the likelihood of medication errors. Conclusions This study is the first of its kind to identify patient safety risks related to e-prescribing in community pharmacies using a sociotechnical systems framework. The findings shed light on potential interventions that may enhance patient safety in pharmacies and facilitate improved e-prescribing use. Future studies should confirm patient safety hazards reported and identify ways to utilize e-prescribing effectively and safely in community pharmacies. PMID:23708439

  11. Impact of a passive social marketing intervention in community pharmacies on oral contraceptive and condom sales: a quasi-experimental study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farris, Karen B; Aquilino, Mary L; Batra, Peter; Marshall, Vince; Losch, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    .... Often, contraceptive products are obtained in community pharmacies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a pharmacy-based intervention would impact sales of contraceptive products in pharmacies...

  12. Community Pharmacists' Views and Practices Regarding Natural Health Products Sold in Community Pharmacies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaka Ogbogu

    Full Text Available Reports of regulatory and evidentiary gaps have raised concerns about the marketing and use of natural health products (NHPs. The majority of NHPs offered for sale are purchased at a community pharmacy and pharmacists are "front-line" health professionals involved in the marketing and provision of NHPs. To date, the involvement of pharmacists in pharmacy care involving NHPs and the degree to which concerns over the safety, efficacy, marketing and regulation of NHPs are addressed in pharmacy care in Canada have not been studied.Using Qualtrics, a web-based data collection and analysis software, and a study instrument made up of fifteen (15 open-ended, closed and rating scale questions, we surveyed the attitudes and practices of 403 community pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta regarding NHPs offered for sale in community pharmacies.The majority of pharmacists surveyed (276; 68% recommend NHPs to clients sometimes to very often. Vitamin D, calcium, multivitamins, prenatal vitamins, probiotics and fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids were the most frequently recommended NHPs. The most common indications for which NHPs are recommended include bone and musculoskeletal disorders, maintenance of general health, gastrointestinal disorders and pregnancy. Review articles published in the Pharmacist's Letter and Canadian Pharmacists Journal were the primary basis for recommending NHPs. The majority of pharmacists surveyed (339; 84% recommend the use of NHPs concurrently with conventional drugs, while a significant number and proportion (125; 31% recommend alternative use. Pharmacists in the study overwhelmingly reported providing counselling on NHPs to clients based on information obtained mainly from the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.The study findings indicate a high prevalence of pharmacy care relating to NHPs among study participants. Although pharmacists' practices around NHPs are consistent with the existing licensing framework, we

  13. Summative service and stakeholder evaluation of an NHS-funded community Pharmacy Emergency Repeat Medication Supply Service (PERMSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Service and stakeholder evaluation of an NHS-funded service providing out-ofhours (OOH) emergency repeat medications to patients self-presenting at community pharmacies. Setting: Community pharmacies across the North East of England accredited to provide this service. Participants: Patients self-presenting to community pharmacies during OOH periods with emergency repeat medication supply requests. Intervention: Community pharmacists assessed each request for clinical appr...

  14. OA53 "dementia friendly pharmacies" a community based health promotion project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimerl, Katharina; Plunger, Petra; Tatzer, Verena; Reitinger, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Inspired by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, which is a major point of reference also for the "Compassionate Communities", we would like to propose that communities consolidate various settings like schools, workplaces, and health care organisations like community pharmacies, all of which might be included in a compassionate communities approach. We aim at enabling community pharmacies to offer informal consulting and support for people with dementia and their informal caregivers. Furthermore we want to support pharmacies to reach out in the community through various activities. By this means the project seeks to contribute to de-stigmatising dementia. The project is based on the approach "Participatory Health Research" (Hockley, Froggatt, Heimerl 2013; Wright et al . 2010). The core elements of the approach are participation, action and reflection. Approximately 40 staff (almost exclusively women) in 18 community pharmacies actively participates in the project, i.e. needs assessment, interactive workshops, practice projects and evaluation. People with dementia and their informal care givers are included in the needs assessment and in different steps of the programme. Community pharmacy staff raised several issues, closely related to communication, counselling and providing advice in a community pharmacy setting: They believe further development of professional practice to be important, since dementia care will become a more prominent issue for the community pharmacy. Moreover, a high frequency of contact with people living with dementia and their caregivers was reported by the majority of staff. Professional competencies related to dementia care are a key issue, and community pharmacy personnel viewed their practice with a critical eye: Communicating with disoriented persons poses some challenges, as does communicating with caregivers. In the still ongoing project the raised issues are being dealt with in practice projects that are performed by the

  15. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigg, Michael J; Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L; Desborough, James A; Thornley, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify their own personalised goals was seen as a

  16. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David; Kirkdale, Charlotte L.; Desborough, James A.; Thornley, Tracey

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England. Objective Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service. Method Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service. Results Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2%) patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1%) setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge. Conclusion Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify

  17. The UK Pharmacy Care Plan service: Description, recruitment and initial views on a new community pharmacy intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Twigg

    Full Text Available The UK government advocates person-centred healthcare which is ideal for supporting patients to make appropriate lifestyle choices and to address non-adherence. The Community Pharmacy Future group, a collaboration between community pharmacy companies and independents in the UK, introduced a person-centred service for patients with multiple long-term conditions in 50 pharmacies in Northern England.Describe the initial findings from the set up and delivery of a novel community pharmacy-based person-centred service.Patients over fifty years of age prescribed more than one medicine including at least one for cardiovascular disease or diabetes were enrolled. Medication review and person-centred consultation resulted in agreed health goals and steps towards achieving them. Data were collated and analysed to determine appropriateness of patient recruitment process and quality of outcome data collection. A focus group of seven pharmacists was used to ascertain initial views on the service.Within 3 months of service initiation, 683 patients had baseline clinical data recorded, of which 86.9% were overweight or obese, 53.7% had hypertension and 80.8% had high cardiovascular risk. 544 (77.2% patients set at least one goal during the first consultation with 120 (22.1% setting multiple goals. A majority of patients identified their goals as improvement in condition, activity or quality of life. Pharmacists could see the potential patient benefit and the extended role opportunities the service provided. Allowing patients to set their own goals occasionally identified gaps to be addressed in pharmacist knowledge.Pharmacists successfully recruited a large number of patients who were appropriate for such a service. Patients were willing to identify goals with the pharmacist, the majority of which, if met, may result in improvements in quality of life. While challenges in delivery were acknowledged, allowing patients to identify their own personalised goals was

  18. Assessment of Family Planning Services at Community Pharmacies in San Diego, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Rafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Levonorgestrel emergency contraception and other contraceptive methods are available over-the-counter (OTC; however youth continue to face a number of barriers in accessing healthcare services, including lack of knowledge of the method, fear of loss of privacy, difficulties in finding a provider, and cost. A descriptive, nonexperimental, cross-sectional study of a sample of 112 community pharmacies in San Diego, California was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 to assess community pharmacy practices related to the availability and accessibility of family planning health pharmacy services and products, particularly to youth. A majority (n = 79/112, 70.5% of the pharmacies carried a wide selection of male condoms; however, the other OTC nonhormonal contraceptive products were either not available or available with limited selection. A majority of the pharmacies sold emergency contraception (n = 88/111, 78.6%. Most patient counseling areas consisted of either a public or a semi-private area. A majority of the pharmacy sites did not provide materials or services targeting youth. Significant gaps exist in providing family planning products and services in the majority of community pharmacies in San Diego, California. Education and outreach efforts are needed to promote provision of products and services, particularly to the adolescent population.

  19. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, A B; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn....... Previous participation in a study or activity on drug-related problems and the size of the pharmacy also had statistically significant effects on the problem detection rate. The use of open-ended questions to create a dialogue with the patient seemed to be a successful means to discover problems....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  20. Net Income of Pharmacy Faculty Compared to Community and Hospital Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To compare the net cumulative income of community pharmacists, hospital pharmacists, and full-time pharmacy faculty members (residency-trained or with a PhD after obtaining a PharmD) in pharmacy practice, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, pharmacology, and social and administrative sciences. Methods. Markov modeling was conducted to calculate net projected cumulative earnings of career paths by estimating the costs of education, including the costs of obtaining degrees and student loans. Results. The economic model spanned 49 years, from ages 18 to 67 years. Earning a PharmD and pursuing an academic career resulted in projected net cumulative lifetime earnings ranging from approximately $4.7 million to $6.3 million. A pharmacy practice faculty position following public pharmacy school and one year of residency resulted in higher net cumulative income than community pharmacy. Faculty members with postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) training also had higher net income than other faculty and hospital pharmacy career paths, given similar years of prepharmacy education and type of pharmacy school attended. Faculty members with either a PharmD or PhD in the pharmacology discipline may net as much as $5.9 million and outpace all other PhD graduates by at least $75 000 in lifetime earnings. Projected career earnings of postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) trained faculty and PharmD/PhD faculty members were lower than those of community pharmacists. Findings were more variable when comparing pharmacy faculty members and hospital pharmacists. Conclusion. With the exception of PGY1 trained academic pharmacists, faculty projected net cumulative incomes generally lagged behind community pharmacists, likely because of delayed entry into the job market as a result of advanced training/education. However, nonsalary benefits such as greater flexibility and autonomy may enhance the desirability of academic pharmacy as a career path.

  1. Effect of strategic planning education on attitudes and perceptions of independent community pharmacy owners/managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    To assess the impact of formal education program participation on the attitudes and perceptions of independent community pharmacy owners/managers toward strategic planning. Cross-sectional study. United States; June 4-July 30, 2004. Nationwide random sample of 1,250 owners/managers of independent community pharmacies. Mailed survey. Strategic planning formal education program participation. Comprehensiveness of strategic planning. Attitudes and perceptions of owners/managers of independent community pharmacies toward strategic planning. A total of 527 (42.1%) usable questionnaires were returned. Only 124 (23.5%) respondents indicated that they participated in a formal strategic planning education program. However, of the 141 (26.85%) respondents who indicated that they had conducted strategic planning for their community pharmacy, 111 (89.5%) had participated in a formal strategic planning education program. A significant association was detected between formal education program participation and the conducting of strategic planning (Pcommunity pharmacy owners/managers toward strategic planning based on program participation (Pmanagers of independent community pharmacies, and those participating in such programs have significantly different attitudes and perceptions toward the conducting of strategic planning and have a significantly higher comprehensiveness of strategic planning rating.

  2. Do remote community telepharmacies have higher medication error rates than traditional community pharmacies? Evidence from the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesner, Daniel L; Scott, David M; Rathke, Ann M; Peterson, Charles D; Anderson, Howard C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in medication dispensing errors between remote telepharmacy sites (pharmacist not physically present) and standard community pharmacy sites (pharmacist physically present and no telepharmacy technology; comparison group). Pilot, cross-sectional, comparison study. North Dakota from January 2005 to September 2008. Pharmacy staff at 14 remote telepharmacy sites and 8 comparison community pharmacies. The Pharmacy Quality Commitment (PQC) reporting system was incorporated into the North Dakota Telepharmacy Project. A session was conducted to train pharmacists and technicians on use of the PQC system. A quality-related event (QRE) was defined as either a near miss (i.e., mistake caught before reaching patient; pharmacy discovery), or an error (i.e., mistake discovered after patient received medication; patient discovery). QREs for prescriptions. During a 45-month period, the remote telepharmacy group reported 47,078 prescriptions and 631 QREs compared with 123,346 prescriptions and 1,002 QREs in the standard pharmacy group. Results for near misses (pharmacy discovery) and errors (patient discovery) for the remote and comparison sites were 553 and 887 and 78 and 125, respectively. Percentage of "where the mistake was caught" (i.e., pharmacist check) for the remote and comparison sites were 58% and 69%, respectively. This study reported a lower overall rate (1.0%) and a slight difference in medication dispensing error rates between remote telepharmacy sites (1.3%) and comparison sites (0.8%). Both rates are comparable with nationally reported levels (1.7% error rate for 50 pharmacies).

  3. The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2014-08-12

    To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation--a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people--from various levels of deprivation--around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies

  5. E-Prescribing Errors in Community Pharmacies: Exploring Consequences and Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jamie A.; Chui, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore types of e-prescribing errors in community pharmacies and their potential consequences, as well as the factors that contribute to e-prescribing errors. Methods Data collection involved performing 45 total hours of direct observations in five pharmacies. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 20 study participants. Transcripts from observations and interviews were subjected to content analysis using NVivo 10. Results Pharmacy staff detected 75 e-prescription errors during the 45 hour observation in pharmacies. The most common e-prescribing errors were wrong drug quantity, wrong dosing directions, wrong duration of therapy, and wrong dosage formulation. Participants estimated that 5 in 100 e-prescriptions have errors. Drug classes that were implicated in e-prescribing errors were antiinfectives, inhalers, ophthalmic, and topical agents. The potential consequences of e-prescribing errors included increased likelihood of the patient receiving incorrect drug therapy, poor disease management for patients, additional work for pharmacy personnel, increased cost for pharmacies and patients, and frustrations for patients and pharmacy staff. Factors that contribute to errors included: technology incompatibility between pharmacy and clinic systems, technology design issues such as use of auto-populate features and dropdown menus, and inadvertently entering incorrect information. Conclusion Study findings suggest that a wide range of e-prescribing errors are encountered in community pharmacies. Pharmacists and technicians perceive that causes of e-prescribing errors are multidisciplinary and multifactorial, that is to say e-prescribing errors can originate from technology used in prescriber offices and pharmacies. PMID:24657055

  6. Requests for emergency contraception in community pharmacy: an evaluation of services provided to mystery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Samantha J; Hattingh, H Laetitia

    2013-01-01

    Requests for supply of the emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) through community pharmacies require consideration of a range of factors and the application of professional judgment. Pharmacists should therefore be able to follow a structured reasoning process. The research involved an assessment of history taking and counseling by pharmacy staff through mystery patient emergency contraception product requests. Two challenging ECP request case scenarios were developed with assessment tools. Mystery patients were trained to present the scenarios to pharmacies. A project information package and expression of interest form was posted to 135 pharmacies in the Gold Coast, Australia; 23 (17%) pharmacies agreed to participate. Pharmacy staff was exposed to 1 of 2 scenarios during December 2010. Staff interactions were recorded, analyzed, and rated to evaluate the management of ECP requests. The results identified practice gaps among pharmacy staff with respect to information gathering and the provision of advice. Ongoing training is required to enhance the skills, competence, and confidence of pharmacy staff in managing complicated requests for nonprescription medicines, such as the ECP. The impact of time pressures and financial burdens on the provision of pharmaceutical services needs to be acknowledged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer views of community pharmacy services in Bangalore city, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash G

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The opinion about pharmacy services was studied using an instrument which measured satisfaction with pharmacy services. The main focus of the instrument was to assess patients’ opinion and expectation of the present pharmacy services. Method: The instrument contained 20 items, which were grouped based on their similarity into eight dimensions, namely, General satisfaction, Interpersonal Skill, Evaluation, Gathering non-medical information, Trust, Helping Patients, Explanation, and Finance. Chance random sampling was done and the participants were the general public above the age of 18 years. The main outcome measure was to study participants’ opinion regarding the current and desired pharmacy services. Descriptive statistics are presented for the satisfaction dimension score. The level of satisfaction with the different dimensions was compared across the different demographic characteristics.Result: The study results revealed significant difference in the General satisfaction and Interpersonal skill amongst the gender. Significant difference was seen in the Helping patients, Evaluation and Explanation skill among the various age groups. Education background showed significant difference in evaluation, Gathering-non-medical information, Helping patients and Explanation skills of the pharmacist. There was an overall satisfaction dimension score of 56.83% in the current practice and 68.83% in the desired practice. Conclusion: Awareness about pharmacy service continuing education programme for practicing pharmacist will heighten the pharmacy profession in our country.

  8. Medicare star ratings: stakeholder proceedings on community pharmacy and managed care partnerships in quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy; American Pharmacists Association

    2014-01-01

    To describe the Medicare star rating system, created by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in 2007; identify quality measures that can potentially be improved through collaboration between health plans and community pharmacy; provide examples of current collaboration between health plans and community pharmacy; and identify collaboration goals, challenges, components, and strategies. National thought leaders at a conference titled CMS Star Ratings: A Stakeholder Discussion, held on March 21, 2013, supplemented with related information from the literature. The Medicare star rating system is part of CMS's efforts to define, measure, and reward quality health care. Approximately one-half of the star rating performance measures can be influenced directly by community pharmacists working in conjunction with payers that must meet the quality measures. In 2012, a weighting system for star ratings was implemented. Of 10 triple-weighted ratings, 8 are related directly and indirectly to medication therapy and thus have the potential to be improved by pharmacist intervention. Plan ratings can have a substantial impact on beneficiary enrollment. Since very small improvements in performance measures can translate into large effects on star ratings, concerted efforts to improve pharmacy-related measures could move a plan to a higher star rating; conversely, inattention to areas such as high-risk medications, antidiabetic pharmacotherapy, and medication adherence could lower a plan's star rating. Topics discussed in this article include the Electronic Quality Improvement Platform for Plans and Pharmacies, or EQUIPP, the payer perspective on pharmacies, programs currently under way in community pharmacies, and ways plans and pharmacies can better collaborate with each other. The pharmacist's ability to work directly with patients to improve medication use is a critical factor in improving health plan Medicare star ratings. Health plans and community pharmacies must

  9. Integrating community pharmacy into community based anti-retroviral therapy program: A pilot implementation in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanna Kambai Avong

    Full Text Available The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV epidemic control is shifting with the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS 90-90-90 benchmarks for epidemic control. Community-based Antiretroviral Therapy (CART models have improved treatment uptake and demonstrated good clinical outcomes. We assessed the feasibility of integrating community pharmacy as a task shift structure for differentiated community ART in Abuja-Nigeria.Stable patients on first line ART regimens from public health facilities were referred to community pharmacies in different locations within the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja for prescription refills and treatment maintenance. Bio-demographic and clinical data were collected from February 25, 2016 to May 31st, 2017 and descriptive statistics analysis applied. The outcomes of measure were prescription refill and patient retention in care at the community pharmacy.Almost 10% of stable patients on treatment were successfully devolved from eight health facilities to ten community pharmacies. Median age of the participants was 35 years [interquartile range (IQR; 30, 41] with married women in the majority. Prescription refill was 100% and almost all the participants (99.3% were retained in care after they were devolved to the community pharmacies. Only one participant was lost-to-follow-up as a result of death.Excellent prescription refill and high retention in care with very low loss-to-follow-up were associated with the community pharmacy model. The use of community pharmacy for community ART is feasible in Nigeria. We recommend the scale up of the model in all the 36 states of Nigeria.

  10. Self-medication Activities in a Community Pharmacy for Student Pharmacist Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare published "the required function and the desired operating form of a pharmacy" and proposed that "a pharmacy should demonstrate a positive role for the promotion of self-medication". In the future, it will be indispensable to pharmacies that pharmacists play a role not only in dispensing medicine but also in serving a central health-station role in the community, including promoting the self-selection of proper OTC medications for the maintenance of health. My pharmacy in a traditional area in Tokyo carries OTC drugs, health and nursing care goods, medical supplies, etc. besides dispensing medicine by prescription. Moreover, a "sample measurement room" where a person can conduct a blood test by self-puncture was prepared in April of 2014. In addition, my pharmacy has held "health consultation meetings" for patients in collaboration with a registered dietitian, as well as "meetings for briefing sessions on how to better take or administer medicines" for parents of infants, etc. These activities have been useful to local residents in the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and in promoting a better understanding of medicine. Moreover, on-site student trainees from schools of pharmacy are helping with planning, data collection, and explanation on the days of these meetings. For trainees from schools of pharmacy, participating in these activities is important to becoming a pharmacist trusted at the community level in the future.

  11. Abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs sold in community pharmacies in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Wazaify, Mayyada; Yousef, Al-Motassem; Tahaineh, Linda

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs in community pharmacies in Jordan by random distribution of a structured questionnaire to 405 pharmacies (November 2005-January 2006). Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows (version 14.0). Most respondents (94.1%) suspected that some level of abuse/misuse occurred in their pharmacy, which was highest for decongestants, cough/cold preparations, benzodiazepines, and antibiotics. Abuse/misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs is present in Jordan, but current methods for controlling the problem are ineffective, and better methods should be developed. The study's limitations are noted..

  12. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Thamir M; Alhindi, Salman A; Alrashdi, Ahmed M; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance among community pharmacies. Pharmacies were selected in random and researchers (disguised as patients) requested to purchase prescription-only medications in the absence of a prescription. Not all medications were purchased at once. Data were recorded per pharmacy, where pharmacies that approved dispense of the selected drug were scored as non-compliant and the pharmacies that rejected dispense of the selected drug were scored as compliant. Compliance rate was calculated per region per drug. Pharmacies based in governmental hospitals were visited in parallel. A total of 20 were visited. Data and statistical analysis were performed using Statistical Analyses Software (SAS 9.3). A total of 150 pharmacies were visited over a period of 3 months. On average, the percent approved dispense of prescription-only drugs across 6 regions in Saudi Arabia is 63% and the percent rejected dispense is 37% representing a significant non-compliance rate regarding the selected list of medications in this study. The frequency of dispense per medication across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia is as follows: Isosorbide dinitrate (86%), Enoxaparin (82%), nitroglycerin (74%), Propranolol (73%), Verapamil (70%), Warfarin (65%), Methyldopa (64%), Ciprofloxacin (57%) and Codeine (4%). Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities .

  13. Understanding community pharmacy intervention practice: lessons from intervention researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Judith H; Lowe, John B; Hughes, Roger; Anderson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Community pharmacy (CP) is a setting with health promotion and public health potential which could include strategies with a nutrition promotion focus. Research embedded in this setting has explored and produced evidence to inform practice change to develop this potential. The experience of undertaking research in this setting may provide insight into the challenges and key features of intervention research practice. Exploring experienced-based knowledge presents as a productive area of research, extending what can be known beyond the bounds of what is measurable. This study aimed to understand the experience of intervention research in CP with a focus on nutrition and to develop guidance for future research practice (intervention design and implementation) in CP based on interventionists' reflections and practice wisdom. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 researchers with experience in undertaking intervention research in CP with a nutrition component. Content analysis, constant comparison and interpretive description were used in the analysis and interpretation of interview data. Five key lessons were identified - 1) utilize existing capacity; 2) navigate and utilize social power and interests; 3) personalize engagement and recruitment; 4) consider the logistics and 5) intervention type considerations. Key challenges for translating research into practice and sustaining change included financial sustainability, physical constraints, logistics, collaboration, and practice change enablers. Personal reflections on research practice identified qualities, such as determination and skills in networking, as key for researching in CP. CP-embedded research is challenging given the complexity of the practice environment. The social context of CP appears central to intervention research and a nuanced understanding of the social context needs to be the basis for intervention design to inform successful implementation. Experience-based and insider knowledge is

  14. Rationality of Antimicrobial Prescriptions in Community Pharmacy Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I V C Lima

    Full Text Available Although there is a conflict between the treatment benefits for a single individual and society, restrictions on antibiotic use are needed to reduce the prevalence of resistance to these drugs, which is the main result of irrational use. Brazil, cataloged as a pharmemerging market, has implemented restrictive measures for the consumption of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of antimicrobial prescriptions and user knowledge of their treatment with these drugs.A two-stage cross-sectional, combined and stratified survey of pharmacy users holding an antimicrobial prescription was conducted in the community between May and November 2014. A pharmacist analyzed each prescription for legibility and completeness, and applied a structured questionnaire to the users or their caregivers on their knowledge regarding treatment and user sociodemographic data. An estimated 29.3% of prescriptions had one or more illegible items, 91.3% had one or more missing items, and 29.0% had both illegible and missing items. Dosing schedule and patient identification were the most commonly unreadable items in prescriptions, 18.81% and 12.14%, respectively. The lack of complete patient identification occurred in 90.53% of the prescriptions. It is estimated that 40.3% of users have used antimicrobials without prescription and that 46.49% did not receive any guidance on the administration of the drug.Despite the measures taken by health authorities to restrict the misuse of antimicrobials, it was observed that prescribers still do not follow the criteria of current legislation, particularly relating to items needed for completion of the prescription. Moreover, users receive little information about their antimicrobial treatment.

  15. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamir M. Alshammari

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Non-compliance of community pharmacies with the law of pharmaceutical practice is at an alarming rate in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and authoritative figures must intervene to impede and combat such activities.

  16. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions.Results: Participants identified weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols was due to interruptions in the pharmacies. Also, a few participants found it challenging to remember to continue verbalizing their thought process during think aloud sessions.Conclusion: The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing use not solely based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information on a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology use in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.

  17. Practice Change in Community Pharmacy: A Case Study of Multiple Stakeholders' Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shara Elrod

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To obtain a multi-stakeholder perspective of community pharmacy practice change. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Community pharmacy in rural Mississippi. Participants: Fourteen key stakeholders of the patient care practice including pharmacists (n=4, support staff (n=2, collaborating providers (n=4, patients (n=3, and a payer (n=1. Intervention: Semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques were used. Main outcome measures: Description of the community pharmacy's practice and business model and identification of practice change facilitators. Results: Change facilitators for this practice included: a positive reputation in the community, forming solid relationships with providers, and convenience of patient services. Communication in and outside of the practice, adequate reimbursement, and resource allocation were identified as challenges. Conclusions: This case study is a multi-stakeholder examination of community pharmacy practice change and readers are provided with a real-world example of a community pharmacy's successful establishment of a patient care practice.   Type: Case Study

  18. Disruptive innovation in community pharmacy - Impact of automation on the pharmacist workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Jean; Jackson, John; Kirkpatrick, Carl M; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Pharmacy workforce planning has been relatively static for many decades. However, like all industries, health care is exposed to potentially disruptive technological changes. Automated dispensing systems have been available to pharmacy for over a decade and have been applied to a range of repetitive technical processes which are at risk of error, including record keeping, item selection, labeling and dose packing. To date, most applications of this technology have been at the local level, such as hospital pharmacies or single-site community pharmacies. However, widespread implementation of a more centralized automated dispensing model, such as the 'hub and spoke' model currently being debated in the United Kingdom, could cause a 'technology shock,' delivering industry-wide efficiencies, improving medication accessibility and lowering costs to consumers and funding agencies. Some of pharmacists' historical roles may be made redundant, and new roles may be created, decoupling pharmacists to a certain extent from the dispensing and supply process. It may also create an additional opportunity for pharmacists to be acknowledged and renumerated for professional services that extend beyond the dispensary. Such a change would have significant implications for the organization and funding of community pharmacy services as well as pharmacy workforce planning. This paper discusses the prospect of centralized automated dispensing systems and how this may impact on the pharmacy workforce. It concludes that more work needs to be done in the realm of pharmacy workforce planning to ensure that the introduction of any new technology delivers optimal outcomes to consumers, insurers and the pharmacy workforce. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adherence to treatment: practice, education and research in Danish community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herborg H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the practice, education and research concerning medication adherence in Danish community pharmacy. Methods: The authors supplemented their expertise in the area of medication adherence through their contacts with other educators and researchers as well as by conducting searches in the Danish Pharmacy Practice Evidence Database, which provides annually updated literature reviews on intervention research in Danish pharmacy practice.Results: Practice: Medication adherence is the focus of and/or is supported by a large number of services and initiatives used in pharmacy practice such as governmental funding, IT-supported medicine administration systems, dose-dispensing systems, theme years in pharmacies on adherence and concordance, standards for counselling at the counter, pharmacist counselling, medication reviews and inhaler technique assessment. Education: In Denmark, pharmacy and pharmaconomist students are extensively trained in the theory and practice of adherence to therapy.Pharmacy staff can choose from a variety of continuing education and post-graduate programmes which address patient adherence. Research: Nine ongoing and recently completed studies are described. Early research in Denmark comprised primarily smaller, qualitative studies centred on user perspectives, whereas later research has shifted the focus towards larger, quantitative, controlled studies and action-oriented studies focusing on patient groups with chronic diseases (such as diabetes, asthma, coronary vascular diseases.Conclusions: Our analysis has documented that Danish pharmaceutical education and research has focused strongly on adherence to treatment for more than three decades. Adherence initiatives in Danish community pharmacies have developed substantially in the past 5-10 years, and, as pharmacies have prioritised their role in health care and patient safety, this development can be expected to continue in future years.

  20. Adoption of the Nova Scotia (Canada) Community Pharmacy Medication Management Program, 1-Year Post-Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Heidi J; Cooke, Charmaine A; Ingram, Ethel M Langille; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2017-02-01

    Pharmacists conduct medication reviews to optimize drug therapy. Each jurisdiction implements and funds these programs differently. To describe the uptake of the first year of a community pharmacy medication review program reimbursed by the publically insured seniors' drug benefit program in Nova Scotia, Canada. This retrospective analysis included 294 pharmacies and 105,000 beneficiaries enrolled in the Nova Scotia Seniors' Pharmacare Program. Prescription and service claims data from this program were analyzed to determine type and number of beneficiaries receiving a medication review, number and predictors of pharmacies completing reviews, and number of prescribed medications 6-months before and 6-months after the review. 428 medication reviews were conducted and billed by 33% of Nova Scotia pharmacies (1-50 reviews per pharmacy per year). The mean number and range of medications before the review were 10.8 (4-28) and following the review 10.4 (0-24), with an average decrease of 0.4 medications (95% CI 0.1-0.6), p=.0043). Patients receiving a review had a mean age of 75.2 years; 64.9% were female. Most pharmacies conducted reviews when patients reached their annual copayment (93%). Approximately 33% of pharmacies billed at least one medication review in the first year of the program. In spite of a $150 reimbursement per community pharmacy medication review, only 428 reviews were conducted over a 13-month period for a population of over 100,000 seniors. Results suggest financial reimbursement alone is not sufficient to implement a medication management program; health systems need to determine patient, pharmacist, pharmacy and health system level strategies to implement medication reviews more broadly.

  1. Quality indicators of pharmacists' services in community pharmacies in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Hipólito Júnior

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pharmacists and their pharmacies have been evolving in their roles as health promoters in Brazil. Some examples are the recent legislation reaffirming the role of Brazilian pharmacies as health institutions, rather than having only a commercial profile, giving greater clarity to pharmacists about their roles as health care providers. This evolution came with the recognition that is already seen in other developed countries, confirming the need for the pharmacist as a health promoter, and not simply a dispenser of drugs in society. This study has obtained the profile and activities of community pharmacists, as well as the quality indicators of private community pharmacies throughout the State of Paraná through the application of an online survey sent to pharmacists in the state. Out of all pharmacists surveyed, 533 were part of the final analysis, being the pharmacists to complete the survey in full. Participants were mostly female (69.4% and were, on average, 35.2 ± 9.2 years old. Of these, 60% worked in pharmacy chains and just 37% of all pharmacist respondents were issuing the Declaration of Pharmaceutical Services. The current study showed that many pharmaceutical services are not adopted by pharmacies as these services bring no significant financial reward. Regarding the structure, the Paraná State showed that pharmacies present a good overall structure. The kind of pharmacy (chain or independent influenced the pharmaceutical services provided and the available structure, where the independent pharmacies provide a wider range of services and have better structure. This study was able to identify the profile and behaviors of pharmacists and also the quality indicators of pharmacies in Paraná State.

  2. Pharmacy Malpractice: The rate and prevalence of dispensing high-risk prescription-only medications at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alshammari, Thamir M.; Alhindi, Salman A.; Alrashdi, Ahmed M.; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the compliance of community pharmacies with the regulations that prohibit the dispensing of prescription-only medications in the absence of a physician prescription in Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the period between October 2014 and January 2015. A list of 10 prescription-only medications were selected to be studied. 150 community pharmacies were visited across 6 major regions in Saudi Arabia to assess the prevalence of non-compliance ...

  3. Training and retaining community pharmacy leaders: Career pathways after completing a PGY1 community pharmacy residency affiliated with a large supermarket chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmeier, Kenneth C; Borja-Hart, Nancy; Cooper, Maureen; Kirby, James; Fisher, Cindy

    To determine pharmacist career paths and resident perceptions after completion of a PGY1 community pharmacy residency with a national supermarket pharmacy chain. Cross-sectional nationwide survey. Overall, 65% (n = 24) of residents who responded accepted a position with Kroger immediately after graduation. When asked about the degree of value the residency had on obtaining the resident's ideal position, 29 (76%) reported that it was "very valuable" and the remaining 9 (24%) reported that it was "somewhat valuable." Positions that these pharmacists held immediately after residency completion were: clinical pharmacist (clinical coordinators, patient care specialists, or patient care managers; 54%), staff pharmacist (21%), split/mixed (mixed clinical and staffing components; 21%), and pharmacy manager (4%). Residency trained pharmacists were retained by the pharmacy chain where they practiced, and the majority of those pharmacists held split or full-time clinical pharmacist roles within the chain supermarket pharmacy. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient and public perspectives of community pharmacies in the United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Ali M K; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Jacobs, Sally

    2017-11-08

    The United Kingdom has been at the forefront of enhancing pharmacist roles and community pharmacy services, particularly over the past decade. However, patient and public awareness of community pharmacy services has been limited. To identify and synthesize the research literature pertaining to patient and public perspectives on: existing community pharmacy services, extended pharmacist roles and strategies to raise awareness of community pharmacy services. Systematic search of 8 electronic databases; hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists and conference proceedings. UK studies investigating patient or public views on community pharmacy services or pharmacist roles from 2005 to 2016. Data were extracted into a grid and subjected to narrative synthesis following thematic analysis. From the 3260 unique papers identified, 30 studies were included. Manual searching identified 4 additional studies. Designs using questionnaires (n = 14, 41%), semi-structured interviews (n = 8, 24%) and focus groups (n = 6, 18%) made up the greatest proportion of studies. Most of the studies (n = 28, 82%) were published from 2010 onwards and covered perceptions of specific community pharmacy services (n = 31). Using a critical appraisal checklist, the overall quality of studies was deemed acceptable. Findings were grouped into 2 main themes "public cognizance" and "attitudes towards services" each with 4 subthemes. Patients and the public appeared to view services as beneficial. Successful integration of extended pharmacy services requires pharmacists' clinical skills to be recognized by patients and physicians. Future research should explore different approaches to increase awareness. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Community pharmacy and emerging public health initiatives in developing Southeast Asian countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    2016-09-01

    The development of health and healthcare systems in South-East Asia has influenced the practice of community pharmacy. Over the years, community pharmacy in the region has striven to expand services beyond dispensing to encompass more involvement in public health issues. Searches were conducted in Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PubMed for articles published between January 2000 and December 2014, with 21 studies in five countries meeting the inclusion criteria. The findings showed increasing interest in research into the delivery of pharmacy services and public health initiatives. Overall, the review found that provision of some health services in pharmacies was common; however, most public health initiatives appeared to be poorly implemented, had limited evidence and were not demonstrated to be sustainable across the sector. This indicates that the practice of community pharmacy in the region has not significantly changed over the past 14 years with respect to the scope and quality of pharmacy services provided, and fundamental policy changes are necessary to improve this situation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Medication adherence and community pharmacy: a review of education, policy and research in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this narrative review was to identify and describe the current policy, education and research related to community pharmacy and medication adherence in England.Methods: Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and Pharmline were used to search for relevant research articles. Current policy documents were identified via the websites of the Department of Health in England, the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, the National Pharmacy Association, the Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee and NHS Employers. All pharmacy schools in England were contacted to obtain information about the adherence-related courses they provide to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students.Results: National policies and guidelines in England are conducive to an increasing role for community pharmacists to support patients with medication adherence. Many pharmacy schools cover the issue of adherence in their undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Research in this area has tested the effectiveness of pharmacists providing adherence support in the form of compliance aids, education, involvement in discharge planning, and tailored interventions. Conclusion: In community pharmacy in England, current policy and funding arrangements suggest there is great scope for pharmacists to support patients with medication adherence. Further research is necessary to identify the most useful, cost-effective and sustainable approach in practice.

  7. Pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies: practice and research in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Mauro Silveira; Correr, Cassyano Januário

    2007-09-01

    To discuss the provision of pharmaceutical services and pharmaceutical care in Brazil. Professional training and pharmaceutical services are undergoing a period of restructuring in Brazil, including the adoption of incentives for pharmaceutical care. Some important national measures include the rational use of medications, evidence-based medicine, and pharmacovigilance. A new and more generalist pharmacy curriculum is being implemented and tailored for the Brazilian Public Health System; recently, the Brazilian government has provided resources for pharmaceutical care research. A proposal for national consensus in Brazilian pharmaceutical care was published in 2002. The components of this proposal include drug dispensing, counseling, health education, symptoms advice, and pharmacotherapy follow-up. Pharmacy practice is currently focused on drug dispensing and logistic aspects of drug distribution. Professionals are satisfied with patients' confidence in being counseled by pharmacists and reveal interest in extending their role in patient care. Most pharmacy customers were originally unaware of the term "pharmaceutical care"; however, following an explanation, they showed an interest in this service. Furthermore, over 50% stated that they would pay for this service. Despite these initiatives, numerous barriers to the development of pharmaceutical care remain, the main ones being the commercial objective of most pharmacies that sell medications and the insufficient training of professionals. Although government-owned pharmacies also distribute medications, they do not meet all of the needs of the population and lack sufficient pharmacists. Several actions are required to stimulate the implementation and development of pharmaceutical care and services in Brazil. Recent research incentives in pharmaceutical care and reorientation of pharmacy education will contribute to this development.

