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Sample records for sweating rate sr

  1. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-03-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for athletes; however, unstandardized methodological practices and challenging field conditions can produce inconsistent/inaccurate results. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a review of the literature regarding the effect of laboratory and field sweat-testing methodological variations on sweating rate (SR) and sweat composition (primarily sodium concentration [Na + ]). The simplest and most accurate method to assess whole-body SR is via changes in body mass during exercise; however, potential confounding factors to consider are non-sweat sources of mass change and trapped sweat in clothing. In addition, variability in sweat [Na + ] can result from differences in the type of collection system used (whole body or localized), the timing/duration of sweat collection, skin cleaning procedure, sample storage/handling, and analytical technique. Another aim of this paper is to briefly review factors that may impact intra/interindividual variability in SR and sweat [Na + ] during exercise, including exercise intensity, environmental conditions, heat acclimation, aerobic capacity, body size/composition, wearing of protective equipment, sex, maturation, aging, diet, and/or hydration status. In summary, sweat testing can be a useful tool to estimate athletes' SR and sweat Na + loss to help guide fluid/electrolyte replacement strategies, provided that data are collected, analyzed, and interpreted appropriately.

  2. Sweating rate and sweat composition during exercise and recovery in ambient heat and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J; Hare, M J; Ecker, G L; Lindinger, M I

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the composition and extent of sweat losses during submaximal exercise under hot and humid conditions and to compare these findings with the same exercise protocol conducted under cool, dry and hot, dry conditions. Five Thoroughbred horses (age 3 to 6) completed exercise tests under each of 3 environmental conditions in random order: cool, dry (CD), room temperature (T) = 20 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) = 45-55%; hot, dry (HD), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 45-55%; and hot, humid (HH), T = 32-34 degrees C, RH = 80-85%. Horses exercised at 50% of their predetermined VO2max on a treadmill set at a 10% slope until attainment of a pulmonary artery blood temperature of 41.5 degrees C followed by a 60 min recovery. Sweat was collected from a sealed polyethylene pouch enclosing a 150 cm2 area on the lateral thorax. During exercise and the first 30 min of recovery, sweat fluid losses were 7.9 +/- 0.7 litres, 9.9 +/- 0.5 litres and 6.6 +/- 1.2 litres (mean +/- s.e.m.) for CD, HD and HH, respectively. Sweating rate (SR), calculated from sweat volume per unit area of enclosed skin, was lowest in CD and similar in HD and HH during exercise such that at end of exercise in HH (16.5 min) calculated sweat losses were approximately 5% and 32% higher than in HD and CD, respectively. In recovery, SR declined in all conditions but was significantly lower in CD (P Sweating was detectable until 30 min recovery in CD, 45 min recovery in HD and 60 min recovery in HH. Sweat composition and osmolality was different under the 3 environmental conditions and changed gradually during exercise and recovery in all conditions. Osmolality and [Na] was highest in HD and lowest in CD. During exercise, [Na] increased with increasing SR. Although exercise duration was significantly decreased in HH (16.5 +/- 1 min) when compared to HD (28 +/- 2 min) and CD (37 +/- 2 min), fluid and ion losses in HH were comparable to those in HD as a result of a high SR and

  3. Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Gerrett, Nicola; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Havenith, George; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and describe a simple method to evaluate the rate of ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in human using the measurement of galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and local sweating rate (SR). This purpose was investigated by comparing the SR threshold for increasing GSC with following two criteria of sweat ion reabsorption in earlier studies such as (1) the SR threshold for increasing sweat ion was at approximately 0.2–0.5 mg/cm2/min and (2) exercise heat acclimation improved the sweat ion reabsorption ability and would increase the criteria 1. Seven healthy non-heat-acclimated male subjects received passive heat treatment both before and after 7 days of cycling in hot conditions (50% maximum oxygen uptake, 60 min/day, ambient temperature 32 °C, and 50% relative humidity). Subjects became partially heat-acclimated, as evidenced by the decreased end-exercise heart rate (p rate of perceived exhaustion (p maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in humans.

  4. Sweating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Looking and feeling your best Sweating Sweating You might think that you are only supposed to sweat when you are hot, but once you hit puberty, you will also sweat when you are nervous. Your sweat glands, which ...

  5. Rate and composition of sweat fluid losses are unaltered by hypohydration during prolonged exercise in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; Geor, R J; McCutcheon, L J

    1997-10-01

    Rate and ionic composition of sweat fluid losses and partitioning of evaporative heat loss into respiratory and cutaneous components were determined in six horses during three 15-km phases of exercise at approximately 40% of maximal O2 uptake. Pattern of change in sweat rate (SR) and composition was similar during each phase. SR increased rapidly for the first 20 min of exercise but remained at approximately 24-28 ml . m-2 . min-1 during the remainder of each phase. Similarly, the concentrations of Na and Cl in sweat increased until 30 min of exercise but were unchanged thereafter. Sweat osmolality and concentrations of Na and Cl were positively correlated with SR. Sweat K concentration decreased during exercise but was not correlated with SR. Fluid losses were 33.8 +/- 1.5 liters, resulting in decreases of approximately 21% in plasma volume and approximately 11% in total body water. The approximately 6% hypohydration was not associated with an alteration in SR, sweat composition, or heat storage. Respiratory and cutaneous evaporative heat loss represented approximately 23 and 70%, respectively, of the total heat dissipated, and the partitioning of heat loss was similar in each exercise phase. We conclude that SR and the relative proportions of respiratory and cutaneous evaporative heat loss are unchanged in horses during prolonged low-intensity exercise despite moderate hypohydration.

  6. Sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in international female soccer players during game specific training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, A E; Tunstall, H; Wraith, E; Good, M; Gammon, C; Smith, C

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte composition in female international level soccer players. Thirteen soccer players performed two 90 min soccer-specific training sessions (T1 and T2) on separate days. Hydration status was determined prior to each session and sweat loss, sweat rate and sweat composition (Na (+), K (+), Mg (++) and Ca (+)) were determined from patches worn during training. The mean sweat rate during T1 and T2 was 0.50+/-0.20 and 0.43+/-0.18 L.h (-1) respectively (P>0.05). The mean sweat electrolyte composition during T1 and T2 was: [Na (+)]: 43.9+/-15.0 and 46.2+/-7.9 mmol.L (-1); [K (+)]: 6.1+/-1.1 and 5.2+/-1.1 mmol.L (-1); [Mg (++)]: 0.1+/-0.0 and 0.1+/-0.0 mmol.L (-1); [Ca (+)]: 1.2+/-0.5 and 0.7+/-0.1 mmol.L (-1), respectively. When data from T1 and T2 were combined, there were no relationships between sweat rate and sweat concentration of any electrolyte. In conclusion, the sweat rate and sweat electrolyte losses in this cohort of international female soccer players, during soccer-specific training in cool conditions, were small. Electrolyte losses of this magnitude are unlikely to require special consideration in terms of optimising player hydration.

  7. Maximum rate of sweat ions reabsorption during exercise with regional differences, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Hirose, Megumi; Konishi, Kana; Gerrett, Nicola; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-07-01

    It is recently reported that determining sweat rate (SR) threshold for increasing galvanic skin conductance (GSC) would represent a maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption in sweat glands. We evaluate the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption over skin regions, sex, and long-term exercise training by using the threshold analysis in the present study. Ten males (2 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 4 distance runners) and 12 females (5 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 3 distance runners) conducted graded cycling exercise for 45 min at low, middle, and high exercise intensities (heart rate 100-110, 120-130, and 140-150 beats/min, respectively) for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively, at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. Comparisons were made between males and females and among untrained individuals, distance runners, and sprinters on the back and forearm. SR threshold for increasing GSC on back was significantly higher than that of forearm (P sprinters showed higher SR threshold for increasing GSC than that of untrained subjects on back (P sprinters, respectively). These results suggest that the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back is higher than that of forearm without sex differences. Furthermore, exercise training in distance runners and sprinters improves the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back.

  8. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  9. Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat is a clear, salty liquid produced by glands in your skin. Sweating is how your body cools itself. You sweat mainly under your arms and on your feet and palms. When sweat mixes with bacteria on your skin, it can ...

  10. Skin Tattoos Alter Sweat Rate and Na+ Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie Joe; Hanisko, Joseph Michael; Aho, Kyle Mathiew

    2017-07-01

    The popularity of tattoos has increased tremendously in the last 10 yr particularly among athletes and military personnel. The tattooing process involves permanently depositing ink under the skin at a similar depth as eccrine sweat glands (3-5 mm). The purpose of this study was to compare the sweat rate and sweat Na concentration of tattooed versus nontattooed skin. The participants were 10 healthy men (age = 21 ± 1 yr), all with a unilateral tattoo covering a circular area at least 5.2 cm. Sweat was stimulated by iontophoresis using agar gel disks impregnated with 0.5% pilocarpine nitrate. The nontattooed skin was located contralateral to the position of the tattooed skin. The disks used to collect sweat were composed of Tygon® tubing wound into a spiral so that the sweat was pulled into the tubing by capillary action. The sweat rate was determined by weighing the disk before and after sweat collection. The sweat Na concentration was determined by flame photometry. The mean sweat rate from tattooed skin was significantly less than nontattooed skin (0.18 ± 0.15 vs 0.35 ± 0.25 mg·cm·min; P = 0.001). All 10 participants generated less sweat from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin and the effect size was -0.79. The mean sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin was significantly higher than nontattooed skin (69.1 ± 28.9 vs 42.6 ± 15.2 mmol·L; P = 0.02). Nine of 10 participants had higher sweat Na concentration from tattooed skin than nontattooed skin, and the effect size was 1.01. Tattooed skin generated less sweat and a higher Na concentration than nontattooed skin when stimulated by pilocarpine iontophoresis.

  11. Normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration and whole-body sweating rate in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly A; Anderson, Melissa L; Passe, Dennis H; Stofan, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normative data for regional sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]) and whole-body sweating rate in athletes. Data from 506 athletes (367 adults, 139 youth; 404 male, 102 female) were compiled from observational athlete testing for a retrospective analysis. The participants were skill/team-sport (including American football, baseball, basketball, soccer and tennis) and endurance (including cycling, running and triathlon) athletes exercising in cool to hot environmental conditions (15-50 °C) during training or competition in the laboratory or field. A standardised regional absorbent patch technique was used to determine sweat [Na+] on the dorsal mid-forearm. Whole-body sweat [Na+] was predicted using a published regression equation (y = 0.57x+11.05). Whole-body sweating rate was calculated from pre- to post-exercise change in body mass, corrected for fluid/food intake (ad libitum) and urine output. Data are expressed as mean ± SD (range). Forearm sweat [Na+] and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] were 43.6 ± 18.2 (12.6-104.8) mmol · L(-1) and 35.9 ± 10.4 (18.2-70.8) mmol · L(-1), respectively. Absolute and relative whole-body sweating rates were 1.21 ± 0.68 (0.26-5.73) L · h(-1) and 15.3 ± 6.8 (3.3-69.7) ml · kg(-1) · h(-1), respectively. This retrospective analysis provides normative data for athletes' forearm and predicted whole-body sweat [Na+] as well as absolute and relative whole-body sweating rate across a range of sports and environmental conditions.

  12. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsay B.

    2017-01-01

    Athletes lose water and electrolytes as a consequence of thermoregulatory sweating during exercise and it is well known that the rate and composition of sweat loss can vary considerably within and among individuals. Many scientists and practitioners conduct sweat tests to determine sweat water and electrolyte losses of athletes during practice and competition. The information gleaned from sweat testing is often used to guide personalized fluid and electrolyte replacement recommendations for a...

  13. Sweating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat mental disorders Menopause Spicy foods (known as "gustatory sweating") Warm temperatures Withdrawal from alcohol or narcotic ... D, Chelimsky G. Disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta ...

  14. Wearable Sweat Rate Sensors for Human Thermal Comfort Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jai Kyoung; Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2018-01-19

    We propose watch-type sweat rate sensors capable of automatic natural ventilation by integrating miniaturized thermo-pneumatic actuators, and experimentally verify their performances and applicability. Previous sensors using natural ventilation require manual ventilation process or high-power bulky thermo-pneumatic actuators to lift sweat rate detection chambers above skin for continuous measurement. The proposed watch-type sweat rate sensors reduce operation power by minimizing expansion fluid volume to 0.4 ml through heat circuit modeling. The proposed sensors reduce operation power to 12.8% and weight to 47.6% compared to previous portable sensors, operating for 4 hours at 6 V batteries. Human experiment for thermal comfort monitoring is performed by using the proposed sensors having sensitivity of 0.039 (pF/s)/(g/m 2 h) and linearity of 97.9% in human sweat rate range. Average sweat rate difference for each thermal status measured in three subjects shows (32.06 ± 27.19) g/m 2 h in thermal statuses including 'comfortable', 'slightly warm', 'warm', and 'hot'. The proposed sensors thereby can discriminate and compare four stages of thermal status. Sweat rate measurement error of the proposed sensors is less than 10% under air velocity of 1.5 m/s corresponding to human walking speed. The proposed sensors are applicable for wearable and portable use, having potentials for daily thermal comfort monitoring applications.

  15. Effect of plasma prolactin on sweat rate and sweat composition during exercise in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, P; Brisson, G R; Péronnet, F

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the role of the exercise-induced elevation of plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration on sweat rate and composition during prolonged exercise in men. Two groups of healthy young males (20-26 yr old) showing a high (high responders; n = 8) or a low (low responders; n = 7) response of plasma PRL concentration to exercise were studied during a 60-min period of exercise on a cycle ergometer (65% maximum O2 consumption) in warm conditions (26.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C; 57 +/- 1% relative humidity), 1 h after receiving 1.25 mg bromocriptine (BRC) per os or a placebo. In high responders, administration of BRC totally abolished the threefold increase in plasma PRL observed in response to exercise with placebo [placebo, 10 +/- 2 (rest) and 30 +/- 2 micrograms/l (exercise); BRC, 9 +/- 1 (rest) and 8 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise)]. The latter was associated with a significant decrease in sweat rate (2.7 +/- 0.5 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 microliter.cm-2.min-1) and a significant increase in sweat Na+ concentration (57 +/- 7 to 68 +/- 5 mmol/l). BRC also reduced the small response in plasma PRL concentration observed in low responders [placebo, 10 +/- 1 (rest) and 15 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise); BRC, 9 +/- 1 (rest) and 7 +/- 1 microgram/l (exercise)], but this was not associated with any change in sweat rate (2.2 +/- 0.2 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 microliter.cm-2.min-1) or in sweat Na+ concentration (63 +/- 10 to 64 +/- 9 mmol/l).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. 3D modeling and characterization of a calorimetric flow rate sensor for sweat rate sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Ahmed Tashfin; Ho, Jenny Che-Ting; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2017-03-01

    Sweat-based physiological monitoring has been intensively explored in the last decade with the hopes of developing real-time hydration monitoring devices. Although the content of sweat (electrolytes, lactate, urea, etc.) provides significant information about the physiology, it is also very important to know the rate of sweat at the time of sweat content measurements because the sweat rate is known to alter the concentrations of sweat compounds. We developed a calorimetric based flow rate sensor using PolydimethylSiloxane that is suitable for sweat rate applications. Our simple approach on using temperature-based flow rate detection can easily be adapted to multiple sweat collection and analysis devices. Moreover, we have developed a 3D finite element analysis model of the device using COMSOL Multiphysics™ and verified the flow rate measurements. The experiment investigated flow rate values from 0.3 μl/min up to 2.1 ml/min, which covers the human sweat rate range (0.5 μl/min-10 μl/min). The 3D model simulations and analytical model calculations covered an even wider range in order to understand the main physical mechanisms of the device. With a verified 3D model, different environmental heat conditions could be further studied to shed light on the physiology of the sweat rate.

  17. A Real-Time Wireless Sweat Rate Measurement System for Physical Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueck, Andrew; Iftekhar, Tashfin; Stannard, Alicja B; Yelamarthi, Kumar; Kaya, Tolga

    2018-02-10

    There has been significant research on the physiology of sweat in the past decade, with one of the main interests being the development of a real-time hydration monitor that utilizes sweat. The contents of sweat have been known for decades; sweat provides significant information on the physiological condition of the human body. However, it is important to know the sweat rate as well, as sweat rate alters the concentration of the sweat constituents, and ultimately affects the accuracy of hydration detection. Towards this goal, a calorimetric based flow-rate detection system was built and tested to determine sweat rate in real time. The proposed sweat rate monitoring system has been validated through both controlled lab experiments (syringe pump) and human trials. An Internet of Things (IoT) platform was embedded, with the sensor using a Simblee board and Raspberry Pi. The overall prototype is capable of sending sweat rate information in real time to either a smartphone or directly to the cloud. Based on a proven theoretical concept, our overall system implementation features a pioneer device that can truly measure the rate of sweat in real time, which was tested and validated on human subjects. Our realization of the real-time sweat rate watch is capable of detecting sweat rates as low as 0.15 µL/min/cm², with an average error in accuracy of 18% compared to manual sweat rate readings.

  18. Effect of salt supplementation on the rate of inadequate sweat collection for infants less than 3 months of age referred for the sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Sweat testing in young infants (≤ 3 months) with a positive newborn screen for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) can yield higher rates of inadequate sweat collection. The role of salt supplements in improving sweat collection has not been studied before. All young infants referred to our CF center for sweat testing were randomized to either receive salt supplements {1/8th teaspoon salt (750 mg)} mixed in formula feeds 1 day prior to sweat testing (study group) or no salt supplement (controls). Of the 151 young infants that underwent sweat testing over 18 months, 75 received salt supplements, while 76 did not. A total of 9 (11.8%) infants in the salt supplement group had inadequate sweat collection, as compared to 4 (5.2%) infants in the control group (p = 0.16, Fisher's Exact Test). Oral salt supplementation for young infants prior to sweat testing does not help to reduce the rates of inadequate sweat collection.

  19. Anthropometric profile and sweat rate in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rossi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Soccer is a sport whose worldwide acceptance has been growing year after year, and is one of the most important events in the sports world. A growing number of children and teenagers are engaged in this activity, but studies regarding risk factors such as adiposity and negative impacts such as dehydration and hyperthermia are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profile, sweat rate and risk of dehydration among young soccer players. For anthropometric assessment, weight, height, circumference measures and skinfold thickness were collected and used for the determination of body mass index and percent body fat of each player. For determination of the sweat rate, players were weighed before and after pre-competition training. Analysis of fat percentage (14.4 ± 3.6% and the sum of skinfolds showed that the players presented an optimal percentage and activity pattern, probably related to their role in the game. Although low (8.8 ± 6.6 mL/min, the sweat rate varied widely among players, wit the observation of a significant reduction (p<0.05 in final weight. The risk of dehydration was low, but the same cannot be stated for the risk of hyperthermia. Further studies involving this population are necessary to establish an adequate hydration strategy, with emphasis on the monitoring of signs of hyperthermia.

  20. Anthropometric profile and sweat rate in young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Aparecida de Brito Reis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p134   Soccer is a sport whose worldwide acceptance has been growing year after year, and is one of the most important events in the sports world. A growing number of children and teenagers are engaged in this activity, but studies regarding risk factors such as adiposity and negative impacts such as dehydration and hyperthermia are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profile, sweat rate and risk of dehydration among young soccer players. For anthropometric assessment, weight, height, circumference measures and skinfold thickness were collected and used for the determination of body mass index and percent body fat of each player. For determination of the sweat rate, players were weighed before and after pre-competition training. Analysis of fat percentage (14.4 ± 3.6% and the sum of skinfolds showed that the players presented an optimal percentage and activity pattern, probably related to their role in the game. Although low (8.8 ± 6.6 mL/min, the sweat rate varied widely among players, wit the observation of a significant reduction (p < 0.05 in final weight. The risk of dehydration was low, but the same cannot be stated for the risk of hyperthermia. Further studies involving this population are necessary to establish an adequate hydration strategy, with emphasis on the monitoring of signs of hyperthermia.

  1. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  2. Wearable technologies for sweat rate and conductivity sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Salvo, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Hauptbeschreibung Wearable sensors present a new frontier in the development of monitoring techniques. They are of great importance in sectors such as sports and healthcare, as they permit the continuous monitoring of physiological and biological elements, such as ECG and human sweat. Until recently, this could only be carried out in specialized laboratories in the presence of cumbersome, and usually, expensive devices. Sweat monitoring sensors integrated onto textile substrates are not only part of a new field of work but, they also represent the first attempt to implement such an

  3. Meta-analysis to predict sweating and respiration rates for Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, V A; Fadel, J G; Sainz, R D

    2011-12-01

    The overall objective of this work was to develop empirical equations from a meta-analysis study to be used to implement initial values in a mechanistic heat balance model. The meta-analysis was conducted to 1) develop prediction equations for sweating and respiration rate (SR, g·m(-2)·h(-1) and RR, breaths·min(-1), respectively) based on skin and body temperature (T(s) and T(b), °C, respectively) for different breed types: Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and their crossbreds, and 2) evaluate the fit of existing SR equations and the SR and RR equations (from objective 1) against independent data sets. Fourteen studies were collected for the SR analysis, 12 for fitting and 2 for evaluation. The fitted SR equations (Thompson model) for the 3 breeds types were B. indicus, SR = 0.085e(0.22·T(s)); B. taurus, SR = 0.75e(0.15·T(s)); and crossbreds, SR = 0.015e(0.25·T(s)). Twenty-three studies were collected for the RR analysis, 20 for fitting and 3 for evaluation. The fitted RR equations for the 3 breed types were B. indicus, RR = -1,660 + 43.8·T(b); B. taurus, RR = -1,385 + 37·T(b); and crossbreds, RR = -2,226 + 59·T(b). Three SR equations (Maia, McArthur, and Gatenby models) from the literature were evaluated against the Thompson model using the 14 studies. The McArthur model predicted SR within the correct range, but with an increased slope bias because the equation was linear and not the correct shape. The Maia model overpredicted SR for all breed types with the greatest overprediction being for crossbreds. The Gatenby model overpredicted SR for B. taurus (root mean square error of prediction = 506 g·m(-2)·h(-1)), but was the best predictor for B. indicus. The Thompson model overpredicted SR for B. indicus (root mean square error of prediction ranged from 134 to 265 g·m(-2)·h(-1)), but was the best predictor for B. taurus and crossbreds. The Thompson model was a good predictor for RR across all breed types. The meta-analysis showed that the Thompson model

  4. Sweat Rate Prediction Equations for Outdoor Exercise with Transient Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    clothing, aerobic fitness, and progressive dehydration . J Therm Biol 22: 331–342, 1997. 25. Matthew WT, Santee WR, Berglund LG. Solar Load Inputs for...code) Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation Richard R. Gonzalez,1 Samuel N. Cheuvront,2 Brett R. Ely,2...Moran DS, Hadid A, Endrusick TL, Sawka MN. Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation. J Appl Phys- iol 112

  5. Higher sweating rate and skin blood flow during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haneul; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Shah, Nirali; Awali, Abdulaziz; Shah, Karan; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Yim, JongEun

    2014-10-01

    Evaporation by sweating is the most effective way to remove heat from the body. Sweat rates increase under both local and whole-body heat stress. Men and women differ in how they respond to heat, because sexual steroids alter resting body core temperature and the threshold for sweating and skin blood flow (SBF) during heating. The purpose of the present study was to compare local sweat rates and cutaneous vasodilatation during heat exposure in women with a regular menstrual cycle. The cutaneous vasodilatation was judged by measuring the SBF. Eight female and nine male subjects participated in this study, and their age range was 24-29 years. Female subjects were tested twice throughout one full menstrual cycle: once during the middle follicular phases and once during the luteal phase. Subjects remained in a temperature-regulated room at 41°C and 21% of relative humidity for 40 minutes. Sweat rate was recorded from the forehead, forearm, and thigh, and skin temperature and SBF were measured on the thigh and forehead. We found that the sweating rate and SBF were greater in the luteal phase compared to follicular phase (p0.05). We propose the enhanced sympathetic activity in the luteal phase with a regular menstrual cycle.

  6. Estimation of sweat rates during cycling exercise by means of the closed chamber condenser technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, P; Clijsen, R; Barel, A O; Schouteden, R; van Olst, B; Aerenhouts, D

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge of local sweating patterns is of importance in occupational and exercise physiology settings. The recently developed closed chamber condenser technology (Biox Aquaflux ® ) allows the measurement of evaporative skin water loss with a greater measurement capacity (up to 1325 g/h/m 2 ) compared to traditional evaporimeters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the Biox Aquaflux ® to estimate sweat production during exercise. Fourteen healthy subjects performed a 20-min cycle ergometer trial at respectively 55% heart rate (HR reserve and 75% HR reserve . Sweat production was estimated by measuring body weight before and after exercise, by calculating the amount of sweat collected in a patch, and by measuring the water flux (in g/h/m 2 ) with the Biox Aquaflux ® instrument. The Biox Aquaflux ® instrument allowed the follow up of sweat kinetics at both intensities. Correlations between the measurement methods were all significant for the 75% HR reserve trial (with r ranging from 0.68 to 0.76) whilst for the 55% HR reserve a significant relation was detected between the patch method and the Biox Aquaflux ® only (with r ranging from 0.41 to 0.79). The Biox Aquaflux ® instrument is a practical and direct method for the estimation of local sweat rates under field conditions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer,F.; Laitano,O.; Bar-Or,O.; McDougall,D.; Heigenhauser,G.J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During b...

  8. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Flavia; Lionello Neto, Orlando Laitano

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject’s lower back. During b...

  9. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6–2.3 L, with the hands (80–160 g.h−1) and feet (50–150 g.h−1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40–75 g.h−1) and all remaining sites losing 15–60 g.h−1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm−2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm−2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min−1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm−2.min−1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm−2.min−1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm−2.min−1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm−2.min−1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm−2.min−1, sodium losses of 26.5–49.7 mmol.L−1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8–36.7 mmol.L−1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise. PMID:23849497

  10. Regional variations in transepidermal water loss, eccrine sweat gland density, sweat secretion rates and electrolyte composition in resting and exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel As; Machado-Moreira, Christiano A

    2013-02-01

    Literature from the past 168 years has been filtered to provide a unified summary of the regional distribution of cutaneous water and electrolyte losses. The former occurs via transepidermal water vapour diffusion and secretion from the eccrine sweat glands. Daily insensible water losses for a standardised individual (surface area 1.8 m2) will be 0.6-2.3 L, with the hands (80-160 g.h-1) and feet (50-150 g.h-1) losing the most, the head and neck losing intermediate amounts (40-75 g.h-1) and all remaining sites losing 15-60 g.h-1. Whilst sweat gland densities vary widely across the skin surface, this same individual would possess some 2.03 million functional glands, with the highest density on the volar surfaces of the fingers (530 glands.cm-2) and the lowest on the upper lip (16 glands.cm-2). During passive heating that results in a resting whole-body sweat rate of approximately 0.4 L.min-1, the forehead (0.99 mg.cm-2.min-1), dorsal fingers (0.62 mg.cm-2.min-1) and upper back (0.59 mg.cm-2.min-1) would display the highest sweat flows, whilst the medial thighs and anterior legs will secrete the least (both 0.12 mg.cm-2.min-1). Since sweat glands selectively reabsorb electrolytes, the sodium and chloride composition of discharged sweat varies with secretion rate. Across whole-body sweat rates from 0.72 to 3.65 mg.cm-2.min-1, sodium losses of 26.5-49.7 mmol.L-1 could be expected, with the corresponding chloride loss being 26.8-36.7 mmol.L-1. Nevertheless, there can be threefold differences in electrolyte losses across skin regions. When exercising in the heat, local sweat rates increase dramatically, with regional glandular flows becoming more homogeneous. However, intra-regional evaporative potential remains proportional to each local surface area. Thus, there is little evidence that regional sudomotor variations reflect an hierarchical distribution of sweating either at rest or during exercise.

  11. Sweating rates of dairy cows and beef heifers in hot conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a “Portable Calorimeter” and a “Bovine Evaporation Meter” designed and fabricated for the studies reported herein. Measurements were taken when cows were in their natural habitat. The focus of the study was to compare swea...

  12. Sweating Rates of Dairy and Feedlot Cows in Stressful Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweating rates from heat-stressed dairy and feedlot cows were measured using a portable calorimeter. Measurements were made when cows were in shade and exposed to direct sunlight (120 to 1100 W/m2) under different air velocities (0.1 to 1.8 m/s). The effect of color of hair coat (black and white) on...

  13. Regional and circadian variations of sweating rate and body surface temperature in camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Al-Haidary, Ahmed A

    2012-07-01

    It was the aim of this study to investigate the regional variations in surface temperature and sweating rate and to visualize body thermal windows responsible for the dissipation of excess body heat in dromedary camels. This study was conducted on five dromedary camels with mean body weight of 450 ± 20.5 kg and 2 years of age. Sweating rate, skin and body surface temperature showed significant (P surface temperature measured on seven regions of the camel body did not significantly differ. The variation in body surface temperature compared to the variation in skin temperature was higher in the hump compared to the axillary and flank regions, indicating the significance of camel's fur in protecting the skin from daily variation in ambient temperature. Infrared thermography revealed that flank and axillary regions had lower thermal gradients at higher ambient temperature (T(a) ) and higher thermal gradients at lower T(a) , which might indicate the working of flank and axillary regions as thermal windows dissipating heat during the night. Sweating rate showed moderate correlation to skin and body surface temperatures, which might indicate their working as potential thermal drivers of sweating in camels. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Control of skin blood flow, sweating, and heart rate - Role of skin vs. core temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, C. R.; Brengelmann, G. L.; Johnson, J. M.; Rowell, L. B.; Niederberger, M.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to generate quantitative expressions for the influence of core temperature, skin temperature, and the rate of change of skin temperature on sweat rate, skin blood flow, and heart rate. A second goal of the study was to determine whether the use of esophageal temperature rather than the right atrial temperature as a measure of core temperature would lead to different conclusions about the control of measured effector variables.

  15. 88Sr/86Sr fractionation and calcite accumulation rate in the Sea of Galilee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, N.; Lazar, B.; Nishri, A.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Be'eri Shlevin, Y.; Stein, M.

