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Sample records for sweden tanzania tunisia

  1. Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1986, Tunisia's population was 7,424,000, with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate was 90/1000 and life expectancy averages 58 years. The work force of 1,810,000 is distributed as follows: agriculture, 30.5%; manufacturing, 16.5%; services, 15.0%; construction and mining, 11.4%; and other, 26.6%. The gross domestic product was US$8.35 billion in 1985, with a per capita income (1986) of $1163. The Destourian Socialist Party has been the governing party in Tunisia since independence. Tunisia is a leader in the Arab world in the promotion of equal status for women under the law and the government supports an active family planning program. Tunisia's economy depends on oil, agriculture, phosphates, worker remittances, and tourism for economic growth. In response to an economic crisis in 1985-86, measures to restructure the economy were instituted, including basic commodity price increases, limits on wage increases, import liberalization, and price control modifications. Unemployment, aggravated by a rapidly growing work force, is a major problem in Tunisia. An estimated 50% of the potential work force is unemployed or underemployed.

  2. Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    As Tunisia emerges from the Arab Spring, its new constitution explicitly recognizes the rights of the child and the responsibility of both the State and parents to act in the child’s best interest to guarantee dignity, healthcare, protection, and education. In accordance with these guarantees, the Tunisian Ministry of Women, Family, and Childhood (MFFE) has utilized the Systems Approach for ...

  3. Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    In 1985, Sweden's population stood at 8.4 million, with an annual growth rate of 0.2%. The infant mortality rate was 6.4/1000, and life expectancy was 76 years for men and 82 years for women. The gross domestic product was US$100.2 billion, with a per capita income of $11,989. Of the work force of 4.34 million, 4.9% are in agriculture, 29.8% work in industry, 21.3% are employed in the commerce and finance sector, and 43.9% are engaged in services. Among the social problems Sweden faces are the increasingly large proportion of the population over age 65 years and the challenge of integrating immigrants into social and political life while preserving national languages and customs. Development during the 1970s was less favorable than in most comparable countries; however, industrial recovery during the 1980s has restored the competitiveness of Swedish exports. There is general agreement that investment in new plants and machinery must be increased and wages and consumption must be moderated if Sweden is to expand its industrial sector.

  4. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Background notes on Tanzania present a profile of nationality, population count of 26 million, growth rate of 3.5%, ethnic groups (130), religions (33% Muslim, 33% animist, 33% Christian), languages, education (86% primary), literacy (79%), health (infant mortality of 106/1000), and work force (90% agriculture). Geographic data are given for the area, cities, terrain, and climate. The Tanzanian government is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. There is 1 political party and everyone 18 years is eligible to vote. 4% of the gross domestic product (GDP) ($5.9 billion) is devoted to defense. Economic growth is 4.3%/year and person income is $240/capita. Natural resources, agriculture, industry, and trade are identified. $400 million has been received between 1970-92 in US economic aid. The 1992 official exchange rate is 300 Tanzanian shillings to the US dollar. Descriptive text is given for the population, the history of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the government, principal government officials (President, 1st Vice President [VP], 2nd VP and President of Zanzibar, Prime Minister, Foreign Affairs Minister, Ambassador to the US, Ambassador to the UN, and US embassy address and phone number), political conditions, the economy, the defense, foreign relations, and US-Tanzanian relations. Principal US officials are identified for the Ambassador, Deputy Chief of Mission, USAID Director, and Public Affairs Officer; the US embassy address is given also. The population is 80% rural with a density of 1/sq km in arid areas, 51/sq km on the mainland, and 134/sq km on Zanzibar. The new capital will be Dodoma in central Tanzania. Most residents are of Bantu stock; nomadic groups are the Masai and the Luo. 1% are non-Africans. Government has a strong central executive. The current President is Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The Revolutionary Party is in the primary policymaking body and provides all government leaders. The government seeks to foster the

  5. Tanzania Medical Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R. Kaushik Hindu Mandal Hospital Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. O. Anzala University of Nairobi Nairobi, Kenya. J. Massaga National Institute of Medical Research Dar es Salaam,Tanzania. E. Sandstrom Karolinska Institutet and Southern Hospital Stockholm, Sweden. W. Fawzi Harvard School of Public Health Boston, USA.

  6. Tunisia: Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-19

    Tunisia. AQIM later claimed responsibility for kidnapping two Austrian tourists in Tunisia in February 2008. Algerian and Tunisian authorities have...liberalization with the coming free-trade zone with the EU; and privatization. The textile sector has since shifted to higher quality goods. The tourism sector...between the last quarter of 2008 and the first quarter of 2009. Tourism receipts and 16

  7. Imported malaria in Tunisia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouratbine, A; Chahed, M K; Aoun, K; Krida, G; Ayari, S; Ben Ismail, R

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the national programme of malaria eradication carried out between 1968 and 1972, there has been no active transmission of the parasitosis in Tunisia since the last indigenous case in 1979...

  8. The Educational System of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Tunisia is presented in this booklet. Since Tunisia's independence in 1956, the government has emphasized the role of education as a major factor in building a modern nation. The educational system in Tunisia is based on both the nation's own rich cultural background and also on the linguistic and…

  9. Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Length-weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 13 fish species which are of economic relevance in the commercial fisheries of the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia). A total of 2403 fish specimens were sampled with several fishing gears from October 2008 to September 2009. The sample size ranged ...

  10. Organ transplantation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Matri, Aziz; Ben Abdallah, Taieb

    2015-04-01

    Kidney transplants were first performed in Tunisia in 1986, and transplants soon extended to other organs including the heart, liver, and pancreas. Live-related donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants were both began in the summer of 1986. An organ procurement and transplant law was passed in March 1991, and the National Centre for Advancement of Organ Transplantation was created in 1995. The number of transplantation units has increased to 7 throughout the country, and the yearly transplant number has progressively increased to 139 in 2010, including 20% from deceased kidney donors. Despite these gains, the need continues to grow. Heart transplants began in January 1993, and Tunisia and Jordan are currently the only Arab countries where it is practiced. However, only 16 patients have received a heart transplant as of 2004, and the number of recipients has decreased in the past 10 years. Liver transplants are rare in other Arab countries, but began in Tunisia in January 1998. Over 10 years, 38 patients benefited from this procedure. After a few years of stagnation, the number of liver transplants is increasing. While all types of transplantation are needed, kidney transplantation is a priority in Tunisia. The target is to perform 400 transplants annually, which would require a long-term strategy to provide full financial coverage using the National Health Insurance Funds in both the public and private sectors.

  11. IDRC in Tunisia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of economic research supported by. IDRC from 2006 to 2009 ... to improve farming and herding conditions by identifying the best ... sites. But there are regional differences in contributions to such sites, with relative newcomers to the Web underrepresented. Using Wikipedia as a case study, researchers in Tunisia, the United ...

  12. Household indebtedness in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Lobna; Zouari Dorra; Zouari Ghorbel Sonia

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the development of household indebtedness in Tunisia and its microeconomic determinants. The probit method was used to identify the determinants of household indebtedness with reference to gender. The results show that the Tunisian household indebtedness is in continuous increase and each type of credit is associated with specific determinants. The findings show that only some variables are significant in explaining the differences between the number of credit.

  13. northern Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam,. P O Box 35064, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... National Parks and neighbouring villages in northern Tanzania between 1993 and l996 (Kabigumila 1998a). Most of ..... International Congress ofChelonian Conservation. SOPTOM,. Gonfaron France. pp: ...

  14. [Imported malaria in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouratbine, A; Chahed, M K; Aoun, K; Krida, G; Ayari, S; Ben Ismail, R

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the national programme of malaria eradication carried out between 1968 and 1972, there has been no active transmission of the parasitosis in Tunisia since the last indigenous case in 1979. Since 1980, with the increase in international exchanges especially with sub-Saharian countries, only imported cases of malaria have been reported in Tunisia. A retrospective and thorough survey of malaria cases diagnosed in the laboratory of parasitology of the Pasteur Institute in Tunis from 1980 to 1995 determined the epidemiological characteristics of this imported parasitosis. All in all, during the sixteen years following eradication, 245 cases were registered. The majority of cases (86.2%) was diagnosed by a systematic control of groups at risk within the national programme of malaria eradication. The remaining 13.8% cases sought medical advice when clinical symptoms appeared after their return from endemic countries. The population most affected by imported malaria were men (sex-ratio: 6.8) aged between 20 and 40 years (76% of cases); 38% were Tunisians having sojourned in an endemic country, essentially students from sub-Saharian Africa. The presumed country of contamination was African in 92.7% of the cases. Entrance into Tunisia by patients was mainly by air; 4% of the registered cases had come by land from Algeria. Sound knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria would make for a better follow-up of the affected population and thus reduce the probability of repeated transmission.

  15. Cutaneous tuberculosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmalek, R; Mebazaa, A; Berriche, A; Kilani, B; Ben Osman, A; Mokni, M; Tiouiri Benaissa, H

    2013-09-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in Tunisia. Pulmonary tuberculosis is the most common presentation in our country. Cutaneous presentations are rare (1-2% of cases). The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis (CT) is difficult. Histological and clinical presentations are polymorphous, many differential diagnoses are available, and it is difficult to isolate Mycobacterium. We had for aim to study the epidemiological and clinical features of CT in Tunisia, and to compare presentations before and after 1990. We conducted a retrospective study between January 1991 and December 2011, in which we included all cases of CT observed at the Infectious Diseases and Dermatology Units of the Tunis la Rabta Hospital. Hundred and thirty-seven patients were included, with a mean age of 43.8years; 72.3% were female patients. Hundred and fifty locations were observed, most of which on the head and neck. Scrofuloderma was the most frequent presentation, observed in 65% of cases. The diagnosis was confirmed by histology and/or microbiology in 75.8% of cases. The treatment was prescribed for a mean 11.3months, leading to full recovery in most cases. CT is still reported in Tunisia. The diagnosis relies mainly on histology. Controlling this mutilating tuberculosis requires a global control of this disease, and especially lymph node location, given the high rate of scrofuloderma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Piroplasmids of livestock in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, M A

    2004-01-01

    Several species of piroplasms of livestock are present in Tunisia; some of them are of high veterinary importance. This paper reviews the species already reported in Tunisia on the basis of clinical observations, parasitological routine diagnostic and serological surveys, as well as those considered as potentially present according to epidemiological argumentations. The genus Theileria includes four species reported in Tunisia: T. annulata, T. buffeli, T. ovis, and T. equi. The ovine malignant theileriosis agent, T. lestoquardi, appears to be absent in Tunisia. Five species belonging to the genus Babesia were reported in the country, namely B. hovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and B. ovis. Furthermore, two more species, B. major and B. motasi, are potentially present in zones where their vectors of the genus Haemaphysalis occur.

  17. Sport and Identity in Tunisia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sato, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    Under the rule of the Cheikhs, before Tunisia became a French colony, such traditional sports as El Koura and El'Efga took place at the village community level, but after the introduction of modern...

  18. Republic of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1986-01-01

    The north African country of Tunisia (632,387 square miles) consists largely of desert, with some rich farmlands and a rocky transitional zone. Despite the government's family planning efforts, the population grew from 5.6 million in 1975, to 7.2 million in 1985, and, with its 2.4% annual growth rate, is projected to reach 8.1 million by 1990. Tunisia's rural population decreased to 46% in 1985 as workers and their families moved into urban areas. 98% of the population is Arab-Berber; Arabic and French are the offical languages. The age-sex distribution is typical of developing countries; the median age has increased from 16.8 years in 1966 to 19.5 in 1950 and persons over age 60 have increased from 5.1% in 1956 to 6.7% in 1980. Tunisian families average 5.7 persons in rural areas, and 5.4 persons in urban one. Marriages are declining, polygamy is outlawed, and divorce, once easy, is more difficult and declining. At independence in 1956, only 15% of Tunisians were literate, now 85-90% of primary school age children are enrolled and literacy had risen to 53% in 1980. Women, once heavily veiled, now have full rights and access to education. More than 60 thousand new workers compete for the 40,000 new job openings each year. An estimated 7000 laborers found work in Europe in 1984. Women composed only 11% of the 1975 work force, but by 1980, held 20% of jobs, although they were mainly low paying positions. In 1980, 35% of the laborers worked in agriculture, 19% in industry, 17% in service industries, and 10% in construction. Agriculture and tourism have declined in recent years, contributing to social unrest, currency decline, and inflated wages and consumer prices.

  19. NORTHERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meek R 1985 Aspects of the ecology of Testue/0 hermanni in southern. Yugoslavia. Brit. J. Herpetol. 6: 437-445. Newmark WD, Boshe JI, Sariko HI and Makumbele GK 1996 Effects of a highway on large mammals in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Afr. J. Ecol. 34: 15-31. Nicholson L 1.978 The effects of roads on desert ...

  20. WESTERN TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kagera Community Development Programme, P.O. Box 1745, Bukoba, Tanzania. 'INIBAP Transit Center, Kasteelpark Arenberg 13, 3001 Leuven, Belgium laboratory of Tropical Crop Improvement, K.U.Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 13, 3001 Leuven, Belgium. ABSTRACT. Since the seventies, factors such as declining soil ...

  1. Bringing Community Colleges to Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Mezghani, Wafa Thabet

    2013-01-01

    The country of Tunisia experienced intense uprisings and massive civil resistance that were termed the Arab Spring of 2010. The riots stemmed from a desire to topple government rulers who were blamed for the high unemployment, poverty, regional inequalities, and general political unrest within the country. In a quest for relief and prosperity,…

  2. Spillovers From Europe Into Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Florea; Joël Toujas-Bernate; Reinout De Bock

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the economic and financial linkages between Morocco and Tunisia and their European partners. Using structural vector autoregressions, we find that growth shocks in European partner countries generate significant responses on growth in Morocco and Tunisia. For Tunisia, exports and, to a much lesser extent, tourism appear to be the major transmission channels. In Morocco, exports, remittances and tourism play relatively equal roles. An analysis with sectoral data supports th...

  3. Tanzania: Country Brief

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The name Tanzania is a portmanteau of Tanganyika, the mainland, and Zanzibar, the nearby archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The two united to become the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. With a surface area of 947,300 square kilometers, Tanzania is comparable in size to Nigeria and is slightly more than twice the size of the U.S. state of California. Tanzania's population of approximately...

  4. Audit reports timeliness: Empirical evidence from Tunisia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fakhfakh Sakka, Imen; Jarboui, Anis

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corporate governance, external auditor's characteristics index, and timeliness in light of the recent amendments to the Financial Security Law (2005) in Tunisia...

  5. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  6. Policing football in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Clifford; Havelund, Jonas; Lundberg, Filip

    2016-01-01

    of football policing in Sweden. Central to these is the empowerment and coordination of dialogue based approaches to the policing of football supporters in Sweden. The report points out that this is an area of crowd policing where Sweden are global leaders having influenced how policing is conducted in other...... concepts, competency profiles and training framework” and this one of the central areas where the report recommends that police in Sweden should focus development moving forward....

  7. Drought occurrence analysis in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Salima; Hermassi, Taoufik; Habaieb, Hamadi

    2017-04-01

    Droughtis a terrible scourge for the Tunisianeconomybasedmainly on rainfed agricultural production. The analysis of the recurrence and the persistence of thisphenomenon by scientificmethodsseeks to establish a probabilityestimatewhichcouldcontribute to the planning of strategies for the mobilization and management of water resources. This paperaims on the analysis of the occurrence and the persistence of the meteorologicaldrought in Tunisia by Markov chain. It isbased on monthly data for 115 yearsfrom 24 rainfall stations distributed over the Tunisianterritory. The studyshowedthatdroughtis a frequentphenomenonrecurringeverytwoyears or eventhreeyears or more. The probability of havingtwoconsecutive dry yearsisgreater in the western regions (the Northwest, the Center-West, and the Southwest). Theseregions are known for their agricultural production and theireconomic contribution. The application of the standardizedprecipitation index showedthat the Tunisianclimateisoftenfrequented by mild to moderateweatherdroughts. Theseresultscontribute to the establishment of astrategy to combat drought.

  8. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  9. Seismotectonic and Seismic Hazard Map of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, A.; Ben Ayed, N.; Khayati Ammar, H.; Tayech, M.; Ghanmi, M.

    2016-12-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  10. tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    31 déc. 2014 ... ABSTRACT. The aim of this study is to evaluate mainly the conditions the milking and the mammary health status of cows in the central East Sousse (Tunisian Sahel). The study was conducted on a sample of 20 small and means dairy cattle herds aboveground divided into two study areas. This study.

  11. Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 15 of 15 Items ...

  12. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  13. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  14. information in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: An analysis of health information dissemination by television was carried out in Morogoro Municipality and ... in their approach to disseminate health information in order to educate their viewers. Keywords: Health information, dissemination, Television, Tanzania. Introduction ..... Information technology evolution.

  15. Tanzania - Water Sector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  16. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  17. Probability distribution of flood flows in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abida, H.; Ellouze, M.

    2008-05-01

    L (Linear) moments are used in identifying regional flood frequency distributions for different zones Tunisia wide. 1134 site-years of annual maximum stream flow data from a total of 42 stations with an average record length of 27 years are considered. The country is divided into two homogeneous regions (northern and central/southern Tunisia) using a heterogeneity measure, based on the spread of the sample L-moments among the sites in a given region. Then, selection of the corresponding distribution is achieved through goodness-of-fit comparisons in L-moment diagrams and verified using an L moment based regional test that compares observed to theoretical values of L-skewness and L-kurtosis for various candidate distributions. The distributions used, which represent five of the most frequently used distributions in the analysis of hydrologic extreme variables are: (i) Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), (ii) Pearson Type III (P3), (iii) Generalized Logistic (GLO), (iv) Generalized Normal (GN), and (v) Generalized Pareto (GPA) distributions. Spatial trends, with respect to the best-fit flood frequency distribution, are distinguished: Northern Tunisia was shown to be represented by the GNO distribution while the GNO and GEV distributions give the best fit in central/southern Tunisia.

  18. [Mycetoma in Tunisia: a 15-case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgallali, N; El Euch, D; Cheikhrouhou, R; Belhadj, S; Chelly, I; Chaker, E; Ben Osman, A

    2010-06-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic infection of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue that can be caused by fungi or bacteria. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas but rare in Tunisia. The purpose of this report is to describe epidemioclinical features, treatment and outcomes in patients presenting mycetoma in Tunisia. The files of all patients treated for mycetoma in the Dermatology Department of La Rabta Hospital in Tunisia from 1982 to 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 15 cases of mycetoma were recorded during the study period. There were 6 men and 9 women with a mean age of 53.2 years. The most common clinical presentation was infiltrated erythematous plaques with sinus tracts (fistulas). Lesions were located on the foot in 12 cases. Thirteen patients reported the presence of grains in fluid discharging from fistulas. The cause of mycetoma was actinomycetes, i.e., Actinomadura madurae, in 9 cases and fungus in 6 cases including 3 due to Madurella mycetomi and 2 to Pseudallesheria boydii. Treatment was based on oral antibiotics for actinomycetoma and oral antifungals for eumycetoma. Mycetoma in Tunisia is still uncommon with a slight female predominance. The foot is the most frequent location. Diagnosis can be accomplished by direct mycologic examination, culture, and histololgy. There is no consensus on treatment that is often prolonged with numerous relapses.

  19. Educational Television and Educational Development in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Educational Broadcasters, Washington, DC.

    The National Association of Educational Broadcasters attempted to determine how educational television and related technologies could strengthen the educational system of Tunisia. An overview of the Tunisian society is presented, followed by a brief history of the development of its educational system. The tremendous educational needs of the…

  20. Algae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    900 Soto Paulo, SP. Brazil;. 3Institate of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, P. 0. Box 668, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Key words: Gracilaria, Gracilariales, taxonomy, distribution,Tanzania. Abstract: This paper reviews the taxonomical ...

  1. Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailand, Mikkel; Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Denmark and Sweden have some of the largest public sectors in Europe. They are also characterized by predominantly voluntaristic labor market models where collective bargaining and employee involvement play a relatively strong role in public sector employment relations (ER). In this chapter, we...... more profound in Sweden than in Denmark, but they took place before the 2008 crisis. In Sweden, an economic crisis in the 1990s was a much more important driver than the post- 2008 crisis. The 1990s crisis contributed to an earlier implementation of NPM and to a higher degree of decentralization...

  2. Kabbalah in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlsson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of Kabbalah in Sweden. The reader is presented with an overall view to Kabbalah in Sweden: first, the Johannes Bureus and the Nordic Kabbalah, Kabbalah after Bureus, Kabbalistic literature, and last, Kabbalah in Sweden today. When the Kabbalah reached Sweden it was mainly the non-Jewish Kabbalah that gained influence, even if its Jewish roots were acknowledged. Johannes Bureus unites, in a similar fashion as do the Christian Kabbalists in continental Europe, Christian motifs with the symbolic world of the Kabbalah. Bureus, however, adds runes, ancient Norse gods and Gothic ideas in his own unique manner. The Kabbalah invites speculation and the search for correspondences which has caused the Kabbalah in Sweden to be united with a number of other traditions. Bureus combined the Kabbalah with runes and Gothicism; in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries we can find the Kabbalah in Freemasonry and Esoteric societies, while the Kabbalah in the twentieth century and onwards has been associated with New Age, Parapsychology and Indian Mysticism. Apart from Bureus, most Kabbalists in Sweden have followed the trends that flourished in the rest of the world. Bureus was the first to create a specifically Swedish interpretation of the Kabbalah.

  3. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Dorra Amira; Ines Gana; Anouar Nouioui; Fathia Khlifi; Dorra Ben Salah; Wafa Masri; Ines Belwaer; Hayet Ghorbel; Abderrazzek Hedili

    2015-01-01

    Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toscana virus infection in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezaa, Ons; Bahri, Olfa; Alaya Bouafif, Nissaf Ben; Triki, Henda; Bouattour, Ali

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) by an ELISA test and to determine the extent of its circulation in Tunisia. An indirect ELISA test was performed to detect anti-TOSV IgG. The results were compared to those of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test. The survey tested 494 healthy people from various regions of Tunisia by ELISA for anti-TOSV IgG; 47 people (9.5%) were found to be positive. Seroprevalence varied by bioclimatic region and gender. Two hundred and twelve samples, randomly chosen from the same selected population and tested with ELISA, were retested using an IFA for IgG antibodies. An 85% concordance between the IFA and ELISA was obtained (kappa=0.650). These serological data confirm the circulation of TOSV in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia where the vector sand flies are found. The detection of IgG against TOSV suggests that the diagnosis of TOSV infection is often neglected, as this virus often causes asymptomatic infections, with only a few patients developing severe illnesses involving neurological manifestations. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Current farming practices in rural Tanzania limit the production and nutritional value of goat milk. To increase the milk's benefits and enhance food security, Canadian and. Tanzanian researchers are testing new approaches, including growing improved root crop varieties, for consumption by both livestock and people.

  6. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...

  7. Tanzania Dental Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996; Chapter 5; pg 41-49. Dissertation/Thesis Joyce Rose Masalu. Centre for International Health, Department of Odontology-Community Dentistry, University of Bergen- Norway. Oral health behaviour and oral quality of life among students in Tanzania Intervention opportunities. (2002) PhD Thesis. Organization as author

  8. IDRC in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has a rich history of support for research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. The country has enjoyed sustained economic growth since the late ... the Internet, FM radio broadcasting, and other services. The centre proved that information access can improve lives. Public health radio broadcasts, for example ...

  9. Tanzania Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Science (Tanz. J. Sci.) was established in 1975 as a forum for communication and co-ordination between and among scientists and allied professionals. It is also intended as a medium for dissemination of scientific knowledge among scientists and the public at large to promote the advancement of ...

  10. Evidence from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Iimi, Atsushi; Humphreys,Richard Martin; Mchomvu, Yonas Eliesikia

    2017-01-01

    Railway transport generally has the advantage for large-volume, long-haul freight operations. Africa possesses significant railway assets. However, many rail lines are currently not operational because of the lack of maintenance. The paper recasts light on the impact of rail transportation on firm productivity, using micro data collected in Tanzania. To avoid the endogeneity problem, the i...

  11. and Tanga, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy. The IDSR strategy is designed to assist health workers to promptly detect and respond to diseases of epidemic potential, of public importance, and those targeted for eradication and elimination. This newly introduced approach aims to strengthen the disease monitoring systems at all levels. Tanzania has identified ...

  12. Helping communities control leishmaniasis in rural Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-05

    May 5, 2016 ... This scarring, vector-borne disease has emerged as a major public health problem in Tunisia, as land use, water management practices, and climate change create conditions ripe for its spread. With more than 90% of its territory at risk of desertification, Tunisia's agricultural production is almost entirely ...

  13. Pathotypic diversity of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem) in Tunisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scald, caused by Rhynchosporium secalis (Oudem), is an important disease of barley in Tunisia particularly in northern, northwestern and central parts of the country where the climate is usually cold and wet during most of the barley growing season. Pathogenic variability of the barley scald pathogen in Tunisia was ...

  14. Energy in Sweden 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency's main duty is to assist the evolution of Sweden's energy system into a reliable, ecologically and economically sustainable system. The Agency is also responsible for the collection, processing and publication of official statistics in the energy field. The annual Energy in Sweden report, and its sister publication, Energy in Sweden - Facts and Figures (download able from the Agency's web site), are intended to provide decision makers, journalists, businesses, teachers and the public with co herent and easily accessible information on developments in the energy sector. The report also provides an overview of Sweden's current energy and climate policy, policy measures, the use and supply of energy, energy prices and energy markets, together with information on the effects of the energy system on the environment. Starting with Energy in Sweden 2012, the structure and layout of the report has been revised, to produce a shorter report than in previous years. It is the intention that this shorter format should be published in alternate years, alternating with a longer version. The new structure means that the division into chapters has been changed. The presentation of energy use is now divided up into chapters in the respective sections for the three sectors of residential and services, industry and transport. The presentation of energy supply is divided into two chapters: Primary Energy Carriers and Secondary Energy Carriers. The statistics which provide the foundation for the publication are based mainly on official statistics up to and including 2010, complemented where possible by input reflecting current events and decisions up to the summer of 2011. The Agency's annual publication, Energy Indicators, complements this Energy in Sweden report with details of a number of indicators for monitoring the progress towards energy policy objects.

  15. Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil

  16. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  17. Coastal tourism and climate change in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henia, Latifa; Hlaoui, Zouhaier; Alouane, Tahar

    2014-05-01

    Tunisia is a major tourist destination on the southern shore of the Mediterranean. The tourism sector occupies an important place in the Tunisian economy with 816 hotels, 229,873 beds and a more than six million tourists at the end of the first decade of the 21th century, i.e. , more than half of the population. It offers a large number of direct and indirect jobs: One out of five people work in the tourism sector. The 1960s tourism boom was caused by a number of factors including long days of sunshine, 1,300 km of sandy coast, and a location close to Europe. Tunisian tourism is fundamentally based on two natural determinants: the sun and the sea. The coastline accounts for 95% of tourism investments and functional beds. The high season extends from April to October and it records 73% of nonresident tourists. This results in a homogenous growth of the "product" and its "consumers". This standardization is an important factor in the vulnerability of the Tunisian tourism to climate change. Global warming may affect the comfort level of the swimming season as well as its structure. An estimation of air and water temperature evolution near the Tunisian coasts was conducted under the CLIM-RUN project "Climate Local Information in the Mediterranean Region: Responding to User Needs" funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Program (FP7). The University of Tunis research unit "GREVACHOT", project partner in charge of the case study of Tunisian tourism, has made the study of comfort indices of the present climate. This paper presents: - The climate comfort indices for seaside tourism in Tunisia, - The approach and results of the future evolution of air and water temperatures by the Tunisian coasts, - The future evolution of climate seaside comfort indices of Tunisia as well as the evolution of the swimming season in relation to global warming.

  18. Virtual water balance estimation in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambouli, Talel; Benalaya, Abdallah; Ghezal, Lamia; Ali, Chebil; Hammami, Rifka; Souissi, Asma

    2015-04-01

    The water in Tunisia is limited and unevenly distributed in the different regions, especially in arid zones. In fact, the annual rainfall average varies from less than 100 mm in the extreme South to over 1500 mm in the extreme North of the country. Currently, the conventional potential of water resources of the country is estimated about 4.84 billion m³ / year of which 2.7 billion cubic meters / year of surface water and 2.14 billion cubic meters / year of groundwater, characterizing a structural shortage for water safety in Tunisia (under 500m3/inhabitant/year). With over than 80% of water volumes have been mobilized for agriculture. The virtual water concept, defined by Allan (1997), as the amount of water needed to generate a product of both natural and artificial origin, this concept establish a similarity between product marketing and water trade. Given the influence of water in food production, virtual water studies focus generally on food products. At a global scale, the influence of these product's markets with water management was not seen. Influence has appreciated only by analyzing water-scarce countries, but at the detail level, should be increased, as most studies consider a country as a single geographical point, leading to considerable inaccuracies. The main objective of this work is the virtual water balance estimation of strategic crops in Tunisia (both irrigated and dry crops) to determine their influence on the water resources management and to establish patterns for improving it. The virtual water balance was performed basing on farmer's surveys, crop and meteorological data, irrigation management and regional statistics. Results show that the majority of farmers realize a waste of the irrigation water especially at the vegetable crops and fruit trees. Thus, a good control of the cultural package may result in lower quantities of water used by crops while ensuring good production with a suitable economic profitability. Then, the virtual water

  19. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  20. Tsetse distribution in Tanzania: 2012 status | Daffa | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tsetse distribution in Tanzania: 2012 status. ... distribution in Tanzania: 2012 status. J Daffa, M Byamungu, G Nsengwa, E Mwambembe, W Mleche ... Despite huge losses attributed to the presence of tsetse and trypanosomosis, the distribution of tsetse flies in many African countries is not known precisely. Limited resources ...

  1. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meena, H.E. [Centre for Energy, Environment, Science and Technology, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    An objective of this study is to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without an in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. (au)

  2. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. D.M. Komwihangilo - Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa, Dodoma, Tanzania. Dr. A. Shoko - TAFIRI, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dr. C.Z. Mkangwa - Agricultural Research Institute – Mlingano, Tanga, Tanzania. Dr. L.M. Chove - Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, SUA, ...

  3. Spurring Tanzania's industrialization | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    “Some institutions within the state help steer the process.” Public technology intermediaries (PTI), as they are called, have been an important part of Tanzania's national development efforts since the 1970s, he says. But while Tanzania is undergoing significant economic growth, the industrial sector is lagging. How can the ...

  4. Tanzania's infrastructure : a continental perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shkaratan, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure contributed 1.3 percentage points to Tanzania's annual per capital GDP growth during the 2000s. If the country's infrastructure endowment were improved to the level of the African leader, Mauritius, annual per capita growth rates could increase by 3.4 percent. Tanzania has made great progress in reforming its trunk roads, improving the quality of the road network. The countr...

  5. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 26 of 26 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Science. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 26 of 26 Items ...

  6. [Epidemiological changes of paediatric urolithiasis in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaya, Akram; Nouri, Abdellatif; F Najjar, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    The clinical and biological characteristics of urolithiasis in children are still evolving in our country. Since the eighties no study has been conducted to determine incidence of urolithiasis in Tunisia. To define the current status of urolithiasis in Tunisian children. The records of 414 children with urolithiasis treated between 1983 and 2007 were found in a multi-centric study which took into consideration to age, sex, and history diagnosis and physical, laboratory, and radiologic findings. Clinical and biological date were performed in 344 cases. Stone analysis was performed by spectrophotometry. The incidence of paediatric urolithiasis has steadily decreased from 0.7/ 10 000 of the child population / year in 1991-1994 to 0.1 cases/10 000 children/ year in 2007. There was a continuous decrease in bladder stone over the past 25 years (47.1% in 1982-1986 Vs 10.2% in 2002-2007). Stones were homogeneous in 31.4% of cases. The main component was calcium oxalate stones in 36.4% of the cases. Since the eighties the increase of oxalates stones (15.6% in eighties Vs 51.5% actually) were with depends to purines and struvite stones. Epidemiologic characteristics of the urinary lithiasis (sex, age, localization and composition) have changed in Tunisia, due to the the improvements of standard of living. The occidentalization of the nutritional practices and the receding of the culinary traditions gave birth to new risks of urolithiasis characterized by the emergence of calcium oxalate stones.

  7. [Social determinants of contraceptive use in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimassi, K; Douik, F; Douzi, M A; Saidi, O; Ben Romdhane, H

    2017-02-01

    In Tunisia, the "Revolution" of January 2011 highlighted significant regional disparities and social inequalities in access to health care, including reproductive health services. The purpose of this study was to analyze the social determinants of the use of contraception in Tunisia. A cross-sectional national study conducted in 2012; on a sample of 15 to 49-year married women (n=4374) drawn by a two levels random sampling. Prevalence of contraception and its association factors were assessed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the variation of contraception prevalence with area of residence, age, level of education, number of children and household income. The prevalence of contraception was 66.4 %. Eighty-two percent of women used a modern contraceptive method. The use of contraceptive methods was significantly dependent on the age (PTunisia, precursor Arab country in family planning, is recording a slowdown in the use of contraception in comparison with other countries of North Africa. Social determinants, such as, age, living conditions, area of residence and level of education are indicators to consider when targeting interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Inventory of the spontaneous alien flora in Tunisia. Sayari, N. and Mekki, M. (Tunisia)

    OpenAIRE

    Najla Sayari; Mounir Mekki

    2016-01-01

    The first step in any management strategy to control plant invasion is the compilation of a national and regional inventory of alien plant species. In this paper, we present a comprehensive inventory of the spontaneous alien vascular flora of Tunisia, including accepted names, family, biological form, habitat type, native origin, and invasive status. National flora accounts were the main source of information. Data were completed with new flora records and field surveys. The Raunk...

  9. Plant diversity in different bioclimatic zones in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana You

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Tunisia, located in northern Africa, faces various environmental challenges caused by anthropogenic practices such as overgrazing, deforestation, and desertification. The conversion of natural ecosystems is the major cause of plant biodiversity loss. Tunisia can be divided into three main climatic zones as follows: a northern Mediterranean climate zone, a central steppe climate zone, and a southern desert climate zone. Because of this great environmental diversity, there are distinctive vegetation and various genetic resources in Tunisia. This research was conducted to investigate plant biodiversity within the various bioclimatic zones and to characterize useful plant resources in Tunisia. We investigated native, medicinal and aromatic, desert, and soil erosion control plant species.