  8. Community pharmacies automation: any impact on counselling duration and job satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Krookas, Anette Aaland

    2014-04-01

    One key indicator of the quality of health practitioners-patient interaction is the encounters' duration. Automation have been presented as beneficial to pharmacy staff work with patients and thus with a potential impact on pharmacists' and technicians' job satisfaction. To compare the interaction length between pharmacy staff and patients, as well as their job satisfaction, in community pharmacies with and without automation. Portuguese community pharmacies with and without automation. This cross-sectional study followed a quasi-experimental design, divided in two phases. In the first, paired community pharmacies with and without automation were purposively selected for a non-participant overt observation. The second phase comprised a job satisfaction questionnaire of both pharmacists and technical staff. Practitioners and patients demographic and interactional data, as well as job satisfaction, were statistically compared across automation. Interaction length and job satisfaction. Sixty-eight practitioners from 10 automated and non-automated pharmacies produced 721 registered interaction episodes. Automation had no significant influence in interaction duration, controlling for gender and professional categories, being significantly longer with older patients (p = 0.017). On average, staff working at the pharmacy counter had 45 % of free time from direct patient contact. The mean overall satisfaction in this sample was 5.52 (SD = 0.98) out of a maximum score of seven, with no significant differences with automation as well as between professional categories, only with a significant lower job satisfaction for younger pharmacists. As with previous studies in other settings, duration of the interactions was not influenced by pharmacy automation, as well as practitioners' job satisfaction, while practitioners' time constrains seem to be a subjective perception.

  9. Global sale of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Elkhadragy, Nervana; Kusynová, Zuzana; Besançon, Luc; Brock, Tina Penick; Corelli, Robin L

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the proportion of countries/territories that allow sales of tobacco products and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) in community pharmacies. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations were contacted by email and asked to respond to a two-item survey assessing whether their country/territory allowed sales of (a) tobacco products and (b) ENDS in community pharmacies. Of 95 countries/territories contacted, responses were received from 60 (63.2%). Seven countries (11.7%) reported that tobacco products were sold in community pharmacies, and 11 countries (18.3%) reported that ENDS were sold in community pharmacies. Among the FIP member organisations, there are few countries that allow the sale of tobacco products and ENDS in community pharmacies, with ENDS being more likely than tobacco products to be sold. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Pharmacy student driven detection of adverse drug reactions in the community pharmacy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Troels; Søndergaard, Birthe; Honoré, Per Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Post-marketing safety studies of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) form an important part of pharmacovigilance. Countries having a formal pharmacovigilance system to a large extent rely on voluntary ADR reporting from health professionals through spontaneous report systems. The contribution...... focusing on ADR detection and reporting in general. Ibuprofen was chosen as the drug of study. Pharmacy students approached recurrent drug users purchasing the drug. Participating users were asked about experienced ADRs linked to ibuprofen use. Reported ADRs were collected and analysed. RESULTS: Hundred...

  11. Estimating the impact of Medicare part D on the profitability of independent community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Norman V

    2008-10-01

    Medicare Part D provides insurance coverage for prescription drugs to elderly and disabled consumers. Part D accounted for 24% of prescriptions dispensed by independent pharmacies in the first year of the program (2006). To date, the impact of Part D on independent pharmacies has been explored only in small, qualitative, or non-peer-reviewed studies. To develop preliminary estimates of the impact of Part D on independent pharmacies' profitability. A financial model was built to examine the impact of Part D on pharmacy profitability. A key input value was the gross margin percentage for Part D; the midpoint of estimates reported in the literature was used as the base-case input value. The remaining model inputs were derived from 2 non-peer-reviewed published sources: (a) the National Community Pharmacist Association (NCPA)'s survey of independent pharmacies, which provided financial data for the year prior to Part D implementation (2005); and (b) IMS Health national market research data, which provided information about changes in prescription drug utilization from 2005 to 2006. Model estimates represented a "typical" independent pharmacy, defined using mean values for financial measures in 2005 as reported by NCPA. The model examined the impact of Part D on the proportion of prescriptions reimbursed by other sources (private third-party insurance, Medicaid, and cash payments by patients); pharmacies' overall prescription gross margin; the number of Part D-induced prescriptions; the number of prescriptions lost to mail-order pharmacies; and net income before taxes. Key values and assumptions were subjected to one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The model indicated that implementation of Part D resulted in a mean (SD) 22% (4%) decrease in net income before taxes. This change was primarily the result of an absolute 0.7% decline in the gross margin for all prescriptions. The lower overall gross margin resulted from lower reimbursement on Part D

  12. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  13. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisell, Kristin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector. PMID:28970376

  14. The Raison D’être for the Community Pharmacy and the Community Pharmacist in Sweden: A Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Wisell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization. This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.

  15. “Click for Closer Care”: A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. Objective The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies. Methods A content analysis of clinical and commercial services presented in a random sample of 200 licensed community pharmacy websites from Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Canadian provinces British Columbia and Manitoba, and the Australian states New South Wales and Western Australia was conducted. Results The top five specific services mentioned on the community pharmacy websites were cosmetic products (126/200, 63.0%), medication refill request options (124/200, 62.0%), over-the-counter medicine (115/200, 57.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (107/200, 53.5%), and home medical aids (98/200, 49.0%). On average, 72.5% (145/200) of the community pharmacy websites across the 4 countries included a combination of clinical and commercial services. A combination of clinical and commercial services was more often present on chain pharmacy websites (120/147, 82.8%) than single pharmacy websites (25/53, 47%; Ppharmacy websites, followed by the Australian, British, and Dutch pharmacy websites, respectively (Ppharmacies’ homepages contained a combination of clinical and commercial images (107/200, 53.5%), and almost half of the homepage menus contained a combination of clinical and commercial items (99/200, 49.5%). The latter were, again, more common on chain pharmacy than single pharmacy websites (Ppharmacies in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Canada, and

  16. "Click for Closer Care": A Content Analysis of Community Pharmacy Websites in Four Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2017-06-14

    Combinations of professional and commercial communication are typically very controversial, particularly in health care communication on the Internet. Websites of licensed community pharmacies on the other hand tend to raise remarkably little controversy, although they typically contain controversial combinations of clinical and commercial services previously unprecedented in professional health care communication. The aim of this study was to fill the void of knowledge about the combination of clinical and commercial services presented on the websites of licensed community pharmacies. A content analysis of clinical and commercial services presented in a random sample of 200 licensed community pharmacy websites from Great Britain, the Netherlands, the Canadian provinces British Columbia and Manitoba, and the Australian states New South Wales and Western Australia was conducted. The top five specific services mentioned on the community pharmacy websites were cosmetic products (126/200, 63.0%), medication refill request options (124/200, 62.0%), over-the-counter medicine (115/200, 57.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (107/200, 53.5%), and home medical aids (98/200, 49.0%). On average, 72.5% (145/200) of the community pharmacy websites across the 4 countries included a combination of clinical and commercial services. A combination of clinical and commercial services was more often present on chain pharmacy websites (120/147, 82.8%) than single pharmacy websites (25/53, 47%; Ppharmacy websites, followed by the Australian, British, and Dutch pharmacy websites, respectively (Ppharmacies' homepages contained a combination of clinical and commercial images (107/200, 53.5%), and almost half of the homepage menus contained a combination of clinical and commercial items (99/200, 49.5%). The latter were, again, more common on chain pharmacy than single pharmacy websites (Ppharmacies in Great Britain, the Netherlands, Canada, and Australia combine clinical services

  17. Neighborhood geographical factors and the presence of advanced community pharmacy practice sites in Greater Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charisse L; Crawford, Stephanie Y; Lin, Swu-Jane; Salmon, J Warren; Smith, Miriam Mobley

    2009-02-19

    To determine the availability of experiential learning opportunities in culturally diverse areas and to identify opportunities and barriers to attract and sustain sites for the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy. Utilizing variables of census tract income, racial/ethnicity composition and crime index, data analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Faculty members involved in experiential education were interviewed to identify other factors influencing site placement and selection for community-based advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Median family income and Asian population were significantly higher and black population was significantly lower in census tracts with community APPE sites than in census tracts without APPE sites (p pharmacy staffing issues, goodwill, influence of district and corporate managers, and strategic initiatives were critical considerations in site establishment and overall sustainability. Advanced community pharmacy practice sites were fairly well distributed across metropolitan Chicago, indicating that exposure to diverse populations during the advanced community practice experiences parallels with strategic College objectives of expanding and diversifying experiential sites to enhance pharmacy students' abilities to meet emerging patient care challenges and opportunities.

  18. Consumer perspectives about weight management services in a community pharmacy setting in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Irene S; Armour, Carol; Krass, Ines; Gill, Timothy; Chaar, Betty B

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a public health challenge faced worldwide. Community pharmacists may be well placed to manage Australia's obesity problem owing to their training, accessibility and trustworthiness. However, determining consumers' needs is vital to the development of any new services or the evaluation of existing services. To explore Australian consumers' perspectives regarding weight management services in the community pharmacy setting, including their past experiences and willingness to pay for a specific pharmacy-based service. An online cross-sectional consumer survey was distributed through a marketing research company. The survey instrument comprised open-ended and closed questions exploring consumers' experiences of and preferences for weight management services in pharmacy. It also included an attitudinal measure, the Consumer Attitude to Pharmacy Weight Management Services (CAPWMS) scale. A total of 403 consumers from New South Wales, Australia, completed the survey. The majority of respondents had previously not sought a pharmacist's advice regarding weight management. Those who had previously consulted a pharmacist were more willing to pay for and support pharmacy-based services in the future. Most consumers considered pharmacists' motivations to provide advice related to gaining profit from selling a product and expressed concerns about the perceived conflicts of interest. Participants also perceived pharmacists as lacking expertise and time. Although Australian consumers were willing to seek pharmacists' advice about weight management, they perceived several barriers to the provision of weight management services in community pharmacy. If barriers are addressed, community pharmacies could be a viable and accessible setting to manage obesity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rossing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug-related problems are known to be a major problem associated with pharmacotherapy. A broad range of studies, mainly in the area of prescription-only medicines, supports this fact. Only a few studies have evaluated drug-related problems with over-the-counter medicine and the role of community pharmacies in this.Purpose: To quantify drug-related problems in self-medication (use of over-the-counter medicine identified by community pharmacies in Denmark and to document the interventions by pharmacy staff in relation to the identified drug-related problems.Method: A descriptive study mapping drug-related problems in self-medication registered at the counter at a selected number of Danish community pharmacies.Results: Data for 3,868 consecutive customers with requests for over-the-counter (OTC medicines were registered at 39 community pharmacies. The pharmacies registered a total number of 4,324 OTC medicines requests, illustrating that a customer requested 1.1 OTC medicines on average. Drug-related problems (DRPs were identified for 813 customers, equivalent to DRPs for 21.0 % of all customers, presenting symptoms or requesting OTC medicines, and for 20 % of all over-the-counter medicines requests. 1,239 DRPs were registered, corresponding to an average of 1.5 DRPs per customer requesting OTC medicines.Community pharmacies estimated that they solved or partly solved 76.2 % of the detected DRPs; 73 % were solved without involving a general practitioner.Conclusions: DRPs were identified for 21.0 % of the pharmacy customers presenting a symptom or asking for an OTC medicine. The community pharmacy counselled the customers with DRPs more thoroughly than other customers by giving 2.4 pieces of professional advice, compared to an average of 2.1 to customers in general. It is not possible to determine the magnitude of the safety risk involved. Based on the most frequent categories of DRPs, there were risks of insufficient effect, unintended

  20. Implementation of a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies: Facilitators and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Kelly, Fiona; Fowler, Jane; Wheeler, Amanda J

    Community pharmacists are in an ideal position to promote and provide mental health medication management services. However, formalised or structured pharmacy services to support consumers with mental health conditions are scarce. Australian mental health consumers indicated a need for targeted community pharmacy mental health services which presented an opportunity to develop an intervention that were integrated with remunerated professional services. The study aimed to pilot a mental health medication management intervention in Australian community pharmacies. Pharmacists worked in partnership with consumers, carers and mental health workers over three to six months to set and support achievement of individual goals related to medicines use, physical health and mental wellbeing. This paper provides a comparison of community pharmacies that successfully delivered the intervention with those that did not and identifies facilitators and challenges to service implementation. One hundred pharmacies opted to pilot the delivery of the intervention in three Australian states (Queensland, Western Australia and northern New South Wales). Of those, 55 successfully delivered the intervention (completers) whilst 45 were unsuccessful (non-completers). A mixed methods approach, including quantitative pharmacy surveys and qualitative semi-structured interviews, was used to gather data from participating pharmacies. Following intervention development, 142 pharmacists and 21 pharmacy support staff attended training workshops, received resource kits and ongoing support from consumer and pharmacist mentors throughout intervention implementation. Baseline quantitative data was collected from each pharmacy on staff profile, volume of medicines dispensed, the range of professional services delivered and relationships with health professionals. At the completion of the study participants were invited to complete an online exit survey and take part in a semi-structured interview that

  1. Characterisation of patient encounters in community pharmacies (with special focus on self-medication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Leen; Mehuys, Els; Christiaens, Thierry; Van Tongelen, Inge; Remon, Jean-Paul; Boussery, Koen

    2015-06-01

    To characterise patient encounters during routine drug dispensing in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional survey in community pharmacies (Belgium). Fifty-four per cent of all encounters (N = 1650) concerned patients carrying a prescription, of which 39% were prescriptions for new medication and 61% were repeat prescriptions. In 62% of all encounters, patients asked for non-prescribed medication. Almost one-third of self-medication requests related to special patient populations (mainly children and elderly). CONCLUSIONS : Many encounters related to self-medication, and a substantial number of these self-medication requests concerned vulnerable patient populations. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. An organizational culture gap analysis in 6 New Zealand community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane L; Carswell, Peter; Harrison, Jeff

    2011-09-01

    The barriers to moving forward and meeting the expectations of policy makers and professional pharmacy bodies appear to relate to the organizational culture of community pharmacy. Despite the importance of cultural change for business transformation, organizational culture has largely gone unnoticed in community pharmacy practice research. To perform an organizational culture gap analysis in 6 New Zealand community pharmacies. Mean scores from a cultural rating survey (n=47) were calculated for 8 cultural clusters and mapped onto a typical and a beneficial pattern match (ladder diagram) for each case site. These ladder diagrams provide an understanding of the gap between the 2 ratings based on the gradient of the lines joining cultural clusters-the rungs of the ladder. Software can be used to generate a Pearson correlation describing the strength of the relationship between the typical and beneficial ratings. Eight cultural clusters were mapped: "leadership and staff management"; "valuing each other and the team"; "free-thinking, fun and, open to challenge"; "trusted behavior"; "customer relations"; "focus on external integration"; "provision of systematic advice"; and the "embracing of innovation." Analysis suggested a high level of correlation between the means of the typical and beneficial ratings. Although the variance between average ratings might be quite small, the relative difference can still be meaningful to participants in the cultural setting. The diagrams suggest a requirement for external integration, the provision of systematic advice, and the embracing of innovation to become more typical in most pharmacies. Trusted behavior is the most typical and most beneficial cultural dimension in most pharmacies, whereas valuing each other and the team is the least beneficial. Gaps in organizational culture have been identified through the use of a rating survey. The dimensions of focus on external integration, providing systematic advice, and embracing

  3. A European community pharmacy-based survey to investigate patterns of prescription fraud through identification of falsified prescriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Gony, Mireille; Carvajal, Alfonso; Macias, Diego; Conforti, Anita; D'incau, Paola; Heerdink, Rob; Van Der Stichele, Robert; Bergman, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To identify prescription drugs involved in falsified prescriptions in community pharmacies in 6 European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among 2,105 community pharmacies in Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain and Sweden was carried out to collect all suspect prescription

  4. Views of the Scottish general public on community pharmacy weight management services: international implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Anita Elaine; Cunningham, Scott; Gray, Gwen; Hansford, Denise; Bermano, Giovanna; Stewart, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Obesity has reached pandemic levels, with more than 1.5 billion adults being affected worldwide. In Scotland two-thirds of men and more than half of women are either overweight or obese, placing Scotland overall third behind the United States of America and Mexico. All community pharmacies in Scotland are contracted to provide public health services such as smoking cessation and there is increasing interest in their contribution to weight management. Researching this area in Scotland may provide valuable information to facilitate the development of community pharmacy services in other parts of the UK and internationally. To describe the views of the Scottish general public on the provision of weight management services via community pharmacies. General public in Scotland. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire survey of 6,000 randomly selected members of the Scottish general public aged 18 years and over. Views on community pharmacy led weight management services. Questionnaires were returned by 20.6% (n = 1,236). Over half 60.1% (n = 751) agreed or strongly agreed that they had easy access to pharmacy services in general and around one-third agreed (35%; n = 438) that it was more convenient to obtain weight management advice from a pharmacist than it is to make an appointment with a GP. Most respondents however lacked awareness of the types of health services available through community pharmacy (13.2%; n = 162) and would not feel comfortable speaking to a pharmacist or medicines counter assistant about weight related issues (25%; n = 320). Concerns over privacy (47.3%; n = 592) and perceived lack of pharmacists' specialist knowledge (open comments) were identified as potential barriers to service uptake by the general public. Overall, respondents appear to be receptive to the idea of accessing weight management services through community pharmacy but a perceived lack of privacy, poor knowledge of pharmacists' skill level and of public health services available to

  5. Drug utilization and cost in a Medicaid population: A simulation study of community vs. mail order pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoane-Vazquez Enrique

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outpatient drugs are dispensed through both community and mail order pharmacies. There is no empirical evidence that substitution of community pharmacy with mail order reduces overall drug expenditures. The need for evaluating the potential effects on utilization and costs of the possible extension of mail order services in Medicaid provides the rationale for conducting this study. This study compares drug utilization and drug product cost in community vs. mail order pharmacy dispensing services in a Medicaid population. Methods This study is a retrospective cohort study comparing utilization and cost patterns in community vs. mail order pharmacy. A simulation model was employed to assess drug utilization and cost in mail order pharmacy using community pharmacy claim data. The model assumed that courses of drug therapy (CDT in mail order pharmacy would have utilization patterns similar to those found in community pharmacy. A 95% confidence interval surrounding changes in average utilization and average cost were estimated using bootstrap analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed by varying drug selection criteria and supply, fill point, and medication possession ratio (MPR. Sub-analyses were performed to address differences between mail order and community pharmacy related to therapeutic class and dual-eligible patients. Data for the study derived from pharmacy claims database of Ohio Medicaid State program for the period January 2000-September 2004. Drug claims were aggregated to obtain a set of CDTs representing unique patient IDs and unique drug products. Drug product cost estimates excluded dispensing fees and were used to estimate the cost reduction required in mail order to become cost neutral in comparison with community pharmacy. Results The baseline model revealed that the use of mail order vs. community pharmacy would result in a 5.5% increase in drug utilization and a 5.4% cost reduction required in mail order

  6. Communication during counseling sessions about inhaled corticosteroids at the community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driesenaar JA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeanine A Driesenaar,1 Peter AGM De Smet,2,3 Rolf van Hulten,4,5 Litje Hu,1 Sandra van Dulmen1,6,7 1NIVEL, Netherlands institute for health services research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3IQ Healthcare, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 4Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 5Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 6Department of Primary and Community Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, Drammen, Norway Background: Pharmaceutical care is one of the major tasks of pharmacists, which aims to improve patient outcomes. Counseling patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease about their use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS might enhance medication adherence and symptom control. Therefore, effective pharmacist–patient communication is very important. In this regard, both affective communication, for handling emotions, and instrumental communication, for exchanging biomedical and lifestyle information, are relevant. Until now, only few studies have explored pharmacist–patient communication, and further insight is needed in this regard. The aim of this study is to investigate how pharmacists and pharmacy technicians communicate about ICS with patients with asthma and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, what topics are discussed by them, and whether pharmacists and pharmacy technicians differ in their communication during counseling sessions. Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years who had used ICS for at least 1 year and filled at least two ICS prescriptions in the preceding year were recruited through 12 pharmacies. Participants had one counseling session with a pharmacist or a

  7. Medication Therapy Management in community pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service (version 1.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    To develop a model framework of Medication Therapy Management (MTM) in community pharmacy designed to improve care, enhance communication among patients and providers, improve collaboration among providers, and optimize medication use that leads to improved patient outcomes. Peer-reviewed literature, structured discussions with community pharmacy leaders and representatives from pharmacy benefit providers and health plans, and input from pharmacists and pharmacy associations. Building on an MTM consensus definition adopted by 11 national pharmacy organizations in July 2004, this model describes core elements of an MTM service that can be provided by pharmacists across the spectrum of community pharmacy. The model is structured for pharmacists to use with all patients in need of MTM services, both in the private and public sector. The model describes five core elements of MTM in the community pharmacy setting: medication therapy review (MTR), a personal medication record (PMR), a medication action plan (MAP), intervention and referral, and documentation and follow-up. The MTR can be comprehensive or targeted, depending onthe needs of the patient. The PMR and MAP are patient-centered documents intended to be used by the patient to improve medication self-management. A collaborative approach to patient care involving patients, pharmacists, and physicians and other health care providers is advocated in the model. General patient eligibility considerations are also described. A model framework for consideration by community pharmacists in developing MTM services is described. The model consists of five core elements for MTM service delivery in community pharmacy practice.

  8. A comparison of mail-service and retail community pharmacy claims in 5 prescription benefit plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bartholomew E; Siracuse, Mark V; Garis, Robert I

    2009-06-01

    Little evidence has been presented to date that would either support or refute a widely held belief that mail-service pharmacy utilization routinely produces savings in drug benefit costs for prescription benefit plan sponsors. To present a comparative analysis of mail-service and community pharmacy service drug benefit costs for 5 employer-sponsored prescription drug benefit plans. A cross-sectional comparison of 17,725 matched transaction pairs of community and mail-service prescriptions from a data set comprised 484,987 prescription claims from a convenience sample of 5 employer-sponsored prescription benefit plans. Differences between community pharmacy and mail-service prescription transactions were examined at the per-unit level of analysis for drug ingredient costs, dispensing fees, co-payments, dollar amounts paid by plan sponsor, and total dollar amounts. Overall, the total cost of prescriptions was lower through mail-service pharmacies for all 5 plans studied. Two of 5 plans had co-payment incentives to use mail-service, yet plan sponsors paid more for mail-service drugs; respectively, 4.5% and 8.3% more overall, 25.0% and 21.4% more for generic medications; and 3.0% and 7.0% more for brand name medications. Mail-service co-payments were 48.9% and 51.7% lower. Mail-service utilization rates were 15.2% and 31.5% of the total number of prescriptions dispensed in the period studied. Three of 5 plans had no co-payment incentive to use mail-service and paid less for mail-service drugs; respectively, 18.7%, 6.6%, and 15.7% less overall; 17.4%, 15.6%, and 7.9% less for generic medications; and 18.8%, 5.2%, and 16.6% less for brand name medications. Mail-service co-payments were 10.5% more, 5.2% less, and 1.8% more than community pharmacy co-payments, respectively. Mail-service utilization rates were 0.8%, 1.2%, and 4.4%. Co-payment incentives to use mail-service pharmacies instead of community pharmacies were associated with higher mail-service utilization rates

  9. Psychometric properties of the AHRQ Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture: a factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboneh, Ephrem A; Look, Kevin A; Stone, Jamie A; Lester, Corey A; Chui, Michelle A

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) developed a hospital patient safety culture survey in 2004 and has adapted this survey to other healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and medical offices, and most recently, community pharmacies. However, it is unknown whether safety culture dimensions developed for hospitals can be transferred to community pharmacies. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Community Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The survey was administered to 543 community pharmacists in Wisconsin, USA. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of our data with the proposed AHRQ model. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. A total of 433 usable surveys were returned (response rate 80%). Results from the confirmatory factor analysis showed inadequate model fit for the original 36 item, 11-factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis showed that a modified 27-item, four-factor structure better reflected the underlying safety culture dimensions in community pharmacies. The communication openness factor, with three items, dropped in its entirety while six items dropped from multiple factors. The remaining 27 items redistributed to form the four-factor structure: safety-related communication, staff training and work environment, organisational response to safety events, and staffing, work pressure and pace. Cronbach's α of 0.95 suggested good internal consistency. Our findings suggest that validation studies need to be conducted before applying safety dimensions from other healthcare settings into community pharmacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A Modular Pharmacy Practice Laboratory Course Integrating Role-Playing Scenarios with Community and Hospital Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evolution of a modular pharmacy practice course that uses practitioners as role-model instructors in prepared and impromptu scenarios. The course reviews the top 200 drug products while introducing students to both community and institutional practice settings. Appendices include a summary of the…

  11. The Diffusion Process of Patient Education in Dutch Community Pharmacy: An Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, M. C. M.; Blom, A. Th. G.; Van Burg, A.; Jonkers, R.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies barriers and facilitators to the implementation of patient education in community pharmacies and classifies these barriers and facilitators into the diffusion stages of Rogers'"Innovations in Organizations" model. Discusses the implementation of patient education activities that require individual and organizational change in…

  12. Women’s Attitudes and Health Beliefs toward Osteoporosis Screening in a Community Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Deo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine women’s attitudes and health beliefs towards osteoporosis screening in a community pharmacy setting, utilizing the theoretical framework of Health Belief Model. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design, examining a convenience sample of women aged 18 and over, from several New York City senior care centers, a church, and a university campus in New York, was employed to assess the study objectives. Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale questionnaire was used to study the attitudes and health beliefs of participants towards bone mineral density screening in community pharmacy. From the study, it was observed that perceptions of severity and susceptibility towards osteoporosis and subjects’ demographic characteristics did not seem to significantly influence the decision to screen in a community pharmacy setting. The perceptions of benefits of community pharmacy-based osteoporosis screening and the perceived barriers were found to be of greater importance in women’s decisions to engage in osteoporosis-specific preventive behavior.

  13. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Methods: Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was ‘not feeling well’. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. Results: The simulated patient’s agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148 of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148 of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient’s symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148 and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148. A total of 33.8% (50/148 of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52 of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148 of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148 of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148 did not recommend non-prescription medicines. Conclusion: While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient’s symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies

  14. Assessment and management of serotonin syndrome in a simulated patient study of Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Brett; Bergin, Jenny; Peterson, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of serotonin syndrome is increasing due to the widening use of serotonergic drugs. Identification of serotonin syndrome is challenging as the manifestations are diverse. Misdiagnosis can lead to delay in care and inappropriate treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine if staff of community pharmacies in Australia could identify the symptoms of serotonin syndrome in simulated patients and recommend an appropriate course of action. Agents acting on behalf of a simulated patient were trained on a patient scenario that reflected possible serotonin syndrome due to an interaction between duloxetine and recently prescribed tramadol. They entered 148 community pharmacies in Australia to ask for advice about a 60 year old male simulated patient who was 'not feeling well'. The interaction was audio recorded and analysed for degree of access to the pharmacist, information gathered by pharmacy staff, management advice given and pharmacotherapy recommended. The simulated patient's agent was consulted by a pharmacist in 94.0% (139/148) of cases. The potential for serotonin syndrome was identified by 35.1% (52/148) of pharmacies. Other suggested causes of the simulated patient's symptoms were viral (16.9%; 25/148) and cardiac (15.5%; 23/148). A total of 33.8% (50/148) of pharmacies recommended that the simulated patient should cease taking tramadol. This advice always came from the pharmacist. Immediate cessation of tramadol was advised by 94.2% (49/52) of pharmacists correctly identifying serotonin syndrome. The simulated patient was advised to seek urgent medical care in 14.2% (21/148) of cases and follow up with a doctor when possible in 68.2% (101/148) of cases. The majority of pharmacies (87.8%; 130/148) did not recommend non-prescription medicines. While not identifying the cause of the simulated patient's symptoms in the majority of cases, community pharmacies recommended appropriate action to minimise the health impact of serotonin syndrome

  15. Quality assessment of patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose in community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjome RL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate diabetes patients’ self-monitoring of blood glucose using a community pharmacy-based quality assurance procedure, to investigate whether the procedure improved the quality of the patient performance of self monitoring of blood glucose, and to examine the opinions of the patients taking part in the study. Methods: The results of patient blood glucose measurements were compared to the results obtained with HemoCue Glucose 201+ by pharmacy employees in 16 Norwegian community pharmacies. Patient performance was monitored using an eight item checklist. Patients whose blood glucose measurements differed from pharmacy measurements by more than 20% were instructed in the correct use of their glucometer. The patients then re-measured their blood glucose. If the results were still outside the set limits, the control procedure was repeated with a new lot of glucometer strips, and then with a new glucometer. The patients returned for a follow-up visit after three months. Results: During the first visit, 5% of the 338 patients had measurements that deviated from pharmacy blood glucose values by more than 20% and user errors were observed for 50% of the patients. At the second visit, there was no significant change in the analytical quality of patient measurements, but the percentage of patients who made user errors had decreased to 29% (p < 0.001. Eighty-five percent of the patients reported that they used their blood glucose results to adjust medication, exercise or meals. Fifty-one percent of the patients reported a greater trust in their measurements after the second visit. Eighty percent of patients wished to have their measurements assessed yearly. Of these patients, 83% preferred to have the assessment done at the community pharmacy. Conclusion: A community pharmacy-based quality assessment procedure of patients’ self monitoring of blood glucose significantly reduced the number of user errors. The analytical quality of the

  16. Community pharmaceutical care: an 8-month critical review of two pharmacies in Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyama, Norbert; Adome, R O

    2003-08-01

    The concept of pharmaceutical care is neither well developed nor adequately documented in Uganda. This study is therefore an attempt to identify and quantify the various service components of community pharmacy practice in Kampala, Uganda's capital city. Two pharmacies operating retail outlets were chosen out of about 110 in Kampala. The city itself is fairly small with a rather congested population. It is Uganda's economic hub with the greatest number of private sector health facilities and pharmacy outlets. This study involved an 8-month observation period at the two pharmacies, combined with a data collection form to record demographic characteristics of respondents and parameters such as self-medication, pharmacy initiated therapy, prescription filling, patient/non-patient clients and treatment received. 567 observations were made. Missing data for parameters studied were omitted during analysis, thus yielding different totals for the various sets of variables. Just less than half of 564 respondents (44.3%), were females compared to males (55.7%). The study found that clients over the age of 12 years seeking pharmaceutical services were 8-fold (93.1%) more likely to be the very patients compared to children (OR = 8.3; 95% CI, 3.7-18.7). Slightly over thirty percent of respondents (32.3%) were third party patients. About fifteen percent (14.7%) of respondents came to fill prescriptions, 28.8% to receive pharmacy-initiated therapy and 56.5% came for self-medication with all drugs including antibiotics at 22.4%. Most clients (75.2%) received treatment. The availability of a drug at the pharmacy was found to be a significant predictor of whether treatment was received, with the client age acting as a confounding variable (OR = 59.7; 95% CI 25.9-137.6).

  17. Patient satisfaction with a chronic kidney disease risk assessment service in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheewala, Pankti A; Peterson, Gregory M; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L

    2018-02-13

    Patient satisfaction is an important determinant of the feasibility and sustainability of community pharmacy screening services. However, few studies have evaluated this, with no such study performed for a chronic kidney disease risk assessment service. The aim was to determine patient satisfaction with a chronic kidney disease risk assessment service performed in community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in the state of Tasmania, Australia. An anonymous nine-item satisfaction survey, with Likert-type scales, was developed following a literature review of existing surveys. Reliability of the nine-item scale was determined using Cronbach's alpha. Patients were asked an additional question on willingness to pay, with choices of amount from $5 to $25. The satisfaction survey was mailed to 389 patients who participated in the chronic kidney disease risk assessment study. Patient level of satisfaction with and willingness to pay for the chronic kidney disease service. Responses from 143 participants were included in the final analysis. Cronbach's alpha for the nine-item satisfaction scale was 0.87. The majority of participants agreed that the time required to undergo the risk assessment process was justified (90.2%); overall, they were satisfied with the chronic kidney disease risk assessment service (90.0%) and they felt comfortable with the pharmacist referring their results to their doctor (88.9%). Of 136 participants who answered the question on willingness to pay, 62.9% indicated that they would pay for the chronic kidney disease service. Of these, 29.2, 25.8 and 19.1% were willing to pay $20, $10 and $5, respectively. Patient satisfaction with the community pharmacy-based chronic kidney disease risk assessment was high. These findings provide support for the implementation of the service within community pharmacy practice.

  18. Perception of community pharmacists towards the barriers to enhanced pharmacy services in the healthcare system of Dubai: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayes IK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies. Objective: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists’ current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services. Results: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90 agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104 felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94 of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession’s malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128 stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252 found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124 disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134 gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not. Conclusions: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  19. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... nationwide in Sweden. One hundred and forty-four (63%) of those meeting the inclusion criteria agreed to take part. The participants documented medication-related problems, interventions and patient variables on a data collection form. The drug-related problems were weighted by the number of patients served...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians...

  20. Culture in community pharmacy organisations: what can we glean from the literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sally; Ashcroft, Darren; Hassell, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of a systematic literature review-seeking to elicit existing evidence of the nature of organisational culture in community pharmacy organisations. This review takes a novel approach to systematically identifying and synthesising the peer-reviewed research literature pertaining to organisational culture in this setting, its antecedents and outcomes. The review provides an overview of the scope of and research methods used in the identified literature, together with a narrative synthesis of its findings, framed within five dimensions of organisational culture: the professional-business role dichotomy; workload, management style, social support and autonomy; professional culture; attitudes to change and innovation; and entrepreneurial orientation. There is a need for more detailed and holistic exploration of organisational culture in community pharmacy, using a greater diversity of research methods and a greater focus on patient-related outcomes. This paper demonstrates that, whilst little research has explicitly investigated organisational culture in this context, there exists a range of evidence describing aspects of that culture, some of the environmental and organisational factors helping to shape it, and its impact on the pharmacy workforce, services delivered and business outcomes. It highlights the importance of the business-professional role dichotomy in community pharmacy; the influence of individual pharmacists' characteristics and organisational setting; and the impact on pharmacists' wellbeing and job satisfaction and the services delivered. It provides less evidence of the impact of organisational culture on the quality and safety of service provision.

  1. AmbCare--A Relational Database for Implementing a Community Pharmacy Ambulatory Care Teaching Program: A Descriptive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarian, Edward O.; Peterson, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    An IBM-compatible information storage and retrieval software program was developed to support an eight-week community pharmacy ambulatory care clerkship for entry-level Doctor of Pharmacy students. The program helps evaluate and identify patients for health and medication problems, perform patient risk-factor assessment, monitor drug therapy,…

  2. Improving community access to terminal phase medicines through the implementation of a 'Core Medicines List' in South Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Paul; Horwood, Chris; Hakendorf, Paul; To, Timothy

    2017-02-06

    Difficulties accessing medicines in the terminal phase hamper the ability of patients to die at home. The aim of this study was to identify changes in community access to medicines for managing symptoms in the terminal phase throughout South Australia (SA), following the development of a 'Core Medicines List' (the List) while exploring factors predictive of pharmacies carrying a broad range of useful medicines. In 2015, SA community pharmacies were invited to participate in a repeat survey exploring the availability of specific medicines. Comparisons were made between 2012 and 2015. A 'preparedness score' was calculated for each pharmacy, scoring 1 point for each medicine held from the following 5 classes: opioid, benzodiazepine, antiemetic, anticholinergic and antipsychotic. The proportion of pharmacies carrying all items from the List rose from 7% in 2012 to 18% in 2015 (p=0.01). Multiple linear regression demonstrated that a monthly online newsletter subscription (p=0.04) and provision of a clinical service to aged care facilities (p=0.02) were predictors of pharmacies carrying all items on the List. Furthermore, multiple linear regression demonstrated that the provision of an afterhours service (p=0.02) and clinical services to aged care facilities (p=0.04) were predictors of pharmacies with a high 'preparedness score'. In responding to issues with supply of medicines at end of life, respondents were more likely to contact the prescriber if aware of palliative patients (p=0.03). These results suggest that there is value in developing and promoting a standardised list of medicines, ensuring that community palliative patients have timely access to medicines in the terminal phase. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Language barriers in the community pharmacy: a survey of northern and western Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Emily; Tsang, Bobby; Thornley, Simon

    2011-06-01

    Community pharmacists play an important role in increasing patient understanding of medication use. Lack of resources to facilitate communication with non-English speaking (NES) patients may be a communication barrier. To identify obstacles and coping strategies of community pharmacists when counselling NES patients in Auckland's North Shore and West Auckland. A cross-sectional survey of 46 community pharmacies in West Auckland and the northern Auckland region was carried out in February 2009. Community pharmacists frequently counsel NES patients (65% reported at least once a week). Use of bilingual staff was the most commonly employed strategy (78% of respondents) to communicate with these customers. Pharmacies that reported serving NES clients at least daily all had bilingual staff, compared with 70% of pharmacies with less frequent NES contact (p=0.017). No pharmacists reported using professional interpreting services. In our sample, telephone interpreting was the most preferred (63% of respondents) method of communicating with such patients, assuming that further services were made available. Community pharmacists frequently serve NES patients, with limited access to interpreting services or translated resources. Although pharmacists have, in some way, adapted to the needs of their patients, our survey suggests that accessible professional interpreting services would further improve pharmacist/NES client interaction.