    2017-10-01

    This study used the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret, northern Israel) as a ;natural laboratory; to investigate the fractionation of the stable Sr isotope ratio (88Sr/86Sr) during precipitation of inorganic (primary) calcite from the lake's water. It was found that the absolute value of the 88Sr/86Sr fractionation factor, Δ88/86Sr, increases as a function of calcite accumulation rate (Δ88/86Sr [‰] = -0.05 to 0.042·log(R) [μmol·m-2·d-1], where R is the accumulation rate). Furthermore, the 87Sr/86Sr and 88Sr/86Sr ratios in the freshwater and brines that enter the lake were used to calculate the contributions of these sources to the lake Sr budget. The 87Sr/86Sr and 88Sr/86Sr ratios were measured in primary calcite, aragonite shells of live Melanopsis, lake water and various water sources to the lake. While the lake's 87Sr/86Sr ratios are determined by the mixture of freshwater of the Jordan River and saline springs, the 88Sr/86Sr ratios of the lake reflect a more complex mass balance that includes the effect of isotopic fractionation associated with the precipitation of primary calcite. Data analysis suggests that long-term accumulation of inorganic calcite depleted in the heavy isotope 88Sr, results in an increase of the δ88/86Sr value of the lake water by 0.05‰. In contrast to the primary inorganic calcite, biogenic aragonite of the Melanopsis shells show a rather constant 88Sr/86Sr water-CaCO3 fractionation of Δ88/86Sr = -0.21‰. Similar Δ88/86Sr values were reported for the precipitation of coralline and inorganic aragonite from seawater and the precipitation of inorganic calcite from various continental waters. The Δ88/86Sr value of inorganic calcite is modulated by the rate of carbonate precipitation, as noted above and shown by precipitation experiments. Massive precipitation of primary calcite with a wide spread of accumulation rates occurs during the spring phytoplankton bloom in Lake Kinneret. The bloom dictates the degree of calcite saturation

  16. Baroreceptor unloading does not limit forearm sweat rate during severe passive heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Gagnon, Daniel; Lucas, Rebekah A I; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-02-15

    This study tested the hypothesis that sweat rate during passive heat stress is limited by baroreceptor unloading associated with heat stress. Two protocols were performed in which healthy subjects underwent passive heat stress that elicited an increase in intestinal temperature of ∼1.8°C. Upon attaining this level of hyperthermia, in protocol 1 (n = 10, 3 females) a bolus (19 ml/kg) of warm (∼38°C) isotonic saline was rapidly (5-10 min) infused intravenously to elevate central venous pressure (CVP), while in protocol 2 (n = 11, 5 females) phenylephrine was infused intravenously (60-120 μg/min) to return mean arterial pressure (MAP) to normothermic levels. In protocol 1, heat stress reduced CVP from 3.9 ± 1.9 mmHg (normothermia) to -0.6 ± 1.4 mmHg (P 0.999). Sweat rate was elevated by heat stress (1.21 ± 0.44 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)) but remained unchanged during rapid saline infusion (1.26 ± 0.47 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), P = 0.5), whereas cutaneous vascular conductance increased from 77 ± 10 to 101 ± 20% of local heating max (P = 0.029). In protocol 2, MAP was reduced with heat stress from 85 ± 7 mmHg to 76 ± 8 mmHg (P = 0.048). Although phenylephrine infusion returned MAP to normothermic levels (88 ± 7 mmHg; P > 0.999), sweat rate remained unchanged during phenylephrine infusion (1.39 ± 0.22 vs. 1.41 ± 0.24 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P > 0.999). These data indicate that both cardiopulmonary and arterial baroreceptor unloading do not limit increases in sweat rate during passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. What's Sweat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight for Me? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's Sweat? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Sweat? Print A A ... dehydrated (say: dee-HI-drayt-ed). Why Does Sweat Smell? Sweat isn't just wet — it can ...

  18. Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeeyeon; Farahmand, Miesha; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Frisbee, Eric; Milla, Carlos; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i-elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%), bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%), with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25%) tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%), bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators.

  19. 88Sr/86Sr fractionation and calcite accumulation rate in the Sea of Galilee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Noa; Lazar, Boaz; Nishri, Aminadav; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Eisenhauer, Anton; Beeri-Shlevin, Yaron; Stein, Mordechai

    2017-04-01

    This study uses Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee, northern Israel) as a natural laboratory to investigate the fractionation of the stable Sr isotope ratio (88Sr/86Sr) during precipitation of authigenic calcite in the water column, and evaluates the dependence of the fractionation 87Sr/86Sr and 88Sr/86Sr ratios in the freshwater and brines that enter the lake are used to calculate the relative contributions of these sources to the Sr budget of the modern lake. The 87Sr/86Sr and 88Sr/86Sr ratios were measured in authigenic calcite, living Melanopsis shells, lake water and various water sources to the lake. While the lake's 87Sr/86Sr ratios are determined by the mixture of freshwater supplied mainly by the Jordan River and saline springs, the 88Sr/86Sr ratios of the lake reflect a more complex mass balance that includes the effect of isotopic fractionation during the precipitation of authigenic calcite. The data show a significant long-term effect of calcite accumulation on the stable Sr isotope ratio of the lake, increasing the 88Sr/86Sr of the water by 0.04 ‰. In contrast to the authigenic calcite, biogenic aragonite shells are shown to have a rather constant 88Sr/86Sr water-CaCO3 fractionation of precipitation of coralline and chemical aragonite from seawater and the precipitation of authigenic calcite from various continental waters. The field data of the present study suggests that the fractionation of 88Sr/86Sr in authigenic calcite represents a kinetic fractionation that varies with precipitation rate, in addition to the constant thermodynamic property. Massive precipitation of authigenic calcite occurs in Lake Kinneret during the spring phytoplankton bloom as the latter increases considerably the degree of calcite saturation. The correlation between accumulation rate can be therefore used as a tool to reconstruct paleo-environmental variations by analyzing the 88Sr/86Sr ratio in authigenic CaCO3 in core sections.

  20. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  1. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.C. Garcia

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  2. Evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Sellés López de Castro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Triathlon is an endurance sport comprising three disciplines: swimming, cycling and running. It is necessary to purpose guidelines in order to avoid dehydration during training or competition and keep good hydration before, during and after physical activity. The aim of this study is to evaluation of fluid intake, weight loss and sweat rate in young triathletes, during different trainings.Material and Methods: A descriptive-observational study in 14 triathletes (7 boys and 7 girls during a session of swimming, other session of cycling, another session of running. Fluid intake, weight loss, % of total body water, % dehydration and sweat rate, were assessed. Triathletes drank water in their drums of 750 ml and urine measurement was performed in containers.Results: The results of our study following the next order: swimming, cycling and running. Water intake 2.66±1.94ml/min, 7.91±7.69ml/min y 7.08±4.13ml/min in boys and 3.43±1.53ml/min, 6.39±5.36ml/min y 8.33±2.74ml/min in girls; weight loss 0.83±0.5kg, 0.47±0.3kg y 0.98±0.4kg in boys and 0.79±0.3kg, 0.47±0.58kg y 0.28±0.21kg in girls; and sweating rate 4.44±4.9ml/ min, 11.81±6.46ml/min y 5.29±3.13ml/min in boys and 3.89±2.4ml/min, 4.69±4.20ml/min and 7.96±5.06ml/min in girls.Conclusions: The percentage of body water and dehydration, loss of weight and sweat rate were compared with other studies and it´s shown that our results are lower than others studies, being below the recommendations of liquid intake in athletes.

  3. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  4. Night Sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Night sweats By Mayo Clinic Staff Night sweats are repeated episodes of extreme perspiration that may soak your nightclothes or ... these episodes are usually not labeled as night sweats and typically aren't a sign of a ...

  5. Rectal temperature, distal sweat rate, and forearm blood flow following mild exercise at two phases of the circadian cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Jim; Aizawa, Seika; Nevill, Alan; Edwards, Benjamin; Weinert, Dietmar; Atkinson, Greg; Reilly, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Changes in rectal temperature during mild exercise in the middle of the rising (11:00 h) and falling (23:00 h) phases of the circadian rhythm of resting core temperature have been compared. Seven healthy males were studied at rest, while exercising on a cycle ergometer (60 min at 80 W), and during the first 30 min of recovery. Rectal temperature, forearm blood flow, and forearm sweat rate were measured at 1 min intervals throughout. During exercise, there were significant time-of-day differences in the profiles of all three variables, and in the thresholds for increases in forearm blood flow and sweating. Forearm blood flow and sweat rate were recruited more rapidly and to a greater extent with evening exercise, and rectal temperature rose less. Analysis of covariance, with rectal temperature as the covariate, indicated the associations between it and forearm blood flow or sweating were significantly different (ptimes of day. There were also significant (ptime-of-day effects for forearm blood flow and sweating that were independent of rectal temperature. During recovery, rectal temperature fell more quickly in the late evening than late morning. Forearm blood flow and sweating also showed time-of-day differences, but these did not co-vary with rectal temperature. Control of rectal temperature during exercise and recovery appears to be more effective in the late evening than late morning, and differences in forearm blood flow and sweating, as well as factors independent of these two variables, contribute to this difference. The results support our "heat-gain/heat-loss modes" hypothesis.

  6. Evaporimeter and Bubble-Imaging Measures of Sweat Gland Secretion Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyeon Kim

    Full Text Available Beta-adrenergically-stimulated sweat rates determined by evaporimetry or by sweat bubble imaging are useful for measuring CFTR function because they provide a near-linear readout across almost the full range of CFTR function. They differentiate cystic fibrosis (CF subjects from CF carriers and carriers from controls. However, evaporimetry, unlike bubble imaging, appears to be unable to detect improved levels of CFTR function in G551D subjects taking the CFTR modulator ivacaftor. Here, we quantify the sensitivity of evaporimetry and bubble imaging methods for assessing low levels of CFTR-dependent sweat rates. To establish sensitivity, we did dose-ranging studies using intradermally injected [cAMP]i-elevating cocktails. We reduced isoproterenol/aminophylline levels while maintaining a high level of atropine to block muscarinic elevation of [Ca2+]i. We stimulated the same sets of glands for both assays and recorded responses for 20 min. In response to a 3-log dilution of the stimulating cocktail (0.1%, bubble responses were detected in 12/12 tests (100%, with 49% ± 3% of glands secreting to produce an aggregate volume of 598 nl across the 12, 20-min tests. This was ~5% of the response to full cocktail. Evaporimetry detected responses in 3/12 (25% tests with an aggregate secretion volume of 175 nl. After stimulation with a still more dilute cocktail (0.03%, bubble imaging detected 15 ± 13% of glands secreting at a rate ~0.9% of the response to full cocktail, while zero responding was seen with evaporimetry. The bubble imaging method detected secretion down to aggregate rates of <0.2 nl/(cm2·min, or ~1/30th of the average basal transepithelial water loss (TEWL in the test subject of 4 g/m2·hr or 6.7 nl/(cm2·min. The increased sensitivity of bubble imaging may be required to detect small but physiologically important increases in secretion rates produced by CFTR modulators.

  7. A device to improve the Schleger and Turner method for sweating rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco; Alves, Alexandre; Infante, Paulo; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Baccari, Flávio; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test a device developed to improve the functionality, accuracy and precision of the original technique for sweating rate measurements proposed by Schleger and Turner [Schleger AV, Turner HG (1965) Aust J Agric Res 16:92-106]. A device was built for this purpose and tested against the original Schleger and Turner technique. Testing was performed by measuring sweating rates in an experiment involving six Mertolenga heifers subjected to four different thermal levels in a climatic chamber. The device exhibited no functional problems and the results obtained with its use were more consistent than with the Schleger and Turner technique. There was no difference in the reproducibility of the two techniques (same accuracy), but measurements performed with the new device had lower repeatability, corresponding to lower variability and, consequently, to higher precision. When utilizing this device, there is no need for physical contact between the operator and the animal to maintain the filter paper discs in position. This has important advantages: the animals stay quieter, and several animals can be evaluated simultaneously. This is a major advantage because it allows more measurements to be taken in a given period of time, increasing the precision of the observations and diminishing the error associated with temporal hiatus (e.g., the solar angle during field studies). The new device has higher functional versatility when taking measurements in large-scale studies (many animals) under field conditions. The results obtained in this study suggest that the technique using the device presented here could represent an advantageous alternative to the original technique described by Schleger and Turner.

  8. Sweat rate and fluid intake in young elite basketball players on the FIBA Europe U20 Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović-Vesić Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Previous investigations in many sports indicated that continued exercise, especially in hot environments, can cause high sweat rate and huge water and electrolyte losses, thus impairing the performance of athletes. Most these studies were conducted during training sessions, but rarely during an official competition. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine pre- and post-competition hydration, fluid intake and sweat loss of young elite basketball players during the FIBA Europe U20 Championship. Methods. The study included 96 basketball male players, (19 ± 0.79 years of eight national teams. Ambient temperature was 30 ± 2ºC, humidity 55 ± 4% and the mean playing time in game 18.8 ± 10.5 min. The following parameters related to hydration status were measured: fluid intake, urine output, sweat rate, percent of dehydration, urine parameters (specific gravity, color and osmolarity, body mass and body surface area. Results. We found that the mean fluid intake was 1.79 ± 0.8 L/h, sweat rate 2.7 ± 0.9 L/h, urine output 55 ± 61 mL and the percentage of dehydration 0.99 ± 0.7%. According to urine osmolarity more than 75% of players were dehydrated before the game and the process continued during the game. The difference in body mass (0.9 ± 0.7 kg before and after the game was statistically significant. There were statistically significant correlations between the sweat rate and fluid intake, urine osmolarity, body mass loss, body surface area and percentage of dehydration. Fluid intake correlated with the percentage of dehydration, body mass loss, urine specific gravity and urine color. The sweat rate, which varied between the teams, was the highest for centers when this parameter was calculated on the effective time in game. Conclusion. Most of the athletes start competition dehydrated, fail to compensate sweat loss during the game and continue to be dehydrated, regardless what kind of drink was used. These results

  9. Sweat Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    A study combined group sweating and group counseling. Four adolescent boys with disruptive behavior disorders participated in 12 sweat therapy sessions. They reported the sessions useful for sharing personal concerns and receiving assistance with problem solving. Three boys showed improvement in self-esteem. Advantages of sweat therapy over other…

  10. Consistency between Sweat Rate and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature for the Assessment of Heat Stress of People Working Outdoor in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Heidari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is common among workers in arid and semi-arid areas. In order to take every preventive measure to protect exposed workers against heat-related disorders, it is crucial to choose an appropriate index that accurately relates environmental parameters to physiological responses. Objective: To investigate the consistency between 2 heat stress and strain indices, ie, sweat rate and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, for the assessment of heat stress of people working outdoor in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Methods: During spring and summer, 136 randomly selected outdoor workers were enrolled in this study. Using a defined protocol, the sweat rate of these workers was measured 3 times a day. Simultaneously, the environmental parameters including WBGT index were recorded for each working station. Results: The level of agreement between sweat rate and WBGT was poor (κ<0.2. Based on sweat rate, no case exceeding the reference value was observed during the study. WBGT overestimated the heat stress in outdoor workers compared to sweat rate. Conclusion: It seems that the sweat rate standards may need some modifications related to real condition of work in arid and semi-arid regions in Iran. Moreover, it seems that judging workers solely based on monitoring their sweat rate in such regions, can probably result in underestimation of heat stress.

  11. Characteristics of sweating responses and peripheral sweat gland function during passive heating in sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Koga, Shunsaku; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sweating function in sprinters who have trained for several years with untrained subjects and trained endurance runners. Two separate experiments were conducted. Nine sprinters, eight untrained men, and nine distance runners (VO2 max 50.9 ± 1.4, 38.2 ± 1.8, and 59.1 ± 1.2 mL/kg/min, respectively; P sprinters, 11 untrained men and nine distance runners (similar VO2 max levels compared with Experiment 1 in each group) had their sweat gland capacity assessed based on acetylcholine-induced sweating rate (SR) (Experiment 2). The slope of the mean non-glabrous SR plotted against change in mean body temperature during passive heating did not differ significantly between sprinters and untrained men (1.21 ± 0.10 and 0.97 ± 0.12 mg cm(-2)/min/°C, respectively); in contrast, compared with untrained men, distance runners exhibited a significantly greater slope (1.42 ± 0.11 mg cm(-2)/min/°C, P sprinters and untrained men, whereas distance runners showed a significantly higher induced SR compared with untrained men. The sweating function was not improved in sprinters who have trained 2-3 h/day, 5 days/week, for at least 3 years compared with untrained men, although the VO2 max was markedly greater in sprinters. Thus, there is a case that daily training was not sufficient to improve sweating function in sprinters relative to those in distance runners.

  12. Sweat Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Hide, Michihiro

    2016-01-01

    For many years, sweat has been recognized as an exacerbation factor in all age groups of atopic dermatitis (AD) and a trigger of cholinergic urticaria (CholU). Recently, we reported the improvement of AD symptoms by spray with tannic acid, which suppresses basophil histamine release by semipurified sweat antigens in vitro, and showering that removes antigens in sweat from the skin surface. We finally identified MGL_1304 secreted by Malassezia globosa as a major histamine-releasing antigen in human sweat. MGL_1304 is detected as a 17-kDa protein in sweat and exhibits almost the highest histamine-release ability from basophils of patients with AD and CholU among antigens derived from Malassezia species. Moreover, serum levels of anti-MGL_1304 IgE of patients with AD and CholU were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Desensitization therapy using autologous sweat or MGL_1304 purified from culture of M. globosa or its cognates might be beneficial for patients with intractable CholU due to sweat allergy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The development and initial validation of a virtual dripping sweat rate and a clothing wetness ratio for use in predictive heat strain models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H; Kuwabara, K; Hamada, Y

    2014-08-01

    This paper applies the heat balance equation (HBE) for clothed subjects as a linear function of mean skin temperature (t sk ) by a new sweating efficiency (η sw ) and an approximation for the thermoregulatory sweat rate. The equation predicting t sk in steady state conditions was derived as the solution of the HBE and used for a predictive heat strain scale. The heat loss from the wet clothing (WCL) area was identified with a new variable of 'virtual dripping sweat rate VDSR' (S wdr ). This is a subject's un-evaporated sweat rate in dry clothing from the regional sweat rate exceeding the maximum evaporative capacity, and adds the moisture to the clothing, reducing the intrinsic clothing insulation. The S wdr allowed a mass balance analysis of the wet clothing area identified as clothing wetness (w cl ). The w cl was derived by combining the HBE at the WCL surface from which the evaporation rate and skin heat loss from WCL region are given. Experimental results on eight young male subjects wearing typical summer clothing, T-shirt and trousers verified the model for predicting t sk with WCL thermal resistance (R cl,w ) identified as 25 % of dry clothing (R cl,d ).

  14. The development and initial validation of a virtual dripping sweat rate and a clothing wetness ratio for use in predictive heat strain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper applies the heat balance equation (HBE) for clothed subjects as a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk ) by a new sweating efficiency ( η sw ) and an approximation for the thermoregulatory sweat rate. The equation predicting t sk in steady state conditions was derived as the solution of the HBE and used for a predictive heat strain scale. The heat loss from the wet clothing (WCL) area was identified with a new variable of `virtual dripping sweat rate VDSR' ( S wdr ). This is a subject's un-evaporated sweat rate in dry clothing from the regional sweat rate exceeding the maximum evaporative capacity, and adds the moisture to the clothing, reducing the intrinsic clothing insulation. The S wdr allowed a mass balance analysis of the wet clothing area identified as clothing wetness ( w cl ). The w cl was derived by combining the HBE at the WCL surface from which the evaporation rate and skin heat loss from WCL region are given. Experimental results on eight young male subjects wearing typical summer clothing, T-shirt and trousers verified the model for predicting t sk with WCL thermal resistance ( R cl,w ) identified as 25 % of dry clothing ( R cl,d ).

  15. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F; Laitano, O; Bar-Or, O; McDougall, D; Heigenhauser, G J F; Heingenhauser, G J F

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR) suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac-) and ammonia (NH3) and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men) cycled in the heat (42 degrees C, 20% relative humidity) at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 +/- 1.2 and 21.2 +/- 1.7 mM; P sweat from women and men (18.2 +/- 1.9 and 14.8 +/- 1.6 mM, respectively), but Lac- was weakly associated with SR (P > 0.05; r = -0.27). Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 +/- 0.4 mM). Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 +/- 0.4, boys = 4.6 +/- 0.6, women = 2.7 +/- 0.2, and men = 3.0 +/- 0.2 mM; P sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean +/- SEM, girls = 5.4 +/- 0.2, boys = 5.0 +/- 0.1, women = 6.2 +/- 0.5, and men = 6.2 +/- 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 +/- 0.2, boys = 6.5 +/- 0.5, women = 5.2 +/- 0.2, and men = 6.9 +/- 0.4 for bout 2). This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56). Blood pH increased from rest (mean +/- SEM; 7.3 +/- 0.02) to the end of exercise (7.4 +/- 0.01) without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  16. Sweat electrolytes test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat test; Sweat chloride; Iontophoretic sweat test; CF - sweat test; Cystic fibrosis - sweat test ... A colorless, odorless chemical that causes sweating is applied to a small area on an arm or leg. An electrode is then attached to the spot. A weak electrical ...

  17. Thermal influence on palmar sweating and mental influence on generalized sweating in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, T

    1975-01-01

    Sweat rates on the forearm and on the palm were simultaneously recorded by resistance hygrometry and the mode of sweating in these areas in response to thermal and non-thermal stimuli were compared with each other. In Series A, periodic infrared irradiation (1 min on, 1 min off) was done to the back of the trunk, and reflex responses in sweat rate were recorded on both test areas. A high correlation was noted between the mean changes in the palmar sweat rate and those in the forearm one during the irradiation cycle in a majority of cases. However the magnitude of the sweat response was much less on the palm than on the forearm. These observations reveal that the central mechanism of palmar sweating may be affected to some extent by the thermoregulatory mechanism. Series B was concerned with the pattern of response in forearm sweating to various non-thermal stimuli. Careful observations showed that the forearm sweating responded diversely to various mental stimuli, unlike the palmar sweating whose response was always an increase. Mental arithmetic, mental testing and physical exercise caused an immediate increase in the palmar sweating but often elicited a transient decrease in the forearm sweating, whereas pain, noise, and emotional stimuli consistently provoked an increase of sweating on the forearm as well as on the palm. These observations suggest that the activities of higher centers, presumably involving neocortex and limbic cortex, exert various influences on the central mechanisms of palmar and generalized sweating.

  18. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    Full Text Available The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac- and ammonia (NH3 and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P 0.05; r = -0.27. Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM. Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05. This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2. This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56. Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02 to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01 without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  19. Effect of age and gender on sweat lactate and ammonia concentrations during exercise in the heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Meyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of sweat composition and acidity on sweating rate (SR suggests that the lower SR in children compared to adults may be accompanied by a higher level of sweat lactate (Lac- and ammonia (NH3 and a lower sweat pH. Four groups (15 girls, 18 boys, 8 women, 8 men cycled in the heat (42ºC, 20% relative humidity at 50% VO2max for two 20-min bouts with a 10-min rest before bout 1 and between bouts. Sweat was collected into plastic bags attached to the subject's lower back. During bout 1, sweat from girls and boys had higher Lac- concentrations (23.6 ± 1.2 and 21.2 ± 1.7 mM; P 0.05; r = -0.27. Sweat Lac- concentration dropped during exercise bout 2, reaching similar levels among all groups (overall mean = 13.7 ± 0.4 mM. Children had a higher sweat NH3 than adults during bout 1 (girls = 4.2 ± 0.4, boys = 4.6 ± 0.6, women = 2.7 ± 0.2, and men = 3.0 ± 0.2 mM; P < 0.05. This difference persisted through bout 2 only in females. On average, children's sweat pH was lower than that of adults (mean ± SEM, girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 5.0 ± 0.1, women = 6.2 ± 0.5, and men = 6.2 ± 0.4 for bout 1, and girls = 5.4 ± 0.2, boys = 6.5 ± 0.5, women = 5.2 ± 0.2, and men = 6.9 ± 0.4 for bout 2. This may have favored NH3 transport from plasma to sweat as accounted for by a significant correlation between sweat NH3 and H+ (r = 0.56. Blood pH increased from rest (mean ± SEM; 7.3 ± 0.02 to the end of exercise (7.4 ± 0.01 without differences among groups. These results, however, are representative of sweat induced by moderate exercise in the absence of acidosis.

  20. On-ice sweat rate, voluntary fluid intake, and sodium balance during practice in male junior ice hockey players drinking water or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew S; Logan, Heather M; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluated the repeatability of hydration and sweat measurements taken during on-ice hockey practices with players drinking only water, and determined whether having only a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) to drink during practices decreased fluid intake or affected other hydration and (or) sweat measures. All testing was conducted on elite players of an Ontario Hockey League team (+/-SE; mean age, 17.6 +/- 0.3 years; mean height, 182.9 +/- 1.4 cm; mean body mass, 83.0 +/- 1.7 kg). Players were studied 3 times over the course of 6 weekly on-ice practices (+/-SE; mean playing time, 1.58 +/- 0.07 h; mean temperature, 11.4 +/- 0.8 degrees C; mean relative humidity, 52% +/- 3%). There was strong repeatability of the measured hydration and sweat parameters between 2 similar on-ice practices when players drank only water. Limiting the players to drinking only a CES (as opposed to water) did not decrease fluid intake during practice (+/-SE; mean CES intake, 0.72 +/- 0.07 L.h-1 vs. mean water intake, 0.82 +/- 0.08 L.h-1) or affect sweat rate (1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.1 L.h-1), sweat sodium concentration (72.4 +/- 5.6 mmol.L-1 vs. 73.0 +/- 4.4 mmol.L-1), or percent body mass loss (1.1% +/- 0.2% vs. 0.9% +/- 0.2%). Drinking a CES also improved sodium balance (-2.1 +/- 0.2 g.h-1 vs. -2.6 +/- 0.3 g.h-1) and provided the players with a significant carbohydrate (43 +/- 4 g.h-1 vs. 0 +/- 0 g.h-1) during practice. In summary, a single field sweat test during similar on-ice hockey practices in male junior hockey players is sufficient to evaluate fluid and electrolyte balance. Also, a CES does not affect voluntary fluid intake during practice, compared with water, in these players. The CES provided some salt to offset the salt lost in sweat, and carbohydrate, which may help maintain physical and mental performance in the later stages of practice.

  1. Changes in the index of sweat ion concentration with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Yanagimoto, S; Kuwahara, T; Zhang, Y; Nomura, C; Kondo, N

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pattern changes in the index of sweat ion concentration at skin surface with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans, we measured conductivity of the perfused water with sweat as the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate, continuously at the chest skin surface. Eight healthy subjects (22.4 +/-1.0 years) were passively heated by lower-leg immersion in a hot water bath of 42 degrees C for 50 min in an ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. The internal temperature (Tor) thresholds of sweat rate and index of sweat ion concentration were almost similar. Concomitant onset for the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate occurred but two types of linear regression lines were identified in the relationship between the index of sweat ion concentration and sweat rate at a boundary sweat rate value of 0.30 +/- 0.08 mg cm(-2) min(-1). The slope of the regression line at low levels of sweat (slope 0.02 +/- 0.01 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) was significantly gradual compared with that at moderate levels of sweat (slope 0.30 +/- 0.08 V mg(-1) cm(-2) min(-1)) (P<0.05). These results suggest that at low levels of sweat the index of sweat ion concentration responds gradually with respect to sweat rate, which may be due to the ion reabsorption capacity of the sweat duct, and then the index of sweat ion concentration increased steeply with sweat rate.

  2. Sweating the small stuff: adequacy and accuracy in sweat chloride determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Mari L; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brown, Sarah M

    2015-04-01

    Sweat chloride testing is the gold standard for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Our objectives were to: 1) describe variables that determine sweat rate; 2) determine the analytic and diagnostic capacity of sweat chloride analysis across the range of observed sweat rates; and 3) determine the biologic variability of sweat chloride concentration. A retrospective analysis was performed using data from all sweat chloride tests performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital over a 21-month period. A total of 1397 sweat chloride tests (1155 sufficient [≥75 mg], 242 insufficient [sweat weight collected from forearms was statistically greater than that collected from legs. There was a negligible correlation between sweat weight and chloride concentration (r=-0.06). The mean individual biologic CV calculated from individuals with two or more sweat collections ≥75 mg was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.3-14.9%; range 0-88%) yielding a reference change value of 36%. Using 60 mmol/L as the diagnostic chloride cutoff, 100% of CF cases were detected whether a minimum sweat weight of 75, 40, or 20 mg was required. 1) Collection of sweat from forearms is preferable to upper legs, particularly in very young infants; 2) sweat chloride concentrations are not highly dependent upon sweat rate; 3) a change in sweat chloride concentration exceeding 36% may be considered a clinically significant response to cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor targeted therapy, and 4) sweat collections of less than 75 mg provide clinically accurate information. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sweat composition in exercise and in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, T; Shephard, R J; Corey, P; Moore, R

    1982-12-01

    Sweat samples were collected from the forearms of eight male volunteers using light gauze pads applied for 20-min periods. Preliminary trials indicated that this technique yielded realistic figures for both sweat volume and sweat composition. Tests were conducted under three conditions: a) outdoor exercise, cool environment; b) indoor exercise, normal room temperatures; and c) sauna exposure. In all environments, proximal forearm samples indicated a larger sweat secretion than distal forearm or hand samples. [Mg2+] decreased as sweat flow increased, but after allowance for interindividual differences of sweat volume, [Na+], [K+], [Ca2+], and [Cl-] were independent of sweat flow rates. The differential effect of sweat flow suggests active regulation rather than contamination. Interindividual differences of sweat composition could not be explained in terms of differences in personal fitness. Sauna bathing yielded sweat with a higher [Mg2+] and [Ca2+] content than did exercise; however, [Na+], [K+], and [Cl-] were similar for the three experimental conditions. Again, the data are best explained in terms of an active regulation of sweat composition. Total ionic losses do not seem sufficient to deplete body mineral reserves unless many days of training are undertaken in a hot climate.

  4. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  5. Composition of the secretion from the eccrine sweat glands of the cat's foot pad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K G

    1966-05-01

    1. The sweat composition from the cat's foot pad was examined at various rates of secretion. Sodium pentobarbitone or chloralose anaesthesia were used.2. Cat's pad sweat contains lactate, glucose is almost absent, and the sodium and chloride concentrations increased with increasing sweat rate. In these respects the secretion resembles human eccrine sweat.3. The sodium, chloride, and potassium concentrations are much higher than in human sweat; also the potassium level decreased with increasing rate. Consequently, whereas human sweat is hypotonic with respect to the plasma, cat's pad sweat is slightly hypertonic with respect to the plasma even at low rates of secretion. In contrast to human sweat glands, which produce a slightly acidic secretion containing ammonia, cat's pad sweat glands produce an alkaline secretion containing bicarbonate. Also in contrast to human sweat, lactate levels decreased with increasing sweat rate.