  10. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2017-05-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  11. Energy in Sweden 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  12. Energy in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Energy in Sweden is published annually by the Swedish Energy Agency. Energy in Sweden 2004, together with its statistics supplement, Energy in Sweden: Facts and Figures 2004, is intended to provide decision-makers, journalists and the public with a single source of easily available information on conditions and developments in the energy sector. In recent years, Swedish energy and environmental policy has been increasingly concentrated on establishing or improving the long-term conditions for efficient energy markets and efficient use of energy. Restructuring of the Swedish electricity market, greater internationalisation and the effects of the energy system on the wider environment and on climate are important factors that influence the direction of energy policy and so also development of the energy markets. The line that was started by the 2002 Energy Policy Agreement, under the name of Working Together for a Reliable, Efficient and Environmentally Aware Energy Supply (Bill no. 2001/02:143), continues. The shift in taxation policy to encourage the move towards a sustainable energy system and reduced environmental impact continues, as exemplified by the introduction of the electricity certificate system on 1st May 2003. The negotiations that were started in 2003 with a view to progressive shut-down of nuclear power generation were broken off in October 2004 without having reached agreement with the nuclear power companies. As soon as the breakdown of the negotiations was announced, the Government, together with the Left Party and the Centre Party, stated that Barsebaeck 2 will be closed in 2005. Sweden's climate policy is based on the Climate Strategy Act (Bill no. 2001/02:55), which was adopted by Parliament in March 2002. It is expected that trading in emission rights, in accordance with the EU Emissions Trading Directive, will start in January 2005, with publication of national emission rights allocations on 30th September 2004. One of the more important

  13. Sweden's largest Facebook study

    OpenAIRE

    Denti, Leif; Barbopoulus, Isak; Nilsson, Ida; Holmberg, Linda; Thulin, Magdalena; Wendeblad, Malin; Andén, Lisa; Davidsson, Emelie

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet has made it easier for people to socially interact than ever before. Today, the most popular channel is Facebook with over 845 million users world wide. In Sweden, the number of users amount to approximately half of the population. We had two aims with this study. First, we investigate which areas of Facebook usage that Swedish Facebook users consider more important vis-a-vis less important. We were also interested in how users convey their persona through t... m...

  14. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Science (TAJAS) is a peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes original and scholarly research articles dealing with fundamental and applied aspects of agriculture, Food, Aquaculture and Wildlife. Occasionally invited review articles are published.

  15. Plague in Tanzania: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziwa, Michael H; Matee, Mecky I; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kilonzo, Bukheti S

    2013-10-01

    Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis, X. cheopis, Dinopsyllus lypusus, and Pulex irritans are among potential vectors while Lophuromys spp, Praomys delectorum, Graphiurus murinus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mastomys natalensis, and Rattus rattus may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people's proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

  16. Institutional Support : African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    wide ATPS. While resource flows to ... This grant from IDRC's Think Tank Initiative (TTI) will allow ATPS-Tanzania to revamp and scale up its contribution to Tanzania's science and technology policy. Specifically, the grant will enable ...

  17. Porphyria in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunell, S; Floderus, Y; Henrichson, A; Harper, P

    2006-01-01

    In a brief survey the work of Swedish porphyrinologists through time is presented, from the organic chemist Jakob Berzelius 1840 to the molecular biologists of today. The building up in Stockholm of a Swedish national competence centre for porphyria is touched upon and the emergence of a computerized national register on the porphyria gene carriers in the country described. Figures for the prevalences of the seven different forms of porphyria diagnosed in Sweden are given. The geographical distribution of gene mutation spectra is shown for the most frequent form, acute intermittent porphyria. The organisation at Porphyria Centre Sweden of its diagnostic and consultative services is described, as is the decentralized model for porphyria care applied in the form of a clinical network covering the long and sparsely populated country. The ideas and activities of the Swedish Porphyria Patients' Association are presented. Its focus on protection-by-information of the porphyria gene carrier against maltreatment in health service contacts, and against other exposures to environmental threats to his or her health, is discussed. The combined efforts of the national porphyria centre and the patients' association have resulted in early and accurate diagnosis of most of the porphyria gene carriers in the country. The information to the carriers and to the health service regarding the mechanisms of the diseases and the importance of avoiding exposure to disease triggering environmental factors have greatly reduced porphyric morbidity. In the case of the acute porphyrias, by this programme and after the introduction of heme arginate in the therapy, mortality in the acute phase has become extremely rare in Sweden. In contrast, probably due to greater awareness of the high risk for liver cancer in acute porphyrias the number of hepatoma cases diagnosed has increased. The current research activities at the Porphyria Centre which aim at finding ways to substitute the mutated gene in

  18. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, Youssef; Kacem, Imen; Bayoudh, Lamia; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Abdelfettah, Sami; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on date of birth of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed an association between month of birth and the risk of developing MS. This association has not been investigated in an African country. We aimed to determine if the risk of MS is associated with month of birth in Tunisia. Data concerning date of birth for MS patients in Tunisia (n = 1912) was obtained. Birth rates of MS patients were compared with all births in Tunisia matched by year of birth (n = 11,615,912). We used a chi-squared analysis and the Hewitt's non-parametric test for seasonality. The distribution of births among MS patients compared with the control population was not different when tested by the chi-squared test. The Hewitt's test for seasonality showed an excess of births between May and October among MS patients (p = 0.03). The peak of Births of MS patients in Tunisia was in July and the nadir in December. Our data does support the seasonality hypothesis of month of birth as risk factor for MS in Tunisia. Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy could be a possible explanation that needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban agriculture in Tanzania : issues of sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Sofer, M.; Mlozi, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book, the result of a collaborative study carried out by researchers from Tanzania, Israel and the Netherlands, assesses the sustainability of urban agriculture in two medium-sized towns in Tanzania: Morogoro and Mbeya. It first gives an overview of urban agriculture in Tanzania and a

  20. Demographic trends in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present note, we present the main features of recent trends in vital family-demographic behavior in Sweden. For this purpose, published indices of marriage, divorce, and childbearing risks by calendar year are updated by adding another two or three years of observation to our series. We demonstrate that the latest trend reversal in Swedish birth rates, which occurred at the end of the 1990s, continued to manifest itself in increasing propensities for childbearing during the early years of the 21st century. The rise pertains to all birth orders. Marriage propensities showed an increase as well, however, to a large extent expressed in a short-term development that was prevalent at the turn of the millennium. The previous long-term trend of rising divorce risks leveled off during the first two years of the new century.

  1. Sweden health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders; Glenngård, Anna H; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy in Sweden is high and the country performs well in comparisons related to disease-oriented indicators of health service outcomes and quality of care. The Swedish health system is committed to ensuring the health of all citizens and abides by the principles of human dignity, need and solidarity, and cost-effectiveness. The state is responsible for overall health policy, while the funding and provision of services lies largely with the county councils and regions. The municipalities are responsible for the care of older and disabled people. The majority of primary care centres and almost all hospitals are owned by the county councils. Health care expenditure is mainly tax funded (80%) and is equivalent to 9.9% of gross domestic product (GDP) (2009). Only about 4% of the population has voluntary health insurance (VHI). User charges fund about 17% of health expenditure and are levied on visits to professionals, hospitalization and medicines. The number of acute care hospital beds is below the European Union (EU) average and Sweden allocates more human resources to the health sector than most OECD countries. In the past, the Achilles heel of Swedish health care included long waiting times for diagnosis and treatment and, more recently, divergence in quality of care between regions and socioeconomic groups. Addressing long waiting times remains a key policy objective along with improving access to providers. Recent principal health reforms over the past decade relate to: concentrating hospital services; regionalizing health care services, including mergers; improving coordinated care; increasing choice, competition and privatization in primary care; privatization and competition in the pharmacy sector; changing co-payments; and increasing attention to public comparison of quality and efficiency indicators, the value of investments in health care and responsiveness to patients needs. Reforms are often introduced on the local level, thus the pattern of

  2. Patients’ attitude towards bedside teaching in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Sriha, Asma; Soltani, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess patient' reaction towards bedside teaching at the University Hospital of Monastir (Tunisia) and to identify the factors that may influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during December 2012 at the University Hospital of Monastir. Each department, except the psychiatric department and the intensive care units, was visited in one day. All inpatients present on the day of the study were interviewed by four trained female nurses using a structured questionnaire. Results Of the 401 patients approached, 356 (88.8%) agreed to participate. In general, the results demonstrate that patients were positive toward medical students’ participation. The highest acceptance rates were found in situations where there is no direct contact between the patient and the student (e.g. when reading their medical file, attending ward rounds and observing doctor examining them). As the degree of students’ involvement increased, the refusal rate increased. Gender, age, educational level, marital status and the extent of students’ involvement in patient’s care were identified as the main factors affecting patients’ attitude. Conclusion: Taking advantage of this attitude, valorizing patient role as educator and using further learning methods in situations where patient’s consent for student involvement was not obtained should be considered to guarantee optimal care and safety to patients and good medical education to future physicians. PMID:26706313

  3. Patients' attitude towards bedside teaching in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Arwa; El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Sriha, Asma; Soltani, Mohamed

    2015-12-25

    To assess patient' reaction towards bedside teaching at the University Hospital of Monastir (Tunisia) and to identify the factors that may influence it. A cross-sectional study was conducted during December 2012 at the University Hospital of Monastir. Each department, except the psychiatric department and the intensive care units, was visited in one day. All inpatients present on the day of the study were interviewed by four trained female nurses using a structured questionnaire. Of the 401 patients approached, 356 (88.8%) agreed to participate. In general, the results demonstrate that patients were positive toward medical students' participation. The highest acceptance rates were found in situations where there is no direct contact between the patient and the student (e.g. when reading their medical file, attending ward rounds and observing doctor examining them). As the degree of students' involvement increased, the refusal rate increased. Gender, age, educational level, marital status and the extent of students' involvement in patient's care were identified as the main factors affecting patients' attitude. Taking advantage of this attitude, valorizing patient role as educator and using further learning methods in situations where patient's consent for student involvement was not obtained should be considered to guarantee optimal care and safety to patients and good medical education to future physicians.

  4. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  5. First genotype identification of Trichosporon asahii in Sfax, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Hayet; Trabelsi, Houaida; Neji, Sourour; Amouri, Imen; Cheikhrouhou, Fatma; Makni, Fattouma; Ayadi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of our study were species identification and genotyping of Trichosporon isolates collected at the Parasitology and Mycology Laboratory in Sfax, Tunisia. Molecular identification was carried out by analysing the IGS1 regions of the rDNA of 30 Trichosporon isolates. Trichosporon asahii was the most frequent species detected. Furthermore, four genotypes were identified in Tunisia: 1 (46.4 %), 4 (35.7 %), 7 (14.3 %) and 3 (3.6 %). In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of the isolates showed that voriconazole exhibited the highest activity. This is the first reported study of genotype identification of T. asahii in Tunisia and even in the African continent.

  6. West Nile disease in Tunisia: an overview of 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Salah; Hassine, Thameur Ben; Conte, Annamaria; Amdouni, Jihène; De Massis, Fabrizio; Sghaier, Soufiène; Hassen, Sonia Ben

    2017-09-30

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod borne virus of public health importance. The virus is a member of the genus Flavivirus and belongs to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) antigenic complex under the Flaviviridae family. The WNV is continuously spreading across Tunisia especially in the coastal and Southern area of the country. The first human West Nile disease (WND) epidemic in Tunisia occurred in 1997, since then, the quantity and the extension of spillover effects increased constantly. However, the existing knowledge of factors triggering such events continues to be rather poor. The last epidemic WNV human meningitis and meningoencephalitis recorded in 2012, with 86 cases and 6 deaths, confirmed the failure of the current system in predicting new cases. This review, based on analysis of scientific papers published between 1970 and 2015, summarises the state of knowledge on WNV in Tunisia and highlights the existing knowledge and research gaps that need to be addressed.

  7. The end-Cretaceous in the southwestern Tethys (Elles, Tunisia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno; Gardin, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    An integrated study of magnetic mass susceptibility (MS), bulk stable isotopes and calcareous nannofossil paleoecological changes is undertaken on the late Maastrichtian of the Elles section, Tunisia, spanning the last ca. 1 Myr of the Cretaceous. A cyclostratigraphic analysis reveals the presence...... different age models. Calcareous nannofossil assemblages highlight a decrease in surface-water nutriency, but their species richness remains high through the latest Maastrichtian, indicating, in Tunisia, a weak impact of Deccan volcanism on calcareous nannoplankton diversity before the mass extinction....

  8. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  9. Country watch. Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajani, R; Kudrati, M

    1994-01-01

    The Kuleana Center for Children's Rights in Mwanza, Tanzania, is using peer education, focus group discussions, and individual counseling to decrease high-risk sexual behavior on the part of street children. These program activities seek to raise the children's self-esteem, engage them in trusting and respectful relationships, and teach sex-related negotiation skills. The Center is also involved in advocacy work to build compassion and respect for these children within the community, thereby decreasing their harassment on the streets and isolation. Incidents of street children being held in police custody or prison, where they are frequently sexually assaulted, have significantly decreased as a result. To promote the health of these children at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases, the Center operates a small clinic to address basic health problems and runs training sessions for health workers on the special needs of this population. The Center's future goals include formation of a street children's mobile theater group, activities designed to promote group identity and solidarity, and research on the physical and sexual abuse of young girls working as domestic laborers.

  10. Tanzania country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives of this study are to analyse the role of the land use sectors of Tanzania (especially forestry) on mitigation of greenhouse gases. Specific emphasis is placed on the relationship between forestry and energy supply from biomass, as well as other forestry products. This is a follow up study on an earlier effort which worked on mitigation options in the country without and in-depth analysis of the forestry and land use sectors. Analysis of the mitigation scenario has been based on Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis (COMAP). This study has analysed the forestry and land use sector behaviour on the basis of the current policies on land and environment. Furthermore three scenarios have been developed on the basis of what is expected to happen in the sectors, the worse scenario being a catastrophic one where if things takes the business as usual trend then the forest resources will easily be depleted. The TFAP scenario takes into account the implementation of the current plans as scheduled while the mitigation scenario takes into account the GHG mitigation in the implementation of the plans. A Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) has been used to analyse the GHG and cost implications of the various programmes under the mitigation scenario. (au) 30 refs.

  11. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  12. Plague in Tanzania: An overview | Ziwa | Tanzania Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. ... strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.

  13. Measuring Entrepreneurial Activity in Egypt and Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) is a worldwide initiative assessing entrepreneurial activity in about 100 countries. The study will compare findings from GEM data collected post-Arab Spring (2012) with results from 2008-2010 for Egypt and Tunisia, two countries at the forefront of the Arab Spring. It will examine ...

  14. All projects related to Tunisia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Algeria, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea, Morocco, Tunisia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 2,467,086.00. Economic Reform, Firm Survival and Competitiveness (Middle East and North Africa). Project. During the 1980s, it was thought ...

  15. All projects related to Tunisia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. After the optimism that accompanied the popular uprisings of 2011, reform in the Arab region today is losing momentum. Region: Algeria, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia, France. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 552,000.00. Supporting democratic communities through enhanced youth participation.

  16. Virtual Water and Food Security in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tunisia is an arid country, where water scarcity significantly limits agricultural production. As a result, the country imports most of its basic foods and all of its livestock feed, focusing its own agricultural production on high-value crops for export. Liberalization of agricultural trade and dependency on the world grain market has ...

  17. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  18. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  19. Morphological characterization of a Daucus L. germplasm collection in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Daucus includes about 25 recognized species worldwide. Northern Africa represents a major center of diversity of Daucus, with Tunisia containing at least 12 species and six subspecies. We assessed morphological diversity from a Daucus L. germplasm collection of 103 accessions at the Nation...

  20. Phenols, essential oils and carotenoids of Rosa canina from Tunisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of Rosa canina from diverse localities of Tunisia were evaluated by ABTS and DPPH methods, whereas in those of essential oils and carotenoids extracts such activity was determined only by the ABTS method. Total phenols determined by the Folin method revealed that at Aindraham, ...

  1. All projects related to Tunisia | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 550,000.00. Renegotiating Arab Civil-Military Relations: Political and Economic Governance in Transition. Project. At a time of unprecedented political transitions in the Arab world, this ...

  2. Predictors of smoking initiation among schoolchildren in Tunisia: a 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify predictors of smoking initiation among non smoking Tunisian school children; and to propose efficient antismoking strategies in order to prevent smoking initiation. Methods: It was a cohort study surveying prospectively for four years pupils attending schools in Sousse city in Tunisia. 441 non smoking ...

  3. Farmers adapt to climate change in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Soukra, Tunisia, hundreds of low-income families live off the crops they grow. But in recent decades, that way of life has come under growing threat from urbanization and climate change. IDRC's Focus Cities Research Initiative financed a project undertaken by the Tunisian NGO Club UNESCO/ALECSO pour le savoir et ...

  4. The water footprint of Tunisia from an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Krol, Martinus S.; Mekonnen, Mesfin

    2015-01-01

    This paper quantifies and analyses the water footprint of Tunisia at national and sub-national level, assessing green, blue and grey water footprints for the period 1996–2005. It also assesses economic water and land productivities related to crop production for irrigated and rain-fed agriculture,

  5. All projects related to Tunisia | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    Project. Until the end of the 1960s, the plain of Ariana-Soukra was a greenbelt adjacent to Tunis. Start Date: November 15, 2007. End Date: September 27, 2012. Topic: SLUMS, SOIL DEGRADATION, SOIL MANAGEMENT, LAND RECLAMATION, URBAN AGRICULTURE. Region: Tunisia, North of Sahara, South of Sahara.

  6. All projects related to Tunisia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: SLUMS, SOIL DEGRADATION, SOIL MANAGEMENT, LAND RECLAMATION, URBAN AGRICULTURE. Region: Africa, North of Sahara, Tunisia. Program: Climate Change. Total Funding: CA$ 1,204,521.00. Water, Health and Climate Change Adaptation in Africa. Project. In West and North Africa, climate variability is ...

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with: (1) educational philosophy, administration, statistics, and…

  8. The tardigrade fauna of Tunisia, with an integrative description of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current knowledge of the diversity and distribution of tardigrade species in northern Africa is scarce and far from satisfactory. In this paper we review old and provide new faunistic records for various regions of Tunisia. Among the newly recorded taxa, we found a new heterotardigrade Bryodelphax maculatus sp. nov.

  9. Neotectonic deformation in Tunisia (North of the African plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Kadri, Ali; Delvaux, Damien; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Braham, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    In Tunisia, at the extreme North of the African plate, the neotectonic context is largely influenced by the Eurasia-Africa convergence. The aim of this work is to characterize the neotectonic regime that affected this region during Quaternary. Field work investigations integrated with published data allowed to evidence a spatial-temporal variation of the tectonic stress regime during this period. The spatial repartition of the different types of Quaternary to historical deformation shows a North-South neotectonic zoning in Tunisia. After lower Pleistocene, the Tellian domain (Maghrebides) in the North and its Atlassic foreland in central Tunisia are affected by NNW-SSE compression. It generated E-W to NE-SW folds and reverse faults, well developed in the Plio-Quaternary molassic basins of Kechabta and Jendouba (Northern Tunisia). In the Atlas, the major E-W and N-S pre-existing faults have been reactivated with dextral and sinistral strike-slip kinematic respectively, associated to en-echelon folds (Kasserine, N-S Axis, Northern Chott belt...). After the Tyrrhenian, a submeridian compressional regime affected Northern Tunisia (e.g., Bizerte region) and was responsible for the E-W folding of marine strata. More to the South, in the Tunisian Sahel, transtensional tectonics with a NW-SE horizontal maximal compression (SHmax) deformed the Tyrrhenian marine series (Khénis, Skanès, Monastir…). During the Holocene and up to present-day times, N-S compressional tectonics reactivated the E-W pre-existing faults with a reverse movement in Northern Tunisia (Bulla Regia, Utica …), generating historical earthquakes. In Central Tunisia, the Aqueduct of Cherichira (built around AD 850) is displaced by a N-S normal fault. Similarly, a mosaic of a roman house is shifted by 10 cm, along a N-S sinistral normal fault. These deformations evidence a transtensional tectonic regime. During the Quaternary, all the NW-SE oriented grabens are subsiding (e.g., Bizerte Lake, Grombalia

  10. Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research (TJHR) aims to facilitate the advance of health sciences by publishing high quality research and review articles that communicate new ideas and developments in biomedical and health research. TJHR is a peer reviewed journal and is open to contributions from both the national and ...

  11. RIFT BASIN IN CENTRAL TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Geology, University of Dar es Salaam. PO. Box 35052, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ABSTRACT ,. Detailed geological and structural investigations at the northwestern scarp of the Cenozoic Kilombero Rift allow the drawing of its structural evolution and establishment of stress conditions that prevailed at the ...

  12. Soil property estimates for Tunisia derived from SOTER and WISE (SOTWIS-Tunisia, ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This datasets describes a harmonized set of soil property estimates for Tunisia. It has been derived from the 1:1 million scale Soil and Terrain Database for the country (SOTER_TN, ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based pedotransfer (taxotransfer)

  13. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  14. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  15. Environmental Quality Assessment of Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) Using Living Foraminifera Assemblages and a Multiproxy Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alves Martins, Maria Virgínia; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Aleya, Lotfi; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Pereira, Egberto; Miranda, Paulo; Mane, Miguel; Rocha, Fernando; Laut, Lazaro; El Bour, Monia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the environmental quality of the Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia) through an integrated approach that combined environmental, biogeochemical, and living benthic foraminiferal analyses...

  16. Social media and journalism study 2013 - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pole, K.; Gulyás, A

    2013-01-01

    This report is part of the wider 2013 social journalism study and reports specifically on Sweden. It suggests that journalists in Sweden are a moderately high user of social media, using it regularly for their work particularly for sourcing stories. Using cluster analysis the largest group is the Architects suggesting that journalism in Sweden is dominated by active social media users.

  17. Corporal punishment in Tanzania's schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Sheryl; Mwahombela, Lucas

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to acquire descriptive information regarding corporal punishment in Tanzania's O-level secondary schools. 448 individuals participated in the study: 254 teachers and 194 students, all from government or private secondary schools in the Iringa Region of Tanzania. In addition, 14 students and 14 teachers were interviewed. It was found that corporal punishment was the most common form of punishment in secondary schools. The majority of teachers supported its continued use, but believed in moderation. The majority of students and teachers were unaware of national laws to restrict corporal punishment. There was agreement between students and teachers that corporal punishment was used for major and minor student offences such as misbehaviour and tardiness. Students reported disliking the practice and believed it was ineffective and resulted in emotional, as well as physical, distress.

  18. A New Generation of Uprisings – from Tunisia to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kurnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Tunisia, the occupation of public squares in Spain, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the global uprising on 15 October 2011 and the recent widespread demonstrations in Slovenia can be understood as the new generation of uprisings following the eruption of financial crisis. Those multitudinal expressions of indignation and quests for real democracy are expressions of the irreversible crisis of neoliberalism and representative democracy. From an examination of the defining traits of uprisings from Tunisia to Slovenia, one can define basic theoretical and practical dilemmas in the new ways of doing political encounters. These include the relationship between the social and political dimensions of uprisings, the relationship between heterogeneity and forms of political organization, how resistance against financialization prefigures emerging forms of direct democracy, how emerging movements address the issue of direct democracy and minority rights, and what theoretical practices can prevent the attenuation of the discourse of uprisings and enable the free production of enunciations.

  19. Airport malaria: report of four cases in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siala, Emna; Gamara, Dhikrayet; Kallel, Kalthoum; Daaboub, Jabeur; Zouiten, Faiçal; Houzé, Sandrine; Bouratbine, Aïda; Aoun, Karim

    2015-01-28

    Four cases of airport malaria were notified for the first time in Tunisia during the summer of 2013. All patients were neighbours living within 2 km of Tunis International Airport. They had no history of travel to malarious countries, of blood transfusion or of intravenous drug use. Although malaria transmission had ceased in Tunisia since 1980, autochthonous infection by local Anopheles mosquitoes was initially considered. However, this diagnostic hypothesis was ruled out due to negative entomological survey and the absence of additional cases.All cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Clinical presentation was severe (important thrombocytopaenia and parasitaemia), because of relatively important delay in diagnosis (average of seven days). This indicates the need to consider malaria while examining airport employees or people living near international airports presenting with fever of unknown origin. It also stresses the need for effective spraying of aircrafts coming from malarious areas.

  20. Health care technology in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsson, E.; Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care in Sweden is a public sector responsibility and equity in access to care is quite important. The Swedish system is organized into several levels, with the Federation of County Councils at the top, and with regional, county, and local levels. In theory, the four hospital tiers developed

  1. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Kisinza, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in most countries of sub-Saharan Africa is based on annual mass drug administration (MDA) with a combination of ivermectin and albendazole, in order to interrupt transmission. We present findings from a detailed study on the effect of six rounds of MDA...... with this drug combination as implemented by the National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (NLFEP) in a highly endemic rural area of north-eastern Tanzania....

  2. Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    including HIV/AIDS and malaria, and education.”9 U.S. concerns about terrorism in Tanzania stem from the 1998 bombing of the U.S. embassy in Dar es Salaam ...National Institute for Medical Research was opened in Dar Es Salaam . The institute will house three major medical institutions. The United States...Research Service, The Library of Congress ,101 Independence Avenue SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  3. Tunisia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Tunisia, Turkey, Morocco, Egypt. Programme: Governance and Justice. Financement total : CA$ 149,600.00. La crise de l'État arabe - réforme des institutions et transition à la démocratie dans le monde arabe. Projet. Le présent projet permettra d'analyser trois institutions publiques de la Tunisie, de l'Égypte et du ...

  4. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  5. Tunisia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Algeria, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia. Programme: Governance and Justice. Financement total : CA$ 552,000.00. Soutien des communautés démocratiques par une augmentation de la participation des jeunes. Project. Un programme démocratique visant les jeunes a été conçu et mis en oeuvre en Tunisie afin que les ...

  6. Gravity Constraints On The Crustal Structure of Northern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mickus, Kevin L.; Turki, Mohamed M.

    Bouguer gravity data were analyzed to determine the general crustal and upper mantle structure in northern Tunisia. Residual gravity anomalies were determined by removing the gravitational effect of crustal thickness variations imaged by regional seismic experiments. Residual gravity anomalies contain short wavelength anomalies superimposed on a long wavelength component that decreases in amplitude northward towards the Tunisian coastline. An edge enhancement analysis (e.g., enhanced analytic signals) of the short wavelength anomalies suggests a previously unknown east-west trending gravity anomaly south of 37°N with source depths between 3 and 7 km. Modeling of the regional, residual and Bouguer gravity anomalies indicate there are two possible solutions for the residual gravity decreasing in northern Tunisia: 1) thickening of Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments north of a strike-slip faults or 2) a crustal and upper mantle low density zone interpreted to be crustal material of the remnant subducted African plate. The latter result is favored based on seismic tomographic images of the Mediterranean region which implies subducting material exists under the African coast, geologic interpretations suggesting the Tell Atlas may be a thrust wedge accreted by underplating of the African continental crust and seismic refraction models indicating a thinning of sediments in northern Tunisia. The east-west trending gravity anomalies south of 37°N corresponds to an important structural feature that could be either a strike slip/transform fault or the northern edge the African plate.

  7. CHECKLIST OF THE MILLIPEDES (DIPLOPODA) OF TANZANIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Region, Usambara Mts (Enghoff, 1977a). Other records: SOMALIA, KENYA, MOZAMBIQUE (Enghoff, 2011). New material: numerous samples, mostly from the Pwani Region of Tanzania (VMNH); several specimens, Pwani Region, Rufiji Distr., Mafia Island, Kilindoni Forest, 7°55'S,. 39°44'E, xi.1990, Frontier Tanzania leg.

  8. Tanzania | Page 13 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Tanzania. Tanzanie. Read more about Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana. Language English. Read more about Soutien à l'initiative Next Einstein de l'Institut Africain des Sciences Mathématiques ...

  9. Boosting youth employment prospects in Tanzania | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... Read the brief, Boosting youth employment prospects: Tanzania, (PDF, 999 KB); Read full report, Youth employment in Tanzania: Taking stock of the evidence and knowledge gaps, (1.14 MB); For a visual representation of the key findings see the infographic poster (PDF, 296 KB). Return to main page, ...

  10. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single ...

  11. Archives: Tanzania Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Archives: Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Journal of Health Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ...

  12. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, J.N.; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there

  13. Advancing civil human rights culture in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumbo, C.; Sterkens, C.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This contribution investigates the traditional difficulties faced in advancing human rights culture in Tanzania. It describes the sorts of problems, causes and deeper reasons that hinder the advancement and application of human rights in Tanzania. What is the nature of these problems? And what are

  14. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. Specifically the study sought to determine the characteristics of Tanzanians who mostly visit the protected areas; to identify and assess ... compiled by the Bank of Tanzania shows that receipts ..... and income compared to peasants and pet traders.

  15. Tanzania | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    We have a rich history of supporting research in Tanzania, a politically stable democracy. Although the country has reduced the poverty rate and achieved good economic growth in the last decade, Tanzania remains one of the world's poorest nations. Successive Tanzanian governments have recognized the importance of ...

  16. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tunisia has a Mediterranean climate characterized by high ambient temperatures for a long period. Thus, one of the challenges to dairy producers is heat stress. The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein cows are exposed in Tunisia using the Temperature Humidity ...

  17. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  18. Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IVA-project 'Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe' deals with possibilities and problems associated with our energy future. We take it for granted that various forms of energy will always be available for a multitude of purposes and at acceptable prices. Sweden also places high demands on health and environmental protection issues when it comes to the production of power and heat. During the last few years the climate issue has been highlighted, which in turn will change the conditions for the use of alternative sources of energy. Carbon dioxide is the most important of the greenhouse gases, and it is closely associated with the burning of coal, oil, and natural gas. These fossil fuels play dominant roles in the world 's energy supply. Far-reaching measures to decrease carbon dioxide emissions will thus greatly affect the ways in which we use fossil fuels and non-carbon dioxide generating sources of energy. We have chosen a global starting point for our energy study. From there we will zoom in on the energy systems of Europe and Sweden. The climate issue demands global approach. Deregulation of electricity and gas markets, and the development of integrated European systems related to these energy sources, requires an international perspective on he Swedish energy system. Our project differs from earlier governmental energy studies in the sense that we are not trying to present the most likely, nor the most desirable energy future. Instead we have opted to draw up some illustrations of Sweden's future energy system, with Europe as a backdrop. The climate issue differentiates the scenarios. Our time perspective is 20 years, with glimpses 50 years ahead. On the 18th of February 2003, the Steering Group of Energy Foresight - Sweden in Europe, presented it's final report. The bulk of the work has been done in four panels. Their reflections and conclusions are presented in separate panel reports. The 12 factual reports present different

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of HBV-D7 subgenotype in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Chaouch, Houda; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Taffon, Stefania; Villano, Umbertina; Equestre, Michele; Bruni, Roberto; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Tritarelli, Elena; Cella, Eleonora; Blasi, Aletheia; Aouni, Mahjoub; Letaief, Amel; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main cause of diseases liver related infecting more than 200 milion persons worldwide. HBV infection shows high level of prevalence in South-East Europe and in Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, a country with an intermediate level endemicity, HbsAg prevalence ranges from 2 to 5%. Most of the HBV isolates from Tunisia were classified as subgenotype D7 whose circulation is restricted to a specific area of North Africa including Maghreb region. In this paper, the phylogeny of HBV-D7 isolated from 38 Tunisian patients was investigated by analyzing the S gene region of HBV. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin of the HBV-D7 in the country. The Tunisian D7 isolates were found to share a common ancestor whose origin was traced back to 1958. Population dynamics indicated that HBV-D7 epidemic in Tunisia grew exponentially from 1960s to 1990s. After that, the curve reached a plateau around the years 2000 likely due to the implementation of the infant vaccination program in 1996. Epidemiological data suggested that the exponential growth phase was likely sustained by intra-familial transmission events occurring during infancy. Further characterization of HBV-D7 isolates should be performed to evaluate, in the post-vaccination era, the emergence of new transmission routes, and to monitor the efficacy of the vaccination program. J. Med. Virol. 89:469-475, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  1. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houcine Neffatti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A (HAV and E (HEV viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking.Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA.Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8, HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14, HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%, younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004; 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences.The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  2. The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wallstedt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB.

  3. The history of tuberculosis management in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallstedt, Helen; Maeurer, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We review the history of TB in Sweden beginning in 1800, when 25% of mortality in Sweden was associated with TB. The Royal Family was involved in establishing dedicated sanatoria in Sweden to offer better diagnostics and clinical care. TB has declined in Sweden steadily, with some recent increases due to local spread of TB and challenging international and national socio-economical structures. Improved research and clinical knowledge is needed to diagnose and manage drug-susceptible as well as drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Child Health Systems in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Björn; Blennow, Margareta; Hjern, Anders; Söder, Olle; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2016-10-01

    On a national level, several factors are responsible for Sweden's leading position in achieving the excellent health of children because Sweden has experienced a long history of peace and success in establishing a parliamentary democracy throughout the 20th century. Among the different sectors of society, Sweden has been able to focus on prevention and health promotion. The Swedish health care system is publicly financed based on local taxation. Pediatricians working in secondary and tertiary care are employed by the public sector, whereas family physicians are employed by both the private and public sectors. The pediatric departments at county and university levels provide a high quality of inpatient care for neonates and children. The county hospital pediatric departments typically include one neonatal ward and one ward for older children. Subspecialization exists even at the county level, and there is close cooperation between the county level and subspecialist units at the university level. Within the primary care sector, most children receive care from family physicians. The majority of family physicians have completed 3 months of pediatrics in their basic training program. In the more densely populated areas there are also pediatric ambulatory care centers working mostly with referrals from the family physicians. Preventive care is carried out at midwife-led maternity health centers, nurse-led Child Health Centers, and nurse-led school health care settings and reach almost everyone (99%). All health care for children and adolescents is free of charge up to 18 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cadmium in Sweden - environmental risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkman, H.; Iverfeldt, Aa. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst. (Sweden); Borg, H.; Lithner, G. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. for Applied Environmental Research

    1998-03-01

    This report aims at assessing possible effects of cadmium in the Swedish environment. Swedish soils and soft freshwater systems are, due to a generally poor buffering capacity, severely affected by acidification. In addition, the low salinity in the Baltic Sea imply a naturally poor organism structure, with some important organisms living close to their limit of physiological tolerance. Cadmium in soils is mobilized at low pH, and the availability and toxicity of cadmium in marine systems are enhanced at low salinity. The Swedish environment is therefore extra vulnerable to cadmium pollution. The average concentrations of cadmium in the forest mor layers, agricultural soils, and fresh-waters in Sweden are enhanced compared to `back-ground concentrations`, with a general increasing trend from the north to the south-west, indicating strong impact of atmospheric deposition of cadmium originating from the central parts of Europe. In Swedish sea water, total cadmium concentrations, and the fraction of bio-available `free` cadmium, generally increases with decreasing salinity. Decreased emissions of cadmium to the environment have led to decreasing atmospheric deposition during the last decade. The net accumulation of cadmium in the forest mor layer has stopped, and even started to decrease. In northern Sweden, this is due to the decreased deposition, but in southern Sweden the main reason is increased leakage of cadmium from the topsoil as a consequence of acidification. As a result, cadmium in the Swedish environments is undergoing an extended redistribution between different soil compartments, and from the soils to the aquatic systems. 90 refs, 23 figs, 2 tabs. With 3 page summary in Swedish

  6. schoolchildren in Kinondoni and Temeke Districts, Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    , PONGSRI BRUDVIK2 and ANNE N. ASTROM2. 1Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Department of Orthodontics Paedodontics and Community. Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 2University of Bergen ...