  4. Influence of ownership type on role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict among community pharmacy managers and owners in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepelkin, Jason; Dobson, Roy Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Ownership of community pharmacies is increasingly being controlled by a relatively small number of corporate entities. The influence of this ownership type should not be ignored, because ownership has the ability to impact pharmacy practice. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers with regard to role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, and Scheffe post hoc tests were used to determine significant differences among groups, including ownership structure, on each of the constructs. A total of 646 completed questionnaires were received (32.9% response rate). Most of the respondents were males (60.8%), with slightly less than half of the respondents identifying their practice type as an independent pharmacy (44.6%). There were 5 multi-item scale constructs (professional orientation, business orientation, professional affinity, business affinity, and role conflict) arising from the data, which were analyzed against the pharmacy ownership structure (independent, franchise, corporate) independent variable. Analysis revealed significant differences for 3 of the 5 constructs; however, no differences were seen regarding the 2 professionally focused constructs. Community pharmacy managers/owners are generally oriented to their professional role; however, those working in a corporate pharmacy environment are less oriented to their business role when compared with those working in an independent or franchise pharmacy environment. Further research is needed to identify different practice cultures that may exist in various practice settings and the extent to which these cultures

  5. Hospital and community pharmacists’ perception of the scope, barriers and challenges of pharmacy practice-based research in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate perception, extent of involvement and barriers to pharmacy practice-based research among community and hospital pharmacists in Ibadan, Oyo state, southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out among 65 hospital and 86 community pharmacists with at least five-year post-qualification experience, using pre-tested questionnaire. Socio-demographic information, extent of involvement, relevance and scope, as well as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research were explored. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used for evaluating ranked variables at p95.0%) in each practice category agreed that pharmacy practice-based research is essential to pharmacy profession. Greater than 90.0% agreed that pharmacy practice-based research may help in identifying gaps to improve practice. Thirty-five (40.7%) community and 36(55.4%) hospital pharmacist participants had previously involved in practice-based research. Seventy-seven (89.5%) community and 55(84.3%) hospital pharmacists agreed that acquisition of additional research-oriented training is essential for effective conduct of pharmacy practice-based research. More than one-half in each category agreed that inadequate financial commitment and lack of access to patient’s data are major barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Conclusions: Community and hospital pharmacists agreed that pharmacy practice based research is essential to pharmacy profession, especially in identifying areas of focus to improve practice. Necessity for acquiring additional training in research, financial constraints and lack of access to patient’s data were identified as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Thus, there is a need to continually stimulate pharmacists’ interest in research so as to enhance professional competence and promote healthcare development. PMID:28503223

  6. Hospital and community pharmacists' perception of the scope, barriers and challenges of pharmacy practice-based research in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakeye, Titilayo O; Adisa, Rasaq; Olukotun, Rashidat T; Morawo, Paul K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate perception, extent of involvement and barriers to pharmacy practice-based research among community and hospital pharmacists in Ibadan, Oyo state, southwestern Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out among 65 hospital and 86 community pharmacists with at least five-year post-qualification experience, using pre-tested questionnaire. Socio-demographic information, extent of involvement, relevance and scope, as well as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research were explored. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used for evaluating ranked variables at p95.0%) in each practice category agreed that pharmacy practice-based research is essential to pharmacy profession. Greater than 90.0% agreed that pharmacy practice-based research may help in identifying gaps to improve practice. Thirty-five (40.7%) community and 36(55.4%) hospital pharmacist participants had previously involved in practice-based research. Seventy-seven (89.5%) community and 55(84.3%) hospital pharmacists agreed that acquisition of additional research-oriented training is essential for effective conduct of pharmacy practice-based research. More than one-half in each category agreed that inadequate financial commitment and lack of access to patient's data are major barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Community and hospital pharmacists agreed that pharmacy practice based research is essential to pharmacy profession, especially in identifying areas of focus to improve practice. Necessity for acquiring additional training in research, financial constraints and lack of access to patient's data were identified as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Thus, there is a need to continually stimulate pharmacists' interest in research so as to enhance professional competence and promote healthcare development.

  7. Determinants of medication incident reporting, recovery, and learning in community pharmacies: a conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Mahaffey, Thomas; Mackinnon, Neil J; Deal, Heidi; Hallstrom, Lars K; Morgan, Holly

    2011-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the underreporting of medication errors and near misses, collectively referred to as medication incidents (MIs), in the community pharmacy setting, is high. Despite the obvious negative implications, MIs present opportunities for pharmacy staff and regulatory authorities to learn from these mistakes and take steps to reduce the likelihood that they reoccur. However, these activities can only take place if such errors are reported and openly discussed. This research proposes a model of factors influencing the reporting, service recovery, and organizational learning resulting from MIs within Canadian community pharmacies. The conceptual model is based on a synthesis of the literature and findings from a pilot study conducted among pharmacy management, pharmacists, and pharmacy technicians from 13 community pharmacies in Nova Scotia, Canada. The purpose of the pilot study was to identify various actions that should be taken to improve MI reporting and included staff perceptions of the strengths and weaknesses of their current MI-reporting process, desired characteristics of a new process, and broader external and internal activities that would likely improve reporting. Out of the 109 surveys sent, 72 usable surveys were returned (66.1% response rate). Multivariate analysis of variance found no significant differences among staff type in their perceptions of the current or new desired system but were found for broader initiatives to improve MI reporting. These findings were used for a proposed structural equation model (SEM). The SEM proposes that individual-perceived self-efficacy, MI process capability, MI process support, organizational culture, management support, and regulatory authority all influence the completeness of MI reporting, which, in turn, influences MI service recovery and learning. This model may eventually be used to enable pharmacy managers to make better decisions. By identifying risk factors that contribute to low MI

  8. It's not what you do it's the way that it's measured: quality assessment of minor ailment management in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inch, Jackie; Porteous, Terry; Maskrey, Vivienne; Blyth, Annie; Burr, Jackie; Cleland, Jennifer; Wright, David J; Holland, Richard; Bond, Christine M; Watson, Margaret C

    2017-08-01

    Effective management of minor ailments in community pharmacies could reduce the burden on alternative high-cost services (general practices, Emergency Departments). Evidence is needed regarding the appropriateness of management of these conditions in community pharmacies. To explore the appropriateness of minor ailment management in community pharmacies. Prospective, observational study of simulated patient (SP) visits to community pharmacies in Grampian (Scotland) and East Anglia (England). Eighteen pharmacies (nine per centre) were recruited within a 25-mile radius of Aberdeen or Norwich. Consultations for four minor ailments were evaluated: back pain; vomiting/diarrhoea; sore throat; and eye discomfort. Each pharmacy received one SP visit per ailment (four visits/pharmacy; 72 visits total). Visits were audio-recorded and SPs completed a data collection form immediately after each visit. Each SP consultation was assessed for appropriateness against product licence, practice guidelines and study-specific consensus standards developed by a multi-disciplinary consensus panel. Evaluable data were available for 68/72 (94.4%) visits. Most (96%) visits resulted in the sale of a product; advice alone was the outcome of three visits. All product sales complied with the product licence, 52 (76%) visits complied with practice guidelines and seven visits achieved a 'basic' standard according to the consensus standard. Appropriateness of care varied according to the standard used. Pharmacy-specific quality standards are needed which are realistic and relevant to the pharmacy context and which reflect legal and clinical guidelines to promote the safe and effective management of minor ailments in this setting. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Attitudes of First-Year Pharmacy Students and Preceptors to a "Mini-Externship" in Hospital and Community Pharmacy Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivey, Michael P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of Montana School of Pharmacy has included a miniexternship experience in a required introductory course. Goals of a survey of 67 first year students and 17 preceptors included students' demographic profile and prior exposure to pharmacy practice, assessment of the influence of the externship on career goals, etc. (MLW)

  10. Safety culture assessment in community pharmacy: development, face validity, and feasibility of the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashcroft, D M; Morecroft, C; Parker, D; Noyce, P R

    2005-01-01

    To develop a framework that could be used by community pharmacies to self-assess their current level of safety culture maturity, which has high face validity and is both acceptable and feasible for use in this setting...

  11. Using the potentials of community pharmacies to promote rational drug use in Pakistan: an opportunity exists or lost?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Baber, Zaheer-ud-Din

    2012-01-01

    ... their dispensing practices. This article discusses the importance of community pharmacies in the context of healthcare delivery system, and the potentials and opportunities which exist to promote the rational use of medicine...

  12. An evaluation of the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention in a rural community pharmacy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leia M. Minaker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with morbidity and mortality. The retail food environment influences food and beverage purchasing and consumption. This study assesses the impact of a community pharmacy’s removal of sweet beverages on overall community sales of carbonated soft drinks (CSD in a rural setting. We also examined whether the pharmacy intervention affected CSD sales in the town’s other food stores. Methods Weekly CSD sales data were acquired from the three food retailers in the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia (January 1, 2013 to May 8, 2015, n = 123 weeks. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA analysis was used to analyse the interrupted time series data and estimate the impact of the pharmacy intervention (September 11, 2014 on overall CSD sales at the community level. Data were analysed in 2015. Results Before the intervention, the pharmacy accounted for approximately 6 % of CSD sales in the community. After the intervention, declines in total weekly average community CSD sales were not statistically significantly. CSD sales at the other food stores did not increase after the pharmacy intervention. Conclusions This study was among the first to examine the impact of a restrictive retail food environment intervention, and found a non-significant decline in CSD sales at the community level. It is the first study to examine a retail food environment intervention in a community pharmacy. Pharmacies may have an important role to play in creating healthy retail food environments.

  13. Marketing strategy adjustments in the ambulatory care center industry: implications for community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J H

    1989-01-01

    Each stage of a product's life cycle requires marketing strategy modifications in response to changing demand levels. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in ambulatory care center (ACC) operational characteristics indicative of product, market, and distribution channel adjustments that could have a competitive impact upon community pharmacy practice. A questionnaire was mailed to a national sample of 325 ACC managers. Evidence of new product feature additions includes increased emphasis on continued care and increased prevalence of prescription drug dispensing. Expansion into new market segments and distribution channels was demonstrated by increased participation in HMO and employer relationships. The observed adjustments in ACC marketing strategies present obvious challenges as well as less obvious opportunities for community pharmacy practice.

  14. Assessment of medication adherence and responsible use of isotretinoin and contraception through Belgian community pharmacies by using pharmacy refill data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biset N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Natacha Biset,1,* Mélanie Lelubre,1–3,* Christelle Senterre,4 Karim Amighi,1 Olivier Bugnon,2,3 Marie P Schneider,2,3 Carine De Vriese1 1Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutics, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Brussels, Belgium; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland; 3Community Pharmacy, Department of Ambulatory Care & Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Research Center of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Clinical Research, School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB, Brussels, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aims of the study were to evaluate medication adherence and the influencing factors for isotretinoin and contraception (oral, patches, and rings and to evaluate the concomitant use of contraception and isotretinoin. Methods: Reimbursed prescription data from January 2012 to August 2015 of all patients in Belgium were received from Pharmanet–National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance. Medication adherence was measured according to the medication possession ratio. The influence of gender and age was analyzed using the Mann–Whitney test and the Spearman coefficient correlation. The independence between adherence to contraception and adherence to isotretinoin was analyzed using the Pearson chi-square test of independence. Persistence was defined as the number of days between initiation and presumed end of treatment. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to plot the medication persistence curves, and the log-rank test was used to compare the curves. The concomitant use of contraception and isotretinoin was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The medication possession ratio was ≥0.8 for 46.1% of patients receiving isotretinoin and for 74.0% of women using contraception. For isotretinoin, this percentage decreased as the number of

  15. Women’s Attitudes and Health Beliefs toward Osteoporosis Screening in a Community Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Deo; Rajesh Nayak; Jigar Rajpura

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine women’s attitudes and health beliefs towards osteoporosis screening in a community pharmacy setting, utilizing the theoretical framework of Health Belief Model. A nonexperimental, cross-sectional research design, examining a convenience sample of women aged 18 and over, from several New York City senior care centers, a church, and a university campus in New York, was employed to assess the study objectives. Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale questionnaire wa...

  16. Perceptions of Spanish-speaking clientele of patient care services in a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenik, Nicole L; Gonzalvo, Jasmine D; Snyder, Margie E; Nash, Christy L; Smith, Cory T

    2015-01-01

    A paucity of studies exists that have assessed community pharmacy preferences of Spanish-speaking patients living in areas of the U.S. with rapidly growing Hispanic populations. The qualitative approach to this research affords a unique opportunity to further explore perceptions of the Spanish-speaking population. To identify perceptions of Spanish-speaking patients living in the U.S. with a focus on the care provided in community pharmacies, as well as to determine their satisfaction with community pharmacies. Participants were recruited after weekly Spanish-speaking church services for approximately one month. Qualitative, semi-structured individual interviews to identify perceived unmet patient care needs were conducted in Spanish and transcribed/translated verbatim. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to summarize findings. A written questionnaire was administered to collect patient satisfaction and demographic information, summarized using descriptive statistics. Twelve interviews were conducted by the principal investigator. Primary themes included lack of insurance coupled with high medical care costs serving as a barrier for acquisition of health care, difficulty accessing timely and convenient primary care, perceived negative attitudes from pharmacy personnel, lack of Spanish-speaking health care providers, and the provision of verbal and written medication information in English. The results of this study suggest a great need for health care providers, including pharmacists, to expand outreach services to the Spanish-speaking community. Some examples derived from the interview process include increasing marketing efforts of available services in the Spanish language, hiring Spanish-speaking personnel, and offering medical terminology education classes to Spanish-speaking patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Understanding the patient perspective of the English community pharmacy Medicines Use Review (MUR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Asam; Boardman, Helen F; Pollock, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Health policy-makers and pharmacy's representative bodies seek to better utilize the skill of community pharmacists so as to support patients' use of medicines and associated health care outcomes. The English Medicines Use Review (MUR) is an NHS-funded community pharmacy service that aims to improve patients' knowledge of medicines and their use. MURs represent an opportunity for patients to gain additional help with their medicines as well as fostering inter-professional collaboration between pharmacists and general practitioners (GPs). To describe patients' perspective of the MUR service and their understanding of the value that they derive from it. This study employed a qualitative approach involving 10 weeks of ethnographic observation in two English community pharmacies. It employed observations of 54 patient-pharmacist MURs consultations and subsequent interviews with 34 patients. A thematic approach was used to analyze the data. All patients reported feeling comfortable speaking with the pharmacist, who they saw as a knowledgeable expert on medicines. They appreciated the time spent with them in a private consultation. The MUR provided patients with reassurance about their medicines, that they were "doing the right thing." Despite these positive views, when asked to describe the purpose of their MUR, patients provided ambivalent accounts and reported that the consultation did little to improve their knowledge of medicines or affect how they used them. Patients' accounts of MURs suggested they held broadly positive views about the service. However, evidence that MURs were fulfilling their formal policy aims and intentions was limited. Policy-makers and those seeking to promote community pharmacy's professional agenda should note the patients' perspective, assessment and perceived value of MURs in order to develop services, which are better tailored to patient need. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adherence to Glaucoma Medications Over 12 Months in Two US Community Pharmacy Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feehan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the degree of adherence to medications for glaucoma among patients refilling prescriptions in community pharmacies. Methods: Data abstracted from the dispensing records for 3615 adult patients (18 years or older, predominantly over 45 receiving glaucoma medications from two retail pharmacy chains (64 stores in total were analyzed. From a 24-month historic data capture period, the 12-month levels of adherence were determined using standard metrics, the proportion of days covered (PDC and the medication possession ratio (MPR. The overall 12-month mean PDC was only 57%, and the mean MPR was 71%. Using a criterion by which 80% coverage was considered satisfactory adherence, only 30% had satisfactory overall 12-month PDC coverage, and only 37% had satisfactory overall 12-month MPR coverage. Refill adherence increased with age and was highest in the 65-and-older age group (p < 0.001. Differential adherence was found across medication classes, with the highest satisfactory coverage seen for those taking alpha2-adrenergic agonists (PDC = 36.0%; MPR = 47.6% down to those taking direct cholinergic agonists (PDC = 25.0%; MPR = 31.2% and combination products (PDC = 22.7%; MPR = 31.0%. Adherence to glaucoma medications in the community setting, as measured by pharmacy refill data, is very poor and represents a critical target for intervention. Community pharmacists are well positioned to monitor and reinforce adherence in this population.

  19. Benefits of pharmacist-led flu vaccination services in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkdale, C L; Nebout, G; Megerlin, F; Thornley, T

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is a major cause of excess winter deaths and increased hospital admissions. There is a high level of economic burden associated with the infection. Although vaccination targets have been set to tackle this international issue, many countries struggle to reach these coverage targets for their at-risk populations using traditional delivery methods. Traditional providers include family doctors and nurses; however, pharmacist-led influenza vaccination has become a more commonly utilised aid to support vaccination targets. Community pharmacies are convenient and widely accessible and evaluations consistently demonstrate that patients are satisfied with pharmacist-led vaccinations. Allowing community pharmacists to administer influenza vaccination as an alternative option for delivery helps to increase the coverage rate of vaccination. In addition, commissioning community pharmacists to provide this service has been shown to contribute to achieving targets for those at-risk. Pharmacist-led influenza vaccination services can create value for payors and reduce pressure on health systems. This review aims to demonstrate the success of pharmacy-led influenza vaccinations, and the impact it has had in driving up immunisation rates within other countries. Experiences of countries such as England, Portugal and the United States provide evidence to demonstrate the benefit to both the patient and the health system. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating problem drinking among community pharmacy customers: what did pharmacists think of the method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2010-10-01

    Community pharmacists have successfully been involved in brief interventions in many areas of health, and also provide services to substance misusers. There has been recent interest in community pharmacists providing screening and brief interventions (SBI) to problem drinkers. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring prevalence of risky drinking among community pharmacy customers and to explore acceptability of this method to participating pharmacists. Forty-three pharmacies (from 80 randomly selected) in New Zealand agreed to participate in data collection. On a set, single, randomly allocated day during one week, pharmacies handed out questionnaires about alcohol consumption, and views on pharmacists providing SBI, to their customers. At the end of the data collection period semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with participating pharmacists. Pharmacists were generally positive about the way the study was carried out, the support and materials they were provided with, and the ease of the data collection process. They reported few problems with customers and the majority of pharmacists would participate again. The method developed successfully collected data from customers and was acceptable to participating pharmacists. This method can be adapted to collecting data on prevalence of other behaviours or medical conditions and assessing customer views on services. © 2010 The Authors. IJPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  1. Stakeholder analysis for the development of a community pharmacy service aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Trigo, L; Hossain, L N; Durks, D; Fam, D; Inglis, S C; Benrimoj, S I; Sabater-Hernández, D

    Participatory approaches involving stakeholders across the health care system can help enhance the development, implementation and evaluation of health services. These approaches may be particularly useful in planning community pharmacy services and so overcome challenges in their implementation into practice. Conducting a stakeholder analysis is a key first step since it allows relevant stakeholders to be identified, as well as providing planners a better understanding of the complexity of the health care system. The main aim of this study was to conduct a stakeholder analysis to identify those individuals and organizations that could be part of a leading planning group for the development of a community pharmacy service (CPS) to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. An experienced facilitator conducted a workshop with 8 key informants of the Australian health care system. Two structured activities were undertaken. The first explored current needs and gaps in cardiovascular care and the role of community pharmacists. The second was a stakeholder analysis, using both ex-ante and ad-hoc approaches. Identified stakeholders were then classified into three groups according to their relative influence on the development of the pharmacy service. The information gathered was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The key informants identified 46 stakeholders, including (1) patient/consumers and their representative organizations, (2) health care providers and their professional organizations and (3) institutions and organizations that do not directly interact with patients but organize and manage the health care system, develop and implement health policies, pay for health care, influence funding for health service research or promote new health initiatives. From the 46 stakeholders, a core group of 12 stakeholders was defined. These were considered crucial to the service's development because they held positions that could drive or inhibit progress

  2. Pharmacy students screening for pre-diabetes/diabetes with a validated questionnaire in community pharmacies during their experiential rotation in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoan Linh Banh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Type 2 diabetes is a major condition impacting morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in Canada. Pharmacists are very accessible and are in an ideal position to promote public health education. The primary goal of this study was to incorporate public health promotion and education into a community pharmacy experiential education rotation for fourth year pharmacy students to screen for the risk of pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults. A secondary goal was to determine the frequency of common risk factors for pre-diabetes/diabetes in adults in the community setting. Method: Fourth year pharmacy students were invited to recruit all adults 25 years or older attending community pharmacies to complete a pre-diabetes/diabetes risk assessment questionnaire. If the participants were at risk, the participants were provided education about risk reduction for developing pre-diabetes/diabetes. Results: A total of 340 participants completed a risk assessment questionnaire. Over 90% of people approached agreed to complete a risk assessment questionnaire. The common risk factors were overweight (154/45%, hypertension (102/30%, taking medications for hypertension (102/30%, and having symptoms of diabetes (111/33%. The ethnic minorities have 2.56 (confidence interval = 1.48–44.1 times greater odds of having a family history of diabetes compared to non-minority subjects. Conclusion: Pharmacy students are able to screen community-based patients for pre-diabetes/diabetes risks. The most common risk factors presented were overweight, hypertension, and taking medications for hypertension.

  3. Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reaction reporting: a perspective of community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in Sana’a, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Worafi, Yaser Mohammed; Kassab, Yaman Walid; Alseragi, Wafa Mohammed; Almutairi, Masaad Saeed; Ahmed, Ali; Ming, Long Chiau; Alkhoshaiban, Ali Saleh; Hadi, Muhammad Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the knowledge, attitude and barriers of pharmacy technicians and pharmacists toward pharmacovigilance, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADR reporting in community pharmacies in Yemen. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted among community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in the capital of Yemen, Sana’a. A total of 289 community pharmacies were randomly selected. The validated and pilot-tested questionnaire consisted of six sections: demographic data, knowledge about pharmacovigilance, experience with ADR reporting, attitudes toward ADR reporting, and the facilitators to improve ADR reporting. Results A total of 428 pharmacy technicians and pharmacists were contacted and 179 went on to complete a questionnaire (response rate: 41.8%). Of the 179 respondents, 21 (11.7%) were pharmacists and 158 (88.3%) were pharmacy technicians, of which, 176 (98.3%) were male and 3 (1.7%) were female. The mean age of the respondents was 25.87±2.63 years. There was a significant difference between the pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in terms of knowledge scores (PYemen to increase their awareness and participation in ADR reporting. PMID:28924350

  4. The reliability and utility of spirometry performed on people with asthma in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei Burton, Deborah; LeMay, Kate S; Saini, Bandana; Smith, Lorraine; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Southwell, Phillipa; Cooke, Julie; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Krass, Ines; Reddel, Helen; Armour, Carol

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and the utility of spirometry generated by community pharmacists participating in two large asthma intervention trials of 892 people. The Pharmacy Asthma Care Program (PACP) and the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS) involved up to four visits to the pharmacy over 6 months for counseling and goal setting. Pharmacists performed spirometry according to ATS/ERS guidelines to inform management. The proportion of A-E, F quality tests, as per EasyOne QC grades, were recorded. Lung function results between visits and for participants referred/not referred to their general practitioner on the basis of spirometry were compared. Complete data from 2593 spirometry sessions were recorded, 68.5% of spirometry sessions achieved three acceptable tests with between-test repeatability of 150 ml or less (A or B quality), 96% of spirometry sessions included at least one test that met ATS/ERS acceptability criteria. About 39.1% of participants had FEV1/FVC values below the lower limit of normal (LNN), indicating a respiratory obstruction. As a result of the service, there was a significant increase in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC and asthma control. Lung function values were significantly poorer for participants referred to their general practitioner, compared with those not referred, on the basis of spirometry. Community pharmacists are able to reliably achieve spirometry results meeting ATS/ERS guidelines in people with asthma. Significant improvements in airway obstruction were demonstrated with the pharmacy services. Pharmacists interpreted lung function results to identify airway obstruction for referral, making this a useful technique for review of people with asthma in the community.

  5. Agreement between community pharmacy, physician's office, and home blood pressure measurement methods: the PALMERA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra-Lillo, José; Sabater-Hernández, Daniel; Sendra-Ortolá, Ángel; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The usefulness of the community pharmacy blood pressure (BP) (CPBP) method in assessing the effectiveness of antihypertensive treatment has not been adequately studied. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between community pharmacy, home, and physician office BP (POBP) measurement methods in treated hypertensive patients. BP was measured at the pharmacy (three visits), at home (4 days) and at the physician office (three visits). The Lin correlation-concordance coefficient (CCC) was used to evaluate the quantitative agreement. The qualitative agreement between methods to establish the patient's hypertensive state was evaluated using the κ-coefficient. Using home BP (HBP) monitoring as the reference method, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of the CPBP and POBP measurement methods were calculated. The study included 70 patients. Agreements were acceptable-moderate between CPBP and HBP (CCC (systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP)) = 0.79/0.66; κ = 0.56), moderate between CPBP and POBP (CCC = 0.57/0.61; κ = 0.35), and moderate-poor (CCC = 0.56/0.49; κ = 0.28) between POBP and HBP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio for the CPBP and the POBP measurement methods were: 60.7%, 92.9%, 8.5, 0.4 and 75.0%, 54.8%, 1.7, 0.5, respectively. In this sample of treated hypertensive patients, the agreement between the community pharmacy and HBP measurement methods was acceptable-moderate and greater than other agreements. The CPBP measurement method was more reliable than the POBP measurement method for detecting the presence of both uncontrolled and controlled BP and could be a good alternative to HBP monitoring when the latter lacks suitability. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  6. Integrated Pharmacies at Community Mental Health Centers: Medication Adherence and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, W Abel; Gorman, Jack M; Odorzynski, Melissa; Peterson, Mark J; Clayton, Carol

    2016-11-01

    Patients receiving psychiatric services at community mental health centers (CMHCs) are often prescribed medication that is critical to the treatment of behavioral health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety, and depression. Previous studies have shown correlation between rates of medication adherence and risk of hospitalization, but potential differences in medication adherence and other outcomes for patients of CMHCs by pharmacy type have not been widely studied. To determine potential benefits of placing a pharmacy within a mental health service delivery setting on both adherence to medication and health outcomes. A retrospective cohort analysis of medication adherence rates, hospital and emergency department (ED) use, and related costs between patients of CMHCs was conducted using integrated pharmacies versus community pharmacies. Data were from Medicaid claims paid by Southwest Michigan Behavioral Health for all (behavioral and nonbehavioral) inpatient and outpatient services as well as pharmacy prescriptions filled from April 1, 2014, through April 30, 2015. The primary study analysis was composed of an adult dataset representing persons served from 1 of the 2 CMHCs who had filled at least 2 prescriptions for a specific medication from 1 of 2 Genoa pharmacies located in a CMHC during the study period. Each unique patient dataset in the treatment group was matched to a corresponding control patient dataset prescribed the same medication using a modified version of the Gale-Shapley algorithm. The primary analysis compared medication possession ratio, which is a measure of adherence that indicates gaps or oversupply in a patient's medication use history. Statistical tests were performed using the R statistical programming language and Microsoft Excel. Patients using pharmacies integrated within the CMHCs had higher medication adherence rates, lower rates of hospitalization, and lower ED use than those filling their prescriptions at

  7. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Roles of Medicines Counter Assistants in advice giving in community pharmacies: a Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylänne, Virpi; John, Dai N

    2008-04-01

    Research in interaction and communication in community pharmacies has been reported in a number of countries but to date, talk at the micro-level in the community pharmacy context in the UK has received virtually no study. The objective of this exploratory study was to identify what light a Discourse Analytic approach could shed to describe the role(s) of Medicines Counter Assistants (MCAs) when dealing with clients relating to health, illness or medicines. Discourse Analysis is a growing field of study which has its roots in linguistics, but also in critical theory, philosophy, sociology, psychology and more. It is used in various ways by social scientists studying spoken and written language in use. Following research ethics approval and informed consent from participants, audio-recordings of staff-client interactions in three community pharmacies in Wales, UK were transcribed and analysed from a Discourse Analytic perspective, focussing on the emerging role of the MCA in the negotiation of advice. Main outcome measure Transcripts of interactions in community pharmacies analysed using Discourse Analysis. Ten hours of recordings were made. Of the 41 recorded interactions obtained, 29 involved an MCA regarding health and/or medicines. Example extracts represent different ways in which MCAs are involved in the interactions, ranging from dealing solely with the client, to the MCA dealing with the client but checking advice with the pharmacist, the MCA acting as a gatekeeper, the pharmacist intervening in the MCA-client interaction, the MCA keeping the client 'on hold' until the pharmacist is ready to interact with them and the MCA acting as an active intermediary. With the differing involvement, slightly different institutional and participant roles emerge for the MCAs through talk and interaction. This exploratory study succeeded in producing transcripts of interactions between MCAs, and clients and indicated that Discourse Analysis is helpful in assisting our

  9. Evaluating the implementation fidelity of New Medicines Service for asthma patients in community pharmacies in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraeyman, Jessica; Foulon, Veerle; Mehuys, Els; Boussery, Koen; Saevels, Jan; De Vriese, Carine; Dalleur, Olivia; Housiaux, Marie; Steurbaut, Stephane; Naegels, Marc; De Meyer, Guido Ry; De Loof, Hans; Van Hal, Guido; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    In October 2013, a New Medicines Service (NMS) was introduced in community pharmacies in Belgium to support asthma patients who are novice users of inhaler devices with corticosteroids. The protocol-based intervention used the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) to assess asthma control and medication adherence. The NMS is the first initiative that puts advanced pharmaceutical care into practice in Belgium. The present study evaluated the degree to which the NMS program is delivered as intended, drawing on the concept of implementation fidelity (IF). The main dimensions of IF and potential moderating and facilitating factors for the implementation of NMS in community pharmacies were evaluated using telephone interviews with pharmacists (n = 497), semi-structured interviews with patients eligible for NMS (n = 30), focus groups among general practitioners (n = 72) and lung specialists (n = 5), and a work system analysis in community pharmacies (n = 19). The uptake of NMS in Belgian community pharmacies remains low. In addition to practical barriers, pharmacists found it difficult to identify new asthmatic patients when they were not informed about the diagnosis. A lack of commitment from physicians, patients and pharmacists was noted in the early start-up phase of the program. Many pharmacists did not see how NMS differed from existing pharmaceutical care. Physicians considered this service as part of their own tasks and discouraged ACT for asthma follow-up in the community pharmacy. The introduction of the NMS program was not sufficiently embedded in the Belgian health care organization, causing low uptake and resistance to its implementation by pharmacists, patients, and other health care professionals. To increase the uptake of this type of service and its possible extension to other patient groups, more collaboration among the different health care professionals during design and implementation is necessary, as

  10. Genetic and family and community environmental effects on drug abuse in adolescence: a Swedish national twin and sibling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse by twin sibling modeling. The authors followed up with epidemiological analyses to identify shared environmental influences on drug abuse. Drug abuse was defined using public medical, legal, or pharmacy records. Twin and sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, or municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. The authors predicted concordance for drug abuse by years of co-residence until the older sibling turned 21 and risk for future drug abuse in adolescents living with parental figures as a function of family-level socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. The best twin sibling fit model predicted substantial heritability for drug abuse in males (55%) and females (73%), with environmental factors shared by siblings operating only in males and accounting for 23% of the variance in liability. For each year of living in the same household, the probability of sibling concordance for drug abuse increased 2%-5%. When not residing in the same household, concordance was predicted from residence in the same small residential area or municipality. Risk for drug abuse was predicted both by family socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. Controlling for family socioeconomic status, each year of living in a high social deprivation neighborhood increased the risk for drug abuse by 2%. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse is highly heritable. A substantial proportion of the shared environmental effect on drug abuse comes from community-wide rather than household-level influences. Genetic effects demonstrated in twin studies have led to molecular analyses to elucidate biological pathways. In a parallel manner, environmental effects can be followed up by

  11. Making MTM implementable and sustainable in community pharmacy: Is it time for a different game plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Holmes, Erin; Banahan, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature has demonstrated positive patient outcomes from medication therapy management (MTM), implementing it in community pharmacy continues to be met with significant barriers. To make MTM implementation more attainable, scalable, and sustainable in community pharmacies, this paper puts out a call for the need to identify the proportion of patients who clinically qualify for various levels of intensity of MTM services. This paper presents three proposed levels of MTM: adherence management (lowest level of MTM intensity), interventions on drug-related problems (mid-level MTM intensity), and disease state management (highest level of intensity). It is hypothesized that the lowest levels of MTM intensity would be sufficient to address medication problems in the vast majority of patients and require fewer MTM skills and resources, while the highest levels of MTM intensity (requiring the most skills and resources) would address medication problems in the smallest number of patients whose medication problems could not resolved with lower-intensity MTM. Future research in this area will involve testing previously designed instruments to determine why patients are not adhering to their medication regimen, following patients who have already had their adherence managed with medication synchronization, and tracking patients who will require higher levels of pharmacy services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan.Objective: The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group discussions and pilot testing. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p=0.05 were performed to find out differences.Results: Out of total sample of 371 pharmacies, 31.8 % (118 were in Islamabad, 32.4 % (120 in Peshawar and 35.8 % (133 were in Lahore. Fifty percent of the respondents had correct knowledge of range of room temperature at which medicines should be stored. Only 11.1% (41 of the respondents knew about OTC (over the counter drugs which can be sold without prescription while 5.9 % (22 of the respondents were aware of POM (prescription only medicines which can be only sold on a valid prescription. While 87.6% (325, 88.1% (327, 58.7% (318 and 95.7 % (355 of the respondents did not know the meaning of the dispensing abbreviations such as ‘h.s’, ‘q.d’, ‘sos’ and ‘p.r.n’. The respondents did not know correctly the status of Deltacortil® (Prednisolone, Septran® (Sulfamethoxazole and Fansidar® (Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine either as OTC or POM in 26.7% (99, 64.2% (238, and 44.5 % (165 of the cases, respectively. There was a significant difference (p=0.05 in knowledge of dispensers regarding storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines having different level of qualification and experience.Conclusions: The overall knowledge and training of dispensers working at community pharmacies is inadequate in Pakistan. However, pharmacists had relatively

  13. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham M

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan. The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group discussions and pilot testing. The data was coded, entered and analyzed by using SPSS Version 16. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p≤0.05) were performed to find out differences. Out of total sample of 371 pharmacies, 31.8 % (118) were in Islamabad, 32.4 % (120) in Peshawar and 35.8 % (133) were in Lahore. Fifty percent of the respondents had correct knowledge of range of room temperature at which medicines should be stored. Only 11.1% (41) of the respondents knew about OTC (over the counter drugs) which can be sold without prescription while 5.9 % (22) of the respondents were aware of POM (prescription only medicines) which can be only sold on a valid prescription. While 87.6% (325), 88.1% (327), 58.7% (318) and 95.7 % (355) of the respondents did not know the meaning of the dispensing abbreviations such as 'h.s', 'q.d', 'sos' and 'p.r.n'. The respondents did not know correctly the status of Deltacortil® (Prednisolone), Septran® (Sulfamethoxazole) and Fansidar® (Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) either as OTC or POM in 26.7% (99), 64.2% (238), and 44.5 % (165) of the cases, respectively. There was a significant difference (p≤0.05) in knowledge of dispensers regarding storage temperature, prescription terminologies and status of medicines having different level of qualification and experience. The overall knowledge and training of dispensers working at community pharmacies is inadequate in Pakistan. However, pharmacists had relatively better knowledge regarding storage temperature

  14. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... were colonised by a different fungal species as a consequence of liming. The observed shift in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities was related to an increased pH and base saturation with liming. We conclude that even a moderate level of liming have long lasting effects on belowground ectomycorrhizal...... community composition. We discuss the observed community changes in relation to ectomycorrhizal functionality and biodiversity in limed forests....