  6. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K. P. M.; Chau, K. H.; Kan, C. W.; Fan, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  7. Characterizing the transplanar and in-plane water transport properties of fabrics under different sweat rate: Forced Flow Water Transport Tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K P M; Chau, K H; Kan, C W; Fan, J T

    2015-11-23

    The water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are critical to wear comfort, especially for sportswear and protective clothing. A new testing apparatus, namely Forced Flow Water Transport Tester (FFWTT), was developed for characterizing the transplanar and in-plane wicking properties of fabrics based on gravimetric and image analysis technique. The uniqueness of this instrument is that the rate of water supply is adjustable to simulate varying sweat rates with reference to the specific end-use conditions ranging from sitting, walking, running to other strenuous activities. This instrument is versatile in terms of the types of fabrics that can be tested. Twenty four types of fabrics with varying constructions and surface finishes were tested. The results showed that FFWTT was highly sensitive and reproducible in differentiating these fabrics and it suggests that water absorption and transport properties of fabrics are sweat rate-dependent. Additionally, two graphic methods were proposed to map the direction of liquid transport and its relation to skin wetness, which provides easy and direct comparison among different fabrics. Correlation analysis showed that FFWTT results have strong correlation with subjective wetness sensation, implying validity and usefulness of the instrument.

  8. Effects of rainfall on weathering rate, base cation provenance, and Sr isotope composition of Hawaiian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian W.; Capo, Rosemary C.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2001-04-01

    A climate transect across the Kohala Peninsula, Hawaii provides an ideal opportunity to study soil processes and evolution as a function of rainfall. The parent material is the ˜150 ka Hawi alkali basalt aa flow, and median annual precipitation (MAP) changes from ˜16 cm along the west coast to ˜450 cm in the rain forest near the crest of the peninsula. We measured labile (plant-available) base cation concentrations and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of labile strontium and silicate residue from soil profiles across the transect from 18 to 300 cm MAP. Depletion of labile cations and a shift in labile 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios toward rainwater values with increasing rainfall clearly show the transition from a mineral-supported to a rainwater-supported cation nutrient budget. In contrast, increases in soil silicate residue 87Sr/ 86Sr values with increasing MAP result primarily from input of exogenous eolian material (dust derived from Asian loess), with a greater dust fraction at the high MAP sites due to aerosol washout. Most of the soil silicate strontium in high-MAP sites is still derived from the original parent material, but the shallower portions of profiles can be dust-dominated. The variations in labile 87Sr/ 86Sr with rainfall allow us to calculate weathering rates as a function of MAP. The primary uncertainty is the degree to which Sr in rainwater actually interacts with the labile cation reservoir before being flushed from the system; mass balance calculations for the 150 ka evolution of the profile suggest that only on the order of 5 to 50% of rainwater strontium exchanges with the labile reservoir. Our models suggest that the present-day supply of strontium by weathering increases steadily with rainfall in the low-MAP (<140 cm) sites, then decreases dramatically as the soils become depleted in weatherable parent material. This implies that the initial weathering rate of the high-MAP sites was very high, and that there may be some change in soil weathering behavior in the

  9. Eccrine sweat gland development and sweat secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang-Yi; Schlessinger, David

    2015-09-01

    Eccrine sweat glands help to maintain homoeostasis, primarily by stabilizing body temperature. Derived from embryonic ectoderm, millions of eccrine glands are distributed across human skin and secrete litres of sweat per day. Their easy accessibility has facilitated the start of analyses of their development and function. Mouse genetic models find sweat gland development regulated sequentially by Wnt, Eda and Shh pathways, although precise subpathways and additional regulators require further elucidation. Mature glands have two secretory cell types, clear and dark cells, whose comparative development and functional interactions remain largely unknown. Clear cells have long been known as the major secretory cells, but recent studies suggest that dark cells are also indispensable for sweat secretion. Dark cell-specific Foxa1 expression was shown to regulate a Ca(2+) -dependent Best2 anion channel that is the candidate driver for the required ion currents. Overall, it was shown that cholinergic impulses trigger sweat secretion in mature glands through second messengers - for example InsP3 and Ca(2+) - and downstream ion channels/transporters in the framework of a Na(+) -K(+) -Cl(-) cotransporter model. Notably, the microenvironment surrounding secretory cells, including acid-base balance, was implicated to be important for proper sweat secretion, which requires further clarification. Furthermore, multiple ion channels have been shown to be expressed in clear and dark cells, but the degree to which various ion channels function redundantly or indispensably also remains to be determined. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Growth rate effects on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios constrained by belemnite calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Multiple temperature proxies from single species are important to achieve robust palaeotemperature estimates. Besides the commonly employed oxygen isotope thermometer, also Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios perform well as proxies for calcification temperature in the shells of some species. While salinity changes affect the ratios of earth alkaline elements much less than the δ18O thermometer, metabolic effects may exert a strong control on the expression of element ratios. Such effects are hard to study because biomineralization experiments have to overcome large intraspecific variability and can hardly ever isolate the controls of a single parameter on shell geochemistry. The unique geometry of the belemnite rostrum constitutes an exception to this rule. Its shape, large size, and the visibility of growth increments as bands enable the analysis of multiple, correlatable, high resolution geochemical profiles in a single fossil. The effects of the growth rate variability amongst these profiles on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios has been tested here. Within a specimen of Passaloteuthis bisulcata (Early Toarcian, Cleveland Basin, UK), Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca data were obtained from four profiles. With respect to growth rate in the first profile, which was taken as a reference, the relative growth rates in the remaining three profiles varied by a factor of 0.9 to 2.7. Results suggest that relative growth rate is linearly correlated with Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, with a decrease of Mg/Ca by 8 % and increase of Sr/Ca by 6 % per 100 % increase in relative growth rate. The observed trends are consistent with abiogenic precipitation experiments and suggest that crystal precipitation rate exerts a significant, predictable control on the element distribution in biogenic calcite.

  11. Immunohistochemical sweat gland profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E; Delvenne, Philippe; Quatresooz, Pascale; Humbert, Philippe; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-09-01

    Human sweat glands are heterogeneous in their structures and functions. Accordingly, eccrine, apocrine, and apoeccrine glands are distinguished. Some immunohistochemical markers are expected to distinguish the sweat gland types in their secretory and excretory parts. This study used two sets of antibodies. The first panel was composed of antibodies directed to well-defined sweat gland structures. The molecular targets included the low-molecular-weight cytokeratins CAM 5.2, the S100-B protein, the epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1). A second exploratory panel of antibodies targeted syndecan-1 (CD138), NKI-C3 (CD63), and CD68. They were used to disclose some undescribed antigen expressions in human sweat glands. The first set of antibodies confirmed previous findings. The immunoreactivities of the three sweat gland types were similar in the excretory ducts. By contrast, they were distinguished in the deeper coiled secretory portions of the glands. Clues supporting their distinction and probably their functional activity were obtained by immunohistochemistry using the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 antibodies. The immunoreactivity to the S100-B protein, CEA and CD63 possibly help identifying apoeccrine sweat glands or a peculiar functional activity of eccrine sweat glands. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sweat collection capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  13. Acquired defects in CFTR-dependent β-adrenergic sweat secretion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Clifford A; Tidwell, Sherry; Liu, Bo; Accurso, Frank J; Dransfield, Mark T; Rowe, Steven M

    2014-02-25

    Smoking-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with acquired systemic cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction. Recently, sweat evaporimetry has been shown to efficiently measure β-adrenergic sweat rate and specifically quantify CFTR function in the secretory coil of the sweat gland. To evaluate the presence and severity of systemic CFTR dysfunction in smoking-related lung disease using sweat evaporimetry to determine CFTR-dependent sweat rate. We recruited a cohort of patients consisting of healthy never smokers (N = 18), healthy smokers (12), COPD smokers (25), and COPD former smokers (12) and measured β-adrenergic sweat secretion rate with evaporative water loss, sweat chloride, and clinical data (spirometry and symptom questionnaires). β-adrenergic sweat rate was reduced in COPD smokers (41.9 ± 3.4, P sweat chloride was significantly greater in COPD smokers (32.8 ± 3.3, P sweat rate and female gender (β = 0.26), age (-0.28), FEV1% (0.35), dyspnea (-0.3), and history of smoking (-0.27; each P sweat rate was significantly reduced in COPD patients, regardless of smoking status, reflecting acquired CFTR dysfunction and abnormal gland secretion in the skin that can persist despite smoking cessation. β-adrenergic sweat rate and sweat chloride are associated with COPD severity and clinical symptoms, supporting the hypothesis that CFTR decrements have a causative role in COPD pathogenesis.

  14. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (Na(+)) intake during exercise aims to replace the Na(+) lost by sweat to avoid electrolyte imbalances, especially in endurance disciplines. However, Na(+) needs can be very different among individuals because of the great inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration. The aim of this investigation was to determine sweat electrolyte concentration in a large group of marathoners. A total of 157 experienced runners (141 men and 16 women) completed a marathon race (24.4 ± 3.6 °C and 27.7 ± 4.8 % of humidity). During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches placed on the runners' forearms. Sweat electrolyte concentration was measured by using photoelectric flame photometry. As a group, sweat Na(+) concentration was 42.9 ± 18.7 mmol·L(-1) (minimal-maximal value = 7.0-95.5 mmol·L(-1)), sweat Cl(-) concentration was 32.2 ± 15.6 mmol·L(-1) (7.3-90.6 mmol·L(-1)) and sweat K(+) concentration was 6.0 ± 0.9 mmol·L(-1) (3.1-8.0 mmol·L(-1)). Women presented lower sweat Na(+) (33.9 ± 12.1 vs 44.0 ± 19.1 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.04) and sweat Cl(-) concentrations (22.9 ± 10.5 vs 33.2 ± 15.8 mmol·L(-1); P = 0.01) than men. A 20 % of individuals presented a sweat Na(+) concentration higher than 60 mmol·L(-1) while this threshold was not surpassed by any female marathoner. Sweat electrolyte concentration did not correlate to sweat rate, age, body characteristics, experience or training. Although there was a significant correlation between sweat Na(+) concentration and running pace (r = 0.18; P = 0.03), this association was weak to interpret that sweat Na(+) concentration increased with running pace. The inter-individual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration was not explained by any individual characteristics except for individual running pace and sex. An important portion (20 %) of marathoners might need special sodium intake recommendations due to

  15. Decreased sweating in seven patients with Laron syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Price, D A; Savage, M O

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sweat secretion was reduced in patients with GH deficiency and increased during GH treatment, indicating an influence of GH on sweat gland function. Thus, patients with GH deficiency have impaired thermoregulation. We report on sweat secretion rates (SSRs) in seven......). These observations further supported the hypothesis that sweat gland function in humans is under the influence of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I axis. It remains to be seen whether the decrease in SSR also leads to altered thermoregulation in patients with Laron syndrome....

  16. Efficient sweat reduction of three different antiperspirant application forms during stress-induced sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rose, T; Lehmbeck, F; Bürger, A; Windisch, B; Keyhani, R; Max, H

    2013-12-01

    Stress sweating can occur in everyday situations independently of thermally-induced perspiration. It is triggered by emotionally challenging situations and leads to underarm wetness and a characteristic unpleasant malodor. In this study, we aimed to determine the long-term efficacy of three unperfumed antiperspirant (AP) formulas for different application forms (roll-on, stick, aerosol) against stress-induced sweating and malodor formation. We utilized the widely accepted Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to induce psychosocial stress in female and male volunteers (18 - 40 years) and determined physiological stress parameters. To additionally assess the efficacy of the test AP roll-on against thermally-induced sweating, a hot room study was performed. Increasing heart rates and an augmentation of saliva cortisol levels during the TSST indicated a substantial stress reaction which was paralleled by a pronounced sweat production in the untreated axillae of both males and females. Forty-eight hours after application, all three test APs significantly decreased the amount of sweat in the treated axillae independent of gender. With respect to AP effects on malodor production, trained sniffers assessed sweat samples collected during the TSST from the untreated axillae as significantly more malodorous than comparable samples from the AP-treated axillae. Also, independent of gender the test AP roll-on significantly decreased the thermally-induced sweat in the AP-treated axilla. We show for the first time a highly effective reduction of emotionally-induced axillary sweating and malodor production for three different application forms 48 h after the last product use. The specially developed roll-on, stick, and aerosol AP provide long-term protection against stress-induced sweat which is of high relevance in everyday life. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. [Estimation of the sweat composition of fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovskaia, S S; Varus, V I; Briuzgina, T S; Belov, A A; Ivanov, D A

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the fatty acid composition of sweat lipid were studied in persons whose activity was associated with military service. There were significant changes in essential fatty acids of sweat lipids, which made it possible to use this noninvasive biological object as a criterion for rating dysadaptive processes in armed forces personnel.

  19. Successful pregnancy after SrCl2 oocyte activation in couples with repeated low fertilization rates following calcium ionophore treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sang-Don; Yang, Seong-Ho; Yoon, San-Hyun; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Jin-Ho

    2014-06-01

    This report describes a successful pregnancy and delivery following oocyte activation with strontium chloride (SrCl2) in couples with repeated complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates even after calcium ionophore treatment. Eight infertile couples who showed complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates after conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and calcium ionophore treatment. When the results of fertilization were not satisfactory in the cycles, the oocytes were artificially activated by SrCl2 for the next attempts. Oocyte activation with SrCl2 significantly increased the fertilization rates, when compared with conventional ICSI or calcium ionophore treatment (61.7% vs. 20.0% or 25.3%, respectively). There was significant increase in the proportions of good-quality cleaved embryos (50.0% vs. 0% or 12.5%, respectively). The rate of surplus embryos that developed to blastocyst stage increased in SrCl2-treated oocytes, when compared with that in ICSI with or without calcium ionophore treatment (25.7% vs. 0% or 9.1%, respectively). Five successful pregnancies were attained after oocyte activation with SrCl2, of which eight healthy children were born. Physical and mental development of the children were normal from birth to 60 months. These results suggest that SrCl2 in treatment should be considered as an effective method for artificial oocyte activation (AOA) to improve fertilization rates and embryo quality in cases with complete fertilization failure or low fertilization rates after calcium ionophore treatment.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of SrRuO3 thin-films: The role of the pulse repetition rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schraknepper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available SrRuO3 thin-films were deposited with different pulse repetition rates, fdep, epitaxially on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition. The measurement of several physical properties (e.g., composition by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the out-of-plane lattice parameter, the electric conductivity, and the Curie temperature consistently reveals that an increase in laser repetition rate results in an increase in ruthenium deficiency in the films. By the same token, it is shown that when using low repetition rates, approaching a nearly stoichiometric cation ratio in SrRuO3 becomes feasible. Based on these results, we propose a mechanism to explain the widely observed Ru deficiency of SrRuO3 thin-films. Our findings demand these theoretical considerations to be based on kinetic rather than widely employed thermodynamic arguments.

  1. Sweat mineral-element responses during 7 h of exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, Scott J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lukaski, Henry C

    2007-12-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the effect of sustained sweating on sweat mineral-element composition. To determine the effect of multiple hours of exercise-heat stress on sweat mineral concentrations. Seven heat-acclimated subjects (6 males, 1 female) completed 5 x 60 min of treadmill exercise (1.56 m/s, 2% grade) with 20 min rest between exercise periods in 2 weather conditions (27 degrees C, 40% relative humidity, 1 m/s and 35 degrees C, 30%, 1 m/s). Sweat was collected from a sweat-collection pouch attached to the upper back during exercise bouts 1, 3, and 5. Mineral elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-emission spectrography. At 27 degrees C, sweat sodium (863 [563] microg/mL; mean [SD]), potassium (222 [48] microg/mL), calcium (16 [7]) microg/mL), magnesium (1265 [566] ng/mL), and copper (80 [56] ng/mL) remained similar to baseline over 7 h of exercise-heat stress, whereas sweat zinc declined 42-45% after the initial hour of exercise-heat stress (Ex1 = 655 [362], Ex3 = 382 [168], Ex5 = 355 [288] microg/mL, P sweat zinc at 35 degrees C when sweat rates were higher. Sweat rate had no effect on sweat trace-element composition. Sweat sodium, potassium, and calcium losses during multiple hours of sustained sweating can be predicted from initial sweat composition. Estimates of sweat zinc losses, however, will be overestimated if sweat zinc conservation is not accounted for in sweat zinc-loss estimates.

  2. [What causes English sweats?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimar, Yossi

    2004-09-01

    English sweating disease also known as Sudor Anglicus is one of the least familiar epidemics of the Middle Ages, striking England 5 times during the 15th and 16th centuries before fading. This article will discuss the knowledge available to us about this fascinating epidemic, its characteristics and causes.

  3. Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines also can cause this type of hyperhidrosis. Anxiety and embarrassment Both types of hyperhidrosis can cause people to feel extremely anxious and embarrassed. Students often avoid raising their hand during class. Many teens never date. Adults may hide the sweat stains ...

  4. Investigation into the dissolution rate increase on storage of Wellbutrin SR 100 mg tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Mickey L; Williams, Sandra O; Sanftleben, Ronald A; Balik, Samuel B; Evans, Barry A

    2010-03-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the New Drug Application for Wellbutrin sustained release (SR) 100 mg tablets on October 4, 1996. However, by 1998, the FDA expressed concern about the stability of this drug product based on an increase in the dissolution profile on storage. Data submitted in the annual report showed that this drug product could not meet the expiry of 18 months at the International Committee on Harmonization storage condition of 25 degrees C/60% relative humidity. The FDA mandated a 12-month expiry and GlaxoWellcome tightened this further by instituting an expiry of 9 months. The FDA also requested a long-term solution to the stability of Wellbutrin SR 100 mg tablets. Investigations via colloidal solutions revealed that the dissolution rate increase on storage occurred due to acid hydrolysis of the release controlling polymer. This drug product was successfully reformulated by slowing the initial dissolution rate and having an increased ratio of release controlling polymer to acid stabilizer. The reformulation used the same ingredients and manufacturing unit processes as the original formulation. The reformulated drug product was approved by the FDA on October 11, 2000 with an 18-month shelf-life. The shelf-life was extended to 36 months in an annual update to the FDA on December 1, 2005.

  5. Time-of-day effect on nonthermal control of sweating response to maintained static exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ken; Kondo, Narihiko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Iwanaga, Koichi; Harada, Hajime; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the influence of nonthermal factors in the time-of-day effect on the sweating response to maintained static exercise, eight healthy male subjects performed handgrip exercise at 20%, 35% and 50% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 60 s at 0600 hours (morning) and at 1800 hours (evening). Oesophageal temperature ( T(oes)) before the experiment showed a diurnal rhythm [mean (SEM)] [36.3 (0.1) (morning) compared to 36.8 (0.1) degrees C (evening), Pexercise, handgrip exercise and recovery periods. The response in sweating rate (DeltaSR) on the chest and forearm to handgrip exercise increased significantly with increasing exercise intensity in both the morning and evening tests ( Pexercise intensity in the morning test ( P>0.1). During handgrip exercise at 50% MVC only, DeltaSR on the chest, forearm and palm in the evening was significantly higher than in the morning ( Pexercise were not significantly different between the morning and evening ( P>0.1). These results indicate the presence of a time-of-day effect on nonthermal control of the sweating response to isometric handgrip exercise, and that this effect is dependent on exercise intensity.

  6. Ninhydrin sweat test in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markendeya, N; Srinivas, C R

    2004-01-01

    Loss of sensation is an important feature of leprosy. Loss of sweating over the affected site due to loss of autonomic function occurs in leprosy. We have studied a simple, non-invasive, rapid method, using 1% ninhydrin in acetone, to detect loss of sweat function. The test was effective in detecting and grading the sweat function in 84 cases of different types of leprosy. We were able to detect normal sweating in 16 patients with hypopigmented lesion due to causes other than Hansen's disease.

  7. Muscle Glycogen Content Modifies SR Ca2 + Release Rate in Elite Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gejl, Kasper Degn; Hvid, Lars G; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of muscle glycogen content on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) function and peak power output (Wpeak) in elite endurance athletes....

  8. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  9. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone....

  10. Why Do I Sweat So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Parents - or Other Adults Why Do I Sweat So Much? KidsHealth > For Teens > Why Do I Sweat So Much? Print A A A en español ¿Por qué sudo tanto? It's perfectly normal to sweat. Sweating plays an important health role because it ...

  11. Sweat mechanisms and dysfunctions in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Aleksi J; Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Yosipovitch, Gil; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Skin barrier dysfunction is inherent to atopic dermatitis (AD), causing dryness, irritation, and increased permeability to irritants, allergens and pathogens. Eccrine sweat functions as part of the skin's protective barrier. Variations in sweat responses have been observed in patients with AD, and altered sweat composition and dynamics are under-recognized as important factors in the disease cycle. This review discusses the role that sweat plays in the pathogenesis of AD, examines evidence on abnormal sweat composition, secretion, and neuro-immune responses to sweat in atopic skin, and highlights the value of sweat management. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory performance of sweat conductivity for the screening of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Ronda F; Jolly, Lisa; Massie, John; Scott, Sue; Wiley, Veronica C; Metz, Michael P; Mackay, Richard J

    2017-10-09

    There are several complementary English-language guidelines for the performance of the sweat chloride test. These guidelines also incorporate information for the collection of conductivity samples. However, recommendations for the measurement and reporting of sweat conductivity are less clear than for sweat chloride. The aim of the study was to develop an understanding of the testing and reporting practices of sweat conductivity in Australasian laboratories. A survey specifically directed at conductivity testing was sent to the 12 laboratories registered with the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs. Nine (75%) laboratories participated in the survey, seven of whom used Wescor Macroduct® for collecting sweat and the Wescor SWEAT·CHEK™ for conductivity testing, and the remaining two used the Wescor Nanoduct®. There was considerable variation in frequency and staffing for this test. Likewise, criteria about which patients it was inappropriate to test, definitions of adequate collection sweat rate, cutoffs and actions recommended on the basis of the result showed variations between laboratories. Variations in sweat conductivity testing and reporting reflect many of the same issues that were revealed in sweat chloride test audits and have the potential to lead to uncertainty about the result and the proper action in response to the result. We recommend that sweat testing guidelines should include clearer statements about the use of sweat conductivity.

  13. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiyagaito, Aki; Horiuchi, Satoshi; Igarashi, Toko; Kawanori, Yoshiya; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Hirooki; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR) is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J). Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test-retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J) and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the strength of the correlation between the HRS-SR-J and the Japanese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and that between the HRS-SR-J and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 were significantly weaker than the correlation between the HRS-SR-J and the SI-R-J. These results demonstrate that the HRS-SR-J has good convergent and discriminant validity. The HRS-SR-J is a notable self-report scale for examining the severity of hoarding symptoms.

  14. Dose rates to the human lens from a SR-90 applicator modeled with Monte Carlo computer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silberstein, E.B.; Gleckler, M.; Valentine, J. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Strontium-90 (beta-emitting) applicators for the treatment of pterygia carry the potential for significant (possibly cataractogenic) lens doses previously calculated with imprecise or inaccurate assumptions. We sought to apply modern dosimetry techniques to this problem using the Monte Carlo computer code MCNP version 4.A to model the human eye irradiated with a commonly employed Sr-90 applicator. The code was configured to compute dose rate to any part of the eye, focusing on those tissues (sclera, lens) directly under the applicator. The model was validated by calculating the surface dose delivered by the applicator to the sclera from MCNP results and comparing this to the manufacturer specified value of this parameter. The scleral surface dose rate from a 1.85 GBq (50 mCi) Sr-90 source was 60.5 cGy/sec, with an average dose rate to the underlying sclera about 42 cGy/sec. In the surface region of the lends under the 1.85 GBq Sr-90 applicator, with depth 0.5 m width 1.5 mm over a 90{degrees} arc tangential to the applicator, the dose rate was 6.6 cGy/min, and in the next underlying region of the lens with 0.5 mm thickness 4.3 cGy/min. Isodose curves have been calculated for the lens and entire eye. Our computer program permits calibration of Sr-90 applicators and provides accurate dosimetry from these applicators to the sclera and all regions of the lens. A total lens dose is meaningless. The periphery of the lens will receive cataractogenic doses when a commonly employed dose (20 Gy) for pterygium treatment is used.

  15. The reproducibility of closed-pouch sweat collection and thermoregulatory responses to exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Gavin; Milne, Helen C; Patterson, Mark J; Nimmo, Myra A

    2004-05-01

    Seven active male subjects cycled for 60 min at 29.5 (0.8)% peak work rate on three separate occasions in a hot environmental condition [36.0 (0.1) degrees C, 60 (1)% relative humidity] in order to determine the reproducibility of a closed-pouch sweat collection technique for sweat composition at the scapula, forearm and thigh. To confirm that sweat composition was not influenced by between-trial variations in sudomotor drive, local sweat rate, whole-body sweat rate, heart rate (HR), rectal temperature (T(re)) and mean skin temperature (T(sk)) responses were also measured, consequently reproducibility was also established for these variables. Sweat composition did not differ among trials, with the mean coefficients of variation (CVs) for sweat [Na(+)], [K(+)] and pH being 10.4 (7.4)%, 8.1 (6.5)% and 1.3 (1.1)%, respectively. Local sweat rates did not differ among the three trials (P>0.05) although whole-body sweat rate was reduced in the third trial (Psweat rates, respectively. Between-trial differences were not evident for T(re), T(sk) or HR with mean CVs of 0.3 (0.2)%, 0.7 (0.6)% and 3.9 (1.7)%, respectively, although HR tended to be greater in the first trial ( P=0.08). It is proposed that moderate variations in sweat composition were influenced by variations in the local sweat rate, which were induced by application of the pouch.

  16. Sweating responses to isometric hand-grip exercise and forearm muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Kai, Seiko; Nakajima, Michi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Gerrett, Nicola; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-thermal factors (e.g. muscle metaboreflex) contribute to the sweating response during exercise. Although it is well recognized that the sweating responses caused by core temperature elevation in prepubertal children and the elderly are attenuated compared with young adults, it is unknown whether non-thermal sweating is also attenuated in these populations. What is the main finding and its importance? The non-thermal sweating response during isometric hand-grip exercise and isolated muscle metaboreflex were attenuated in prepubertal children compared with young adults in a non-uniform manner over the body, but only during the muscle metaboreflex in the elderly. This may explain the maturation- and ageing-related decline of sweating during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sweating responses to isometric hand-grip (IH) exercise and muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and the elderly. In hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 45%), 13 healthy young adults, 10 prepubertal children and 10 elderly subjects (aged 20.4 ± 1.2, 11.4 ± 0.5 and 63.5 ± 3.1 years, respectively) repeated a three hand-grip exercise protocol that consisted of 1 min IH exercise at 15, 30 or 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 2 min postexercise forearm occlusion. Local sweat rates (SRs) on the forehead, chest, forearm, thigh and palm were continuously measured (ventilated capsule method). The forehead SR in prepubertal children during IH exercise at 45% MVC was significantly lower than that of young adults (0.26 ± 0.22 and 0.08 ± 0.15 mg cm-2  min-1 for young adults and children, respectively; P elderly at any exercise intensities. The SR on the chest (0.22 ± 0.22 and -0.01 ± 0.05 mg cm-2  min-1 for young adults and children, respectively), forearm (0.14 ± 0.12 and 0.03 ± 0.04 mg cm-2  min-1 ) and thigh (0.13 ± 0.10 and 0.02 ± 0

  17. In vivo sweat film layer thickness measured with Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonathan, E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available the added advantage of supporting near-real time or video rate imaging speed. Consequently, FD-OCT supports assessment of tissue structure as well as near-real time imaging of functioning small organs in tissue [16–19]. The focus of this paper is direct... accurate measurement of SFL thickness as a diagnostic parameter of sweat intensity while near-real time imaging of the responsible small organs, namely sweat glands, sweat ducts and sweat pores is also of interest. 2. Experimental 2.1. Apparatus OCT...

  18. Bioanalytical devices: Technological leap for sweat sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikenfeld, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Sweat analysis is an ideal method for continuously tracking a person's physiological state, but developing devices for this is difficult. A wearable sweat monitor that measures several biomarkers is a breakthrough. See Letter p.509

  19. Working Up a Good Sweat - The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-02-01

    Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006-2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable 'omics' analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease.

  20. Comparison of Quantitative Sweat Chloride Methods after Positive Newborn Screen for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Theresa A.; Lin, Nan; Wang, Qi; Holme, Bonnie; McNamara, John; Regelmann, Warren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objectives Rapid and reliable confirmatory sweat testing following a positive newborn screen (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) is preferred to allow for early diagnosis and to decrease parental anxiety. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation (CFF) recently recommended a quantity not sufficient (QNS) rate of ≤ 10% in infants sweat chloride analysis. Two CFF-approved methods are available by which to quantitatively measure chloride concentration in sweat. Our objective was to compare the performance of the Macroduct® sweat collection system (MSCS) with the Gibson and Cooke technique (GCT) in the acquisition of samples for the determination of sweat chloride concentration in infants with a positive Minnesota State NBS for cystic fibrosis. Methods A retrospective database review of infants referred to the core Minnesota CF Center or its affiliate site for confirmatory sweat testing was performed to compare the QNS rates for the two techniques. Associations between birthweight, age at test, race and QNS rates were examined. Results 568 infants were referred for 616 sweat tests from March 2006–January 2010. The mean age was 32.8 days at the initial sweat test. The GCT had a significantly higher QNS rate compared to the MSCS (15.4% vs. 2.1%, psweat testing in infants following a positive state NBS. PMID:22786625

  1. Do elephants need to sweat? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate rate of evaporative water loss is considered essential for the maintenance of thermal balance in the elephant in warm climatic conditions. Histological studies have failed to reveal the existence of sweat glands in elephant skin. Transepidermal water-loss rate has been measured and shown to be sufficiently ...

  2. Comparison of three methods for estimation of exercise-related ion losses in sweat of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    1999-10-01

    To quantify total fluid loss in sweat of Thoroughbreds during >3 hours of low-intensity exercise in controlled conditions and to calculate and compare estimated ion losses in sweat, according to 3 methods. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. Fluid and ion losses in sweat were measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km. Horses were given a 15-minute rest period at the end of three 15-km exercise phases. Horses completed 2 exercise trials. Ion losses in sweat were calculated, using measurements of local sweating rate and sweat ion composition (SWT), change in net exchangeable cation content (CAT), and change in extracellular ion content (PLAS) derived from plasma total solids and ion concentrations. Measurement of SWT revealed a mean (+/- SEM) fluid loss in sweat during 45 km of exercise of 27.5 +/- 1.6 L. Total ion loss in sweat was approximately 241 g or 7.8 mol with higher sodium losses in the second and third phases of exercise compared with the first phase. Losses of sodium and potassium calculated by SWT or CAT were not significantly different from each other, whereas losses of these ions as determined by PLAS were significantly lower. Calculation of ion losses from a mean whole body sweating rate extrapolated from either local sweating rate and sweat ion composition or from change in net exchangeable cation content provide similar results, whereas ion losses determined by changes in extracellular ion content derived from plasma total solids and ion concentration results in underestimation of actual losses.