  7. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Tanzania. Adamson S. Muula, Blantyre, Malawi. Ude F. Ezepue, Lagos, Nigeria. Mercy Newman, Accra, Ghana. Paul E. Simonsen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Janusz Paweska, South Africa. Wolfgang R. Mukabana, Nairobi, Kenya. ISSN: 1821- ...

  8. Tanzania Monitoring and Evaluation Management Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MEMS II is a two-year project to enable USAID/Tanzania and a number of its partners to meet their multifold performance reporting responsibilities; upgrade,...

  9. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, Allison M.; Leip, Adrian; Galloway, James N.; Bekunda, Mateete; Sullivan, Clare; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contribute to solving these problems, this paper presents a nitrogen footprint tool for Tanzania. This nitrogen footprint tool is a concept originally designed for the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries. It uses personal resource consumption data to calculate a per-capita nitrogen footprint. The Tanzania N footprint tool is a version adapted to reflect the low-input, integrated agricultural system of Tanzania. This is reflected by calculating two sets of virtual N factors to describe N losses during food production: one for fertilized farms and one for unfertilized farms. Soil mining factors are also calculated for the first time to address the amount of N removed from the soil to produce food. The average per-capita nitrogen footprint of Tanzania is 10 kg N yr-1. 88% of this footprint is due to food consumption and production, while only 12% of the footprint is due to energy use. Although 91% of farms in Tanzania are unfertilized, the large contribution of fertilized farms to N losses causes unfertilized farms to make up just 83% of the food production N footprint. In a developing country like Tanzania, the main audiences for the N footprint tool are community leaders, planners, and developers who can impact decision-making and use the calculator to plan positive changes for nitrogen sustainability in the developing world.

  10. Toward a nitrogen footprint calculator for Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Mary Olivia; Leach, A.M.; Leip, Adrian; J. N. Galloway; Bekunda, M.; Sullivan, C.; Lesschen, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first nitrogen footprint model for a developing country: Tanzania. Nitrogen (N) is a crucial element for agriculture and human nutrition, but in excess it can cause serious environmental damage. The Sub-Saharan African nation of Tanzania faces a two-sided nitrogen problem: while there is not enough soil nitrogen to produce adequate food, excess nitrogen that escapes into the environment causes a cascade of ecological and human health problems. To identify, quantify, and contrib...

  11. Technology Transfer and Agricultural Mechanization in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Agyei-Holmes, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recent economic growth in Tanzania has been biased towards industry and services, denying farmers potential distributional benefits. Correcting this anomaly requires in part appropriate technologies to raise agricultural productivity. Attempts to either develop local tools or import advanced country technologies had limited benefits. Recent studies suggest that for poor producers in Tanzania, mechanization technologies from emerging economies are more appropriate in relation to their producti...

  12. Water supply from wetlands in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihayo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives a brief discussion on water supply from wetlands in Tanzania. The majordrainage basins in Tanzania are described and the status and role of the Division of WaterResearch in the monitoring of water resources and data collection from wetlands and watersources are highlighted. The role of wetlands in the hydrological cycle, and the utilisation ofwetlands as water supply sources are discussed. The need for conservation and protection ofwetlands and other water sources is outlined.

  13. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  14. THE ARCHITECTURE OF PUBLIC BATHS OF TUNISIA: A TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Bouraoui

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Punic, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic civilizations contributed with their architectural knowledge to the development of different public baths design. Based on previous historical work on the collective baths in the Mediterranean basin, and in particular Tunisia, this study aims to explore and analyse the hammāms (Islamic public baths of Tunisia. This study uses a semantic and representative approach to help defi ne the components of the historic public bath, and to reveal its integration modes in the urban fabric of the medina, and eventually represent the functional diagrams of bathing practices. It clarifies how the functioning mode of the bath is in direct relation with the evolution of the society (its lifestyle, its culture and its own paradigms and classifi es these building types according to a semantic division of the architectural places. Hence and in order to analyze the hammām spaces, a matrix of incidence. An analytical tool which quantifies the relations existing between the spaces of the same building has been used. As a result of this analysis, three typologies of Tunisian hammāms have been identified.

  15. [Acanthamoeba keratitis. Report of 3 cases diagnosed in central Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Akila; Ben Rayana, Narjess; Knani, Leila; Meksi, Sondos Gaied; Saghrouni, Fatma; Ghorbel, Mohamed; Hamida, Fafani Ben Hadj; Ben Said, Moncef

    2010-02-01

    Amoeba of the genus Acanthamoeba are ubiquitous free-living protozoa encountered in water and soil. They frequently cause sight-threatening keratitis. Report of the three first cases diagnosed at the laboratory of Parasitology of Sousse Hospital, (Tunisia). Our study concerned three lens-wearing female patients, aged 17, 20 and 29 years respectively. The patients originate from central Tunisia and presented with unilateral (2 cases) or bilateral (one case) keratitis. Diagnosis was made by demonstrating Acanthamoeba trophozoites and/or cysts on direct examination and/or culture (in agar - Escherichia coli medium) of contact lenses and/or lenses' solution. Direct examination of corneal swabs was negative in three cases but culture was positive in one. The three patients were treated with hexamidine and neomycine eye-drops for three months. Treatment led to scarring of lesions with however sequellar opacities that was minor to moderate in two cases and consisted of a central leucoma with a poor visual outcome in the last case. The need for systematic research of amoeba in lenses wearing patients with keratitis is emphasized.

  16. Irrigated land expansion since 1985 in Southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda; Moussa, Mohamed; Solé-Benet, Albert

    2017-05-01

    The causes of agricultural land expansion and its impacts on dryland ecosystems such as the oasis regions of Southern Tunisia, are fundamental problems challenging the sustainability of irrigated agriculture on water limited ecosystems. Consequently, a thorough understanding of this phenomenon is necessary to avoid future problems. With the objective of identifying irrigated land expansion dynamics and the primary drivers, two representative oasis regions in Southern Tunisia, Mareth and Fatnassa, were selected. Changes in irrigated lands in both regions between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed, and the land uses from which expansion occurred were identified using Landsat images from different years (1985, 1996 and 2011). The results indicate that the surface occupied by irrigation agriculture has doubled in Mareth, while in Fatnassa, it has increased fourfold. During that period, there was a simultaneous increase in total population, as consequence of human migration that came along with an increase in income. Thus, we could identify human migration and economic development as potential drivers of irrigated agriculture expansion, though further research is warranted to ascertain a quantification that would assist in obtaining the sustainability of these regions.

  17. Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Prevalence Among Farmers in Central Tunisia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellali, Hedia; Chemak, Fraj; Nouiri, Issam; Ben Mansour, Dorra; Ghrab, Jamila; Chahed, Mohamed Kouni

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is endemic in central Tunisia and is more prevalent in rural agricultural areas. The aim of this work was to determine ZCL prevalence among farmers and to test their availability to take ownership of the problem and participate actively to fight and address the disease. A sample of farmers from Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia, was selected randomly. Farmers were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire about ZCL lesion occurrence, its date of onset among family members, and the farmers' availability to contribute to fighting this disease. ZCL occurred in at least one of the family members of 38.5% interviewed farmers. The disease was endemic with recurrent epidemics every 4 or 5 years. ZCL among farmers was associated with irrigation management. With regard to ZCL preventive measures, the majority of farmers agreed and expressed willingness to collaborate (93.1%), to follow health care facilities instructions (73.1%), and to join the nongovernmental organization (NGO) (56.9%). However, they did not agree to reduce irrigation activities mainly at night, to live far from their irrigated fields, or to sleep out of their houses at night. ZCL is more prevalent in farmers engaged in irrigation activities. Farmers are not agreeable to reducing their activity to avoid exposure to the sand fly bites. Thus, population involvement and commitment is required to implement effective control measures to fight and address ZCL.

  18. [Mortality due to smoking in Tunisia in 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, R; Hsairi, M; Ben Romdhane, H; Achour, N

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, in spite of the high prevalence of the cigarette smoking among males, there consequences in term of mortality were not until evaluated. These last can be estimated from tobacco consumption data, mortality statistics and estimates of risks observed among populations of smokers in cohort studies. Numbers of deaths by causes have been estimated from WHO for 1998 year. Smoking prevalence have been estimated from a national survey conducted in 1996 by l'Institut National de Santé Publique and the National League against the Tuberculosis and the Respiratory Illness. Mortality attributable to tobacco in Tunisia has been estimated 6430 deaths. The effect of smoking are a lot more important at the man (5580 deaths), contributing to 22% of male deaths, that at the woman (850 deaths) contributing at 4% of the female deaths. The present mortality to tobacco is similar to certain developed countries as France or Canada. The consumption of cigarettes even though it recorded a light decrease during these last years, remain even elevated notably at the young. Then it is waited to see an increase of tobacco related deaths during the future decades. It is urgent to conduct an efficient politics against this tobacco epidemic by helping the smoker to stop smoking and preventing teenagers to begin to smoke.

  19. Sheep pox in Tunisia: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chehida, F; Ayari-Fakhfakh, E; Caufour, P; Amdouni, J; Nasr, J; Messaoudi, L; Haj Ammar, H; Sghaier, S; Bernard, C; Ghram, A; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2017-06-28

    Sheep pox, a well-known endemic capripox infection, has significant impacts on small ruminant populations in Tunisia. It is responsible for high economic losses throughout North Africa due to its enzootic nature and to the active animal transhumance existing in some governorates in Tunisia. The aim of this review was to analyse data gathered on annual vaccination campaigns designed to control its spread by reducing the level of endemicity and to describe diagnostic and management tools adapted to the Tunisian situation. Seasonal, temporal and spatial distributions of sheep pox outbreaks, as well as related clinical features, were found. It was concluded from this review that establishing strong herd immunization through individual animal immunization, creating adequate infrastructure, increasing awareness among breeders, setting up a field-based surveillance network and improving routine diagnostic methods need to be the major components of a programme to eradicate the disease. It was also felt that cost-benefit analyses of the surveillance and control strategies used would help in controlling its persistence. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. 75 FR 30431 - Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United States... on carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden. SUMMARY: The Commission... carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  1. INOPS Survey data report for Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Severin, Majbritt Christine

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Sweden. The statistics rely on data collected in the period from May 2015 to June 2015 through an online survey...... send to managers in all 290 municipalities in Sweden....

  2. paleoseismic investigations along the bubu fault, dodoma-tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    com. 2School of Mines and Petroleum Engineering, The University of Dodoma, Tanzania. 3Madini (Mineral Resources) Institute, P. O. Box 1696 Dodoma, Tanzania. 4Renard Center for Marine Geology, Universiteit Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

  3. All projects related to tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tanzania, along with most African countries, has been struggling to address persistent nutritional challenges, including vitamin A and iron deficiencies. Topic: AFRICA, CANADA, PILOT PROJECTS, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, SMALL ENTERPRISES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, TANZANIA, NUTRITION. Region: ...

  4. All projects related to tanzania | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tanzania, along with most African countries, has been struggling to address persistent nutritional challenges, including vitamin A and iron deficiencies. Topic: AFRICA, CANADA, PILOT PROJECTS, MEDIUM ENTERPRISES, SMALL ENTERPRISES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, TANZANIA, NUTRITION. Region: ...

  5. Factors associated with road traffic injuries in Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boniface, Respicious; Museru, Lawrence; Kiloloma, Othman; Munthali, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    .... Tanzania is among the countries with high rates of road traffic crashes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, associated factors and management of road traffic injury patients in Tanzania...

  6. Energy use in Sweden: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Johnson, F.; Howarth, R.; Price, L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Andersson, B.; Andersson, B.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Handelshoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-01

    This report analyzes the evolution of energy use in Sweden since the early 1970s. The purpose of the study, which is sponsored by NUTEK, Department of Energy Efficiency, the Swedish Agency for Technical and Industrial Development, is to shed light on the future path of energy use in Sweden by quantifying and understanding changes in past energy use. Energy efficiency has been identified by Swedish authorities in countless official studies as a key element in Sweden`s efforts to restrain oil imports, reduce reliance on nuclear power, reduce environmental impacts of energy use, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. To understand the role or performance of energy efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s in Sweden, and what this performance means about the future, the authors seek answers to three broad questions: (1) How has the structure and efficiency of energy use in Sweden evolved since the early 1970s, and where data permit, since even earlier? What caused these changes? (2) How does the structure of energy use in Sweden differ from that of other countries, and how has the evolution of energy use in Sweden differed from developments in other countries? (3) How much energy has Sweden saved, and why? Are these savings permanent? To what extent were they offset by changes in the structure of energy use? And to what extent is the magnitude of these savings dependent upon the way we measure energy use? The report reviews the long-term evolution of Swedish energy use, focusing on developments in five sectors of the economy: residential, service, industrial (manufacturing and {open_quotes}other industry{close_quotes} defined as mining, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and construction), travel, and freight. The authors then examine Swedish energy use in a broader perspective, drawing detailed comparisons to other nations. Finally, they discuss a series of issues that hover over the future of energy demand in Sweden.

  7. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Puerto Rico, 1. Romania, 9. Russian Federation, 5. Saudi Arabia, 3. Senegal, 2. South Africa, 11. Spain, 4. Sri Lanka, 3. Sudan, 2. Sweden, 4. Switzerland, 1. Syrian Arab Republic, 3. Taiwan, 10. Tanzania, 3. Thailand, 7. Togo, 2. Trinidad and Tobago, 1. Tunisia, 20. Turkey, 29. Ukraine, 8. United Kingdom, 22. United States ...

  8. Chart context menu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singapore, 5. Slovakia (Slovak Republic), 1. South Africa, 9. Spain, 11. Sudan, 2. Sweden, 8. Syrian Arab Republic, 4. Taiwan, 6. Tanzania, 19. Thailand, 4. Tunisia, 67. Turkey, 57. Ukraine, 6. United Arab Emirates, 1. United Kingdom, 19. United States, 116. Unknown, 37. Venezuela, 2. Vietnam, 6. Zambia, 2. Zimbabwe, 2.

  9. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: AFRICA, TANZANIA, OBSTETRICS, BIRTH, TRAINING, MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH. Region: Tanzania, Canada. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 991,920.00. Building an Enhanced Cadre of Community Health Workers to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health in Rural Tanzania ...

  10. Replicating the MamaToto Program in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Replicating the MamaToto Program in Rural Tanzania (IMCHA). This project will address high maternal and newborn mortality in Tanzania by adapting and implementing a maternal and newborn health intervention approach that follows the MamaToto process. Health care in rural Tanzania The rural regions of Geita and ...

  11. wither scientific and technological information network in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article sets out to make an analysis of Tanzania's efforts at establishing a network for scientific and technological information. The paper discusses the Tanzania National System for Science and Technology (TANISSAT) under the Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH). TANISSAT which began ...

  12. Globalisation and Job Insecurity in Tanzania's Manufacturing Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and Job Insecurity in Tanzania's Manufacturing Sector. ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... This paper examines the effects of globalization on job security using a number of indicators from the Regional Programme on Enterprise Development (RPED) and Tanzania Manufacturing Enterprise ...

  13. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture under salinity pressure – A study in semiarid Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Bouksila, Fethi

    2011-01-01

    In semiarid and arid Tunisia, water quality and agricultural practices are the major contributing factors to the degradation of soil resources threatening the sustainability of irrigation systems and agricultural productivity. Nowadays, about 50% of the total irrigated areas in Tunisia are considered at high risk for salinization. The aim of this thesis was to study soil management and salinity relationships in order to assure sustainable irrigated agriculture in areas under salin...

  14. First report of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rhouma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and overripe olive fruits (cv. Meski, Manzanilla and Picholine showing circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color, were collected from local markets and orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Zarzis and Rgueb in Tunisia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from symptomatic fruits and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of olives in Tunisia.

  15. Suicide Among Adolescents in Center Tunisia: An 18-Year Autopsy Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jedidi M; Mlayeh S; Hamila I; Masmoudi T; Ben Dhiab M; Zemni M; Souguir MK

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicide attempts are more common among adolescents. Many factors are known to influence suicide in particular: region and culture. Adolescent suicide has been widely studied in many countries, but there are, currently, no data relating to adolescent suicide in Tunisia. Aim: The aims of this study were to describe epidemiological aspects of death related to adolescent suicide in Sousse, a city in central Tunisia. Methods: Data of forensic autopsies from 1998 to 2015 rel...

  16. Association among Education Level, Occupation Status, and Consanguinity in Tunisia and Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkeni, Emna; Monastiri, Kamel; Saket, Besma; Rudan, Diana; Zgaga, Lina; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the association between education level, occupation status (a proxy for socio-economic status), and consanguinity in 2 large data sets from Tunisia and Croatia countries with different attitudes toward consanguinity. Methods: The sample of 1016 students, attending 5 university institutions in Monastir, Tunisia, were interviewed about the educational level and occupation status of their parents and the degree of parental relatedness. In Croatia, a sample of 1001 examinee...

  17. Market Power and Collusion on Interconnection Phone Market in Tunisia: What Lessons from International Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Sami DEBBICHI; Walid HICHRI

    2014-01-01

    We try in this paper to characterize the state of mobile phone market in Tunisia. Our study is based on a survey of foreign experience (Europe) in detecting collusive behavior and a comparison of the critical threshold of collusion between operators in developing countries like Tunisia. The market power is estimated based on the work of Parker Roller (1997) and the assumption of "Balanced Calling Pattern". We use then the model of Friedman (1971) to compare the critical threshold of collusion...

  18. Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metals, especially copper, chromium and lead, than the other vegetables. All vegetables from Tabata, Buguruni and Sinza had lead-levels higher then the FAO/WHO recommended permissible levels in foods. Amaranth, leafy and chinese cabbages had high zinc content. Zinc levels in chinese cabbage and leafy cabbage ...

  19. Tanzania.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ited evidence available' from' tropical regions. ,sugge'sts that there is also substantial genetic variation (Seebeck, 1973: Mackinnon-e't ar: 1990): Majority of paststlidies"on' reproductive performance from' tropicar-are'as have been' largely limited to'the assessment of effects of>. ·no'n.,genetk factors and breed difference's :.

  20. Civil liberties in Tunisia following the 2011 uprisings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Pérez Beltrán

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the legislative changes made in relation to civil liberties in Tunisia since the 2011 revolts, specifically, those concerned with freedom of association, expression, and regulation of the media and links them to the socio-political context of the country. The paper intends to demonstrate how social and political factors have produced a new legal framework of action that is based on the new constitution, but which also brings intense regulatory development that in many respects breaks with previous legislation, although certain elements of authority inherited from the past have been preserved. Two aspects deserve special consideration: on the one hand these rules maintain certain limitations as means of social control that are not totally consistent with a developed democracy; and, on the other, problems of interpretation, cultural specificity and authoritarian behaviour mean the lack of liberties in such fundamental areas as those analysed are also preserved.

  1. A new species of Mengenilla (Insecta, Strepsiptera from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pohl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Mengenilla Hofeneder, 1910 (Strepsiptera, Mengenillidae from southern Tunisia is described. Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by a slightly emarginated posterodorsal margin of the head, compound eyes with a light tan dorsal part, mandibles with a narrow distal part, and a v-shaped pronotum. With the description of M. moldrzyki sp. n., eleven valid species of Mengenilla are currently recognised. Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n. is the third species of the genus with known females and female puparia. First instar larvae, endoparasitic larval stages, the male puparium and the host are unknown. The new species is also the first strepsipteran with a fully sequenced genome.

  2. Preliminary study of plants used in ethnoveterinary medicine in Tunisia and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegi, Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    A survey relative to the use of plants for the cure of animals in Tunisia was conducted in order to make a comparison with the same species (or similar ones) in central and southern Italy. available bibliographical data both for Italy and for Tunisia were consulted. Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used in Central and Southern Italy. Seven of the 39 species (about the 18% of the total) are not present in Italian flora. Fourteen of the 39 species (35% of the total) are also used in Italy. Camelidae (dromedaries and camels) are the most valuable types of domestic animals cured in Tunisia, but ovines, horses, bulls, dogs are also treated. Some uses coincide with those existing in different Italian regions. The plants used are the most common and most easily found in these areas. The present study confirms the convergence in ethnoveterinary medicine between Tunisia and Italy, even if it appears less significant than in human ethnobotany. Further studies are required in areas of Tunisia that have not yet been studied, in order to get the possibility of an evaluation of active compounds.

  3. Fairness in healthcare finance and delivery: what about Tunisia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Arfa, Chokri; Ventelou, Bruno; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence on hidden inequity in health care in North African countries abounds. Yet firm empirical evidence has been harder to come by. This article fills the gap. It presents the first analysis of equity in the healthcare system using the particular case of Tunisia. Analyses are based on an unusually rich source of data taken from the Tunisian HealthCare Utilization and Morbidity Survey. Payments for health care are derived from the total amount of healthcare spending which was incurred by households over the last year. Utilization of health care is measured by the number of physical units of two types of services: outpatient and inpatient. The measurement of need for health care is apprehended through a rich set of ill-health indicators and demographics. Findings are presented and compared at both the aggregate level, using the general summary index approach, and the disaggregate level, using the distribution-free stochastic dominance approach. The overall picture is that direct out-of-pocket payments, which constitute a sizeable share in the current financing mix, emerge to be a progressive means of financing health care overall. Interestingly, however, when statistical testing is applied at the disaggregate level progressivity is retained over the top half of the distribution. Further analyses of the distributions of need for--and utilization of--two types of health care--outpatient and inpatient--reveal that the observed progressivity is rather an outcome of the heavy use, but not need, for health care at the higher income levels. Several policy relevant factors are discussed, and some recommendations are advanced for future reforms of the health care in Tunisia. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  4. [Neonatal screening of G6PD deficiency in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guellouz, N; Ben Mansour, I; Ouederni, M; Jabnoun, S; Kacem, S; Mokrani, Ch; Kastally, R; Chahed, M K; Khrouf, N

    2010-01-01

    The Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PI) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy worldwide. WHO had classified Tunisia among countries that are moderately affected by this affection. However, no mass-screening reflecting the real incidence was realized. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis in Tunisia. A total of 1102 neonates, born in CMNT center of Maternity and of Neonatology of Tunis during the going periods from April, 2005 till May, 2005 and from June, 2006 till September, 2006, have been enclosed in the study. The samplings included 953peripheral venous blood and 149 blood cordon. Among 1102 samplings, only 976 were of use to the screening. In our mass-screening, we consider all newborns that were born in the CMNT during the period of study and were included in the screening. A dosage of the enzymatic activity was realized using spectrophotometric method. G6PD electrophoresis and molecular study by PCR/RFLP were realized for the overdrawn newborn children. Among 976 screening neonates, 43 individuals (4.4%) were found to be G6PD deficient by quantitative enzyme assay. Newborn affected were distributed in 23 boys and 20 girls (sex ratio of 1.15). The electrophoretic mobility and the molecular biology were realized for the affected newborn. Molecular characterization of 30 G6PD deficient neonates revealed that the G6PD A- was the most common and was detected in 20 of 43 individuals (66.7%), followed by G6PD Mediterranean that was detected in 6 (13.3%). At least, 4 other unknown mutations were not able to be determined by PCR/RFLP (n=4). In conclusion G6PD deficiency is frequent in our country, justifying a systematic neonatal screening, to avoid the arisen of grave consequences of this affection. The African variant is the most frequent in our country followed by the Mediterranean one.

  5. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coniacian-Turonian Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, I. [Gas Exploration & Prod. Ltd., Reading Berkshire (United Kingdom); Moody, R. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom); Sandman, R. [Hedge End, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-08-01

    The R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates of the Miskar Field, offshore Tunisia are of Coniacian-Turonian age. These ages are constrained by several biostratigraphic events including a rapid increase in ostracod diversity at the base of the overlying Aleg Formation and the occurrence of several diagnostic benthonic foraminifera including Rotalia algeriana. The indication is that the R1 and R1 Superior Carbonates are the lateral equivalents, in part, of the Douleb Formation which is a known reservoir, onshore Tunisia. During the Coniacian-Turonian the area of the Miskar Field was subject to regional extension with the opening of several major North-South trending fractures. These culminate in the contemporaneous outpouring of submarine serpentinized volcanics during deposition of the R1 Superior/Aleg Formation. The R1 lithologies are deposited in a shallow water regime and consist of rudist buildup and debraic carbonates overlain by lagoonal facies in the North with an increase in beach/sabkha facies to the South. The indication is for a shallowing upward sequence and a general progradation of lithofacies northwards across a tilted block. In contrast the R1 Superior is indicative of a flooding event with relative sea-level changes reflected in variations of both lithofacies and biofacies. Overall the lithofacies are dominated by calcispheric/bioclastic wackestone-packstones probably deposited in a mid-platform setting. The diagenetic history of the R1 is the more complex of the two carbonate sequences reflecting several phases of fluid movement through the constituent lithologies. Original depositional characteristics and subsequent diagenetic meditation result in the development of highly variable reservoir properties.

  7. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  8. Type 1 diabetes care updates: Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandi Catherine Muze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is located in east Africa with a population of 45 million. The country′s population is growing at 2.5% annually. The International Diabetes Federation Child Sponsorship Program was launched in Tanzania in 2005. The number of type 1 diabetes mellitus children enrolled in the changing diabetes in children program in Tanzania has augmented from almost below 50 in 2005 to over 1200 in 2014. The country had an overall trend of HbA1c value of 14% in 2005 while the same has reduced over the years to 10% in 2012-13. The program has been able to reduce the proportion of patients with HbA1c values of 11-14%; from 71.9% in 2008 to 49.8% in 2012-13. The challenges, which CDiC faces are misdiagnosis, low public awareness, and stigma especially in the reproductive age/adolescent groups.

  9. Establishing an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care partnership and aiming for national impact in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-03-18

    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. There is an acute shortage of health workers - several low-income countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population. Only 1.5% of hospitals in Africa have the intensive care resources needed for managing patients with sepsis. Health partnerships between institutions in high and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. The aim of this article is to describe the origin and conduct of a health partnership in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care between institutions in Tanzania and Sweden and how the partnership has expanded to have an impact at regional and national levels.The Muhimbili-Karolinska Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Collaboration was initiated in 2008 on the request of the Executive Director of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. The partnership has conducted training courses, exchanges, research projects and introduced new equipment, routines and guidelines. The partnership has expanded to include all hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has had a national impact assisting the reanimation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase of the number of young doctors choosing a residency in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Poor Nutritional Status among Children in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babill Stray-Pedersen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden. Four hundred and twenty three (423 children (214 females took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70. We observed high rates of stunting (44.2% and underweight (19.1%. Nearly 70% (n = 295 of the sample was anaemic (Hb < 11 g/dL. In a multivariate logistic regression model concerns on child growth, maternal education, and child’s age were found to independently predict stunting; whereas concerns over child’s growth and development, and distance to water source were found to uniquely predict being underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child’s anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Msuya, Sia E; Swai, Mark; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2012-10-05

    The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for poor nutritional status among children less than 36 months of age in the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania. Using a cross sectional study design, children and their caregivers were recruited into the study. Anthropometric measures were taken based on established protocol while a standard questionnaire was utilized to collect socio-demographic data. A finger-prick blood sample was collected from all the children and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration analyzed using a HemoCue photometer (HemoCue AB, Angelholm, Sweden). Four hundred and twenty three (423) children (214 females) took part in this study. Participating children were aged between 1–35 months (mean = 13.04, SD = 7.70). We observed high rates of stunting (44.2%) and underweight (19.1%). Nearly 70% (n = 295) of the sample was anaemic (Hb underweight. Maternal education was the only factor related to the child's anaemia. The current study further emphasizes the need to implement context relevant interventions to combat malnutrition in this region of Tanzania and other similar settings.

  12. Fires in Tanzania and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Like many countries, the southeastern African country of Malawi faces the challenge of balancing a growing population's need for food and energy with preservation of natural resources. This MODIS image from November 8, 2001, shows Malawi surrounded by (starting from top and moving clockwise) Tanzania, Mozambique, and northern Zambia. Lake Malawi runs north-south through the eastern part of the country, and is the southern-most of Africa's Great Rift Lakes, a series of deep lakes that run roughly north-south along the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa, formed when the Earth buckled and then sank after the collision of Africa and Eurasia millions of years ago. Most of the land around the lake and throughout the country has been cleared of its natural vegetation and converted to agricultural land. This causes soil erosion problems and sedimentation in the lake, which affects the sustainability of fishing in the lake. In this image, greenish swirls in the water around the shores could indicate a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton or algae. Deforestation is also a major issue, especially since wood for fuel is the primary source of the country's energy. The difference between the lands protected by parks and preserves stand out dramatically. The largest protected area is halfway down the western border of the country-Kasungu National Park. Several smaller preserves also exist, and where they do, they stand out in green against the paler landscape. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Public Procurement of Innovation in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Ågren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sweden is often thought of as a country with a strong tradition for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Early on, Sweden recognized and developed procedures for using public procurement as a technologydevelopment tool. After a period where emphasis was put on this aspect...... of public procurement Sweden dropped many policy initiatives within this field. This was in part due to neo-liberal movements during the 1980s which in interaction with a distributed institutional setup led to the removal of incentives for a procuring authority to engage in public procurement of innovation....... Another contributing cause was poor policy guidance from the academia upon Sweden’s accession into the EU, which spread apprehension among procuring authorities. It is not until the last few years that Sweden has started to reengage in public procurement for innovation policy, by using predominantly...

  14. Babesia species in questing Ixodes ricinus, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria E; Andersson, Martin O

    2016-02-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in large parts of the world. In Sweden, the occurrence and diversity of Babesia species is largely unknown. In order to estimate the exposure to Babesia from infected ticks, we collected questing Ixodes ricinus from several sites across southern Sweden during two consecutive field seasons and investigated the occurrence of Babesia species. We report for the first time the occurrence of the zoonotic species Babesia venatorum in Swedish ticks, with a prevalence of 1%. We also detected B. microti (prevalence 3.2%) and B. divergens (prevalence 0.2%). The incidence of Babesia in questing ticks is substantially lower than that of several other tick-borne diseases in Sweden. Nevertheless, babesiosis should not be neglected as a possible diagnosis following tick bites in humans and animals in Sweden. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Tropical sprue after travel to Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetermans, W E; Vonck, A

    2000-01-01

    Tropical sprue (TS) is a diagnosis to consider in travelers with prolonged diarrhea and a malabsorption syndrome after return from tropical countries, particularly India and Southeast Asia. TS is an unusual condition in tropical Africa. Textbooks of tropical medicine indicate a low endemicity in Nigeria and a limited number of cases in South Africa and Zimbabwe. A Medline search from 1979 to mid 1998 using "Tanzania and tropical sprue" as key words disclosed no hits. We report herein a case of TS in a European traveler, who lived in Tanzania for 8 months.

  16. Transcultural nursing course in Tanzania, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Rhoda

    2012-06-01

    A transcultural nursing course in Tanzania was offered in fall 2010 at Williston State College, located in North Dakota. Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care: Diversity and Universality Theory (Principles of Developing Cultural Competence) was the framework used for the experience. The course provided nursing students the opportunity to learn about the culture, health, and illness beliefs of Tanzanians; their values and practices; the prevalence of HIV/AIDS; and the differences and similarities between the healthcare systems, hospice/palliative care, and home visits in Tanzania as compared to the United States.

  17. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Bernhardt; Livia Sz. Oláh

    2008-01-01

    Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been e...

  18. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Frances Goldscheider; Eva Bernhardt; Maria Brandén

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in th...

  19. Yoshio Nakajima. A Japanese Artist from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden.......Yoshio Nakajima is an interesting example of the globalisation of art. His education and early work as an artist took place in his native Japan, but continued in Europe where he has spent more than 30 years, mainly in provincial Sweden....

  20. Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Moshi, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 No. 7. Regional Dermatology Training Centre in Moshi, Tanzania – pursuing a dream. Skin disease is common in the community, particularly in resource-poor areas. R J Hay, DM, FRCP, FRCPath. Chairman, International Foundation for Dermatology, London, UK. Corresponding author: R Hay (roderick.hay@ifd.org).

  1. Governance challenges in Tanzania's environmental impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    Cap 191. This Act promotes Environmental Assessment, gives it the legal support and defines the institutional set up for the management of the environment. However, Tanzania still grapples with EIA ineffectiveness in guiding development decisions and environmental management arising from various projects. Numerous ...

  2. Water Resources Management in Tanzania: Identifying Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review on water resources management; Knowledge gaps on water ... Keywords: Water resources management, Research gaps, Research agenda, Climate change, Land use change. ...... including loss of native biodiversity, and risks to ecosystems and ...

  3. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 28 (2002)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pretreatment of robusta coffee hulls and co-digestion with cow-dung for enhanced anaerobic digestion · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ... Assessment of wind energy potential for eletricity generation in Setchet, Hanang, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Tanzania | Page 2 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Read more about Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania. Language English. Read more about Élevage de la chèvre laitière et production de plantes à racines en Tanzanie. Language French. Read more about ​Designing community-based conservation programs in East Africa. Language English. Read more ...