  15. Alcohol brief intervention in community pharmacies: a feasibility study of outcomes and customer experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Natasha S; Norman, Ian J; Dhital, Ranjita; McCrone, Paul; Milligan, Peter; Whittlesea, Cate M

    2013-12-01

    Studies indicate that community pharmacy-based alcohol brief intervention (BI) is feasible. However, few studies report significant reductions in post-BI alcohol consumption and customer experience. Cost-effectiveness has not been previously examined. This 5 month study adopted a single group pre- and post-experimental design to: (1) assess uptake of the community pharmacy alcohol BI service; (2) establish post-BI changes in alcohol consumption for hazardous drinkers; (3) report the acceptability of the service to customers who received it; and (4) undertake a preliminary economic evaluation of the service through establishing whether pharmacy-based alcohol BI affected health and social care costs, including lost employment costs, and whether it was cost-effective. 26 community pharmacies in south London, UK. Trained pharmacists used the AUDIT-C and a retrospective 7-day Drinking Diary to identify risky drinkers and inform feedback and advice. Harmful drinkers were referred to their general practitioner and/or specialist alcohol services. A confidential service feedback questionnaire was completed by alcohol BI recipients. Baseline and 3-month follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with hazardous and low risk drinkers to assess post-BI alcohol use change and service cost-effectiveness. AUDIT-C, 7-day alcohol unit consumption, drinking days, cost utilisation data. Of the 663 eligible customers offered alcohol BI, 141 (21 %) took up the service. Three-quarters of customers were identified as risky drinkers. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 61 hazardous/low risk drinkers (response rate = 58 %). Hazardous drinkers were found to significantly reduce their 7-day alcohol unit consumption and drinking days, but not AUDIT-C scores. The majority of harmful drinkers (91 %, n = 10) who were contactable post-BI had accessed further alcohol related services. Customer feedback was generally positive. Over 75 % of customers would recommend the service to others. The

  16. Continuing effects of Medicare Part D on rural independent pharmacies who are the sole retail provider in their community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Andrea; Mason, Michelle; Richardson, Indira; Rutledge, Stephen; Poley, Stephanie; Mueller, Keith; Slifkin, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 established funding to allow Medicare beneficiaries to enroll in plans providing outpatient prescription drug coverage beginning in January 2006. The Medicare Part D program has changed the means by which beneficiaries purchase prescription drugs, impacting the business operations of pharmacies. To describe the experiences of rural independently owned pharmacies that are the sole retail pharmacy in their community 1 year after implementation of Medicare Part D, in order to learn if the initial financial and administrative problems associated with the implementation of the program in 2006 resolved over time. A semistructured interview protocol was used in telephone interviews with 51 pharmacist owners of rural sole community pharmacies in 27 states who were identified through a random sampling process. The sole community pharmacists interviewed continue to face challenges directly related to Medicare Part D. Dealing with Part D plans and working with patients during enrollment periods remains administratively burdensome. Reimbursement amounts, complexity of dealing with multiple plans, and timeliness of payments continue to be cited as problems which could threaten the viability of independently owned pharmacies who are the sole retail providers in their communities. Actions should be considered to help sole community pharmacies deal with the ongoing administrative and financial challenges of Part D. To ensure full choice for rural Medicare beneficiaries and full access to pharmaceuticals through the ongoing presence of a local pharmacy, the development of a mechanism to structure prescription reimbursement so that drug acquisition costs and related overhead are covered and a reasonable profit margin provided should be considered. Further study is needed to determine how existing policies and regulations can be modified to ensure reasonable access to pharmacy services for rural Medicare and

  17. Pharmacists’ Attitudes and Perceived Barriers about Community Pharmacy-Based Cardiovascular Risk Screening Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jahangard-Rafsanjani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Community pharmacies are considered as ideal settings to provide cardiovascular risk screening (CRS. However, little is known about pharmacists’ views on providing such services in developing countries including Iran. In the present study, we evaluated the pharmacists’ attitudes and perceived barriers to providing CRS services. Methods:In a cross-sectional study, a questionnaire in three sections was developed by the investigators (attitudes, perceived barriers, and demographics. Five likert items (5 points bipolar scale were designed to evaluate pharmacists’ attitudes about their professional role in providing CRS services in community pharmacies. Seven likert items were designed to assess the pharmacists’ perceived importance of possible barriers to providing the services. The study tool was distributed among a convenient sample of 500 pharmacists, who had participated in a national continuing education event. Results:The response rate was 44% and descriptive statistics and Chi squared test were used to analyze data. Results showed that 70.4% participants had an overall positive attitude to providing CRS services. Pharmacists who were pharmacy owner and pharmacist-in-charge simultaneously were more positive about providing CRS services. Lack of regulatory policy and compensation mechanism, limited physical space in pharmacy and time limitation were reported to be the most important barriers to providing CRS services (> 50% rated as highly important. Low human resource and time limitation were significantly associated with negative attitudes (P: 0.02 and 0.001, respectively.Conclusion:The Iranian pharmacists’ attitudes seem to be positive about providing CRS services; however, their perceived barriers should be addressed prior to CRS service implementation.

  18. Making a success of providing NHS Health Checks in community pharmacies across the Tees Valley: a qualitative study

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    Heywood Peter J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England and Wales, the Department of Health introduced a primary prevention programme, NHS Health Checks, to provide screening for cardiovascular risk amongst people aged 40-74. The aim of this programme is to offer treatment and advice to those identified with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The North East of England has some of the highest rates of CVD in the UK and prevention is therefore a priority. NHS Tees funded this programme of work under the local branding of Healthy Heart Checks (HHC. These were initially implemented principally through GP practices from October 2008 but, in order to mitigate the possibility that some hard to reach communities would be reluctant to engage with some primary care settings, plans were also developed to deliver the programme through workplace settings and through community pharmacies. This paper reports specifically on the findings from the evaluation in respect of the setting up of HHCs in community pharmacies and aims to offer some lessons for other service settings where this option is seen as a way of providing low threshold services which will minimise inequalities in intervention uptake. Methods In assessing the community pharmacy component of HHCs, a selection of staff having direct involvement in the process was invited to take part in the evaluation. Interviews were carried out with representatives from community pharmacy, staff members from the commissioning Primary Care Trusts and with Local Pharmaceutical Committee members. Results Evaluation and analysis identified challenges which should be anticipated and addressed in initiating HHC in community pharmacies. These have been categorised into four main themes for discussion in this paper: (1 establishing and maintaining pharmacy Healthy Heart Checks, (2 overcoming IT barriers, (3 developing confident, competent staff and (4 ensuring volume and through flow in pharmacy. Conclusions Delivering NHS health

  19. Work-related stress, associated comorbidities and stress causes in French community pharmacies: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Lambert, Céline; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Cuny, Damien; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Like other health professionals, community pharmacists are exposed to stress factors (being efficient, avoiding mistakes and bearing emotional load), but they are also under the pressure of entrepreneurial responsibilities. The main objective was to assess the level of work-related stress in French community pharmacies. The other objectives of the study were to assess the associated comorbidities and causes of work-related stress. This observational cross-sectional study was sent to all French community pharmacies by email. The survey was anonymous and designed to collect the following items: socio-demographic factors, professional status, characteristics of community pharmacy, work-related stress (visual analogic scale-VAS), fatigue (VAS), sleep disturbances (questions), anxiety and depression symptoms (hospital anxiety and depression scale), medical consultation for work-related stress, medication use for work related stress, psychoactive drug-use and causes of work-related stress. Participants were included in the survey if they were pharmacists (owner or assistant) or pharmacy technicians working in a community pharmacy at the time of the survey. Exclusion criteria were defined as follows: pharmacy students or other professionals involved in a community pharmacy (e.g. dietician, beautician) and lack of professional status information. There was no age limitation. After three months of data collection, 1,339 participants answered the survey and 1,272 participants were included in conformity with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and to avoid missing data on the primary endpoint. Work-related stress was detected in 32.8% (417/1,272) of individuals (scores ≥70/100). Men were significantly more affected than women and there was no difference between professional statuses and no relation with the age of the participants. Work-related stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbances, medical consultations, medication use

  20. Work-related stress, associated comorbidities and stress causes in French community pharmacies: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balayssac

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Like other health professionals, community pharmacists are exposed to stress factors (being efficient, avoiding mistakes and bearing emotional load, but they are also under the pressure of entrepreneurial responsibilities. The main objective was to assess the level of work-related stress in French community pharmacies. The other objectives of the study were to assess the associated comorbidities and causes of work-related stress. Methods This observational cross-sectional study was sent to all French community pharmacies by email. The survey was anonymous and designed to collect the following items: socio-demographic factors, professional status, characteristics of community pharmacy, work-related stress (visual analogic scale—VAS, fatigue (VAS, sleep disturbances (questions, anxiety and depression symptoms (hospital anxiety and depression scale, medical consultation for work-related stress, medication use for work related stress, psychoactive drug-use and causes of work-related stress. Participants were included in the survey if they were pharmacists (owner or assistant or pharmacy technicians working in a community pharmacy at the time of the survey. Exclusion criteria were defined as follows: pharmacy students or other professionals involved in a community pharmacy (e.g. dietician, beautician and lack of professional status information. There was no age limitation. Results After three months of data collection, 1,339 participants answered the survey and 1,272 participants were included in conformity with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and to avoid missing data on the primary endpoint. Work-related stress was detected in 32.8% (417/1,272 of individuals (scores ≥70/100. Men were significantly more affected than women and there was no difference between professional statuses and no relation with the age of the participants. Work-related stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep

  1. Post hoc evaluation of a common-sense intervention for asthma management in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kim; Seubert, Liza; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda

    2016-11-18

    The aim was to evaluate a common-sense, behavioural change intervention to implement clinical guidelines for asthma management in the community pharmacy setting. The components of the common-sense intervention were described in terms of categories and dimensions using the Intervention Taxonomy (ITAX) and Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) using the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW), Capability, Opportunity and Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) System and Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy (BCTTv1). The retrospective application of these existing tools facilitated evaluation of the mechanism, fidelity, logistics and rationale of the common-sense intervention. The initial intervention study was conducted in 336 community pharmacies in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Small-group workshops were conducted in 25 pharmacies; 162 received academic detailing and 149 acted as controls. The intervention was designed to improve pharmacy compliance with guidelines for a non-prescription supply of asthma reliever medications. Retrospective application of ITAX identified mechanisms for the short-acting β agonists intervention including improving knowledge, behavioural skills, problem-solving skills, motivation and self-efficacy. All the logistical elements were considered in the intervention design but the duration and intensity of the intervention was minimal. The intervention was delivered as intended (as a workshop) to 13.4% of participants indicating compromised fidelity and significant adaptation. Retrospective application of the BCW, COM-B system and BCTTv1 identified 9 different behaviour change techniques as the rationale for promoting guideline-based practice change. There was a sound rationale and clear mechanism for all the components of the intervention but issues related to logistics, adaptability and fidelity might have affected outcomes. Small group workshops could be a useful implementation strategy in community pharmacy, if logistical issues can be

  2. Impact of community pharmacy-based educational intervention on patients with hypertension in Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushmita; Kc, Bhuvan; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Kaundinnyayana, Atisammodavardhana; Khanal, Aarjan

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of data regarding the feasibility and impact of community pharmacy-based educational interventions on the management of chronic diseases in developing countries. The aim of this study was to establish the feasibility, and to investigate the impact, of community pharmacy-based educational intervention on knowledge, practice, and disease management of patients with hypertension in Western Nepal. A single-cohort pre-/post-intervention study was conducted from August 2012 to April 2013. The participants included in the study were patients diagnosed with hypertension attending a pharmacist-led hypertension clinic. The educational intervention was conducted by pharmacists, was individualised, and consisted of three counselling sessions over a period of six months. The patients' knowledge of hypertension, their practice of lifestyle modification and non-pharmacological approaches concerning hypertension management, and blood pressure were assessed at baseline and again after nine months by using a pre-validated questionnaire. Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. The median (IQR) knowledge score changed from 6 (4) to 13 (0) after the intervention (pintervention (peducational intervention by community pharmacists had improved patients' disease knowledge, practice, and management of their hypertension. Evidence suggests Nepalese community pharmacists need could play an important role in the management of chronic diseases like hypertension through simple interventions such as providing educational support for patients.

  3. Addressing Cultural Competency in Pharmacy Education through International Service Learning and Community Engagement

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    Rosemin Kassam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a course in international service learning and community engagement for pharmacy undergraduate students. The course offered students opportunities to cultivate cultural competency in an international setting foreign to their own—Sub-Saharan Africa. The experience consisted of pre-departure preparation seminars followed by subsequent community immersion to experience, explore and confront personal attitudes and perceptions. A key feature of this course was its emphasis on a continuing cycle of learning, community engagement and reflection. Three students participated, a near-maximum cohort. Their daily self-reflections were qualitatively analyzed to document the impact of their cultural learning and experiences and revealed meaningful learning in the domains of self-assessment and awareness of their personal and professional culture, exposure to a participatory health delivery model involving the patient, the community and a multidisciplinary team and opportunities to engage in patient care in a different cultural setting. This proof-of-concept course provided students with experiences that were life-changing on both personal and professional levels and confirmed the viability and relevance of international service learning for the pharmacy field within its university-wide mandate.

  4. Workplace stress in community pharmacies in England: associations with individual, organizational and job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sally; Hassell, Karen; Ashcroft, Darren; Johnson, Sheena; O'Connor, Elinor

    2014-01-01

    To describe the levels of workplace stress that community pharmacists perceive and to examine associations with individual, organizational and job characteristics. A cross-sectional mailed survey of 2000 randomly selected community pharmacists practising in England incorporating a validated organizational stress screening tool (ASSET). Response rate was 48%. Community pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of stress than other health care workers for seven out of eight work-related stressors. Regression analyses demonstrated significant associations between a number of individual, organizational and job characteristics and stress. Long working days, being a pharmacy manager and working for large multiples were associated with higher reported levels of stress across a number of work-related stressors including work overload, control and the job itself. However, self-reported measures of workload (such as dispensing volume) were not associated with higher stress levels. The growth in corporate ownership of community pharmacies, which is associated with more stressful working environments, together with current economic pressures could have consequences not only for the future well-being of pharmacists but also for patient safety.

  5. Governance and implementation of sports safety practices by municipal offices in Swedish communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, S; Janson, S; Timpka, T

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether all-purpose health or safety promotion programmes and sports safety policies affect sports safety practices in local communities. Case study research methods were used to compare sports safety activities among offices in 73 Swedish municipalities; 28 with ongoing health or safety promotion programmes and 45 controls. The offices in municipalities with the WHO Healthy Cities (HC) or Safe Communities programmes were more likely to perform frequent inspections of sports facilities, and offices in the WHO HC programme were more likely to involve sports clubs in inspections. More than every second, property management office and environmental protection office conducted sports safety inspections compared with less than one in four planning offices and social welfare offices. It is concluded that all-purpose health and safety promotion programmes can reach out to have an effect on sports safety practices in local communities. These safety practices also reflect administrative work routines and managerial traditions.

  6. Describing the organisational culture of a selection of community pharmacies using a tool borrowed from social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Shane; Harrison, Jeff; Carswell, Peter

    2010-02-01

    To describe the dimensions of organisational culture within a selection of community pharmacies. Community pharmacy in the New Zealand primary care sector which is partially government funded and currently undergoing major reform. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles, integrate within the wider primary care team and deliver the expectations of contemporary health policy. The mixed methods approach of concept mapping was undertaken with 10 representatives from six community pharmacies selected as case sites. The process was split into three parts (a) face to face brainstorming to generate statements describing culture, followed by (b) statement reduction, piloting and approval of statement list by participants, followed by (c) sorting the statements into 'like' groups. Multidimensional scaling analysis of participant sorting allows the development of discrete clusters of statements that describe aspects of organizational culture. A set of 105 statements were generated at the brainstorming meeting. Eight clusters of organisational culture resulted from participant sorting: leadership and staff management; valuing each other and the team; free thinking, fun and open to challenge; trusted behaviour; customer relations; focus on external integration; providing systematic advice; embracing innovation. Community pharmacy is under pressure to take on new roles and deliver and there is some evidence organisational culture of pharmacy may be a barrier. Our paper outlines the development of a survey instrument for describing organisational culture through Concept mapping, a tool borrowed from social sciences. This tool can be used for exploration of aspects of culture that may be important in the change management process for improving the effectiveness of community pharmacy as expected by contemporary primary health care policy.

  7. Involving the public and other stakeholders in development and evaluation of a community pharmacy alcohol screening and brief advice service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, J; Mackridge, A J

    2014-04-01

    To explore the views of community pharmacy staff, the general public and other stakeholders towards pharmacy-based alcohol screening and advice services. To involve all relevant stakeholders in designing an acceptable and feasible pharmacy-based alcohol screening and advice service. To evaluate a pilot service from the user perspective. Mixed methods study involving a range of populations, designed to explore multiple perspectives and enable triangulation of results, to develop an optimal service design, prior to service commissioning. Telephone interviews were conducted with relevant stakeholders and a street survey undertaken with the public to explore views on the desirability and feasibility of pharmacy-based alcohol services. Following this, a stakeholder working group was held, involving a nominal group technique, to develop and refine the service design. Finally a pilot service was evaluated from the user perspective through telephone interviews and direct observations by a trained researcher. All stakeholder groups (pharmacy staff, public, commissioners, alcohol treatment service staff) viewed pharmacy-based alcohol screening services as acceptable and feasible with the potential for integration and/or combination with existing public health services. Privacy was the main concern of the public, but 80% were comfortable discussing alcohol in a pharmacy. These views were not influenced by drinking status age or gender, but people recruited in areas of high deprivation were more likely to accept a pro-active approach or alcohol-related advice from a pharmacist than those from areas of low deprivation. Stakeholder groups were in agreement on the acceptability of a pharmacy screening service, but alcohol treatment service staff viewed direct referral to alcohol support services less beneficial than other stakeholders. Posters in pharmacies and GP surgeries were viewed as most likely to encourage uptake of screening. Involvement of non-pharmacist pharmacy staff

  8. Practice change in community pharmacy: using change-management principles when implementing a pharmacy asthma management service in NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feletto, Eleonora; Lui, Grace Wan Ying; Armour, Carol; Saini, Bandana

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the application of a research-based change-management tool, the Pharmacy Change Readiness Wheel (PCRW), in practice, and the impact it had on the implementation of an asthma service (Pharmacy Asthma Management Service or PAMS). All pharmacists implementing the PAMS in the state of New South Wales, Australia, were provided training using a custom-designed module explaining change readiness as it applied to the PAMS. This training and a self-administered PCRW checklist were completed before PAMS implementation. Following PAMS service delivery, semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with the pharmacists and any additional staff involved regarding their experiences of change management. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analysed. Thirty seven of the forty five pharmacies who delivered PAMS returned the PCRW checklist (82% response rate) and participants from 29 pharmacies were interviewed (29 pharmacists and six additional staff). Perception of readiness for change before service delivery was remarkably high. From the interviews conducted after service delivery it was evident that systematic management of the practice change using theoretical concepts had not really been undertaken and that many challenges were faced in the implementation of practice change (PAMS). The results of the content analysis from the interviews revealed that factors external or internal to the pharmacy or those related to the individual pharmacist could affect implementation of practice change. Change is not as straightforward as it may appear and is a multi-step process over time. Pharmacists were unaware of this. A change-management framework should be applied to specific services with enough flexibility so that pharmacists can individualise them for their pharmacies. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. An Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting (EISP): Development and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Tadic, Ivana; Stojkov, Svetlana; Savic, Mirko

    2016-04-01

    Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: (1) generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; (2) defining the design and format of the instrument; (3) validation of the instrument. The constructed Ethical Issue scale for community pharmacy setting has two parts containing the same 16 items for assessing the difficulty and frequency thereof. The results of the 171 completely filled out scales were analyzed (response rate 74.89%). The Cronbach's α value of the part of the instrument that examines difficulties of the ethical situations was 0.83 and for the part of the instrument that examined frequency of the ethical situations was 0.84. Test-retest reliability for both parts of the instrument was satisfactory with all Interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values above 0.6, (for the part that examines severity ICC = 0.809, for the part that examines frequency ICC = 0.929). The 16-item scale, as a self assessment tool, demonstrated a high degree of content, criterion, and construct validity and test-retest reliability. The results support its use as a research tool to asses difficulty and frequency of ethical issues in community pharmacy setting. The validated scale needs to be further employed on a larger sample of pharmacists.

  10. Identification of inhaler technique errors with a routine procedure in Portuguese community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castel-Branco MM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A correct selection of drugs prescribed, but also the choice of the appropriate inhaler device, is crucial for the control of respiratory diseases. Objective: To evaluate the inhaler technique and identify potential errors of patients when treated with inhalers by testing a routinary procedure to be implemented in any community pharmacy. Methods: Adults with asthma/COPD and under inhalation therapy were invited to demonstrate how they use their inhalers. After direct observation it was registered whether all the sequential steps included in the summary of product characteristics (SmPC were performed. Results: The study involved 67 patients from 4 community pharmacies (Portugal central region: 34 (50.7% males, 65.4 (SD=18.28 years old, 42 (62.7% with COPD, and 23 (34.3% using more than one inhaler. The 67 patients used 95 inhalers, comprising: 57 (60.0% multiple dose DPI (dry powder inhalers, 18 (18.9% single dose DPI, 16 (16.8% pMDI (pressurized metered dose inhalers, 2 (2.1% pMDI+spacer and 2 (2.1% SMI (soft mist inhalers. No errors were made only by 9 (13.4% patients. In the 75 DPIs techniques, the most frequent errors were ‘no previous forced expiration’ (46=61.3% and ‘no 10s apnea after inhalation’ (51=68.0%; in the 16 pMDIs techniques common errors were ‘lack of hand-lung coordination’ (7=43.8 %, ‘no previous forced exhalation’ (8=50.0% and ‘no apnea after inhalation’ (10=62.5%. After inhaling from 56 devices containing corticosteroids, 34 (60.7% of the patients did not wash their mouth. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the possibility of performing this procedure routinely in Portuguese community pharmacies and also its utility, since 58 (87% of patients had at least one error during the inhalers use.

  11. Community pharmacy-based asthma services: current perspectives and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bollmeier SG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne G Bollmeier, Theresa R ProsserSt Louis College of Pharmacy, St Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Achieving and maintaining asthma control and improving patients’ quality of life are cornerstones of asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature related to services provided by community pharmacists to patients with asthma. Comprehensive asthma programs provided by community pharmacists have improved patients’ knowledge of the disease, device technique skills, patient adherence, and quality of life. One study shows such comprehensive programs are cost effective in patients with severe or uncontrolled asthma, which cannot be extrapolated to all programs. Targeted interventions by pharmacists could be provided to a larger population of patients. Pharmacists have identified that lack of time, resources, and training are barriers to implementing asthma programs. In addition, optimal models are needed to integrate interventions into the dispensing workflow. Optimal training programs should include skills in problem solving, device technique, and counseling. A movement towards “institutionalizing” routine asthma interventions or patient encounters is necessary if consistent services are to be given to all patients, and appropriate compensation is provided for pharmacist services.Keywords: community, pharmacy, pharmacist, asthma, education

  12. The Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial: effects on youth drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Andréasson, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Local communities are increasingly targeted for alcohol and drug prevention campaigns. This study describes some of the key findings from the Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial (2003-2007) and lessons learned following an evaluation of the trial's effectiveness. The paper focuses mainly on changes in youth drinking and related harms. This was a pre- to post-intervention effect study comparing six trial communities that received added training and technical support with six control communities where regular prevention efforts were supported by national alcohol and drug action plans. A repeated, cross-sectional survey of 8092 youths aged 15-19 years assessed changes in alcohol consumption, binge drinking, perceived alcohol availability, access to alcohol via parents and adult attitudes towards the supply of alcohol to youths. National registry data were used to assess changes in hospital admissions due to alcohol intoxication. Overall, there were few significant improvements in the six trial communities compared with the control communities. The absence of program effects was largely attributable to the selection of strategies (in particular, school and parental programs) lacking evidence of effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption at the aggregate level. Prevention programs based on efficacy studies need to be tested in community-based effectiveness trials before being disseminated. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Community pharmacy addresses the need for proper drug disposal with positive response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    In response to growing concerns regarding the improper disposal of prescription and over-the-counter drugs and its impact on the environment and teen drug abuse, the National Community Pharmacists Association developed a Prescription Disposal Program to assist its members in voluntarily developing consumer disposal options in their stores. The program includes a discount on products from partner organization Sharps Compliance Inc., free marketing materials, and national promotion via a new consumer website. To date, the program has nearly 1,000 community pharmacies in 47 states participating. A collection of 8,000 pounds of drugs has resulted, with more campaigns slated for the future. Included with this article are testimonials from compounding pharmacists who have initiated National Community Pharmacists Association's drug disposal program.

  14. Using the potentials of community pharmacies to promote rational drug use in Pakistan: an opportunity exists or lost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azhar; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Baber, Zaheer-ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    Keeping in view the importance of community pharmacies and their outreach to the patients, many developing countries have used their potential to promote safe and effective treatments by building their dispensing practices. This article discusses the importance of community pharmacies in the context of healthcare delivery system, and the potentials and opportunities which exist to promote the rational use of medicine in developing countries, especially Pakistan. A systematic inventory of published research work, was conducted for which the general search engine Google was utilised by using key terms 'community pharmacies,' 'dispensing practices,' 'drug sellers,' 'developing countries,' 'pharmacist,' 'Pakistan,' 'quality of pharmacies' and 'rational drug use' were employed. Internet databases, like Science Direct, Medline/Pub Med using available access, were used to find full-length articles. Private drug outlets have virtually turned into first-line source of prescribing and dispensing medications without any restrictions by the drug sellers. Innovative approaches are needed to achieve better services from these community pharmacies without significantly increasing costs to the society and healthcare system. The opportunity exists, but needs to be utlised accordingly.

  15. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Gray

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  16. Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Gray

    2015-01-01

    Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.

  17. Burning questions: Exploring the impact of natural disasters on community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Pey Wen; Singleton, Judith

    The past decade has seen a rapid change in the climate system with an increased risk of extreme weather events. On and following the 3rd of January 2013, Tasmania experienced three catastrophic bushfires, which led to the evacuation of several communities, the loss of many properties, and a financial cost of approximately AUD$80 million. To explore the impacts of the 2012/2013 Tasmanian bushfires on community pharmacies. Qualitative research methods were undertaken, employing semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of seven Tasmanian pharmacists. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and two different methods were used to analyze the text. The first method utilized Leximancer ® text analytics software to provide a birds-eye view of the conceptual structure of the text. The second method involved manual, open and axial coding, conducted independently by the two researchers for inter-rater reliability, to identify key themes in the discourse. Two main themes were identified - 'people' and 'supply' - from which six key concepts were derived. The six concepts were 'patients,' 'pharmacists,' 'local doctor,' 'pharmacy operations,' 'disaster management planning,' and 'emergency supply regulation.' This study identified challenges faced by community pharmacists during Tasmanian bushfires. Interviewees highlighted the need for both the Tasmanian State Government and the Australian Federal Government to recognize the important primary care role that community pharmacists play during natural disasters, and therefore involve pharmacists in disaster management planning. They called for greater support and guidance for community pharmacists from regulatory and other government bodies during these events. Their comments highlighted the need for a review of Tasmania's three-day emergency supply regulation that allows pharmacists to provide a three-day supply of a patient's medication without a doctor's prescription in an emergency situation. Copyright

  18. Information-gathering for self-medication via Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Schneider, Carl R; Murray, Kevin; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2015-01-22

    Gathering sufficient information when handling self-medication requests in community pharmacies is an important factor in assisting patients to obtain appropriate health outcomes. Common types of information usually gathered include patient identity, signs and symptoms, action taken, medical history, and current medications being used. The aims of the study were (1) to describe the types and amount of information gathered by Eastern Indonesian community pharmacy staff when handling self-medication requests, and (2) to identify factors associated with the reported amount of information gathered. Patient simulation and pharmacy staff interviews were used. First, patient simulation was conducted using 2 cough scenarios and 1 diarrhoea scenario. Second, a structured interview was administered to eligible pharmacy staff in the setting. The types and amount of information gathered during patient simulation encounters and reported during pharmacy staff interviews were noted. A regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the amount of information gathered from the interview data. The most frequent types of information gathered in patient simulation encounters were the nature of symptoms (88% in one of the cough scenarios) and patient identity (96% in the diarrhoea scenario). Other types of information were gathered in 90% of the 173 interviewees reported that they gathered information on patient identity, nature of symptoms, and associated symptoms. Information on medical history and medication used was gathered by 20% and 26% respectively of the 173 interviewees. The majority of pharmacy staff asked 0 to 2 questions in the patient simulation encounters compared to 5 questions pharmacy staff reported as their usual practice during the interviews. Being qualified as a pharmacist or a pharmacy technician was one of the factors positively associated with the reported amount of information gathered. There were deficits in the types of information

  19. Linking community pharmacy dispensing data to prescribing data of general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leufkens Hubert GM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases are frequently used for pharmacoepidemiological research. However, most of these databases consist either of prescribing, dispensing or administrative data and therefore lack insight in the interaction between the several health professionals around the patient. Methods To determine the success rate of linking records from the dispensing database of the Foundation for Pharmaceutical Statistics to the prescribing database of the second Dutch national survey of general practice, conducted by NIVEL (Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, a deterministic record linkage approach was used with patient and prescription characteristics as matching variables between the two databases. Results The catchment area included 123 community pharmacies, 90 GP practices and approximately 170,000 unique patients. Overall 110,102 (64.8% unique patients were linked using the matching variables patient's gender, year of birth, the 4-digit part of the postal code, date of dispensing/prescribing and ATC-code. The final database contains of the 110,102 both prescribing data from 83 GP practices and dispensing data of 112 community pharmacies. Conclusion This study shows that linkage of dispensing to prescribing data is feasible with a combination of patient characteristics, such as gender, year of birth and postal code, and prescription characteristics like prescription date and ATC-code. We obtained a linkage proportion of 64.8% resulting in complete prescribing and dispensing history of 110,102 patients. This offers an opportunity to gain insight in the mechanisms and factors influencing drug utilisation in general practice.

  20. Trends in opioid analgesics sales to community pharmacies and hospitals in Italy (2000-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraceni, A T; Brunelli, C; Rocco, P; Minghetti, P

    2013-08-01

    Opioid consumption data in Italy have been widely studied. However, only aggregate data can be found in the published literature, and differences are expected by distribution setting (community pharmacies and hospitals). The aim of our paper is to analyse opioids sales trends in Italy in the decade 2000-2010, in an effort to explore such differences. Quarterly sales data of opioid medicinal products sold by wholesalers to both community pharmacies (retail) and to hospitals (non-retail) during the time period 2000-2010 were supplied by IMS Italy. Data were standardized using the Defined Daily Doses per day per 1000 inhabitants (DDDd/1000). Opioid sales have steadily increased during the time period considered going from 1.04 DDDd/1000 in 2000 to 4.9 in 2010 (+292%). Nonetheless relevant differences can be found both by distribution setting and drug type. In particular retail sales have increased by 286 % for WHO Step II opioids and by 575% for WHO Step III drugs, while non-retail sales have increased by 48% and 263%, respectively. In 2010, fentanyl and buprenorphine transdermal patches and oxycodone are more widely prescribed than morphine, in the retail setting, with fentanyl at large in the first position. In hospitals morphine and fentanyl almost equally share the 75% of the market. Data suggest that morphine is no more the opioid of first choice for severe pain in Italy, at least for outpatients. This is contradicting most international guidelines available in the 2000-2010 decade.

  1. Self-reported osteoporosis prevention in inhaled corticosteroid users in community pharmacy setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Chan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The use of inhaled corticosteroids is the standard maintenance therapy in asthma therapy and as adjunct therapy in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A dose-related increase in fracture risk is associated with inhaled corticosteroid use; there is an inverse relationship between bone mineral density and duration and cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid. Adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D are cornerstones of osteoporosis prevention. The objectives are to assess whether the proportion of patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids are taking calcium and vitamin D; the association between long-term inhaled corticosteroid use and abnormal bone mineral density or fractures; and how many qualified patients received bone mineral density scans. Methods: Patients who filled a prescription for inhaled corticosteroids at selected community pharmacies across Alberta were recruited for a survey of their osteoporosis prevention activities. Results: A total of 256 patients from 12 community pharmacies were included. The average age was 60 ± 17.4 years with 65% female. There were 21%, 51%, and 28% of patients on high, medium, and low dose inhaled corticosteroids, respectively. Only 17% of patients >50 years old received recommended calcium and vitamin D supplementation and 87 (73% of the qualified patients received bone mineral density scan. Conclusion: Osteoporosis prevention in inhaled corticosteroid users is currently poorly addressed. More promotion is needed to raise pharmacist awareness of the risks of inhaled corticosteroids.

  2. An Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner-Community Pharmacist Team-Based Approach to Managing Hypertension in a Rural Community Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the implementation of an Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner (ARNP – community pharmacist team-based collaborative model for managing hypertension in a rural, Midwestern, community pharmacy and family medicine clinic using the core functions of the patient centered medical home model (PCMH. Methods: Thirteen patients with uncontrolled hypertension, 5 of who were newly diagnosed, were referred to the pharmacist by the ARNP. The pharmacist rechecked the patient’s blood pressure (BP every 2 weeks after referral and made drug therapy change recommendations to the ARNP if the patient was not below goal. Results: Following the intervention, the average SBP and DBP decreased 24 mmHg and 12mmHg, respectively. The pharmacists made 21 recommendations (dose increase (11, add a medication (6, change a medication (2, and addition of an adherence tool (2, 100% of which were accepted by the ARNP. Conclusion: A team-based approach to managing hypertension in a rural community pharmacy and family medicine clinic was an effective way to lower blood pressure. In addition, the core functions of the PCMH model can be delivered in a small family medicine practice. Creating specific expectations for each member of the team prior to referring patients improved the efficiency of the intervention.   Type: Original Research

  3. Chemistry inside an epistemological community box! Discursive exclusions and inclusions in Swedish National tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize the goals in the chemistry syllabus and to increase student achievement. Discourse and multimodal analyses, based on feminist and critical didactic theories, were used to examine the test's norms and values. The results revealed that the chemistry discourse presented in the tests showed a traditional view of science from the topics discussed (for example, oil and metal), in the way women, men and youth are portrayed, and how their science interests are highlighted or neglected. An elitist view of science emerges from the test, with distinct gender and age biases. Students could interpret these biases as a message that only "the right type" of person may come into the chemistry epistemological community, that is, into this special sociocultural group that harbours a common view about this knowledge. This perspective may have an impact on students' achievement and thereby prevent support for an equitable and fair evaluation. Understanding the underlying evaluative meanings that come with science teaching is a question of democracy since it may affect students' feelings of inclusion or exclusion. The norms and values harboured in the tests will also affect teaching since the teachers are given examples of how the goals in the syllabus can be concretized.