  3. Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

  4. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiyagaito A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aki Tsuchiyagaito,1–3 Satoshi Horiuchi,4 Toko Igarashi,5 Yoshiya Kawanori,4 Yoshiyuki Hirano,1,3 Hirooki Yabe,2 Akiko Nakagawa1,3 1Research Center for Child Mental Development, Chiba University, Chiba, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 3United Graduate School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Chiba University and University of Fukui, Osaka, 4Faculty of Social Welfare, Iwate Prefectural University, Iwate, 5Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education, Niigata, Japan Background: The Hoarding Rating Scale-Self-Report (HRS-SR is a five-item scale that assesses the symptoms of hoarding. These symptoms include excessive acquisition, difficulty in discarding, and excessive clutter that causes distress. We conducted three studies to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Japanese version of the HRS-SR (HRS-SR-J. Methods: Study 1 examined its reliability; 193 college students and 320 adolescents and adults completed the HRS-SR-J and, of the college students, 32 took it again 2 weeks later. Study 2 aimed to confirm that its scores in a sample of 210 adolescents and adults are independent of social desirability. Study 3 aimed to validate the HRS-SR-J in the aspects of convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of 550 adults. Results: The HRS-SR-J showed good internal consistency and 2-week test–retest reliability. Based on the nonsignificant correlations between the HRS-SR-J and social desirability, the HRS-SR-J was not strongly affected by social desirability. In addition, it also had a good convergent validity with the Japanese version of the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R-J and the hoarding subscale of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, while having a significantly weaker correlation with the five subscales of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, except for the hoarding subscale. In addition, the

  5. Recurrence rate and radiation cataract of pterygium eye after postoperative /sup 90/Sr beta-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasue, Hiroshi; Hori, Tomoko; Kinosita, Atsushi (Sakai Municipal Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1984-10-01

    The recurrence rate of pterygium was studied in 99 eyes that underwent /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-ray irradiation after surgery and in 12 eyes that did not. The follow-up period was 1 to 7 years. The recurrence rate was 2.9% in the 69 eyes which had undergone irradiation from the third day after operation, and 13.3% in the 30 eyes which had undergone irradiation from the seventh day or later after operation. The recurrence rate was 75% in the eyes which had undergone no irradiation. In 62 cases of postoperative irradiation in one eye, the presence of radiation cataract was investigated using the other eye as a control. The follow-up period was one to seven years. No radiation cataract was detected. Postoperative /sup 90/Sr ..beta..-ray irradiation is an effective and safe method of preventing recurrence of pterygium when applied from the third day after operation, one 1000 rad dose every week, 4 times consecutively.

  6. The microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland, including biomarker partitioning, transport, and biosensing implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Z.; Wilder, E.; Heikenfeld, J.; Kasting, G.; Beyette, F.; Swaile, D.; Sherman, F.; Joyce, J.; Hagen, J.; Kelley-Loughnane, N.; Naik, R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive and accurate access of biomarkers remains a holy grail of the biomedical community. Human eccrine sweat is a surprisingly biomarker-rich fluid which is gaining increasing attention. This is especially true in applications of continuous bio-monitoring where other biofluids prove more challenging, if not impossible. However, much confusion on the topic exists as the microfluidics of the eccrine sweat gland has never been comprehensively presented and models of biomarker partitioning into sweat are either underdeveloped and/or highly scattered across literature. Reported here are microfluidic models for eccrine sweat generation and flow which are coupled with review of blood-to-sweat biomarker partition pathways, therefore providing insights such as how biomarker concentration changes with sweat flow rate. Additionally, it is shown that both flow rate and biomarker diffusion determine the effective sampling rate of biomarkers at the skin surface (chronological resolution). The discussion covers a broad class of biomarkers including ions (Na+, Cl−, K+, NH4+), small molecules (ethanol, cortisol, urea, and lactate), and even peptides or small proteins (neuropeptides and cytokines). The models are not meant to be exhaustive for all biomarkers, yet collectively serve as a foundational guide for further development of sweat-based diagnostics and for those beginning exploration of new biomarker opportunities in sweat. PMID:26045728

  7. Volume and composition of hand sweat of White and Black men and women in desert walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, D B; Yousef, M K; Goldman, A; Hillyard, S D; Davis, T P

    1983-05-01

    Many investigators have sought, but failed to find, ethnic differences in the number and regional distribution of active sweat glands. In this study measurements have been made of sweat secreted on one hand and also on the whole body of Whites and Blacks walking in desert heat. Whites numbered 31 men and 27 women, ages 30 to 88 years; there were 21 Black men and 31 Black women, ages 16 to 61 years. Each walked on three occasions for 1 hour at a rate that required an oxygen consumption of about 40% of aerobic capacity. Ambient temperature ranged from 32 to 44 degrees C in 1979 and 1980; means were 38.4 degrees C in 1979 and 36.7 degrees C in 1980. There was no sweat in the gloves of many Blacks; this was true of only a few Whites. Volume of body sweat increased in both races with rate of walking; volume of hand sweat increased more in Whites than in Blacks. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that volumes of hand sweat were significantly greater for Whites than for Blacks. It was concluded that in desert walks most Whites and few Blacks sweat freely on their hands. In samples of hand sweat, Na+, K+, and Cl- were determined. Concentrations of each ion varied widely in both races, and were unrelated to race. Concentrations of Na+ and Cl- generally are somewhat higher in hand sweat than in body sweat; concentrations of K+ are much higher. It follows that the values for concentration of Na+ and Cl- reported in Table 3 probably are somewhat higher than would have been found in body sweat, and concentrations of K+ are probably much higher.

  8. Do elephants need to sweat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    higher increase (Clifford, Kerslake & Waddell 1959). Thus a number of factors studied under laboratory condi- tions in non-sweating human skin are pertinenl to this con- sideration of evaporative waler loss froro elephant skin and we have shown that the evaporative loss could provide the heat transfer necessary for thermal ...

  9. Apocrine sweat gland obstruction by antiperspirants allowing transdermal absorption of cutaneous generated hormones and pheromones as a link to the observed incidence rates of breast and prostate cancer in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kris G

    2009-06-01

    Breast and prostate cancer share similarities and likely represent homologous cancers in females and males, respectively. The role of hormones such as testosterone and estrogen in carcinogenesis is well established. Despite worldwide research efforts, the pathogenesis of these diseases is largely not well understood. Personal care products containing estrogens or xenoestrogens have raised concern as a breast cancer risk, especially in young African-American women. In the United States (US) there is a parallel rise in the incidence in breast and prostate cancer compared to selected non-hormone dependent tumors. Observed US and global breast and prostate cancer incidence increases were occurring before exogenous hormone replacement and xenoestrogen exposure were commonplace. An unintentional, inadvertent, and long term hormone exposure may occur from transdermal absorption of sex hormones and pheromones (androgens) from axillary apocrine sweat gland obstruction by aluminum-based antiperspirants. The global rise in antiperspirant use parallels rises in breast and prostate cancer incidence and mortality rates. A multi-disciplinary literature based set of evidence is presented on how such a link is possible, to prompt confirmatory investigations in the pursuit of unmet needs in breast and prostate cancer etiology and prevention.

  10. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  11. Sweat patterns differ between tilt-induced reflex syncope and tilt-induced anxiety among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Geoffrey L; Harvey, Rebecca A; Islam, Monica P

    2016-08-01

    Profound sweating can occur with reflex-syncope and with emotional distress, but little is known about the similarities and differences between these sweat responses when they occur during orthostatic challenge. We sought to characterize and compare the sweat patterns related to tilt-induced syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal tilt testing. In a prospective observational study, quantitative sweat rate was measured from the abdomen, forearm, ankle, and thigh during head-upright tilt. Sweat characteristics were compared across tilt diagnoses of syncope, presyncope, anxiety, and normal testing. When anxiety and syncope/presyncope occurred during the same study (separated by ≥6 min), both were diagnosed. Our cohort comprised150 patients (15.1 ± 2.3 years; 82.9 % female) with 156 diagnoses: 76 with reflex-syncope, 31 with presyncope, 23 with anxiety, and 26 with normal results. All syncope/presyncope patients and 20 (87 %) of the anxiety patients had corresponding sweat responses. Minimal or negligible sweating occurred among patients with normal tests. Neither basal sweat (19.4 ± 4.7 versus 18.3 ± 3.7 versus 18.5 ± 3.7 nL/min/cm(2)) nor peak sweat (171 ± 47.4 versus 149.4 ± 64.4 versus 154.4 ± 59.2 nL/min/cm(2)) differed between patients with syncope, presyncope, or anxiety, p = .32 and p = .12, respectively. However, the qualitative sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope (diffuse, smoothly contoured, symmetrical, single peaks) differed considerably from the sweat patterns related to anxiety (heterogeneous, asymmetrical, roughly contoured single-peak, multi-peak, or progressive sweat changes). The sweat patterns related to syncope/presyncope are distinguishable from the sweat patterns related to anxiety. Recognition of the different sweat patterns can inform how signs and symptoms are interpreted during clinical orthostatic challenge.

  12. Sweat as an Efficient Natural Moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Sato, Yohei; Komatsu, Yurie; Ushigome, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research on the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis has focused on defects in skin genes important for maintaining skin barrier function, the fact that excreted sweat has an overwhelmingly great capacity to increase skin surface hydration and contains moisturizing factors has long been ignored: the increase in water loss induced by these gene defects could theoretically be compensated fully by a significant increase in sweating. In this review, the dogma postulating the detrimental role of sweat in these diseases has been challenged on the basis of recent findings on the physiological functions of sweat, newly recognized sweat gland-/duct-related skin diseases, and therapeutic approaches to the management of these diseases. We are now beginning to appreciate that sweat glands/ducts are a sophisticated regulatory system. Furthermore, depending on their anatomical location and the degree of the impairment, this system might have a different function: sweating responses in sweat glands/ducts located at the folds in hairy skin such as on the trunk and extremities could function as natural regulators that maintain skin hydration under quiescent basal conditions, in addition to the better-studied thermoregulatory functions, which can be mainly mediated by those at the ridges. The normal functioning of sweat could be disturbed in various inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, we should recognize sweating disturbance as an etiologic factor in the development of these diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Urea transporters and sweat response to uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Raymond W; Bailey, James L; Wang, Yanhua; Klein, Janet D; Sands, Jeff M

    2016-06-01

    In humans, urea is excreted in sweat, largely through the eccrine sweat gland. The urea concentration in human sweat is elevated when compared to blood urea nitrogen. The sweat urea nitrogen (UN) of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESRD) is increased when compared with healthy humans. The ability to produce sweat is maintained in the overwhelming majority of ESRD patients. A comprehensive literature review found no reports of sweat UN neither in healthy rodents nor in rodent models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, this study measured sweat UN concentrations in healthy and uremic rats. Uninephrectomy followed by renal artery ligation was used to remove 5/6 of renal function. Rats were then fed a high-protein diet to induce uremia. Pilocarpine was used to induce sweating. Sweat droplets were collected under oil. Sweat UN was measured with a urease assay. Serum UN was measured using a fluorescent ortho-pthalaldehyde reaction. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was accomplished with a horseradish peroxidase and diaminobenzidine technique. Sweat UN in uremic rats was elevated greater than two times compared to healthy pair-fed controls (220 ± 17 and 91 ± 15 mmol/L, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed a significant difference between male and female uremic sweat UN (279 ± 38 and 177 ± 11 mmol/L, respectively.) IHC shows, for the first time, the presence of the urea transporters UT-B and UT-A2 in both healthy and uremic rat cutaneous structures. Future studies will use this model to elucidate how rat sweat UN and other solute excretion is altered by commonly prescribed diuretics. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Thin, Soft, Skin-Mounted Microfluidic Networks with Capillary Bursting Valves for Chrono-Sampling of Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungil; Kang, Daeshik; Han, Seungyong; Kim, Sung Bong; Rogers, John A

    2017-03-01

    Systems for time sequential capture of microliter volumes of sweat released from targeted regions of the skin offer the potential to enable analysis of temporal variations in electrolyte balance and biomarker concentration throughout a period of interest. Current methods that rely on absorbent pads taped to the skin do not offer the ease of use in sweat capture needed for quantitative tracking; emerging classes of electronic wearable sweat analysis systems do not directly manage sweat-induced fluid flows for sample isolation. Here, a thin, soft, "skin-like" microfluidic platform is introduced that bonds to the skin to allow for collection and storage of sweat in an interconnected set of microreservoirs. Pressure induced by the sweat glands drives flow through a network of microchannels that incorporates capillary bursting valves designed to open at different pressures, for the purpose of passively guiding sweat through the system in sequential fashion. A representative device recovers 1.8 µL volumes of sweat each from 0.8 min of sweating into a set of separate microreservoirs, collected from 0.03 cm 2 area of skin with approximately five glands, corresponding to a sweat rate of 0.60 µL min -1 per gland. Human studies demonstrate applications in the accurate chemical analysis of lactate, sodium, and potassium concentrations and their temporal variations. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; sweat Na + concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and sweat Na + concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na + concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na + intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na + concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sweat sensor for sports physiological monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Coyle, Shirley; Diamond, Dermot

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication and the performance of a novel, wearable, robust, flexible and disposable micro-fluidic device which incorporates miniature optical components as a detection system, for wireless monitoring in real time mode of sweat pH during an exercise session is presented. This micro-fluidic platform is completely non-invasive, providing a continuous flow of fresh sweat for continuous real time analysis, ensuring immediate feedback regarding sweat composition to an athlete and/or coach.

  18. Working Up a Good Sweat – The Challenges of Standardising Sweat Collection for Metabolomics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Joy N; Mantri, Nitin; Cohen, Marc M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human sweat is a complex biofluid of interest to diverse scientific fields. Metabolomics analysis of sweat promises to improve screening, diagnosis and self-monitoring of numerous conditions through new applications and greater personalisation of medical interventions. Before these applications can be fully developed, existing methods for the collection, handling, processing and storage of human sweat need to be revised. This review presents a cross-disciplinary overview of the origins, composition, physical characteristics and functional roles of human sweat, and explores the factors involved in standardising sweat collection for metabolomics analysis. Methods A literature review of human sweat analysis over the past 10 years (2006–2016) was performed to identify studies with metabolomics or similarly applicable ‘omics’ analysis. These studies were reviewed with attention to sweat induction and sampling techniques, timing of sweat collection, sweat storage conditions, laboratory derivation, processing and analytical platforms. Results Comparative analysis of 20 studies revealed numerous factors that can significantly impact the validity, reliability and reproducibility of sweat analysis including: anatomical site of sweat sampling, skin integrity and preparation; temperature and humidity at the sweat collection sites; timing and nature of sweat collection; metabolic quenching; transport and storage; qualitative and quantitative measurements of the skin microbiota at sweat collection sites; and individual variables such as diet, emotional state, metabolic conditions, pharmaceutical, recreational drug and supplement use. Conclusion Further development of standard operating protocols for human sweat collection can open the way for sweat metabolomics to significantly add to our understanding of human physiology in health and disease. PMID:28798503

  19. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Control of sweating in man after work-induced thermal load and symmetrically applied cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heising, M; Werner, J

    1987-01-01

    To examine the compensatory effects of work-induced thermal load and symmetrically applied local cooling on local sweat rates, two kinds of experiment were carried out on eight male subjects in a climatic chamber: 1) Experiments at 36 degrees C ambient temperature with a work load of about 25 W by the right leg. 2) Experiments at 36 degrees C ambient temperature with a work load of about 25 W by the right leg as in 1., but with additional compensatory cooling of the left leg controlled throughout by heat balance calculations at 75-85 W, equal to the heat produced in the working leg, the necessary air temperature being dependent on local sweat rate. Work load without cooling brought about a significant increase in core temperatures, metabolism, heart rate and local sweat rates. With unchanged local skin temperatures local sweat rate increase was higher in the working leg. Therefore the existence of muscle thermoreceptors should be assumed, the afferent information from which is processed and weighted in a different way to that provided by skin receptors. Work load combined with additional cooling reduced local and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, but had no significant influence on core temperature or metabolism. However, local sweat rate was generally lower in both thighs, with a major reduction in the cooled leg confirming control of local sweat rate by local temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Precise measurement of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We propose a method for extraction of the target eccrine sweat gland by use of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en-face OCT images are constructed by the SS-OCT. Furthermore, we demonstrate precise measurement of instantaneous volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus. The dynamic change of instantaneous volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating is performed by this method during the period of 300 sec with the frame intervals of 3.23 sec.

  2. PIXE analysis of cystic fibrosis sweat samples with an external proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, F.; Massonnet, B.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE analysis with an external proton beam is used to study, in four control and five cystic fibrosis children, the elemental composition of sweat samples collected from different parts of the body during entire body hyperthermia. We observe no significant difference of sweat rates and of temperature variations between the two groups during sweat test. The statistical study of results obtained by PIXE analysis allows us to pick out amongst 8 elements studied, 6 elements (Na, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Br) significatively different between the two groups of subjects. Using regression analysis, Na, Cl and Br concentrations could be used in a predictive equation of the state of health.

  3. Accumulation of 2H2O in plasma and eccrine sweat during exercise-heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Klau, Jennifer F; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P; Yeargin, Susan W; Lee, Elaine C; Maresh, Carl M

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize the movement of ingested water through body fluids, during exercise-heat stress. Deuterium oxide ((2)H(2)O) accumulation in plasma and eccrine sweat was measured at two sites (back and forehead). The exercise of 14 males was controlled via cycle ergometry in a warm environment (60 min; 28.7 degrees C, 51%rh). Subjects consumed (2)H(2)O (0.15 mg kg(-1), 99.9% purity) mixed in flavored, non-caloric, colored water before exercise, then consumed 3.0 ml kg(-1) containing no (2)H(2)O every 15 min during exercise. We hypothesized that water transit from mouth to skin would occur before 15 min. (2)H(2)O appeared rapidly in both plasma and sweat (P deuterium accumulation (DeltaD:H min(-1)) in plasma was 14.9 and 23.7 times greater than in forehead and back sweat samples, respectively. Mean (+/-SE) whole-body sweat rate was 1.04 +/- 0.05 L h(-1) and subjects with the greatest whole-body sweat rate exhibited the greatest peak deuterium enrichment in sweat (r(2) = 0.87, exponential function); the peak (2)H(2)O enrichment in sweat was not proportional (P > 0.05) to body mass, volume of the deuterium dose, or total volume of fluid consumed. These findings clarify the time course of fluid movement from mouth to eccrine sweat glands, and demonstrate considerable differences of (2)H(2)O enrichment in plasma versus sweat.

  4. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  5. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy’s involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine rele...

  6. Hydration and sweating responses to hot-weather football competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdak, S S; Shirreffs, S M; Maughan, R J; Ozgünen, K T; Zeren, C; Korkmaz, S; Yazici, Z; Ersöz, G; Binnet, M S; Dvorak, J

    2010-10-01

    During a football match played in warm (34.3 ± 0.6 °C), humid (64 ± 2% rh) conditions, 22 male players had their pre-match hydration status, body mass change, sweat loss and drinking behavior assessed. Pre-match urine specific gravity (1.012 ± 0.006) suggested that all but three players commenced the match euhydrated. Players lost 3.1 ± 0.6 L of sweat and 45 ± 9 mmol of sodium during the 90-min match and replaced 55 ± 19% of their sweat losses and hence by the end of the game were 2.2 ± 0.9% lighter. The water volume consumed during the game was highly variable (1653 ± 487 mL; 741-2387 mL) but there was a stronger relationship between the estimated pre-game hydration status and water volume consumed, than between sweat rate and water volume consumed. In a second match, with the same players 2 weeks later in 34.4 ± 0.6 °C, 65 ± 3% rh, 11 players had a sports drink available to them before and during the match in addition to water. Total drink volume consumed during the match was the same, but approximately half the volume was consumed as sports drink. The results indicate that substantial sweat water and electrolyte losses can occur during match play in hot conditions and a substantial water and sodium deficit can occur in many players even when water or sports drink is freely available. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, HGM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/244205698; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99 %. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and

  8. Trapped sweat in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Reimel, Adam J; Sopeña, Bridget C; Barnes, Kelly A; Nuccio, Ryan P; De Chavez, Peter John D; Stofan, John R; Carter, James M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine: (1) trapped sweat (TS) in basketball uniforms and the effect on sweat loss (SL) estimates during a laboratory-based basketball simulation protocol; (2) the impact of exercise intensity, body mass, age, and SL on TS; and (3) TS during on-court training to assess the ecological validity of the laboratory-based results. Twenty-four recreational/competitive male basketball players (23 ± 10 years, 77.0 ± 16.7 kg) completed three randomized laboratory-based trials (Low, Moderate, and High intensity) consisting of 150-min intermittent exercise. Eighteen elite male players (23 ± 4 years, 92.0 ± 20.6 kg) were observed during coach-led, on-court training. Nude and clothed body mass were measured pre and postexercise to determine TS. Data are mean ± SD. There was a significant effect of intensity on SL and TS ( P  < 0.001, Lowsweat and TS was 0.11 ± 0.15 kg (8.0 ± 5.1% SL). During Moderate, subjects lost 1.60 ± 0.56 kg sweat and TS was 0.21 ± 0.21 kg (11.6 ± 6.3% SL). During High, subjects lost 2.12 ± 0.66 kg sweat and TS was 0.38 ± 0.28 kg (16.0 ± 7.4% SL). Multiple regression and partial correlation analysis suggested TS was significantly related to SL ( P  < 0.0001; partial r  = 0.81-0.89), whereas the contributions of body mass ( P  = 0.22-0.92) and age ( P  = 0.29-0.44) were not significant. TS during on-court training was 0.35 ± 0.36 kg, which was associated with a 14.1 ± 11.5% underestimation in SL, and was not statistically different than laboratory-based results ( P  = 0.59). Clothed body mass measurements should be used with caution, as TS is highly variable and can cause a significant underestimation in SL in athletes with high sweating rates. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological

  9. Thermoregulation, Fluid Balance, and Sweat Losses in American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon K; Baker, Lindsay B; Barnes, Kelly; Ungaro, Corey; Stofan, John

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the thermoregulation and hydration challenges athletes face in team and individual sports during exercise in the heat. Comparatively less research, however, has been conducted on the American Football player. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review data collected in laboratory and field studies and discuss the thermoregulation, fluid balance, and sweat losses of American Football players. American Football presents a unique challenge to thermoregulation compared with other sports because of the encapsulating nature of the required protective equipment, large body size of players, and preseason practice occurring during the hottest time of year. Epidemiological studies report disproportionately higher rates of exertional heat illness and heat stroke in American Football compared with other sports. Specifically, larger players (e.g., linemen) are at increased risk for heat ailments compared with smaller players (e.g., backs) because of greater body mass index, increased body fat, lower surface area to body mass ratio, lower aerobic capacity, and the stationary nature of the position, which can reduce heat dissipation. A consistent finding across studies is that larger players exhibit higher sweating rates than smaller players. Mean sweating rates from 1.0 to 2.9 L/h have been reported for college and professional American Football players, with several studies reporting 3.0 L/h or more in some larger players. Sweat sodium concentration of American Football players does not seem to differ from that of athletes in other sports; however, given the high volume of sweat loss, the potential for sodium loss is higher in American Football than in other sports. Despite high sweating rates with American Football players, the observed disturbances in fluid balance have generally been mild (mean body mass loss ≤2 %). The majority of field-based studies have been conducted in the northeastern part of the United States, with limited

  10. Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Olofsson, Jonas K; Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2017-07-01

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the "Body Odor Disgust Scale" (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We......Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before...

  12. In Vivo Readout of CFTR Function: Ratiometric Measurement of CFTR-Dependent Secretion by Individual, Identifiable Human Sweat Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine, Jeffrey J.; Char, Jessica E.; Chen, Jonathan; Cho, Hyung-ju; Dunn, Colleen; Frisbee, Eric; Joo, Nam Soo; Milla, Carlos; Modlin, Sara E.; Park, Il-Ho; Thomas, Ewart A. C.; Tran, Kim V.; Verma, Rohan; Wolfe, Marlene H.

    2013-01-01

    To assess CFTR function in vivo, we developed a bioassay that monitors and compares CFTR-dependent and CFTR-independent sweat secretion in parallel for multiple (∼50) individual, identified glands in each subject. Sweating was stimulated by intradermally injected agonists and quantified by optically measuring spherical sweat bubbles in an oil-layer that contained dispersed, water soluble dye particles that partitioned into the sweat bubbles, making them highly visible. CFTR-independent secretion (M-sweat) was stimulated with methacholine, which binds to muscarinic receptors and elevates cytosolic calcium. CFTR-dependent secretion (C-sweat) was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevates cytosolic cAMP while blocking muscarinic receptors. A C-sweat/M-sweat ratio was determined on a gland-by-gland basis to compensate for differences unrelated to CFTR function, such as gland size. The average ratio provides an approximately linear readout of CFTR function: the heterozygote ratio is ∼0.5 the control ratio and for CF subjects the ratio is zero. During assay development, we measured C/M ratios in 6 healthy controls, 4 CF heterozygotes, 18 CF subjects and 4 subjects with ‘CFTR-related’ conditions. The assay discriminated all groups clearly. It also revealed consistent differences in the C/M ratio among subjects within groups. We hypothesize that these differences reflect, at least in part, levels of CFTR expression, which are known to vary widely. When C-sweat rates become very low the C/M ratio also tended to decrease; we hypothesize that this nonlinearity reflects ductal fluid absorption. We also discovered that M-sweating potentiates the subsequent C-sweat response. We then used potentiation as a surrogate for drugs that can increase CFTR-dependent secretion. This bioassay provides an additional method for assessing CFTR function in vivo, and is well suited for within-subject tests of systemic, CFTR-directed therapeutics. PMID:24204751

  13. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition.

  14. Precise measurement of volume of eccrine sweat gland in mental sweating by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawa, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Akihiro; Ohmi, Masato

    2015-04-01

    We have demonstrated dynamic analysis of the physiological function of eccrine sweat glands underneath skin surface by optical coherence tomography (OCT). In this paper, we propose a method for extraction of the specific eccrine sweat gland by means of the connected component extraction process and the adaptive threshold method, where the en face OCT images are constructed by the swept-source OCT. In the experiment, we demonstrate precise measurement of the volume of the sweat gland in response to the external stimulus.

  15. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Sakae; Murota, Hiroyuki; Murata, Susumu; Katayama, Ichiro; Morita, Eishin

    2017-01-01

    Background . Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD), regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy's involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years) to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT). Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients' self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion . Our investigation showed that patients' negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  16. Usefulness of Sweat Management for Patients with Adult Atopic Dermatitis, regardless of Sweat Allergy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Kaneko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sweat is an aggravating factor in atopic dermatitis (AD, regardless of age. Sweat allergy may be involved in AD aggravated by sweating. Objective. We investigated whether sweat exacerbates adult AD symptoms and examined the extent of sweat allergy’s involvement. Method. We asked 34 AD patients (17 men, 17 women; mean age: 27.8 years to record the extent to which sweat aggravated their symptoms on a 10-point numerical scale. Participant responses were compared with histamine release tests (HRT. Furthermore, 24 of the patients received instructions on methods of sweat management, and their outcomes were evaluated on a 10-point scale. Results. Sweat HRT results were class ≥ 2 in 13 patients, but HRT results were not correlated with the patients’ self-assessments of symptom aggravation by sweat. One month after receiving sweat management instructions, a low mean score of 4.6 was obtained regarding whether active sweating was good, but a high mean score of 7.0 was obtained in response to whether the sweat management instructions had been helpful. Conclusion. Our investigation showed that patients’ negative impressions of sweat might derive from crude personal experiences that are typically linked to sweating. Sweat management for patients with adult atopic dermatitis was extremely useful regardless of sweat allergy.

  17. Recent Developments in Sweat Analysis and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Jadoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the clinical use of sweat as biofluid is limited. The collection of sweat and its analysis for determining ethanol, drugs, ions, and metals have been encompassed in this review article to assess the merits of sweat compared to other biofluids, for example, blood or urine. Moreover, sweat comprises various biomarkers of different diseases including cystic fibrosis and diabetes. Additionally, the normalization of sampled volume of sweat is also necessary for getting efficient and useful results.

  18. Evolution: plastic sociality in a sweat bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuisat, Michel

    2010-11-23

    How and why do bees become social? A transplant experiment shows that sweat bees can adopt a solitary or social lifestyle in response to their environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 7 CFR 29.3554 - Sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3554 Sweating. The condition of tobacco in the process of fermentation. [30 FR 9207, July...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3553 - Sweated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3553 Sweated. The condition of tobacco which has passed through one or more fermentations...