  5. Tanzania: A Hierarchical Cluster Analysis Approach | Ngaruko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using survey data from Kibondo district, west Tanzania, we use hierarchical cluster analysis to classify borrower farmers according to their borrowing behaviour into four distinctive clusters. The appreciation of the existence of heterogeneous farmer clusters is vital in forging credit delivery policies that are not only ...

  6. Patient-centred tuberculosis treatment in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mkopi, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to describe and assess the efficacy of the Patient-Centred Treatment (PCT) strategy for the delivery and supervision of tuberculosis (TB) treatment as implemented by the National Tuberculosis and Leprosy programme of Tanzania. The studies presented in this thesis show

  7. ERUPTION PATTERN OF PERMANENT TEETH -IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, P. O. Box 65014, Muhimbili University College of. Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. . ' ABSTRACT. The aim of the study was to ... (3) and may have forensic application (4). Variation of tooth eruption patterns is believed to be multifactorial.

  8. Water resources management in Tanzania: identifying research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is in four parts which address: water resources as impacted by climate change; management of water resources in Rainfed agriculture; management of water resources in irrigated agriculture and water management catchment studies. Review of water resources management in Tanzania; Global literature review ...

  9. Sympatric Occurrence of 3 Arenaviruses, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Borremans, Benny; Katakweba, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    To determine the specificity of Morogoro virus for its reservoir host, we studied its host range and genetic diversity in Tanzania. We found that 2 rodent species other than Mastomys natalensis mice carry arenaviruses. Analysis of 340 nt of the viral RNA polymerase gene showed sympatric occurrenc...

  10. BASIN OF TANZANIA DURING THE MESOZOIC TIMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tectonic events largely controlled the evolution of the coastal basin of Tanzania and the. Indian Ocean. These included the Karoo rifting during Permo-Triassic, the break up of the. Gondwana Supercontinent, which started with rifting in the Triassic period, the opening of the Somali basin in the Middle Jurassic, and the ...

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manuscripts for publication in Tanzania Journal of Health Research should be prepared in accordance with the fifth edition of the “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals” established by the Vancouver Group (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, ICMJE). The complete ...

  12. Teaching 'natural product chemistry' in Tanzania | Buchanan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural products 'historically' and 'today' have vast importance. This article describes the course 'Natural Product Chemistry', a new course in the 2011/2012 academic year in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences at St. John's University of Tanzania. It reveals how the course has been applied to the African and ...

  13. Tanzania | Page 9 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers working in Tanzania's Morogoro and Dodoma districts have made an important discovery. By fortifying hay with cassava tops and sweet potato vines, they provided dairy goats with a cheap, protein-rich feed that enabled them to produce more milk. Read more about Better feed for animals means better food for ...

  14. Exploring Foreign Tourists’ Image of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, the economy of African continent and Tanzania in particular has witnessed a business boom of the tourism sector. While the sector has continued to grow and become a dependable source of direct and indirect employment to youths in urban and rural areas, the sector has been awash...

  15. Coral Reefs and Their Management in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    extensive, mangrove stands (IUCN Conservation. Monitoring Center ... CORAL REEFS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN TANZANIA 229. 23. 06 00. N. A. Avinternational Boundary. /\\!/ River. /\\/Main Road of 00 A-Z Railway. Land. Mangrove. Ocean. G 20 40 60 80 .... centers, deforestation and poor agricultural practices lead to ...

  16. Tanzania's Revealed Comparative Advantage and Structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agricultural products dominate Tanzania's comparative advantage for both years, although minerals assume the first rank in 2011. Specifically, 70% of the product groups are agricultural, with the rest being mineral products. These findings suggest that no structural transformation has occurred in the Tanzanian economy ...

  17. TANZANIA'S 2002 RECORDS AND ARCHIVES MANAGEMENT ACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper critically assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Tanzania's Records and Archives Management Act of 2002. The Act repeals the 1931 Records Disposal Ordinance 9 (Cap.9), the 1965 National Archives Act no. 33 and the Presidential Circular no.7 of 1963 on the Care and Disposal of Public Records.

  18. Deficiency within pavement Maintenance Organization in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the current state of the road network, funding acquisition for maintenance, the institutional framework within the maintenance and management system and finally concludes with a recommendation of initiatives for the improvement of the maintenance system in Tanzania. Journal of Civil Engineering ...

  19. WILDLIFE-BASED DOMESTIC TOURISM IN TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    affecting domestic tourism was carried out in northern Tanzania tourist circuit. Specifically the study sought to determine the characteristics of Tanzanians who ..... rainfalls and insufficient markets for agricultural products. Moreover, infrastructure (roads and communication network) and social services including internet ...

  20. INJURY EXPERIENCE IN TANZANIA- NEED FOR INTERVENTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-01

    May 1, 2013 ... medical attention within 2 to 10 hours after injury (P = 0.001), road traffic crashes. (P = 0.000), 18 - 45 years age group (P = 0.003), low KTS II score (P = 0.000) and sustaining head injury (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Injuries in Tanzania are an important public health problem, predominantly in adult males ...

  1. Tanzania | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · South of Sahara. Tanzania. Tanzanie. Read more about Youth employment and women's economic empowerment in Africa: The role of small and medium enterprises in the tourism sector. Language English. Read more about Leadership and managerial capacity strengthening for quality pregnancy and newborn ...

  2. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described

  3. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  4. within the lake victoria basin, tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriate pollution control measures should be taken though levels encountered are still within those recommended in the Tanzania Water Utilization (Control and Regulation). Amendment Act of1981 for receiving waters. ..... these vulnerable water bodies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. The author would like to thank the ...

  5. Tanzania | Page 12 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Parents and babies wait patiently to see the community health worker in Mvomero, Tanzania. “People have faith in the services. They are treated well and diagnosed properly,” says Samuel Hassain, here with his sick grandson. Health worker Y.E. Kapito marvels that “it has been six to eight months since I heard of a child ...

  6. Lymphatic filariasis control in Tanga Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Paul Erik; Derua, Yahya A.; Magesa, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) control started in Tanga Region of Tanzania in 2004, with annual ivermectin/albendazole mass drug administration (MDA). Since then, the current project has monitored the effect in communities and schools in rural areas of Tanga District. In 2013, after 8 rounds...

  7. Tanzania | Page 36 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Language French. These three short pieces document three initiatives supported by IDRC . In Zanzibar, Tanzania, a workshop that illustrates and teaches participants how to use, manage, and develop wireless networks for the Internet. In South Africa, the usage of PDAs in the rollout of antiretroviral therapy to treat AIDS.

  8. Emergency visits at a paedodonticclinic in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to record patients' pardcubrs, chief mmplaints, and provisional diagnmis. Fifty nine emeqency patients attended a paedodontlc ... In Tanzania, most medical and dental treatment is offered to patients on demand without prior ... emergency visits at general dental clinics (1-2), and trauma a major cause of emergency visits at.

  9. AIDS in dentistry | Muya | Tanzania Dental Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. AIDS in dentistry. RJ Muya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  10. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 31 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental risks for gemstone miners with reference to Merelani tanzanite mining area, Northeastern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EP Malisa, CP Kinabo, 1-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjs.v31i1.18404 ...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS AT SAMUNGE VILLAGE (TANZANIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    in northern Tanzania, to drink a cup of Carissa spinarum concoction claimed to treat diseases hitherto known to be incurable by .... predominantly adults; visual estimation at one station suggested 10% infants (< ... Faeces, blood stained cloth and other sanitary pads, milk paper containers, news paper pieces, thermos flasks, ...

  12. HIV and schistosomiasis : studies in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downs, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a helminthic worm infection that affects 260 million people worldwide, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. In Tanzania, where the research in this thesis was conducted, two species of schistosomes are highly endemic (Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni), with more than 50%

  13. Tanzania Journal of Science - Vol 30 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elemental and isotopic compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen of recently deposited organic matter in Empakai crater and its implication for climatic changes in northern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ANN Muzuka, 87-96.

  14. Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Engineering geological mapping of Dar es Salaam city in Tanzania has been carried out using desk studies supplemented by field reconnaissance as well as limited laboratory tests. Desk studies involved interpretation of medium to large-scale topographical maps,. Landsat imagery and sequential aerial ...

  15. A livelihood perspective on natural ressource management and environmental change in semi-arid Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Frederiksen, Pia; Sano, Hans-Otto

    2001-01-01

    livelihood strategies, environmental change, land degredation, land use, intensification, Tanzania......livelihood strategies, environmental change, land degredation, land use, intensification, Tanzania...

  16. [Anatomopathological profile of breast cancer in cape bon, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Ghada; Khanchel, Fatma; Chelbi, Emna

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among tunisian women and worldwide. In Cape Bon, Tunisia, the anatomopathological features of this cancer have not been established in previously published studies. Knowledge about these features is needed for the cultural adaptation of prevention and health care systems in the region. The aim of our study was to determine the pathological profile of breast cancers in the only public health anatomic pathology regional laboratory. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 116 patients who were diagnosed with breast cancers in our laboratory over a 5-year period, from July 2010 to July 2015. Our study included 116 patients. The average age was 51 years. The mean histologic tumor size was 31 mm. The initial diagnosis was based on lumpectomy in 83% of the cases. Nonspecific invasive cancer was the most frequent histological type. SBR grade III was most prevalent. Lymphovascular invasion was detected in 33% of cases. Axillary lymph node dissection was performed in 72% of cases. Hormone receptors were positive in 73% of cases. Her2-Neu receptors were overexpressed in 19% of cases. The ki67 was ≥ 14% in 38% of cases. Luminal A was the most common molecular subtype. In Cap Bon region brest cancer is characterized by an early onset, a large tumor size and pejorative histoprognostic factors.

  17. [Hereditary ichthyosis in Tunisia: epidemiological study of 60 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharfi, Monia; El Fekih, Nadia; Ammar, Donia; Khaled, Aida; Fazaa, Bécima; Ridha Kamoun, Mohamed

    2008-11-01

    Ichthyosis are a group of inherited keratinizing disorders. The cutaneous abnormalities may be isolated or associated with extra-cutaneous symptoms. To report the epidemiological and clinical profiles of patients with these genodermatoses from a hospital tunisian study. A retrospective study of all cases of ichthyosis referred during a period of 5 years to the department of dermatology of Charles Nicole's hospital of Tunis. Sixty cases of hereditary ichthyosis were seen. The sex-ratio was of 0.5. Parental consanguinity was noted in 36 patients (60%). Seventeen patients (25.7%) had a positive familial history of ichthyosis. The clinical form of ichthyosis was determined in 52 cases. The nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was observed in 25 patients (41.6%). Sixty patients presented an ichthyosis vulgaris (26.6%). The other forms of ichthyosis were rarely observed : 4 cases of X-linked recessive ichthyosis, 2 cases of lamellar ichthyosis and 2 cases of bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma. Two patients were born with collodion-like membranes. Two cases presented a complex syndrome. The NBIE, commonly considered as a rare form of ichthyosis, was the most frequently form seen in our study (41.6%), probably because of the high frequency of consanguineous marriages in Tunisia. The IV represents the most frequent form reported in the literature and was observed in 25% of our patients. The classification of some ichthyosis associated with other extracutaneous abnormalities (found in 2 of our patients) remains difficult.

  18. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  19. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L(-1). Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Histologic and prognostic study of nephroblastoma in central Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amel, L; Leila, B F; Lamia, K; Olfa, G; Abdelfattah, Z; Mondher, G; Faouzi, M; Chakib, K; Abdelatif, N; Amor, G; Slim, B A

    2003-08-01

    Nephroblastoma is a common malignant tumour in childhood that benefited from therapeutic progress. This is a retrospective study of 35 nephroblastoma diagnosed and treated in the central region of Tunisia within the last 8 years (1991-1999). We report and compare clinical features, therapeutic results and prognostic factors with those reported in the literature. The mean age was 3-years and 9 months, and the main clinical symptom was abdominal mass. Pre-operative chemotherapy was done in 32 cases and the objective response rate was 58%. Thirty-three patients had radical nephrectomy and only one had partial nephrectomy. Histologic analysis concluded to an anaplastic nephroblastoma in 2 cases. Using the classification of the international society of pediatric oncology, 11.4% of tumours were stage I, 48.6% stage II, 5.7% stage III, 11.4% stage IV and 2.9% stage V. The overall 5 years survival was 80%; tumour relapse was only independent prognosis factor in multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). Prognosis of nephroblastoma has been improved with chemotherapy and the pluridisciplinar treatment.

  1. The "Continental Intercalaire" of southern Tunisia: Stratigraphy, paleontology, and paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Contessi, Michela; Franchi, Fulvio

    2012-09-01

    The "Continental Intercalaire" deposits of southern Tunisia preserve one of the most diverse Early Cretaceous vertebrate fauna from Africa, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs. Vertebrate remains representative of both marine and fluvial environments have been historically referred to a specific bonebed within the Chenini Member, which crops out extensively in the Tataouine region. A stratigraphic revision of the mainly siliciclastic deposits of the Douiret and the Aïn El Guettar formations in the area based on new sedimentological and paleontological data is presented. Data collected indicate the presence of multiple fossil-bearing strata encompassing the stratigraphic interval from the Berriasian to the Albian and document faunal variation through time as well as major environmental and climatic changes. Detailed sedimentological analysis combined with biostratigraphic correlation performed at a basin scale indicate lateral facies variability within each formation as a result of tectonically and climatically driven zonations within the Tataouine Basin in the Early Cretaceous. Furthermore, proposed stratigraphic correlations indicate that vertebrate remains previously referred to the fluvial Chenini Member (and in particular theropod and sauropod dinosaurs) are instead representative of a transgressive deposit which mark the base of the overlying Oum ed Diab Member.

  2. Aging in Sweden: local variation, local control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Adam; Malmberg, Bo; Sundström, Gerdt

    2014-08-01

    Aging in Sweden has been uniquely shaped by its history-most notably the long tradition of locally controlled services for older adults. We considered how local variations and local control shape the experience of aging in Sweden and organized the paper into 3 sections. First, we examine aging in Sweden along demography, economy, and housing. Next, we trace the origins and development of the Swedish welfare state to consider formal supports (service provision) and informal supports (caregiving and receipt of care). Finally, we direct researchers to additional data resources for understanding aging in Sweden in greater depth. Sweden was one of the first countries to experience rapid population aging. Quality of life for a majority of older Swedes is high. Local control permits a flexible and adaptive set of services and programs, where emphasis is placed on improving the quality and targeting of services that have already reached a plateau as a function of population and expenditures. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Epidemiology of lysosomal storage diseases in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Malin; Darin, Niklas; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Månsson, Jan-Eric

    2014-12-01

    There are more than 50 inherited lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), and this study examined the incidence of clinically diagnosed LSDs in Sweden. The number of patients diagnosed during 1980-2009 was compiled from the registries of the two Swedish diagnostic laboratories that cover the whole country. We identified 433 patients during the 30-year period, with a total incidence of one in every 6100 births and identified fairly constant annual diagnoses during the last 20 years. Krabbe disease was the most common (one in 39 000) followed by Gaucher disease (one in 47 000), metachromatic leukodystrophy and Salla disease. Gaucher disease was more frequent in Sweden than other European countries, due to a founder effect of the mutation (p.L444P) in northern Sweden. Metachromatic leukodystrophy was one of the most common LSDs, in common with other countries. Salla disease, which is very rare elsewhere, was the fourth most common, stemming from a founder mutation in the Salla region of northern Finland brought to Sweden by immigration. The collective incidence of LSDs in Sweden was essentially equal to other European countries, but with a somewhat different disease pattern. Our findings have implications for diagnostic algorithms and treatment strategies. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. What's 'left' in the 'Garden of Sweden'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gregg M

    2013-01-01

    Liberalization, restructuring, and retrenchment have been underway in Sweden for more than two decades and have rapidly accelerated under the current non-socialist coalition government. It is uncertain how much of the Swedish social policy model is "left" now, in terms of both what remains of it and its political character. A cross-temporal look at developments within Sweden reveals striking and continual rollbacks and marketization since the 1990s. However, this view must be qualified, both because Sweden's undisputed descent is from a comparatively lofty position and because there have been some noteworthy, but often ignored, gains even amidst marked decline over the past few decades. A cross-national examination indicates that, despite rapidly rising rates of income and wealth inequality, Sweden remains an egalitarian leader in several respects. This view must be qualified, too, because, while it continues to routinely out-perform Anglo nations such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, Sweden is less often, and less notably, distinct from several of its continental counterparts in Europe now. Moreover, the foundation of the model, labor strength, has been significantly undermined.

  5. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbel, H; Châari, M; Neifar, L

    2012-05-01

    This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  6. Digenean species diversity in teleost fishes from the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbel H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.

  7. First survey on ecological host range of aphid pathogenic fungi (Phylum Entomophthoromycota) in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben Fekih, Ibtissem; Boukhris-Bouhachem, Sonia; Allagui, Mohamed Bechir

    2015-01-01

    Summary. The natural occurrence of fungal pathogens of aphids and their ecological host range was investigated in Tunisia from 2009 to 2012. The survey focused on aphid infesting different crops and weeds and included 10 different aphid species. Samples were collected from eight agricultural crops...... (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) and Neozygites fresenii (Neozygitales: Neozygitaceae). The occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi depended on the sampling area, the bioclimatic zone, and aphid species. P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were the predominant pathogens infecting a wide range of aphid species whereas...... C. obscurus and N. fresenii were sporadically present on a limited number of aphid species. This study is the first survey on ecological host range of entomophthoralean fungi in Tunisia, and the first documentation of C. obscurus and N. fresenii to occur in Tunisia and Maghreb Region....

  8. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Intidhar; Nouira, Said; Neubert, Eike

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and Sphincterochila tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of Sphincterochila tunetana with Sphincterochila cariosa from Lebanonshowed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of Sphincterochila baetica and Sphincterochila otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  9. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  10. An Exploratory Study of Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    McCrann, Denis

    2017-01-01

    There are no prevalence data for childhood sexual abuse among Tanzanian university students. This investigation addressed this paucity. The nature of sexual abuse and the contextual issues exacerbating the problem of CSA were explored. The research questions explored were as follows: 1. At what rate do university students in Tanzania report experiences of child sexual abuse? 2. What is the nature of child sexual abuse in Tanzania? 3. Who perpetrates child sexual abuse in Tanzania? 4. What are...

  11. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian lynx, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Af Segerstad, Carl Hård; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie Pierre

    2011-04-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway and phylogenetically closer to monkeypox virus than to vaccinia virus and isolates from 2 persons with cowpox virus in Sweden. Prevalence was higher among animals from regions with dense, rather than rural, human populations. Lynx are probably exposed to OPV through predation on small mammal reservoir species. We conclude that OPV is widely distributed in Sweden and may represent a threat to humans. Further studies are needed to verify whether this lynx OPV is cowpox virus.

  12. Lessons From a Comparison of Tunisia and Algeria: The Path to Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    and the military’s alignment played in causing a democratic transition. 45 Larbi Sadiki, "Ben Ali’s Tunisia: Democracy by Non-Democratic Means...34 British Journal of Middle Easter Studies 29.1 (May 2002): 60. 46 Larbi Sadiki, "Ben Ali’s Tunisia: Democracy by Non-Democratic Means," British Journal...revolution in authoritarian nations. After a young student from the poor interior town of Sidi -Bouzid burned himself to death in a desperate act to call

  13. Social movements and network analysis in Tunisia before the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Altable, Laura; Blanco, Saúl; ,

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest on the role of social media in the so-called Arab Spring revolt, but the uprising was not the result of a sudden event. Before it began in late 2010, protests have been staged in some Arab countries that paved the way to this major event (Al-Rawi, 2014, p. 916; Cassara, 2013, p.191). As Gilad Lotan et al. noted (2011, p. 1376) each country has its own context; hence this article focusses on Tunisia. Tunisia was the first Arab country wh...

  14. Monitoring land degradation in southern Tunisia: A test of LANDSAT imagery and digital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellden, U.; Stern, M.

    1980-01-01

    The possible use of LANDSAT imagery and digital data for monitoring desertification indicators in Tunisia was studied. Field data were sampled in Tunisia for estimation of mapping accuracy in maps generated through interpretation of LANDSAT false color composites and processing of LANDSAT computer compatible tapes respectively. Temporal change studies were carried out through geometric registration of computer classified windows from 1972 to classified data from 1979. Indications on land degradation were noted in some areas. No important differences, concerning results, between the interpretation approach and the computer processing approach were found.

  15. [Dermatobia hominis furuncular myiasis in a man returning from Latin America: first imported case in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouech, E; Kallel, K; Belhadj, S; Chaker, E

    2010-04-01

    Human cutaneous myiasis is a common dermatosis in tropical zones. The purpose of this report is to describe the first imported case of furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis (human botfly) in Tunisia. The patient was a man returning from Bolivia. Furuncular myiasis was suspected based on epidemiological data and clinical examination showing pruriginous elevated lesions. Diagnosis was confirmed by identification of Dermatobia hominis larvae. Treatment was based mainly on manual removal of larvae. Since furuncular myiasis is unknown in Tunisia, it is important to remember this parasitic disease in differential diagnosis in patients presenting boil-like inflammatory papules following travel to Latin America.

  16. The scope for inflation targeting in Tunisia: Analytical and empirical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockri Adnen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our work is to identify the necessary conditions for successful transition to the regime of inflation targeting in the case of Tunisia. In this context, we analyze, first, the theoretical foundations of the policy of inflation targeting. Then, we outline the prerequisites for adopting this strategy in a country like Tunisia. Finally, based on SVAR models, we try to evaluate the transmission channels of monetary policy and identify the conditions for successful adoption of the regime of inflation targeting.

  17. Introducing Micro-finance in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barinaga, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The case describes the first year of efforts to introduce microfinance as a tool to work with vulnerable groups in Sweden, more particularly ex-convicts, former drug-addicts and longterm unemployed women of immigrant background. The teaching objective is to discuss whether micro-finance can be seen...... as a tool to catalyze social change in developed welfare states such as Sweden, or if it rather reinforces the very power structures it aims to subvert. The author uses the case to analyse the efforts to introduce a new concept to wellestablished economic and social actors, as well as to understand...

  18. Health and social inequities in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn

    1990-01-01

    Sweden is one of Europe's most egalitarian countries. The social inequities in living conditions have been gradually reduced to a level that is more equal than in most countries in Europe. Even if general health development has been positive during recent years, data reviewed here indicate...... that there may be adverse effects for some groups which may increase inequities. This article presents results on inequities in health from the Public Health Report of Sweden 1987 and discusses causal mechanisms and implications for health policy....

  19. Anaplasma platys-like strains in ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; El Mabrouk, Narjesse; Saidani, Mariem; Alberti, Alberto; Zobba, Rosanna; Cherif, Amal; Mahjoub, Tarek; Bouattour, Ali; Messadi, Lilia

    2017-04-01

    Molecular diagnosis of Anaplasma platys and related strains (A. platys-like) in carnivores and ruminants is challenging due to co-infections with cross-reacting strains, and require post-amplification sequencing of the hemi-nested PCR products traditionally generated by targeting the groEL gene. In this study, a Restriction Enzyme Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) assay coupled to hemi-nested groEL PCR was developed to discriminate among A. platys and genetically related strains. This novel approach was used for investigating A. platys-like infection in 963 domesticated ruminants (241 goats, 355 sheep, and 367 cattle) from 22 delegations located in North Tunisia. Overall prevalence rates of A. platys-like were 22.8, 11, and 3.5% in goats, sheep, and cattle, respectively. Alignment, identity comparison, and phylogenetic analysis of the groEL sequence variants obtained in this study confirmed RFLP data suggesting that Tunisian ruminants are infected by novel unclassified Anaplasma strains genetically related to A. platys. Compared to sequencing, RFLP assay allows fast detection of A. platys and A. platys-like pathogens in the same sample and has a potential value especially when screening ticks, cats and ruminants, which can be a common host for these two bacteria. This newly developed molecular technique would provide valuable molecular tool for epidemiological studies related to A. platys as well as remove concern over specificity of serological and molecular methods routinely used to identify diverse Anaplasma strains and species in wild and domestic ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geologic evolution and hydrocarbon prospects in the Chotts Basin, Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, C. [Scott Pickford Group, Surrey (United Kingdom); Chine, A. [Entreprise Tunisienne d`Activites Petrolieres (ETAP), Tunis (Tunisia)

    1995-08-01

    The Chotts Basin, running east-west across central Tunisia, is a complex Late Paleozoic to Mesozoic graben system with a sediment thickness reaching over 5000m. It covers an area of over 15,000 km{sup 2} but is underexplored. It has been drilled by only a few wells; several of which gave oil and gas shows. A number of oil and condensate fields lie immediately south. ETAP, the national oil company, has undertaken a detailed investigation of the basin, greatly improving our understanding of its evolution and prospectivity. The basin is floored by Lower Paleozoic sediments. These occur at shallow depth on the southern flank where they were affected by periodic contemporary tectonism. The succession includes Ordovician clastics with good reservoir potential and both Ordovician and uppermost Silurian source rocks. Locally, the latter unconformably overlie Ordovician reservoir sections. The basin developed into a major, east-west trending, intracratonic wrench basin during the late Permian. Carbonate facies dominate the southern shelf area and, although lithofacies distributions are poorly constrained, the existence of quality source rocks is a strong possibility. The graben complex was inverted and partly eroded prior to deposition of Upper Triassic volcanics and sandstones. The sandstones are a proven reservoir and several leads are identified. Substantial subsidence occurred in the northern part of the basin from the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Jurassic carbonates provide numerous reservoir sections, while Callovian shales constitute a proven, mature source rock. Large fault- and fold- related traps were formed during latest Cretaceous to Paleocene and Mio-Pliocene orogeny; they provide promising objectives.

  1. [Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in Tunisia: Report of a pediatric cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Achour, N; Ben Waddey, O; Kraoua, I; Benrhouma, H; Klaa, H; Rouissi, A; Ben Youssef-Turki, I

    2015-12-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system whose clinical features, management and outcome are incompletely understood in Tunisian population. To describe clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features; treatment and outcome in a cohort of Tunisian children with ADEM. We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of all children attending the Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology (Tunis) with ADEM between 2005 and 2015. Clinical, neuroimaging and laboratory features, therapeutic data and outcome were analyzed. There were 15 children (7 males and 8 females). The mean age at onset was 6.9 years. Thirteen (86.6%) patients had a prodromal event. The onset of neurological symptoms occurred within 17.6 days (4-30). Limb weakness was the most common presenting symptom (53.3%). Extrapyramidal syndrome was noticed in 6 patients (40%). Initial MRI showed a deep gray matter involvement in 7 cases (46.6%). Gadolinium enhancement at acute stage was observed in only 2 patients (13%). Cerebrospinal fluid findings did not show intrathecal oligoclonal bands. The use of high-dose IV methylprednisolone followed by oral steroid taper was associated with rapid recovery. Additional treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin was necessary in 2 patients. Complete recovery was obtained in 11 patients (73.3%). A monophasic course was noticed in 14 cases. Only one patient (5%) developed multiple sclerosis. The high frequency of prodromal events and extrapyramidal syndrome in addition to the low rate of gadolinium enhancement at acute stage seem to be the main features in our patients. Larger ADEM multicenter cohort studies in Tunisia and North Africa could provide more detailed information about this entity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Wildlife and wildlife management in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Tim; Davenport, Tim R B

    2016-08-01

    Tanzania, arguably mainland Africa's most important nation for conservation, is losing habitat and natural resources rapidly. Moving away from a charcoal energy base and developing sustainable finance mechanisms for natural forests are critical to slowing persistent deforestation. Addressing governance and capacity deficits, including law enforcement, technical skills, and funding, across parts of the wildlife sector are key to effective wildlife protection. These changes could occur in tandem with bringing new models of natural resource management into play that include capacity building, corporate payment for ecosystem services, empowering nongovernmental organizations in law enforcement, greater private-sector involvement, and novel community conservation strategies. The future of Tanzania's wildlife looks uncertain-as epitomized by the current elephant crisis-unless the country confronts issues of governance, embraces innovation, and fosters greater collaboration with the international community. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Mobility of Knowledge as a Recognition Challenge: Experiences from Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Per; Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the tensions between mobility, knowledge and recognition, and what the impact of migration could be on lifelong education and society. This is discussed with the case of Sweden as the starting point. The main issue in Sweden concerning migration is the admission of refugees. Sweden has had a relatively open policy…

  4. african indigenous and traditional vegetables in tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    has been shown in a study in Tanzania that people in the lowest quintile ate less than half (154 g day-1) of the vegetables compared to those in the highest quintile (317 g day-1). The terms “indigenous” and “traditional” are both used in this paper, as the term indigenous alone can be limiting. Ambrose-Oji (2012) discusses ...

  5. Coral reefs and their management in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, G M

    2004-01-01

    Coral reefs are very important in Tanzania, both ecologically and socio-economically, as major fishing grounds and tourist attractions. Numerous fringing and patch reefs are located along about two-thirds of Tanzania’s coastline. These reefs have been partially to severely degraded by human (primarily destructive fishing practices) and natural (particularly coral bleaching) causes. These immediate human causes have been brought about by various socioeconomic root causes, particularly poverty ...

  6. Stroke in young adults in northern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Bo Traberg

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. To study different aspects of cerebral venous and arterial occlusive disease including cerebrospinalfluid hydrodynamics, epidemiology, aetiology, genetics, metabolic and haemostatic disorders, andcognitive function in young adults in Northern Sweden. Methods. Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion methodin patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations, upto 15 years after the onse...

  7. Aeolian dunes of south-central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardson, Martin; Alexanderson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    South-central Sweden is home to a number of small, inactive inland dune fields formed on former glaciofluvial deltas. A characteristic of these dune fields is the generally transverse shape of the dunes, in stark contrast to the rest of Sweden where parabolic dunes are the most common type. One of these dune fields is Bonäsheden in the county of Dalarna. It is the largest continuous dune field in Sweden and covers an area of approximately 15.5 km2. The dune field has the last few years been the target of thorough investigations utilising LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) based remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar, luminescence dating and sedimentological field investigations. The results show that the dunes of Bonäsheden and the adjacent dune field of Skattungheden formed mainly by north-westerly winds shortly after the deglaciation of this part of Sweden (10.5 ka), and subsequent events of dune formation were uncommon. Some later episodes of sand drift did occur, but only as minor coversand deposition. The dune field has had a more complex formation than previously thought; a shift in the wind pattern around 10 ka seems to have caused subsequent dunes to have formed by more westerly winds. The reason for this is still not determined, but the increased distance to the Scandinavian Ice Sheet would lessen the capacity of katabatic winds to influence the dune field.

  8. Toy Libraries in Sweden in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marianne; And Others

    Public and private organizations have developed toy libraries in Sweden for children with disabilities and children in need of special support for their development. Toy libraries have become places where parents can acquire advice with regard to play, meet a pedagogue with experience with children with handicaps, and meet other parents with the…

  9. Atomoxetine's Effect on Societal Costs in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myren, Karl-Johan; Thernlund, Gunilla; Nylen, Asa; Schacht, Alexander; Svanborg, Par

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare societal costs between patients treated with atomoxetine and placebo in Sweden. Method: Ninety-nine pediatric ADHD patients were randomized to a 10-week double-blind treatment with atomoxetine (n = 49) or placebo (n = 50). All parents received four sessions of psycho-education. Parents filled out a resource utilization…

  10. Reconsidering School Politics: Educational Controversies in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredholm, Axel

    2017-01-01

    School politics in Sweden has recently moved in a conservative direction, emphasising the importance of conventional school subjects, stronger teacher authority and more discipline in the classroom. At the same time, consensus on the utility of such measures is lacking in the school debate. The conservative approach is often criticised as…

  11. Mathematics Lessons from Finland and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaberg, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    In many ways, mathematics classrooms in Finland and Sweden are very similar to what would be considered traditional classrooms in the United States. Classes begin with checking homework and questions, followed by the teacher giving instruction in the new material, and end with students working on their new assignment. There are also interesting…

  12. Educational Careers for Gifted Students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    1998-01-01

    A study of the 10% most able students in Sweden (n=744) found entrance into higher education was influenced by the choice of program in upper secondary school, the marks received, the students' attitudes to school, and satisfaction with their performance. Parental and teacher support had an influence on males. (CR)

  13. Food insufficiency in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyna, G H; Mnyika, K S; Mmbaga, E J; Hussain, A; Klouman, E; Holm-Hansen, C; Klepp, K I

    2007-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of reported food insufficiency associated socio-demographic factors and health indicators in rural Tanzania. A cross-sectional study. A rural community in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Eight hundred and ninety nine individuals aged 15-36 years. A structured questionnaire was administered to collect information on socio-demographic factors, health indicators and food insufficiency. Participants were tested for HIV-1 using saliva samples. The prevalence of food insufficiency was 25.3% with no sex difference. After controlling for potential confounders age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 1.05; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.02-1.08), low education level (AOR = 4.73; CI: 1.30-17.11), being a peasant (AOR = 2.29; CI: 1.04-5.04), poor self-rated health status (AOR = 4.35; CI: 1.71-11.00) and having health problems (AOR = 2.23; CI: 1.21-4.08) were associated with food insufficiency among women but not men. In unadjusted analysis, women with food insufficiency had over twice the odds of testing HIV positive although the association did not reach statistical significance (AOR = 2.12; CI: 0.87-5.19) in adjusted analysis. Food insufficiency was prevalent in rural Tanzania. It was associated with sociodemographic factors and health indicators among women but not men. Our findings suggest that food insufficiency may play a role in increasing vulnerability to HIV infection particularly among women however; more research is needed to explore further this relationship.

  14. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  15. Effects of environmental conditions on soil salinity and arid region in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Ahmed, C.; Ben Rouina, B.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-07-01

    The shortage of water resources of good water quality is becoming an issue in the arid and semi arid regions. for this reason, the use of water resources of marginal quality such as treated wastewater and saline groundwater has become and important consideration, particularly in arid region in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. (Author)

  16. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, one of the challenges to dairy producers is heat stress. The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein cows are exposed in Tunisia using the Temperature Humidity Index (THI), examine heat stress effects on lactating cows and to suggest potential management ...