  4. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Balayssac

    Full Text Available Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in French community pharmacies.This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire, anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress.Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off.This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  5. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  6. Managing workplace stress in community pharmacy organisations: lessons from a review of the wider stress management and prevention literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sally; Johnson, Sheena; Hassell, Karen

    2017-03-27

    Workplace stress in community pharmacy is increasing internationally due, in part, to pharmacists' expanding roles and escalating workloads. Whilst the business case for preventing and managing workplace stress by employers is strong, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of organisational stress management interventions in community pharmacy settings. To identify and synthesise existing evidence for the effectiveness of organisational solutions to workplace stress from the wider organisational literature which may be adaptable to community pharmacies. A secondary synthesis of existing reviews. Publications were identified through keyword searches of electronic databases and the internet; inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied; data about setting, intervention, method of evaluation, effectiveness and conclusions (including factors for success) were extracted and synthesised. Eighteen reviews of the stress management and prevention literature were identified. A comprehensive list of organisational interventions to prevent or manage workplace stress, ordered by prevalence of evidence of effectiveness, was produced, together with an ordered list of the benefits both to the individual and employing organisation. An evidence-based model of best practice was derived specifying eight factors for success: top management support, context-specific interventions, combined organisational and individual interventions, a participative approach, clearly delineated tasks and responsibilities, buy-in from middle management, change agents as facilitators and change in organisational culture. This literature review provides community pharmacy organisations with evidence from which to develop effective and successful stress management strategies to support pharmacists and pharmacy staff. Well-designed trials of stress management interventions in community pharmacy organisations are still required. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Pharmaceutical services cost analysis using time-driven activity-based costing: A contribution to improve community pharmacies' management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregório, João; Russo, Giuliano; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2016-01-01

    The current financial crisis is pressing health systems to reduce costs while looking to improve service standards. In this context, the necessity to optimize health care systems management has become an imperative. However, little research has been conducted on health care and pharmaceutical services cost management. Pharmaceutical services optimization requires a comprehensive understanding of resources usage and its costs. This study explores the development of a time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) model, with the objective of calculating the cost of pharmaceutical services to help inform policy-making. Pharmaceutical services supply patterns were studied in three pharmacies during a weekday through an observational study. Details of each activity's execution were recorded, including time spent per activity performed by pharmacists. Data on pharmacy costs was obtained through pharmacies' accounting records. The calculated cost of a dispensing service in these pharmacies ranged from €3.16 to €4.29. The cost of a counseling service when no medicine was supplied ranged from €1.24 to €1.46. The cost of health screening services ranged from €2.86 to €4.55. The presented TDABC model gives us new insights on management and costs of community pharmacies. This study shows the importance of cost analysis for health care services, specifically on pharmaceutical services, in order to better inform pharmacies' management and the elaboration of pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Swiss community pharmacies' on the Web and pharmacists' experiences with E-commerce: longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Simon; Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-03-03

    There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to be the most effective solutions. Even though 40

  9. Swiss Community Pharmacies' on the Web and Pharmacists' Experiences with E-commerce: Longitudinal study and Internet-based questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E

    2004-01-01

    Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to

  10. REFLECTIONS ON THE ROLE OF THE PHARMACY REGULATORY AUTHORITY IN ENHANCING QUALITY RELATED EVENT REPORTING IN COMMUNITY PHARMACIESi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A.; Bishop, Andrea C.; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J.; Ashcroft, Darren; Zwicker, Bev; Reid, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the demanding nature of providing pharmacy services, coupled with the expanded scope of practice of the professions in jurisdictions around the world, greater commitment to continuous quality improvement through adoption of quality related event (QRE) reporting is necessary to ensure patient safety. Pharmacy regulatory authorities (PRAs) are in a unique position to enhance QRE reporting and learning through the standardization of expected practice Objective This study aims to better understand the perceived roles of PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning in community pharmacies and identifying regulatory best practices to execute such roles. Methods A purposive case sampling approach was used to identify PRA staff members from two groups (deputy registrars and pharmacy inspectors) in 10 Canadian jurisdictions to participate in focus groups in the fall of 2011. Focus groups were used to explore perceptions of the role of PRAs in enhancing and promoting QRE reporting and learning, and perceived barriers to effective implementation in practice. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Results Two focus groups were conducted, one with seven deputy registrars/practice managers and one with nine pharmacy inspectors. Five themes were identified, including (1) defining QRE reporting and compliance, (2) navigating role conflict, (3) educating for enhanced QRE reporting and learning, (4) promoting the positive/removing the fear of QREs, and (5) tailoring QRE reporting and learning consistency. Conclusions Overall, participants perceived a strong role for PRAs in enhancing QRE reporting and learning and providing education for pharmacies to support their compliance with reporting standards. However, PRAs must navigate the conflict inherent in both educating and promoting a process for achieving a standard while simultaneously inspecting compliance to that standard. Ensuring pharmacies have autonomy in operationalizing standards may

  11. Informing the homeopathic practice for Turkish pharmacists: reviewing the example of Portuguese community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Afonso Miguel; Arslan, Miray; Şar, Sevgi

    2017-05-01

    Alternative and complementary therapy systems, such as homeopathy, have long been used around the world. Since 1995 homeopathy has been officially recognized in Europe as a system of medicine or a medical specialty. Portuguese community pharmacists have long-standing experience with homeopathic products. By contrast, healthcare professionals in Turkey are less experienced with homeopathic practice although there is a new regulatory setting in place. There are a limited number of studies addressing pharmacists' role within the homeopathic system. To investigate the attitudes (knowledge, feelings and behaviour) of experienced Portuguese pharmacy practitioners who deal with homeopathy, and thus to inform Turkish pharmacy practice and policy on homeopathy-related success factors. A qualitative cross-sectional design was followed, using semi-structured and face-to-face individual interviews with purposively selected Portuguese pharmacists experienced with homeopathic medicines. Audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and the transcriptions imported into QSR NVivo v10 software for qualitative coding and analysis. Using a thematic content approach, the extracted codes were grouped and indexed by recurrent themes through a reflective procedure and constant comparison. Six general themes emerged, the most relevant being participants' feelings of gratitude for the ability to work in homeopathy; other themes were a helpful regulatory body, clear practice boundaries, scientific support and product quality assurance. Specialized homeopathic education was considered the most important factor for success. This was related to patients' positive perceptions and acceptance, suggesting an increase in public awareness through the pharmacy network. Portuguese pharmacists' attitudes towards their homeopathic practices highlighted the key elements for success in a field that is usually distant from traditional pharmaceutical education and practice. The present findings provide

  12. The role of community pharmacies in counseling of personal medical devices and drug-delivery products in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer, Daisy; Ratassepp, Tagne; Shagandina, Alina; Turunen, Juha; Ahonen, Riitta; Heinämäki, Jyrki

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the current situation on medical technology at community pharmacies in Estonia, looking into the availability, dispensing and counseling of personal medical devices/drug-delivery products (PMDs/DDPs) and related professional knowledge of community pharmacists. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based study using an internet-based eFormular study platform. In total, 137 community pharmacies responded to the study. Of the pharmacies, 51.8% dispensed and 32.1% counseled PMDs/DDPs several times a day. 55.4% of the respondents assessed their professional knowledge on PMDs/DDPs as good to medium and 44.6% as satisfactory to poor. Of the respondents, 79.6% reported a need for systematic education about named devices. Community pharmacies are a frequent source for the dispensing and counseling of PMDs/DDPs in Estonia. However, community pharmacists admitted a strong need for continuing education about general and practical aspects related to the use of PMDs/DDPs for the provision of more professional services in the future.

  13. Swedish Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgvall, Jonathan; Lif, Patrik

    2005-01-01

    .... The military research work presented here includes the three military administrations, FOI -- Swedish Defence Research Agency, FMV -- Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, and SNDC -- Swedish...

  14. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Jill S

    2011-07-01

    conducted nearly 10 years previously. In order to improve the public health services provided in community pharmacy, training must aim to increase pharmacists' confidence in providing these services. Confident, well trained pharmacists should be able to offer public health service more proactively which is likely to have a positive impact on customer attitudes and health.

  15. The use of a written assessment checklist for the provision of emergency contraception via community pharmacies: a simulated patient study

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    Schneider CR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Pharmaceutical Society of Australia recommends use of a written assessment checklist prior to supply of emergency contraception by pharmacists. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of use of a written assessment checklist by community pharmacists and secondly, to ascertain the effect of the checklist on appropriate assessment and supply.Methods: Three female simulated patients visited 100 randomly selected pharmacies requesting supply of ‘the morning after pill’. Information provided when assessed by the pharmacist was that she had missed one inactive pill of her regular hormonal contraception. The amount of assessment provided and the appropriateness of supply were used as comparative outcome measures.Results: Eighty-three pharmacies used a written assessment checklist. Twenty-four of the pharmacies visited provided the appropriate outcome of non-supply. Pharmacies that used a written assessment checklist provided a greater quantity and consistency of assessment (11.3 ±2.5 v. 6.5 ±3.8 questions, p<0.0001 but this did not result in an improved frequency of an appropriate outcome (20%, n=16 v. 23%, n=3. Conclusions: While a written patient assessment checklist improved the quantity and consistency of patient assessment, it did not improve the advice provided by community pharmacies when handling requests for emergency contraception.

  16. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity: lessons learned from a Danish community pharmacy intervention for ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M; El-Souri, Mira; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-05-01

    To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introductory seminar with pharmacists and the cross-disciplinary research team and 2) five individual interviews and one focus group interview with pharmacists. Data were thematically coded and synthesised to identify underlying rationales and challenges encountered when involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation created challenges, because the professional identity of the pharmacists reduced their options for serving as peers with the same ethnic background. Furthermore, issues related to organisational difficulties and overcoming language barriers in the intervention impacted on the potential of involving professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds. Involving healthcare professionals with ethnic minority backgrounds in encounters with ethnic minorities holds potential for the adaptation of services to ethnically diverse populations, thus improving access to and quality of care. However, it is important to ensure sufficient personal and organisational support and to acknowledge the delicate balance between simultaneously serving as a peer and as a professional.

  17. Measurement of patients' knowledge of their medication in community pharmacies in Portugal

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    Joaquín Salmerón Rubio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to determine patients' knowledge about the medication they take. For this purpose, a cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study was conducted. Knowledge was measured by a valid and reliable questionnaire (CPM-PT-PT, given to the patients attending community pharmacies participating in the study, who had prescriptions for one or more drugs in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area. Knowledge was assessed in four dimensions: therapeutic objective, process of use, safety and maintenance of the medications that the patient takes. Thirty-five pharmacies participated, and 633 valid patients were obtained. Fully 82.5% (95% CI: 79.3% -85.3% were uninformed about the nature of the drug they use. In all items, there was a high percentage of patients with incorrect knowledge, with emphasis on precautions (44.7%. The dimension that the patients were least aware of was "drug safety" (1.9%. Eight out of 10 patients in the population do not know what drug they use. The highest lack of correct information was with respect to the "safety" of the medication.

  18. Patterns of self-medication in customers of a community pharmacy in the Antofagasta city

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    Alejandrina Alucema

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Self-medication is the use of unprescribed drugs; this means that people obtain drugs on their own initiative and without the assistance of health professionals. This is an increasingly common practice among the population that can cause numerous problems, becoming a public health problem. Aims: To determine the patterns of self-medication in customers who frequented a community pharmacy in the city of Antofagasta. Methods: A survey was conducted to 297 users over 18 years and with adequate mental and communicative power to answer the questions, and attending the pharmacy to buy a drug without a prescription. Results: The study revealed that of the 297 people who practiced self-medication, 41% do it with a frequency of at least once a month. The woman practiced in 64% and the men in 36%. The range of age of the studied group was between 31-50 years. The main reason to practice the self medication was to recognize symptoms (33%, within the most notable was the headache (11%. The therapeutic group of the most requested medicines was the NSAIDs (20%, and of them the paracetamol was the most used. Conclusions: The results reveal that a high percentage of customers surveyed self-medicate, which shows this practice as a real problem, so it is necessary to educate people.

  19. Developing a patient satisfaction questionnaire for services provided in Iranian community pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Sheidaei, Ali; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop a valid and reliable instrument in the Persian language for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies. Methods: We selected a valid and reliable instrument from the literature and translated it to the Persian language. Some new items were added to the first draft based on the special characteristics of the Iranian health system. Then, the feasibility of utilizing the new instrument was assessed. In the third step, we conducted a formal content validity study to calculate content validity indices. Having completed the content validity study, the factorial structure of new instruments was determined by implementing a factorial analysis. Finally, the reliability of the instrument was assessed by assessment of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability. Findings: The developed instrument demonstrated suitable validity and reliability. The final instrument showed desirable content validity, with inter-rater agreement of 94% and 97% for relevance and clarity, respectively. Scale content validity indices for relevance and clarity were calculated as 96% and 92%, respectively, and comprehensiveness was calculated as 100%. Factor analysis resulted in seven factors with a cumulative variance of 62.14%. In internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's alpha for the whole instrument was 0.912. About test-retest reliability, six items showed almost perfect agreement, 18 items showed substantial agreement, and three items showed moderate agreement. Therefore, test-retest reliability assessment too demonstrated appropriate results. Conclusion: The instrument demonstrated excellent validity and reliability for application in Iran. This instrument is useful for evaluating patient satisfaction with services provided in community pharmacies in the Persian-speaking communities. PMID:27162804

  20. Arterial stiffness in normotensive and hypertensive subjects: Frequency in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla Sala, Enrique; Adell Alegre, Manuel; Giner Galvañ, Vicente; Perseguer Torregrosa, Zeneida; Pascual Izuel, Jose Maria; Climent Catalá, María Teresa

    2017-07-11

    Arterial stiffness (AS) is a well-recognized target organ lesion. This study aims to determine: 1) the frequency of AS in community pharmacies; 2) if stiffened subjects identified by brachial oscillometry have more CV risk factors than normal subjects, and 3) the dependence of stiffness on using either age-adjusted values or a fixed threshold. Observational, cross-sectional study in 32 community pharmacies of the Valencia Community, between November/2015 and April/2016. Stiffness was as pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured with a semi-automatic, validated device (Mobil-O-Graph(®), IEM), followed by a 10-item questionnaire. Mean age of the 1,427 consecutive recruited patients was 56.6 years. Overall proportion of patients with AS was 17.4% with age-adjusted PWV (9.4% in normotensives, 28.3% in hypertensives). Multivariate logistic regression showed independent association of stiffness in normotensives with male gender, obesity, higher pulse pressure and heart rate, in hypertensives, with higher pulse pressure and lower age. AS was globally found in 20.5% of subjects, defining stiffness by PWV>10m/s (6.2% in normotensives, 40.2% in hypertensives). It was associated with higher age and pulse pressure in both groups. Concordance in classifying stiffness was 74.6%. Frequency of AS varied between 17.4-20.5%. Age-adjusted stiffness is associated in normotensives with male gender, pulse pressure, obesity and heart rate, in hypertensives with pulse pressure and inversely to age. Stiffness by 10m/s is determined by higher pulse pressure and higher age. Both definitions of PWV are not interchangeable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in Community Pharmacy Counts and Closures before and after the Implementation of Medicare Part D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepser, Donald G.; Xu, Liyan; Ullrich, Fred; Mueller, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Part D provided 3.4 million American seniors with prescription drug insurance. It may also have had an unintended effect on pharmacy viability. This study compares trends in the number of pharmacies and rate of pharmacy closures before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D. Methods: This retrospective observational…

  2. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975558; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice

  3. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abegaz TM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90

  4. Using human error theory to explore the supply of non-prescription medicines from community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M C; Bond, C M; Johnston, M; Mearns, K

    2006-08-01

    The importance of theory in underpinning interventions to promote effective professional practice is gaining recognition. The Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions has assisted in promoting awareness and adoption of theory into study design. Human error theory has previously been used by high risk industries but its relevance to healthcare settings and patient safety requires further investigation. This study used this theory as a framework to explore non-prescription medicine supply from community pharmacies. The relevance to other healthcare settings and behaviours is discussed. A 25% random sample was made of 364 observed consultations for non-prescription medicines. Each of the 91 consultations was assessed by two groups: a consensus group (stage 1) to identify common problems with the consultation process, and an expert group (stages 2 and 3) to apply human error theory to these consultations. Paired assessors (most of whom were pharmacists) categorised the perceived problems occurring in each consultation (stage 1). During stage 2 paired assessors from an expert group (comprising patient safety experts, community pharmacists and psychologists) considered whether each consultation was compliant with professional guidelines for the supply of pharmacy medicines. Each non-compliant consultation identified during stage 2 was then categorised as a slip/lapse, mistake, or violation using human error theory (stage 3). During stage 1 most consultations (n = 75, 83%) were deemed deficient in information exchange. At stage 2, paired assessors varied in attributing non-compliance to specific error types. Where agreement was achieved, the error type most often selected was "violation" (n = 27, 51.9%, stage 3). Consultations involving product requests were less likely to be guideline compliant than symptom presentations (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.95, p = 0.05). The large proportion of consultations classified as violations suggests that either

  5. Using human error theory to explore the supply of non‐prescription medicines from community pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, M C; Bond, C M; Johnston, M; Mearns, K

    2006-01-01

    Background The importance of theory in underpinning interventions to promote effective professional practice is gaining recognition. The Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions has assisted in promoting awareness and adoption of theory into study design. Human error theory has previously been used by high risk industries but its relevance to healthcare settings and patient safety requires further investigation. This study used this theory as a framework to explore non‐prescription medicine supply from community pharmacies. The relevance to other healthcare settings and behaviours is discussed. Method A 25% random sample was made of 364 observed consultations for non‐prescription medicines. Each of the 91 consultations was assessed by two groups: a consensus group (stage 1) to identify common problems with the consultation process, and an expert group (stages 2 and 3) to apply human error theory to these consultations. Paired assessors (most of whom were pharmacists) categorised the perceived problems occurring in each consultation (stage 1). During stage 2 paired assessors from an expert group (comprising patient safety experts, community pharmacists and psychologists) considered whether each consultation was compliant with professional guidelines for the supply of pharmacy medicines. Each non‐compliant consultation identified during stage 2 was then categorised as a slip/lapse, mistake, or violation using human error theory (stage 3). Results During stage 1 most consultations (n = 75, 83%) were deemed deficient in information exchange. At stage 2, paired assessors varied in attributing non‐compliance to specific error types. Where agreement was achieved, the error type most often selected was “violation” (n = 27, 51.9%, stage 3). Consultations involving product requests were less likely to be guideline compliant than symptom presentations (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.95, p = 0.05). Conclusions The large proportion of

  6. Factors influencing quality of patient interaction at community pharmacy drive-through and walk-in counselling areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, Olufunmilola K; Chui, Michelle A; Pu, Jia

    2014-08-01

    To examine factors influencing the amount of time and information pharmacy personnel provide to patients at drive-through and walk-in counselling areas. On-site observational data collection in 22 community pharmacies by pharmacy students. Information included observable patient characteristics such as gender, age range, English proficiency and mobility impairment; encounter characteristics included type of prescription and whether the patient was acknowledged; and counselling characteristics included types of counselling information conveyed and length of time for each encounter. Patient-pharmacist encounters were documented at the drive-through and walk-in counselling areas 961 and 1098 times respectively. Pharmacists spent less time, and technicians more time, with patients at the drive-through counselling area. The amount of information provided to patients was significantly affected by whether the patient was receiving new versus refill prescriptions. Patients with a new prescription were twice as likely to receive more information from pharmacy personnel. There was a significant difference between the amount of counselling provided to patients at the drive-through and walk-in counselling area (rate ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.00). Patients at the drive-through received a lower amount of information relative to patients using the walk-in. Amount of information provided to patients was affected by the level of pharmacy busyness (RR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Providing patient care at the drive-through counselling area may negatively influence quality of patient care. To improve quality of pharmacy drive-through services, standardization of drive-through services in pharmacies may be needed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacy consumers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A; Mahmoud, Mansour A; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers' awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications.

  8. Training experiences of current and former community pharmacy residents, 1986-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterwagner, Whitney L; Zeolla, Mario M; Burns, Anne L

    2003-01-01

    To identify why current and former community pharmacy residents chose a community pharmacy residency program (CPRP), what factors in the program were emphasized and not emphasized, what opportunities were available to them postresidency, and, for former residents, what skills learned during their residency have been most useful in their careers to date. Mail survey. 1999-2000 residents and former residents dating back to 1986. Reasons residents chose a CPRP over other residency or employment opportunities and respondents' ratings of the emphasis placed on a variety of skills and activities in their training programs. A total of 44 surveys were included in the final analysis, 18 (41%) of which were completed by 1999-2000 CPRP residents performing their residency at the time of the survey. The most common reasons for choosing a CPRP over other types of programs were opportunities for developing innovative services and direct patient interaction. Communication skills, clinical skills, and level of patient interaction were reported as being most highly emphasized. Management of the distribution system was most frequently cited as having "low" or "no" emphasis in their residency. Respondents listed marketing skills as the most common area requiring improvement or additional focus in their residency. Former residents cited leadership skills and the development of patient care services as the factors in their residency having the greatest impact on their careers to date. Postresidency opportunities most frequently sought included faculty, staff pharmacist, and clinical pharmacist positions. Candidates are drawn to CPRPs because of the opportunities such residencies offer to develop innovative services and provide direct patient care. Residents feel that many programs fail to provide adequate training in the areas of marketing services and obtaining reimbursement. Residency program directors should consider these findings when evaluating and marketing their programs.

  9. [Features of subjects purchasing Sildenafil at community pharmacies in Concepción, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennickent, Sigrid; Zurita, Libna; Vega, Mario; Villegas, Guiljardy

    2005-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a public health problem. Millions of men worldwide experience this condition, affecting their quality of life. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is the treatment of choice for erectile dysfunction. To study the characteristics of Sildenafil use among costumers of community pharmacies in Concepcion Chile. A structured interview about Sildenafil use was applied to subjects purchasing the drug in community pharmacies and that consented to participate. One hundred thirty eight males were studied. Forty six percent of patients were fifty years old or older. Most (47.1%) used Sildenafil for one year or more and 60.5% had no adverse events. Among those experiencing side effects, headache was experienced by 38.9%, flushing by 16.6% and gastrointestinal effects by 16.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good evaluation of the drug in terms of benefits and tolerance. Thirty two percent of the subjects, had diseases associated to erectile dysfunction. Among these, 45% had diabetes mellitus, 29.5% had hypertension, and 18.2% had prostatic diseases. In 54% of cases, the drug was prescribed by a physician. Twenty two percent of patients experienced changes in the effect of the drug when it was simultaneously used with other drugs or meals. Thirty four percent of patients used other drugs. Among these, 43.3% were using antihypertensives, and 26.7% were using antidiabetic drugs. Considering the elevated age and the number of associated disease of patients using Sildenafil, the use of the drug under medical prescription must be emphasized to avoid untoward effects.

  10. A randomized controlled study of practice facilitation to improve the provision of medication management services in Alberta community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Sherilyn K D; Charrois, Theresa L; Faruquee, Chowdhury F; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Rosenthal, Meagen M

    The provision of medication management (MM) services by community pharmacists has not been as widely implemented as expected. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework proposes that in addition to evidence of benefit and a practice context conducive to change, health professionals benefit from facilitation to support their efforts. However, the impact of facilitation on patient care services in community pharmacy has not been studied. The primary objective of this study was to explore the needs of community pharmacists in improving the provision of MM services to patients, and secondarily to use external facilitation to support pharmacies in increasing the number of MM services provided. Ten community pharmacies in Alberta, Canada were randomized to external task-focused facilitation or usual practice. Facilitators interviewed staff of each intervention pharmacy to determine current workflow and barriers and facilitators to service provision, and collaborated to address these site-specific barriers over 6 months. Barriers identified by all intervention sites related to the impact of MM on dispensing, lengthy documentation, inefficient use of follow-up opportunities to address lower-priority concerns, and inconsistent patient identification. Strategies to address these barriers were generally well received by sites, which noted that facilitation improved staff communication and encouraged reflection on current practices; however, MM counts across both groups decreased over the intervention versus baseline. This decline was likely due to the unanticipated effect of the influenza vaccination season occurring concurrently with the intervention period. External facilitation appears to be a feasible and acceptable method to support community pharmacy provision of MM services. However, as the scope of pharmacists' practice increases, serious consideration of how, and when, these services can be consistently offered must be made. Relevant

  11. Cultivation and Implementation of Community-Engaged Pharmacy Services in a Free Clinic to Enhance Care for the Medically Underserved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmeline Tran, Pharm.D. Candidate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships between community free clinics and academic medical centers improve patient outcomes and enhance learning opportunities for students. A community-academic partnership between the Maliheh Free Clinic and the University of Utah College of Pharmacy was formed to fulfill a community need for pharmacy services, to promote interdisciplinary patient care, and to provide an experiential opportunity for students. The Maliheh Free Clinic based in Salt Lake City, Utah provides free primary health care to uninsured individuals who live 150% below federal poverty guidelines. Three pharmacy services were developed and implemented. These include: 1 clinic chart reviews which involve written recommendations following a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s chart examining his or her disease states and the appropriateness of his or her medications; 2 medication reconciliations and discussion of pharmacy-related recommendations with patients during Diabetes Day, an inclusive interdisciplinary patient appointment that addresses important aspects of diabetes care; and 3 an insulin dose adjustment service through a collaborative practice agreement with the clinic to monitor a patient’s blood glucose levels and adjust his or her medications accordingly on a weekly basis.

  12. Counselling practices in community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaqeel, Sinaa; Abanmy, Norah O

    2015-12-15

    that they usually or always tell the patient about the purpose of medicines or the diagnosis, 302 (86.2%) reported that they usually or always give patient information on how to use or apply the medicine; 299 (85.3%) said they were satisfied with their counselling practices. The present study highlights the current deficiencies in appropriate dispensing practices and medication counselling at community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia. Policy makers, stakeholders, and researchers should collaborate to design interventions to improve the current dispensing practices at community pharmacies across the country.

  13. What constitutes an effective community pharmacy?--development of a preliminary model of organizational effectiveness through concept mapping with multiple stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, S L; Harrison, J; Carswell, P

    2010-08-01

    To develop a multi-constituent model of organizational effectiveness for community pharmacy. Using Concept Systems software, a project with 14 stakeholders included a three stage process: (i) face to face brainstorming to generate statements describing what constitutes an effective community pharmacy, followed by (ii) statement reduction and approval by participants, followed by (iii) sorting of the statements into themes with rating of each statement for importance. Primary care in a government-funded, national health care system. A multi-constituent group representing policy-makers and health care providers including; community pharmacy, professional pharmacy organizations, primary health care funders and policy-makers, general practitioners and general practice support organizations. Statement clusters included: 'has safe and effective workflows', 'contributes to the safe use of medicines', 'manages human resources and has leadership', 'has a community focus', 'is integrated within primary care', 'is a respected innovator', 'provides health promotion and preventative care', 'communicates and advocates'. These clusters fit into a quadrant model setting stakeholder focus against role development. The poles of stakeholder focus are 'internal capacity' and 'social utility'. The poles of role development are labelled 'traditional safety roles' and 'integration and innovation'. Organizational effectiveness in community pharmacy includes the internal and external focus of the organization and role development. Our preliminary model describes an effective community pharmacy and provides a platform for investigation of the factors that may influence the organizational effectiveness of individual community pharmacies now and into the future.

  14. The good pharmacy practice on Einstein Program at Paraisópolis Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lara Tânia de Assumpção Domingues Gonçalves de; Silva, Camila Pontes da; Guedes, Maria das Vitorias; Sousa, Ana Célia de Oliveira; Sarno, Flávio

    2016-01-01

    To describe indicators and processes developed and implemented for pharmaceutical assistance at the Einstein Program at Paraisópolis Community pharmacy. This was a descriptive study of retrospective data from January 2012 to December 2015. Data were obtained from spreadsheets developed for monitoring the productivity and care quality provided at the pharmacy. The evaluated variables were pharmaceutical assistance to prescription, pharmaceutical intervention, orientation (standard and pharmaceutical) and pharmaceutical orientation rate. The pharmacy assisted, on average, 2,308 prescriptions monthly, dispensing 4,871 items, including medications, materials and food supplements. Since March 2015, virtually, the pharmacist analyzed all prescriptions, prior to dispensing. In the analyzed period, there was an increase in monthly pharmaceutical interventions from 7 to 32 on average, and, although there was a decrease in the number of standard orientation, the pharmaceutical orientation had an increase, causing a rise of pharmaceutical orientation rate from 4 to 11%. The processes developed and implemented at the program pharmacy sought to follow the good pharmacy practice, and help patients to make the best use of their medications. Descrever os indicadores e os processos desenvolvidos e implantados para assistência farmacêutica na farmácia do Programa Einstein na Comunidade de Paraisópolis. Tratase de um estudo descritivo de dados retrospectivos de janeiro de 2012 a dezembro de 2015. Os dados foram obtidos de planilhas desenvolvidas para acompanhamento da produtividade e da qualidade de assistência prestada na farmácia. As variáveis avaliadas foram: atenção farmacêutica à prescrição, intervenção farmacêutica, orientação (padrão e farmacêutica) e taxa de orientação farmacêutica. A farmácia atendeu, em média, 2.308 prescrições ao mês, dispensando 4.871 itens, incluindo medicamentos, materiais e suplementos alimentares. Desde março de 2015

  15. Application of process mapping to understand integration of high risk medicine care bundles within community pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Natalie M; Newham, Rosemary; Corcoran, Emma D; Ali Atallah Al-Gethami, Ashwag; Mohammed Abd Alridha, Ali; Bowie, Paul; Watson, Anne; Bennie, Marion

    2017-11-21

    The Scottish Patient Safety Programme - Pharmacy in Primary Care collaborative is a quality improvement initiative adopting the Institute of Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series collaborative approach. The programme developed and piloted High Risk Medicine (HRM) Care Bundles (CB), focused on warfarin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), within 27 community pharmacies over 4 NHS Regions. Each CB involves clinical assessment and patient education, although the CB content varies between regions. To support national implementation, this study aims to understand how the pilot pharmacies integrated the HRM CBs into routine practice to inform the development of a generic HRM CB process map. Regional process maps were developed in 4 pharmacies through simulation of the CB process, staff interviews and documentation of resources. Commonalities were collated to develop a process map for each HRM, which were used to explore variation at a national event. A single, generic process map was developed which underwent validation by case study testing. The findings allowed development of a generic process map applicable to warfarin and NSAID CB implementation. Five steps were identified as required for successful CB delivery: patient identification; clinical assessment; pharmacy CB prompt; CB delivery; and documentation. The generic HRM CB process map encompasses the staff and patients' journey and the CB's integration into routine community pharmacy practice. Pharmacist involvement was required only for clinical assessment, indicating suitability for whole-team involvement. Understanding CB integration into routine practice has positive implications for successful implementation. The generic process map can be used to develop targeted resources, and/or be disseminated to facilitate CB delivery and foster whole team involvement. Similar methods could be utilised within other settings, to allow those developing novel services to distil the key processes and consider

  16. Designing Objective Structured Clinical Examination in Basic Community Pharmacy Clerkship Course and Assessment of Its Relationship with Conventional Exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kouti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over 90% of pharmacy students’ work in pharmacies after graduation which needs both knowledge and skill, thus one of the most essential courses of their education is pharmacy clerkship. An important part of an educational program is the evaluation of the trainees. Different studies show that conventional written exams are not successful in evaluating the skills of the students and can mostly evaluate their knowledge. Thus Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE is used to evaluate the students in different aspects.Methods: An OSCE and a conventional test were given to a group of students at the end of basic community pharmacy clerkship course. The OSCE test consisted of six different stations (reading prescriptions, identifying drugs, pharmacist’s recommendation, patient education, drug information resources, and drug usage instructions. Two questions were asked at each station by different examiners. The scores and results of these tests were compared and analyzed.Results: There was no significant correlation between OSCE final scores and written test scores (P: = 0.217. No significant correlation between each station’s score and the written test score was found.Conclusion: The absence of significant correlation between OSCE and conventional exams shows that the skills evaluated by OSCE cannot be evaluated by the best possible written tests. This type of examination is not commonly used in Iran’s pharmacy schools but due to the findings of this study, it seems that this multiform method, despite being more difficult to arrange, can be a more suitable and relevant way to evaluate basic community pharmacy clerkship compared to conventional written tests.

  17. Patient, family physician and community pharmacist perspectives on expanded pharmacy scope of practice: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Maoliosa; King-Shier, Kathryn; Tsuyuki, Ross T.; Al Hamarneh, Yazid N.; Jones, Charlotte A.; Manns, Braden; Tonelli, Marcello; Tink, Wendy; Scott-Douglas, Nairne; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The RxEACH trial was a randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of community pharmacy-based case finding and intervention in patients at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) events. Community-dwelling patients with poorly controlled risk factors were identified and their CV risk reduced through patient education, prescribing and follow-up by their pharmacist. Perspectives of patients, family physicians and community pharmacists were obtained regarding pharmacists' identification and management of patients at high risk for CV events, to identify strategies to facilitate implementation of the pharmacist's expanded role in routine patient care. Methods: We used a qualitative methodology (individual semistructured interviews) with conventional qualitative content analysis to describe perceptions about community pharmacists' care of patients at high risk for CV events. Perceptions were categorized into macro (structure), meso (institution) and micro (practice) health system levels, based on a conceptual framework of care for optimizing scopes of practice. Results: We interviewed 48 participants (14 patients, 13 family physicians and 21 community pharmacists). Patients were supportive of the expanded scope of practice of pharmacists. All participant groups emphasized the importance of communication, ability to share patient information, trust and better understanding of the roles, responsibilities, accountabilities and liabilities of the pharmacist within their expanded role. Interpretation: Despite support from patients and changes to delivery of care in primary care settings, ongoing efforts are needed to understand how to best harmonize family physician and community pharmacist roles across the health system. This will require collaboration and input from professional associations, regulatory bodies, pharmacists, family physicians and patients. PMID:28401136

  18. Advancing the use of community pharmacy quality measures: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R; Lyons, Kayley

    2013-01-01

    To describe consumers' ability to interpret pharmacy quality measures data presented in a report card, to examine the tools that consumers require to interpret the information available in a pharmacy quality report card, and to determine whether pharmacy quality measures influence consumers' choice of a pharmacy. Qualitative study. Three semistructured focus groups conducted in a private meeting space at a public library in Sioux Falls, SD, from April 2011 to May 2011. 29 laypeople. Participants' skills interpreting and using pharmacy quality information were examined based on mock report cards containing the Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) quality measures. Consumer perceptions of pharmacy quality data. Participants reported difficulty understanding quality measures because of knowledge deficits. They wanted supportive resources on drug class of their medications to help them understand the measures. Participants had different opinions on whether their pharmacies should be compared with other pharmacies based on specific quality measures. For example, they favored the use of drug-drug interactions as a quality measure for comparing pharmacies, while medication adherence was deemed of limited use for comparison. Participants stated that pharmacy report cards would be useful information but would not prompt a change in pharmacy. However, participants perceived that this information would be useful in selecting a new pharmacy. The results suggest that consumers require simplification of PQA quality measures and supportive resources to interpret the measures. Consumers may favor certain quality measures based on their perception of the role of the pharmacist. Education is required before full use of this quality-of-care information can be realized.

  19. Pharmacists' Assessment of the Difficulty and Frequency of Ethical Issues Encountered in Community Pharmacy Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Savic, Mirko

    2017-05-23

    Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP). The results of the analysis of 690 completely filled out instruments (response rate 78.49%) showed the difference between the ethical issues which always occurred ("A pharmacist is prevented from dispensing a medicine to the patient due to an administrative error in the prescription"), and the ones that pharmacists found most difficult ("A pharmacist dispenses a medicine he/she personally considers inadequate for the therapeutic treatment of the patient, in order to avoid any conflicts with the physician" and "A pharmacist is considering violating the rules and regulations in order to perform an act of humanity"). The majority of respondents (84.78%) were familiar with the Code of Ethics but the correlation between the familiarity and the perceived usefulness of the code in resolving problems in everyday practice was negative (ρ = -0.17, p ethical issues and their occurrence. Further empirical research is recommended in order to systematically identify the ethical issues faced by community pharmacists.

  20. Swedish registered nurses' and nurse managers' attitudes towards patient advocacy in community care of older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse-Eklund, Anna; Petzäll, Kerstin; Sandin-Bojö, Ann-Kristin; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2013-07-01

    To describe and compare registered nurses' (RNs) and nurse managers' (NMs) attitudes towards patient advocacy in the community care of older patients. RNs may act as patients' advocates in the care of older patients. NMs should support patient advocacy in order to make the best care available to patients. A modified Attitudes towards Patient Advocacy Scale was used to collect data from 207 RNs and 23 NMs in the Swedish community care of older patients. The response rate was 52%. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Both RNs and NMs showed positive attitudes towards patient advocacy. They were more positive towards patient advocacy for patients unable to help themselves than for competent patients. This study showed that RNs and NMs did not differ in their attitudes towards patient advocacy. This result is consistent with the idea of giving the neediest and vulnerable patients greater care. It is important for NMs to clarify their own and RNs attitudes towards patient advocacy as disparities may affect cooperation between the groups. Any effects on cooperation may, by extension, affect the quality of care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Medicine-related services in community pharmacy: public preferences for pharmacy attributes and promotional methods and comparison with pharmacists' perceptions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gammie, Shivaun; Rodgers, Ruth; Loo, Ruey Leng; Corlett, Sarah; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    ... medicine-related services with community pharmacists' perceptions of their customers' views.Methods: Parallel surveys were conducted in South East England, using a street survey for the general public and a postal survey for community...

  2. Impact of an Elective Course in Community and Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Practices on Student Perception of Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kelli D; Maguire, Michelle; Bennett, Marialice S

    2015-09-25

    Objective. To determine the impact of an elective course on students' perception of opportunities and of their preparedness for patient care in community and ambulatory pharmacy settings. Design. Each course meeting included a lecture and discussion to introduce concepts and active-learning activities to apply concepts to patient care or practice development in a community or ambulatory pharmacy setting. Assessment. A survey was administered to students before and after the course. Descriptive statistics were used to assess student responses to survey questions, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to analyze the improvement in student responses with an alpha level set at 0.05. Students felt more prepared to provide patient care, develop or improve a clinical service, and effectively communicate recommendations to other health care providers after course completion. Conclusion. This elective course equipped students with the skills necessary to increase their confidence in providing patient care services in community and ambulatory settings.