  1. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  2. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  3. A new method of sweat testing: the CF Quantum®sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Michael J; Makholm, Linda; Eickhoff, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Conventional methods of sweat testing are time consuming and have many steps that can and do lead to errors. This study compares conventional sweat testing to a new quantitative method, the CF Quantum® (CFQT) sweat test. This study tests the diagnostic accuracy and analytic validity of the CFQT. Previously diagnosed CF patients and patients who required a sweat test for clinical indications were invited to have the CFQT test performed. Both conventional sweat testing and the CFQT were performed bilaterally on the same day. Pairs of data from each test are plotted as a correlation graph and Bland-Altman plot. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as well as the means and coefficient of variation by test and by extremity. After completing the study, subjects or their parents were asked for their preference of the CFQT and conventional sweat testing. The correlation coefficient between the CFQT and conventional sweat testing was 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.97-0.99). The sensitivity and specificity of the CFQT in diagnosing CF was 100% (95% confidence interval: 94-100%) and 96% (95% confidence interval: 89-99%), respectively. In one center in this three center multicenter study, there were higher sweat chloride values in patients with CF and also more tests that were invalid due to discrepant values between the two extremities. The percentage of invalid tests was higher in the CFQT method (16.5%) compared to conventional sweat testing (3.8%) (p sweat chloride determination. This technology requires further refinement to improve the analytic accuracy at higher sweat chloride values and to decrease the number of invalid tests. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A soft, wearable microfluidic device for the capture, storage, and colorimetric sensing of sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ahyeon; Kang, Daeshik; Xue, Yeguang; Lee, Seungmin; Pielak, Rafal M; Kim, Jeonghyun; Hwang, Taehwan; Min, Seunghwan; Banks, Anthony; Bastien, Philippe; Manco, Megan C; Wang, Liang; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Jang, Kyung-In; Won, Phillip; Han, Seungyong; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Paik, Ungyu; Slepian, Marvin J; Balooch, Guive; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-23

    Capabilities in health monitoring enabled by capture and quantitative chemical analysis of sweat could complement, or potentially obviate the need for, approaches based on sporadic assessment of blood samples. Established sweat monitoring technologies use simple fabric swatches and are limited to basic analysis in controlled laboratory or hospital settings. We present a collection of materials and device designs for soft, flexible, and stretchable microfluidic systems, including embodiments that integrate wireless communication electronics, which can intimately and robustly bond to the surface of the skin without chemical and mechanical irritation. This integration defines access points for a small set of sweat glands such that perspiration spontaneously initiates routing of sweat through a microfluidic network and set of reservoirs. Embedded chemical analyses respond in colorimetric fashion to markers such as chloride and hydronium ions, glucose, and lactate. Wireless interfaces to digital image capture hardware serve as a means for quantitation. Human studies demonstrated the functionality of this microfluidic device during fitness cycling in a controlled environment and during long-distance bicycle racing in arid, outdoor conditions. The results include quantitative values for sweat rate, total sweat loss, pH, and concentration of chloride and lactate. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Sweating the small stuff: Glycoproteins in human sweat and their unexplored potential for microbial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Robyn A; Gueniche, Audrey; Adam de Beaumais, Ségolène; Breton, Lionel; Dalko-Csiba, Maria; Packer, Nicolle H

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that secretory fluids such as tears, saliva and milk play an important role in protecting the human body from infection via a washing mechanism involving glycan-mediated adhesion of potential pathogens to secretory glycoproteins. Interaction of sweat with bacteria is well established as the cause of sweat-associated malodor. However, the role of sweat glycoproteins in microbial attachment has received little, if any, research interest in the past. In this review, we demonstrate how recent published studies involving high-throughput proteomic analysis have inadvertently, and fortuitously, exposed an abundance of glycoproteins in sweat, many of which have also been identified in other secretory fluids. We bring together research demonstrating microbial adhesion to these secretory glycoproteins in tears, saliva and milk and suggest a similar role of the sweat glycoproteins in mediating microbial attachment to sweat and/or skin. The contribution of glycan-mediated microbial adhesion to sweat glycoproteins, and the associated impact on sweat derived malodor and pathogenic skin infections are unchartered new research areas that we are beginning to explore. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (IDS-C) and Self-Report (IDS-SR), and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (QIDS-C) and Self-Report (QIDS-SR) in public sector patients with mood disorders: a psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, M H; Rush, A J; Ibrahim, H M; Carmody, T J; Biggs, M M; Suppes, T; Crismon, M L; Shores-Wilson, K; Toprac, M G; Dennehy, E B; Witte, B; Kashner, T M

    2004-01-01

    The present study provides additional data on the psychometric properties of the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and of the recently developed Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), a brief 16-item symptom severity rating scale that was derived from the longer form. Both the IDS and QIDS are available in matched clinician-rated (IDS-C30; QIDS-C16) and self-report (IDS-SR30; QIDS-SR16) formats. The patient samples included 544 out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 402 out-patients with bipolar disorder (BD) drawn from 19 regionally and ethnicically diverse clinics as part of the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP). Psychometric analyses including sensitivity to change with treatment were conducted. Internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 for all four scales (QIDS-C16, QIDS-SR16, IDS-C30 and IDS-SR30) in both MDD and BD patients. Sad mood, involvement, energy, concentration and self-outlook had the highest item-total correlations among patients with MDD and BD across all four scales. QIDS-SR16 and IDS-SR30 total scores were highly correlated among patients with MDD at exit (c = 0.83). QIDS-C16 and IDS-C30 total scores were also highly correlated among patients with MDD (c = 0.82) and patients with BD (c = 0.81). The IDS-SR30, IDS-C30, QIDS-SR16, and QIDS-C16 were equivalently sensitive to symptom change, indicating high concurrent validity for all four scales. High concurrent validity was also documented based on the SF-12 Mental Health Summary score for the population divided in quintiles based on their IDS or QIDS score. The QIDS-SR16 and QIDS-C16, as well as the longer 30-item versions, have highly acceptable psychometric properties and are treatment sensitive measures of symptom severity in depression.

  7. Hydration, sweat and thermoregulatory responses to professional football training in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; McCall, Allan; Coutts, Aaron James; Peiffer, Jeremiah John

    2012-01-01

    AbstThis study examined the relationship between intensity of training and changes in hydration status, core temperature, sweat rate and composition and fluid balance in professional football players training in the heat. Thirteen professional football players completed three training sessions; "higher-intensity" (140 min; HI140), "lower-intensity" (120 min; LI120) and "game-simulation" (100 min; GS100). Movement demands were measured by Global Positioning System, sweat rate and concentration were determined from dermal patches and body mass change. Despite similar environmental conditions (26.9 ± 0.1 °C and 65.0 ± 7.0% relative humidity [Rh]), higher relative speeds (m · min(-1)) and increased perceptions of effort and thermal strain were observed in HI140 and GS100 compared with LI120 (P sweat rate (L · h(-1)) and electrolyte losses (g) were observed in HI140 and GS100 compared with LI120. Rate of rise in core temperature was correlated with mean speed (r = 0.85), session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) (r = 0.61), loss of potassium (K+) (r = 0.51) sweat rate (r = 0.49), and total sweat loss (r = 0.53), with mean speed the strongest predictor. Sodium (Na+) (r = 0.39) and K+ (r = 0.50) losses were associated with total distance covered. In hot conditions, individualised rehydration practices should be adopted following football training to account for differences in sweat rate and electrolyte losses in response to intensity and overall activity within a session.

  8. Real-time sweat analysis via alternating current conductivity of artificial and human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gengchen; Alomari, Mahmoud; Sahin, Bunyamin; Snelgrove, Samuel E.; Edwards, Jeffrey; Mellinger, Axel; Kaya, Tolga

    2015-03-01

    Dehydration is one of the most profound physiological challenges that significantly affects athletes and soldiers if not detected early. Recently, a few groups have focused on dehydration detection using sweat as the main biomarker. Although there are some proposed devices, the electrical and chemical characteristics of sweat have yet to be incorporated into the validations. In this work, we have developed a simple test setup to analyze artificial sweat that is comprised the main components of human sweat. We provide theoretical and experimental details on the electrical and chemical behavior of the artificial sweat for various concentration values within a temperature range of 5 °C to 50 °C. We have also developed an efficient sweat collecting and detection system based on 3D printing. Human studies were conducted and this particular protocol has shown that dehydration starts to take effect as early as 40 min into the physical activity if there is no fluid intake during the exercise. We believe that our device will lead to developing viable real-time sweat analysis systems.

  9. Biological variability of the sweat chloride in diagnostic sweat tests: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, F; Lebecque, P; De Boeck, K; Leal, T

    2017-01-01

    The sweat test is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is unlikely when sweat chloride (Cl sw ) is lower than 30mmol/L, Cl sw >60 is suggestive of CF, with intermediate values between 30 and 60mmol/L. To correctly interpret a sweat chloride value, the biological variability of the sweat chloride has to be known. Sweat tests performed in two centers using the classic Gibson and Cooke method were retrospectively reviewed (n=5904). Within test variability of Cl sw was measured by comparing results from right and left arm collected on the same day. Between test variability was calculated from subjects with sweat tests performed on more than one occasion. Within test variability of Cl sw calculated in 1022 subjects was low with differences between -3.2 (p5) and +3.6mmol/L (p95). Results from left and right arm were classified differently in only 3 subjects. Between test variability of Cl sw in 197 subjects was larger, with differences between -18.2mmol/L (p5) and +14.1mmol/L (p95) between repeat tests. Changes in diagnostic conclusion were seen in 55/197 subjects, the most frequent being changing from indeterminate to 'CF unlikely' range (48/102). Variability of sweat chloride is substantial, with frequent changes in diagnostic conclusion, especially in the intermediate range. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrochromic Approaches to Mapping Human Sweat Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Hoon; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-06-21

    Hydrochromic materials, which undergo changes in their light absorption and/or emission properties in response to water, have been extensively investigated as humidity sensors. Recent advances in the design of these materials have led to novel applications, including monitoring the water content of organic solvents, water-jet-based rewritable printing on paper, and hydrochromic mapping of human sweat pores. Our interest in this area has focused on the design of hydrochromic materials for human sweat pore mapping. We recognized that materials appropriate for this purpose must have balanced sensitivities to water. Specifically, while they should not undergo light absorption and/or emission transitions under ambient moisture conditions, the materials must have sufficiently high hydrochromic sensitivities that they display responses to water secreted from human sweat pores. In this Account, we describe investigations that we have carried out to develop hydrochromic substances that are suitable for human sweat pore mapping. Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) have been extensively investigated as sensor matrices because of their stimulus-responsive color change property. We found that incorporation of headgroups composed of hygroscopic ions such as cesium or rubidium and carboxylate counterions enables PDAs to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition as well as a fluorescence turn-on response to water. Very intriguingly, the small quantities of water secreted from human sweat pores were found to be sufficient to trigger fluorescence turn-on responses of the hydrochromic PDAs, allowing precise mapping of human sweat pores. Since the hygroscopic ion-containing PDAs developed in the initial stage display a colorimetric transition under ambient conditions that exist during humid summer periods, a new system was designed. A PDA containing an imidazolium ion was found to be stable under all ambient conditions and showed temperature-dependent hydrochromism corresponding to a

  11. Effect of periglandular ionic composition and transport inhibitors on rhesus monkey eccrine sweat gland function in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, F; Sato, K

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of peritubular ions and transport inhibitors were studied on methacholine (MCH)-induced sweat secretion by the isolated, cannulated monkey palm sweat glands in vitro and on the transepithelial and basolateral membrane potential (p.d.). 2. Sweat secretory rate was a curvilinear function of peritubular Na+ and Cl- concentration. Among the anion substitutes only Br- was able to totally substitute for Cl-. Presence of HCO3- or H2PO4- in the bath was not essential. 3. Both bumetanide and furosemide inhibited sweat secretion in a dose-dependent manner with the median effective concentration (EC50) of 3 X 10(-6) and 3 X 10(-5) M, respectively. 4. Bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no significant effect on basolateral membrane p.d. but nearly abolished the transepithelial p.d. 5. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, 3 X 10(-4) M) inhibited sweat secretion by only 35%. Inhibitors of ion exchangers amiloride (10(-4) M) and DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid, 10(-4) M) lowered sweat secretion by less than 20%. 6. Removal of peritubular K+ as well as addition of 5 mM-Ba2+ also inhibited sweat rate. 5 mM-Ba2+ abolished the transepithelial p.d. and depolarized the basolateral p.d. by 26 mV, although the effects of Ba2+ on sweating and the transepithelial p.d. were only transient. 7. The data raise a possibility that either the NaCl or Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transport system or both may be involved in MCH-induced sweat secretion, whereas the role of parallel ion exchangers, if any, may be rather minor.

  12. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  13. Surface contamination artificially elevates initial sweat mineral concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    During exercise in the heat, sweat is initially concentrated in minerals, but serial sweat samples appear more dilute. Possible causes include reduced dermal mineral concentrations or flushing of surface contamination. PURPOSE: To simultaneously sample mineral concentrations in transdermal fluid (T...

  14. Cannabis Use Surveillance by Sweat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, Cristiana; Fucci, Nadia; Aroni, Kyriaki; Bacci, Mauro; Marcelli, Antonio; Rossi, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Sweat testing, an alternative matrix for establishing drug abuse, offers additional benefits to the more common biological samples. The authors developed a procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD) in a sweat patch. The results were compared with urine and hair sample results. Urine, hair, and sweat samples were simultaneously collected from 12 patients who were involved, respectively, in forensic case and monitoring abuse. Selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, intraday and interday imprecision, and inaccuracy of the quantification procedure were validated. LODs in hair were 0.05 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.005 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOD for sweat was 0.30 ng/patch for all substances. The LOQ in hair was 0.1 ng/mg for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBN, and CBD, and 0.01 ng/mg for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid. The LOQ was 0.4 ng/patch in sweat for each analyte. Cannabinoid in urine was determined by means of immunochemical screening (cutoff 11-nor-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid 50 ng/mL). All subjects tested positive for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and hair. In sweat samples, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was found in all patches (0.4-2.0 ng/patch); 6 cases were positive for CBN (0.4-0.5 ng/patch) and 3 for CBD (0.4-0.6 ng/patch); 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid was never detected in patches. Present sweat analysis results integrated the information from hair and urine and showed that sweat analysis is a suitable, noninvasive method for monitoring compliance with rehabilitation therapy and for detecting recent cumulative use of cannabinoids.

  15. 'My sweat my health': Real time sweat analysis using wearable micro-fluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Vincenzo F.; Angelov, Nikolay; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; Hughes, Sarah; Moyna, Niall; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work a robust, non-invasive and wearable micro-fluidic system was developed and employed to analyse pH of sweat in real time during exercise. The device is incorporated in an optical detection platform designed to provide real-time information on sweat composition. The device has been tested by monitoring the pH of sweat during 55 minutes of cycling activity. During these trials, the data obtained by the micro-fluidic system was compared to pH measurements obtained in parallel studies...

  16. Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    RTO-MP-HFM-202 P6 - 1 Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses Samuel N. Cheuvront, Ph.D., Richard R. Gonzalez, Ph.D...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Prediction of Water Requirements to Replace Sweat Losses P6 - 2 RTO-MP-HFM-202 Conclusion OSEC and PW provide for more accurate sweat

  17. The rate of {sup 99m} Tc-MDP uptake in metastatic bone lesions before and after {sup 89m} Sr therapy; A velocidade de captacao de {sup 99m}Tc-MDP em lesoes metastaticas osseas antes e depois da terapia com {sup 89m} Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Joseane Fonseca; Braga, Francisco J.H.N. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    1996-12-31

    The rate of {sup 99m} Tc-MDP uptake is studied in metastatic bone lesions, before and after {sup 89m} Sr therapy. Eight hopeless patients (age between 56 and 74) presenting disseminated carcinoma of the prostate are evaluated. No hormonal therapy and a limited radiotherapy were considered. It is concluded that therapeutical doses of {sup 89m} Sr reduces MDP uptake 3 refs., 1 tab.

  18. A portable optical human sweat sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-omari, Mahmoud; Liu, Gengchen; Mueller, Anja; Mock, Adam; Ghosh, Ruby N.; Smith, Kyle; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    We describe the use of HNQ (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone or Lawsone) as a potential sweat sensor material to detect the hydration levels of human beings. We have conducted optical measurements using both artificial and human sweat to validate our approach. We have determined that the dominant compound that affects HNQ absorbance in artificial sweat is sodium. The presence of lactate decreases the reactivity of HNQ while urea promotes more interactions of sodium and potassium ions with HNQ. The interactions between the hydroxyl group of HNQ and the artificial sweat components (salts, lactic acid, and urea) were investigated comprehensively. We have also proposed and developed a portable diode laser absorption sensor system that converts the absorbance at a particular wavelength range (at 455 ± 5 nm, where HNQ has an absorbance peak) into light intensity measurements via a photocell. The absorbance intensity values obtained from our portable sensor system agrees within 10.4% with measurements from a laboratory based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer. Findings of this research will provide significant information for researchers who are focusing on real-time, in-situ hydration level detection.

  19. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of mean skin temperature for use as a heat strain scale by introducing an equation for sweating efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, H.; Kuwabara, K.; Hamada, Y.

    2014-09-01

    The present paper made the heat balance equation (HBE) for nude or minimally clad subjects a linear function of mean skin temperature ( t sk) by applying new equations for sweating efficiency ( η sw) and thermoregulatory sweat rate ( S wR). As the solution of the HBE, the equation predicting t sk was derived and used for a heat strain scale of subjects. The η sw was proportional to the reciprocal of S w/ E max ( S w, sweat rate; E max maximum evaporative capacity) and the S wR was proportional to t sk with a parameter of the sweating capacity of the subject. The errors of predicted t sk from observations due to the approximation of η sw were examined based on experimental data conducted on eight young male subjects. The value of errors of t sk was -0.10 ± 0.42 °C (mean ± sample standard deviation (SSD)). We aim to apply the predicted t sk of a subject at a level of sweating capacity as a heat strain scale of a function of four environmental factors (dry- and wet-bulb temperatures, radiation, and air velocity) and three human factors (metabolic rate, sweating capacity, and clothing (≤0.2clo)).

  1. Skin pretreatment with microneedles prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis increases sweat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David; Prausnitz, Mark R; Buono, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Collection of sweat via pilocarpine iontophoresis is commonly used to diagnose cystic fibrosis (CF), with thousands of tests performed each day. The main source of resistance to the passage of pilocarpine ions to the sweat glands is the electrical resistance of the stratum corneum. It was hypothesized that pretreating the skin with 0·5 mm-long microneedles would significantly decrease this resistance, thus increasing pilocarpine's permeation into the skin. Improved permeation should result in significantly reduced time to sweat initiation, time to collection of a clinically meaningful amount of sweat, and increased total amount of sweat produced in 15 min. Subjects (n = 12) had two 5 cm(2) areas on the forearm measured, marked and randomized to experimental (microneedles + iontophoresis) or control (iontophoresis alone). Microneedle pretreatment was conducted using a 35-needle microneedle stamp in a manner that 20 applications completely covered the 5 cm(2) treatment area. This was repeated five times for a total of 100 applications. Both experimental and control sites were placed under iontophoresis (1·5 mA) for 5 min. Microneedle pretreatment significantly decreased mean skin resistance (260 ± 27 kΩ versus 160 ± 19 kΩ, P = 0·006), while significantly increasing mean sweat rate (0·76 ± 0·35 versus 0·54 ± 0·19 μl cm(2) min(-1) , P = 0·007). No significant difference was found concerning pain (P = 0·059), number of active sweat glands (P = 0·627) or the osmolality of the collected sweat (P = 0·636). The results of this study suggest that microneedle pretreatment prior to pilocarpine iontophoresis significantly increases sweat production. Such results have the potential to improve the methodology currently used to diagnose cystic fibrosis and, more broadly, to administer drugs via the skin. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, S D; Nimmo, M A

    2000-11-01

    This project aimed to quantify the regional distribution of sweat composition over the skin surface and to determine whether sweat constituent concentrations collected from regional sites can estimate whole-body concentrations. Ten males cycled for 90 min in a 20 degrees C (50% relative humidity) environment at 45% peak aerobic power. Sweat was collected from eleven skin regions and the whole body, using a wash-down technique. Strong relationships were evident between the regional and whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-], such that the thigh and calf exhibited greater correlation coefficients than area-weighted means derived from four and eight skin regions. Therefore, in this particular protocol the whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] could be predicted from regional sweat collections. Relationships between sweat constituents were evident for sweat [Na+] and pH, and sweat [K+] and [lactate] when data were pooled between skin regions and subjects. To our knowledge this is the first investigation to report a positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate]. The exact mechanism responsible for the positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate] is uncertain although it is speculated to occur at the secretory coil.

  3. Corrections to the Shapiro Equation used to Predict Sweating and Water Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T07-## CORRECTIONS TO THE SHAPIRO EQUATION USED TO PREDICT SWEATING AND WATER REQUIREMENTS Richard R...daily water requirements based on metabolic rate, climatic conditions, and clothing” as a research priority. Adequate hydration and core temperature...work/rest cycles, water requirements , and maximum endurance times for a given environmental activity and clothing system scenario. The second

  4. Vitamin B12 deficiency causing night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, H U

    2014-11-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common. It is known to cause a wide spectrum of neurological syndromes, including autonomic dysfunction. Three cases are discussed here in which drenching night sweats were thought to be caused by vitamin B12 deficiency. All three responded dramatically to vitamin B12 therapy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Corrosion behavior of nickel-containing alloys in artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randin, J P

    1988-07-01

    The corrosion resistance of various nickel-containing alloys was measured in artificial sweat (perspiration) using the Tafel extrapolation method. It was found that Ni, CuNi 25 (coin alloy), NiAl (colored intermetallic compounds), WC + Ni (hard metal), white gold (jewelry alloy), FN42 and Nilo Alby K (controlled expansion alloys), and NiP (electroless nickel coating) are in an active state and dissolve readily in oxygenated artificial sweat. By contrast, austenitic stainless steels, TiC + Mo2C + Ni (hard metal), NiTi (shape-memory alloy), Hastelloy X (superalloy), Phydur (precipitation hardening alloy), PdNi and SnNi (nickel-containing coatings) are in a passive state but may pit under certain conditions. Cobalt, Cr, Ti, and some of their alloys were also investigated for the purpose of comparison. Cobalt and its alloys have poor corrosion resistance except for Stellite 20. Chromium and high-chromium ferritic stainless steels have a high pitting potential but the latter are susceptible to crevice corrosion. Ti has a pitting potential greater than 3 V. Comparison between the in vitro measurements of the corrosion rate of nickel-based alloys and the clinical observation of the occurrence of contact dermatitis is discussed.

  6. Spin-lattice coupling, Jahn-Teller effect and the influence of the measurement rate in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrola-Gándara, L. A.; Elizalde Galindo, J. T. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 norte, 32310 Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico); Sáenz-Hernández, R. J.; Santillán-Rodríguez, C. R.; Lardizabal-Gutiérrez, D.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)

    2016-05-15

    This work presents a study of how the magnetic and temperature variables, as well as the measurement rate, affect magnetic and structural phase transitions for La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3−x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x=0.15, 0.08, 0.07 and 0.06) manganites. A single phase rhombohedral crystal structure for Sr{sub 0.15} compound and a single phase orthorhombic crystal structure for Sr{sub 0.08}, Sr{sub 0.07}, and Sr{sub 0.06} compounds were identified by X ray diffraction. The Curie temperature adjustment to room temperature was reached for Sr{sub 0.07} sample, in which a Jahn-Teller transition was observed. This Jahn-Teller transition showed a susceptible response to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 K/min measurement rates, and was revealed without measurement sequence at 234, 257, 196, 233, 245 and 238 K respectively in thermomagnetic curves (10 mT). Also, Curie temperature increases sequentially around 2 K for the same measurement rates. To avoid magnetic field effect, a differential scanning calorimetry for Sr{sub 0.07} sample was obtained in the same temperature region, for 2, 3, 5, 7 K/min showing the Jahn-Teller phase transition at 225 K and a vibrational like behavior in the heat flux below 225 K, for all the temperature rates. The latter, is related to the static to dynamic Jahn-Teller transition. Furthermore, Curie temperature appears around 284 K.

  7. Tactile cues significantly modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness independently of the level of physical skin wetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2015-06-01

    Humans sense the wetness of a wet surface through the somatosensory integration of thermal and tactile inputs generated by the interaction between skin and moisture. However, little is known on how wetness is sensed when moisture is produced via sweating. We tested the hypothesis that, in the absence of skin cooling, intermittent tactile cues, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, modulate the perception of sweat-induced skin wetness, independently of the level of physical wetness. Ten males (22 yr old) performed an incremental exercise protocol during two trials designed to induce the same physical skin wetness but to induce lower (TIGHT-FIT) and higher (LOOSE-FIT) wetness perception. In the TIGHT-FIT, a tight-fitting clothing ensemble limited intermittent skin-sweat-clothing tactile interactions. In the LOOSE-FIT, a loose-fitting ensemble allowed free skin-sweat-clothing interactions. Heart rate, core and skin temperature, galvanic skin conductance (GSC), and physical (w(body)) and perceived skin wetness were recorded. Exercise-induced sweat production and physical wetness increased significantly [GSC: 3.1 μS, SD 0.3 to 18.8 μS, SD 1.3, P FIT and LOOSE-FIT (P > 0.05). However, the limited intermittent tactile inputs generated by the TIGHT-FIT ensemble reduced significantly whole-body and regional wetness perception (P < 0.01). This reduction was more pronounced when between 40 and 80% of the body was covered in sweat. We conclude that the central integration of intermittent mechanical interactions between skin, sweat, and clothing, as coded by low-threshold skin mechanoreceptors, significantly contributes to the ability to sense sweat-induced skin wetness. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Tropical Malaysians and temperate Koreans exhibit significant differences in sweating sensitivity in response to iontophoretically administered acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Bae, Jun-Sang; Matsumoto, Takaaki; Yang, Hun-Mo; Min, Young-Ki

    2009-03-01

    Natives of the tropics are able to tolerate high ambient temperatures. This results from their long-term residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. This study was designed to compare the peripheral mechanisms of thermal sweating in tropical natives with that of their temperate counterparts. Fifty-five healthy male subjects including 20 native Koreans who live in the temperate Korean climate (Temperate-N) and 35 native tropical Malaysian men that have lived all of their lives in Malaysia (Tropical-N) were enrolled in this study after providing written informed consent to participate. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with 10% acetylcholine (ACh) was used to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, and oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The sweat onset time of AXR (nicotinic-receptor-mediated) was 56 s shorter in the Temperate-N than in the Tropical-N subjects ( P stress.

  9. Testing in artificial sweat - Is less more? Comparison of metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midander, Klara; Julander, Anneli; Kettelarij, Jolinde; Lidén, Carola

    2016-11-01

    Metal release from materials immersed in artificial sweat can function as a measure of potential skin exposure. Several artificial sweat models exist that, to various degree, mimic realistic conditions. Study objective was to evaluate metal release from previously examined and well characterized materials in two different artificial sweat solutions; a comprehensive sweat model intended for use within research, based on the composition of human sweat; and the artificial sweat, EN1811, intended for testing compliance with the nickel restriction in REACH. The aim was to better understand whether there are advantages using either of the sweat solutions in bio-elution testing of materials. Metal release in two different artificial sweat solutions was compared for discs of a white gold alloy and two hard metals, and a rock drilling insert of tungsten carbide at 1 h, 24 h, 1 week and 1 month. The released amount of metal was analysed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Similar levels of released metals were measured from test materials in the two different artificial sweat solutions. For purposes in relation to legislations, it was concluded that a metal release test using a simple artificial sweat composition may provide results that sufficiently indicate the degree of metal release at skin contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantification of sweat gland volume and innervation in neuropathy: Correlation with thermoregulatory sweat testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loavenbruck, Adam; Wendelschaefer-Crabbe, Gwen; Sandroni, Paola; Kennedy, William R

    2014-10-01

    No study has correlated thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST) with histopathologic study of sweat glands (SGs) and SG nerve fibers (SGNFs). We studied 10 neuropathy patients in whom anhidrosis was found by TST and 10 matched controls. Skin biopsies were taken from both anhidrotic and sweating skin and immunohistochemical staining was done for nerves and basement membrane. For each biopsy, total tissue volume, total SG volume, and total SGNF length were measured. SGNF length per biopsy volume, SG volume per biopsy volume (SG%), and SGNF length per SG volume were calculated. SGNF length per biopsy volume was reduced in anhidrotic site biopsies of patients compared with controls. SG% was decreased and SGNF length per SG volume increased in patients compared with controls. The results suggest a concomitant loss of SG volume and SGNF length in neuropathy, with greater loss of SGNFs in anhidrotic skin, possibly exceeding collateral reinnervation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium (Na) and sweat chloride (Cl) as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis: are we on the right way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Alethéa Guimarães; Marson, Fernando Augusto Lima; Gomez, Carla Cristina de Souza; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Morais, Lucas Brioschi; Servidoni, Maria de Fátima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Sílvia; Sakano, Eulália; Goto, Maura; Paschoal, Ilma Aparecida; Pereira, Mônica Corso; Hessel, Gabriel; Levy, Carlos Emílio; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Peixoto, Andressa Oliveira; Simões, Maria Cristina Ribeiro; Lomazi, Elizete Aparecida; Nogueira, Roberto José Negrão; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-10-26

    To assess the quality of sweat test (ST) based on the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as diagnostic parameter of cystic fibrosis (CF). A retrospective study of 5,721 sweat samples and subsequent descriptive analysis were carried out. The test was considered "of good quality" (correct) when: (i) sweat chloride was lower than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was higher than sweat chloride; (ii) sweat chloride was higher than 60 mEq/L, and sweat sodium was lower than sweat chloride. The study included 5,692/5,721 sweat samples of ST which had been requested due to clinical presentations compatible with CF and/or neonatal screenings with altered immunoreactive trypsinogen values. Considering the proportion of sweat sodium and sweat chloride as ST quality parameter, the test was performed correctly in 5,023/5,692 (88.2 %) sweat samples. The sweat chloride test results were grouped into four reference ranges for chloride (i) chloride sweat weight (p = 0.416). However, there was a positive association with: (i) gender, (ii) results of ST (p sweat chloride/sodium ratio (p sweat chloride values (p = 0.047), (iii) subject's age at the time of the ST grouped by numerical order (p = 0.001). Considering that the quality of ST can be assessed by levels of sweat sodium and sweat chloride, an increasing number of low-quality tests could be observed in our sweat samples. The quality of the test was associated with important factors, such as gender, CF diagnosis, and subjects' age.

  12. A spatial and vertical comparison of coral Sr/Ca variations and growth rates in Montastraea faveolata colonies in Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, R. M.; DeLong, K. L.; Richey, J. N.; Flannery, J. A.; Kilbourne, K. H.; Smith, J. M.; Quinn, T. M.; Hudson, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    The massive coral genera Montastraea spp. is ubiquitous in modern and fossil coral reefs in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea making this genus a potential archive for paleoclimate reconstructions. Interpretation of modern and fossil coral records requires understanding the origins of variability in coral geochemical variations on scales ranging from intracolony to regional as well as differing water depths. In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey recovered cores from five Montastraea faveolata colonies offshore of Veracruz, Mexico (19.06°N, 96.93°W) in water depths from 2.7 m to 12.2 m. The average linear extension per year based on x-radiograph analysis is similar (8.1 and 8.6, ×1.9 mm/yr, 1σ; n=31) for colonies at water depths of 2.7 and 4.3 m, respectively, for the interval from 1963 to 1991. Progressively slower extension rates are observed for deeper colonies (7.6 × 1.8, 7.5 × 1.9, and 4.5 × 1.5 mm/yr, 1σ; n=31) for 5.8, 6.1 and 12.2 m, respectively. Correlation coefficients among annual linear extension records vary between 0.00 and 0.40 (n=31) with the lowest correlation between colonies in close proximity (~1 km) and highest between colonies furthest apart (~250 km). We analyzed coral Sr/Ca at approximately 18 samples per year (0.5 mm/sample) along corallite thecal walls parallel to the slab surface for the interval from 1982 to 1991. This geochemical proxy for SST reveals seasonal variations within the coral skeleton that correspond to the high- and low-density bands in the coral slab, which represent one year of growth. Our linear regression of coral Sr/Ca from a single core (5.8 m water depth) to the Optimum Interpolation sea surface temperature (OISST; Reynolds et al., 2002) results in a slope of -0.049 (×0.024 mmol/mol/°C, 1σ; n=100; r2=0.52), which is slightly greater than the slope of other published Montastraea calibrations, but less than those reported for Porites spp. An alternative calibration method is to examine mean coral Sr/Ca with

  13. Influence of digoxin and diuretic therapy on sweat fluid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, A; Benzon, L; Aladjem, M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of digitalis and diuretic therapy on sweat fluid composition was investigated. Patients treated for congestive heart failure with a combination of digoxin and diuretics demonstrated a higher concentration of sodium and chloride in their sweat fluid when compared to age-matched controls. The administration of diuretics alone did not affect sweat fluid composition. The digoxin-induced increase in sodium concentration was significantly higher than that observed for chloride. These data suggest that digoxin markedly inhibits sodium reabsorption along the sweat gland tubule, whereas chloride transport is affected to a lesser degree. A significant correlation between sweat fluid sodium and serum digoxin concentrations was observed. We conclude that the increased digoxin-induced sweat sodium and chloride losses may affect sodium homeostasis in patients with congestive heart failure.