  17. Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaoui, M; Raya, M C; Bouri, M; Moral, J; Perez-Rodriguez, M; Trapero, A; Msallem, M; Rhouma, A

    2016-05-01

    To phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern Tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity. A total of 43 isolates were obtained from symptomatic olives collected from four regions in northern Tunisia. A range of morphological and physiological characteristics was recorded; and a phylogenetic study, based on the sequence analysis of both internal transcribed spacers and TUB2 gene regions, was performed. Of the 43 isolates, 41 were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum s.s, and only two were affiliated to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.s. Two more representative Spanish isolates, included for comparison, were identified as Colletotrichum godetiae. Using six inter-simple-sequence-repeat markers, homogeneity between isolates from different locations and within the same species was recorded. In pathogenicity and virulence studies, C. gloeosporioides s.s was found to be less virulent, while the Spanish C. godetiae isolate was significantly more virulent than the Tunisian C. acutatum s.s. Olive anthracnose in the North of Tunisia is mainly caused by C. acutatum s.s species. This is the first study of olive anthracnose in Tunisia, which combines both phenotypic and molecular approaches. Colletotrichum acutatum s.s group was recorded for the first time in the country as the causal agent of olive anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Popular and formal Islam, and supralocal relations : the Highlands of Northwestern Tunisia, 1800-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper explores the interplay between local popular Islam and the repeated introduction of formal Islam in Khrumiria, North-western Tunisia, against the background of its social and political structure and the radical changes the latter underwent in the colonial and post-colonial era. The

  19. Hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 3 in wastewater samples in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béji-Hamza, A; Hassine-Zaafrane, M; Khélifi-Gharbi, H; Della Libera, S; Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Petricca, S; Ciccaglione, A R; Bruni, R; Taffon, S; Aouni, M; La Rosa, G

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E represents an important public-health concern throughout the world. It is one of the leading causes of hepatitis in North Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Tunisia, the true burden of HEV infection is still unknown. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of hepatitis E virus in Tunisia through the monitoring of urban sewage and to characterize the strains identified using molecular assays. A total of 150 sewage samples (raw and treated) were collected from three wastewater treatment plants located in the regions of Monastir and Mahdia and analyzed by nested RT-PCR using a qualitative assay targeting the methyltransferase gene in ORF1. Of these, only three samples (2 %) were found to be positive for HEV, one belonging to genotype 1 and two to genotype 3. The results of the present study indicate a low level of virus excretion among the Tunisian population. Both genotypes 1 and 3 are circulating in this country, however, possibly causing sporadic infections. The presence of the zoonotic genotype 3, known to be transmitted to humans mainly by swine and demonstrated in Tunisia for the first time in this work, raises the question of possible reservoir species, since pork products are not consumed in this country, pigs are not bred, and wild boar is not endemic. Further studies will be needed to gather information on the occurrence and diversity of HEV strains circulating among humans and animals in Tunisia, and on possible animal reservoirs.

  20. Scope, Relevance and Challenges of Financing Higher Education: The Case of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessalem, Tahar

    2011-01-01

    Like other developing countries, Tunisia has allocated increasing levels of resources to education, particularly higher education, over the past few decades, mainly through public funding. From 2005 to 2008, public expenditure on education amounted to around 7.4% of GDP, with 2% allocated to higher education. Recently, however, budgetary…

  1. Effects of Fusarium culmorum and water stress on durum wheat in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of water stress on Fusarium foot and root rot in durum wheat were investigated in growth chamber, greenhouse and field tests in Tunisia. In the seedling stage, emergence of six durum wheat cultivars in the growth chamber was significantly reduced by inoculation with Fusarium culmorum and...

  2. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  3. Study of genetic polymorphism of Artemisia herba-alba from Tunisia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisia herba-alba is an herbaceous aromatic and therapeutic plant widely distributed in semi-arid regions of Tunisia and is potentially usable to restore degraded ecosystems. A study of genetic variation among 216 accessions was conducted using ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat) markers to assess the ...

  4. Assessment of soil salinization risks under irrigation with brackish water in semiarid Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouksila, F.; Bahri, A.; Berndtsson, R.; Persson, M; Rozema, J.; van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The salinity problem is becoming increasingly widespread in arid countries. In semiarid Tunisia about 50% of the irrigated land is considered as highly sensitive to salinization. To avoid the risk of salinization, it is important to control the soil salinity and keep it below plant salinity

  5. Changing Revolutions, Changing Attention? Comparing Danish Press Coverage of the Arab Spring in Tunisia and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2012-01-01

    The Arab Spring has generated unprecedented attention to the Arab world in Western news media. This paper presents a comparative study of Danish press coverage of the uprisings in Tunisia and Syria during the early months of the Arab Spring (January-March 2011). The study is based on a mixed...

  6. Selected Bibliography of Materials; Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Volume 1, Number 2, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A bibliography with abstracts of 106 items from books and articles covers materials on education in the Maghreb countries of Tunisia, Libya, Algeria, and Morocco. Special emphasis is given to the two problems besetting the area's educational system: illiteracy and multilingualism. The entries cover philosophy and theory of education,…

  7. Short Report: First Molecular Identification of Entamoeba moshkovskii in Human Stool Samples in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Ayed, Soumaya; Aoun, Karim; Maamouri, Nadia; Ben Abdallah, Rvm; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We report the first intestinal infections in Tunisia with Entamoeba moshkovskii in two healthy adults. Entamoeba moshkovskii cysts were distinguished from those of the morphologically identical parasites Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by specific nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing.

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis and Epidemic History of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 2 in Tunisia, North Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Rajhi

    Full Text Available HCV genotype 2 (HCV-2 has a worldwide distribution with prevalence rates that vary from country to country. High genetic diversity and long-term endemicity were suggested in West African countries. A global dispersal of HCV-2 would have occurred during the 20th century, especially in European countries. In Tunisia, genotype 2 was the second prevalent genotype after genotype 1 and most isolates belong to subtypes 2c and 2k. In this study, phylogenetic analyses based on the NS5B genomic sequences of 113 Tunisian HCV isolates from subtypes 2c and 2k were carried out. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate the origin and the spread of these subtypes circulating in Tunisia. Phylogenetic analyses of HCV-2c sequences suggest the absence of country-specific or time-specific variants. In contrast, the phylogenetic grouping of HCV-2k sequences shows the existence of two major genetic clusters that may represent two distinct circulating variants. Coalescent analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor (tMRCA of Tunisian HCV-2c around 1886 (1869-1902 before the introduction of HCV-2k in 1901 (1867-1931. Our findings suggest that the introduction of HCV-2c in Tunisia is possibly a result of population movements between Tunisia and European population following the French colonization.

  9. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  10. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 4, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine; And Others

    A 100-item bibliography with abstracts of books, newspaper articles, and periodical articles in English and French published predominantly in 1970 offers information on various aspects of education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Emphasis is placed on sections dealing with educational organization in primary, secondary, vocational, and…

  11. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 7, No 1 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of endemicity on the sensitivity and specificity of malaria case definition and attributable fraction in Northeast Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ... Bridging the gap between mass media journalists and health research scientists in Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Agrochemicals use in horticulture industry in Tanzania and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of communities in Tanzania depend on surface water from rivers and lakes for potable uses such as washing, drinking and domestic animals also drink from these sources. Reports from studies done in Northern Tanzania have indicated the presence of significant levels of pesticides, phosphates and nitrates in ...

  13. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 19, No 2 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. ... Prevalent use of herbs for reduction of labour duration in Mwanza, Tanzania: are obstetricians aware? ... The use of 0.01M phosphate buffered saline as detection buffer for Alere Determine® HIV rapid test in resource limited settings · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  14. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 8, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 8, No 1 (2007) ... Hunting in Tanzania: Has Science Played Its Role? ... Effects of Combining Minjingu Phosphate Rock and Triple Superphosphate with Selected Plant Biomass on Phosphorus Availability in Two Soils with Contrasting Properties · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  15. Fiscal Policy and Debt Dynamic: Evidence from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates fiscal policy and debt dynamics in Tanzania by using time series data for the period 1970 to 2011. The methodologies adopted include unit root tests, cointegration tests and fiscal reaction function. The three approach employed validate similar results that fiscal policy for Tanzania has not been ...

  16. Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. Neville Reuben, Institute of Continuing Education, The Open University of Tanzania Dr. Salim Mohamed Faculty of Business Management, The Open University of Tanzania Dr. Clarence Mgina University of Dar es Salaam Prof. B. Lembariti, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administration), Muhimbili University of Health and ...

  17. Soutien institutionnel à African Technology Policy Studies - Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Au départ la division tanzanienne du Réseau d'études sur la politique technologique en Afrique (African Technology Policy Studies Network), et ce, depuis 1984, ATPS-Tanzania est devenu autonome à titre d'organisation non gouvernementale en 2001. Lorsque ATPS-Tanzania recevait un financement stable du siège de ...

  18. LM6000s bring fast track power to Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, R. [Stone and Webster Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Sutcliffe, K. [Stewart and Stevenson Services, Houston, TX (United States); Oosthuizen, P. [Roshcon, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1996-06-01

    Like many developing countries, Tanzania is in urgent need of power. To ease the situation, the Tanzanian government utility, Tanzania Electric Supply Company (Tanesco) recently began operating a power plant using two LM6000 aeroderivative gas turbines at a facility in Ubungo. The plant began operation just 165 days after the order was placed. (author)

  19. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania. Project. More than 80% of Tanzanians live in rural areas and depend on crop and livestock production for their livelihoods. Among livestock, goats rank second ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Colombia, Ghana, Uganda, Tanzania. Program: Maternal and Child ...

  20. Training Teachers in Special Needs Education in Tanzania: A Long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the training of special education teachers in Tanzania. Specifically it aimed at providing in brief, the history and the challenges that Tanzania is facing in the training of special education teachers. Fifteen special education teachers, five females and ten males, were interviewed. The results showed that ...

  1. Sixty Years of Special Needs Education in Tanzania: Celebrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study traces the development of special needs education in Tanzania from 1950, and discusses the achievements and the persistent challenges that Tanzania is facing as we celebrate 60 years since the first special education school was started. Both documentation and interview methods were used to collect ...

  2. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 15 No. 1, May 2008 15

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    School of Dentistry, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Mwakatobe A J,. Kahabuka FK. Orthodontic ... Correspondence: Mwakatobe AJ, School of Assistant Dental Officer (ADO), Muhimbili National Hospital,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: E-mail: .... 1 Haesman P. MASTER DENTISTRY. Restorative Dentistry, Paediatric Dentistry and.

  3. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Reports. Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweetpotatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania : a gendered analysis. Download PDF. Journal articles. Animal health constraints in dairy goats kept under smallholder farming systems in Kongwa and Mvomero districts, Tanzania.

  4. Early Childhood caries in Moshi, Tanzania | Rwakatema | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early Childhood caries in Moshi, Tanzania. ... Abstract. Objective: To determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of early childhood caries (ECC) in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania. Design: Cross-sectional ... The severe form of ECC that attacks primary maxillary incisors occurred in 21.2% of the children. The mean dmft ...

  5. Risk factors for genital human papillomavirus among men in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Mwaiselage, Julius; Iftner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among men in Tanzania, both overall and in relation to HIV status. In a cross-sectional study conducted among 1,813 men in Tanzania, penile swabs were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). Study participan...

  6. Archives: Huria: Journal of the Open University of Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Special Issue: Edited Proceedings of the 4th Tanzania Commission of Science and Technology (COSTECH) Annual STI Conference and Exhibitions held from24th-26th June 2015 at the Julius Nyerere Convention Center in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ...

  7. Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cigarette Taxation in Tanzania. Tobacco consumption in Tanzania rose by 20% between 2002 and 2007, and is predicted to increase by a further 46% by 2016. The impact of this increase in consumption on public health and economic development is likely to be serious. Experience elsewhere has shown that the single ...

  8. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system with the Tanzania School HC:tlth Pro- .'. gramme have been reactivated. Three of these projects deal with prevention only and more specifically with dental health education of the population. These projects are the. Tanzania School Health Programme, our work. 8 with the MCH system and, the continuing educa-.

  9. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: TAXATION, TOBACCO, SMOKING, PREVENTIVE MEDICINE. Region: Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 42,300.00. Decentralization, Local Politics and the Construction of Women's Citizenship (Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania) - Phase I. Project.

  10. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 7, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Health Research. ... Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater Area, northern ... Tanzanian student nurses perception of their clinical experience · EMAIL FREE ... Short Communication: Palliative care in Tanzania: A needs assessment study of family caregivers in urban setting.

  11. Extension systems in Tanzania: identifying gaps in research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was a library study to facilitate writing of a research background paper on extension system research in Tanzania for Innovative Agricultural Research Initiative ... collected from library survey of literature, websites, studies conducted between 1993 to 2012 in Tanzania on extension systems and lead international articles ...

  12. The Southern Black Tit Melaniparus niger in Tanzania with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A South African birder, Mr. Jubber originally identified these birds as M. niger but included them as M. leucomelas after reading that the former did not occur in Tanzania. Map 1. The distribution in Tanzania of M. niger, M. leucomelas and M. albiventris from the. Map 2. The distribution of Southern Black Tit M. niger suggested ...

  13. Malaria in Bulambya, Ileje district, south-west Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. JANGSON2. 1National Institute for Medical Research, Tukuyu Research Station,. P.O Box 538, Tukuyu, Tanzania. 2Ileje District Council, District Medical Office, P.O Box 2, Itumba, Tanzania ... of increasing disease transmission (Cox et al., 1999;. Bødker et al., 2003; Mboera et al., 2005). In addition,. Mbeya regional health ...

  14. Dynamics of Revenue Generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of revenue generation in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda are explored. Results demonstrate that revenue generation is sluggish in Tanzania compared to Kenya and Uganda. Macroeconomic environment, economic structure, and level of development are fundamental at explaining these differences. Results ...

  15. Prediction of rainfall in the southern highlands of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QBOu50 is also a weak predictor for OND rainfall. It is therefore recommended that IOD, QBou30, OLR, QBOu50 and ENSO should be considered in rainfall forecasting in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Key words: Collinearity, Multicollinearity, PCR model, Rainfall Variability, Southern Highlands of Tanzania ...

  16. User needs in Tanzania's Academic Institutions | Nyerembe | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines user needs in academic institutions in Tanzania and how they are being satisfied. It notes that no user needs surveys has ever been conducted in academic institutions in Tanzania and argues that user needs are of various types e.g. graduate students, undergraduate students researchers, ...

  17. Surveys of small mammals in Tarangire National Park, Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys of small mammals in Tarangire National Park, Tanzania. ... Twenty-six species of small mammals, including four species of Soricomorpha, seven species of Chiroptera and 15 species of Rodentia were documented, with some records being the first ... Keywords: Tarangire, mammals, Tanzania, rodents, bats, shrews

  18. prediction of rainfall in the southern highlands of tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therefore recommended that IOD, QBou30, OLR, QBOu50 and ENSO should be considered in rainfall forecasting in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. Key words: Collinearity, Multicollinearity, PCR model, Rainfall Variability, Southern Highlands of Tanzania. INTRODUCTION. Rainfall is an important parameter for crop.

  19. Creating Fiscal Space for Social Sectors Development in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses fiscal space creation and use in the context of development of social sectors in Tanzania. The paper observes that Tanzania is making good progress in creating and using her fiscal space. The priority being accorded to social sectors, especially in education and health is in the right direction. However ...

  20. Participation and Education in Tanzania. IDS Discussion Paper No. 86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Budd L.

    Increased participation in decision-making at the grass-roots level is one of the principal objectives of Tanzania's development strategy. Since the political decision to commit Tanzania to a path of socialism, restructuring the educational system has become a cornerstone to achieving the desired participation. This paper focuses on case studies…

  1. Towards Building modern universities in Tanzania: The role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper will examine the role of joint electronic resource sharing networks in supporting the key mission of Tanzanian Universities by paying particular attention to the situation in Tanzania. The paper will investigate the problem of institutional collaboration in Tanzania to identify what factors have hitherto hindered ...

  2. Analysis of rainfall variations and trends in coastal Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of rainfall variations and trends in coastal Tanzania. Julius Francis, Shigalla B Mahongo. Abstract. Rainfall in coastal Tanzania has been investigated for their variability and trends from seven key weather stations during the last 50 years (1960-2009). Results indicate that the island of Mafia receives the highest ...

  3. a case of biopsy proven lupus nephritis in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    65001, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Abstract: We describe a case of a 30 years old female patient who presented with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function diagnosed to have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This is the first biopsy proven lupus nephritis in Tanzania. SLE is common among females and is ...

  4. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  5. Migration pattern of hepatitis A virus genotype IA in North-Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beji-Hamza, Abir; Taffon, Stefania; Mhalla, Salma; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Equestre, Michele; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2015-02-08

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) epidemiology in Tunisia has changed from high to intermediate endemicity in the last decades. However, several outbreaks continue to occur. The last reported sequences from Tunisian HAV strains date back to 2006. In order to provide an updated overview of the strains currently circulating in Tunisia, a large-scale molecular analysis of samples from hepatitis A cases was performed, the first in Tunisia. Biological samples were collected from patients with laboratory confirmed hepatitis A: 145 sera samples in Tunis, Monastir, Sousse and Kairouan from 2008 to 2013 and 45 stool samples in Mahdia in 2009. HAV isolates were characterised by nested RT-PCR (VP1/2A region) and sequencing. The sequences finally obtained from 81 samples showed 78 genotype IA and 3 genotype IB isolates. A Tunisian genotype IA sequence dataset, including both the 78 newly obtained IA sequences and 51 sequences retrieved from GenBank, was used for phylogenetic investigation, including analysis of migration pattern among six towns. Virus gene flow from Sfax and Monastir was directed to all other towns; in contrast, the gene flows from Sousse, Tunis, Mahdia and Kairouan were directed to three, two, one and no towns, respectively. Several different HAV strains co-circulate in Tunisia, but the predominant genotype still continues to be IA (78/81, 96% isolates). A complex gene flow (migration) of HAV genotype IA was observed, with Sfax and Monastir showing gene flows to all other investigated towns. This approach coupled to a wider sampling can prove useful to investigate the factors underlying the spread of HAV in Tunisia and, thus, to implement appropriate preventing measures.

  6. HPV Types and Variants Among Cervical Cancer Tumors in Three Regions of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KrennHrubec, Keris; Mrad, Karima; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Bottalico, Danielle M.; Ostolaza, Janae; Smith, Benjamin; Tchaikovska, Tatyana; Soliman, Amr S.; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Tunisian women, and the incidence rates vary by region. Three Tunisian registries report age-standardized rates of 6.3/105 in the central region, 5.4/105 in the north, and 2.7/105 in the south. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and their variants differ in carcinogenic potential and geographic distribution. The HPV type and variant distribution could be a factor in the differing rates between regions of Tunisia. Tumor tissue was collected from 142 Tunisian cervical cancer patients. Demographic and reproductive characteristics of the patients were abstracted from cancer registry and hospital records. HPV type and variant analyses were performed using PCR-based Luminex and dot-blot hybridization assays. Eighty-three percent of tumors were infected with at least one HPV type. European variants of HPV16/18 were the most prevalent in tumors from all three regions, with all HPV18 infections and 64% of HPV16 infections being of European lineage. A higher frequency of HPV16 was present in Northern Tunisia (80%) than in Central (68%) or Southern Tunisia (50%) (P = 0.02). HPV18/45 was significantly more common in adenocarcinomas (50%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (11%) (P = 0.004). Frequent infection with European HPV variants most likely reflects the history of European migration to Tunisia. In addition to the importance of understanding the variants of HPV in Tunisia, behavioral and cultural attitudes towards screening and age-specific infection rates should be investigated to aid the development of future vaccination and HPV screening programs and policies. PMID:21328380

  7. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  8. Groundwater chemistry and radon-222 distribution in Jerba Island, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telahigue, Faten; Agoubi, Belgacem; Souid, Fayza; Kharroubi, Adel

    2018-02-01

    The present study integrates hydrogeological, hydrochemical and radiogenic data of groundwater samples taken from the Plio-Quaternary unconfined aquifer of Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia, in order to interpret the spatial variations of the groundwater quality and identify the main hydrogeochemical factors responsible for the high ion concentrations and radon-222 content in the groundwater analysed. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from open wells widespread on the island. Physical parameters (EC, pH, TDS and T °) were measured, major ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and HCO 3 - ) were analysed and 222 Rn concentrations were determined using a RAD7-H 2 O. Hydrogeochemical characterisation revealed that groundwater from the Jerba aquifer has several origins. Basically, two water types exist in the island. The first one, characterized by a low to moderate salinity with a chemical facies CaMgClSO 4 , characterizes the central part of Jerba (a recharge area) due to carbonate and gypsum dissolution. The second water type with high salinities, dominated by NaKCl type, was observed in coastal areas and some parts having low topographic and piezometric levels. These areas seem to be affected by the seawater intrusion process. The 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater samples in Jerba varied from 0 Bq.L -1 to 2860 Bq.L -1 with an average of 867 Bq.L -1 . The highest values were registered in the western coastal wells and near the fault of Guellala. However, the central and eastern wells showed low radon levels. Compared to 222 Rn activity in some countries with the same lithology, radon concentrations in the Jerba unconfined aquifer have higher values influenced by the structure of the aquifer and by seawater inflow enriched with 222 Rn resulting from the decay of uranium derived from phosphogypsum deposits in the gulf of Gabes. The EC and 222 Rn spatial variability in the study area were mapped using ARC Map 10.3 software

  9. [National survey of maternal mortality of 2010 : data of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tej Dellagi, Rafla; Bougatef, Souha; Ben Salah, Fayçal; Ben Mansour, Nadia; Gzara, Ahlem; Gritli, Ibtissem; Ben Romdhane, H; Rachdi, M T

    2014-01-01

    Tunisia has investigated maternal mortality in 2010 to determine maternal mortality ratio (MMR) nationally and regionally, in addition to the indentifying main causes of this mortality. Describe methodology of this study and its principal findings in the region of Tunis and discuss the national maternal mortality strategy. This is a Ramos study (Reproductive Ag Mortality Studies) that consists on identifying maternal deaths from reproductive age group (RAG) women deaths. We started by the a rehearsal and targeting of (RAG) women deaths , then we investigated a next of kin person of the decedent women by verbal autopsy, thereafter we identified maternal deaths to be confidentially investigated to judge the potential avoidability of the death. The study took place in 2010, it was carried out by 5 couples of investigators supervised by a coordinator doctor. A total of 200 deaths of (RAG) women were found in Tunis, 7 deaths among them were maternal deaths, that corresponds to an MMR of 41/100000 live births. The mean age of the deceased women was 35 years. The main causes of maternal deaths were hemorrhage (3/7), thrombo-embolic diseases (2 times for7) and HELLP syndrome (1/7). Four of a total of 4 deaths (3 deaths were not marked), were avoidable. The majority of late women had a satisfying educational level, 4 of 7 had financial autonomy. All of them had pregnancy monitoring, 5 times of 7 in university hospital. All the childbirth were medically assisted, Caesarean section was carried in 6 of 7 cases. Nationally, the MMR was estimated to 44.8/100 000 LB, that to say a decrease of 35% compared to 1993. The decrease was significant for all the regions of the country, except the great Tunis where opposite trend was recorded. This could be more likely related to quality of care rather than socio-economic conditions seeing that social determinants in Tunis are favorable. In fact, the Tunisian maternal mortality strategy had essentially focused on the monitoring system of

  10. Geomorphology of intraplate postglacial faults in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V. S.; Abdujabbar, M.; Lund, B.; Smith, C.; Mikko, H.; Munier, R.

    2015-12-01

    Melting of the Weichselian ice sheet at ≈10 000 BP is inferred to have induced large to great intraplate earthquakes in northern Fennoscandia. Over a dozen large so-called postglacial faults (PGF) have been found, mainly using aerial photogrammetry, trenching, and recognition of numerous paleolandslides in the vicinity of the faults (e.g. Lagerbäck & Sundh 2008). Recent LiDAR-based mapping led to the extension of known PGFs, the discovery of new segments of existing PGFs, and a number of new suspected PGFs (Smith et al. 2014; Mikko et al. 2015). The PGFs in Fennoscandia occur within 14-25°E and 61-69°N; the majority are within Swedish territory. PGFs generally are prominent features, up to 155 km in length and 30 m maximum surface offset. The most intense microseismic activity in Sweden occurs near PGFs. The seismogenic zone of the longest known PGF (Pärvie fault zone, PFZ) extends to ≈40 km depth. From fault geometry and earthquake scaling relations, the paleomagnitude of PFZ is estimated to 8.0±0.3 (Lindblom et al. 2015). The new high-resolution LiDAR-derived elevation model of Sweden offers an unprecedented opportunity to constrain the surface geometry of the PGFs. The objective is to reach more detailed knowledge of the surface offset across their scarps. This distribution provides a one-dimensional view of the slip distribution during the inferred paleorupture. The second objective is to analyze the pattern of vertical displacement of the hanging wall, to obtain a two-dimensional view of the displaced area that is linked to the fault geometry at depth. The anticipated results will further constrain the paleomagnitude of PGFs and will be incorporated into future modeling efforts to investigate the nature of PGFs. ReferencesLagerbäck & Sundh 2008. Early Holocene faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Sweden. http://resource.sgu.se/produkter/c/c836-rapport.pdf Smith et al. 2014. Surficial geology indicates early Holocene faulting and seismicity

  11. [Serious silicosis still exits in Sweden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Svartengren, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    Many measures have been taken in Sweden to eliminate the occurrence of serious silicosis. However, between 1997 and 2013 there were 111 deaths with silicosis as underlying cause, 110 men and 1 woman. In most cases the deceased was rather old; only fourteen persons were below 74 years of age. We have studied the exposure between 2007 and 2012 in the 71 persons who died of silicosis as underlying or contributing cause through medical records. We could find information regarding 48 of them. Ten persons worked in mines, 10 in stone industry, 14 with crushing or blasting of rock, 4 in foundries, 3 were concrete workers and 7 suffered exposure in other industries.  The study shows that the measures taken in Sweden have not been sufficient to totally eliminate serious silicosis.

  12. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  13. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Lindberg, Peter; Helander, Björn; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  14. Orthopoxvirus DNA in Eurasian Lynx, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Tryland, Morten; Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Hård af Segerstad, Carl; Mörner, Torsten; Traavik, Ingemar Terje; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus, which has been used to protect humans against smallpox but may cause severe disease in immunocompromised persons, has reemerged in humans, domestic cats, and other animal species in Europe. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) DNA was detected in tissues (lung, kidney, spleen) in 24 (9%) of 263 free-ranging Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Sweden. Thymidine kinase gene amplicon sequences (339 bp) from 21 lynx were all identical to those from cowpox virus isolated from a person in Norway a...

  15. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  16. Female Professors in Sweden and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Anett

    2003-01-01

    The Research Training Network “Women in European Universities” focuses on career opportunities of women in higher education in seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Poland, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). Within the frame of this network different aspects of career perspectives of women – and also men – are investigated. In a first working step a context analysis was conducted in order to give an understanding of the different systems of higher education, their changes an...

  17. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hiselius Lena Winslott; Rosqvist Lena Smidfelt; Adell Emeli

    2015-01-01

    Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for bot...

  18. Sweden picks site for waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear power-plant operators in Sweden have selected a site where they can permanently store the country's spent nuclear fuel. The repository would be located 500 m below ground at Forsmark, roughly 200km north of Stockholm, which is already home to a nuclear power plant. The decision was taken after two decades of study by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB), which is owned by the country's nuclear firms.

  19. Commodity Price Uncertainty and Manufactured Exports in Morocco and Tunisia: Some Insights from a Novel GARCH Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bouoiyour, Jamal; Selmi, Refk

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess empirically the short-run dynamic between commodity price uncertainty and manufactured exports in Morocco and Tunisia. To this end, we propose a novel model Component with Multiple Threshold-GARCH (CMT-GARCH) that extends Weighted-GARCH of Bauwens and Storti (2008). Our results clearly show a positive and significant connection between commodity price volatility and manufactured exports, which is transitory for Morocco and Tunisia (except the impact of manufactur...

  20. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 polymorphism in patients infected with HIV and implications for AIDS progression in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Amara; Jorge Domenech; Faouzi Jenhani

    2010-01-01

    Sameh Amara1, Jorge Domenech2, Faouzi Jenhani31Cellular Immunology and Cytometry, National Blood Transfusion Center, Tunis, Tunisia; 2Hematopoiesis Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tours, Tours, France; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Unit Research in Immunology, Tunis, TunisiaBackground: An interesting finding in the epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is that certain mutations in genes coding for chemokines, and their receptors and ligands, may confer resistance...

  1. Improving smallholder livelihoods: Dairy production in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ulicky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania is primarily an agro-based economy, characterized by subsistence agricultural production that employs more than 80% of the population and contributes up to 45% of the GDP (2005. This country is endowed with a cattle population of 21.3 M, composed mainly of indigenous Zebu breeds and about 680 000 improved dairy animals. About 70% of the milk produced comes from the traditional sector (indigenous cattle kept in rural areas, while the remaining 30% comes from improved cattle, mainly kept by smallholder producers. In Northern Tanzania and particularly in Hai district of Kilimanjaro Region, some dairy farmers organize themselves into small producer groups for the purpose of milk collecting, marketing and general promotion of the dairy sector in their community. Nronga Women Dairy Cooperative Society (NWDCS Limited is one of such organizations dedicated to improve the well-being of the Nronga village community through promoting small-scale dairy farming and its flow-on benefits. Milk flows out of the village, and services for investment and dairy production flow into the village, ensuring a sustainable financial circulation necessary for poverty reduction, rural development and better life for the rural community. In 2001 NWDCS introduced a school milk feeding program that has attracted Australian donors since 2005. Guided by Global Development Group, a multi-faceted project, integrating micro-enterprises, business, education and child health/nutrition, was proposed and initiated by building a dairy plant in Hai District headquarters, the Boma plant. In March 2013, the Australian High Commission to East Africa approved Direct Aid Program funding of AUD 30 000 towards the NWDCS - Biogas Pilot Project in Tanzania, which included the renovation of zero-grazing cow shade units, the construction of 6-m3 biodigester plants on each farm, and encouragement of the use of bioslurry for pasture production and home gardens.

  2. [Problematic Internet use among teenagers in Sfax, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérif, L; Ayedi, H; Hadjkacem, I; Khemekhem, K; Khemekhem, S; Walha, A; Kossentini, I; Moalla, Y; Ghribi, F

    2015-12-01

    Use of the Internet in Tunisian society and especially among teenagers has increased in recent years. While the use of Internet is primarily intended for research and communication, the Internet has also become an important part of teenager's life. Most people use the Internet in healthy and productive ways. However, some teenagers develop a problematic use of the Internet, which is a condition also known by the term of "Internet addiction". In Tunisia, the literature does not report data on problematic Internet use prevalence among Tunisian teenagers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of problematic Internet use among teenagers, in the urban area of Sfax. This transversal study was carried out between the 15th January and the 15th February 2009. Participants were 600, first to third grade secondary school students, aged 14 to 20. They were recruited from seven secondary schools randomly selected in the urban area in Sfax City. The self-administered Young's 8-item questionnaire was used in this survey. Participants who scored five or more can be considered problematic Internet users. Finally, 587 valid data samples were collected, 263 (44%) males and 324 (56%) females. Eighty-five percent of the participants were in the 15-17 age range. The mean age was 16 years (±1.26). The prevalence of problematic Internet use was 18.05% (total of 587 students). The sex-ratio was 0.75. The problematic Internet use was not correlated with sex. The average time of Internet use per day among problematic Internet users was 4.5hours (±2.84) against 1.02hours (±1.56) among non problematic Internet users (P=0.000). In this study, the prevalence of problematic Internet use was higher than that reported in previous studies. Two facts can explain this: first, the use of the only self-administered questionnaire does not distinguish between a simple abuse and a problematic Internet use. A psychiatric examination is essential to support the diagnosis of problematic

  3. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River....... Although in many ways unsuccessful and short-lived (the colony collapsed in 1656), New Sweden became a home for generations of colonists. This chapter focuses on the different aspects of their daily life: their longing and desperation, practices of homemaking and domesticating the landscape...

  4. Micronutrient Deficiencies among Breastfeeding Infants in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra L. Bellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements.

  5. Sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatu Melkiory C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual activities are increasingly changing from the cultural point of view what they used to be. Knowledge of these practices among adolescents may be a basis to create awareness among adolescents on practices that involve risks. This study aims to assess sexual practices among unmarried adolescents in Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among in-school and out-of-school but unmarried adolescents aged 10 to 19 in five locations in Tanzania. A questionnaire was used to collect information and to characterize sexual practices among these adolescents. Results About 32% of adolescents reported being sexually active; a higher proportion being males than females. The only inquired and reported sexual practices include vaginal sex, masturbation, oral and anal sex. About 15% of sexually active adolescents reported having multiple sexual partners. Significantly more males reported having multiple partners than females. Nearly 42% of sexually active adolescents reported having used a condom during most recent sexual act. Females reported older partners at first sexual act. Conclusion Adolescents experience several sexual practices that include penetrative and non-penetrative. More males reported being sexually active than females. Despite adolescents reporting having multiple sexual partners, reported condom use during the most recent sexual act was low. We advocate for a more enhanced approach of reproductive health education that includes safer sex to adolescents without forgetting those in-schools.

  6. Knowledge and health information communication in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Rumisha, Susan F; Senkoro, Kesheni P; Mayala, Benjamin K; Shayo, Elizabeth H; Kisinza, W N

    2007-04-01

    To explore and identify gaps in knowledge and information communication at all levels of health delivery system in Tanzania. In-depth interviews and twelve Focus Group Discussions were conducted to capture information on the community knowledge on different health problems and the health information communication process. Interviews and discussions were also held with primary schoolchildren, traditional healers, health facility workers and district health management team members. Documentary review and inventory of the available health education materials at community, health facility and district levels, was made. Major community health and health-related problems included diseases (61.6%), lack of potable water (36.5%), frequent famine (26.9%) and lack of health facility services (253%). Malaria, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases were the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Most of the health communication packages covered communicable diseases and their prevention. Health care facility was the main (91.6%) source of health information for most communities. Public meetings, radio and print materials were the most frequently used channels of health information communication. Major constraints in adopting health education messages included poverty, inappropriate health education, ignorance and local beliefs. This study has identified gaps in health knowledge and information communication in Tanzania. There is lack of adequate knowledge and information exchange capacities among the health providers and the ability to share that information with the targeted community. Moreover, although the information gets to the community, most of them are not able to utilize it properly because they lack the necessary background knowledge.