  3. Chemistry inside an Epistemological Community Box! Discursive Exclusions and Inclusions in Swedish National Tests in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Marie; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the Swedish national tests in chemistry for implicit and explicit values. The chemistry subject is understudied compared to biology and physics and students view chemistry as their least interesting science subject. The Swedish national science assessments aim to support equitable and fair evaluation of students, to concretize…

  4. Community pharmacy-based point-of-care testing: A case study of pharmacist-physician collaborative working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Jennifer L; Klepser, Donald; Tilley, Heather; Smith, Jaclyn K; Klepser, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Building collaborative working relationships (CWRs) with physicians or other prescribers is an important step for community pharmacists in establishing a collaborative practice agreement (CPA). This case study describes the individual, context, and exchange factors that drive pharmacist-physician CWR development for community pharmacy-based point-of-care (POC) testing. Two physicians who had entered in a CPA with community pharmacists to provide POC testing were surveyed and interviewed. High scores on the pharmacist-physician collaborative index indicated a high level of collaboration between the physicians and the pharmacist who initiated the relationship. Trust was established through the physicians' personal relationships with the pharmacist or due to the community pharmacy organization's strong reputation. The physicians' individual perceptions of community pharmacy-based POC testing affected their CWRs and willingness to establish a CPA. These findings suggest that exchange characteristics remain significant factors in CWR development. Individual factors may also contribute to physicians' willingness to advance their CWR to include a CPA for POC testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timpka Toomas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476 (response rate 56%. Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I structural indicators of social disorder; (II contact with disorderly behavior; and (III existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We

  6. Issues around household pharmaceutical waste disposal through community pharmacies in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonjić, Danijela; Vitale, Ksenija

    2014-06-01

    Croatian regulations mandate pharmacies to receive unused medicines from households. Pharmacies are considered as producers and holders of pharmaceutical waste and are obliged to finance this service. Model where pharmacies are responsible for financing disposal of unused medicines without reimbursement is not common in Europe. Present service was not tested before implementation. To investigate the elements of the pharmaceutical waste disposal service provided by pharmacies, and to gain insight into the factors that might influence the effectiveness of the service. Setting All pharmacies in the city of Zagreb. Each pharmacy was asked to weigh the collected waste from the public during a period of 30 days, between June 1st and July 10th of 2011, absent from any media advertisement and answer a specifically designed questionnaire that was exploring possible connections between the amount of collected waste, type of pharmacy ownership, discretion while disposing, location of the container, appropriate labeling and to compare the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods. Quantity of collected unused medicines from the public. Of 210 pharmacies, 91 participated completing the questionnaire (43 % response rate). The total amount of collected waste was 505 kg. Pharmacies owned by the city of Zagreb had higher response rate (74 %) than privately owned pharmacies (36 %), and collected significantly higher amount of waste. Anonymity when disposing influenced collected quantity, while labelling and location of the container did not. There were differences in the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods due to the demographic characteristics and number of pharmacies per capita. The effectiveness of the pharmacy service of collecting unused medicines in Croatia shows a number of weaknesses. The amount of collected medicines is below the European average. Functioning of the service seems to be negatively influenced by the type of pharmacy ownership, distribution

  7. Equipping community pharmacy workers as agents for health behaviour change: developing and testing a theory-based smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Liz; Sohanpal, Ratna; James, Wai-Yee; Rivas, Carol; Jumbe, Sandra; Chater, Angel; Todd, Adam; Edwards, Elizabeth; Macneil, Virginia; Macfarlane, Fraser; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-08-11

    To develop a complex intervention for community pharmacy staff to promote uptake of smoking cessation services and to increase quit rates. Following the Medical Research Council framework, we used a mixed-methods approach to develop, pilot and then refine the intervention. Phase I : We used information from qualitative studies in pharmacies, systematic literature reviews and the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour framework to inform design of the initial version of the intervention. Phase II : We then tested the acceptability of this intervention with smoking cessation advisers and assessed fidelity using actors who visited pharmacies posing as smokers, in a pilot study. Phase III : We reviewed the content and associated theory underpinning our intervention, taking account of the results of the earlier studies and a realist analysis of published literature. We then confirmed a logic model describing the intended operation of the intervention and used this model to refine the intervention and associated materials. Eight community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 12 Stop Smoking Advisers. Two, 150 min, skills-based training sessions focused on communication and behaviour change skills with between session practice. The pilot study confirmed acceptability of the intervention and showed preliminary evidence of benefit; however, organisational barriers tended to limit effective operation. The pilot data and realist review pointed to additional use of Diffusion of Innovations Theory to seat the intervention in the wider organisational context. We have developed and refined an intervention to promote smoking cessation services in community pharmacies, which we now plan to evaluate in a randomised controlled trial. UKCRN ID 18446, Pilot. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Vaccinations Administered During Off-Clinic Hours at a National Community Pharmacy: Implications for Increasing Patient Access and Convenience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goad, Jeffery A.; Taitel, Michael S.; Fensterheim, Leonard E.; Cannon, Adam E.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Approximately 50,000 adults die annually from vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States. Most traditional vaccine providers (eg, physician offices) administer vaccinations during standard clinic hours, but community pharmacies offer expanded hours that allow patients to be vaccinated at convenient times. We analyzed the types of vaccines administered and patient populations vaccinated during off-clinic hours in a national community pharmacy, and their implications for vaccination access and convenience. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed data for all vaccinations given at the Walgreens pharmacy chain between August 2011 and July 2012. The time of vaccination was categorized as occurring during traditional hours (9:00 am–6:00 pm weekdays) or off-clinic hours, consisting of weekday evenings, weekends, and federal holidays. We compared demographic characteristics and types of vaccine. We used a logistic regression model to identify predictors of being vaccinated during off-clinic hours. RESULTS During the study period, pharmacists administered 6,250,402 vaccinations, of which 30.5% were provided during off-clinic hours: 17.4% were provided on weekends, 10.2% on evenings, and 2.9% on holidays. Patients had significantly higher odds of off-clinic vaccination if they were younger than 65 years of age, were male, resided in an urban area, and did not have any chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS A large proportion of adults being vaccinated receive their vaccines during evening, weekend, and holiday hours at the pharmacy, when traditional vaccine providers are likely unavailable. Younger, working-aged, healthy adults, in particular, a variety of immunizations during off-clinic hours. With the low rates of adult and adolescent vaccination in the United States, community pharmacies are creating new opportunities for vaccination that expand access and convenience. PMID:24019274

  9. Community pharmacy-based medication therapy management services: financial impact for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Sarah E; Ruisinger, Janelle F; Howard, Patricia A; Hare, Sarah E; Barnes, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    To determine the direct financial impact for patients resulting from Medication Therapy Management (MTM) interventions made by community pharmacists. Secondary objectives include evaluating the patient and physician acceptance rates of the community pharmacists' recommended MTM interventions. This was a retrospective observational study conducted at 20 Price Chopper and Hen House grocery store chain pharmacies in the Kansas City metro area from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Study patients were Medicare Part D beneficiaries eligible for MTM services. The primary outcome was the change in patient out-of-pocket prescription medication expense as a result of MTM services. Of 128 patients included in this study, 68% experienced no out-of-pocket financial impact on their medication expenses as a result of MTM services. A total of 27% of the patients realized a cost-savings (USD440.50 per year, (SD=289.69)) while another 5% of patients saw a cost increase in out-of-pocket expense (USD255.66 per year, (SD=324.48)). The net financial impact for all 128 patients who participated in MTM services was an average savings of USD102.83 per patient per year (SD=269.18, pimpact on out-of-pocket medication expense. Additionally, the majority of the pharmacists' recommended interventions (53%) were accepted by patients and prescribers.

  10. Analysis of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services in community pharmacies over 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Mitchell J; Frank, Jessica; Wehring, Heidi; Newland, Brand; VonMuenster, Shannon; Kumbera, Patty; Halterman, Tom; Perry, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Although community pharmacists have historically been paid primarily for drug distribution and dispensing services, medication therapy management (MTM) services evolved in the 1990s as a means for pharmacists and other providers to assist physicians and patients in managing clinical, service, and cost outcomes of drug therapy. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA 2003) and the subsequent implementation of Medicare Part D in January 2006 for the more than 20 million Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the Part D benefit formalized MTM services for a subset of high-cost patients. Although Medicare Part D has provided a new opportunity for defining the value of pharmacist-provided MTM services in the health care system, few publications exist which quantify changes in the provision of pharmacist-provided MTM services over time. To (a) describe the changes over a 7-year period in the primary types of MTM services provided by community pharmacies that have contracted with drug plan sponsors through an MTM administrative services company, and (b) quantify potential MTM-related cost savings based on pharmacists' self-assessments of the likely effects of their interventions on health care utilization. Medication therapy management claims from a multistate MTM administrative services company were analyzed over the 7-year period from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2006. Data extracted from each MTM claim included patient demographics (e.g., age and gender), the drug and type that triggered the intervention (e.g., drug therapeutic class and therapy type as either acute, intermittent, or chronic), and specific information about the service provided (e.g., Reason, Action, Result, and Estimated Cost Avoidance [ECA]). ECA values are derived from average national health care utilization costs, which are applied to pharmacist self-assessment of the "reasonable and foreseeable" outcome of the intervention. ECA values are updated

  11. Comparing the Research Contributions of Community Pharmacy Foundation Funding on Practice Innovation Between Non-Academics and Academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W Olson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate and compare the research contributions of Community Pharmacy Foundation (CPF funding on community pharmacy practice innovation between non-academic and academic principal investigators (PIs with respect to the following measurements: 1 “Pharmacy Practice Activity Classifications” (PPAC; 2 CPF “Coordinated Use of Medications”; and 3 CPF Investigator Impact. Methods: Quantitative data for all 124 CPF-funded grants awarded from 2002-2016 were obtained from the CPF website and personnel, while ethnographic qualitative data was generated from queries of PIs. Grant categorization was conducted by researchers serving as judges trained on the rules and procedures for coding. A threshold level of 90% agreement in scores of independent judging was established a priori. Findings were summarized and groups were compared using descriptive statistics for quantitative data and a thematic analysis of PI ethnographic reflections for qualitative data. Results: There were no differences between non-academic and academic PI groups for Coordinated Use of Medications and PPAC domains, but non-academics contributed more to two dispensing-related PPAC subclasses: ‘Preparing the Product’ (10% vs. 2% and ‘Delivering the Medication or Device’ (13% vs. 2%. Analysis of investigator reflections revealed similarities between groups regarding impact on practice innovations, expanded collaborations, new practice tools, and patient-care financing models. Conclusions: CPF funding contributed new knowledge and resources for expanding and enhancing practice innovations as shown by quantitative (PPAC & Coordinated Use of Medications and qualitative (PI impact measures. Similarities between PI groups suggest that the CPF has established a funding niche with unique diversity of practice innovation opportunities. This investigation’s findings may be useful to the CPF’s continuous quality improvement efforts, as well as future grant applicants to

  12. The future of community pharmacy practice in South Africa in the light of the proposed new qualification for pharmacists: implications and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malangu, Ntambwe

    2014-08-15

    Community or retail pharmacies are regarded as one of the most common sources of health services throughout the world. In South Africa, community pharmacies have been providing some primary health care services to clients who could afford to pay. These services included screening, family planning, and emergency care for minor ailments. With the introduction of the new qualification, community pharmacies are poised to become providers of expanded services.  This paper describes the contents, the implications and challenges of the new qualification in light with future directions for community pharmacy practice in South Africa. Its purpose is to inform relevant stakeholders in South Africa and those outside South Africa that may pursue similar offerings. Published papers were identified through searches in MEDLINE and Google Scholar using a combination of search terms, namely: 'community, retail pharmacy, pharmacist/non-medical prescribing, South Africa'. Only articles published in English were considered. In addition, documents from the Ministry of Health of South Africa, the South African Pharmacy Council and curricula materials from schools of pharmacy were also reviewed. Laureates of the new qualification will essentially have the right to examine, diagnose, prescribe and monitor the treatment of their clients or patients. In doing so, this expanded function of prescribing for primary healthcare will imply several practice and infrastructural adjustments; and with many challenges laying ahead in need to be addressed. In conclusion, the authorized pharmacist prescriber qualification augurs a new era for community pharmacy practice in South Africa. This has many implications and some challenges that need to be managed. The pharmacy profession, academia, legislators and political decision-makers need to work together to resolve outstanding issues in a constructive manner.

  13. Community carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli is associated with strains of low pathogenicity: a Swedish nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ny, Sofia; Löfmark, Sonja; Börjesson, Stefan; Englund, Stina; Ringman, Maj; Bergström, Jakob; Nauclér, Pontus; Giske, Christian G; Byfors, Sara

    2017-02-01

    Community carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (EPE) is common worldwide and there is a need to understand the connection between carriage and infection. We compared the molecular characteristics of EPE among Swedish community carriers with those of EPE causing invasive infections. We collected 2134 faecal samples from randomly selected Swedish inhabitants and examined them for the presence of EPE. All participating volunteers answered a questionnaire about putative risk factors for EPE carriage. Suspected EPE isolates (n = 418) from patients with bloodstream infection (BSI) were collected from Swedish laboratories. Isolates were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Our results show that the EPE population found in carriers generally had lower pathogenicity compared with the isolates from BSIs, since carriers had a lower proportion of E. coli belonging to phylogroup B2, ST131 and ST131 subclone H30-Rx. Isolates from carriers also had lower levels of multiresistance. The Swedish carriage rate of EPE was 4.7% (101/2134) among healthy volunteers. Risk factors associated with carriage were travel to countries in Asia (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.4-9.2) and Africa (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.7-7.7) and a diet without pork (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8 for pork eaters). E. coli host factors previously associated with higher pathogenicity were all more common in BSIs compared with carriers. This indicates that the risk of invasive infection with EPE may be relatively modest in many community carriers and that EPE carriage of high-risk strains should be the focus of attention for prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  14. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education. PMID:28975909

  15. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  16. Exploring knowledge and attitudes towards counselling about vitamin supplements in Jordanian community pharmacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilbayeh, Sireen A.

    The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate. Objective This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordanian community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated questionnaire. Setting: Community pharmacies in Amman with target sample of 400 pharmacists. Results A total of 388 pharmacists participated in this study. The majority (77.8%) of pharmacists believed that a balanced diet is more achievable by eating healthily than by vitamins supplements. 78.1% of participants believed that vitamins deficiency would not shorten life spans, while 80.7% agreed that vitamin supplements could be toxic or might contain unlabelled harmful ingredients. Less than half of pharmacists were aware that some antioxidant vitamins have been verified to be of unproven value, or may even cause cancer. While over 80% of pharmacists would recommend vitamins on a regular basis without prescription, the majority agreed that counselling on vitamin supplements is part of their role in pharmaceutical care (93.3%), in addition to providing relevant information to other healthcare professionals (78.4%). Moreover, responses to specific knowledge questions, such as the interactions of vitamins with drugs or the recommended dietary allowance of vitamins for infants, children, and pregnant women, were negative. Furthermore, only a minority of pharmacists would recheck the accuracy of dose regimens in prescriptions and symptoms of true vitamins deficiency or would follow up patients to record any consequences of vitamins consumption. Conclusions The questionnaire revealed satisfactory awareness of community pharmacists about their role in counselling; however, further

  17. Assessment of medication adherence and responsible use of isotretinoin and contraception through Belgian community pharmacies by using pharmacy refill data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biset, Natacha; Lelubre, Mélanie; Senterre, Christelle; Amighi, Karim; Bugnon, Olivier; Schneider, Marie P; De Vriese, Carine

    2018-01-01

    could be improved. Health service interventions, using pharmacy refill data, should be delivered to ensure patient safety and strict adherence to contraception when under isotretinoin treatment.

  18. Physicians' Preferences for Communication of Pharmacist-Provided Medication Therapy Management in Community Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kendall D; Stoner, Steven C; Hartwig, D Matthew; May, Justin R; Nicolaus, Sara E; Schramm, Andrew M; DiDonato, Kristen L

    2017-02-01

    (1) To identify physicians' preferences in regard to pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) communication in the community pharmacy setting; (2) to identify physicians' perceived barriers to communicating with a pharmacist regarding MTM; and (3) to determine whether Missouri physicians feel MTM is beneficial for their patients. A cross-sectional prospective survey study of 2021 family and general practice physicians registered with MO HealthNet, Missouri's Medicaid program. The majority (52.8%) of physicians preferred MTM data to be communicated via fax. Most physicians who provided care to patients in long-term care (LTC) facilities (81.0%) preferred to be contacted at their practice location as opposed to the LTC facility. The greatest barriers to communication were lack of time and inefficient communication practices. Improved/enhanced communication was the most common suggestion for improvement in the MTM process. Approximately 67% of respondents reported MTM as beneficial or somewhat beneficial for their patients. Survey respondents saw value in the MTM services offered by pharmacists. However, pharmacists should use the identified preferences and barriers to improve their currently utilized communication practices in hopes of increasing acceptance of recommendations. Ultimately, this may assist MTM providers in working collaboratively with patients' physicians.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Continuing Education Programs on Providing Clinical Community Pharmacy Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program’s benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective. PMID:27402991

  20. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Continuing Education Programs on Providing Clinical Community Pharmacy Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Marques Dos Reis, Tiago; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Girotto, Edmarlon; Guerra, Marisabelle Lima; de Oliveira Baldoni, André; Leira Pereira, Leonardo Régis

    2016-06-25

    Objective. To summarize the effects of media methods used in continuing education (CE) programs on providing clinical community pharmacy services and the methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. Methods. A systematic review was performed using Medline, SciELO, and Scopus databases. The timeline of the search was 1990 to 2013. Searches were conducted in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Results. Nineteen articles of 3990 were included. Fourteen studies used only one media method, and the live method (n=11) was the most frequent (alone or in combination). Only two studies found that the CE program was ineffective or partially effective; these studies used only the live method. Most studies used nonrobust, nonvalidated, and nonstandardized methods to measure effectiveness. The majority of studies focused on the effect of the CE program on modifying the knowledge and skills of the pharmacists. One study assessed the CE program's benefits to patients or clients. Conclusion. No evidence was obtained regarding which media methods are the most effective. Robust and validated methods, as well as assessment standardization, are required to clearly determine whether a particular media method is effective.

  1. Pharmaceutical intervention in menopausal patients with hormone replacement therapy in a community pharmacy from Antofagasta

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    Alejandrina Alucema

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT is the most widely used treatment for controlling the effects of menopause. This type of therapy causes some drug-related problems (DRP, which requires monitoring to control the negative effects and ensure patient adherence to therapy. Aims: Perform a pharmacotherapeutic monitoring and educate to menopausal patients in HRT of a community pharmacy from the city of Antofagasta. Methods: A 98-menopausal patients underwent a pharmaceutical intervention to identify the PRM and its resolution. It was applied to them a survey before and after educational activities about this disease and HRT to determine the knowledge on the subject. Results: During the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring was determined that 55% of patients using combined HRT. 62 DRPs were detected, of which 43 were resolved (69%; the most were Patient-Pharmacist (73%. The better resolution DRP were DRP 4(b “frequency of inadequate administration” and DRP 2(a “no medical indication”. At baseline, 90% had an inadequate level of knowledge about the disease and THR, 8% intermediate, and only 2% adequate. After the implementation of the education strategy, the level of knowledge increased, achieving at the end of the study only intermediate (10% and adequate (90% levels. Conclusions: The results confirm the importance of pharmaceutical intervention for the identification and resolution of DRP and the requirement to establish educational strategies to increase the knowledge about menopause and HRT in menopausal patients.

  2. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Aqeel SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

  3. Characteristics of good quality pharmaceutical services common to community pharmacies and dispensing general practices.

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    Grey, Elisabeth; Harris, Michael; Rodham, Karen; Weiss, Marjorie C

    2016-10-01

    In the United Kingdom, pharmaceutical services can be delivered by both community pharmacies (CPs) and dispensing doctor practices (DPs). Both must adhere to minimum standards set out in NHS regulations; however, no common framework exists to guide quality improvement. Previous phases of this research had developed a set of characteristics indicative of good pharmaceutical service provision. To ask key stakeholders to confirm, and rank the importance of, a set of characteristics of good pharmaceutical service provision. A two-round Delphi-type survey was conducted in south-west England and was sent to participants representing three stakeholder groups: DPs, CPs and patients/lay members. Participants were asked to confirm, and rank, the importance of these characteristics as representing good quality pharmaceutical services. Thirty people were sent the first round survey; 22 participants completed both rounds. Median ratings for the 23 characteristics showed that all were seen to represent important aspects of pharmaceutical service provision. Participants' comments highlighted potential problems with the practicality of the characteristics. Characteristics relating to patient safety were deemed to be the most important and those relating to public health the least important. A set of 23 characteristics for providing good pharmaceutical services in CPs and DPs was developed and attained approval from a sample of stakeholders. With further testing and wider discussion, it is hoped that the characteristics will form the basis of a quality improvement tool for CPs and DPs. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Assessment of knowledge and practice of community pharmacy personnel on diabetes mellitus management in Kathmandu district: a cross sectional descriptive study.

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    Shrestha, M; Maharjan, R; Prajapati, A; Ghimire, S; Shrestha, N; Banstola, A

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists are the most reachable healthcare professionals to many chronically ill patients. It has been found that pharmacists see patients with diabetes up to five times more often than any other healthcare provider. Therefore, to provide quality health care to patients it is important that they have appropriate knowledge and practice on diabetes mellitus management. Thus, this study was conducted to assess the knowledge and practice of diabetes mellitus management among community pharmacy personnel involved in retail community pharmacies of Kathmandu. Three hundred and fifteen community pharmacies, selected by systematic random sampling were surveyed by using pre-validated self-administered questionnaires. The first set of questionnaire evaluated the community pharmacy personnel's diabetes knowledge based on a pre-validated 20-item questionnaire. The second set of questionnaire documented about the practice of community pharmacy personnel on diabetes mellitus management which contained 22 questions. Data was entered in EPI Data and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. This survey demonstrated that 76.5 % respondents had poor knowledge and 86.4 % had negative practice on diabetes mellitus (DM) management. Only 26.2 % respondents had good knowledge as well as good practice. 31.4 % of respondents had poor knowledge as well as poor practice on DM management. Laws and regulations regarding community pharmacy personnel need to be implemented. There should be more advanced and experiment based training. Additionally, the provision for further education curriculum in pharmacy education should be implemented which should intensively include disease and proper management. Guidelines covering diabetes care should be distributed and implemented throughout community pharmacies.

  5. Implementation of patient education at first and second dispensing of statins in Dutch community pharmacies: the sequel of a cluster randomized trial

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    Van de Steeg-van Gompel Caroline HPA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the previous part of this trial, many patients with cardiovascular disease were expected to receive a statin for the first time. In order to provide these patients with comprehensive information on statins, as recommended by professional guidance, education at first and second dispensing of statins had to be implemented. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of an intensive implementation program targeted at pharmacy project assistants on the frequency of providing education at first dispensing (EAFD and education at second dispensing (EASD of statins in community pharmacies. Methods The participating community pharmacies were clustered on the basis of local collaboration, were numbered by a research assistant and subsequently an independent statistician performed a block randomization, in which the cluster size (number of pharmacies in each cluster was balanced. The pharmacies in the control group received a written manual on the implementation of EAFD and EASD; the pharmacies in the intervention group received intensive support for the implementation. The impact of the intensive implementation program on the implementation process and on the primary outcomes was examined in a random coefficient logistic regression model, which took into account that patients were grouped within pharmacy clusters. Results Of the 37 pharmacies in the intervention group, 17 pharmacies (50% provided EAFD and 12 pharmacies (35.3% provided EASD compared to 14 pharmacies (45.2%, P = 0.715 and 12 pharmacies (38.7%, P = 0.899, respectively, of the 34 pharmacies in the control group. In the intervention group a total of 72 of 469 new statin users (15.4% received education and 49 of 393 patients with a second statin prescription (12.5% compared to 78 of 402 new users (19.4%, P = 0.944 and 35 of 342 patients with a second prescription (10.2%, P = 0.579 in the control group. Conclusion The intensive implementation program

  6. Public attitudes towards community pharmacy attributes and preferences for methods for promotion of public health services.

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    Saramunee, K; Dewsbury, C; Cutler, S; Mackridge, A J; Krska, J

    2016-11-01

    To identify attitudes towards pharmacy characteristics and promotional methods for selected pharmacy public health services (lifestyle advice and screening for cardiovascular risk factors) among different sectors of the general public. Cross-sectional survey, using a previously validated questionnaire. Three survey methods were used, across 15 areas of England, to maximize diversity: face-to-face; telephone; and self-completion of paper questionnaires. Responses to closed questions regarding characteristics and promotion were quantified and differences among sub-groups explored by univariate and multivariate analysis. In total, 2661 responses were available for analysis: 2047 face-to-face; 301 telephone; and 313 paper. There were strong preferences for a pharmacy near to home or doctor's surgery and for long opening hours, particularly among employed people and non-whites. Fifty percent preferred not to use a pharmacy in a supermarket, particularly older people, the retired, those of lower education and frequent pharmacy users. Personal recommendation by health professionals or family/friends was reported as most likely to encourage uptake of pharmacy public health services, with older people and males being less likely and frequent pharmacy users more likely to perceive any promotional method as influential. Posters/leaflets were preferred over mass-media methods, with fewer than 30% perceiving the latter as potentially influential. Pharmacists, pharmacy companies and service commissioners should use promotional methods favoured by potential users of pharmacy public health services and be aware of differences in attitudes when trying to reach specific population sub-groups. For personal recommendation to be successful, good inter-professional working and a pro-active approach to existing customers are needed. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  7. Interventions to enhance effective communication during over-the-counter consultations in the community pharmacy setting: A systematic review.

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    Seubert, Liza J; Whitelaw, Kerry; Hattingh, Laetitia; Watson, Margaret C; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2017-12-13

    Easy access to effective over-the-counter (OTC) treatments allows self-management of some conditions, however inappropriate or incorrect supply or use of OTC medicines can cause harm. Pharmacy personnel should support consumers in their health-seeking behaviour by utilising effective communication skills underpinned by clinical knowledge. To identify interventions targeted towards improving communication between consumers and pharmacy personnel during OTC consultations in the community pharmacy setting. Systematic review and narrative analysis. Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psycinfo, Cochrane Central Register and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for literature published between 2000 and 30 October 2014, as well as reference lists of included articles. The search was re-run on 18 January 2016 and 25 September 2017 to maximise the currency. Two reviewers independently screened retrieved articles for inclusion, assessed study quality and extracted data. Full publications of intervention studies were included. Participants were community pharmacy personnel and/or consumers involved in OTC consultations. Interventions which aimed to improve communication during OTC consultations in the community pharmacy setting were included if they involved a direct measurable communication outcome. Studies reporting attitudes and measures not quantifiable were excluded. The protocol was published on Prospero Database of Systematic Reviews. Of 4978 records identified, 11 studies met inclusion criteria. Interventions evaluated were: face-to-face training sessions (n = 10); role-plays (n = 9); a software decision making program (n = 1); and simulated patient (SP) visits followed by immediate feedback (n = 1). Outcomes were measured using: SP methodology (n = 10) and a survey (n = 1), with most (n = 10) reporting a level of improvement in some communication behaviours. Empirical evaluation of interventions using active learning techniques

  8. 'Making the invisible visible' through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Hallett, Jonathan; Tait, Robert J

    2016-11-08

    Screening and brief interventions (SBI) for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable 'retention' to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 %) men and 21 (43 %) women with one not responding. Most (67 %) were aged 25-55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8) with 11 categorised as 'hazardous (8-15)', four as 'harmful (16-19)' and eight as 'probably dependent (20+)' consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 %) agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 %) were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) flexibility applied in recruitment of participants

  9. ‘Making the invisible visible’ through alcohol screening and brief intervention in community pharmacies: an Australian feasibility study

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    H. Laetitia Hattingh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol related problems have been shown to be effective in health settings such as general practice or emergency departments. Recent data from the United Kingdom and New Zealand suggest that SBI can be delivered through community pharmacies, but this approach has not been tested in Australia. This study assesses the feasibility of delivering alcohol SBI via community pharmacists. Method We recruited five pharmacies and developed an SBI training package to be delivered by pharmacy staff, who screened consumers and delivered the brief intervention where appropriate. Consumers also completed a questionnaire on the process. At three months consumers were telephoned to enable ‘retention’ to be quantified. After completing recruitment, a semi-structured interview was conducted with pharmacists on the process of delivering the intervention, potential improvements and sustainability. Results Fifty consumer participants were screened, ten from each pharmacy. There were 28 (57 % men and 21 (43 % women with one not responding. Most (67 % were aged 25–55 years. Their AUDIT scores had a range of 0 to 39 (mean 10.9, SD 9.8 with 11 categorised as ‘hazardous (8–15’, four as ‘harmful (16–19’ and eight as ‘probably dependent (20+’ consumers of alcohol. Reactions to the process of SBI were generally favourable: for example 75 % agreed that it was either appropriate or very appropriate being asked about their alcohol consumption. With respect to follow-up interviews, 23 (46 % agreed that they could be contacted, including five from the highest AUDIT category. Subsequently 11 (48 % were contactable at three months. Three of the five non-low risk drinkers had reduced their level of risk over the three months. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Overall these pharmacists were positive about the intervention and five main themes emerged from the

  10. Consumer knowledge and perceptions about antibiotics and upper respiratory tract infections in a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Ian; Hollingworth, Samantha; Pudmenzky, Alex; Rossato, Laurence; Syed, Shahzad; Kairuz, Therése

    2015-12-01

    Overuse of antibiotics is a global concern and the World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned of relapsing to an era with no effective antibiotics. In Australia, various national consumer campaigns had been running since 2000, and the concern was prioritised in 2011, when the need for a national approach to address antibiotic resistance was identified. The aim of this study was to explore consumer attitudes and knowledge about (upper respiratory tract) infections, colds and flu, and antibiotics, and to identify factors contributing to antibiotic misuse which could be addressed by tailored patient counselling. A community pharmacy in an area of Brisbane, Australia. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed among pharmacy consumers. Perceptions of, and knowledge about antibiotics were measured using a 5-point Likert-type scale of agreement/disagreement. The proportion of self-diagnosers and non self-diagnosers who agreed/disagreed with the attitude statement, "I know that I need antibiotics before I visit my doctor"; and the proportion of mistaken and non-mistaken who agreed/disagreed with the statement, "I will get better faster if I take antibiotics when I have a cold or flu". Over a third of the 252 participants believed that they would recover faster by taking antibiotics when suffering from a cold or flu, and nearly one-fifth felt that antibiotics would cure viral infections. More females (62.2 vs. 43.9 %) self-diagnosed (p = 0.002) although more males (42.1 vs. 30.8 %) were mistaken about the efficacy of antibiotics for treating colds and flus. Mistaken respondents were more likely than non-mistaken respondents to self-diagnose (p = 0.01). This study confirms a lack of knowledge among consumers about the efficacy of antibiotics in treating viral infections despite education campaigns. The findings strongly suggest there is a need for pharmacists and other health care professionals to elicit consumer beliefs and understanding about antibiotics

  11. Evaluation of a Community Pharmacy-Based Screening Questionnaire to Identify Patients at Risk for Drug Therapy Problems.

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    Pammett, Robert T; Blackburn, David; Taylor, Jeff; Mansell, Kerry; Kwan, Debbie; Papoushek, Christine; Jorgenson, Derek

    2015-09-01

    To determine if a short screening questionnaire can identify patients at risk for drug therapy problems (DTPs) in a community pharmacy setting. Self-administered questionnaire. Three community pharmacies in Saskatoon, Canada. Forty-nine adults who were picking up a refill prescription for a medication that had remained stable over the past 6 months (i.e., no changes to drug, dose, or regimen) during 4 consecutive weeks at each of the three pharmacies between November 2013 and February 2014. All patients completed a self-administered screening questionnaire and underwent a blinded comprehensive medication assessment with a clinical pharmacist. Agreement between the screening questionnaire responses and responses based on information from the medication assessment were assessed with Cohen's κ coefficient. The DTPs identified during the medication assessments were categorized in one of the eight standard DTP categories: unnecessary drug therapy, inappropriate drug, subtherapeutic dose, supratherapeutic dose, drug therapy required, adverse drug reaction, noncompliance, and other or unsure. The DTPs were also assigned a severity-mild, moderate, or severe-using adapted Schneider criteria. The number and severity of DTPs identified were compared among patients categorized as high versus low risk for DTPs as determined by the questionnaire responses. Of the 49 patients who completed the study, 18 (37%) were high risk and 31 (63%) low risk. The agreement between risk categorization based on the screening questionnaire and medication assessment was very good (κ = 0.91, p<0.01). Also, patients identified as high risk on the screening questionnaire had a mean of 3.7 (p<0.01) more DTPs than low-risk patients. Seventeen (94%) of the 18 high-risk patients had at least one moderate or severe DTP compared with 15 (48%) of the 31 low-risk patients. The screening questionnaire was a reliable method for identifying patients in community pharmacies who have a large number of DTPs

  12. A system for monitoring quality standards in the provision of non-prescription medicines from Australian community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benrimoj, Shalom I; Werner, Joel B; Raffaele, Catherine; Roberts, Alison S

    2008-04-01

    There is a growing trend, globally, for consumers to self-medicate with non-prescription medications for common ailments. Pharmacists and pharmacy assistants are thought to be in a unique position to support consumers' purchases of these medicines through the application of knowledge and skills, in an environment in which safety and quality remains paramount. Standards of practice have been developed by the profession to address the provision of these medicines, using a consumer-focused and risk management approach. The application of these standards has been monitored since 2002, by the Quality Care Pharmacy Support Centre (QCPSC), created as a joint venture between the University and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The establishment of the QCPSC has allowed the development of a system to monitor and improve the application of standards for the provision of non-prescription medicines to consumers in community pharmacies in Australia. This system is unique in two aspects. The first is the use of pseudo-patient methodology, also called "mystery shoppers", "pseudo-customers" and "simulated patients", for the purpose of both assessment and quality improvement. The second unique aspect is the capturing of data based on assessments of behaviour in practice environments. To date, the centre has conducted 14,738 standards maintenance assessment (SMA) visits, involving over 4,200 pharmacies across all states and territories in Australia. The data generated by such a system create a feedback mechanism for policy decision-making in the area of Quality Use of Medicines (QUM) for non-prescription medicines, which is of critical importance to the health and safety of consumers.

  13. Quality supply of nonprescription medicines in Portuguese community pharmacy: An exploratory case study.

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    Veiga, Paulo; Lapão, Luís V; Cavaco, Afonso M; Guerreiro, Mara P

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate use of non-prescription medicines (NPM) can increase morbidity, mortality and health care associated costs. Pharmacists have a well-established role in self-medication; however, the literature shows that pharmacies performance in the supply of NPM is often suboptimal. To explore the interaction and dependability of pharmacy staff use of oral language, as well as staff's own assessment of reasons underlying their behavior during consultation regarding NPM. In a case-study design, a high street urban community pharmacy was purposively selected as the setting. Covert patient simulation, using trained simulated patients (SPs), was used to ascertain staff's performance in dispensing NPM, via 4 symptom-based scenarios (SbS) and 3 product-based scenarios (PbS). Performance data were converted into 2 composite indexes: the Interpersonal Performance Index (IPI) and Technical Performance Index (TPI). Audiotaped interactions were transcribed verbatim and participants' utterances were identified, time stamped and coded employing the eight higher level categories of a framework inspired by the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). The transcripts of the in-depth interviews were analyzed using the Framework Approach. The tripartite model of attitudes was employed to develop the thematic framework. Ten SP visits were considered for analysis. Overall, the mean TPI score was 50% and the mean IPI score was 78%. TPI was higher for SbS (63%) than PbS (31%), whilst there was little difference IPI between SbS (79%) and PbS (76%). The mean number of questions in the evaluation section of technical performance was 4 for SbS and 1 for PbS. There was a clear predominance of closed questions (32%), when compared with open questions (5.5%). Providing advice was more frequent (23.5%) than giving information (12.5%). In line with the SPs data, comparison of information-gathering in SbS and PbS shows that more questions were asked in the former (44% versus 31%), which resulted

  14. Community pharmacy-based medication therapy management services: financial impact for patients

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    Ruisinger JF

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the direct financial impact for patients resulting from Medication Therapy Management (MTM interventions made by community pharmacists. Secondary objectives include evaluating the patient and physician acceptance rates of the community pharmacists’ recommended MTM interventions.Methods: This was a retrospective observational study conducted at 20 Price Chopper and Hen House grocery store chain pharmacies in the Kansas City metro area from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010. Study patients were Medicare Part D beneficiaries eligible for MTM services. The primary outcome was the change in patient out-of-pocket prescription medication expense as a result of MTM services.Results: Of 128 patients included in this study, 68% experienced no out-of-pocket financial impact on their medication expenses as a result of MTM services. A total of 27% of the patients realized a cost-savings (USD440.50 per year, (SD=289.69 while another 5% of patients saw a cost increase in out-of-pocket expense (USD255.66 per year, (SD=324.48. The net financial impact for all 128 patients who participated in MTM services was an average savings of USD102.83 per patient per year (SD=269.18, p<0.0001. Pharmacists attempted a total of 732 recommendations; 391 (53% were accepted by both the patient and their prescriber. A total of 341 (47% recommendations were not accepted because of patient refusal (290, 85% or prescriber refusal (51, 15%.Conclusions: Patient participation in MTM services reduces patient out-of-pocket medication expense. However, this savings is driven by only 32% of subjects who are experiencing a financial impact on out-of-pocket medication expense. Additionally, the majority of the pharmacists’ recommended interventions (53% were accepted by patients and prescribers.