  14. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  15. Sweat conductivity: an accurate diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Ana Claudia Veras; Leone, Claudio; Rodrigues, Joaquim Carlos; Adde, Fabíola Villac

    2014-09-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Sweat conductivity is widely used although still considered a screening test. This was a prospective, cross-sectional, diagnostic research conducted at the laboratory of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. Sweat chloride (quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis) and sweat conductivity tests were simultaneously performed in patients referred for a sweat test between March 2007 and October 2008. Conductivity and chloride cut-off values used to rule out or diagnose CF were sweat chloride and conductivity values were 11 and 25 mmol/L in these populations, respectively. Twenty-four patients who had received a diagnosis of CF presented median sweat chloride and conductivity values of 87 and 103 mmol/L, respectively. Conductivity values above 90 mmol/L had 83.3% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity, 90.9% PPV and 99.4% NPV to diagnose CF. The best conductivity cut-off value to exclude CF was sweat conductivity test yielded a high degree of diagnostic accuracy and it showed good agreement with sweat chloride. We suggest that it should play a role as a diagnostic test for CF in the near future. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Amounts of sweat and salt loss due to sweating during a three-hour badminton practice in summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Nobuko; Futamura, Azusa

    2007-11-01

    In 7 men and 5 women, we measured the amounts of sweat and fluid intake, and the ionic composition of sweat during a 3-hour badminton practice in summer. The amount of sweat was calculated as follows; body weight before practice (g)--body weight after practice (g)--urine volume (ml) +fluid intake (ml). We collected sweat by covering the non-dominant forearm with a plastic bag. The amounts of sweat and fluid intake during the 3-hour practice were 1809 +/- 715ml (mean +/- SD) and 658 +/- 344ml, respectively. Weight loss after the practice was 2.0 +/- 0.9% of their weight before the practice. The Na(+) and Cl(-) levels of the sweat about 30 min after the start of practice were 66 +/- 34 mEq/l and 54 +/- 32mEq/l, respectively. There was no significant difference between those ionic levels of the sweat about 30 min after the start of practice and those about 30 min before the end of practice. The sum of Na(+) and Cl(-) loss into sweat during a 3-hour practice session was supposed to be 6.9 +/- 5.3g, and to be above 10 g in 4 of 7 men, assuming that there were no regional differences in the ionic composition of sweat. The findings suggested that most of the participants should take more fluid and some of them might need salt intake during the practice.

  17. Heat and moisture transfer in gaps between sweating imitation skin and nonwoven cloth: effect of gap space and alignment of skin and clothing on the moisture transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Yoshio; Akaki, Kenichi; Tanabe, Naomasa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates heat and moisture transfer between a sweating film and a nonwoven sheet both experimentally and numerically. A mathematical model based on heat conduction and moisture diffusion in both the air gap and cloth is presented. The evaporation rate and surface temperature of the sweating film are well predicted under various conditions such as air gap height, heating conditions, and sweating film orientation by evaluating the effective thermal conductivity and diffusion coefficient from the empirical equations of the Nusselt number for a fluid layer, even though the air gap height is sufficiently large to cause natural convections.

  18. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  19. Sweat chloride concentrations in children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Moir, Devin; Jain, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) has been believed to cause a false positive elevation of sweat chloride concentrations, as measured by the sweat test. Sweat tests were done for 11 children with acute onset INS at admission and again while they were in remission, with results being compared to normal historical controls. The initial sweat chloride concentration for 10 patients was normal (mean16.7 ± 11.02 mmol/L) and 1 patient had inadequate collection. This latter patient and two others were excluded during follow-up because of diagnoses other than INS. Sweat test results for the eight INS patients during follow up remained unchanged when they were in remission (16.94 ± 7.88 mmol/L; P = 0.98; Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test). In comparing sweat chloride concentrations from INS patients to those from 20 historical control subjects, we found no significant differences (Mann-Whitney Test; initial vs. control P = 0.643; follow up vs. control P = 0.806). INS does not cause a false positive sweat test. Further studies should be done to objectively assess the conditions that have been reported to affect sweat chloride concentrations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Equine sweat composition: effects of adrenaline infusion, exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, F F; Hodgson, D R; Evans, D L; Rose, R J

    1995-11-01

    Significant alterations in plasma electrolyte concentrations have been reported in horses following prolonged exercise, resulting from loss of hypertonic sweat. Sweat was collected from 10 horses undergoing a 10 week training programme; 5 at moderate intensity, to speeds of 10 m/s and 5 at low intensity, to speeds of 5 m/s. Sweat was collected from 2 sites in response to a submaximal exercise test (30 min at 50% VO2max and during an adrenaline infusion (dose mean +/- s.d.; 0.3 +/- 0.05 g/kg over 30 min). Sweat samples were analysed for sodium, chloride, potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and urea concentrations. Sweat produced in response to exercise and adrenaline infusion was hypertonic and showed no significant differences in composition following training. However, the [NaCl] of sweat rose with increased duration of sweating. Sweat produced in response to adrenaline infusion was more dilute than that produced in response to exercise, which may be related to sympathetic outflow during exercise.

  1. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  2. Investigation of the Temperature Dependence of the Acceptor Center Relaxation Rate in Silicon by the mu^-SR-Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mamedov, T N; Stojkov, A V; Andrianov, D G; Gerlach, D; Zimmermann, U; Gorelkin, V N; Kormann, O; Major, J V; Shevchik, M

    2000-01-01

    Results on the temperature dependence of the residual polarization of negative muons in silicon with phosphorus (3.2 cdot 10^12, 2.3 cdot 10^15 and 4.5 cdot 10^18 cm^-3) and aluminium (2 cdot 10^14 and 2.4 cdot 10^18 cm^-3) impurities are presented. The measurements were carried out in a transverse to the direction of the muon spin magnetic field of 2000 Oe in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The temperature dependence of the relaxation rate of the magnetic moment of the Al shallow acceptor centre in undeformed silicon is determined for the first time. The constant of the hyperfine interaction between the magnetic moment of the muon and that of the electron shell of the muonic atom A_hf/2pi approx 3 cdot 10^7 s^-1) and the coefficient for capture of free electrons by a neutral aluminium atom in silicon (beta (Al^0) approx 7 cdot 10^-14 cm^3 s^-1 at 30 K) are estimated.

  3. Differentiation of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells into sweat gland-like cells under special microenvironment:an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-an XU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the potentiality of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells(hUCWJ-MSCs differentiated into sweat gland-like cells under the cultivation of sweat gland-induction medium.Methods Sweat gland cells were harvested from normal skin by digesting with collagenase typeⅡ,heat-shocked and then the supernatants of medium were collected.The sweat gland-induction medium was prepared at 10% volume fraction.hUCWJ-MSCs were harvested by enzyme digestion,and the cell phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry(FCM.Alkaline phosphatase(ALP and Oil red-O staining were then performed after culturing in osteogenic and adipogenic induction medium for 2-3 weeks respectively.The hUCWJ-MSCs were cultured in sweat gland-induction medium for 3 weeks,the changes of cell morphology were observed with inverted microscope;the cells cultured for 1,2 and 3 weeks were harvested,and the expression of sweat gland markers(CEA,CK14 and CK19 were determined by immunohistochemistry and FCM,the expression of sweat gland development gene(EDA was determined by RT-PCR.Results The normal sweat gland cells exhibited clonal growth with a flagstone appearance,while the hUCWJ-MSCs showed spindle and myofibroblast-like phenotype,and the positive rate of CD44,CD105,CD34 and CEA detected by FCM was 97.37%,96.26%,0.56% and 0.52%,respectively.After cultured in osteogenic and adipogenic induction medium for 2-3 weeks,the hUCWJ-MSCs were induced into adipocytes of Oil red-O positive staining and osteocytes of ALP positive staining,respectively.After cultured in sweat gland-induction medium for 3 weeks,sweat gland-like structures were found,and sweat gland markers CEA,CK14 and CK19 were positive in differentiated hUCWJ-MSCs when detected by immunohistochemistry,the positive rate detected by FCM was 54.37%,60.25% and 62.13%,respectively.RT-PCR analysis revealed a high level expression of gene EDA in differentiated hUCWJ-MSCs.Conclusion The h

  4. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, Jessica E; Wolfe, Marlene H; Cho, Hyung-Ju; Park, Il-Ho; Jeong, Jin Hyeok; Frisbee, Eric; Dunn, Colleen; Davies, Zoe; Milla, Carlos; Moss, Richard B; Thomas, Ewart A C; Wine, Jeffrey J

    2014-01-01

    To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco) improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (-) ivacaftor, 3 only (+) ivacaftor and 3 (+/-) ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition). The total number of gland measurements was 852 (-) ivacaftor and 906 (+) ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands). For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat) and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat); C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects). By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands) produced C-sweat in the (+) ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+) ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  5. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  6. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.

  7. Improved Devices for Collecting Sweat for Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S. F.

    2011-01-01

    Improved devices have been proposed for collecting sweat for biochemical analysis especially for determination of the concentration of Ca2+ ions in sweat as a measure of loss of Ca from bones. Unlike commercially available sweat-collection patches used previously in monitoring osteoporosis and in qualitative screening for some drugs, the proposed devices would not allow evaporation of the volatile chemical components (mostly water) of sweat. Moreover, the proposed devices would be designed to enable determination of the volumes of collected sweat. From these volumes and the quantities of Ca2+ and/or other analytes as determined by other means summarized below, one could determine the concentrations of the analytes in sweat. A device according to the proposal would be flexible and would be worn like a commercial sweat-collection patch. It would be made of molded polydimethylsiloxane (silicone rubber) or other suitable material having properties that, for the purpose of analyzing sweat, are similar to those of glass. The die for molding the silicone rubber would be fabricated by a combination of lithography and electroplating. The die would reproducibly form, in the silicone rubber, a precisely defined number of capillary channels per unit area, each channel having a precisely defined volume. Optionally, electrodes for measuring the Ca2+ content of the sweat could be incorporated into the device. The volume of sweat collected in the capillary channels of the device would be determined from (1) the amount of light or radio waves of a given wavelength absorbed by the device and (2) the known geometry of the array of capillary channels. Then, in one of two options, centrifugation would be performed to move the sweat from the capillary tubes to the region containing the electrodes, which would be used to measure the Ca2+ content by a standard technique. In the other option, centrifugation would be performed to remove the sweat from the device to make the sweat available

  8. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances.

  9. Flexible nanoporous tunable electrical double layer biosensors for sweat diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munje, Rujuta D.; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2015-09-01

    An ultra-sensitive and highly specific electrical double layer (EDL) modulated biosensor, using nanoporous flexible substrates for wearable diagnostics is demonstrated with the detection of the stress biomarker cortisol in synthetic and human sweat. Zinc oxide thin film was used as active region in contact with the liquid i.e. synthetic and human sweat containing the biomolecules. Cortisol detection in sweat was accomplished by measuring and quantifying impedance changes due to modulation of the double layer capacitance within the electrical double layer through the application of a low orthogonally directed alternating current (AC) electric field. The EDL formed at the liquid-semiconductor interface was amplified in the presence of the nanoporous flexible substrate allowing for measuring the changes in the alternating current impedance signal due to the antibody-hormone interactions at diagnostically relevant concentrations. High sensitivity of detection of 1 pg/mL or 2.75 pmol cortisol in synthetic sweat and 1 ng/mL in human sweat is demonstrated with these novel biosensors. Specificity in synthetic sweat was demonstrated using a cytokine IL-1β. Cortisol detection in human sweat was demonstrated over a concentration range from 10-200 ng/mL.

  10. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: Artifact of surface contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of w...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: cold-induced sweating syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition CISS CNTF receptor-related disorders Crisponi syndrome Sohar-Crisponi syndrome ... of cardiotrophin-like cytokine, a second ligand for ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor, leads to cold-induced sweating syndrome in ...

  12. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  13. Sweat Gland Progenitors in Development, Homeostasis, and Wound Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Catherine; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The human body is covered with several million sweat glands. These tiny coiled tubular skin appendages produce the sweat that is our primary source of cooling and hydration of the skin. Numerous studies have been published on their morphology and physiology. Until recently, however, little was known about how glandular skin maintains homeostasis and repairs itself after tissue injury. Here, we provide a brief overview of sweat gland biology, including newly identified reservoirs of stem cells in glandular skin and their activation in response to different types of injuries. Finally, we discuss how the genetics and biology of glandular skin has advanced our knowledge of human disorders associated with altered sweat gland activity. PMID:24492848

  14. \\'Sweat Equity\\': Women\\'s Participation in Subsidised Housing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The notion of \\"sweat equity\\" has been promoted as an integral part of subsidised housing in South African Housing policy. It\\'s tougher for females, though. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 58-64 ...

  15. Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000826.htm Cancer treatment: dealing with hot flashes and night sweats To use ... stress reduction. Learning how to decrease stress and anxiety may help relieve hot flashes in some people. ...

  16. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Christiansen, Anne; Nybo, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study...... fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use....... a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. Conclusion. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic...

  17. Observation of the sweating in lipstick by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, S Y; Lee, I S; Shin, H Y; Choi, K Y; Kang, S H; Ahn, H J

    1999-06-01

    The relationship between the wax matrix in lipstick and sweating has been investigated by observing the change of size and shape of the wax matrix due to sweating by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). For observation by SEM, a lipstick sample was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The oil in the lipstick was then extracted in cold isopropanol (-70 degrees C) for 1-3 days. After the isopropanol was evaporated, the sample was sputtered with gold and examined by SEM. The change of wax matrix underneath the surface from fine, uniform structure to coarse, nonuniform structure resulted from the caking of surrounding wax matrix. The oil underneath the surface migrated to the surface of lipstick with sweating; consequently the wax matrix in that region was rearranged into the coarse matrix. In case of flamed lipstick, sweating was delayed and the wax matrix was much coarser than that of the unflamed one. The larger wax matrix at the surface region was good for including oil. The effect of molding temperature on sweating was also studied. As the molding temperature rose, sweating was greatly reduced and the size of the wax matrix increased. It was found that sweating was influenced by the compatibility of wax and oil. A formula consisting of wax and oil that have good compatibility has a tendency to reduce sweating and increase the size of the wax matrix. When pigments were added to wax and oil, the size of the wax matrix was changed, but in all cases sweating was increased due to the weakening of the binding force between wax and oil. On observing the thick membrane of wax at the surface of lipstick a month after molding it was also found that sweating was influenced by ageing. In conclusion, the structure of the wax matrix at the surface region of lipstick was changed with the process of flaming, molding temperature, compatibility of wax and oil, addition of pigment, and ageing. In most cases, as the size of the wax matrix was increased, sweating was reduced and delayed.

  18. Metabolomics analysis of human sweat collected after moderate exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Luque de Castro, M D; Priego-Capote, F

    2018-01-15

    Sweat is a promising biofluid scarcely used in clinical analysis despite its non-invasive sampling. A more frequent clinical use of sweat requires to know its whole composition, especially concerning to non-polar compounds, and the development of analytical strategies for its characterization. The aim of the present study was to compare different sample preparation strategies to maximize the detection of metabolites in sweat from humans collected after practicing moderate exercise. Special emphasis was put on non-polar compounds as they have received scant attention in previous studies dealing with this biofluid. Sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using extractants with different polarity index was compared to deproteination. Then, derivatization by methoxymation with subsequent silylation was compared to direct analysis of sweat extracts to check the influence of derivatization on the subsequent determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 135 compounds were tentatively identified by combining spectral and retention time information after analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in high resolution mode (GC-TOF/MS). Lipids, VOCs, benzenoids and other interesting metabolites such as alkaloids and ethanolamines were identified. Among the tested protocols, methyoxiamination plus silylation after LLE with dichloromethane was the best option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome collected from different body parts after moderate exercise. Passive and active sweat pools from a cohort of volunteers (n = 6) were compared to detect compositional differences which can be explained by the sampling process and sweating induction. As most of the identified compounds are metabolites involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new opportunities to extend the applicability of human sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of pathologies or specific processes such as dehydration or nutritional unbalance

  19. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Hassoun, Lauren A; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L; Sivamani, Raja K; Newman, John W

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30-C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs.

  20. Matrigel basement membrane matrix induces eccrine sweat gland cells to reconstitute sweat gland-like structures in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Lu; Zeng, Shaopeng; Li, Xuexue; Zhang, Xiang; Lin, Changmin; Zhang, Mingjun; Xie, Sitian; He, Yunpu; Shu, Shenyou; Yang, Lvjun; Tang, Shijie; Fu, Xiaobing

    2015-03-01

    Severe burn results in irreversible damage to eccrine sweat glands, for which no effective treatment is available. Interaction between the extracellular matrix and epithelial cells is critical for proper three-dimensional organization and function of the epithelium. Matrigel-embedded eccrine sweat gland cells were subcutaneously implanted into the inguinal regions of nude mice. Two weeks later, the Matrigel plugs were removed and evaluated for series of detection items. Sweat gland cells developed into sweat gland-like structures in the Matrigel plugs based on: (1) de novo formation of tubular-like structures with one or more hollow lumens, (2) expression of epithelial and sweat gland markers (pancytokeratin, CK5/7/14/19, α-SMA and CEA), (3) basement membrane formation, (4) myoepithelial cells presenting in and encompassing the tubular-like structures, (5) cellular polarization, evident by the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and ZO-2), anchoring junctions (desmoglein-1 and -2 and E-cadherin) and CEA in the luminal membrane, (6) expression of proteins related to sweat secretion and absorption (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase α/β, Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl-cotranspoter 1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1, aquaporin-5, epithelial sodium channel, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, potassium channel and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase), and (7) about 20% of the tubular-like structures are de novo coils and 80% are de novo ducts. This study provides not only an excellent model to study eccrine sweat gland development, cytodifferentiation and reconstitution, but also an in vivo model for regeneration of eccrine sweat glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  2. Claudin-3 loss causes leakage of sweat from the sweat gland to contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaga, Kosuke; Murota, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Atsushi; Miyata, Hirofumi; Ohmi, Masato; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Tsukita, Sachiko; Katayama, Ichiro

    2017-12-22

    The transfer of sweat to the skin surface without leakage is important for the homeostatic regulation of skin and is impaired in atopic dermatitis (AD). Although the precise composition of the leakage barrier remains obscure, there is a large contribution from claudins, the major components of tight junctions. In humans, claudin-1, -3, and -15 are expressed on sweat ducts, and claudin-3 and -10 are expressed on secretory coils. Although only two claudins are expressed in murine sweat glands, we found that the expression of claudin-3 is conserved. AD lesional skin had decreased claudin-3 expression in sweat glands, which was accompanied by sweat leakage. This critical role in water barrier function was confirmed in Cldn3 -/- and Cldn3 +/- mice and those with experimentally decreased claudin-3. Our results reveal the crucial role of claudin-3 in preventing sweat gland leakage and suggest that the pathogenesis of dermatoses accompanied by hypohidrosis involves abnormally decreased claudin-3. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sweat conductivity and coulometric quantitative test in neonatal cystic fibrosis screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Mouseline Torquato; Magdalena, Neiva Isabel Rodrigues; Cat, Mônica Nunes Lima; Watanabe, Alexandra Mitiru; Rosário Filho, Nelson Augusto

    2015-01-01

    To compare the results obtained with the sweat test using the conductivity method and coulometric measurement of sweat chloride in newborns (NBs) with suspected cystic fibrosis (CF) in the neonatal screening program. The sweat test was performed simultaneously by both methods in children with and without CF. The cutoff values to confirm CF were >50 mmol/L in the conductivity and >60 mmol/L in the coulometric test. There were 444 infants without CF (185 males, 234 females, and 24 unreported) submitted to the sweat test through conductivity and coulometric measurement simultaneously, obtaining median results of 32 mmol/L and 12 mmol/L, respectively. For 90 infants with CF, the median values of conductivity and coulometric measurement were 108 mmol/L and 97 mmol/L, respectively. The false positive rate for conductivity was 16.7%, and was higher than 50 mmol/L in all patients with CF, which gives this method a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), specificity of 96.2% (95% CI: 93.8-97.8), positive predictive value of 83.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.1), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90.5-109.4), and 9.8% accuracy. The correlation between the methods was r=0.97 (p>0.001). The best suggested cutoff value was 69.0 mmol/L, with a kappa coefficient=0.89. The conductivity test showed excellent correlation with the quantitative coulometric test, high sensitivity and specificity, and can be used in the diagnosis of CF in children detected through newborn screening. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical evaluation of the Nanoduct sweat test system in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooij-van Langen, Annette; Dompeling, Edward; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Arets, Bert; Tiddens, Harm; Loeber, Gerard; Dankert-Roelse, Jeannette

    2015-08-01

    After a positive newborn screening test for cystic fibrosis (CF), a sweat test is performed to confirm the diagnosis. The success rate of the generally acknowledged methods (Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke) in newborns varies between 73 and 99%. The Nanoduct sweat test system is easier to perform and less sweat is needed. The main aim of this study was to measure the success rate of the Nanoduct compared to current approved sweat test methods in a newborn population. After informed consent of the parents, newborns with a positive screening test for CF were included. The Macroduct or Gibson and Cooke and Nanoduct were performed in all infants, during the same appointment. The chloride concentration was determined by standard coulorimetry; conductivity was measured directly and converted to a NaCl molarity. One hundred eight newborns were included: 17 with CF, 7 with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-related metabolic syndrome (CRMS), and 84 healthy children. The success rate of the Nanoduct was 93% and for the Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke 79% (McNemar, p = 0.002). The Nanoduct detected the same CF patients as the Macroduct/Gibson and Cooke; one CF patient had an equivocal result for both tests, and no patients were missed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detection of CF with the Nanoduct was 0.999, with ideal cutoff levels of 91 and 66 mmol/l, comparable to former studies. The success rate of the Nanoduct to collect sufficient sweat in infants was higher compared to the Macroduct and Gibson and Cooke.

  5. Systematic review focusing on the excretion and protection roles of sweat in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Cui, Xiao; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Yaoyin; Liu, Jian; Cheng, Biao

    2014-01-01

    The skin excretes substances primarily through sweat glands. Several conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with diminished sweating. However, few studies have concentrated on the metabolism and excretion of sweat. This review focuses on the relationship between temperature and the thermoregulatory efficacy of sweat, and then discusses the excretion of sweat, which includes the metabolism of water, minerals, proteins, vitamins as well as toxic substances. The potential role of sweat secretion in hormone homeostasis and the effects on the defense system of the skin are also clarified. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background . Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods . Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results . Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions . Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  7. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors.

  8. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  9. [The English Sweating Sickness' of 1529 in Augsburg: a challenge to body and soul and the printer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In 1529, Sudor anglicus, the 'English Sweating Sickness', spread from England to Germany reaching the city of Augsburg. Its exact nature is unclear: the symptoms were profuse sweating, uncontrollable thirst, and headaches, with death occurring within hours of infection. Those who survived the first twenty-four hours returned to health. According to one source the fever arrived in Autumn 1529 and in September there were 800 deaths; another source gives November as the onset with 600 deaths. While these death rates were in fact relatively low compared with the plague, for instance, people were particularly frightened by the sudden appearance of an unknown fever and the speed of death. Augsburg was aware that the 'English Sweating Sickness' was spreading in Germany. What is remarkable was the quick reaction of the printing trade. Two related types of handbooks so on appeared; whichwill serve as the subject of this paper. Firstly, handbooks dealing with the fever as a medical issue, and secondly, those dealing with the fever as an issue of theology. An illustrative example of each handbook is discussed here. Authored at speed and quickly published, they reflect the urgent response to the outbreak. What is demonstrated is the need to attend both to body and soul, that the 'English Sweating Sickness' was a challenge not just to physicians but also to theologians. The printing trade seized the opportunity to meet both needs.

  10. Estimations of direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr to the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for five-and-a-half years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tateda, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. Additional release pathways by river input and runoff from 1F NPP site with precipitation and were also effective for coastal zone in the specific periods before starting direct release on March 26 2011. Direct release from 1F NPP site is dominant one year after the accident. We estimated the direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr for more than five-and-a-half years after the accident by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for five-and-a-half years after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the 1F NPP site(at 5,6 discharge and south discharge). Directly release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1014 Bq/day and decreased exponentially with time to be the order of magnitude of 109 Bq/day by the end of September 2016. Estimated direct release rate have exponentially reduced with constant rate since November 2011. Apparent half-life of direct release rate was estimated to be 346 days. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.7±0.7 PBq for five and a half years. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Simulated 137Cs activity affected off coast in the Fukushima prefecture. We used the measured 137Cs activities by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) for the estimation of direct release. The sea water samples were corrected from the coast. The averaged 137Cs activities from November 2013 to June 2016 were 391 and 383 Bq/m3 at 5,6 discharge and south discharge, respectively. The averaged 137Cs activities measured by the

  11. Sweat, the driving force behind normal skin: an emerging perspective on functional biology and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Saki; Ono, Emi; Kijima, Akiko; Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru; Katayama, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The various symptoms associated with excessive or insufficient perspiration can significantly reduce a patient's quality of life. If a versatile and minimally invasive method could be established for returning sweat activity to normalcy, there is no question that it could be used in the treatment of many diseases that are believed to involve perspiration. For this reason, based on an understanding of the sweat-gland control function and sweat activity, it was necessary to conduct a comprehensive search for the factors that control sweating, such as the central and peripheral nerves that control sweat-gland function, the microenvironment surrounding the sweat glands, and lifestyle. We focused on the mechanism by which atopic dermatitis leads to hypohidrosis and confirmed that histamine inhibits acetylcholinergic sweating. Acetylcholine promotes the phosphorylation of glycogen synthesis kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the sweat-gland secretory cells and leads to sensible perspiration. By suppressing the phosphorylation of GSK3β, histamine inhibits the movement of sweat from the sweat-gland secretory cells through the sweat ducts, which could presumably be demonstrated by dynamic observations of the sweat glands using two-photon microscopy. It is expected that the discovery of new factors that control sweat-gland function can contribute to the treatment of diseases associated with dyshidrosis. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Appearance of D2O in sweat after oral and oral-intravenous rehydration in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Holly; Casa, Douglas J; Beasley, Kathleen N; Lee, Elaine C; McDermott, Brendon P; Yamamoto, Linda M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2011-08-01

    Intravenous (IV) rehydration is common in athletics, but its thermoregulatory benefits and ergogenicity have not been elucidated. Availability of orally ingested fluid is dependent on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption rate. Deuterium oxide (D2O) has been used to demonstrate that fluid ingested during exercise appears in sweat within 10 minutes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent IV rehydration on D2O appearance in sweat samples after per ora rehydration with D2O labeled fluid. We hypothesized that the combination method would not be superior to the oral method. Ten fit men (age 23 ± 4, VO2max 59.49 ± 4.09 L·min(-1)) underwent 20 hours of fluid restriction resulting in 1.95 ± 0.25% body weight loss before beginning treadmill exercise and cycling. Exercise was performed in an environmental chamber (35.6 ± 0.2° C, 35.0 ± 1.8% relative humidity) for 2 hours at 55% VO2max, and the participants exhibited a mean body weight deficit of 4.50 ± 0.04%. Thermoregulatory measures were recorded while subjects were rehydrated with oral (OR) or oral combined with intravenous (IVO) fluid traced with D2O. After 30 minutes of rehydration and 30 minutes of seated recovery, the subjects began treadmill exercise at 55-60% VO2max. Forehead sweat samples were collected 0, 5, 10, 20, and 75 minutes from the start of rehydration. The samples were analyzed for D2O via isotope ratio mass spectrometry. D2O did not appear in the sweat within 20 minutes of rehydration; however, it did appear during the subsequent exercise bout. There was no significant difference between rehydration modes. Plasma volume increases and decreased volume of orally ingested fluid did not significantly alter transit time from ingestion to appearance in excreted sweat. The IVO method does not appear to be superior to the traditional OR method of rehydration.

  13. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  14. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  15. Effect of induced metabolic alkalosis on sweat composition in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, Stuart D R; Nimmo, M A

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether induced metabolic alkalosis affects sweat composition, 10 males cycled for 90 min at 62.5 +/- 1.3% peak oxygen uptake, on two separate occasions. Subjects ingested either empty capsules (placebo) or capsules containing NaHCO3- (0.3 g kg-1 body mass; six equal doses) over a 2-h period, which commenced 3 h prior to exercise. Arterialized-venous blood samples were drawn prior to and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise. Sweat was aspirated at the end of exercise from a patch located on the right scapula region. NaHCO3- ingestion elevated blood pH, [HCO3-] and serum [Na+], whereas serum [Cl-] and [K+] were reduced, both at rest and during exercise (P Sweat pH was greater in the NaHCO3- trial (6.24 +/- 0.18 vs. 6.38 +/- 0.18; P sweat [Na+] (49.5 +/- 4.8 vs. 50.2 +/- 4.3 mEq L-1), [Cl-] (37.5 +/- 5.1 vs. 39.3 +/- 4.2 mEq L-1) and [K+] (4.66 +/- 0.19 vs. 4.64 +/- 0.34 mEq L-1) did not differ between trials (P > 0.05). Sweat [HCO3-] (2.49 +/- 0.58 vs. 3.73 +/- 1.10 mEq L-1) and [lactate] (8.92 +/- 0.79 vs. 10.51 +/- 0.32 mmol L-1) tended to be greater after NaHCO3- ingestion, although significance was not reached (P=0.07 and P=0.08, respectively). These data indicate that induced metabolic alkalosis can modify sweat composition, although it is unclear whether the secretory coil, reabsorptive duct, or both are responsible for this alteration.

  16. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  17. [Analysis of fatty acid composition of sweat lipids in children and adults with skin disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrashko, Iu V; Koliadenko, V G; Briuzgina, T S; Prokhorova, M P

    2002-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic analysis of fatty acid composition of sweat lipids in children and adults with neurodermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and eczema showed that sweat can be used as a new noninvasive biological object for evaluation of lipid metabolism disorders.