  7. Pig Production in Tanzania: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanzania's 1.58 million pigs represent 3.7 per cent of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Some 99.5 per cent of pigs are kept by small producers in units averaging 3.04 animals (range 2-48. About 18 per cent of households with livestock own pigs, 93.7 per cent of these having a herd of less than 19 and 69.2 per cent own 9 or fewer head. Scavenging is the main feed source. Maize bran is the principle supplement but some owners provide oilseed cakes and minerals. Domestic pigs are not indigenous to Tanzania and derive mainly from late 19th/early 20th century introductions. There have been few imports of breeding stock since 1961. Poor management, in-breeding, inadequate nutrition and rudimentary veterinary attention lead to low output from late ages at first farrowing, long inter-birth intervals, small litters, slow growth and high mortality. Government policy is not applied in practice. Animals are slaughtered in primitive private facilities or household compounds with little concern for welfare or hygiene, often with no official inspection. Pigs can make a greater contribution to society but public and private sectors must provide additional support with particular attention to management, nutrition, health, welfare and food safety to achieve this.

  8. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  9. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  10. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.

  11. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  12. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (pTunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Albian salt-tectonics in Central Tunisia: Evidences for an Atlantic-type passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaillard, Etienne; Bouillin, Jean-Pierre; Ouali, Jamel; Dumont, Thierry; Latil, Jean-Louis; Chihaoui, Abir

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is part of the south-Tethyan margin, which comprises Triassic evaporites and a thick series of Jurassic and Cretaceous, mainly marine deposits, related to the Tethyan rifting evolution. A survey of various Cretaceous outcrops of central Tunisia (Kasserine-El Kef area), combined with literature descriptions, shows that the style of Albian deformation changes from the proximal (South) to the distal part (North) of the margin. The southern part is dominated by tilted blocks and growth faults, which evolve to the north to turtle-back and roll-over structures. Farther North, deformation is dominated by the extrusion of diapirs and salt walls. Such a distribution of deformation strongly suggests that the whole sedimentary cover glided northward on the Triassic evaporites during Albian times, as described for the Atlantic passive margin or for the Gulf of Mexico. Subsequently, these halokinetic structures have been folded during Alpine compressional tectonics.

  14. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011.

  15. Leaving Sweden behind: Gains in life expectancy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Le Serbon, Emilie; Rostila, Mikael

    2015-06-01

    Sweden and Canada are known for quality of living and exceedingly high life expectancy, but recent data on how these countries compare are lacking. We measured life expectancy in Canada and Sweden during the past decade, and identified factors responsible for changes over time. We calculated life expectancy at birth for Canada and Sweden annually from 2000 to 2010, and determined the ages and causes of death responsible for the gap between the two countries using Arriaga's method. We determined how population growth, ageing, and mortality influenced the number of deaths over time. During 2000-2010, life expectancy in Canada caught up with Sweden for men, and surpassed Sweden by 0.4 years for women. Sweden lost ground owing to a slower reduction in circulatory and tumour mortality after age 65 years compared with Canada. Nonetheless, population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, especially for mental and nervous system disorders. In Sweden, the number of deaths decreased. In only one decade, life expectancy in Canada caught up and surpassed Sweden due to rapid improvements in circulatory and tumour mortality. Population ageing increased the number of deaths in Canada, potentially stressing the health care system more than in Sweden. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Tectonic evolution of the northern African margin in Tunisia from paleostress data and sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Samir; Barrier, Eric; Soussi, Mohamed; Turki, Mohamed M.; Zouari, Hédi

    2002-11-01

    A reconstruction of the tectonic evolution of the northern African margin in Tunisia since the Late Permian combining paleostress, tectonic stratigraphic and sedimentary approaches allows the characterization of several major periods corresponding to consistent stress patterns. The extension lasting from the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic is contemporaneous of the rifting related to the break up of Pangea. During Liassic times, regional extensional tectonics originated the dislocation of the initial continental platform. In northern Tunisia, the evolution of the Liassic NE-SW rifting led during Dogger times to the North African passive continental margin, whereas in southern Tunisia, a N-S extension, associated with E-W trending subsiding basins, lasted from the Jurassic until the Early Cretaceous. After an Upper Aptian-Early Albian transpressional event, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending extensions prevailed during Late Cretaceous in relationship with the general tectonic evolution of the northeastern African plate. The inversions started in the Late Maastrichtian-Paleocene in northern Tunisia, probably as a consequence of the Africa-Eurasia convergence. Two major NW-SE trending compressions occurred in the Late Eocene and in the Middle-Late Miocene alternating with extensional periods in the Eocene, Oligocene, Early-Middle Miocene and Pliocene. The latter compressional event led to the complete inversion of the basins of the northwestern African plate, originating the Maghrebide chain. Such a study, supported by a high density of paleostress data and including complementary structural and stratigraphic approaches, provides a reliable way of determining the regional tectonic evolution.

  17. HYRESS project. Study case of Tunisia. Installation, set-up and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cendagorta, M.; Friend, M.; Lopez-Manzanares, L.; Rodriguez, J. [Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, Tenerife (Spain). Inst. Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A.; El Khazen, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l' Energie, Tunis (Tunisia); Linares, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of the HYRESS project, a minigrid has been designed and installed at the village of Ksar Ghilene, in southern Tunisia. This project, developed from the perspective of knowledge transfer, will allow the installation of an underground minigrid during the trimester of 2010. STEG, Tunisian national electricity supplier, will finish civil works by May 2010. It is expected to have first results of system behaviour by the end of May or April 2010. (orig.)

  18. ?This Is Real Misery?: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Selma Hajri; Sarah Raifman; Caitlin Gerdts; Sarah Baum; Diana Greene Foster

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal aborti...

  19. Spatial variability of soil aggregate stability at the scale of an agricultural region in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Annabi, M.; Raclot, Damien; Bahri, H.; Bailly, J. S.; Gomez, Cécile; Le Bissonnais, Y.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Soil aggregate stability is a key factor in soil resistance to water erosion, which is a threat to soils in a large part of northern Tunisia. The analysis of the spatial variability of soil aggregate stability provides both agronomic and environmentally useful information. However, extensive measurements of soil aggregate stability remain tedious and expensive. This study explores two different approaches as alternative to measurements of soil aggregate stability. One ...

  20. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  1. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Wasfi Fares; Dowall Stuart; Ghabbari Tayssir; Bosworth Andrew; Chakroun Mohamed; Varghese Anitha; Tiouiri Hanene; Ben Jemaa Mounir; Znazen Abir; Hewson Roger; Zhioua Elyes; Letaief Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n?=?181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n?=?38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analy...

  2. Expanding the Technology Acceptance Model to Examine Internet Banking Adoption in Tunisia Country

    OpenAIRE

    Wadie Nasri; Charfeddine Lanouar; Anis Allagui

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to empirically examine the factors that affect the adoption of Internet banking in Tunisia. In order to explain the factors, this paper extends the “Technology Acceptance Model†by adding additional external factors such as security and privacy, self efficacy, social influence, and awareness of services and its benefits. The findings of the study suggests that the security and privacy, self efficacy, social influence, and awareness of services and its benefits have signific...

  3. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunis...

  4. Prevalence of COPD and Tobacco Smoking in Tunisia — Results from the BOLD Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daldoul, Hager; Denguezli, Meriam; Jithoo, Anamika; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Buist, Sonia; Burney, Peter; Tabka, Zouhair; Harrabi, Imed

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for ...

  5. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  6. Features of Constitutional Development in Tunisia and Egypt after the «Arab Spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Sapronova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulation of new constitutions of Tunisia and Egypt adopted after shocks of the «Arab spring», which restore constitutional state institutions of these countries. Special attention is devoted to new constitutional regulation, which change the character of the state system and the political regime as well as to problem to secure Islam and Shariat at basic laws of these countries.

  7. Climate change impacts on agriculture: A panel cointegration approach and application to Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    BEN ZAIED, YOUNES; Zouabi, Oussama

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to model the long run impact of climate change on olive output in Tunisia, the third largest olive-oil producing country in the world, using panel cointegration techniques. The long run analysis reveals that temperature increase and inappropriate working tools reduce olive output in semi arid areas. Therefore, we propose an appropriate training for workers to develop their skills and public policy subsidizing the innovation of used capital stock at least in the south. We ...

  8. Excessive carbohydrate intake in pregnancy and neonatal obesity: study in Cap Bon, Tunisia.

    OpenAIRE

    de Schampheleire, I; Parent, M A; Chatteur, C

    1980-01-01

    A high incidence (over 20%) of obesity was found in 250 neonates living in a rural area of Tunisia, by using weight and ponderal index per gestational age as the nutritional index. Maternal diabetes was probably excluded. Two surveys on nutritional habits--one on the general population and the other on pregnant women--showed a tendency to consume a high carbohydrate and low protein diet. The effect of a badly balanced maternal diet on the fetus is discussed.

  9. An epidemiological and genetic study of congenital profound deafness in Tunisia (governorate of Nabeul).

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Arab, S; Bonaïti-Pellié, C.; Belkahia, A

    1990-01-01

    An epidemiological and genetic study of profound deafness has been undertaken in the governorate of Nabeul in Tunisia. This paper deals with sensorineural deafness with no associated abnormalities. The prevalence was estimated to be 0.0007 and four clusters could be identified, two of which represent 51% and 34% respectively of the total number of cases. Segregation analysis performed in 29 pedigrees containing 415 subjects with 129 affected cases provided evidence for simple recessive inheri...

  10. Vegetative habitat selection of Scimitar horned oryx (Oryx dammah in Bouhedma National Park, Southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssem chedli Traouit Beyouli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the habitat selection of the Scimitar horned oryx, reintroduced in Bouhedma National Park (south Tunisia and to identify the phytoecological factors affecting their occurrence during winter 2011 and spring 2012. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA performed by SAS package revealed that the vegetation is not the main factor in the selection of habitat by oryx in the park. It avoids glaze and mountain areas despite the presence of palatable species.

  11. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 28, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of Commiphora schimperi (O. Berg) from Iramba district in Tanzania for antibacterial activities · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HE Nonga, RH Mdegela, E Macha, F Mabiki, 60-65 ...

  12. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: URBAN AREAS, LOCAL PLANNING, CLIMATE CHANGE, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, DISASTER PREVENTION, DISASTER MANAGEMENT, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION. Region: Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Climate Change.

  13. Civic Participation in the Democratisation Process in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , village and chiefdom levels were prevalent throughout Tanzania even before the advent of colonialism. The scope, size and focus of civic societies have increased and changed over time from being primary agents for social service delivery ...

  14. Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania | Kisinza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stigma and discrimination on HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. W Kisinza, E MakundI, A Mwisongo, G Mubyazi, SM Magesa, H Malebo, J Mcharo, K Senkoro, P Hiza, K Pallangyo, Y Ipuge, AY Kitua, M Malecela-Lazaro ...

  15. Onchocerciasis situation in the Tukuyu focus of southwest Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    like chain, from Northeast Tanzania to Northern Malawi, from Tanga region to Ruvuma and south-western Mbeya regions (Raybould & White,. 1979; Maegga, 199] ). In Morogoro and Ruvuma regions, all district have hyperendemic communities,.

  16. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 29, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick-borne disease infections in the traditional cattle farming system in Same District, Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Kiswaga, DM Kambarage, SI Kimera, 18-25 ...

  17. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 1, No 2 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats on some selected farms in Morogoro and Arusba, Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. NG Moshi, GC Kifaro, UM Minga ...

  18. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 17, No 4 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune recovery among HIV-infected patients in northwestern Tanzania after 2 ... Access to child health services in Orumba North Local Government Area of ... Mental health, anthropometry and blood pressure among adolescents living in ...

  19. Arusha school dental health programme | Mosha | Tanzania Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Dental Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. All projects related to tanzania | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    : Mali, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Kenya, Tanzania, Burkina Faso. Program: Maternal and Child Health. Total Funding: CA$ 24,930.00. Strategies for Health Insurance Mechanisms to Address Health System Inequities in Ghana, South ...

  1. Malaria entomological profile in Tanzania from 1950 to 2010: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-10

    Dec 10, 2011 ... Understanding the diversity and insecticide susceptibility ... Keywords: malaria, mosquito, vectorial capacity, sporozoite, inoculation rate, insecticide resistance, Tanzania. Background ... climatic and environmental change to which anthropophilic anopheles mosquitoes have to respond by developing a ...

  2. All projects related to Tanzania | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: RESEARCH CENTRES, RESEARCH CAPACITY, Capacity building, RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS, INSTITUTION BUILDING, POLICY MAKING, Evaluation. Region: Tanzania, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Program: Think Tank Initiative. Total Funding: CA$ 999,951.00. Institutional Support : Research on Poverty ...

  3. Nuclear Analytical Techniques in Tanzania: A Review | Koleleni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Essential Oil of Brachylaena hutchinsii Hutch from Tanzania: Antimicrobial Activity and Composition. MM Oliva, MS Demo, RS Malele, CK Mutayabarwa, JW Mwangi, GN Thoithi, IO Kibwage, SM Faillaci, RL Scrivanti, AG Lopez, JA Zygadlo ...

  5. Mutational founder effect in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa families from Southern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Brick, Ahlem Sabrine; Laroussi, Nadia; Mesrati, Hela; Kefi, Rym; Bchetnia, Mbarka; Lasram, Khaled; Ben Halim, Nizar; Romdhane, Lilia; Ouragini, Houyem; Marrakchi, Salaheddine; Boubaker, Mohamed Samir; Meddeb Cherif, Mounira; Castiglia, Daniele; Hovnanian, Alain; Abdelhak, Sonia; Turki, Hamida

    2014-05-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a group of heritable bullous skin disorders caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. One of the most severe forms of DEB is the severe generalized [recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB-SG)] subtype, which is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. This subtype is most often due to COL7A1 mutations resulting in a premature termination codon on both alleles. We report here, the molecular investigation of 15 patients belonging to 14 nuclear families from the city of Sfax in Southern Tunisia, with clinical features of RDEB-SG complicated by squamous cell carcinoma in 3 patients. We identified two novel mutations, p.Val769LeufsX1 and p.Ala2297SerfsX91, in addition to one previously reported mutation (p.Arg2063Trp). The p.Val769LeufsX1 mutation was shared by 11 families and haplotype analysis indicated that it is a founder mutation. The p.Ala2297SerfsX91 mutation was a private mutation found in only one family. Together with the previously described recurrent mutations in Tunisia, screening for the founder p.Val769LeufsX1 mutation should provide a rapid molecular diagnosis tool for mutation screening in RDEB patients from Southern Tunisia and possibly from other Mediterranean populations sharing the same genetic background.

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Addiction among College Students in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouli, Menel; Zammit, Nawel; Limam, Manel; Elghardallou, Meriam; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya; Zedini, Chekib

    2018-01-02

    Internet represents a revolution in the world of technology and communication all over the world including Tunisia. However, this technology has also introduced problematic use, especially among students. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among college students and its predictors in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. A cross-sectional study. The current study was conducted in the colleges of Sousse, Tunisia in 2012-2013. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect data from 556 students in 5 randomly selected colleges from the region. Collected data concerned socio-demographic characteristics, substances use and internet addiction using the Young Internet Addiction Test. The response rate was 96%. The mean age of participants was 21.8±2.2 yr. Females represented 51.8% of them. Poor control of internet use was found among 280 (54.0%; CI95%: 49.7, 58.3%) participants. Low education levels among parents, the young age, lifetime tobacco use and lifetime illicit drugs use were significantly associated with poor control of internet use among students (Paddiction.

  7. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May-June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. © F. Wasfi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  8. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasfi Fares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181 and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38, were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia.

  9. River capture and sediment redistribution in northern Tunisia: The doom of Utica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Ranero, César; Azañón, José Miguel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Utica was a flourishing port city in northern Tunisia since the Phoenician times, 12-9th century B.C., until the 4th century A.D.. However, at present it is located 10 km from the coastline after very fast late Holocene progradation of the Mejerda River delta into the bay of Utica. This fast delta progradation occurred after Mejerda River captured Tine River increasing 140 % the river catchment area. Charcoal fragments present in the youngest Tine river terrace at the wind gap give a conventional radiocarbon age of 3240 +/- 30yr BP, indicating that the capture occurred after this date. Quaternary fluvial terraces located in the Tine River paleovalley have been folded and uplifted above a fold related to the active El Alia Tebousouk reverse fault (ETF). Continued uplift of the Tine River valley above the ETF favoured headward erosion of the Medjerda river tributaries creating a transverse drainage that captured Tine River. This capture produced an important change in sediment discharge along the northern Tunisia coast driving sediments to the Gulf of Tunis instead of feeding the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Ichkeul and Bizerte lakes. Although anthropogenic derived degradation of northern Tunisia land for agricultural purposes probably influenced the increase in sediment into the Utica bay, the main cause of rapid progradation of the Medjerda River delta during the late Holocene is related to its increase in drainage area after capturing the Tine River. This process was mostly driven by local contractive tectonics linked to the seismogenic Alia Tebousouk reverse fault.

  10. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproductive Health Policy in Tunisia: Women's Right to Reproductive Health and Gender Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amroussia, Nada; Goicolea, Isabel; Hernandez, Alison

    2016-12-01

    Although Tunisia is regarded as a pioneer in the Middle East and North Africa in terms of women's status and rights, including sexual and reproductive health and rights, evidence points to a number of persisting challenges. This article uses the Health Rights of Women Assessment Instrument (HeRWAI) to analyze Tunisia's reproductive health policy between 1994 and 2014. It explores the extent to which reproductive rights have been incorporated into the country's reproductive health policy, the gaps in the implementation of this policy, and the influence of this policy on gender empowerment. Our results reveal that progress has been slow in terms of incorporating reproductive rights into the national reproductive health policy. Furthermore, the implementation of this policy has fallen short, as demonstrated by regional inequities in the accessibility and availability of reproductive health services, the low quality of maternal health care services, and discriminatory practices. Finally, the government's lack of meaningful engagement in advancing gender empowerment stands in the way as the main challenge to gender equality in Tunisia.

  12. Foraminiferal assemblages behavior at the Messinian-Pliocene boundary in Eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaaloul, Nadia; Rim, Temami; Razgallah, Saloua

    2014-05-01

    The microfaunal study of several boreholes drilled in Eastern Tunisia (western edge of the Mediterranean pelagian platform) has allowed the characterization of the Miocene-Pliocene boundary which has been previously well studied elsewhere in the Mediterranean basins but is still to be more understood within the Tunisian Mediterranean margin. Analyses of vertical and lateral evolution of benthonic and planktonic foraminifera between five boreholes belonging to the Gulf of Hammamet (Eastern Tunisia) revealed three distinctive palaeo-ecological depositional environments. - During the lower Messinian, benthonic foraminifera are abundant and show a great diversity in genus and species. They indicate marine settings with normal salinity and good oxygenation. Sub-reefal environment characterize this shallow water limestone platform; - The Upper Messinian is characterized by a general extinction of foraminifera (only few euryhalin organisms remain at the base of these series). This event corresponds to the Messinian salinity crisis and to the accumulation of evaporites in the Mediterranean basins. In the offshore of Eastern Tunisia, gypsum and anhydrites are deposited in a lagoonal environment and had a negative effect on the biological life. - During the Pliocene, limestones and clays overlay an erosional surface corresponding to the top of the Messinian deposits. This unconformity indicates the beginning of the Pliocene transgression which has led to a high diversity in planktonic and benthonic foraminifera. This new assemblage indicates open marine conditions.

  13. Rheumatic heart disease in a developing country: Incidence and trend (Monastir; Tunisia: 2000-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriha Belguith, Asma; Koubaa Abdelkafi, Afifa; El Mhamdi, Sana; Ben Fredj, Manel; Abroug, Hela; Ben Salah, Arwa; Bouanene, Inès; Hassine, Fahima; Amara, Amal; Bhiri, Sana; Derbel, Abdelkarim; Gamra, Habib; Maatouk, Faouzi; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi

    2017-02-01

    The penicillin therapy of β hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis has aided in the decrease of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in developing countries. Tunisia is an endemic area, however, and incidence of RHD is weakly documented. We aimed at establishing the standardized incidence rate (SIR) of RHD in Monastir governorate and at determining RHD prevalence among hospitalized patients in two cardiology departments. From the regional register of Monastir Hospital morbidity, we have selected newly diagnosed patients with RHD, residents of Monastir, and hospitalized to the 2 cardiology departments between 2000 and 2013 (2001 not included). We studied 676 newly admitted patients. We estimate 1060 to be the number of new annual RHD cases in Tunisia. The SIR per 10(5) person-years was 10.97, being 9.3 in men and 19.1 in women, respectively. We have notified a negative trend of crude incidence rate/10(5) Inhabitants (Inh) (CIR) (r=-0.23, pTunisia. We have also emphasized on the close trend of RHD with age and the predominance of RHD among women especially at the procreation age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aptian-Albian boundary in Central Southern Atlas of Tunisia: New tectono-sedimentary facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanmi, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Barhoumi, Amine; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Zargouni, Fouad

    2017-08-01

    The Aptian-Albian boundary preserves one of the most important events in Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia, which belongs to the Southern Tethyan margin. A major sedimentary break was recorded between Early Aptian and Albian series in Bouhedma-Boudouaou Mountains. This major hiatus probably linked to the ''Austrian phase'' and to the Aptian and Albian ''Crisis'' testify a period of major tectonic events. In this paper, field observations on the Mid-Cretaceous stratigraphy combined with seismic profile interpretation were used for the first time to characterize the Aptian-Albian boundary in Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia. Our new results reveal that Aptian-Albian boundary marks a critical interval not only in Maknassy-Mezzouna orogenic system but also in the Tunisian Atlas. Furthermore, Aptian-Albian series outcrop is marked by the important sedimentary gaps as well as a dramatic thickness change from West to East and predominately from North to South. This is linked to the extensional tectonic features which characterize all the Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia.

  15. Association among Education Level, Occupation Status, and Consanguinity in Tunisia and Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkeni, Emna; Monastiri, Kamel; Saket, Besma; Rudan, Diana; Zgaga, Lina; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2006-01-01

    Aim To investigate the association between education level, occupation status (a proxy for socio-economic status), and consanguinity in 2 large data sets from Tunisia and Croatia countries with different attitudes toward consanguinity. Methods The sample of 1016 students, attending 5 university institutions in Monastir, Tunisia, were interviewed about the educational level and occupation status of their parents and the degree of parental relatedness. In Croatia, a sample of 1001 examinees from 9 isolated island populations was interviewed about their own educational level, occupation status, and consanguinity. Results Prevalence of consanguinity (offspring of second cousins or closer) among 1016 Tunisian students was 20.1%, and 9.3% among 1001 Croatian isolates. In Tunisia, the association between consanguinity and both parental degree of education and parental occupation status was highly significant in women (Pprevalence of consanguinity with lower education level or occupation status in both genders, but more pronounced in women. Conclusion Association between education level, socio-economic status, and consanguinity needs to be taken into account in inbreeding studies in human populations. The relationship may be specific for each studied population and highly dependent on the cultural context. It is generally more pronounced among women in most settings. PMID:16912991

  16. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Monirul Islam, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society (TJS 2014) held at Gammarth, Republic of Tunisia on November 28-30, 2014. The TJS 2014 is based on the network of the Tunisia-Japan Symposium on Science, Society and Technology (TJASSST) which has been regularly organized since 2000. The symposium was focused on the technological developments of energy and materials for the realization of sustainable society. To generate technological breakthrough and innovation, it seems to be effective to discuss with various fields of researchers such as solid-state physicists, chemists, surface scientists, process engineers and so on. In this symposium, there were as many as 109 attendees from a wide variety of research fields. The technical session consisted of 106 contributed presentations including 3 plenary talks and 7 key-note talks. We hope the Conference Series and publications like this volume will contribute to the progress in research and development in the field of energy and material sciences for sustainable society and in its turn contribute to the creation of cultural life and peaceful society.

  17. The scolopendromorph centipedes (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha of Tunisia: taxonomy, distribution and habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine Akkari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides a review of the composition, distribution and habitat preferences of the scolopendromorph centipedes of Tunisia. Five (sub-genera and 8 (sub-species have hitherto been reported from the country, of which two are of uncertain status. After a study of significant amount of new material collected in the period 2003-2008, 6 species, namely Scolopendra canidens Newport, 1844, S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, Cormocephalus gervaisianus (C.L. Koch, 1841, Otostigmus spinicaudus (Newport, 1844, Cryptops punicus Silvestri, 1896 and C. trisulcatus Brölemann, 1902, were found in the country. New illustrations and, where appropriate, brief descriptions of the species are given, along with an identification key for the Tunisian scolopendromorphs. Cryptops anomalans Newport 1844, Scolopendra oraniensis Lucas, 1846 and S. cingulata Latreille, 1829 are excluded from the country’s list since all previous records are most likely based on misidentifications. Cryptops trisulcatus and C. punicus are recorded for the first time from Tunisia and Libya, respectively. The taxonomic position of C. punicus is discussed and the species is transferred from the subgenus Trigonocryptops to Cryptops. Scolopendra morsitans scopoliana is synonymised under S. morsitans. S. canidens, O. spinicaudus and C. punicus are well adapted to arid and semidesert biotopes and have much wider ranges compared to the other three species which are restricted to the northern, more humid parts of the country. S. canidens is the only myriapod in Tunisia found in a pure sandy desert.

  18. Trade openness-financial development nexus: Bounds testing approach and causality tests for Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoutem Ben Jedidia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of causal relationships between trade openness and financial development in Tunisia over the period 1973-2013. We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag method considering the ratio of Liquid liabilities, Private credit and Stock market capitalization as financial development indicators (all per cent of GDP. The sum of export and import as a percentage of GDP is the measurement of trade openness. Our estimates imply that the long and short-run relationships are different. At long run, trade openness is stimulated by liquid liabilities level while it is negatively affected by the level of private credit and the stock market capitalization. In contrast, the main short-run responses of financial development and openness to international trade are not significant. Moreover, the results reveal a bi-directional causality between private credit and trade openness but a direct unidirectional causality running from financial intermediaries’ ability to mobilize funds, the size of stock market and trade openness in Tunisia. The policy implications of this study appeared clear. The overcoming of the institutional weaknesses and the establishment of transparent rules are likely to improve the efficiency of the banking sector and the stock market and so to strengthen the foreign trade in Tunisia.

  19. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health.

  20. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  1. Green light for nonstop fermentation. [Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-19

    It is reported that Alfa-Laval (Tumba) is to build a $10 million demonstration plant at Skaraborg, Sweden that will produce ethanol from grain in a continuous fermentation process. The facility, funded by the Swedish government will be able to make 20,000 L/d of 99.5% ethanol, plus 30.5 metric tons/d of cattle fodder from the liftover sludge, using the so-called Biostil technique. A similar unit has been run in Sarenia, Queensland using molasses as a feedstock. The facility has been highly successful since its startup in April and has had no downtime.

  2. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY CARE IN SWEDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf BJÖRNSTIG

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden (9 million inhabitants, a sparsely populated country with sometimes long transportation distances to the nearest trauma hospital, 800 ambulances, 7 ambulance helicopters and 3–5 fixed wing ambulance aircraft are the available transport resources. In case of a mass casualty or disaster situation, inside or outside the country, a governmental project (Swedish National Medevac aims to convert a passenger aircraft from Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS to a qualified medical resource for long distance transport, with capacity to nurse six intensive care patients and an additional 6–20 lieing or seated patients during transport.

  3. Local Responses to Marine Conservation in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    A. Levine

    2006-01-01

    Although terrestrial parks and reserves have existed in Tanzania since colonial times, marine protected areas are a much newer endeavor in natural resource conservation. As the importance of marine conservation came to the international forefront in the 1990s, Tanzania experienced a rapid establishment and expansion of marine parks and protected areas. These efforts were crucial to protecting the country’s marine resource base, but they also had significant implications for the lives and fish...

  4. What actions could boost international tourism demand for Tanzania?

    OpenAIRE

    Asimwe Bashagi; Edwin Muchapondwa

    2009-01-01

    Tanzania recognises the potential of international tourism in accelerating socio-economic development, particularly as a supplier of foreign exchange, investment and employment. This paper investigates the factors affecting international tourism demand for Tanzania. The autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration is applied. Local tourism prices, tourist preference, tourist income and the 2001 terror attack in the USA had a significant impact on international tourism demand for T...

  5. 75 FR 57815 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... COMMISSION Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden AGENCY: United... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden... antidumping duty orders on purified carboxymethylcellulose from Finland, Mexico, Netherlands, and Sweden would...

  6. 75 FR 61700 - Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden: Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Purified Carboxymethylcellulose From Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden... purified carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from, inter alia, Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden, pursuant to... (120-day) sunset reviews of the Finland, the Netherlands, and Sweden antidumping duty orders pursuant...

  7. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  8. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  9. Sweden to host a new neutron source

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    The first European neutron source, currently under development, should commence operations by the end of this decade. Its aim: to produce beams of neutrons that can penetrate into the heart of matter without damaging it and reveal its secrets.   An artist's impression of what the ESS should look like in 2019. At the southern end of Sweden, a town called Lund is preparing for the arrival of the world's most powerful neutron source: the European Spallation Source (ESS). Construction is scheduled to start at the beginning of next year, and the facility is expected to become operational by 2019, when it will produce its first neutron beams. “The ESS is the result of an idea that began 20 years ago!” underlines Mats Lindroos, in charge of the ESS Accelerator Division. “Today, 17 European countries support the project, including Sweden, Denmark and Norway, who together account for 50% of the construction funding.” The ESS, whose design is al...

  10. Space education in Kiruna, Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The town of Kiruna in the north of Sweden has a concentration of space activities and space research with, for example, the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Esrange, the ESA Salmijärvi satellite station, and EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Radar Scientific Association. The Department of Space Science is a joint department between the two most northern universities in Sweden, Luleå University of Technology and Umeå University in collaboration with the Swedish Institute of Space Physics. It offers a range of education programmes in the space field. There are bachelor and master programmes in space engineering, and a bridging programme for students without a science background from secondary school. The Department also contributes to courses for teachers, Ph.D. courses and secondary school level courses. One master´s program and a three week summer course are given entirely in English and welcome international students. Thanks to good cooperation with Esrange students can build and fly experiments on high altitude balloons and sounding rockets and also take a large responsibility for the management of the projects. Close interaction with research and industry is an important part of the education.

  11. Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvemark, A S

    1980-01-01

    Focus in this discussion is on Malthus and neo-Malthusianism in Sweden. Neo-Malthusianism arrived in Sweden at the beginning of the 1880s when Knut Wicksell gave a public lecture at a youth meeting of a temperance society in Uppsala. The lecture resulted in public scandal and made neo-Malthusian ideas known overnight in Sweden. Wicksell maintained that poverty was the primary cause of most evils in society, and it was caused by the pressure from population increase on the means of subsistence. In his lecture he referred to Malthus explicitly and gave a summary of the Malthusian principle of population on which he based his reasoning. At the time he only knew of Malthus' ideas indirectly by reading George Drysdale's book, "The Elements of Social Science." The questions that arise are whether Malthus' ideas were only indirectly studied and whether neo-Malthusiansim was just seen as an equivalent of birth control and contraceptives, the very means of preventive checks for population growth that Malthus condemned for moral reasons. Wicksell focused on the causes and consequences of emigration in a lecture in 1881. He again saw rapid population growth as the cause of poverty, which in turn caused emigration. The rapid rise in Swedish emigration in the 1880s created considerable interest. Generally, the common view at the time was that Sweden suffered from a certain population pressure and corresponding underemployment. Johan Leffler, a young economist, had a different opinion. He saw the problem in an outspoken Malthusian way, suggesting that under the prevailing overpopulation in Sweden emigration could not be harmful. At the turn of the centruy Gustav Sundbarg was among those describing emigration as a deadly threat to Swedish society. Sundbarg not only turned against Malthus, but he also condemned neo-Malthusianism for moral reasons. Sundbarg maintained that demographic and economic development over the 19th century did not verify Malthus' assumption that population

  12. Management and outcome of traumatic brain injury patients at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boniface Respicious; Lugazia Edwin Rwebugisa; Ntungi Abel Mussa; Kiloloma Othman

    2017-01-01

    .... However, access to neurosurgical care is poor in low income countries like Tanzania. The aim of this study was to assess the management and outcome of Traumatic brain injury patients at a tertiary level health facility in Tanzania...

  13. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...

  14. Geospatial Resource Access Analysis In Hedaru, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dylan G.; Premkumar, Deepak; Mazur, Robert; Kisimbo, Elibariki

    2013-12-01

    Populations around the world are facing increased impacts of anthropogenic-induced environmental changes and rapid population movements. These environmental and social shifts are having an elevated impact on the livelihoods of agriculturalists and pastoralists in developing countries. This appraisal integrates various tools—usually used independently— to gain a comprehensive understanding of the regional livelihood constraints in the rural Hedaru Valley of northeastern Tanzania. Conducted in three villages with different natural resources, using three primary methods: 1) participatory mapping of infrastructures; 2) administration of quantitative, spatially-tied surveys (n=80) and focus groups (n=14) that examined land use, household health, education, and demographics; 3) conducting quantitative time series analysis of Landsat- based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index images. Through various geospatial and multivariate linear regression analyses, significant geospatial trends emerged. This research added to the academic understanding of the region while establishing pathways for climate change adaptation strategies.

  15. Coping with rainfall variability in northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... conditions that rural households face when experiencing climate-related shocks. Finally, shocks reported by households appear to correspond well with observed variability in rainfall patterns....... of rainfall amounts across the districts in the region are estimated in order to assess the variations in rainfall patterns across the districts. The results show that rainfall patterns in the region are very location-specific, there are few correlations between rainfall events, and that the distribution...

  16. Coping with Rainfall Variability in Northern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a potential relationship between rainfall data and household self-reported harvest shocks and local (spatial) variability of harvest shocks and coping strategies based on a survey of 2700 rural households in the Kagera region of northern Tanzania. In addition, correlations...... conditions that rural households face when experiencing climate-related shocks. Finally, shocks reported by households appear to correspond well with observed variability in rainfall patterns....... of rainfall amounts across the districts in the region are estimated in order to assess the variations in rainfall patterns across the districts. The results show that rainfall patterns in the region are very location-specific, there are few correlations between rainfall events, and that the distribution...