  15. Comparison of factors influencing patient choice of community pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, and identification of components of pharmaceutical care.

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    Merks, Piotr; Kaźmierczak, Justyna; Olszewska, Aleksandra Elzbieta; Kołtowska-Häggström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several factors, which are components of pharmaceutical care, can influence a patient's choice of a community pharmacy store and contribute to frequent visits to the same pharmacy. To compare factors that influence a patient's choice of pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, to identify which of them are components of pharmaceutical care, and to relate them to patient loyalty to the same pharmacy. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to clients visiting pharmacies in Poland and the UK January-August 2011. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. The response rate was 55.6% (n=417/750; 36 pharmacies) and 54.0% (n=405/750; 56 pharmacies) in Poland and in the UK, respectively. The most frequently reported factors, as defined by a percentage of responders, were in Poland: 1) location (84%); 2) professional and high-quality of service (82%); 3) good price of medicines (78%); and 4) promotions on medicines (66%). In the UK, the most commonly reported factors were: 1) professional and high quality of service (90%); 2) location (89%); 3) good advice received from the pharmacist (86%); and 4) option of discussing and consulting all health issues in a consultation room (80%). Good advice and an option of discussing personal concerns with a pharmacist are components of pharmaceutical care. Thirty-eight percent of patients in Poland and 61% in the UK declared visiting the same pharmacy. Components of pharmaceutical care are important factors influencing the patient's choice of pharmacy in the UK and, to a lesser degree, in Poland. Additionally, more patients in the UK than in Poland are committed to a single pharmacy. Therefore, implementing the full pharmaceutical care in Poland may contribute to an increase in patient loyalty and thus strengthen competitiveness of pharmacy businesses.

  16. Parental acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccinations and community pharmacies as vaccination settings: A qualitative study in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Hohmann, Lindsey A; McFarland, Stuart J; Teeter, Benjamin S; White, Kara K; Hastings, Tessa J

    2017-06-01

    To determine parents' knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations in their adolescent children and to describe parents' perceptions of adolescent vaccinations in community pharmacies. In-depth interviews were completed with parents or guardians of children ages 11-17 years from Alabama's Lee and Macon counties. One-hour long, open-ended telephonic or in-person interviews were conducted until the saturation point was reached. Using ATLAS.ti software and thematic analysis, interview transcripts were coded to identify themes. Twenty-six parents were interviewed, most of whom were female (80.8%) and white (50%). A total of 12 themes were identified. First, two themes emerged regarding elements facilitating children's HPV vaccination, the most common being positive perception of the HPV vaccine. Second, elements hindering children's vaccination contained seven themes, the top one being lack of correct or complete information about the HPV vaccine. The last topic involved acceptance/rejection of community pharmacies as vaccination settings, and the most frequently cited theme was concern about pharmacists' clinical training. Physician-to-parent vaccine education is important, and assurances of adequate pharmacy immunization training will ease parents' fears and allow pharmacists to better serve adolescents, especially those who do not see physicians regularly. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a service evaluation and lean thinking transformation to redesign an NHS 111 refer to community Pharmacy for Emergency Repeat Medication Supply Service (PERMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Hamde; Nazar, Zachariah; Simpson, Jill; Yeung, Andre; Whittlesea, Cate

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the contribution of community pharmacy from NHS 111 referrals out of hours (OOH) for emergency supply repeat medication requests via presentation of service activity, community pharmacist feedback and lean thinking transformation. Design Descriptive service evaluation using routine service activity data over the pilot period; survey of community pharmacists, and service redesign through lean thinking transformation. Setting North East of England NHS 111 provider and accredited community pharmacies across the North East of England. Participants Patients calling the North East of England NHS 111 provider during OOH with emergency repeat medication supply requests. Interventions NHS 111 referral to community pharmacies for assessment and if appropriate, supply of emergency repeat medication. Main outcome measures Number of emergency repeat medication supply referrals, completion rates, reasons for rejections, time of request, reason for access, medication(s), pharmaceutical advice and services provided. Secondary outcomes were community pharmacist feedback and lean thinking transformation of the patient pathway. Results NHS 111 referred 1468 patients to 114 community pharmacies (15/12/2014–7/4/2015). Most patients presented on Saturdays, with increased activity over national holidays. Community pharmacists completed 951 (64.8%) referrals providing 2297 medications; 412 were high risk. The most common reason for rejecting referrals was no medication in stock. Community pharmacists were positive about the provision of this service. The lean thinking transformation reduced the number of non-added value steps, waits and bottlenecks in the patient pathway. Conclusions NHS 111 can redirect callers OOH from urgent and emergency care services to community pharmacy for management of emergency repeat medication supply. Existing IT and community pharmacy regulations allowed patients to receive a medication supply and pharmaceutical advice. Community

  18. The socio-technical organisation of community pharmacies as a factor in the Electronic Prescription Service Release Two implementation: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of a new method of transmitting prescriptions from general practices to community pharmacies in England (Electronic Prescription Service Release 2 (EPS2)) has generated debate on how it will change work practice. As EPS2 will be a key technical element in dispensing, we reviewed the literature to find that there were no studies on how social and technical elements come together to form work practice in community pharmacies. This means the debate has little point of reference. Our aim therefore was to study the ways social and technical elements of a community pharmacy are used to achieve dispensing through the development of a conceptual model on pharmacy work practice, and to consider how a core technical element such the EPS2 could change work practice. Method We used ethnographic methods inclusive of case-study observations and interviews to collect qualitative data from 15 community pharmacies that were in the process of adopting or were soon to adopt EPS2. We analysed the case studies thematically and used rigorous multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary interpretive validation techniques to cross analyse findings. Results In practice, dispensing procedures were not designed to take into account variations in human and technical integration, and assumed that repetitive and collective use of socio-technical elements were at a constant. Variables such as availability of social and technical resources, and technical know-how of staff were not taken into account in formalised procedures. Yet community pharmacies were found to adapt their dispensing in relation to the balance of social and technical elements available, and how much of the social and technical elements they were willing to integrate into dispensing. While some integrated as few technical elements as possible, some depended entirely on technical artefacts. This pattern also applied to the social elements of dispensing. Through the conceptual model development process, we

  19. Shared decision making in Swedish community mental health services - an evaluation of three self-reporting instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David; Schön, Ulla-Karin; Nyholm, Maria; Grim, Katarina; Svedberg, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Despite the potential impact of shared decision making on users satisfaction with care and quality in health care decisions, there is a lack of knowledge and skills regarding how to work with shared decision making among health care providers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of three instruments that measure varied dimensions of shared decision making, based on self-reports by clients, in a Swedish community mental health context. The study sample consisted of 121 clients with experience of community mental health care, and involved in a wide range of decisions regarding both social support and treatment. The questionnaires were examined for face and content validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. The instruments displayed good face and content validity, satisfactory internal consistency and a moderate to good level of stability in test-retest reliability with fair to moderate construct correlations, in a sample of clients with serious mental illness and experience of community mental health services in Sweden. The questionnaires are considered to be relevant to the decision making process, user-friendly and appropriate in a Swedish community mental health care context. They functioned well in settings where non-medical decisions, regarding social and support services, are the primary focus. The use of instruments that measure various dimensions of the self-reported experience of clients, can be a key factor in developing knowledge of how best to implement shared decision making in mental health services.

  20. Experiences of a community pharmacy service to support adherence and self-management in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Richard; Johansson, Lina; Forsyth, Paul; Bryce, Stuart Lochhead; McKellar, Susan; Fitzgerald, Niamh

    2014-02-01

    Heart failure (HF) is common, disabling and deadly. Patients with HF often have poor self-care and medicines non-adherence, which contributes to poor outcomes. Community pharmacy based cognitive services have the potential to help, but we do not know how patients view community-pharmacist-led services for patients with HF. We aimed to explore and portray in detail, the perspectives of patients receiving, and pharmacists delivering an enhanced, pay for performance community pharmacy HF service. Community pharmacies and community-based patients in Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Scotland. Focus groups with pharmacists and semi-structured interviews with individual patients by telephone. Cross sectional thematic analysis of qualitative data used Normalization Process Theory to understand and describe patient's reports. Experiences of receiving and delivering an enhanced HF service. Pharmacists voiced their confidence in delivering the service and highlighted valued aspects including the structured consultation and repeated contacts with patients enabling the opportunity to improve self care and medicines adherence. Discussing co-morbidities other than HF was difficult and persuading patients to modify behaviour was challenging. Patients were comfortable discussing symptoms and medicines with pharmacists; they identified pharmacists as fulfilling roles that were needed but not currently addressed. Patients reported the service helped them to enact HF medicines and HF self care management strategies. Both patients receiving and pharmacists delivering a cognitive HF service felt that it addressed a shortfall in current care. There may be a clearly defined role for pharmacists in supporting patients to address the burden of understanding and managing their condition and treatment, leading to better self management and medicines adherence. This study may inform the development of strategies or policies to improve the process of care for patients with HF and has implications for

  1. Exploring knowledge and attitudes towards counselling about vitamin supplements in Jordanian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilbayeh SA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate.Objective: This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordaninan community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated questionnaire. Setting: Community pharmacies in Amman with target sample of 400 pharmacists.Results: A total of 388 pharmacists participated in this study. The majority (77.8% of pharmacists believed that a balanced diet is more achievable by eating healthily than by vitamins supplements. 78.1% of participants believed that vitamins deficiency would not shorten life spans, while 80.7% agreed that vitamin supplements could be toxic or might contain unlabelled harmful ingredients. Less than half of pharmacists were aware that some antioxidant vitamins have been verified to be of unproven value, or may even cause cancer. While over 80% of pharmacists would recommend vitamins on a regular basis without prescription, the majority agreed that counselling on vitamin supplements is part of their role in pharmaceutical care (93.3%, in addition to providing relevant information to other healthcare professionals (78.4%. Moreover, responses to specific knowledge questions, such as the interactions of vitamins with drugs or the recommended dietary allowance of vitamins for infants, children, and pregnant women, were negative. Furthermore, only a minority of pharmacists would recheck the accuracy of dose regimens in prescriptions and symptoms of true vitamins deficiency or would follow up patients to record any consequences of vitamins consumption.Conclusion: The questionnaire revealed satisfactory awareness of community pharmacists about their role in counselling; however

  2. Addressing low health literacy with "Talking Pill Bottles": A pilot study in a community pharmacy setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Annie Y; Nguyen, Juliet K; Parks, Jason J; Morisky, Donald E; Berry, Donna L; Wolpin, Seth E

    To test the effect of "Talking Pill Bottles" on medication self-efficacy, knowledge, adherence, and blood pressure readings among hypertensive patients with low health literacy and to assess patients' acceptance of this innovation. Longitudinal nonblinded randomized trial with standard treatment and intervention arms. Two community pharmacies serving an ethnically diverse population in the Pacific Northwest. Participants were consented patients with antihypertension prescriptions who screened positive for low health literacy based on the Test of Functional Health Literacy Short Form. Participants in the intervention arm received antihypertensive medications and recordings of pharmacists' counseling in Talking Pill Bottles at baseline. Control arm participants received antihypertensive medications and usual care instructions. Comparison and score changes between baseline and day 90 for medication knowledge test, Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use Scale (SEAMS), Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), blood pressure, and responses to semistructured exit interviews and Technology Acceptance Model surveys. Of 871 patients screened for health literacy, 134 eligible participants were enrolled in the trial. The sample was elderly, ethnically diverse, of low income, and experienced regarding hypertension and medication history. In both arms, we found high baseline scores in medication knowledge test, SEAMS, and MMAS-8 and minimal changes in these measures over the 90-day study period. Blood pressure decreased significantly in the intervention arm. Acceptability scores for the Talking Pill Bottle technology were high. Our results suggest that providing audio-assisted medication instructions in Talking Pill Bottles positively affected blood pressure control and was well accepted by patients with low health literacy. Further research involving newly diagnosed patients is needed to mitigate possible ceiling effects that we observed in an experienced population

  3. Evaluation of the Most Frequently Prescribed Extemporaneously Compounded Veterinary Medications at a Large Independent Community Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karara, Adel H; Hines, Ryan; Demir, Zehra; Nnorom, Bethran; Horsey, Robert; Twigg, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy. Data was obtained from a total of 1348 prescriptions requiring extemporaneous compounding over the course of a two-year period (2014-2015). A database was constructed and each compounded prescription was allocated to a therapeutic category based on the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information. Data analysis showed that the most commonly prescribed preparations belonged to the central nervous system (39%), anti-infective agents (21%), and hormones (12%) therapeutic categories. Overall, suspensions were the most dispensed (47%), extemporaneously compounded dosage forms followed by solutions (28%), and capsules (10%). The majority (88%) of compounded preparations were administered by the oral route. The top three drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine were (1) potassium bromide oral solution for canine epilepsy, (2) methimazole solution used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, and (3) metronidazole suspension, an antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and other infections in dogs and cats. Remarkably, our findings are in good agreement with previously published survey data on the top drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine. In the era of personalized medicine, veterinary extemporaneous compounding for specialized needs will continue to play an important role providing optimum therapy for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  4. Determinants of self-medication with NSAIDs in a Portuguese community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes AP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are a widely used therapeutic group in the world, and particularly in the Portuguese population. Objective: To compare NSAID’s use by prescription and self-medication acquisition and to determine the pattern of indication of NSAIDs, their usage profile and possible implications for patients’ safety. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used where individuals presenting at a community pharmacy requesting NSAIDs during the study period (one month were invited to answer a face-to-face interview where socio-demographic characteristics, the indication pattern and previous experience of side effects were assessed. A follow-up interview was performed one week later to assess the incidence of adverse effects. The study was ethically approved. Results: A sample of 130 NSAIDs users was recruited, comprising mostly women (n=87; 66.9%, actively employed (n=77; 59.2% and presenting a mean age of 49.5 years old (SD=20.49. An equal proportion of individuals acquired NSAIDs by self-medication and with medical prescription (n=65; 50%. Over 4/5 of patients (n=57; 87.7% acquiring NSAIDs without a prescription were self-medicated by their own initiative, and only 10.8% (n=7 had been advised by the pharmacist. The most commonly acquired active substances were ibuprofen and diclofenac. Self-medicated users more frequently resorted to topical NSAIDs following short term treatments. The major underlying condition motivating NSAIDs sought were musculoskeletal disorders (45.0%, regardless of the regimen. An important proportion of prevalent users of NSAIDs reported previous experience of adverse effects (11.3%. One week after initiating NSAID therapy, a small proportion of patients reported incidence of adverse effects. Conclusion: Self-medication with NSAIDs is sought for numerous medical conditions. Reported adverse effects (prevalent and incident confirm the need for a more rational use of NSAIDs and ongoing

  5. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia

    2013-01-01

    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and treatment for young people. Lothian Health Board envisaged a pharmacy-based chlamydia testing and treatment (CT&T) service to be able to reach deprived population. This research project set out to evaluate the implementation of the CT&T in Lothian, Scotland. Howev...

  6. Development of a medication therapy management superbill for ambulatory care/community pharmacy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; McDonough, Randy; Bennett, Marialice; Bryner, Crystal; Thomas, Renee Ahrens

    2009-01-01

    To explain the purpose of superbills, suggest strategies for incorporating superbills into pharmacy practice, and propose a model superbill for consideration by practitioners. Ambulatory pharmacies in the United States. Superbills have been used by physicians and other health care providers for many years as a way of efficiently communicating to the office staff, the patient, and even the insurer the types of services that have been provided at the point of care. The profession of pharmacy has not routinely used superbills in the past; however, given the recognition of pharmacists as providers of medication therapy management (MTM) services, immunizations, disease management, and other specialty preventive health services, the time has come for pharmacists to begin using superbills. Not applicable. A sample superbill, suitable for adaptation by individual providers of medication therapy management and other clinical pharmacy services, is provided in this article. Superbills may or may not improve the pharmacist's overall ability to receive insurance remuneration, but the authors believe that greater recognition by patients of the nondispensing activities of pharmacists can be achieved by using a superbill and that this may lead to more opportunities for payment for MTM in the future. Research is needed to assess whether incorporating superbills into a variety of pharmacy practice settings improves patient perceptions of the pharmacist and to discover how superbills effect practice efficiency.

  7. Community pharmacy harm reduction services for drug misusers: national service delivery and professional attitude development over a decade in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Catriona; Bond, Christine M; Tinelli, Michela

    2007-12-01

    Community pharmacy contributes to drug misuse management and reduced spread of blood-borne disease through distributing clean needles and substitute drug dispensing. This paper reports a third Scotland-wide survey of pharmacies enabling service delivery to be charted over a decade. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire of all Scottish pharmacies (n=1166) was undertaken. Descriptive data were collected on services provided, attitudes, training and demography. Data were compared with data from 1995 and 2000. Needle exchange provision increased slightly to 12.5% from 9.7% (2000) and 8.6% (1995). The mean number of needle exchange clients increased significantly to 37.7 from 20.3 (2000) and 12.5 (1995). Methadone was dispensed by 79.1% of respondents, and 90.9% of those supervised self-administration. The total number of methadone patients increased to 12 400 from 8809 in 2000 and 3387 in 1995. Of those taking methadone, 57% have supervised self-administration. A quarter dispensed buprenorphine to 190 patients. Attitudes improved significantly but training levels have not changed since 2000. More commitment to harm reduction was evident through improved attitudes and increased services. Service delivery has increased more for dispensing services than for needle exchange. Strategies for delivering future needle exchange and substitute dispensing services are required if demand approaches capacity.

  8. Job satisfaction among community pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belay YB

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Yared Belete Belay Pharmacoepidemiology and Social Pharmacy Course and Research Team, Department of Pharmacy, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia Introduction: Job satisfaction is a multidimensional, enduring, important, and much-researched concept in the field of organizational behavior and has been identified as recognition in one’s field of work, level of salary, opportunities for promotion, and achievement of personal goals. Job satisfaction directly affects the labor market behavior and economic efficiency by means of the impact on productivity and turnover of staff. The aim of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city. Methods: This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted as a survey and only included voluntary participants. Those participants who did not volunteer to participate were excluded from the study. A structured questionnaire was used as a data collection tool; it was developed from different literature in the English language, and then the original tool was translated to the local language for the purpose of understanding. Results: In Mekelle, ~100 pharmacy professionals work in private medicine retail outlets. From those, only 60 volunteered to participate in this study. Significant difference in job satisfaction and job stress were observed between those working full-time and part-time, with P-values of 0.031 and 0.021, respectively. Conclusion: From the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that around two-thirds of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city were satisfied with their professional practice. Keywords: job satisfaction, pharmacy professionals and retail outlets 

  9. Extending the reach: local health department collaboration with community pharmacies in Palm Beach County, Florida for H1N1 influenza pandemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lisa A; Etkind, Paul; Grasso, Alfred; Adams, Alex J; Rothholz, Mitchel C

    2011-01-01

    Palm Beach County Health Department (PBCHD) in Florida collaborated with pharmacists, community pharmacies, and pharmacy-based retail health clinics to increase access to influenza prevention through a widespread H1N1 influenza vaccination campaign and to disseminate timely and accurate public health recommendations and information using Flu Ready Cards. Selected pharmacy and store managers were surveyed, before and after distribution of H1N1 vaccine regarding issues facing pharmacists and the public in deciding whether or not to recommend or accept influenza vaccinations. Palm Beach County Health Department collaborated with Walgreens and CVS pharmacies, Publix and Winn-Dixie Super Market Pharmacies, and the Palm Beach County Pharmacy Association. More than 200000 Flu Ready Cards were distributed in 250 pharmacies between September 2009 and March 2010 as part the county-wide H1N1 influenza pandemic response. Approximately 40000 doses of H1N1 vaccine (12% of the PBCHD allocation) were shipped to local pharmacies and retail health clinics to immunize individuals and families, including those most at risk, vulnerable, or without a medical home. Eighty percent of surveyed store managers and 52% of pharmacists reported the Flu Ready Cards were useful and more than 60% of both groups felt partnership with the local health department was useful during the H1N1 pandemic. The collaborative relationship proved invaluable for distributing, transferring, and administering the H1N1 influenza vaccine, managing access to antivirals, and serving as a vital link to hospitals and other healthcare providers. Pharmacists can be an integral part of the nation's "first line resource" for health and wellness and can extend the reach for public health initiatives. The public-private collaboration between health departments and community pharmacists could improve individual and family readiness, increase access to trained and trusted professionals and strengthen overall preparedness and

  10. Knowledge and conduct of pharmacists for dispensing of drugs in community pharmacies: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Marques dos Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge of pharmacists and check their conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. This is a cross-sectional study performed in four municipalities from South and Southeast of Brazil, which are reference in health national scenario and concentrate 73.6% of national economic activity. Pharmacists who works in community pharmacies were invited to answer a questionnaire prepared by the authors of this study and validated. The main outcome measured was the pharmaceutical knowledge, rated according to the number of correct answers on that questionnaire prepared by the researchers, and professional conduct in relation to dispensing of drugs. The data collection occurred from September to December 2012 and the information obtained were tabulated in duplicate by two independent researchers for later analysis. 486 community pharmacies were visited but only 112 professionals participated in the study. Among the participants, 78.6% (n = 88 did not have adequate knowledge to perform the dispensing of drugs, despite this same number of pharmacists claiming to have participated in conferences and courses after graduation. The main sources of information on drugs used by participants have a low level of scientific evidence. The performance of non-employment related tasks reduces the time available for the care of medication users. In addition, the indiscriminate sale of antimicrobials and the sale of products other than health, mischaracterize the role of the pharmacist in the community pharmacy. There are gaps in the knowledge of professionals, limiting the satisfactory completion of dispensing of drugs. In addition, the excess of other duties and inadequate professional conduct compromise the promotion of the rational use of drugs.

  11. Comparison of factors influencing patient choice of community pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, and identification of components of pharmaceutical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merks P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Merks,1 Justyna Kazmierczak,2 Aleksandra Elzbieta Olszewska,3 Maria Koltowska-Häggström4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; 2Department of Hygiene, Bioanalysis and Environmental Studies, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland; 3Department of Pharmacy, Ashford and St Peter’s Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, United Kingdom; 4Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SwedenBackground: Several factors, which are components of pharmaceutical care, can influence a patient’s choice of a community pharmacy store and contribute to frequent visits to the same pharmacy.Objectives: To compare factors that influence a patient’s choice of pharmacy in Poland and in the UK, to identify which of them are components of pharmaceutical care, and to relate them to patient loyalty to the same pharmacy.Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to clients visiting pharmacies in Poland and the UK January–August 2011. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0.Results: The response rate was 55.6% (n=417/750; 36 pharmacies and 54.0% (n=405/750; 56 pharmacies in Poland and in the UK, respectively. The most frequently reported factors, as defined by a percentage of responders, were in Poland: 1 location (84%; 2 professional and high-quality of service (82%; 3 good price of medicines (78%; and 4 promotions on medicines (66%. In the UK, the most commonly reported factors were: 1 professional and high quality of service (90%; 2 location (89%; 3 good advice received from the pharmacist (86%; and 4 option of discussing and consulting all health issues in a consultation room (80%. Good advice and an option of discussing personal concerns with a pharmacist are components of pharmaceutical care. Thirty

  12. Mystery shopping and coaching as a form of audit and feedback to improve community pharmacy management of non-prescription medicine requests: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack Charles; Schneider, Carl Richard; Naughtin, Clare Louise; Wilson, Frances; de Almeida Neto, Abilio Cesar; Moles, Rebekah Jane

    2017-12-14

    To determine whether repeated mystery shopping visits with feedback improve pharmacy performance over nine visits and to determine what factors predict an appropriate outcome. Prospective, parallel, repeated intervention, repeated measures mystery shopping (pseudopatient) design. Thirty-six community pharmacies in metropolitan Sydney, Australia in March-October 2015. Sixty-one University of Sydney pharmacy undergraduates acted as mystery shoppers. Students enrolled in their third year of Bachelor of Pharmacy in 2015 were eligible to participate. Any community pharmacy in the Sydney metropolitan region was eligible to take part and was selected through convenience sampling. Repeated mystery shopping with immediate feedback and coaching. Outcome for each given scenario (appropriate or not) and questioning scores for each interaction. Five hundred and twenty-one visits were analysed, of which 54% resulted in an appropriate outcome. Questioning scores and the proportion of interactions resulting in an appropriate outcome significantly improved over time (Pshopping visits with feedback were associated with improved pharmacy performance over time. Future work should focus on the role of non-pharmacist staff and design interventions accordingly. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Compliance with national guidelines for the management of drug-drug interactions in Dutch community pharmacies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurma, H.; Schalekamp, T.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacists contribute to the detection and prevention of drug therapy-related problems, including drug-drug interactions. Little is known about compliance with pharmacy practice guidelines for the management of drug-drug interaction alerts. OBJECTIVE: To measure the compliance of

  14. Assessing changes in third-party gross margin for a single community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, Benjamin Y; Urmie, Julie M; Doucette, William R; McDonough, Randall P

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess changes in prescription gross margin from 2008 to 2011 using a random sample of prescriptions, analyze changes in prescription gross margin from 2008 to 2011 using a market basket of prescription drugs, and investigate impact of changes in prescription mix from 2008 to 2011 on prescription gross margins. DESIGN Longitudinal, retrospective, descriptive case study. SETTING Single independent pharmacy in Iowa City, IA, from March and April of 2008-11. PARTICIPANTS Prescription dispensing records for the pharmacy's largest private and Part D payers by prescription volume, as well as Medicaid and cash payers. INTERVENTION Random sampling and market basket approaches were used for gross margin calculation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prescription gross margins and generic dispensing rate. RESULTS Data were collected for 2,400 prescription records for the random sample and 4,860 prescriptions for the market basket sample. The median random sample and market basket gross margin dollars (GMDs) from 2008 to 2011 decreased from $9.55 to $7.22 and from $9.60 to $8.50, respectively. The percent of dispensed prescriptions that was generic increased from 62.65% in 2008 to 73.64% in 2011, and GMDs were significantly lower for generic products. CONCLUSION Third-party prescription drug gross margins in the study pharmacy varied substantially by payer and decreased over time. Pharmacies must continue to monitor changes in prescription margins and investigate ways to enhance alternative revenue sources to maintain profitability.

  15. Drug use of children in the community assessed through pharmacy dispensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, E; van den Berg, P; Gebben, H; Sauer, P; de Jong-van den Berg, L

    2000-01-01

    Aims To determine the extent of drug use in children and the types of drugs that children use. Methods Cross-sectional study and cohort study, using computerized pharmacy dispensing records for all children aged 0-16 years in the northern part of The Netherlands in 1998. The main outcome measures

  16. Co-creation of market expansion in point-of-care testing in the United States: Industry leadership perspectives on the community pharmacy segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmeier, Kenneth C; McDonough, Sharon L K; Wang, Junling

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is a specialty of laboratory medicine that occurs at the bedside or near the patient when receiving health services. Despite its established clinical utility and consumer demand in the community pharmacy, the implementation of POCT within this setting has remained modest for a variety of reasons. One possible solution to this problem is the concept of co-creation - the partnership between consumer and manufacturer in the development of value for a service or device. Using the theoretical underpinning of co-creation, this study aimed to investigate perceptions of point-of-care-testing (POCT) industry leadership on the community pharmacy market in the United States to uncover reasons for limited implementation within community pharmacies. Participants were recruited for this study through the use of snowball sampling. A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants via telephone. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and entered into a qualitative analysis software program to summarize the data. Five key themes were uncovered: gaps in understanding, areas of positive impact, barriers to implementation, facilitators of implementation, and community pharmacy - a potential major player. Through uncovering gaps in perceptions, it may be possible to leverage the U.S. pharmacy industry's size, potential for scalability, and ease of patient access to further patient care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of health literacy in the development of ‘Self Care’ cards for community pharmacies in Ireland

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    Coughlan D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: ‘Self Care’ cards play a significant role in delivering health education via community pharmacies in Australia and New Zealand. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate whether such an initiative could have a similar impact in an Irish context. The secondary objective was to understand the importance of health literacy to this initiative.Methods: Ten cards were developed for the Irish healthcare setting and trialed as a proof of concept study. The pilot study ran in ten community pharmacies in the greater Cork area for a six-month period. Using a mixed methods approach (Questionnaires & focus group staff and patient reactions to the initiative were obtained. Concurrent to the pilot study, readability scores of cards (Flesch-Kincaid, Fry, SMOG methods and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM health literacy screening tool was administered to a sample of patients.Results: 88.7% of patient respondents (n=53 liked the concept of the ‘Self Care’ cards and 83% of respondents agreed that the use of the card was beneficial to their understanding of their ailment. Focus groups with Pharmacy staff highlighted the importance of appropriate training for the future development of this initiative. An emerging theme from designing the cards was health literacy. The pilot ‘Self Care’ cards were pitched at too high a literacy level for the general Irish public to understand as determined by readability score methods. It was found that 19.1% of a sample population (n=199 was deemed to have low health literacy skills.Conclusion: The ‘Self Care’ initiative has the potential to be Pharmacy’s contribution to health education in Ireland. The initiative needs to be cognizant of the health literacy framework that equates the skills of individuals to the demands placed upon them.

  18. Evaluation of a rural community pharmacy-based Waist Management Project: bringing the program to the people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellow, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Time constraints and lack of awareness of risk factors for future chronic disease development prevent many young adults from accessing lifestyle programs offered by local health services. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a rural pharmacy-based multidisciplinary healthy lifestyle pilot program on reducing risk factors for chronic disease development among young adults. Individuals under the age of 50 with chronic disease risk factors were referred to the program. All subjects were provided with free after-hours nutritional counselling from a dietitian at the local community pharmacy, a comprehensive medication review conducted by the pharmacist, gym membership and access to cooking classes and supermarket tours. Selected participants also received bulk-billed GP appointments and assistance with establishing a home vegetable garden. Body weight, waist circumference, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity were assessed at baseline and after program conclusion. Forty participants regularly attended the program between March 2009 and March 2010. At program conclusion, mean body weight was reduced by 3.8±6.7kg (P<0.001) and waist circumference reduced by 3.9±6.5cm (P<0.001). Fruit consumption increased by 1.2±0.2 serves/day (P<0.001) and vegetable intake increased by 1.6±1.0 serves/day (P<0.001). Participants also spent an average of 88.0±47.7 more min/week (P<0.001) engaged in physical activity on completion of the program. The community pharmacy provided an accessible location for the delivery of a successful chronic disease risk reduction program targeting young adults in a rural area.

  19. Mediatization, Spatial Coherence and Social Sustainability The Role of Digital Media Networks in a Swedish Countryside Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jansson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available What does the implementation of new communication networks mean for the spa-tial coherence and social sustainability of rural communities? This paper takes its key from Wittel’s discussion of network sociality, understood as the opposite of Gemeinschaft. Wittel’s argument may inform our understanding of how commu-nicative patterns in rural communities are partly re-embedded through ongoing media transitions. But it must also be problematized. Relating Wittel’s discussion to Halfacree’s model of spatial coherence and Urry’s notion of network capital, as well as to findings from an ethnographic study in a Swedish countryside commu-nity, a more complex view is presented. It is argued that global communication networks under rural conditions contribute to the integration and sustainability of the community, as much as to processes of expansion and differentiation. The results show that network sociality and community constitute interdependent con-cepts. Through their capacity of linking people to external realms of interest, while simultaneously reinforcing their sense of belonging in the local community, online media promote ontological security at the individual level, thus operating as a social stabilizer.

  20. Perceptions of pharmacists and patients on information provision and their influence on patient satisfaction in Japanese community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Hiroko; Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-12-01

    The provision of information is now considered a major area in pharmacist-patient interactions. However, few reports have simultaneously evaluated patient and pharmacist perceptions with regard to the pharmacist's information provision. The aims were to clarify the perceptions of pharmacists and patients regarding information provision and the level of influence of those perceptions on patient satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey with respect to information provision was conducted for patients and pharmacists in community pharmacies in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. In total, 407 patient-pharmacist pairs were included in a t-test and multilevel analysis. The levels of patient perception regarding information provision were significantly higher than the levels of pharmacist perception in all variables. The pharmacists' perceived level of information provision concerning medication effects had a negative and significant association with patient satisfaction, while the patients' perceived level of information provision by the pharmacist had a positive and significant association with patient satisfaction. Higher patient expectations regarding the level of information provision concerning medication side effects and older age of the pharmacist were adversely related to patient satisfaction. Both pharmacist and patient perceptions of the information provision by pharmacists personalized to the patient had positive associations with patient satisfaction. Pharmacist perceptions related to the information provision were not associated with patient satisfaction. The present study highlights accurate information provision, building good patient-pharmacist relationships, and improving pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pharmacy students' attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration: Intervention effect of integrating cooperative learning into an interprofessional team-based community service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiamin; Liu, Juan; Li, Lei

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes towards physician-pharmacist collaboration among pharmacy students in order to develop an interprofessional education (IPE) opportunity through integrating cooperative learning (CL) into a team-based student-supported community service event. The study also aimed to assess the change in students' attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the event. A bilingual version of the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration (SATP(2)C) in English and Chinese was completed by pharmacy students enrolled in Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China. Sixty-four students (32 pharmacy students and 32 medical students) in the third year of their degree volunteered to participate in the IPE opportunity for community-based diabetes and hypertension self-management education. We found the mean score of SATP(2)C among 235 Chinese pharmacy students was 51.44. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.90. Our key finding was a significant increase in positive attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration after participation in the IPE activity. These data suggest that there is an opportunity to deliver IPE in Chinese pharmacy education. It appears that the integration of CL into an interprofessional team-based community service offers a useful approach for IPE.

  2. Comparison of the claim percent gross margin earned by Texas community independent pharmacies for dual-eligible beneficiary claims before and after Medicare Part D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Angela L; Shepherd, Marvin D; Lawson, Kenneth A; Richards, Kristin M

    2009-01-01

    To describe dual eligibles' claims before and after Medicare Part D and to evaluate the effect that Medicare Part D has had on the claim percent gross margin (CPGM) earned by Texas community independent pharmacies. Nonexperimental time series study. Texas, October 2005 through September 2006. 313 community independent pharmacies. Review of more than 150,000 Medicaid and 300,000 Medicare Part D claims acquired from a drug claims processor. CPGM per prescription claim before and after the implementation of Medicare Part D, controlling for generic/brand drug status. The mean CPGM for prescriptions dispensed before Part D (Medicaid claims) was 26.7%. The mean CPGM for claims dispensed after Part D (Medicare claims) was 17.0% (using ingredient costs in 2006 dollars) or 20.4% (using ingredient costs adjusted to 2005 dollars), a reduction of 36.3% and 23.6%, respectively. Under both Medicaid and Part D, pharmacies earned higher margins for generic drugs (39.9% and 29.5%, respectively) than for brand-name drugs (8.7% and 8.3%, respectively). These results support community pharmacy assertions of lower reimbursements from Part D payers compared with Medicaid payers. Based on these results, pharmacies can respond to this evolving environment by carefully reviewing their Part D plans' impact on CPGM and taking available steps to increase the proportion of generic drugs dispensed to Medicare beneficiaries.

  3. Food choice, socio-economic characteristics and health in 4-year olds in a well-educated urban Swedish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garemo, Malin; Arvidsson Lenner, Ragnhild; Nilsson, Ellen Karlge; Borres, Magnus P; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2007-02-01

    Dietary habits founded early in life might influence development of welfare diseases. The aim was to analyse food choice, socio-economic characteristics and health by questionnaires in healthy 4-year olds. Two hundred and thirty children were invited and 79% completed all questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured in 131 subjects. The sample was characteristic for Swedish children except that more parents had university education. Most children attended pre-school; 52% >30 h/week. Almost all had been breast-fed until a mean age of 5 months. Fifteen per cent were overweight and 2% obese according to the IOTF cut-offs. A, D vitamin supplementation was not given to a third. Full fat dairy products, minced meat and sausages predominated, and only a fourth was served fat fish. Olive or rape seed oil was consumed regularly by 40% and a third consumed "junk food" regularly. Maternal immigrant status influenced the food choice. In a Swedish urban community of 4-year olds, 17% were overweight or obese. The intake of vegetables, oils and "junk food" seemed to have increased, while the intake of dairy products, fruit, meat and fish seemed to be similar to earlier studies. Food choice was influenced by maternal origin.