  18. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  19. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  20. Immediate Wheal Reactivity to Autologous Sweat in Atopic Dermatitis Is Associated with Clinical Severity, Serum Total and Specific IgE and Sweat Tryptase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilves, Tiina; Virolainen, Anu; Harvima, Ilkka Tapani

    2016-01-01

    Sweating can worsen atopic dermatitis (AD). The purpose of this work was to study the associations between reactivity to autologous sweat and the clinical severity of AD as well as investigate the possible wheal-inducing factors of sweat. Intracutaneous skin tests with autologous sweat were performed on 50 AD patients and 24 control subjects. In skin biopsies, tryptase and PAR-2 were enzyme and immunohistochemically stained. The associations between skin test reactivity and sweat histamine concentration, tryptase or chymase activity levels, tryptase or PAR-2 expression and AD clinical severity or IgE levels were investigated. The wheal reactions in the intracutaneous tests with autologous sweat were positive, weakly positive and negative in 38, 34 and 28% of the AD patients, respectively, and in 4, 46 and 50% of the healthy controls, respectively (p = 0.008). In AD, the wheal reaction was associated significantly with clinical severity, serum total and specific IgE levels and sweat tryptase activity, but not with sweat histamine and chymase. In nonlesional AD skin, the percentage of PAR-2+ mast cells (MCs) or the number of tryptase+ MCs did not differ significantly between the intracutaneous test reactivity groups. Reactivity to autologous sweat correlates with the clinical severity of AD, and tryptase may be one of the factors involved in the sweat-induced wheal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration in a malnourished girl with the Mauriac syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, F P; Transue, D J; Belknap, W M; Freij, B J; Aughton, D J

    1995-02-01

    Elevated sweat chloride concentration in a patient with Mauriac syndrome has been reported only once. The authors of that report regarded their patient's underlying malnutrition, and not Mauriac syndrome per se, as the cause of the elevated sweat chloride concentration. We describe a second example of transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration, which confirms that the malnutrition intrinsic to Mauriac syndrome, rather than the syndrome itself, was the probable cause of elevated sweat chloride values.

  2. Simple barcode system based on ionogels for real time pH-sweat monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Benito-Lopez, Fernando; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; O’Toole, Corinne; Barry, Caroline; Diamond, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication, characterization and the performance of a wearable, robust, flexible and disposable barcode system based on novel ionic liquid polymer gels (ionogels) for monitoring in real time mode the pH of the sweat generated during an exercise period. Up to now sweat analysis has been carried out using awkward methods of collecting sweat followed by laboratory analysis. The approach presented here can provide immediate feedback regarding sweat composition. The great ...

  3. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a non-invasive approach for cutaneous research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat is a complex biological fluid with potential diagnostic value for the investigation of skin disorders. Previous efforts in sweat testing focused on analysis of small molecules and ions for forensic and diagnostic testing, but with advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques, there h...

  4. Sweat it Out : Johannes de Gorter and Sudorifics in the Dutch Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Today, many go for a run, cover themselves under blankets, or sit in the sauna believing that they can ‘sweat out’ the common cold. Whereas modern medicine has falsified the efficacy of sweating as treatment, this paper considers the development of medical research about sweating in the early modern

  5. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  6. Artificial sweat composition to grow and sustain a mixed human axillary microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Buysschaert, Benjamin; Vossen, Els; Fievez, Veerle; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-08-01

    A novel artificial sweat composition, Skin Community Interaction simulation, designed to mimic the human axillary sweat, was compared to other artificial sweat compositions. Axillary microbiota grown in the novel composition closely resembled the original community. Volatile organic compound analysis showed good correlations with in vivo axillary (mal)odor components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n = 7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine ion...

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is requir...

  9. The Sweat Lodge Ceremony in Challenge/Adventure Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, William J.; Smith, Thomas E.

    This paper advocates the potentials of "sweat lodge" rituals for adventure education programs. Historically, rituals and ceremonies have been instrumental in passing major philosophical and sociological paradigms from one generation to the next. However, there is little theory and research about how ritual and ceremony results in the…

  10. the comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (waltertm)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Anton F Botha*, Marguerite E Stoffberg & Lawrance Hunter. ABSTRACT. With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for. Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort.

  11. Sweating, thirst perception and plasma electrolyte composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirst is a perception, the subjective experience evoked by fluid deficits. Exercise induces sweating and subsequently electrolyte loss and thirst but there is little documented on post exercise thirst perception in women of varying body mass indices. 40 apparently healthy young women (19-25years) in the follicular phase of ...

  12. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Correlation between hydrogen production rate, current, and electrode overpotential in a solid oxide electrolysis cell with La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ thin-film cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Gregor; Opitz, Alexander Karl; Kogler, Sandra; Fleig, Jürgen

    A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) with a model-type La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ thin-film cathode (working electrode) on an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte and a porous La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ counterelectrode was operated in wet argon gas at the cathode. The hydrogen formation rate in the cathode compartment was quantified by mass spectrometry. Determination of the current as well as outlet gas composition revealed the electrochemical reduction of some residual oxygen in the cathodic compartment. Quantitative correlation between gas composition changes and current flow was possible. At 640 °C a water-to-hydrogen conversion rate of ca. 4 % was found at -1.5 V versus a reversible counterelectrode in 1 % oxygen. Onset of hydrogen formation could already be detected at voltages as low as -0.3 V. This reflects a fundamental difference between steam electrolysis and electrolysis of liquid water: substantial hydrogen production in a SOEC is already possible at pressures much below ambient. This causes difficulties in determining the cathodic overpotential of such a cell.

  14. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shu-Fang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150 healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH, body weight (BW, and body mass index (BMI but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and  Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population.

  15. The Effect of Nitrogen Gas Flushing on Intermediate Products Formation in Acidogenic Stage of Anaerobic Process of Cocoa Sweatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is one of Indonesian-main plantation commodities. During the cocoa seed drying process, there are two types of waste that are cocoa pod and cocoa sweating. Since the organic compounds contained in cocoa sweating is high enough, it is possible to anaerobically treat this wastewater in order to recover either intermediate or end products. Preliminary study showed that the existence of H2 in the reactor would block acetic acid formation. Therefore, the aim of this current experiment was to decrease hydrogen partial pressure by flushing various nitrogen gas flow rate to shift the intermediate products during the cocoa sweating anaerobic treatment. The experiments were carried on a Circulating Bed Reactor (CBR which contained organic compounds around 100,000 mg/l COD. Then, the reactor was flushed continuously with nitrogen gas as without flushing, 125 ml/min, 500 ml/min and 750 ml/min. The results show there was a possibility that the introduction of nitrogen gas into the reactor could shift the profile of the intermediate product formation. At lower nitrogen gas flow rate more ethanol was formed than acetate formation, although at higher nitrogen gas flow rate the formation of acetate was still low enough.

  16. The Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio as a powerful tool in forensic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muynck, D.; Boyen, S.; Delporte, S.; de Winne, J.; Vanhaecke, F.; Degryse, P.

    2009-04-01

    As a result of the decay of the naturally occurring and long-lived radionuclide Rb-87 into Sr-87, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of a geological material displays geographical variations according to the chemical/mineralogical composition of that material and its geological age. As most part of the strontium, ingested into the human body via the food, is transported to the skeletal tissue, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of an individual's skeletal tissue is a reflection of the geological area in which that individual resided at the moment the skeletal tissue under investigation was formed. Distinct tissues in the human body display a different growth and Sr renewal rate, and hence reflect the place of residence in a distinct period of life (tooth enamel: childhood - tooth dentine and bone tissue: last years of life - nails: last months of life - hair: last weeks of life). Following these considerations, it was investigated if Sr isotope ratio analysis of human hair, nails, bone and dental tissue can be successfully applied in the context of forensic research. Hair, nails, bone and dental tissue of several unidentified persons, currently being investigated by the Disaster Victim Identification unit of the Belgian Federal Police, were available for research. After acid digestion and isolation of the Sr fraction using an extraction chromatographic separation, the Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of these tissues was determined via multicollector ICP-MS. It was shown that Sr isotope ratio data match traceable facts or information obtained via independent evidence concerning the victim, e.g., by pinpointing his/her area of residence. In this way, it was demonstrated that Sr isotope ratio analysis delivers information that strengthens or weakens arguments concerning a person's identity.

  17. A novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model with physiological functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Klaka

    Full Text Available Dysregulated human eccrine sweat glands can negatively impact the quality-of-life of people suffering from disorders like hyperhidrosis. Inability of sweating can even result in serious health effects in humans affected by anhidrosis. The underlying mechanisms must be elucidated and a reliable in vitro test system for drug screening must be developed. Here we describe a novel organotypic three-dimensional (3D sweat gland model made of primary human eccrine sweat gland cells. Initial experiments revealed that eccrine sweat gland cells in a two-dimensional (2D culture lose typical physiological markers. To resemble the in vivo situation as close as possible, we applied the hanging drop cultivation technology regaining most of the markers when cultured in its natural spherical environment. To compare the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus human sweat glands in vivo, we compared markers relevant for the eccrine sweat gland using transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. Comparing the marker profile, a high in vitro-in vivo correlation was shown. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 (CHRM3, Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1, calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin-1 (ANO1/TMEM16A, and aquaporin-5 (AQP5 are found at significant expression levels in the 3D model. Moreover, cholinergic stimulation with acetylcholine or pilocarpine leads to calcium influx monitored in a calcium flux assay. Cholinergic stimulation cannot be achieved with the sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3 used as a sweat gland model system. Our results show clear benefits of the organotypic 3D sweat gland model versus 2D cultures in terms of the expression of essential eccrine sweat gland key regulators and in the physiological response to stimulation. Taken together, this novel organotypic 3D sweat gland model shows a good in vitro-in vivo correlation and is an appropriate alternative for screening of potential

  18. Sweat fluid and ion losses in horses during training and competition in cool vs. hot ambient conditions: implications for ion supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine incremental and total sweat fluid and ion losses during and following (a) exercise training and (b) a treadmill Speed and Endurance exercise test (SEET) which simulated running speeds and distances required for each phase of an Olympic level (CCI****) 3-day-event in cool and hot ambient conditions and 2) determine the requirement for ion supplementation based on the calculated ion losses associated with these activities. Six exercise-trained Thoroughbred horses completed 2 weeks of exercise training in each of 2 ambient conditions: cool, dry (CD, room temperature [T] = 20-22 degrees C, relative humidity [RH] = 45-55%), or hot and humid (HH, T = 33-35 degrees C, RH = 80-85%). Following the 2 week period of training in either CD or HH conditions, horses completed a SEET under similar conditions (either CD, or hot and dry (HD, T = 33-35 degrees C, RH = 45-55%). Sweating rate and sweat ion composition for each 5 min interval was determined from sweat samples collected from a sealed pouch attached to the lateral thorax. Total sweat fluid losses during training in the heat were 2- or 3-fold greater when compared to CD. Similarly, sweat fluid losses associated with the SEET in HD were almost double (19.2 litres) the losses in CD (11.7 litres). Total calculated ion losses associated with 2 h of training in HH (3724 mmol; 115.2 g) were significantly greater when compared to CD (1413 mmol; 43.5 g). Following the SEET and a 30 min recovery period, total ion losses in CD were 3636 mmol (112.2 g) compared with 6519 mmol (200.6 g) in HD. The differences in ion losses represent the increased sweating rates stimulated by higher core temperatures during moderate to high intensity exercise in warmer ambient conditions and increases in sweat ion concentrations associated with higher sweating rates. Extracellular fluid (ECF) ion losses during daily exercise training and the SEET were also calculated from changes in plasma ion

  19. Health-related quality of life of women with menopausal hot flushes and night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, B; Hunter, M S

    2013-04-01

    Despite a large body of research on menopause, there is little definitive evidence of the impact of vasomotor symptoms on health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Therefore, this study describes the HrQoL of menopausal women with hot flushes and night sweats and examines predictors of HrQoL. A total of 140 women reporting at least ten hot flushes/night sweats (vasomotor symptoms) a week for at least a month completed an assessment interview (including medical history, past and current physical and mental health and menopausal status) and questionnaires eliciting sociodemographic and help-seeking information, HrQoL and the Hot Flush Rating Scale. Women with vasomotor symptoms reported somewhat reduced HrQoL compared to SF-36 US norms and a general sample of UK menopausal women; 53% reported comorbid physical illness and 66% had current psychosocial concerns; 77% had visited their doctor about menopausal symptoms; 28% were past and 3% current users of hormone therapy. Overall, poor HrQoL was associated with having problematic hot flushes, current psychosocial concerns, (younger) age, (higher) body mass index and poor general health. This sample of relatively healthy mid-aged women with vasomotor symptoms reported reduced HrQoL compared to age-matched norms and a general sample of menopausal women. Problem rating, rather than frequency, of hot flushes was associated with reduced HrQoL, as were health and psychosocial factors.

  20. Sweat output measurement of the post-ganglion sudomotor response by Q-Sweat Test: a normative database of Chinese individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Q-Sweat is a model used for evaluating the post-ganglionic sudomotor function by assessing sweat response. This study aimed to establish the normative database of Q-Sweat test among Chinese individuals since this type of information is currently lacking. Results One hundred and fifty (150) healthy volunteers, 76 men and 74 women with age range of 22–76 years were included. Skin temperature and sweat onset latency measured at the four sites (i.e., the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and the foot) did not significantly correlate with age, gender, body height (BH), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) but the total sweat volume measured in all four sites significantly correlated with sex, BH, and BW. Except for the distal leg, the total sweat volume measured at the other three sites had a significant correlation with BMI. In terms of gender, men had larger total sweat volume, with median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot of 0.591 μl, 0.693 μl, 0.696 μl, and 0.358 μl, respectively. Regarding BW difference (≥62 and sweat volume. Median differences at the forearm, proximal leg, distal leg, and foot were 0.538 μl, 0.744 μl, 0.695 μl, and 0.338 μl, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of male and female participants in the two BW groups. In all conditions, the total sweat volume recorded at the foot site was the smallest. Conclusion This is the first report to show the normative database of sweat response in Chinese participants evaluated using Q-Sweat device. This normative database can help guide further research on post-ganglionic sudomotor or related clinical practice involving a Chinese population. PMID:22682097

  1. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for women: effect on compensatory sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Paula Loureiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Plantar hyperhidrosis is present in 50% of patients with hyperhidrosis. Thoracic sympathectomy is an important tool for the treatment of this condition, which is successful in about 60% of patients. For the remaining patients, lumbar sympathectomy is the procedure of choice. As new minimally invasive techniques have been developed, a significant demand for this type of access has led to its adaptation to the lumbar sympathectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy in controlling plantar hyperhidrosis and its effects on compensatory sweat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty female patients with persistent plantar hyperhidrosis after thoracic sympathectomy were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to laparoscopic retroperitoneal lumbar sympathectomy (Group A or no surgical intervention (Group B - control groups. Quality-of-life modifications were assessed by specific questionnaires before and after surgery. In the same manner, direct sweat measurements were also performed pre- and post-intervention by evaluating trans-epidermal water loss. Despite the lack of intervention, the control group was evaluated at similar timepoints. RESULTS: In Group A, no major complications occurred in the peri-operative period. During the immediate post-operative period, three patients (20% experienced prolonged pain (more than ten days. Eight patients suffered from worsened compensatory sweating (53.3%. In Group A, after lumbar sympathectomy, the quality of life significantly improved (p<0.05, intra-group comparison beyond that of the control group (p<0.05, inter-group comparison. Also, lumbar sympathectomy resulted in significantly lower values of foot sweat (pre- vs. post-operative periods, p<0.05; Group A vs. Group B, p<0.05. These patients also developed higher values of sweat measurements on specific points of their dorsal and abdominal regions after the procedure (p<0

  2. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC+ , SMBC- ), CK5/6 (SGC+ , SMBC- ), podoplanin (SGC+ , SMBC- ) and mammaglobin (SGC- , SMBC+ ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia). © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  3. Concentration of electrolytes in the sweat of malnourished children.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M. E.; M. C. MELO; Reis, F J; Penna, F J

    1994-01-01

    The sweat test was performed by the method of Gibson and Cooke on 36 children with second and third degree malnutrition, aged from 2 months to 4 years. The results were compared with those from 32 healthy, well nourished controls in the same age range. Determinations were made of sodium and chloride concentrations, chloride/sodium ratio, and the sum of the concentrations of the two electrolytes in each sample. The malnourished children were found to have higher sodium and chloride concentrati...

  4. Coloured sweat in two brothers: First report of familial chromhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Daniel C; Cooper, Hywel L

    2016-02-01

    The uncommon diagnosis of chromhidrosis is most frequently made in young adults. This sweat gland disease, although benign, may impact significantly on the patient's quality of life. We describe the first report of familial chromhidrosis of pseudo-eccrine type (pseudochromhidrosis) occurring in two brothers aged 9 and 12 years. The classification and causality of chromhidrosis is described and approaches to assessment and management are outlined. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  5. Impact of blanching, sweating and drying operations on pungency, aroma and color of Piper borbonense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, M; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Méot, J M; Boulanger, R; Bohuon, P

    2017-03-15

    Low pungency, high aromatic potential and red color, give to Piper borbonense its originality when compared to Piper nigrum. Effects of blanching, sweating and drying on these characteristics were assessed. The three operations had no impact on the concentration of piperine and essential oil but affected the composition of essential oil slightly and considerably affected the color of the pepper. The "wet process", including blanching, sweating and drying, had the largest impact on the composition of aroma, increasing para-cymene content by 89% and reducing safrole content by 33% in dried pepper compared to fresh. Blanching increased the drying rate thus reducing drying time. Drying had a major impact on color, which changed from red to brown. The biggest differences observed led to reductions of 2.2, 7.9 and 8.4units in L∗, a∗ and b∗ values, when chromatic values measured in fresh pepper were compared to those of dried pepper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The English 'sweate' (Sudor Anglicus) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridson, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapidly fatal viral infectious disease appeared in England in 1485, persisted for the summer months and disappeared as winter approached. This pattern of infection re-appeared in 1508, 1517, 1528, and finally 1551. The epidemic never returned. It had no respect for wealth or rank, and predominantly attacked males between the ages of 15 and 45 years. The incubation period was frighteningly short and the outcome normally fatal. The symptoms of acute respiratory disease and copious sweating were characteristic, providing the name 'the English sweating disease'. It was never in the big league of killer epidemics, such as plague and influenza, but its pockets of instant lethality in communities gave it a special ranking of horror. The infective cause of this disease remained a total mystery until it was compared with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1994. The strength of this theory is examined in this paper, and it is concluded that, although there is a close resemblance, HPS does not match the English sweating disease completely and positive identification of a possible rodent carrier for the latter was not established.

  7. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  8. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  9. On sweat analysis for quantitative estimation of dehydration during physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Matthias; Lohmueller, Clemens; Rauh, Manfred; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of water loss during physical exercise is of importance because dehydration can impair both muscular strength and aerobic endurance. A physiological indicator for deficit of total body water (TBW) might be the concentration of electrolytes in sweat. It has been shown that concentrations differ after physical exercise depending on whether water loss was replaced by fluid intake or not. However, to the best of our knowledge, this fact has not been examined for its potential to quantitatively estimate TBW loss. Therefore, we conducted a study in which sweat samples were collected continuously during two hours of physical exercise without fluid intake. A statistical analysis of these sweat samples revealed significant correlations between chloride concentration in sweat and TBW loss (r = 0.41, p sweat osmolality and TBW loss (r = 0.43, p sweat samples.

  10. Exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses in older and younger men: effect of heat acclimation and aerobic fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y.; Havenith, George; Kenney, W. Larry; Loomis, Joseph L.; Buskirk, Elsworth R.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of aging and aerobic fitness on exercise- and methylcholine-induced sweating responses during heat acclimation. Five younger [Y group - age: 23+/-1 (SEM) years; maximal oxygen consumption (V.O2max): 47+/-3 ml.kg-1.min-1], four highly fit older (HO group - 63+/-3 years; 48+/-4 ml.kg-1.min-1) and five normally fit older men (NO group - 67+/-3 years; 30+/-1 ml.kg-1.min-1) who were matched for height, body mass and percentage fat, were heat acclimated by daily cycle exercise ( 35% V.O2max for 90 min) in a hot (43°C, 30% RH) environment for 8 days. The heat acclimation regimen increased performance time, lowered final rectal temperature (Tre) and percentage maximal heart rate (%HRmax), improved thermal comfort and decreased sweat sodium concentration similarly in all groups. Although total body sweating rates (M.sw) during acclimation were significantly greater in the Y and HO groups than in the NO group (Pgroup), the M.sw did not change in all groups with the acclimation sessions. Neither were local sweating rates (m.sw) on chest, back, forearm and thigh changed in all groups by the acclimation. The HO group presented greater forearm m.sw (30-90 min) values and the Y group had greater back and thigh m.sw (early in exercise) values, compared to the other groups (PHO>NO, and on the forearm Y=HO>NO. No group differences were observed for activated sweat gland density at any site. The SGO at the respective sites increased in the post-acclimation test regardless of group (Pgroups than in the Y group. These findings suggest that heat tolerance and the improvement with acclimation are little impaired not only in highly fit older but also normally fit older men, when the subjects exercised at the same relative exercise intensity. Furthermore, the changes induced by acclimation appear associated with an age-related decrease in V.O2max. However methylcholine-activated SGO and the magnitude of improvement of SGO with

  11. Imaging calcium carbonate distribution in human sweat pore in vivo using nonlinear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueqin; Gasecka, Alicja; Formanek, Florian; Galey, Jean-Baptiste; Rigneault, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopies, including two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), were used to study individual human sweat pore morphology and topically applied antiperspirant salt penetration inside sweat pore, in vivo on human palms. Sweat pore inner morphology in vivo was imaged up to the depth of 100 μm by TPEF microscopy. The 3D penetration and distribution of "in situ calcium carbonate" (isCC), an antiperspirant salt model, was investigated using CARS microscopy.

  12. The effect of heat acclimation on sweat microminerals: artifact of surface contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Matthew R; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Chinevere, Troy; Lacher, Craig P; Lukaski, Henry C; Montain, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) reportedly conveys conservation in sweat micromineral concentrations when sampled from arm sweat, but time course is unknown. The observation that comprehensive cleaning of the skin surface negates sweat micromineral reductions during prolonged sweating raises the question of whether the reported HA effect is real or artifact of surface contamination. To measure sweat mineral concentrations serially during HA and determine if surface contamination plays a role in the reported mineral reductions. Calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in sweat obtained from 17 male volunteers using an arm bag on Day 1, 5, and 10 of a HA protocol. To study the role of contamination, sweat was simultaneously (n = 10 subjects) sampled twice daily from a cleaned site (WASH) and unclean site (NO WASH) on the scapular surface. Sweat Ca, Cu, and Mg from Arm Bag trended progressively downward from Day 1 to Day 10 of HA (p = .10-0.25). Micromineral concentrations from the WASH site did not change between Day 1, 5, or 10 (Ca = 0.30 ± 0.12 mmol/L, Cu 0.41 ± 0.53 μmol/L; Zn 1.11 ± 0.80 μmol/L). Surface contamination can confound sweat mineral estimates, as sweat Ca and Cu from NO WASH site were initially higher than WASH (p Heat acclimation does not confer reductions in sweat Ca, Cu, Mg, or Zn. When the skin surface is not cleaned, mineral residue inflates initial sweat mineral concentrations. Earlier reports of micromineral reductions during HA may have been confounded by interday cleaning variability.

  13. Long-term variation (1986-1998) of post-Chernobyl 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu concentrations in air, depositions to ground, resuspension factors and resuspension rates in south Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, G; Winkler, R

    2001-06-12

    Annual mean concentrations in air and annual total (wet plus dry) depositions to ground of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu decreased at Neuherberg, south Germany, in the period from July 1986 (i.e. after the end of the initial deposition phase from Chernobyl) to 1998 as follows: 90Sr from 0.77 to 0.05 microBq m(-3), and from 0.82 (1988) to 0.28 Bq m(-2) year(-1); 137Cs from 133 to 2.8 microBq m(-3), and from 116 to 3.8 Bq m(-2) year(-1); 238Pu from 0.95 to 0.063 nBq m(-3), and from 1.0 to 0.23 mBq m(-2) year(-1); (239,240)Pu from 8.1 to 0.53 nBq m(-3), and from 6.4 to 2.1 mBq m(-2) year(-1). The values for the non-caesium radionuclides are compared to the few available data from other stations. After an initial phase which is characterised for a given radionuclide by the varying ratio of the Chernobyl-derived inventory to the earlier, weapons fallout-derived inventory, the time courses of concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu in air become more or less parallel (from about 1990), despite the considerable differences in the physico-chemical properties of these elements. By contrast, the time series of radionuclide deposition rates show until about 1994 less similarity among each other and with the respective concentration series in air. From 1994, concentrations in air and depositions to ground become nearly constant, or decrease very slowly. At the end of the observation period, resuspension factors between 1.4 x 10(-10) m(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-11) m(-1) are observed for the various nuclides. The time courses of specific activities (Bq g(-1)) as well as the time courses of radionuclide ratios show characteristic differences between air and deposition. The data will be useful in predicting the post-accident behaviour of radionuclides a long time after a large-scale contamination event.

  14. [Study on sweat gland regeneration induced by microenvironment of three-dimensional bioprinting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B; Xie, J F; Huang, S; Fu, X B

    2017-01-20

    Sweat glands are abundant in the body surface and essential for thermoregulation. Sweat glands fail to conduct self-repair in patients with large area of burn and trauma, and the body temperature of patients increases in hot climate, which may cause shock or even death. Now, co-culture system, reprogramming, and tissue engineering have made progresses in inducing sweat gland regeneration, but the inductive efficiency and duration need to be improved. Cellular microenvironment can regulate cell biological behavior, including cell migration and cell differentiation. This article reviews the studies of establishment of microenvironment in vitro by three-dimensional bioprinting technology to induce sweat gland regeneration.

  15. Multidimensional Raman spectroscopic signature of sweat and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra; Lednev, Igor K

    2012-03-09

    This proof-of-concept study demonstrated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for nondestructive identification of traces of sweat for forensic purposes. Advanced statistical analysis of Raman spectra revealed that dry sweat was intrinsically heterogeneous, and its biochemical composition varies significantly with the donor. As a result, no single Raman spectrum could adequately represent sweat traces. Instead, a multidimensional spectroscopic signature of sweat was built that allowed for the presentation of any single experimental spectrum as a linear combination of two fluorescent backgrounds and three Raman spectral components dominated by the contribution from lactate, lactic acid, urea and single amino acids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of sweat induced with pilocarpine, physical exercise, and collected passively by metabolomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S L; Graça, G; Oliva, A

    2017-11-12

    The elimination of the pain associated with needle picking is a strong motivation for the development of clinical non-invasive diagnostic methods. Sweat has been described as an alternative biological sample that may have a direct relation to the plasma composition. In this study, analysis of sweat of human volunteers obtained by induction with pilocarpine is compared with sweat samples obtained by physical exercise and by passive collection along 7 hours. The sweat samples have been analyzed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A range of 34 different metabolites has been detected in sweat samples, including lactate, several amino acids, pyroglutamate, and urocanate. Most of the metabolites identified were quantified. The majority of the amino acids detected in sweat seem to have origin in the epidermis surface. No significant differences in sweat samples from female and male were observed by 1H NMR metabolomic analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) shows that both physical exercise and pilocarpine methods seem to be equally reproducible methods in terms of sweat metabolite composition presenting better repeatability than natural sweat collection. Nevertheless, this difference is mainly originated from amino acids with origin from the skin surface. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Composition of sweat of the horse during prolonged epinephrine (adrenaline) infusion, heat exposure, and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, M G; Snow, D H

    1983-08-01

    Temporal changes in sweat composition were studied in 4 horses during epinephrine (adrenaline) infusion (0.13 to 0.31 micrograms/kg/min for 3 hours), heat exposure (41 C, [33 C wet bulb] for 5 to 6 hours), and exercise (16 to 18 km/hr for 58 to 80 km). Four ponies also were studied during heat exposure. Sweat produced by each of the stimuli was hypertonic for Na+, K+, and Cl-. These electrolyte concentrations remained constant during the central period of the experiments, with changes occurring near the beginning and toward the end. The Na+ was significantly higher and K+ significantly lower in epinephrine-induced sweat than in heat-induced sweat, and the pattern of change in sweat Na/K ratio varied among the 3 stimuli. The Ca2+ concentration decreased with time and was hypotonic after 15 minutes of epinephrine-induced sweating. Concentrations of Mg2+ and protein decreased exponentially with time. There was a high correlation between them, although the Mg2+ was not protein-bound. Sweat urea concentration was directly related to plasma urea concentration. When plasma glucose concentration became greater than 10 to 12 mmole/L during epinephrine infusion, glucose appeared in the sweat and its concentration rose to 8 to 12 mmole/L of sweat when plasma glucose was more than 20 mmole/L.

  18. Comparison of fabric skins for the simulation of sweating on thermal manikins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, Barbara; Psikuta, Agnes; Bogdan, Anna; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2017-09-01

    Sweating is an important thermoregulatory process helping to dissipate heat and, thus, to prevent overheating of the human body. Simulations of human thermo-physiological responses in hot conditions or during exercising are helpful for assessing heat stress; however, realistic sweating simulation and evaporative cooling is needed. To this end, thermal manikins dressed with a tight fabric skin can be used, and the properties of this skin should help human-like sweat evaporation simulation. Four fabrics, i.e., cotton with elastane, polyester, polyamide with elastane, and a skin provided by a manikin manufacturer (Thermetrics) were compared in this study. The moisture management properties of the fabrics have been investigated in basic tests with regard to all phases of sweating relevant for simulating human thermo-physiological responses, namely, onset of sweating, fully developed sweating, and drying. The suitability of the fabrics for standard tests, such as clothing evaporative resistance measurements, was evaluated based on tests corresponding to the middle phase of sweating. Simulations with a head manikin coupled to a thermo-physiological model were performed to evaluate the overall performance of the skins. The results of the study showed that three out of four evaluated fabrics have adequate moisture management properties with regard to the simulation of sweating, which was confirmed in the coupled simulation with the head manikin. The presented tests are helpful for comparing the efficiency of different fabrics to simulate sweat-induced evaporative cooling on thermal manikins.

  19. Low abundance of sweat duct Cl− channel CFTR in both healthy and cystic fibrosis athletes with exceptionally salty sweat during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Karla K. V.; Pollack, Brian P.; Millard-Stafford, Mindy; McCarty, Nael A.