  17. Occupational doses and ALARA - recent developments in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godas, T.; Viktorsson, C. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-03-01

    Sweden has traditionally experienced very slow doses to workers in the nuclear industry. However, this trend has since last year been broken mainly due to significant maintenance and repair work. This paper will describe occupational dose trends in Sweden and discuss actions that are being implemented to control this new situation.

  18. New Investment Models for Broadband in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse whether the developmental policy model applied for fibre roll-out in Sweden can be used as inspiration for the Danish telecom policy. This is done through a comparison of the two very different policy approaches applied in Denmark and Sweden. A case study...

  19. Home-School Collaboration in Sweden and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersson, Margaretha; Gu, Limin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a working paper presenting a network building cooperative project between Umea University in Sweden and Zhejiang University in China. The project focuses on parents' involvement and home-school collaboration in Sweden and China and has an ambition to entail a set of empirical objectives: (1) to map and compare the systems,…

  20. Territorial Attractiveness of the Foreign Direct Investment: Empirical Evidence from Panel Data Analysis for the Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to evaluate the role of different macroeconomic variables that may promote the entry of the foreign direct investment (FDI in the industrial sector in Tunisia. In recent decades, several researches indicate that despite the significant impact of the FDI as an important catalyst of development, its benefits remain unequally distributed between countries, sectors and communities. For this reason, the competition between countries becomes more intense and depends on a large set of factors having different importance. In the same order of ideas, we try to estimate the impact of these factors on the FDI attractiveness in Tunisia through an econometric modelling with panel data over the period 2000-2014. We found that the traditional economic factors have the greatest and more significant impact. Also, the results imply that the multinational companies adopt essentially the vertical implementation strategy to invest in Tunisia. The findings have a great value for the decision-makers in Tunisia who can concentrate their efforts on the most important variables to develop the competitiveness of Tunisia.

  1. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... infants (0.00195 and 0.00145) and intrapartum deaths of non-malformed infants (0.00042 and 0.00019) was significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. CONCLUSION: Application of the Nordic-Baltic Perinatal Death Classification on perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden in 1991 raises the questions...... as to why the rate of perinatal death of malformed infants is higher in Denmark than in Sweden and whether intrapartum care in Denmark could be improved....

  2. General equilibrium effects of increasing carbon taxes in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, G.W. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Economics, College of Business Administration; Kristroem, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Economics

    1997-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first countries to introduce carbon taxes, and is currently evaluating further carbon taxes. The authors were asked to advise a government commission charged with undertaking the official Swedish evaluation. We did so by constructing and simulating a computable general equilibrium model of Sweden. In this report, the carbon tax debate in Sweden is first reviewed, then our model is described and the main results presented. The conclusion from the cost-benefit analysis is clear, the benefits of increasing the carbon tax in Sweden are a tiny fraction of the costs that consumers must pay in the form of higher prices and reduced incomes. Although we do not put much credence in the gross benefit numbers, they do serve to highlight the basis of our conclusion that carbon tax increases are not currently justifiable in Sweden. 35 refs., 13 tabs.

  3. Delayed HIV diagnosis common in Sweden, 2003-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgren, Katarina; Skar, Helena; Berglund, Torsten; Kling, Anna-Maria; Tegnell, Anders; Albert, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of HIV is important for the prognosis of individual patients, because antiretroviral treatment can be started at the appropriate time, and for public health, because transmission can be prevented. Data were collected from 767 HIV patients who were diagnosed in Sweden during 2003-2010 and were infected in Sweden or born in Sweden and infected abroad. A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) was applied to BED-EIA test results (OD-n Sweden or abroad). Early diagnosis was observed in 271 patients (35%). There was no statistically significant time trend in the yearly percentage of patients with early diagnosis in the entire study group (p = 0.836) or in subgroups. Early diagnosis was significantly more common in men who have sex men (MSM) (45%) than in heterosexuals (21%) and injecting drug users (27%) (p Sweden, which does not appear to diminish.

  4. Extensive dissemination of CTX-M-1- and CMY-2-producing Escherichia coli in poultry farms in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, B; Ktari, S; Rhimi, F M; Hammami, A

    2012-12-01

    We characterized 67 Escherichia coli isolates with reduced susceptibility to cefotaxime obtained from 136 samples of healthy broilers housed in 36 Tunisian farms. All these isolates harboured blaCTX-M-1 and/or blaCMY-2 genes located mostly on self-conjugative IncI1 plasmids. qnrS1, qnrA6 and aac(6')-Ib-cr were detected in six isolates. Considerable genetic diversity was detected among isolates from different farms. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed documentation of a high occurrence of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCMY-2 in E. coli at the poultry farm level in Tunisia as well as the first description of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in food animals in Tunisia which may contribute to the dissemination of these genes throughout Tunisia. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Investigations on gallery patterns of the Almond bark bettle (Scolytus amygdali Guerin-Méneville, 1847 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Zeiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Almond bark beetle Scolytus amygdali Guerin-Meneville, 1847 is a serious beetle that can affect important economic crops in Tunisia. The species is morphologically similar to other bark beetles attacking fruit trees such as Scolytus mediterraneus. The gallery systems of both species are also generally hard to differentiate. A detailed study about gallery systems has carried out in the central region of Tunisia in order to give more details on beetle damage under the bark. Maternal and larval galleries from infested branches of almond were examined and measured. It is hoped that these details of the shape and measurements of the gallery systems of Scolytus amygdali will facilitate the identification of infestations of almond bark beetles attacking fruit trees in Tunisia.

  6. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  7. Media use in distance education in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman F. Davies

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of distance language teaching which developed rapidly in Sweden after the Second World War. It argues that so far little use has been made of technical aids and that the computer as such is still a stranger both to the language teacher and the student. The writer concludes that perhaps the time has come for a technical revolution amongst Arts students. Met hierdie artikel word 'n oorsig gegee oor afstandsonderrig-spesifiek wat tale betref-soos dit in Swede ontwikkel het na die Tweede Wereldoorlog. Daar word op gewys dat tot dusver min gebruik gemaak is van tegniese hulpmiddels en dat vera! die rekenaar onderbenut is. Die skrywer sluit met die gedagte dat die tyd moontlik ryp is vir 'n tegnologiese rewolusie"in die geledere van die Lettere en Wysbegeerte.

  8. Time trends in human fecundability in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H; Rylander, Lars; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    increased with age, except that for women in their late 1930s, an apparent decrease was observed, particularly among the early cohorts. CONCLUSION: We found decreasing subfertility over time. We speculate that these patterns might be related to a Sweden-specific decrease over time in sexually transmitted...... diseases, to changes in sexual behavior induced by socioeconomic conditions, or to broader biologic or educational trends.......,000 primiparous women 20 years of age and older in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry from 1983 through 2002. This age restriction led to an exclusion of 10% of primiparous pregnancies. Subfertility (TTP > or =1 year) was analyzed as a function of maternal age, calendar time at initiation of attempt...

  9. Travel Behaviour of Online Shoppers in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiselius Lena Winslott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping opportunities are transforming travel behaviour for shopping and could potentially reduce the overall travel demand. Despite numerous studies on online shopping, only a few have taken an approach that includes trips for all travel purposes. Based on a web–survey, this paper provides results on travel behaviour for physical shopping for frequent, regular, and infrequent online shoppers in Sweden. The results indicate that frequent online shoppers make as many car trips (for both shopping and other errands as others. Also, frequent online shoppers in total make as many trips to a physical store as infrequent online shoppers – although by more sustainable modes of transport – and that the time saved from online shopping is spent on both additional shopping trips and trips for other errands. The conclusion is that online shopping might facilitate changing travel behaviour but does not in itself represent a good stand–alone measure for reducing vehicle mileage.

  10. Control of Salmonella enteritidis in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierup, M; Engström, B; Engvall, A; Wahlström, H

    1995-05-01

    The Swedish control of Salmonella, with special reference to Salmonella enteritidis, in poultry is described. The control is directed at all serotypes of Salmonella and imported grandparent chickens are controlled, which is considered to be the main reason why Sweden so far is not found to be involved in the worldwide spread of different phagetypes of S. enteritidis. However, this spread has initiated a more stringent control of Salmonella in layers as earlier existed in broilers. Since 1990, 90% of the layer flocks are voluntarily tested for Salmonella before slaughter by bacteriological examination of pooled faecal samples. If S. enteritidis is isolated the flock is destroyed. This test, and in addition two similar tests during the production are mandatory as of January 1st, 1994. The voluntary Salmonella control programme has also been extended to all of the layer parents and hatcheries since 1991. Only heat-treated feed is given to all layer chickens during the rearing period and its use is becoming gradually more common also during the production period. Since 1987, four layer flocks have been found to be infected by S. enteritidis phagetype 4 and one flock with phagetype 6. During 1970-1984, 90% of all flocks of broilers were voluntarily tested bacteriologically for Salmonella before slaughter, and since 1984 such a control is mandatory to all flocks. As a result of this and other controls, S. enteritidis has not been isolated from broilers since 1972. Based on a governmental regulation from 1961, introduced as a result of a large Salmonella epidemic in 1953, Sweden runs an active, official control of Salmonella (Wierup et al., 1992).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The burden of chickenpox disease in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Widgren

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickenpox vaccine is not included in the routine childhood vaccination programme in Sweden. The aim of this study was to estimate the baseline of national chickenpox disease burden, as comprehensive studies, required for an assessment regarding vaccine introduction, are lacking. Methods We used available health care registers and databases; the death register, hospitalisations register, communicable disease notifications database, Stockholm County registers on consultations in specialist and primary care, temporary parental benefit to care for a sick child, and searches on the health care system’s website. From each data source, records regarding chickenpox were identified and extracted, either using relevant diagnosis codes (ICD-10 or key words. A descriptive analysis with regards to number of cases and incidence, severity, and seasonality, was carried out covering the time period 2007 to 2013. Results There were on average 333 patients hospitalised annually due to chickenpox, yielding a hospitalisation rate of 3.56/100,000 person-years. We found a slight male predominance in hospitalised cases. The highest hospitalisation rate was seen in 1 year-olds, whereas the peak in primary care consultations was in 2 year-olds. Nearly a quarter of children had parents who reported absence from work to care for them when sick with chickenpox. The average yearly death rate from chickenpox was 0.034/100,000 person-years. The duration of hospital stay increased with age. The seasonality in number of searches on the health care website corresponded well with hospitalisations and primary care consultations with peaks in spring. Conclusions This study shows chickenpox death and hospitalisation rates in range with other European countries without routine vaccination. Swedish children fall ill with chickenpox at a very young age. The study provides essential input for future discussions on the introduction of routine chickenpox

  12. Osmium in environmental samples from Northeast Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodushkin, Ilia [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)], E-mail: ilia.rodushkin@alsglobal.com; Engstroem, Emma [Division of Applied Geology, Lulea University of Technology, S-971 87 Lulea (Sweden); Soerlin, Dieke; Ponter, Christer; Baxter, Douglas C. [ALS Laboratory Group, ALS Analytica AB, Aurorum 10, S-977 75 Lulea (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Osmium (Os) concentrations and {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os isotope abundance ratios are presented for sedimentary materials, soils, humus, plants, mushrooms, mosses and lichens collected in the vicinity of the town of Lulea, Northeast Sweden, the data for biological specimens being the first reported. Contributions from sampling and varying exposure time to the observed environmental variability were evaluated. Sedimentary materials (from both fresh and brackish water) are most elevated in radiogenic {sup 187}Os, followed by inorganic soil horizons, mushrooms and humus. The Os isotopic compositions of plants, mosses and lichens are much less radiogenic, with mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os lying within a relatively narrow 0.3-0.6 range. Significant temporal variations in Os concentrations and isotopic compositions of plant samples are attributed to integrative uptake of airborne Os with non-radiogenic composition. Measured Os concentrations in biological matrices increase in the order: small shrub leaves (blueberry and lingonberry) {<=} spruce needles {<=} mushrooms {<=} tree leaves {<=} pine needles < mosses << lichens. The concentrations found in three different species of plant were used to provide the first estimates of gaseous osmium tetroxide (OsO{sub 4}) in the environment. Though the Os content of samples from Northeast Sweden does not differ significantly from matrix-matched international reference materials (not certified for Os) of abiotic origin, the estimates of gaseous OsO{sub 4} concentrations are roughly an order of magnitude higher than have been reported for particle-bound Os in other studies. The pronounced spatial variations between relatively closely situated sites in mean {sup 187}Os/{sup 188}Os ratios for samples of the same species (presumably with the same dominating uptake mechanism) point to the presence of different local Os sources. This study therefore demonstrates that emissions of Os from automobile catalytic converters are not the only

  13. Endotoxins in urban air in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, S.; Merritt, A. S.; Bellander, T.

    2011-01-01

    Endotoxins, i.e. components originating from the outer membrane in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, activate the human immune system, which may result in airway symptoms such as shortness of breath and airway inflammation. Endotoxins are present in the environment, both outdoors and indoors, and stay airborne for a long time. In order to investigate the levels of endotoxins in urban air and the influence of traffic and meteorological factors, particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5) were collected at five sites in Stockholm, Sweden on four occasions per site between May and September 2009. Endotoxins were extracted from the filters and analysis was conducted with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL)-assay. Endotoxins were present in urban air in Stockholm, albeit in low levels, and were similar to levels found in urban areas outside Sweden. To our knowledge, this is the northernmost location where endotoxins have been measured. The endotoxin levels found in PM 10 ranged from 0.020 to 0.107 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.050 EU m -3 and the levels found in PM 2.5 ranged from 0.005 to 0.064 EU m -3 with a geometric mean of 0.015 EU m -3. No obvious effects of traffic or meteorological factors on endotoxin levels were observed, although a moderate correlation could be seen with soot. The small number of sampling sites is however a shortcoming of the present study. In future studies, more sites and sampling during all seasons would be preferable in order to get a better picture of the influence of different sources on endotoxin levels.

  14. Sparse district-heating in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district

  15. Late Miocene extensional systems in northern Tunisia and their relation with SE directed delamination of the African subcontinental mantle lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gaidi, Seif; Melki, Fetheddine; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Marzougui, Wissem; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Galve, Jorge Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has proposed the delamination of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere under northern Tunisia during the late Miocene. This process is required to explain the present location of the Tunisian segment of the African slab, imaged by seismic tomography, hanging under the Gulf of Gabes to the south of Tunisia. Thus, having retreated towards the SE several hundred km from its original position under the Tellian-Atlas nappe contact that crops out along the north of Tunisia. However, no tectonic structures have been described which could be related to this mechanism of lithospheric mantle peeling. Here we describe for the first time extensional fault systems in northern Tunisia that strongly thinned the Tellian nappes, exhuming rocks from the Tunisian Atlas in the core of folded extensional detachments. Two normal fault systems with sub-orthogonal extensional transport occur. These were active during the late Miocene associated to the extrusion of 13 Ma granodiorite and 9 Ma rhyodacite in the footwall of the Nefza detachment. We have differentiated an extensional system formed by low-angle normal faults with NE- and SW-directed transport cutting through the Early to Middle Miocene Tellian nappen stack and a later system of low and high-angle normal faults that cuts down into the underlying Tunisian Atlas units with SE-directed transport, which root in the Nefza detachment. Both normal fault systems have been later folded and cut by thrusts during Plio-Quaternary NW-SE directed compression. These findings change the interpretation of the tectonic evolution of Tunisia that has always been framed in a transpressive to compressive setting, manifesting the extensional effects of Late Miocene lithospheric mantle delamination under northern Tunisia.

  16. Cost of microbial larviciding for malaria control in rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rifat; Lesser, Adriane; Mboera, Leonard; Kramer, Randall

    2016-11-01

    Microbial larviciding may be a potential supplement to conventional malaria vector control measures, but scant information on its relative implementation costs and effectiveness, especially in rural areas, is an impediment to expanding its uptake. We perform a costing analysis of a seasonal microbial larviciding programme in rural Tanzania. We evaluated the financial and economic costs from the perspective of the public provider of a 3-month, community-based larviciding intervention implemented in twelve villages in the Mvomero District of Tanzania in 2012-2013. Cost data were collected from financial reports and invoices and through discussion with programme administrators. Sensitivity analysis explored the robustness of our results to varying key parameters. Over the 2-year study period, approximately 6873 breeding sites were treated with larvicide. The average annual economic costs of the larviciding intervention in rural Tanzania are estimated at 2014 US$ 1.44 per person protected per year (pppy), US$ 6.18 per household and US$ 4481.88 per village, with the larvicide and staffing accounting for 14% and 58% of total costs, respectively. We found the costs pppy of implementing a seasonal larviciding programme in rural Tanzania to be comparable to the costs of other larviciding programmes in urban Tanzania and rural Kenya. Further research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of larviciding relative to, and in combination with, other vector control strategies in rural settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluating the robustness of conceptual rainfall-runoff models under climate variability in northern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhlaoui, H.; Ruelland, D.; Tramblay, Y.; Bargaoui, Z.

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of climate change on water resources at the catchment scale, not only future projections of climate are necessary but also robust rainfall-runoff models that must be fairly reliable under changing climate conditions. The aim of this study was thus to assess the robustness of three conceptual rainfall-runoff models (GR4j, HBV and IHACRES) on five basins in northern Tunisia under long-term climate variability, in the light of available future climate scenarios for this region. The robustness of the models was evaluated using a differential split sample test based on a climate classification of the observation period that simultaneously accounted for precipitation and temperature conditions. The study catchments include the main hydrographical basins in northern Tunisia, which produce most of the surface water resources in the country. A 30-year period (1970-2000) was used to capture a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. The calibration was based on the Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE) criterion, while model transferability was evaluated based on the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency criterion and volume error. The three hydrological models were shown to behave similarly under climate variability. The models simulated the runoff pattern better when transferred to wetter and colder conditions than to drier and warmer ones. It was shown that their robustness became unacceptable when climate conditions involved a decrease of more than 25% in annual precipitation and an increase of more than +1.75 °C in annual mean temperatures. The reduction in model robustness may be partly due to the climate dependence of some parameters. When compared to precipitation and temperature projections in the region, the limits of transferability obtained in this study are generally respected for short and middle term. For long term projections under the most pessimistic emission gas scenarios, the limits of transferability are generally not respected, which may hamper the

  18. Mapping the serological prevalence rate of West Nile fever in equids, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaoui, R; Lecollinet, S; Lancelot, R

    2015-02-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral disease of wild birds transmitted by mosquitoes. Humans and equids can also be affected and suffer from meningoencephalitis. In Tunisia, two outbreaks of WNF occurred in humans in 1997 and 2003; sporadic cases were reported on several other years. Small-scale serological surveys revealed the presence of antibodies against WN virus (WNV) in equid sera. However, clinical cases were never reported in equids, although their population is abundant in Tunisia. This study was achieved to characterize the nationwide serological status of WNV in Tunisian equids. In total, 1189 sera were collected in 2009 during a cross-sectional survey. Sera were tested for IgG antibodies, using ELISA and microneutralization tests. The estimated overall seroprevalence rate was 28%, 95% confidence interval [22; 34]. The highest rates were observed (i) in the north-eastern governorates (Jendouba, 74%), (ii) on the eastern coast (Monastir, 64%) and (iii) in the lowlands of Chott El Jerid and Chott el Gharsa (Kebili, 58%; Tozeur, 52%). Environmental risk factors were assessed, including various indicators of wetlands, wild avifauna, night temperature and chlorophyllous activity (normalized difference vegetation index: NDVI). Multimodel inference showed that lower distance to ornithological sites and wetlands, lower night-time temperature, and higher NDVI in late spring and late fall were associated with higher serological prevalence rate. The model-predicted nationwide map of WNF seroprevalence rate in Tunisian equids highlighted different areas with high seroprevalence probability. These findings are discussed in the perspective of implementing a better WNF surveillance system in Tunisia. This system might rely on (i) a longitudinal survey of sentinel birds in high-risk areas and time periods for WNV transmission, (ii) investigations of bird die-offs and (iii) syndromic surveillance of equine meningoencephalitis. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Mucosal leishmaniasis of the lip: an emerging clinical form in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami-Ghorbel, H; Ben Abda, I; Badri, T; Chelbi, H; Fenniche, S; Mokhtar, I; Bouratbine, A; Benmously-Mlika, R; Aoun, K

    2015-06-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), which mostly occurs in the New World, is mainly associated with Leishmania braziliensis. Primary lip ML is very rare in the Mediterranean basin and particulary in Tunisia despite the endemicity of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in this area. To highlight a recent emergence of primary lip ML in Tunisia, to describe its epidemiological and clinical features and to identify the causative Leishmania species. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic data of 10 cases presenting a ML of the lip were collected. Diagnosis confirmation of leishmaniasis was obtained by microscopic examination of Leishmania parasites in Giemsa stained smears of the lesion sampling and in cutaneous biopsies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detecting Leishmania DNA directly from dermal scraping was also performed for diagnosis and species identification. Seven men and three women with lip ML were diagnosed during the last 6 years (2008-2013). The mean age was 29.7 years. Clinical presentation was characterized by an infiltrated and ulcerated plaque leading to macrocheilitis involving the upper lip in eight cases and the lower lip in two cases. Mean diagnosis delay was 6.9 months. PCR identified L. infantum in seven cases and L. major in two cases. Seven patients received intramuscular injections of meglumine antimoniate (MA) and three patients received both MA intralesional injections of MA and cryotherapy. A clinical remission was rapidly observed in all cases (on average in 2.2 months). Primary lip ML is emerging in Tunisia. Macrocheilitis of the upper lip is the main clinical presentation. PCR revealed more sensitive than direct examination in the diagnosis of such form (P < 0.01). Leishmania infantum was the most identified species (7 cases) while L major was involved in only two lesions. A benign local evolution and a rapid recovery were observed in all cases after MA treatment. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  20. [The virological and epidemiological aspects of human adenoviral conjunctivitis in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedaoui, N; Ben Ayed, N; Ben Yahia, A; Matri, L; Nacef, L; Triki, H

    2017-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are the main cause of viral conjunctivitis. In Tunisia and North Africa more generally, there is no regular nationwide surveillance program that monitors viruses causing conjunctivitis and keratoconjunctivitis. In this study, we report the results of HAdV screening in conjunctival samples collected for over 14 years in Tunisia. A total of 282 conjunctival samples received between 2000 and 2013 were investigated. Detection and identification of genotype were performed by PCR-sequencing at the hexon gene; 64.5% of samples (n=182) revealed positive by PCR detection without correlation noted between infection, age, sex, social class or clinical manifestations of viral conjunctivitis. HAdV-D8 was the largely predominant genotype in Tunisia, representing 81.3% of all isolates, and was detected continuously from 2000 to 2013. Minor co-circulating genotypes were also identified - HAdV-E4, HAdV-B3, B55 and HAdV-B7 - accounting for 10.7%, 4.9%, 1.9% and 0.9% of isolates, respectively. In conclusion, this work reports epidemiological data on adenoviral conjunctivitis from a region where such information is very scarce and contributes to a better knowledge of the worldwide distribution of causative genotypes. It also presents an approach for the identification of circulating HAdV in the country and demonstrates the importance of molecular tools for both detection and identification of genotypes, which allow rapid virological investigation, especially during epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural infection of Algerian hedgehog, Atelerix algirus (Lereboullet 1842) with Leishmania parasites in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemkhi, Jomaa; Souguir, Hejer; Ali, Insaf Bel Hadj; Driss, Mehdi; Guizani, Ikram; Guerbouj, Souheila

    2015-10-01

    In Tunisia, Leishmania parasites are responsible of visceral leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania infantum species while three cutaneous disease forms are documented: chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania killicki, sporadic cutaneous form (SCL) caused by L. infantum and the predominant zoonotic cutaneous leishmanaisis (ZCL) due to Leishmania major. ZCL reservoirs are rodents of the Psammomys and Meriones genera, while for SCL the dog is supposed to be a reservoir. Ctenodactylus gundii is involved in the transmission of L. killicki. However, other mammals could constitute potential reservoir hosts in Tunisia and other North African countries. In order to explore the role of hedgehogs as potential reservoirs of leishmaniasis, specimens (N=6) were captured during July-November period in 2011-2013 in an SCL endemic area in El Kef region, North-Western Tunisia. Using morphological characteristics, all specimens were described and measured. Biopsies from liver, heart, kidney and spleen of each animal were used to extract genomic DNA, which was further used in PCR assays to assess the presence of Leishmania parasites. Different PCRs targeting kinetoplast minicircles, ITS1, mini-exon genes and a repetitive Leishmania- specific sequence, were applied. To further identify Leishmania species involved, RFLP analysis of amplified fragments was performed with appropriate restriction enzymes. Using morphological characters, animals were identified as North African hedgehogs, also called Algerian hedgehogs, that belong to the Erinaceidae family, genus Atelerix Pomel 1848, and species algirus (Lereboullet, 1842). PCR results showed in total that all specimens were Leishmania infected, with different organs incriminated, mainly liver and spleen. Results were confirmed by direct sequencing of amplified fragments. Species identification showed that all specimens were infected with L. major, three of which were additionally co-infected with L. infantum. The present study

  2. Potential impact of climate change on durum wheat cropping in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Lhomme, Jean-Paul; Mougou, R.; M. Mansour

    2009-01-01

    The potential effect of climate change on durum wheat in Tunisia is assessed using a simple crop simulation model and a climate projection for the 2071-2100 period, obtained from the M,t,o-France ARPEGE-Climate atmospheric model run under the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B. In the process-oriented crop model, phenology is estimated through thermal time. Water balance is calculated on a daily basis by means of a simple modelling of actual evapotranspiration involving...

  3. Description of Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae from Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boufahja, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new free–living marine nematode species of Cyatholaimidae, Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia is morphologically described. Males are characterized by a slightly larger body than females, a cephalic ring followed by ten subcephalic setae, modified cuticular punctuation, caudal lateral differentiation of large dots, and strongly cuticularized gubernaculum with a unique shape and bidenticulated distal half. The cuticle ornamentation of females is similar to the males. However, their caudal lateral differentiation is composed of smaller and more spaced dots. An updated morphological key to species of Marylynnia is given.

  4. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaziri, Sihem [Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage (Tunisia)

    2015-12-31

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master’s level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  5. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2015-12-01

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master's level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  6. [Study on a focus of ascaridiasis in a locality of Cap Bon (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiers, G; Lassoued, H; Abid, A

    1976-01-01

    The study of ascaridiasis in a single locality of the Cap Bon region (Tunisia) where prevalence of this helminthiasis is much higher than anywhere else in the region, shows that 71,1% of the population is infected and all ages approximately in the same proportion. This high prevalence can be explained by a cumulative effect of two transmission factors: a particular construction of houses, which have a kind of reservoir for organic wastes in direct connection with the street, and the use of human excrements in agriculture. Mass chemotherapy every 3 months during several consecutive years is proposed.

  7. Can conservation agriculture reduce the impact of soil erosion in northern Tunisia ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Haithem; Annabi, Mohamed; Chibani, Roukaya; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean countries are prone to soil erosion, therefore Tunisia, with Mediterranean climate, is threatened by water erosion phenomena. In fact, 3 million ha of land is threatened by erosion, and 50% is seriously affected. Soils under conservation agriculture (CA) have high water infiltration capacities reducing significantly surface runoff and thus soil erosion. This improves the quality of surface water, reduces pollution from soil erosion, and enhances groundwater resources. CA is characterized by three interlinked principles, namely continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance, permanent organic soil cover and diversification of crop species grown in sequence or associations. Soil aggregate stability was used as an indicator of soil susceptibility to water erosion. Since 1999, In Tunisia CA has been introduced in rainfed cereal areas in order to move towards more sustainable agricultural systems. CA areas increased from 52 ha in 1999 to 15000 ha in 2015. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of CA on soil erosion in northern Tunisia. Soil samples were collected at 10 cm of depth from 6 farmers' fields in northern Tunisia. Conventional tillage (CT), CA during less than 5 years (CA5 years) have been practiced in each farmers field experiment of wheat crop. Soil aggregate stability was evaluated according to the method described by Le Bissonnais (1996), results were expressed as a mean weight diameter (MWD); higher values of MWD indicate higher aggregate stability. Total organic carbon (TOC) was determined using the wet oxidation method of Walkley-Black. A significant increase in SOC content was observed in CA>5years (1.64 %) compared to CT (0.97 %). This result highlights the importance of CA to improve soil fertility. For aggregate stability, a net increase was observed in CA compared to CT. After 5 years of CA the MWD was increased by 16% (MWD=1.8 mm for CT and MWD=2.1 mm for CAorganic carbon (r=0.52, n=18). It is assumed that this

  8. Determinants of breastfeeding indicators among children less than 24?months of age in Tanzania: a secondary analysis of the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, Rose; Baines, Surinder K; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of key WHO breastfeeding indicators and identify determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding practices among children aged less than 24?months in Tanzania. Design, setting and participants Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from the 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. The survey used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of 10?312 households from eight geographical zones of Tanzania. The sample consisted of 3112 children aged 0?23?months. Main...

  9. Poverty Alleviation Policies in Tanzania: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercy Tsitsi Magombeyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines poverty alleviation policies in Tanzania from 1980 to 2013. Trends in poverty and challenges faced by the country in reducing poverty have also been highlighted. Poverty-reduction policies that have been implemented in Tanzania can be categorized into three policy clusters. The first cluster covers policies that reduce income poverty and increase economic growth. The second cluster focuses on poverty alleviation policies that increase access to basic services such as education, health, water and sanitation, and social protection. The third cluster covers institutional capacity building, accountability and governance issues. Despite all the policies that have been implemented, Tanzania – like other emerging economies – still faces a number of challenges related to reducing poverty.

  10. The molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazwala, R R; Kusiluka, L J M; Sinclair, K; Sharp, J M; Daborn, C J

    2006-02-25

    A molecular epidemiological study to determine the zoonotic importance of bovine tuberculosis was carried out in Tanzania. Specimens from human cases of tuberculosis as well as from slaughtered cattle were collected from regions with a high proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In order to determine the similarity of strains from the two sources, molecular typing techniques, namely RFLP and spoligotyping, were used to determine the genetic profile of the strains involved. The results of pTBN12 typing of M. bovis from cattle and man has shown a rather heterogeneous population of this species spread all over Tanzania, assuming that the present sample is representative. There were 13 different pTBN12 RFLP types encountered. The genetic relatedness between the pTBN12 RFLP patterns indicated a high degree of relatedness (86%) between the dominant pTBN12 genotypes existing in Tanzania. There were 13 different spoligotypes found in this study, whose genetic relatedness was also high (79%). DNA profiles were also confirmed by IS986 RFLP, which revealed that strains have 1-13 copies of IS986. Geographically, there was overlap between pTBN12 RFLP and spoligotypes amongst strains isolated from various parts of Tanzania. The diversity of the RFLP and spoligotype patterns observed in Tanzania probably reflects the extensive internal movements of cattle belonging to pastoralists. The evidence of overlap between DNA fingerprints of M. bovis from cattle and man has once more highlighted a need for synergy of veterinary and medical policies in the control of tuberculosis in Tanzania and probably in other developing countries.

  11. Dermatophilus congolensis infection in goats in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msami, H M; Khaschabi, D; Schöpf, K; Kapaga, A M; Shibahara, T

    2001-10-01

    When goats in Eastern Tanzania were screened for skin diseases, Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from the skin lesions in 8 of 484 animals examined. In one severely affected case, the disease was also characterized by histological studies (Gram stain, Giemsa stain and routine HE studies) and electron microscopy. The histological picture was characterized by hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, folliculitis and an inflammatory cellular reaction involving the epidermis. Gram stain and Giemsa stain revealed longitudinal and transverse branching filaments in the deeper layers of the epidermis. Ultrastructural studies demonstrated D. congolensis in various morphological forms, ranging from filamentous to tuber-shaped structures, mixed with numerous coccoid bodies of variable size. In some instances, the organisms were geometrically arranged in parallel rows of beading and were present in and among the degenerated epithelial cells. Several host cells showed degenerative changes. Ticks present on the goats were Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Boophilus sp. The clinical signs, pathological lesions, diagnosis, epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease are discussed.

  12. Winners and losers of IWRM in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara van Koppen,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of the concept of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM in Tanzania. It asks: how did IWRM affect the rural and fast-growing majority of smallholder farmersʼ access to water which contributes directly to poverty alleviation and employment creation in a country where poverty and joblessness are high? Around 1990, there were both a strong government-led infrastructure development agenda and IWRM ingredients in place, including cost-recovery of state services aligning with the Structural Adjustment Programmes, water management according to basin boundaries and the dormant colonial water rights (permits system. After the 1990s, the World Bank and other donors promoted IWRM with a strong focus on hydroelectric power development, River Basin Water Boards, transformation of the water right system into a taxation tool, and assessment of environmental flows. These practices became formalised in the National Water Policy (2002 and in the Water Resources Management Act (2009. Activities in the name of IWRM came to be closely associated with the post-2008 surge in large-scale land and water deals. Analysing 25 years of IWRM, the paper identifies the processes and identities of the losers (smallholders and – at least partially – the government and the winners (large-scale water users, including recent investors. We conclude that, overall, IWRM harmed smallholdersʼ access to water and rendered them more vulnerable to poverty and unemployment.

  13. Tanzania benefits from inter-organizational cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This article describes observations of a monitoring mission by JOICFP, the IPPF Regional Africa Office, and JICA in Tanzania, during June 7-13, 1998. The team visited the Morogoro region to review and assess the current major Integrated Program (IP) activities. The community-based distribution agents have been successful in gaining the trust of the community and contributing to social change. Agents are motivated to work and receive additional training, even though they do not receive a salary. Communities recognize the agents as their representatives. Training agents at the grass roots level has been cost effective. The visiting doctor scheme has been successful in maximizing use of health personnel. In one example, 92 patients from 3 villages were treated by a visiting doctor, who had an adequate supply of basic drugs. Service fees paid by patients cover the cost of medicine. Women receive reproductive health and sexually transmitted disease check-ups. The Income Generation Activities (IGA) program strengthens income generation and women's organizations. IGA also provides tools for masonry and carpentry to encourage male participation in the program. The IP has cooperative support from UMATI, the Ministry of Health, UNFPA, and the Japanese government. Essential drugs and equipment are procured by JICA, and delivered through the UMATI-JOICFP distribution channels to government health centers and dispensaries and UMATI's clinics. The experience has confirmed the ability of nongovernmental organizations to supply a multi-bilateral project. Grassroots staff are most appreciative.