  4. Job satisfaction among community pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Yared Belete

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is a multidimensional, enduring, important, and much-researched concept in the field of organizational behavior and has been identified as recognition in one's field of work, level of salary, opportunities for promotion, and achievement of personal goals. Job satisfaction directly affects the labor market behavior and economic efficiency by means of the impact on productivity and turnover of staff. The aim of this study was to assess the satisfaction level of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city. This institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted as a survey and only included voluntary participants. Those participants who did not volunteer to participate were excluded from the study. A structured questionnaire was used as a data collection tool; it was developed from different literature in the English language, and then the original tool was translated to the local language for the purpose of understanding. In Mekelle, ~100 pharmacy professionals work in private medicine retail outlets. From those, only 60 volunteered to participate in this study. Significant difference in job satisfaction and job stress were observed between those working full-time and part-time, with P-values of 0.031 and 0.021, respectively. From the findings of the current study, it can be concluded that around two-thirds of pharmacy professionals in Mekelle city were satisfied with their professional practice.

  5. Marital Status and Birthrate of Deaf People in Two Swedish Counties: The Impact of Social Environment in Terms of Deaf Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, P. -I.; Danermark, B.; Borg, E.

    2004-01-01

    Deafness affects many social interactions. The impact of deafness depends on several factors, e.g., the type of social environment in terms of the particular Deaf community a person lives in. The authors recorded the birthrate and the proportions of married and divorced people among deaf people in two Swedish counties: Narke, which had a strong…

  6. Individualized Dosing of Children’s Liquid Medications in the Community Pharmacy Setting: A Survey of Parents and Guardians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiao Zhai, MS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To determine parents’ and/or guardians’ interest in having pharmacists provide children’s liquid medications in a pre-measured, individualized dosing device 2 To assess parents’ and/or guardians’ perception of dosing liquid medications for a child. Design: Observational survey Setting: Regional chain pharmacy in North Carolina Participants: > 18 years old, parent/guardian of a child <13 who had prescription filled for liquid medication within the pharmacy chain, responsible for administering child’s liquid medication Intervention: 14 item questionnaire Main Outcome Measure: Interest in pharmacists providing children’s liquid medications in pre-measured, individualized dosing devices Results: 250 questionnaires were mailed; 42 were marked “return to sender” (16.8%, 22 were returned completed (10.6%, and 20 of the 22 met inclusion criteria (9.6%. 95% of study participants reported being interested in having pharmacists provide children’s liquid medications in the proposed dosing device, and 40% were willing to pay for such a service. 90% of respondents reported it is “not at all difficult” to understand the amount of dose a child is to receive, while 55% reported it is “not at all difficult” to measure doses. 25% of respondents reported sometimes using a kitchen spoon to measure a child’s medication. Conclusion: Community pharmacists should explore providing children’s liquid medications in an individualized dosing device, as study results determined parents are interested in and willing to pay for the theoretical device. Further large-scale studies would be beneficial in determining interest in and willingness to pay for the dosing device in various pharmacy settings nationwide.

  7. Organisational and extraorganisational determinants of volume of service delivery by English community pharmacies: a cross-sectional survey and secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Mark; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Bradley, Fay; Elvey, Rebecca; Wagner, Andrew; Halsall, Devina; Hassell, Karen; Jacobs, Sally

    2017-10-10

    This study aimed to identify the organisational and extraorganisational factors associated with existing variation in the volume of services delivered by community pharmacies. Linear and ordered logistic regression of linked national data from secondary sources-community pharmacy activity, socioeconomic and health need datasets-and primary data from a questionnaire survey of community pharmacies in nine diverse geographical areas in England. Annual dispensing volume; annual volume of medicines use reviews (MURs). National dataset (n=10 454 pharmacies): greater dispensing volume was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership type (large chains>independents>supermarkets), greater deprivation, higher local prevalence of cardiovascular disease and depression, older people (aged >75 years) and infants (aged 0-4 years) but lower prevalence of mental health conditions. Greater volume of MURs was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership type (large chains/supermarkets>independents), greater dispensing volume, and lower disease prevalence.Survey dataset (n=285 pharmacies; response=34.6%): greater dispensing volume was significantly associated with staffing, skill-mix, organisational culture, years open and greater deprivation. Greater MUR volume was significantly associated with pharmacy ownership type (large chains/supermarkets>independents), greater dispensing volume, weekly opening hours and lower asthma prevalence. Organisational and extraorganisational factors were found to impact differently on dispensing volume and MUR activity, the latter being driven more by corporate ownership than population need. While levels of staffing and skill-mix were associated with dispensing volume, they did not influence MUR activity. Despite recent changes to the contractual framework, the existing fee-for-service reimbursement may therefore not be the most appropriate for the delivery of cognitive (rather than supply) services, still appearing to incentivise quantity

  8. Pastoral power in the community pharmacy: A Foucauldian analysis of services to promote patient adherence to new medicine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Latif, Asam; Boyd, Matthew; Barber, Nick; Elliott, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a growing role in the delivery of primary healthcare. This has led many to consider the changing power of the pharmacy profession in relation to other professions and patient groups. This paper contributes to these debates through developing a Foucauldian analysis of the changing dynamics of power brought about by extended roles in medicines management and patient education. Examining the New Medicine Service, the study considers how both patient and pharmacist subjectivities are transformed as pharmacists seek to survey patient's medicine use, diagnose non-adherence to prescribed medicines, and provide education to promote behaviour change. These extended roles in medicines management and patient education expand the 'pharmacy gaze' to further aspects of patient health and lifestyle, and more significantly, established a form of 'pastoral power' as pharmacists become responsible for shaping patients' self-regulating subjectivities. In concert, pharmacists are themselves enrolled within a new governing regime where their identities are conditioned by corporate and policy rationalities for the modernisation of primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The evaluation of patient self-completion concordance forms used in community pharmacy : a comparison of two European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Marlies M E; Zuydgeest, Iris A; Walser, Sabine; Kijlstra, Nico B; Petkova, Valentina; de Gier, Johan J

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of patient self-completion concordance forms in Dutch and Bulgarian pharmacies. Second, to show any differences in pharmacy practice and patient behaviour in two European countries: the Netherlands and Bulgaria. METHODS: A random sample of 500 pharmacies were

  10. Integrating Data From the UK National Reporting and Learning System With Work Domain Analysis to Understand Patient Safety Incidents in Community Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Tam, W Vanessa; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2017-03-01

    To explore the combined use of a critical incident database and work domain analysis to understand patient safety issues in a health-care setting. A retrospective review was conducted of incidents reported to the UK National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) that involved community pharmacy between April 2005 and August 2010. A work domain analysis of community pharmacy was constructed using observational data from 5 community pharmacies, technical documentation, and a focus group with 6 pharmacists. Reports from the NRLS were mapped onto the model generated by the work domain analysis. Approximately 14,709 incident reports meeting the selection criteria were retrieved from the NRLS. Descriptive statistical analysis of these reports found that almost all of the incidents involved medication and that the most frequently occurring error types were dose/strength errors, incorrect medication, and incorrect formulation. The work domain analysis identified 4 overall purposes for community pharmacy: business viability, health promotion and clinical services, provision of medication, and use of medication. These purposes were served by lower-order characteristics of the work system (such as the functions, processes and objects). The tasks most frequently implicated in the incident reports were those involving medication storage, assembly, or patient medication records. Combining the insights from different analytical methods improves understanding of patient safety problems. Incident reporting data can be used to identify general patterns, whereas the work domain analysis can generate information about the contextual factors that surround a critical task.

  11. A review of the information-gathering process for the provision of medicines for self-medication via community pharmacies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Gudka, Sajni; Schneider, Carl R; Everett, Alan; Fisher, Colleen; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2013-01-01

    Currently, no review has been completed regarding the information-gathering process for the provision of medicines for self-medication in community pharmacies in developing countries. To review the rate of information gathering and the types of information gathered when patients present for self-medication requests. Six databases were searched for studies that described the rate of information gathering and/or the types of information gathered in the provision of medicines for self-medication in community pharmacies in developing countries. The types of information reported were classified as: signs and symptoms, patient identity, action taken, medications, medical history, and others. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Variations in the study populations, types of scenarios, research methods, and data reporting were observed. The reported rate of information gathering varied from 18% to 97%, depending on the research methods used. Information on signs and symptoms and patient identity was more frequently reported to be gathered compared with information on action taken, medications, and medical history. Evidence showed that the information-gathering process for the provision of medicines for self-medication via community pharmacies in developing countries is inconsistent. There is a need to determine the barriers to appropriate information-gathering practice as well as to develop strategies to implement effective information-gathering processes. It is also recommended that international and national pharmacy organizations, including pharmacy academics and pharmacy researchers, develop a consensus on the types of information that should be reported in the original studies. This will facilitate comparison across studies so that areas that need improvement can be identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of a fictitious community-based virtual teaching platform to aid in the teaching of pharmacy practice skills: Student perspectives after initial implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Louise E; McDonald, Maureen; Aspden, Trudi

    2016-01-01

    Providing patient-centred care requires pharmacy students to learn how to interact effectively and understand individual differences that can influence patients' health. The School of Pharmacy at The University of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ), developed a virtual teaching platform, called NZ Pharmville, which consisted of twenty-one community-based patients who are members of six families; each family had a video vignette associated with it. Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) students, enrolled in the third year pharmacy practice course, were able to view these recorded vignettes as part of their weekly pre-laboratory work for the course. All the clinical cases within the course were based on this community, with the aim of increasing the realism in the practical sessions and increasing patient-centred learning. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of pharmacy students regarding the integration of this virtual community into a third year undergraduate pharmacy practice course. An anonymous, voluntary survey which consisted of twenty-one items, 13 requiring a Likert scale response and 8 requiring free text responses, was distributed to all students who had completed the third year pharmacy practice course. The responses to the questions were collated and analysed. Responses to questions one to thirteen were recorded in Excel, and results were presented as the combination of strongly agree and agree, strongly disagree and disagree and neutral. Responses to free text questions were read multiple times before being coded by two members of the research team into broad themes aligned to the overall aims of the evaluation. Eighty-six (80.4 %) of the eligible students completed the survey and the majority of responses were positive towards the benefits of using the virtual community in the course. Responses indicated that many of the students found the integration of the virtual community to be useful preparation for their practical sessions and the majority of students

  13. A comparison of patients' and pharmacists' satisfaction with medication counseling provided by community pharmacies: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seungwon; Kim, Dasohm; Choi, Hye Joung; Chang, Min Jung

    2016-04-14

    Medication counseling is a critical component of pharmaceutical care to promote the safe and effective use of medications and to maximize therapeutic outcomes. The assessment of patients' and pharmacists' satisfaction with medication counseling services could be one of the vital parameters for predicting the quality of pharmacy services. No study has measured and compared both patients' and pharmacists' satisfaction with medication counseling. The objectives of this study were to describe and compare patients' and pharmacists' levels of satisfaction with medication counseling services offered by community pharmacists in South Korea. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey. The online survey was distributed to patients and community pharmacists using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaires consisted of 4 main areas: (1) responders' characteristics (2) current state of medication counseling methods provided by community pharmacies (3) overall satisfaction with medication counseling (4) demand for the development of medication counseling standards. A comparison between patients and pharmacists was made using either a chi-square test or a Fisher's exact test. Between June 13, 2014 and July 15, 2014, a total of 252 patients and 620 pharmacists completed the survey. It was found that 47.3% of pharmacists and 34.0% of patients were satisfied with the current medication counseling service. Pharmacists showed a higher degree of satisfaction with the medication counseling service compared to patients (p <0.05). A major reason for patients not being satisfied with the medication counseling from community pharmacists was the insufficient time spent on counseling (51.2%). The pharmacists' perception of a major barrier to providing appropriate medication counseling for patients was the lack of time (24.3%). Moreover, a substantial number of patients (88%) and pharmacists (73%) supported the development of medication counseling standards to improve community

  14. The socio-technical organisation of community pharmacies as a factor in the Electronic Prescription Service Release Two implementation: a qualitative study

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    Harvey Jasmine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of a new method of transmitting prescriptions from general practices to community pharmacies in England (Electronic Prescription Service Release 2 (EPS2 has generated debate on how it will change work practice. As EPS2 will be a key technical element in dispensing, we reviewed the literature to find that there were no studies on how social and technical elements come together to form work practice in community pharmacies. This means the debate has little point of reference. Our aim therefore was to study the ways social and technical elements of a community pharmacy are used to achieve dispensing through the development of a conceptual model on pharmacy work practice, and to consider how a core technical element such the EPS2 could change work practice. Method We used ethnographic methods inclusive of case-study observations and interviews to collect qualitative data from 15 community pharmacies that were in the process of adopting or were soon to adopt EPS2. We analysed the case studies thematically and used rigorous multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary interpretive validation techniques to cross analyse findings. Results In practice, dispensing procedures were not designed to take into account variations in human and technical integration, and assumed that repetitive and collective use of socio-technical elements were at a constant. Variables such as availability of social and technical resources, and technical know-how of staff were not taken into account in formalised procedures. Yet community pharmacies were found to adapt their dispensing in relation to the balance of social and technical elements available, and how much of the social and technical elements they were willing to integrate into dispensing. While some integrated as few technical elements as possible, some depended entirely on technical artefacts. This pattern also applied to the social elements of dispensing. Through the conceptual

  15. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Jørgensen, G H M; Mejdell, C M; Dahlborn, K

    2017-03-01

    Limited information is available on the extent to which blankets are used on horses and the owners' reasoning behind clipping the horse's coat. Research on the effects of those practices on horse welfare is scarce but results indicate that blanketing and clipping may not be necessary from the horse's perspective and can interfere with the horse's thermoregulatory capacities. Therefore, this survey collected robust, quantitative data on the housing routines and management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices as reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community. Horse owners were approached via an online survey, which was distributed to equestrian organizations and social media. Data from 4,122 Swedish and 2,075 Norwegian respondents were collected, of which 91 and 84% of respondents, respectively, reported using blankets on horses during turnout. Almost all respondents owning warmblood riding horses used blankets outdoors (97% in Sweden and 96% in Norway) whereas owners with Icelandic horses and coldblood riding horses used blankets significantly less ( horse's coat was clipped by 67% of respondents in Sweden and 35% of Norwegian respondents whereby owners with warmblood horses and horses primarily used for dressage and competition reported clipping the coat most frequently. In contrast to scientific results indicating that recovery time after exercise increases with blankets and that clipped horses have a greater heat loss capacity, only around 50% of respondents agreed to these statements. This indicates that evidence-based information on all aspects of blanketing and clipping has not yet been widely distributed in practice. More research is encouraged, specifically looking at the effect of blankets on sweaty horses being turned out after intense physical exercise and the effect of blankets on social interactions such as mutual grooming. Future efforts should be tailored to disseminate knowledge more efficiently, which can

  17. From personal crisis care to convenience shopping: an interpretive description of the experiences of people with mental illness and addictions in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrea L; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kutcher, Stan P; O'Reilly, Claire L; Chen, Timothy F; Gardner, David M

    2016-10-12

    The role of community pharmacists is changing globally with pharmacists engaging in more clinically-oriented roles, including in mental health care. Pharmacists' interventions have been shown to improve mental health related outcomes but various barriers can limit pharmacists in their care of patients. We aimed to explore the experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions in community pharmacies to generate findings to inform practice improvements. We used interpretive description methodology with analytic procedures of thematic analysis to explore the experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions with community pharmacy services. Participants were recruited through multiple mechanisms (e.g., paper and online advertisements), offered honorarium for their time, and given the option of a focus group or interview for participation in our study. Data were gathered during July to September of 2012. Interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by two researchers. We collected approximately nine hours of audio data from 18 individuals in two focus groups (n = 12) and six individual interviews. Fourteen participants were female and the average age was 41 years (range 24 to 57 years). Expectations, decision-making, and supports were identified as central themes underlying the community pharmacy experiences of people with lived experience of mental illness and addictions. Eight subthemes were identified including: relationships with pharmacy staff; patient's role in the pharmacist-patient relationship; crisis and triage; privacy and confidentiality; time; stigma and judgment; medication-related and other services; and transparency. People with lived experience of mental illness and addictions demonstrate a high regard and respect for pharmacist's knowledge and abilities but hold conservative expectations of pharmacy health services shaped by experience, observations, and

  18. The effect of the electronic transmission of prescriptions on dispensing errors and prescription enhancements made in English community pharmacies: a naturalistic stepped wedge study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Bryony Dean; Reynolds, Matthew; Sadler, Stacey; Hibberd, Ralph; Avery, Anthony J; Armstrong, Sarah J; Mehta, Rajnikant; Boyd, Matthew J; Barber, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare prevalence and types of dispensing errors and pharmacists’ labelling enhancements, for prescriptions transmitted electronically versus paper prescriptions. Design Naturalistic stepped wedge study. Setting 15 English community pharmacies. Intervention Electronic transmission of prescriptions between prescriber and pharmacy. Main outcome measures Prevalence of labelling errors, content errors and labelling enhancements (beneficial additions to the instructions), as identified by researchers visiting each pharmacy. Results Overall, we identified labelling errors in 5.4% of 16 357 dispensed items, and content errors in 1.4%; enhancements were made for 13.6%. Pharmacists also edited the label for a further 21.9% of electronically transmitted items. Electronically transmitted prescriptions had a higher prevalence of labelling errors (7.4% of 3733 items) than other prescriptions (4.8% of 12 624); OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.76). There was no difference for content errors or enhancements. The increase in labelling errors was mainly accounted for by errors (mainly at one pharmacy) involving omission of the indication, where specified by the prescriber, from the label. A sensitivity analysis in which these cases (n=158) were not considered errors revealed no remaining difference between prescription types. Conclusions We identified a higher prevalence of labelling errors for items transmitted electronically, but this was predominantly accounted for by local practice in a single pharmacy, independent of prescription type. Community pharmacists made labelling enhancements to about one in seven dispensed items, whether electronically transmitted or not. Community pharmacists, prescribers, professional bodies and software providers should work together to agree how items should be dispensed and labelled to best reap the benefits of electronically transmitted prescriptions. Community pharmacists need to ensure their computer systems are promptly updated

  19. Assessing the effects of pharmacists' perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and turnover intention on provision of medication information at community pharmacies in Lithuania: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta; Kubilius, Raimondas; Urbonienė, Aušra

    2015-03-01

    As a member of a pharmacy organization, a pharmacist is not only bound to fulfill his/her professional obligations but is also affected by different personal and organizational factors that may influence his/her behavior and, consequently, the quality of the services he/she provides to patients. The main purpose of the research was to test a hypothesized model of the relationships among several organizational variables, and to investigate whether any of these variables affects the service of provision of medication information at community pharmacies. During the survey, pharmacists working at community pharmacies in Lithuania were asked to express their opinions on the community pharmacies at which they worked and to reflect on their actions when providing information on medicines to their patients. The statistical data were analyzed by applying a structural equation modeling technique to test the hypothesized model of the relationships among the variables of Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Provision of Medication Information. The final model revealed that Organizational Commitment had a positive direct effect on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.27) and a negative direct effect (standardized estimate = -0.66) on Turnover Intention. Organizational Commitment mediated the indirect effects of Perceived Organizational Support on Turnover Intention (standardized estimate = -0.48) and on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.20). Pharmacists' Turnover Intention had no significant effect on Provision of Medication Information. Community pharmacies may be viewed as encouraging, to some extent, the service of provision of medication information. Pharmacists who felt higher levels of support from their organizations also expressed, to a certain extent, higher commitment to their organizations by providing more consistent medication information to patients. However, the

  20. The Relationship Between Treatment Adherence and Non-picked Up Medications in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Phan Hoang Nguyen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Medication adherence is one of the major factors that determine an outcome of a treatment. Despite the effort of healthcare providers to improve the adherence rate, it still remains a serious issue in our health care system today. Many patients do not take their medications as directed or just simply do not want to fill or refill their prescriptions. A small survey performed by pharmacy students at Temple School of Pharmacy showed that there is a significant number of patients did not pick up their medications. Cardiovascular medications are the most common non-picked up drugs. There are various reasons that patients use to justify for this non-adherence behavior. However, they are unaware that their actions create a tremendous negative effect not only on the treatment itself but also on the entire health care system. The consequences include expensive therapies, inaccurate research data, and poor treatment outcomes. Many solutions have been utilized to solve this problem, but it is still the major problem for healthcare providers to keep in mind when planning a drug regimen. Although many people believed that pharmacists are responsible for solving this problem, it should be a multidisciplinary effort of all healthcare providers to improve the medication adherence. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Student Project

  1. Pharmacy study of natural health product adverse reactions (SONAR): a cross-sectional study using active surveillance in community pharmacies to detect adverse events associated with natural health products and assess causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necyk, Candace; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Boon, Heather; Foster, Brian C; Legatt, Don; Cembrowski, George; Murty, Mano; Barnes, Joanne; Charrois, Theresa L; Arnason, John T; Ware, Mark A; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Vohra, Sunita

    2014-03-28

    To investigate the rates and causality of adverse event(s) (AE) associated with natural health product (NHP) use, prescription drug use and concurrent NHP-drug use through active surveillance in community pharmacies. Cross-sectional study of screened patients. 10 community pharmacies across Alberta and British Columbia, Canada from 14 January to 30 July 2011. The participating pharmacy staff screened consecutive patients, or agents of patients, who were dropping or picking up prescription medications. Patients were screened to determine the proportions of them using prescription drugs and/or NHPs, as well as their respective AE rates. All AEs reported by the screened patients who took a NHP, consented to, and were available for, a detailed telephone interview (14%) were adjudicated fully to assess for causality. Over a total of 105 pharmacy weeks and 1118 patients screened, 410 patients reported taking prescription drugs only (36.7%; 95% CI 33.9% to 39.5%), 37 reported taking NHPs only (3.3%; 95% CI 2.4% to 4.5%) and 657 reported taking prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently (58.8%; 95% CI 55.9% to 61.6%). In total, 54 patients reported an AE, representing 1.2% (95% CI 0.51% to 2.9%), 2.7% (95% CI 0.4% to 16.9%) and 7.3% (95% CI 5.6% to 9.6%) of each population, respectively. Compared with patients who reported using prescription drugs, the patients who reported using prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently were 6.4 times more likely to experience an AE (OR; 95% CI 2.52 to 16.17; ppharmacies take NHPs and prescription drugs concurrently, and of those, 7.4% (95% CI 6.3% to 8.8%) report an AE. A substantial proportion of community pharmacy patients use prescription drugs and NHPs concurrently; these patients are at a greater risk of experiencing an AE. Active surveillance provides a means of detecting such AEs and collecting high-quality data on which causality assessment can be based.

  2. The provision of current and future Healthy Weight Management (HWM) services from community pharmacies: a survey of community pharmacists' attitudes, practice and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlands, Rumana S; Watson, Margaret C; Lee, Amanda J

    2011-04-01

    The extent to which community pharmacists contribute to the management of the global obesity epidemic is unclear. Local, regional and national obesity management schemes need to be informed by existing services which will be influenced by health professionals' attitudes and willingness to engage in service provision. The purpose of this study was to derive an accurate account of community pharmacists' activities and attitudes towards the provision of current and future Healthy Weight Management (HWM) services. A postal survey was developed and disseminated to all 128 community pharmacies in Grampian, north-east Scotland. The response rate was 64.8% (83/128). A range of HWM services was already being provided. The most common services offered were the supply of weight-loss medication (n=69, 84.1%) and advice about its use (n=68, 84.0%). Other services commonly offered were dietary advice (n=59, 72.8%), physical activity advice (n=53, 66.3%) and body mass index (BMI) calculation (n=56, 68.3%). Most pharmacists were confident in measuring weight (n=78, 93.9%), height (n=78, 93.9%) and BMI (n=78, 93.9%). Many pharmacists perceived a need for HWM services in their local area (n=56, 67.5%) as well as a need to extend these services within their pharmacies (n=48, 57.9%). Barriers to the provision of HWM services included workload (n=77, 92.8%) and the need for additional reimbursement (n=63, 75.9%) and additional staff (n=49, 59.7%). The pharmacists' perceived training needs included estimation of body fat (n=67, 81.7%), one-to-one consultation skills (n=60, 73.2%), advice on weight-loss products (n=52, 63.4%), measurement of blood cholesterol (n=51, 63%) and advice on weight-loss drugs (n=49, 60.5%). Community pharmacies could be an ideal setting for the provision of HWM services. The barriers to service provision need to be addressed. Furthermore, the development of appropriate undergraduate and postgraduate training is required to equip pharmacists and their staff with

  3. SafeMed: Using pharmacy technicians in a novel role as community health workers to improve transitions of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James E; Surbhi, Satya; Bell, Paula C; Jones, Angel M; Rashed, Sahar; Ugwueke, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    To describe the design, implementation, and early experience of the SafeMed program, which uses certified pharmacy technicians in a novel expanded role as community health workers (CPhT-CHWs) to improve transitions of care. A large nonprofit health care system serving the major medically underserved areas and geographic hotspots for readmissions in Memphis, TN. The SafeMed program is a care transitions program with an emphasis on medication management designed to use low-cost health workers to improve transitions of care from hospital to home for superutilizing patients with multiple chronic conditions and polypharmacy. CPhT-CHWs were given primary responsibility for patient outreach after hospital discharge with the use of home visits and telephone follow-up. SafeMed program CPhT-CHWs served as pharmacist extenders, obtaining medication histories, assisting in medication reconciliation and identification of potential drug therapy problems (DTPs), and reinforcing medication education previously provided by the pharmacist per protocol. CPhT-CHW training included patient communication skills, motivational interviewing, medication history taking, teach-back techniques, drug disposal practices, and basic disease management. Some CPhT-CHWs experienced difficulties adjusting to an expanded scope of practice. Nonetheless, once the Tennessee Board of Pharmacy affirmed that envisioned SafeMed CPhT-CHW roles were consistent with Board rules, additional responsibilities were added for CPhT-CHWs to enhance their effectiveness. Patient outreach teams including CPhT-CHWs achieved increases in home visit and telephone follow-up rates and were successful in helping identify potential DTPs. The early experience of the SafeMed program demonstrates that CPhT-CHWs are well suited for novel expanded roles to improve care transitions for superutilizing populations. CPhT-CHWs can identify and report potential DTPs to the pharmacist to help target medication therapy management. Critical

  4. Viewing child pornography: prevalence and correlates in a representative community sample of young Swedish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Hermann, Chantal A; Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.

  5. Application of the SCORE and Wilson-Grundy methods for the assessment of cardiovascular risk in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amariles, P; Machuca, M; Faus, M J; Baena, M I; Martinez-Martinez, F; Jimenez-Martin, J

    2008-10-01

    The assessment and follow-up of patients with risk factors, or with cardiovascular disease (CVD), involves estimating and monitoring their CVD risk (CVDR). There are different opinions about the most appropriate method for this. To compare the SCORE system and the Wilson-Grundy system (based on Framingham's study). A descriptive, observational study over 15 days in six pharmacies, with patients aged between 25 and 74 years, and with a prescription for medications related to hypertension, dyslipidaemia, CVD prevention or type-2 diabetes. Results of patients' absolute CVDR were assessed and compared using the SCORE system and the Wilson-Grundy method, adapted for Spain. The Chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and the Student t-test was used to compare mean values, including odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 257 patients [165 women, 92 men; mean (SD) age, 60.9 (10.8) years; percentage of previous medical history of hypertension (70.0%), dyslipidaemia (42.4%), type-2 diabetes (19.5%) and CVD (22.6%)] participated. With the CVDR assessed with SCORE, the distribution was as follows: low 35.8%, intermediate 21.0% and high 43.2%. The corresponding values using the Wilson-Grundy system was low 60.7%, intermediate 8.2% and high 31.1%. The cardiovascular risk of patients that attend community pharmacies with prescriptions for cardiovascular medications is significantly higher when assessed using the SCORE system than with the Wilson-Grundy method.

  6. Experience with a Drug Screening Program at a School of Pharmacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Marshall E.; Hogue, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and abuse among pharmacy students is a concern of pharmacy schools, boards of pharmacy, and training sites alike. Pharmacy students must complete approximately 30% of their academic coursework in experiential settings such as community pharmacies, hospitals, and other health systems as part of any accredited pharmacy school's…

  7. Policy versus practice: a community-based qualitative study of the realities of pharmacy services in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra J; Kohler, Jillian C; Young, Kue

    2015-01-01

    Nunavut is an Arctic territory in Canada subject to many social, economic and health disparities in comparison to the rest of the nation. The territory is affected by health care provision challenges caused by small, geographically isolated communities where staffing shortages and weather related access barriers are common concerns. In addition to national universal healthcare, the majority of the inhabitants of Nunavut (~85 %) are Inuit beneficiaries of no-charge pharmaceuticals provided through federal and/or territorial budgetary allocations. This research examines how existing pharmaceutical administration and distribution policies and practices in Nunavut impact patient care. This grounded theory research includes document analysis and semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013/14 with patients, health care providers, administrators and policy makers in several communities in Nunavut. Thirty five informants in total participated in the study. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed with qualitative data analysis software for internal consistency and emerging themes. Four distinct themes emerge from the research that have the potential to impact patient care and which may provide direction for future policy development: 1) tensions between national versus territorial financial responsibilities influence health provider decisions that may affect patient care, 2) significant human resources are utilized in Community Health Centres to perform distribution duties associated with retail pharmacy medications, 3) large quantities of unclaimed prescription medications are suggestive of significant financial losses, suboptimal patient care and low adherence rates, and 4) the absence of a clear policy and oversight for some controlled substances, such as narcotics, leaves communities at risk for potential illegal procurement or abuse. Addressing these issues in future policy development may result in system-wide economic benefits, improved patient care

  8. Standardization of Course Plan and Design of Objective Structured Field Examination (OSFE for the Assessment of Pharm.D. Student’s Community Pharmacy Clerkship Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Monajjemzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was aimed to design Objective Structured Field Examination (OSFE and also standardize the course plan of community pharmacy clerkship at Pharmacy Faculty of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Iran. Methods: The study was composed of several stages including; evaluation of the old program, standardization and implementation of the new course plan, design and implementation of OSFE, and finally results evaluation. Results: Lack of a fair final assessment protocol and proper organized educating system in various fields of community pharmacy clerkship skills were assigned as the main weaknesses of the old program. Educational priorities were determined and student’s feedback was assessed to design the new curriculum consisting of sessions to fulfill a 60-hour training course. More than 70% of the students were satisfied and successfulness and efficiency of the new clerkship program was significantly greater than the old program (P<0.05. In addition, they believed that OSFE was a suitable testing method. Conclusion: The defined course plan was successfully improved different skills of the students and OSFE was concluded as a proper performance based assessment method. This is easily adoptable by pharmacy faculties to improve the educational outcomes of the clerkship course.

  9. “Until they know how much you care”: A qualitative analysis of an innovative practice in community pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Melczak, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This qualitative study was concerned with investigating community pharmacists’ thoughts on the use of two brief scales to measure patient outcomes and therapeutic alliance in the context of their Medication Therapy Management (MTM services. The scales were originally developed for use in behavioral healthcare, but were used in a novel (community pharmacy setting as part of a previous parent study. We describe this practice (using these scales in a novel setting as an innovative practice, report on the pharmacists’ experiences with the practice, and discuss relative advantages and disadvantages for integrating the use of the scales as part of routine practice.Methods: Six community pharmacy practitioners participated in a semi-structured interview pertaining to the use of the scales in their MTM services. Pharmacist interviews were transcribed, analyzed according to qualitative content analysis methodology, and presented in relation to the guiding interview questions.Results: Pharmacists had varying opinions on the use of the scales as part of their practice. Initial concerns included patient (misunderstanding about the purpose and proper completion of the scales, as well as apprehension about the use of the information. These concerns were largely resolved through education, repeated use, and routinization. Pharmacists, in general, saw a value to using these scales in clinical practice, for clinical and professional reasons, although there was variability on the degree to which pharmacists integrated the scales into practice after the study completion. Pharmacists had varied opinions as well as on the degree to which the use of the scales would impact medication adherence. Pharmacists were most surprised by how much participation in this study prompted them to reflect on their interactions with patients.Conclusions: Pharmacists, in general, were receptive to participating in the parent study and using two brief scales to measure

  10. The evaluation of pharmaceutical pictograms among elderly patients in community pharmacy settings – a multicenter pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merks P

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Merks,1,2,* Damian Świeczkowski,3,* Marcin Balcerzak,4 Ewelina Drelich,4 Katarzyna Białoszewska,5 Natalia Cwalina,3 Jerzy Krysinski,1 Miłosz Jaguszewski,3 Annie Pouliot,6 Regis Vaillancourt6 1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus University in Torun, Bydgoszcz-Torun, Poland; 2Piktorex Sp. z.o.o., Warsaw, Poland; 3First Department of Cardiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland; 4Farenta Polska, Warsaw, Poland; 5Department of Medical Psychology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; 6Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: The search for new ways to optimize the use of medications by patients has led the pharmaceutical community to promote the idea of introducing pictograms into routine practice. The main intention of pictograms is to ease patient adherence and to reduce potential risks or errors associated with the use of medications. Purpose: To evaluate a series of pharmaceutical pictograms for patient comprehension. Patients and methods: The study was conducted in community pharmacies within a European Union country that belongs to the professional research network. Structured interviews were used to evaluate the pictograms for patient comprehension. This consisted of an assessment of the following: the transparency and translucency of the pictograms, health literacy, and pictogram recall. Participants were also given the opportunity to provide feedback on how to improve the pictograms. The primary endpoint was pictogram comprehension. Secondary outcomes included recall of the pictograms and pictogram translucency. Results: The study included 68 patients with whom face-to-face interviews were performed. Low transparency results (≤25% and extensive patient feedback in initial interviews led to the withdrawal of certain pictograms (n=15 from the evaluation. Among the pictograms included in

  11. Metoclopramide neurological side effects screening; a pharmacovigilence study in Romanian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Ștefănescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metoclopramide is a pharmacological agent frequently used in therapy against nausea and vomiting that can occur in indigestion, motion sickness, gastric ulcer, pyloric spasm and after surgery as a side effect of some anesthetics. Knowing the frequency and intensity of metoclopramide neurological side effects is essential for an efficient management of the dysfunctions it addresses. Material and method. Based on a standard questionnaire containing questions regarding metoclopramide therapy, we analyzed the answers given by 1000 patients or patient tutors in 20 open circuit pharmacies situated all over Bucharest. All subjects freely consented to participate in this study that was coordinated only by pharmacists. Results. Our study highlights the fact that in certain situations having to do with the age of patients, with the use of multiple drugs or with the tendency to self medicate, the neurological side effects of metoclopramide can reach dangerous levels. In some cases it might even be necessary to immediately interrupt metoclopramide therapy, despite its positive benefit/ risk ratio. Conclusions. Respecting the physician’s recommendations, avoiding self medication and reporting side effects as quickly as possible, are essential elements for minimizing the consequences of metoclopramide side effects.

  12. Healthy living champions network: An opportunity for community pharmacy's sustained participation in tackling local health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Zachariah; Portlock, Jane; Rutter, Paul; Brown, David

    Evaluations recognize healthy living champions (HLCs) as key contributors to the Health Living Pharmacy (HLP) project's success; the project has served to reduce pressure on family doctor services and clients who would have otherwise not sought professional advice have accessed HLP services. To investigate the impact of innovative networking opportunities in supporting HLCs to function within their role and to explore the network's potential in promoting sustained HLP participation. Twenty of Portsmouth's (England) HLCs (n = 33) agreed to participate in focus groups. Transcripts were subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis guided by grounded theory. The transcripts were read repeatedly; recurrent themes were identified and coded manually and consensus was reached by discussion within the research team. Network meetings provide HLCs with professional development, networking opportunities and continued encouragement. Recommendations to develop and sustain the network included the formation of a group committee and establishing of a communication facility accessible between meetings. The successful Portsmouth HLP project informed the design of UK HLP projects. The current focus is to build a successful strategy to sustain the positive outcomes, building on the recognized enablers. This study contributes further lessons learned to guide health commissioners and service implementers to best support staff development, involvement and motivation through innovative practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-medication practices among adult population attending community pharmacies in Malaysia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Al-Qazaz, Harith; Tambyappa, Jayabalan; Palaian, Subish; Hariraj, Vidhya

    2011-10-01

    To assess the prevalence of self-medication among adults in an urban setting and to identify any factors contributing to self-medication in relation to consumer characteristics. The study was carried out in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia. A cross-s