  14. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...

  15. The U.S. Financial Crisis: Lessons From Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Sweden faced a banking and exchange rate crisis that led it to rescue banks that had experienced large losses on their balance sheets and that threatened a collapse of the banking system...

  16. Majority versus Minority: 'Governmentality' and Muslims in Sweden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne Sofie Roald

    2013-01-01

      This article deals with the Muslim community in Sweden in view of the majority-minority dynamics with focus on how values, attitudes, behaviors, and practices of the Swedish majority influence Muslim...

  17. Privatizing education: free school policy in Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Wiborg, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate why Sweden, the epitome of social democracy, has implemented education reforms leading to an extraordinary growth in Free Schools in contrast to liberal England, where Free School policy has been met with enormous resistance. Conventional wisdom would predict the contrary, but as a matter of fact Sweden has bypassed England by far in outsourcing schools to private providers. The comparative argument promulgated in this article is that the combination ...

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: Sweden - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    Sweden is one of the leading IEA countries in the use of renewable energy and has a long tradition of ambitious and successful policies to improve energy efficiency. Compared to the other IEA countries, Sweden's CO2 emissions per capita and per unit of GDP are low, partly owing to efficient and low-carbon space heating, and virtually carbon-free electricity generation. The country also remains a forerunner in electricity market liberalisation. Still, even if Sweden has continued to make progress in most areas of its energy policy since the IEA last conducted an in-depth review in 2004, there is room for improvement. As Sweden plans to further increase the use of renewable energy, it is crucial that these supplies are produced and used in the most sustainable manner for the environment and the economy as a whole. With regard to CO2 emissions, more can be done in all sectors, but as transport is the largest polluter and its emissions are increasing, it is the logical focus for Sweden's efforts to reduce emissions further. This is a significant challenge. Nuclear provides almost half of the electricity in Sweden, at a low cost and without CO2 emissions. But the future of nuclear power in the national power mix is still uncertain. To provide clear guidance to the electricity sector, Sweden will need to resolve the ambiguity about the future of nuclear power in the country. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Sweden and provides critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to provide input to Swedish energy policy makers to help them identify a path towards a more sustainable energy future.

  19. Setting the Holocene clock using varved lake sediments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zillén, Lovisa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study annually laminated (varved) Holocene lake sediment in Sweden, their formation and their potential as chronological and palaeoecological archives. Five lakes with continuous Holocene varved lake sediment sequences in northern (Västerbotten) and west central Sweden (Värmland) were investigated. Three of these sequences were discovered during this study, which identified the climatic and environmental prerequisites for the formation of varves and, therefore, p...

  20. 'This Is Real Misery': Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Hajri

    Full Text Available Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff.

  1. 'This Is Real Misery': Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff.

  2. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghedira Kamel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.

  3. Comparative analysis of climate change vulnerability assessments. Lessons from Tunisia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammill, Anne; Bizikova, Livia; Dekens, Julie; McCandless, Matthew

    2013-03-15

    Vulnerability assessments (VAs) are central to shaping climate change adaptation decisions. They help to define the nature and extent of the threat that may harm a given human or ecological system, providing a basis for devising measures that will minimize or avoid this harm. Yet the wide variety of VA approaches can be confusing for practitioners, creating uncertainty about the ''right'' way to assess vulnerability. In an effort to provide some guidance on designing and conducting VAs, this paper reviews and compares VAs undertaken in Indonesia and Tunisia to distill key approaches, components and lessons. It begins with a general overview of definitions, approaches and challenges with conducting VAs, and then proposes a framework for analyzing and comparing them. The framework looks at four components of VAs: (1) Framing: where do we come from? (2) Process of conducting the VAs: how does it work? (3) Inputs: what is needed? (4) Outputs: what does it tell us? The framework is then applied to analyze the assessments carried out in Tunisia and Indonesia, from their respective framings of vulnerability to the outputs of the process. The report then concludes with observations on differences and similarities between the VAs, as well as lessons learned that can inform the design and execution of future assessments.

  4. Interplay of Socio-economic Factors, Consanguinity, Fertility, and Offspring Mortality in Monastir, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkeni, Emna; Monastiri, Kamel; Seket, Besma; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess the association among social status, prevalence of consanguineous marriages, and the effects of consanguinity on reproductive behavior and mortality in Tunisia. Methods The study included data on a total of 1741 live-births born from November 1989 to October 1990 in the maternity ward of the University-Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir, Tunisia. After delivery, women filled out a questionnaire on the age of the parents at marriage, the number of pregnancies and abortions, the number of neonatal and post-neonatal deaths, and deaths of children under 5 years. Three categories of marriages were distinguished as follows: marriages between first cousins, marriages between cousins of other degree, and non consanguineous marriages. Results Consanguineous marriages represented 432 (24.81%) of the unions. Most consanguineous marriages were contracted between first cousins (n = 303; 70.13%). Consanguineous couples had a lower age at marriage and a higher fertility index than non-consanguineous couples. The rates of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths were not correlated with consanguinity. However, higher rates of neonatal and post-neonatal deaths, and deaths of children younger than 5 years were observed in consanguineous couples. Conclusion Fertility index and mortality, especially in the first year of life, were significantly higher in consanguineous marriages. This important socio-economical factor needs to be considered in assessing equity on health in specific social and cultural contexts. PMID:17948956

  5. Rights of people with mental disorders: Realities in healthcare facilities in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhis, Mayssa; Ben Hamouda, Abir; Ouanes, Sami; Rafrafi, Rym

    2017-08-01

    Mental disorders have been associated worldwide with human rights' violations. Controversially, many occur in mental health facilities. This work aimed to assess the rights of people with mental disorders in healthcare facilities in Tunisia. A cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization (WHO) quality-rights toolkit, assessed the human rights levels of achievement in Elrazi Hospital, the only psychiatric hospital in Tunisia, in comparison with the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN). The framework was the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The assessment was carried through observation, documentation review, and interviews with service users, staff, and family members. The sample was composed of 113 interviewees. In Elrazi Hospital, three out of the five evaluated rights were assessed as only initiated: the right to an adequate standard of living, to exercise legal capacity and to be free from inhuman treatment. By comparison, these rights were partially achieved in the NIN. The right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health was partially achieved and the right to live independently and to be included in the community was not even initiated. These last two rights were at the same level of achievement in the NIN. Significant improvements are needed to adapt the practice in Elrazi Hospital to comply with human rights, especially since the achievement level of these rights is lower than in a non-psychiatric hospital. Our study emphasizes the importance of spreading the CRPD as a standardized framework.

  6. Continuum removed band depth analysis for waste detection in the north of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayet, F.; Mezned, N.; Abdeljaouad, S.

    2015-10-01

    The geologic context of the north of Tunisia is favorable to varied mining activities. Wastes quantities which were left over after smelting have a wide spread distribution. These immense quantities threaten soils, vegetation and above all human health. Reflectance spectroscopy provides information about targets between visible (VIS) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) (300-2500 nm) wavelengths. As mine wastes constitute a mixture of minerals, the analysis of the spectral behavior of mine wastes using reflectance spectroscopy is an alternative approach to traditional methods. Signatures resulting from measures reflectance are quantified according to the ratio between reflected energy and incident energy on a defined target. Mine wastes analysis by means of reflectance spectroscopy with respect to laboratory analysis have provided favorable results in detecting and mapping transformation processes in environmental systems, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. In this study we analyze the spectral behavior of mine wastes in the VIS and SWIR regions using hyperspectral reflectance spectroscopy supported by ground-truth based X ray diffraction XRD. Wastes samples collected in the field were measured in situ in order to determine their spectral reflectance properties. The wastes spectral signatures were normalized and compared to laboratory results. This study was performed in the environs of Jebel Ressas mine in the north of Tunisia which is considered as pilot site.

  7. THE HYBRID APPROACH OF INFLATION TARGETING: WHAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR AN EMERGING ECONOMY LIKE TUNISIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella Guerchi Mehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After economic crises happening in many emerging countries, flexible exchange rates became a required theoretical condition helping to target inflation. Many countries stopped using exchange rate as an anchor for monetary policy and started using inflation targeting framework. In emerging countries, monetary authorities work to stabilize the exchange rate because of their “fear of floating”. They are against high volatility of interest rate allowing speculative attacks and causing free fluctuations of their national currency. To avoid uncontrolled market movements, they have to choose between active and public exchange rate management and tight inflation targeting. In the same vein, Central bank of Tunisia follows financial measures linked closely to inflation without focusing especially on monetary aggregates in order to study a possible transition to targeting inflation strategy. It uses a simple Taylor rule where interest rates adjustment are guided by the anticipated inflation deviation from its original target and also by the gap between observed and potential GDP.As an emerging economy with a high degree of financial vulnerability, and facing different shocks, Tunisia should adopt a hybrid rule of inflation targeting in an open economy. This hybrid rule explicitly takes into account the evolution of the exchange rate in the reaction function of the central bank.

  8. Impact of the Tunisian Revolution on homicide and suicide rates in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Gharbaoui, Meriem; Farhani, Fethia; Zaafrane, Malek; Harzallah, Hana; Allouche, Mohamed; Zhioua, Mongi; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the Tunisian Revolution on suicide and homicide patterns in Tunisia. It is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, including all the cases of homicides and suicides that occurred during an 8-year period (2007-2014) in Northern Tunisia. We compared data before and after the revolution. After the revolution, the number of suicides rose 1.7 times, with a prevalence rising from 1.8 to 3.12 suicides per 100,000 persons per year. Homicides rose 1.3 times after the revolution. For both manner of death, victims were mostly males, aged between 20 and 39 years, living in urban areas. Hanging and self-immolation rose, respectively, 1.8 and 3 times after 2011. We observed suicide cases most frequently occurred in public places and in front of public administration after 2011. Homicide victims' profile and circumstances showed a single variation which is an increase in number of cases happening in rural areas. Our results proved a short-term impact of the transition period on homicides and suicides. Urgent preventive measures are needed especially to decrease the suicide rates.

  9. Congenital heart disease in 37,294 births in Tunisia: birth prevalence and mortality rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Dorra; Elloumi, Anis; Abid, Leila; Mallek, Souad; Aloulou, Hajer; Chabchoub, Imen; Bouraoui, Amira; Thabet, Afef; Gargouri, Lamia; Zribi, Malek; Yaich, Sourour; Hachicha, Mongia; Gargouri, Abdellatif; Mahfoudh, Abdelmajid; Maatoug, Samir; Dammak, Jamel; Kammoun, Samir

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the previously unknown birth incidence, treatment, and mortality of children with congenital heart disease in Tunisia. We undertook a retrospective review of medical records of all patients who were born in 2010 and 2011, and were diagnosed in Sfax (Tunisia) with congenital heart defect. Among 37,294 births, 255 children were detected to have congenital heart disease, yielding a birth incidence of 6.8 per 1000. The most frequently occurring conditions were ventricular septal defects (31%), ostium secundum atrial septal defects (12.9%), and pulmonary valve abnormalities (12%). Coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, univentricular physiology, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, and transposition of the great arteries were found in 4.3%, 6.2%, 3.4%, 2.7%, and 2.7%, respectively. During the follow-up of 1 year, 23% of the children died. About three-quarters of those deaths happened before surgery. The present study is in line with the general estimates in the world. It has revealed a high case of mortality among the patients awaiting corrective surgery. These children need more facilities.

  10. Biostratigraphical study around the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in Central Tunisia zonal schemes and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalaoui, Kamel; Zargouni, Fouad

    2017-01-01

    The fossil data from Central Tunisia has led to the recognition of ten calpionellid and ammonite zones and subzones in the Upper Tithonian-Middle Berriasian interval. The results of this revision are congruent with local interval zones and they were tested with the Mediterranean zonal schemes. Six subzones of calpionellids constitute the basis of our investigations in this study. We recognized the A2+A3, B1, B2, B3, C1 and C2 Subzones. These subzones are calibrated with the ammonite biozones: Berriasella jacobi and Subthurmannia occitanica Zones. Integration of the biostratigraphy of ammonites and calpionellids has allowed us to define the J/K boundary interval and the Middle/Upper Berriasian boundary. Biostratigraphic data provided by the two sections in Central Tunisia allowed the revision of the biostratigraphic attribution of Sidi Kralif Formation. These faunas suggest a late Tithonian to mid Berriasian age for the Jebel Rheouis section, and early Berriasian to mid Berriasian age for Jebel Meloussi section; correlating with their equivalents in other regions of the Tethyan Realm.

  11. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  12. Clustering of Risk Factors With Smoking Habits Among Adults, Sousse, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Imed; Hmad, Sonia; Belkacem, Mylene; al’Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry; Ghannem, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In Tunisia, few studies have assessed the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors for chronic disease (eg, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity). We studied 1,880 adults to determine the association between tobacco use and other lifestyle risk factors in Tunisia. Methods This study was part of an assessment of the prevalence of chronic disease risk factors in a community-based trial conducted in 2009 to implement a chronic disease prevention program. The study population was randomly selected from 3 districts of the region of Sousse. The questionnaires were administered by personal interview and included the assessment of tobacco use and other chronic disease risk factors such as unhealthful diet habits and physical inactivity. Results Of the 1,880 study participants, 64% were women. The mean age of the participants was 37.9 (standard deviation, 13.5 y). The prevalence of tobacco use in our population was 50.4% for men and 3.1% for women. Among men, the proportion of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among smokers (25.3% vs 5.7% [P <.001]). Smokers consumed fewer fruits and vegetables and more high-fat, high-salt, and high-sugar foods than did nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between male smokers and nonsmokers regarding physical activity (P = .36). Conclusion Physical activity and dietary characteristics may be important areas for physicians to assess during smoking-cessation interventions. PMID:24355104

  13. Identification of Suitable Areas for West Nile Virus Circulation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassine, T; Conte, A; Calistri, P; Candeloro, L; Ippoliti, C; De Massis, F; Danzetta, M L; Bejaoui, M; Hammami, S

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted primarily by the bite of infected mosquitoes, particularly Culex spp. and Aedes/Ochlerotatus spp., which acquire the virus by feeding on viraemic birds. Humans, horses and other mammals are regarded as incidental or dead-end hosts. In the last decades, an increasing number of cases of WNV infection in horses and humans have been notified in the Mediterranean basin. In Tunisia, human cases of WNV-related meningoencephalitis were detected in 1997, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Based on the analysis of climatic and environmental conditions found in the locations where human cases have been reported in 2012, the aim of this study was to identify similar areas in Tunisia potentially at risk of disease occurrence. Data related to 85 neuroinvasive West Nile fever (WNF) human cases were georeferenced and a set of environmental and climatic variables (wetlands and humid areas, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), temperatures and elevation, migratory bird settlements) were used in the analysis. Areas, ecologically similar to those where human cases were detected, were identified using the Mahalanobis distance statistic. A leave-one-out cross-validation was performed to validate the sensitivity of the model, and 78 of 85 points were correctly classified. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. First molecular survey of Anaplasma bovis in small ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mourad; Belkahia, Hanène; Karaoud, Maroua; Bousrih, Maha; Yahiaoui, Mouna; Daaloul-Jedidi, Monia; Messadi, Lilia

    2015-09-30

    To date, no information is available regarding the presence of Anaplasma bovis in the South Mediterranean area. In this study, prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity of A. bovis were assessed in small ruminants. A total of 563 healthy small ruminants (260 sheep and 303 goats), from 25 randomly selected flocks located in 5 localities from two bioclimatic areas in Tunisia, were investigated for the detection of A. bovis in blood by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay. The overall infection rates of A. bovis were 42.7 and 23.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. Goats located in a sub-humid area were statistically more infected than those located in a humid area. A. bovis prevalence rate varied significantly according to sheep and goat flocks, and to the sheep breed. Infection with A. bovis was validated by sequencing. Sequence analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. bovis from Tunisian goats and sheep clustered with other strain sequences detected from wild and domestic animals and published in GenBank. This study gives the first insight of presence of A. bovis DNA in small ruminants in Tunisia and suggests that these animal species may be playing an important role in the bovine anaplasmosis natural cycle caused by A. bovis in the South Mediterranean ecosystem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interplay of socio-economic factors, consanguinity, fertility, and offspring mortality in Monastir, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkeni, Emna; Monastiri, Kamel; Saket, Besma; Guediche, Mohamed Neji; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2007-10-01

    To assess the association among social status, prevalence of consanguineous marriages, and the effects of consanguinity on reproductive behavior and mortality in Tunisia. The study included data on a total of 1741 live-births born from November 1989 to October 1990 in the maternity ward of the University-Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir, Tunisia. After delivery, women filled out a questionnaire on the age of the parents at marriage, the number of pregnancies and abortions, the number of neonatal and post-neonatal deaths, and deaths of children under 5 years. Three categories of marriages were distinguished as follows: marriages between first cousins, marriages between cousins of other degree, and non consanguineous marriages. Consanguineous marriages represented 432 (24.81%) of the unions. Most consanguineous marriages were contracted between first cousins (n=303; 70.13%). Consanguineous couples had a lower age at marriage and a higher fertility index than non-consanguineous couples. The rates of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths were not correlated with consanguinity. However, higher rates of neonatal and post-neonatal deaths, and deaths of children younger than 5 years were observed in consanguineous couples. Fertility index and mortality, especially in the first year of life, were significantly higher in consanguineous marriages. This important socio-economical factor needs to be considered in assessing equity on health in specific social and cultural contexts.

  16. Historiography of the relations between Russia and the Arab world (Yemen, Syria, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Romanovna Shishkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of modern Russian Middle Eastern academic literature devoted to the relationship between the Soviet Union and Russia as its legal successor on the one hand and such Arab countries as Yemen, Syria, and Tunisia, on the other. These are quite important countries of the Middle East and North Africa, attention to which of the Russian Middle East policy changed over time. Diplomatic ties as well as cooperation in trade-economic sphere and the historical and cultural ties are analyzed in literature. The author notes that cooperation with the countries of the Middle East and North Africa was an important part of the foreign policy of the Soviet Union, but after the collapse the attention to some partner countries in the region has weakened. At the end of the XX century. Yemen, Syria and Tunisia falled out of the focus of Russia’s Middle East policy, this period witnessed a significant weakening of attention to the studied countries and, therefore, there is a rather scarce historiography on this subject. On the basis of the literature the article identifies the main areas of potential research of relations between countries under analysis as well as some issues that have received insufficient coverage. This study may contribute to the identification of opportunities for further cooperation and potential socio-political risks.

  17. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  18. Hospital environment fungal contamination and aspergillosis risk in acute leukaemia patients in Sousse (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheith, Soukeina; Ranque, Stéphane; Bannour, Wadiaa; Ben Youssef, Yosra; Khelif, Abderrahim; Ben Said, Moncef; Njah, Mansour; Saghrouni, Fatma

    2015-06-01

    Hospital environment is considered the main source of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in leukemic patients. This study aimed to describe Aspergillus colonisation in leukemic patients and their hospital environment and to test whether Aspergillus environmental contamination was associated with IA. For a 2-year period including 14-month renovation work, 91 acute leukaemia inpatients at the hematology department of University hospital in Sousse (Tunisia) were prospectively included. The incidence of probable IA (EORTC/MSG criteria) was 9.9%. Fifty-six Aspergillus were isolated from 53 (6.5%) of 811 sputa collected from 35 (38.5%) patients. Aspergillus spp. were isolated in 59.7% of 494 air samples and in 52.8% of 1579 surface samples taken in the patients' room. Aspergillus section Nigri (72.7%) was the most frequent. Aspergillus contamination peaked in autumn and winter on surface and in summer and autumn in air samples and was higher (P = 0.03) during the renovation work period. Multivariate analysis showed that for each Aspergillus section Nigri CFU airborne contamination IA risk increased by 1.05 (P = 0.04). In Tunisia, Aspergillus section Nigri and Flavi, but not Fumigati, are chiefly involved in IA. Our findings support swift implementation of airborne fungal contamination control measures in areas where immunocompromised patient are hospitalised. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical parameters were consistent with a transition from a fluviatile depositional environment with some emersion phases marked by the gypsum precipitation, to a marine littoral environment. Such evolution was accompanied with a relative sea-level rise which flooded the fluvial system at the coastal plain during the Holocene, in agreement with sea-level fluctuations in southeast Tunisia during the Holocene.

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors differ between rural and urban Sweden: the 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, Martin; Lundqvist, Robert; Lilja, Mikael; Eliasson, Mats

    2014-08-09

    Rural communities have a higher burden of cardiovascular risk factors than urban communities. In Sweden, socioeconomic transition and urbanization have led to decreased populations in rural areas and changing characteristics of the remaining inhabitants. We investigated the risk factors in urban and rural populations in Northern Sweden. The 2009 Northern Sweden MONICA Study invited a random sample of 2,500 people, 25 to 74 years and 69.2% participated. Community size was classified as rural = 15,000. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender and education. The rural population was older and the proportion of men was higher than in the urban areas. Having only primary education was more common in rural areas than in urban areas (26.2% vs. 12.3%). Waist and hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol levels were higher in rural areas than in urban areas, even after adjusting for differences in age and gender. The largest differences between rural and urban dwellers were seen in waist circumference of women (4.8 cm), BMI of women (1.8 units) and cholesterol of men (0.37 mmol/l). Blood pressure was higher in rural areas, but not after adjusting for age and gender.Participants in rural areas were more often treated for hypertension and hyperlipidaemia, hospitalized for myocardial infarction and diagnosed with diabetes. However, after adjusting for age and gender, there were no differences. The odds ratio for being physically active comparing rural areas to urban areas was 0.73 (95% CI 0.53; 1.01). Smoking, snuff use and the prevalence of pathological glucose tolerance did not differ between community sizes. Middle-sized communities often had values in between those found in rural and urban communities, but overall they were more similar to the rural population. Further adjustment for education did not change the results for any variable. In 2009 the rural population in northern Sweden was older, with less education, higher BMI, more sedentary

  1. Tardigrades of Sweden; an updated check-list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    2015-07-07

    Tardigrades occur worldwide and in a variety of ecosystems and habitats representing an important component of the micrometazoan biodiversity. Several studies documenting the occurrence of tardigrades in Sweden have been published since the first reports in early 1900, but no comprehensive summary of these studies have been published. We compiled the available information on recorded tardigrades from Sweden, using material from published studies and museum and university collections. In total, our review document 101 species of tardigrades that have been recorded from Sweden (an updated checklist of tardigrades from Sweden will be available online), of which 14 species are new records for the country. The highest number of species was recorded in the northernmost province of Lappland and the more southern provinces of Uppland and Skåne, while much lower species numbers are reported from the middle part of Sweden. This pattern probably represents biased sampling activities of biologists rather than real differences in biodiversity of tardigrades. In view of the few studies that have been made on tardigrade biodiversity in Sweden, the relatively high number of tardigrade species recorded, representing almost a tenth of the species recorded worldwide, indicates that many more species remain to be found. In this respect, more studies of the marine ecosystems along the Swedish west coast and the long Baltic Sea coastline would be of particular interest.

  2. Phosphate mine subsidences deduced from differential interferometry (DInSAR): The Moulares case example (southern Atlas of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen, Mehdi; Rebai, Noamen; Deffontaines, Benoit; Turki, Mohamed Moncef; Chaabani, Fredj

    2011-11-01

    Tunisia is submitted to numerous small topographic displacements due to both the geodynamic of the Eurasian-African plates' convergence, and to important anthropic actions such as oil production, underground water pumping, mine extraction and linked post-mining displacements. We propose herein to study the latter and locate, characterize, and quantify small topographic displacement fields due to the production of underground phosphate mines in central Tunisia. After having acquired and processed 17 radar images (ERS 1 and 2) of the central Tunisia (Gafsa area) through Differential Interferometry (DInSAR), we clearly observed local subsidence that we interprete as corresponding to mine exploitation of the underground Moulares Phosphates mines (southern Atlas of Tunisia). Field studies (circular normal faults located above the Phosphate extraction area) confirm the movement revealed by DinSAR. Also, DInSAR allows us to monitor temporal variations of the small vertical displacements on this specific area and since the collapse occurred near an urban area (Moulares city), this problem can be considered a potential anthropic risk.

  3. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangemen...

  4. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  5. Assessment of global solar radiation to examine the best locations to install a PV system in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkilani, Kaouther; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi

    2018-02-01

    The study of the solar radiation is the starting point of any investigation for a new energy, to study and search the best location to install a PV system. A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential is the availability of data for global solar radiation that must be coherent and of high quality. In this paper, we analyze the estimation result of the monthly global solar radiation for three different locations, Bizerte in Northern Tunisia, Kairouan in Middle Eastern Tunisia, and Tozeur in Southern Tunisia, measured on the surface by the National Institute of Meteorology and the meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery result PVGIS radiation databases. To get the right measurements with minimum error, we propose a numerical model used to calculate the global solar radiation in the indicated three sites. The results show that the model can estimate the global solar radiation (kWh/m²) at a specific station and over most area of Tunisia. The model gives a good estimation for solar radiation where error between the measured values and those calculated are negligible.

  6. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Code Switching in the Classroom: A Case Study of Economics and Management Students at the University of Sfax, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Baoueb, Sallouha Lamia; Toumi, Naouel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores the motivations for code switching (CS) in the interactions of Tunisian students at the faculty of Economics and Management in Sfax, Tunisia. The study focuses on students' (EMSs) classroom conversations and out-of-classroom peer interactions. The analysis of the social motivations of EMSs' CS behaviour shows that…

  8. Growth-expectations among women entrepreneurs: embedded in networks and culture in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and in Belgium and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheraghi, Maryam; Setti, Zakia; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    and secular-rational culture differ in roles for women, which influence women entrepreneurs' networking and expectations. The design compares cultures, with data from three traditional societies, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia and two secular-rational societies, France and Belgium, surveyed in the Global...

  9. Policymaking through healthcare registries in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örnerheim, Mattias

    2016-09-04

    Healthcare registries, otherwise known in Sweden as national quality registries (NQRs), have progressed from being a patient-focused system supporting medical results to become the basis of a health policy steering instrument called regional comparisons (RCs). This article seeks to explain RCs as an unintended consequence of the NQR development, by utilizing the concepts of policy entrepreneurs and streams of impact: the problem stream (problem perceived), the policy stream (what is valid), and the political stream (governmental objectives). The empirical contribution lies in insights on how the RCs have developed as an unintended consequence of entrepreneurial deliberate action in the process of creating NQRs. These findings are based on documents, interviews, and previous research in the social sciences. The article also argues for a critical understanding of public knowledge management (PKM) related to experiences in the development of NQRs regarding how to use knowledge in healthcare government. This article highlights how knowledge generated in quality systems based on registries could imply a stronger role for authorities in exerting control over the medical profession. It also discusses the potential use of research evidence on NQRs as a base for more efficient policymaking. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Couple childbearing plans and births in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E; Hoem, J M

    1998-08-01

    We use data from a nationally representative sample of Swedish couples to estimate effects of partners' childbearing plans on the rate of subsequent childbearing. Only 11% of the couples in this sample expressed plans in opposite directions (plan to have a child versus not to have a child), but 24% had differing levels of certainty about their plans. Of the couples in which both partners said they definitely planned to have another child, 44% had a child within two years. If neither partner planned to have another child, less than 2% of couples had a birth. The figure was 6% if the partners had opposing childbearing plans. Thus, both men and women exerted veto power over further childbearing. Disagreements were equally likely to be resolved in favor of the woman as of the man, and effects of partners' plans on the birth hazard did not depend on the couple's gender arrangements, family ideologies, or marital status. We discuss these results in the context of Sweden's public support for gender equality and for childrearing, its pervasive contraceptive regime, and its high rates of cohabitation. We also argue for the collection of data from partners in future family and fertility surveys.

  11. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  12. Annual Report 1999. Electric power in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-15

    . The Swedish Power Association is of the opinion that the increase in production taxes on nuclear power is completely misdirected. Sweden is the only EU country to have production taxes on electricity. Uncertainty and the lack of stability in the present taxation system will entail considerable difficulties both for electricity-intensive industry and for the power companies vis-a-vis long-term investment in Sweden. In 1999, overall consumption in the country fell by 0.3 TWh to 142.9 TWh, compared with last year. The decrease is explained by the fact that the autumn was very warm. Inflow into the major rivers was somewhat higher than normal enabling 70.4 TWh to be generated by the hydropower plants. This is 6 TWh more than during a normal year. Nuclear power accounted for 70.2 TWh, equal to the previous year. Additionally, combined heat and power and condensing plants accounted for 9.5 TWh, almost half of which using biofuels. Wind power continues to increase. At year-end, there were about 480 wind power plants, and the annual production was 0.4 TWh. Overall electricity production in the country was 150.5 TWh, a decrease of 3.4 TWh, or just under three percent. Exports amounted to 16.1 TWh and imports to 8.5 TWh. The average price for the year on the Nordic power exchange's spot market (Sector Sweden) was SEK 0.119 per kWh. The low price is explained by the mild weather and a plentiful supply of water in the Nordic reservoirs. On 1 November, the electricity market was changed in such a way that small consumers, with a fuse rating of up to 200 amps, were also able to take part. Parliament's decision to remove the requirement for continually registering hourly meters was of crucial importance. With this measure, the electricity market was also opened up to household customers. Hourly metering was replaced by profile settlement. Customers were offered fixed prices that could be considerably lower than previously. Flexible prices were on offer, e.g. linked to the

  13. Clinical epidemiological and molecular aspects of rubella outbreak with high number of neurological cases, Tunisia 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messedi, Emna; Fki-Berrajah, Lamia; Gargouri, Saba; Chouikha, Anissa; Chaari, Anis; Bouaziz, Mounir; Jallouli, Hajer; Yahia, Ahlem Ben; Hammami, Adnene; Triki, Henda; Karray-Hakim, Héla

    2014-10-01

    A large and unusually prolonged rubella outbreak occurred in Tunisia from April 2011 to July 2012 and was characterized by a high number of neurological cases. To describe the outbreak and to perform virus genotyping of isolated virus strains. From January 2011 to December 2012, 5000 sera for serological diagnosis of acute rubella and 31 cerebrospinal fluid from patients with neurological symptoms were tested for the presence of rubella immunoglobulins G and M. Real-time PCR was performed on 49 throat swabs, 21 cerebrospinal fluid and 27 serum samples. Positive samples were assessed for virus genotyping by sequencing and the obtained sequences were compared to those previously isolated in the country. Acute rubella was confirmed in 280 patients including 15 neonates, 217 children and adults with mild rash and 48 patients with severe rubella (mainly encephalitis, n = 39). Most of acquired rubella cases (60.7%) were aged over 12 years with a male predominance observed in the age group 12-25 years (79%). Females belonged essentially to the unvaccinated age groups under 12 and over 25 years. Among the 23 samples tested positive by real-time PCR, six could be genotyped and clustered with either the 1E genotype, previously detected in Tunisia, or the 2B genotype which has never been isolated in Tunisia before. Gender and age distributions of the patients reflect the impact of the selective rubella vaccination program adopted in Tunisia since 2005. Genotype 1E continues to circulate and genotype 2B was probably recently introduced in Tunisia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An assessment of orofacial clefts in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyala Erick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clefts of the lip (CL, the palate (CP, or both (CLP are the most common orofacial congenital malformations found among live births, accounting for 65% of all head and neck anomalies. The frequency and pattern of orofacial clefts in different parts of the world and among different human groups varies widely. Generally, populations of Asian or Native American origin have the highest prevalence, while Caucasian populations show intermediate prevalence and African populations the lowest. To date, little is known regarding the epidemiology and pattern of orofacial clefts in Tanzania. Methods A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre to identify all children with orofacial clefts that attended or were treated during a period of five years. Cleft lip and/or palate records were obtained from patient files in the Hospital's Departments of Surgery, Paediatrics and medical records. Age at presentation, sex, region of origin, type and laterality of the cleft were recorded. In addition, presence of associated congenital anomalies or syndromes was recorded. Results A total of 240 orofacial cleft cases were seen during this period. Isolated cleft lip was the most common cleft type followed closely by cleft lip and palate (CLP. This is a departure from the pattern of clefting reported for Caucasian and Asian populations, where CLP or isolated cleft palate is the most common type. The distribution of clefts by side showed a statistically significant preponderance of the left side (43.7% (χ2 = 92.4, p Conclusions Unilateral orofacial clefts were significantly more common than bilateral clefts; with the left side being the most common affected side. Most of the other findings did not show marked differences with orofacial cleft distributions in other African populations.

  15. China Agricultural Foreign Direct Investment in Tanzania: Macro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the engagement of China's foreign direct investment (FDI) in agriculture towards development in Tanzania between 1999 - 2011. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from two hundred respondents purposively sampled from ten institutions. The data were summarized using frequencies ...

  16. Determinants of Private Investment in Tanzania | Michael | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the determinants of private investment in Tanzania using Error Correction Model and employing time series data for the period 1975 – 2010. The results show that public investment, GDP growth and credit to private sector are important in explaining growth of private investment but there is no enough ...

  17. Growth and Structure of Tanzania's Industrial Sector Investment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This situation is probably a reflection of the fact that the growth momentum achieved in Tanzania is either inadequate or does not come from investment directed into the labour intensive activities. This paper asserts that in order for the industrial sector to contribute substantially and in a sustainable manner to employment ...

  18. Women's Access to Higher Education in Tanzania: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan Patricia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the ways in which first-generation women in Tanzania explained their success in pursuing a university education despite cultural and social obstacles. Such obstacles include social policies, socio-cultural factors, and academic factors. A review of the literature revealed that issues such as patriarchy,…

  19. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 8, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations on the endemicity of plague in Karatu and Ngorongoro, northern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BS Kilonzo, TJ Mbise, DC Mwalimu, L Kindamba, 1-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v8i1.14262 ...

  20. Tanzania Journal of Health Research - Vol 9, No 1 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern Tanzania · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. M L Kamugisha, S Gesase, D Minja, S Mgema, T D Mlwilo, B K Mayala, 12-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/thrb.v9i1.14286 ...