    2011-01-01

    To understand potential mechanisms explaining interindividual variability observed in human sweat sodium concentration ([Na+]), we investigated the relationship among [Na+] of thermoregulatory sweat, plasma membrane expression of Na+ and Cl− transport proteins in biopsied human eccrine sweat ducts, and basal levels of vasopressin (AVP) and aldosterone. Lower ductal luminal membrane expression of the Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was observed in immunofluorescent staining of sweat glands from healthy young adults identified as exceptionally “salty sweaters” (SS) (n = 6, P sweat [Na+] (control, n = 6). Genetic testing of healthy subjects did not reveal any heterozygotes (“carriers”) for any of the 39 most common disease-causing CFTR mutations in the United States. SS had higher baseline plasma [AVP] compared with control (P = 0.029). Immunostaining to investigate a potential relationship between higher plasma [AVP] (and sweat [Na+]) and ductal membrane aquaporin-5 revealed for all groups a relatively sparse and location-dependent ductal expression of the water channel with localization primarily to the secretory coil. Availability of CFTR for NaCl transport across the ductal membrane appears related to the significant physiological variability observed in sweat salt concentration in apparently healthy humans. At present, a heritable link between healthy salty sweaters and the most prevalent disease-causing CFTR mutations cannot be established. PMID:21228336

  20. Sr-Isotope record of Quaternary marine terraces on the California coast and off Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Moore, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Strontium-isotopic ratios of dated corals have been obtained from submerged reefs formed during Quaternary glacial periods off the Hawaiian islands. These data, combined with data from deep-sea sediments, tightly constrain the secular variation of marine 87Sr 86Sr for the past 800,000 yr. Although long-term trends are apparent, no significant (>0.02???), rapid (<100,000 yr) excursions in 87Sr 86Sr were resolved nor did we observe any samples with 87Sr 86Sr greater than that of modern seawater. Strontium in mollusks from elevated marine terraces formed during interglacial periods on the southern California coast show resolvable and consistent variations in 87Sr 86Sr which, when compared to the trend of Quaternary marine 87Sr 86Sr, can be used to infer uplift rates and define approximate ages for the higher terraces. The Sr-isotope age estimates indicate that uplift rates vary among crustal blocks and were not necessarily constant with time. No contrast in Sr-isotopic ratios between similar-age Hawaiian and California fossils was observed, confirming that any change in marine 87Sr 86Sr from glacial to interglacial periods must be small. A realistic appraisal of the potential of Sr-isotope stratigraphy for chronometric applications in the Quaternary suggests that the technique will be limited to relatively coarse distinctions in age. ?? 1992.

  1. Heating rate effect on the evolution of texture in (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 Ag-sheathed tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.C.; Raittila, J.; Xu, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Bi2223/Ag tapes have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique. The evolution of texture during the first heat treatment has been studied by means of in situ synchrotron radiation diffraction. Using various heating rates (1, 2 and 4 degrees C min(-1)), it wag found that the kinetics of prefer......Bi2223/Ag tapes have been produced by the powder-in-tube technique. The evolution of texture during the first heat treatment has been studied by means of in situ synchrotron radiation diffraction. Using various heating rates (1, 2 and 4 degrees C min(-1)), it wag found that the kinetics...... in a faster disappearance of the Bi2212 phase, which in turn is supposed to induce a faster rate of liquid phase formation at the beginning of the reaction process leading to the development of the Bi2223 phase. This feature is also believed to play a role in the texturing kinetics....

  2. A wearable multisensing patch for continuous sweat monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasova, Salzitsa; Crewther, Blair; Bembnowicz, Pawel; Curto, Vincenzo; Ip, Henry Md; Rosa, Bruno; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2017-07-15

    In sport, exercise and healthcare settings, there is a need for continuous, non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers to assess human performance, health and wellbeing. Here we report the development of a flexible microfluidic platform with fully integrated sensing for on-body testing of human sweat. The system can simultaneously and selectively measure metabolite (e.g. lactate) and electrolytes (e.g. pH, sodium) together with temperature sensing for internal calibration. The construction of the platform is designed such that continuous flow of sweat can pass through an array of flexible microneedle type of sensors (50µm diameter) incorporated in a microfluidic channel. Potentiometric sodium ion sensors were developed using a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) functional membrane deposited on an electrochemically deposited internal layer of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer. The pH sensing layer is based on a highly sensitive membrane of iridium oxide (IrOx). The amperometric-based lactate sensor consists of doped enzymes deposited on top of a semipermeable copolymer membrane and outer polyurethane layers. Real-time data were collected from human subjects during cycle ergometry and treadmill running. A detailed comparison of sodium, lactate and cortisol from saliva is reported, demonstrating the potential of the multi-sensing platform for tracking these outcomes. In summary, a fully integrated sensor for continuous, simultaneous and selective measurement of sweat metabolites, electrolytes and temperature was achieved using a flexible microfluidic platform. This system can also transmit information wirelessly for ease of collection and storage, with the potential for real-time data analytics. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Towards Addressing the Body Electrolyte Environment via Sweat Analysis:Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Supports Assessment of Plasma Potassium Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairo, Donato; Bruzzese, Laurie; Marlinge, Marion; Fuster, Lea; Adjriou, Nabil; Kipson, Nathalie; Brunet, Philippe; Cautela, Jennifer; Jammes, Yves; Mottola, Giovanna; Burtey, Stephane; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Regis; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2017-09-18

    Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat produced following cycling exercise or pilocarpine iontophoresis, a condition compatible with operating a wearable device. We found no correlation between plasma and sweat parameters when exercise-induced sweat was analyzed, and we could identify a correlation only between plasma and sweat potassium concentration (R = 0.78, p sweat was induced using pilocarpine iontophoresis. We tested measurement repeatability in sweat at 24hr-interval for 3 days in 4 subjects and found a great intra-individual variability regarding all parameters in exercise-induced sweat whereas similar electrolyte levels were measured in pilocarpine-induced sweat. Thus, electrolyte concentration in sweat sampled following physical activity does not reflect concentration in plasma while pilocarpine iontophoresis appears to be promising to reproducibly address sweat electrolytes, and to make an indirect evaluation of plasma potassium concentration in chronic kidney disease and arrhythmia.

  4. Fungal protein MGL_1304 in sweat is an allergen for atopic dermatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiragun, Takaaki; Ishii, Kaori; Hiragun, Makiko; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kan, Takanobu; Mihara, Shoji; Yanase, Yuhki; Bartels, Joachim; Schröder, Jens-M; Hide, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Sweat is a major aggravating factor of atopic dermatitis (AD) and approximately 80% of patients with AD show type I hypersensitivity against sweat. To identify and characterize an antigen in sweat that induces histamine release from basophils of patients with AD. Basophil histamine-releasing activity in sweat was purified by a combination of chromatographies, and proteins were analyzed with mass spectrometry. Recombinant proteins of the sweat antigen were generated, and their biological characteristics were studied by immunoblots, histamine release tests, and neutralization assays. We identified a fungal protein, MGL_1304, derived from Malassezia globosa (M globosa) in the purified sweat antigen. Recombinant MGL_1304 induced histamine release from basophils of most of the patients with AD, in accordance with the semi-purified sweat antigen. Moreover, recombinant MGL_1304 abolished the binding of serum IgE of patients with AD to the semi-purified sweat antigen, or vice versa in immunoblot analysis, and attenuated the sensitization of RBL-48 mast cells expressing human FcɛRI by serum IgE. Studies of truncated mutants of MGL_1304 indicated that IgE of patients with AD recognized the conformational structure of MGL_1304 rather than short peptide sequences. Western blot analysis of the whole lysate, the culture supernatant of M globosa, and the semi-purified sweat antigen showed that MGL_1304 was produced as a minor immunological antigen of M globosa with posttranslational modification, cleaved, and secreted as a 17-kDa major histamine-releasing sweat antigen. MGL_1304 is a major allergen in human sweat and could cause type I allergy in patients with AD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluating performance in sweat testing in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralica, Merica; Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2017-02-15

    Sweat test has a diagnostic role in evaluation of cystic fibrosis. Its performance includes sweat stimulation, collection and analysis. All listed may be sources of inconsistencies in everyday practice. The aim of this study was an evaluation of external quality assessment (EQA) of sweat chloride measurement including sweat test performance in medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia. EQA for sweat chloride measurement was provided by Croatian Centre for Quality Assessment in Laboratory Medicine (CROQALM) in five consecutive exercises to medical biochemistry laboratories (MBL) that offered sweat testing. A questionnaire regarding all phases of testing was mailed to involved MBL (N = 10). Survey results were compared to current guidelines for sweat test performance. Reported results of EQA in 2015 exercises showed coefficients of variation (CV) from 28.9%, 29.0% to 35.3%, respectively. An introduction of uniform sweat chloride measurement protocol resulted in CV of 15.5% and 14.7% reported in following two exercises in 2016. All MBL included in this study replied to the questionnaire. Results reported by MBL indicated: lack of patient information policy (7/10), use of unacceptable electrodes (6/9), misuse of minimum of acceptable sweat weight (6/9), lack of internal quality assessment (5/9) and recommended reference ranges (5/9 and 4/9). Agreements to guidelines were found in approach to unsuitable patients (9/10) and sweat collection (8/9). Presented results indicate major weak points of current practice in sweat test performance in Croatian MBL and stress the need for its standardization on a national level.

  6. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

    OpenAIRE

    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was don...

  7. Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstan, R. H.; Sparkes, D. L.; Dascombe, B. J.; Stevens, C. J.; Murphy, G. R.; Macdonald, M. M.; Gottfries, J.; Gottfries, C.-G.; Roberts, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin?s natural moisturising factors and has been termed ?faux? sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n?=?47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat ...

  8. Reaction rate prediction in the supercritical region of H · + OH{sup -} → e{sup -}{sub aq} + H{sub 2}O using μSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, T., E-mail: tdu@mta.ca [Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB (Canada); Liu, G., E-mail: gliu@mta.ca [Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB (Canada); Beninger, J., E-mail: jgbeninger@mta.ca [Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB (Canada); Ghandi, K., E-mail: kghandi@mta.ca [Mount Allison University, Sackville, NB (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of reaction rates in the supercritical region for reactions caused by the radiolysis of water is needed to prevent damage to future Supercritical Water-Cooled reactors. In particular, the H · + OH{sup -} → e{sup -}{sub aq} + H{sub 2}O reaction is examined experimentally within the supercritical region by usage of muon spin rotation spectroscopy. Using the obtained data and the 'cage effect' theory, the reaction was modelled and plateau-like behaviour near the critical point was accounted for. (author)

  9. Sweat : Materiality and Fluidity of Perspiration in in Eighteenth-Century Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    How can a bodily excretion like sweat, often accompanied with a stench or associated with anxiety and distress, enrich our view of the history of science? This paper argues that following the fluid and flow of sweat has in fact particular advantages, because it provides a unique perspective by

  10. Lactate and ammonia concentration in blood and sweat during incremental cycle ergometer exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, W; Huizenga, [No Value; Mook, GA; Gips, CH; Verkerke, GJ

    It is known that the concentrations of ammonia and lactate in blood increase during incremental exercise. Sweat also contains lactate and ammonia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological response of lactate and ammonia in plasma and sweat during a stepwise incremental cycle

  11. Relationship between sweat chloride, sodium, and age in clinically obtained samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Nadav; Shi, Qiuhu; Dozor, Allen J

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between sweat electrolytes and age is uncertain, as is the value of measuring sodium or the chloride:sodium ratio. 13,785 sweat tests performed over 23 years at one center through the Macroduct collection in clinically obtained samples were analyzed. Sweat chloride tended to decrease over the first year of life, slowly increase until the fourth decade, then either level off or slightly decrease. In children, sweat sodium overlapped between those with positive and negative sweat tests, but not in adults. If the sweat test was positive, there was a higher likelihood of having a chloride:sodium ratio >1, but most subjects with a ratio >1 did not have CF. Sweat chloride and sodium vary with age. Measurement of sweat sodium did not add discriminatory value. The proportion of subjects with a chloride:sodium ratio >1, with or without CF, varied greatly between age ranges. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  13. A Simple and Valid Method to Determine Thermoregulatory Sweating Threshold and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    therefore, preferred for sweating threshold temperature and sensitivity analysis (32). Volunteers spit into a cup during data collection to avoid spurious...MA, Stephenson LA. Control of sweating during the human menstrual cycle. Eur J Appl Physiol 58: 890–895, 1989. 21. Kondo N, Shibasaki M, Aoki K, Koga

  14. Biological Variation of Chloride and Sodium in Sweat Obtained by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis in Adults: How Sure are You About Sweat Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Philippe; Weekx, Steven; Meskal, Anissa; Schouwers, Sofie

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat is an important test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of this study was to assess the analytical variation (CV A ) and within-subject (CV I ) and between-subject (CV G ) biological variation of chloride and sodium concentrations in sweat, collected by pilocarpine iontophoresis and to determine their effect on the clinical interpretation of sweat test results. Twelve Caucasian adults (six male and six female) without symptoms suggestive for CF and with a mean age of 41 years (range 28-59) were included in the study. At least eight samples of sweat were collected from each individual by pilocarpine iontophoresis. Chloride and sodium concentrations were measured in duplicate for each sample using ion selective electrodes. After the removal of outliers, the CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride and sodium were determined, and their impact on measurement uncertainty and reference change value were calculated. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of chloride in sweat samples were 6.5, 17.7, and 47.2%, respectively. The CV A , CV I , and CV G of sodium sweat samples were 6.0, 17.5, and 42.6%, respectively. Our study indicates that sweat chloride and sodium concentration results must be interpreted with great care. Different components of variation, particularly the biological variations, have a considerable impact on the interpretation of these results. If no pre-analytical, analytical, or post-analytical errors are suspected, repeated sweat testing to confirm first-measurement results might not be desirable.

  15. Immunological multimetal deposition for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayun; Xu, Linru; Zhu, Yu; Wei, Qianhui; Zhang, Meiqin; Su, Bin

    2014-11-10

    A simple method termed immunological multimetal deposition (iMMD) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints with bare eyes, by combining the conventional MMD with the immunoassay technique. In this approach, antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to specifically interact with the corresponding antigens in the fingerprint residue. The AuNPs serve as the nucleation sites for autometallographic deposition of silver particles from the silver staining solution, generating a dark ridge pattern for visual detection. Using fingerprints inked with human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), we obtained the optimal formulation of iMMD, which was then successfully applied to visualize sweat fingerprints through the detection of two secreted polypeptides, epidermal growth factor and lysozyme. In comparison with the conventional MMD, iMMD is faster and can provide additional information than just identification. Moreover, iMMD is facile and does not need expensive instruments. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Proteomic and peptidomic analysis of human sweat with emphasis on proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yijing; Prassas, Ioannis; Muytjens, Carla M J; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2017-02-23

    Sweat is produced by eccrine and apocrine glands and represents a biological fluid with established roles in thermo-regulation and host infection defense. The composition of sweat is highly dynamic and alters significantly in various skin and other disorders. Therefore, in-depth profiling of sweat protein composition is expected to augment our understanding of the pathobiology of several skin diseases and may lead to the identification of useful sweat-based disease biomarkers. We here reported an in-depth analysis of the human sweat proteome and peptidome. Sweat was collected from healthy males and healthy females of ages 20-60years, following strenuous exercise. Two sweat pools were prepared (1 for males and 1 for females) and were subjected to sample preparation for mass spectrometric analysis. We identified a total of 861 unique proteins during our proteomic analysis and 32,818 endogenous peptides (corresponding to additional 1067 proteins) from our peptidomics workflow. As expected, the human skin was identified as the most abundant source of sweat proteins and peptides. Several skin proteases and protease inhibitors were identified in human sweat, highlighting the intense proteolytic activity of human skin. The presence of several antimicrobial peptides supports the functional roles of sweat in host defense and innate immunity. Sweat is a skin-associated biological fluid, secreted by eccrine and apocrine glands, with essential function in body thermo-regulation and host infection defense. In the present study, we performed in-depth profiling of both sweat proteome and peptidome composition. Our data provide the most in-depth characterization of the skin's catalytic network present in sweat. For the first time, we brought to light novel peptides in human sweat that potentially have antimicrobial activity, which highlight the important role of this fluid in innate immunity. All these findings allow us to have a better understanding of the complex web of

  17. Towards Addressing the Body Electrolyte Environment via Sweat Analysis:Pilocarpine Iontophoresis Supports Assessment of Plasma Potassium Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Vairo, Donato; Bruzzese, Laurie; Marlinge, Marion; Fuster, Lea; Adjriou, Nabil; Kipson, Nathalie; Brunet, Philippe; Cautela, Jennifer; Jammes, Yves; Mottola, Giovanna; Burtey, Stephane; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Regis; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Electrolyte concentration in sweat depends on environmental context and physical condition but also on the pathophysiological status. Sweat analyzers may be therefore the future way for biological survey although how sweat electrolyte composition can reflect plasma composition remains unclear. We recruited 10 healthy subjects and 6 patients to have a broad range of plasma electrolyte concentrations (chloride, potassium and sodium) and pH. These variables were compared to those found in sweat ...

  18. 87Sr/ 86Sr, 143Nd/ 144Nd and REEs in Silurian phosphatic fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, C. J.; Elderfield, H.; Aldridge, R. J.; Conway Morris, S.

    1992-09-01

    The feasibility of using the chemistry of phosphatic fossil material to trace palaeo-seawater composition for the Silurian has been evaluated. Contrary to Recent material, fossil fish are shown to be unreliable for Sr isotope stratigraphy. Conodonts, however, may be used by employing 0.2M HNO 3 dissolution, except for samples showing degrees of thermal maturation greater than colour alteration index (CAI) values of 2.5. Samples from the same stratigraphic levels from the U.K., Czechoslovakia, Gotland and the U.S.A. gave similar 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, suggesting that they have recorded the original seawater value. Significant inter-specific differences occur in REE concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions of conodont elements, and Ce and Eu anomalies vary with REE content. This suggests that artefacts are introduced at the same time that large amounts of REEs are incorporated into the apatite. Preliminary results for the Sr isotopic composition of Silurian seawater are presented. Values are generally lower than previously suggested, showing an increase in 87Sr/ 86Sr from ˜ 0.70825 at 435 Ma rising to ˜ 0.70875 at 418 Ma and levelling off in the Late Silurian. The overall rate of increase in seawater ratio is about2-3 × 10 -5 Ma -1 and can be accounted for by the widespread decrease in volcanism compared with the Ordovician; a proportionally greater flux of Sr to the oceans from continental erosion of only ˜ 10% would account for the long-term increase in seawater 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio throughout the Silurian.

  19. Acute effects of dehydration on sweat composition in men during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M; Patterson, M J; Nimmo, M A

    2004-09-01

    To determine whether acute exercise-heat-induced dehydration affects sweat composition, eight males cycled for 2 h at 39.5 +/- 1.6% VO2peak on two separate occasions in a hot-humid environment (38.0 +/- 0.0 degrees C, 60.0 +/- 0.1% relative humidity). During exercise, subjects ingested either no fluid (dehydration) or a 20 mmol L(-1) sodium chloride solution (euhydration). The volume of solution, calculated from whole-body sweat loss and determined in a familiarization trial, was ingested at 0 min and every 15 min thereafter. Venous blood was collected at 0, 60 and 120 min of exercise and sweat was aspirated from a patch located on the dominant forearm at 120 min. Following the 2-h cycling exercise, sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] was greater (P sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] which was potentially related to greater extracellular fluid [Na+], plasma aldosterone or sympathetic nervous activity.

  20. Attitudes about Advances in Sweat Patch Testing in Drug Courts: Insights from a Case Study in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Drug courts are reinventing the drug testing framework by experimenting with new methods, including use of the sweat patch. The sweat patch is a band-aid like strip used to monitor drug court participants. The validity and reliability of the sweat patch as an effective testing method was examined, as well as the effectiveness, meaning how likely…

  1. The roles of KCa, KATP, and KV channels in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jeffrey C; Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-05-01

    We recently showed the varying roles of Ca(2+)-activated (KCa), ATP-sensitive (KATP), and voltage-gated (KV) K(+) channels in regulating cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in normothermic conditions. However, it is unclear whether the respective contributions of these K(+) channels remain intact during dynamic exercise in the heat. Eleven young (23 ± 4 yr) men completed a 30-min exercise bout at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) followed by a 40-min recovery period in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and local sweat rate were assessed at four forearm skin sites perfused via intradermal microdialysis with: 1) lactated Ringer solution (control); 2) 50 mM tetraethylammonium (nonspecific KCa channel blocker); 3) 5 mM glybenclamide (selective KATP channel blocker); or 4) 10 mM 4-aminopyridine (nonspecific KV channel blocker). Responses were compared at baseline and at 10-min intervals during and following exercise. KCa channel inhibition resulted in greater CVC versus control at end exercise (P = 0.04) and 10 and 20 min into recovery (both P exercise (all P ≤ 0.04), and 10 min into recovery (P = 0.02). No differences in CVC were observed with KV channel inhibition during baseline (P = 0.15), exercise (all P ≥ 0.06), or recovery (all P ≥ 0.14). With the exception of KV channel inhibition augmenting sweating during baseline (P = 0.04), responses were similar to control with all K(+) channel blockers during each time period (all P ≥ 0.07). We demonstrated that KCa and KATP channels contribute to the regulation of cutaneous vasodilation during rest and/or exercise and recovery in the heat. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Eccrine Sweat Contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and Activates Epidermal Keratinocytes as a Danger Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiuju; Okazaki, Hidenori; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Murakami, Masamoto; Tohyama, Mikiko; Shirakata, Yuji; Sayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal. PMID:23874436

  3. Eccrine sweat contains IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-31 and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuju Dai

    Full Text Available Eccrine sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and is not harmful to normal skin, but can exacerbate eczematous lesions in atopic dermatitis. Although eccrine sweat contains a number of minerals, proteins, and proteolytic enzymes, how it causes skin inflammation is not clear. We hypothesized that it stimulates keratinocytes directly, as a danger signal. Eccrine sweat was collected from the arms of healthy volunteers after exercise, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the sweat were quantified by ELISA. We detected the presence of IL-1α, IL-1β, and high levels of IL-31 in sweat samples. To investigate whether sweat activates keratinocytes, normal human keratinocytes were stimulated with concentrated sweat. Western blot analysis demonstrated the activation of NF-κB, ERK, and JNK signaling in sweat-stimulated keratinocytes. Real-time PCR using total RNA and ELISA analysis of supernatants showed the upregulation of IL-8 and IL-1β by sweat. Furthermore, pretreatment with IL-1R antagonist blocked sweat-stimulated cytokine production and signal activation, indicating that bioactive IL-1 is a major factor in the activation of keratinocytes by sweat. Moreover, IL-31 seems to be another sweat stimulator that activates keratinocytes to produce inflammatory cytokine, CCL2. Sweat is secreted onto the skin's surface and does not come into contact with keratinocytes in normal skin. However, in skin with a defective cutaneous barrier, such as atopic dermatitis-affected skin, sweat cytokines can directly act on epidermal keratinocytes, resulting in their activation. In conclusion, eccrine sweat contains proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and IL-31, and activates epidermal keratinocytes as a danger signal.

  4. Sweat gland tumor (Eccrine Porocarcinoma of scalp: A rare tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Roshani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine Porocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm arising from sweat glands. It was first described by Pinkus and Mehregan as ′Epidermotropic eccrine carcinoma′. It may occur de novo or as a malignant transformation of an eccrine poroma. It is commonly found in older age group and in the lower extremities. Clinically, it may present as a verrucous plaque, polypoid growth or an ulcerative lesion of long duration. Local recurrence and metastasis to skin, lymphnodes, viscera, and bone may occur. Treatment is wide local excision. Metastatic lesions can be treated with chemotherapy. We report a case of eccrine porocarcinoma of the scalp in a 50 years old female who presented to us with a bosselated, firm, painless, non-tender, freely mobile swelling over left fronto-parietal region of 12 years duration. It was excised and histopathological diagnosis was Eccrine Porocarcinoma. In literature, scalp porocarcinoma is a very rare tumor.

  5. Sweat: a sample with limited present applications and promising future in metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Bravo, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-01

    Sweat is a biofluid with present scant use as clinical sample. This review tries to demonstrate the advantages of sweat over other biofluids such as blood or urine for routine clinical analyses and the potential when related to metabolomics. With this aim, critical discussion of sweat samplers and equipment for analysis of target compounds in this sample is made. Well established routine analyses in sweat as is that to diagnose cystic fibrosis, and the advantages and disadvantages of sweat versus urine or blood for doping control have also been discussed. Methods for analytes such as essential metals and xenometals, ethanol and electrolytes in sweat in fact constitute target metabolomics approaches or belong to any metabolomics subdiscipline such as metallomics, ionomics or xenometabolomics. The higher development of biomarkers based on genomics or proteomics as omics older than metabolomics is discussed and also the potential role of metabolomics in systems biology taking into account its emergent implementation. Normalization of the volume of sampled sweat constitutes a present unsolved shortcoming that deserves investigation. Foreseeable trends in this area are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Proteomic Analysis of Eccrine Sweat: Implications for the Discovery of Schizophrenia Biomarker Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Michelle M.; Ross, Mark M.; Russo, Paul S.; Schaepper, Mary Ann H.; Zhou, Weidong; Deng, Jianghong; Ng, Daniel; Dickson, April; Dickson, Cindy; Strom, Monica; Osorio, Carolina; Soeprono, Thomas; Wulfkuhle, Julia D.; Kabbani, Nadine; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.; Kirsch, Wolff M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) proteomics analyses were performed on eccrine sweat of healthy controls, and the results were compared with those from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first large scale study of the sweat proteome. First, we performed LC-MS/MS on pooled SZ samples and pooled control samples for global proteomics analysis. Results revealed a high abundance of diverse proteins and peptides in eccrine sweat. Most of the proteins identified from sweat samples were found to be different than the most abundant proteins from serum, which indicates that eccrine sweat is not simply a plasma transudate, and may thereby be a source of unique disease-associated biomolecules. A second independent set of patient and control sweat samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and spectral counting to determine qualitative protein differential abundances between the control and disease groups. Differential abundances of selected proteins, initially determined by spectral counting, were verified by MRM-MS analyses. Seventeen proteins showed a differential abundance of approximately two-fold or greater between the SZ pooled sample and the control pooled sample. This study demonstrates the utility of LC-MS/MS and MRM-MS as a viable strategy for the discovery and verification of potential sweat protein disease biomarkers. PMID:22256890

  7. Effects of stimulation technique, anatomical region, and time on human sweat lipid mediator profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Waller, Justin D; Pedersen, Theresa L; Newman, John W

    2018-01-01

    Few studies compare sampling protocol effect on sweat composition. Here we evaluate the impact of sweat stimulation mode and site of collection on lipid mediator composition. Sweat from healthy males (n=7) was collected weekly for three weeks from the volar forearm following either pilocarpine iontophoresis or exercise, and from the forearm, back and thigh following pilocarpine iontophoresis only. Sweat content of over 150 lipid mediators were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Seventy lipid mediators were routinely detected, including prostanoids, alcohols, diols, epoxides, ketones, nitrolipids, N-acylethanolamides, monoacylglycerols, and ceramides. Detected lipid mediators appeared unaffected by sampling site, though the forearm was the most consistent source of sweat. Pilocarpine-induced sweat showed increased concentrations of most detected compounds. Moreover, lipid mediator concentrations and profiles were temporally stable over the study duration. Sweat therefore appears to be a consistent and anatomically-stable source of lipid mediators, but care must be taken in comparing results obtained from different stimulation techniques. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Cholinergic urticaria successfully treated by immunotherapy with partially purified sweat antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshihiko; Ishii, Kaori; Suzuki, Hidenori; Kameyoshi, Yoshikazu; Hide, Michihiro

    2007-01-01

    A 24-years-old man was referred to our University Hospital because of one and a half-year history of disabling symptoms related to physical exertion. Multiple small round-shaped wheals with severe itch were induced by exercise, warmth and psychological stress. These symptoms were resistant to histamine H1-receptor antagonists. Similar eruptions were induced by sauna-bathing, and skin test with autologous sweat showed a flare and wheal reaction. Incubation of his peripheral-blood leukocytes with partially purified sweat antigen evoked marked histamine release, indicating that he has been IgE-sensitized to an antigen(s) in human sweat. Specific immunotherapy using partially purified sweat antigen was performed every other week. Both pruritus and wheals improved gradually, and the reactivity of his peripheral blood leukocytes against sweat antigen decreased as immunotherapy was proceeded. Specific immunotherapy using sweat antigen may be valuable for patients with cholinergic urticaria with type I hypersensitivity to sweat antigen(s).

  9. SWEAT: Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agten, Dries; Benninga, Harm-Jan; Diaz Schümmer, Carlos; Donnerer, Julia; Fischer, Georg; Henriksen, Marie; Hippert Ferrer, Alexandre; Jamali, Maryam; Marinaci, Stefano; Mould, Toby JD; Phelan, Liam; Rosker, Stephanie; Schrenker, Caroline; Schulze, Kerstin; Emanuel Telo Bordalo Monteiro, Jorge

    2017-04-01

    To study how the water cycle changes over time, satellite and airborne remote sensing missions are typically employed. Over the last 40 years of satellite missions, the measurement of true water inventories stored in sea and land ice within the cryosphere have been significantly hindered by uncertainties introduced by snow cover. Being able to determine the thickness of this snow cover would act to reduce such error, improving current estimations of hydrological and climate models, Earth's energy balance (albedo) calculations and flood predictions. Therefore, the target of the SWEAT (Snow Water Equivalent with AlTimetry) mission is to directly measure the surface Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) on sea and land ice within the polar regions above 60°and below -60° latitude. There are no other satellite missions currently capable of directly measuring SWE. In order to achieve this, the proposed mission will implement a novel combination of Ka- and Ku-band radioaltimeters (active microwave sensors), capable of penetrating into the snow microstructure. The Ka-band altimeter (λ ≈ 0.8 cm) provides a low maximum snow pack penetration depth of up to 20 cm for dry snow at 37 GHz, since the volume scattering of snow dominates over the scattering caused by the underlying ice surface. In contrast, the Ku-band altimeter (λ ≈ 2 cm) provides a high maximum snowpack penetration depth of up to 15 m in high latitudes regions with dry snow, as volume scattering is decreased by a factor of 55. The combined difference in Ka- and Ku-band signal penetration results will provide more accurate and direct determination of SWE. Therefore, the SWEAT mission aims to improve estimations of global SWE interpreted from passive microwave products, and improve the reliability of numerical snow and climate models.

  10. A Preliminary Study of Biomonitoring for Bisphenol-A in Human Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Wilkins, Diana G; Anderson, David J; Bailey, Nicole M; Szczotka, Kathryn M; Stanford, Joseph B

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of human exposure to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A (BPA) is hampered by the ubiquitous but transient exposure for most individuals, coupled with a short metabolic half-life which leads to high inter- and intra-individual variability. We investigated the possibility of measuring multiday exposure to BPA in human sweat among volunteer participants with the goal of identifying an exposure assessment method less affected by temporal variability. We recruited 50 participants to wear a sweat collection patch (PharmChek(®)) for 7 days with concurrent collection of daily first-morning urine. Urines and sweat patch extracts were analyzed with quantitative LC-MS-MS using a method we previously validated. In addition, a human volunteer consumed one can of commercially available soup (16 oz, 473 cm(3)) daily for 3 days and collected urine. Sweat patches (n = 2, 1 per arm) were worn for the 3 days of the study. BPA was detected in quality control specimens prepared by fortification of BPA to sweat patches, but was only detected at 5× above average background on three participant patches. Although the highest measured urine BPA concentration was 195 ng/mL for an individual with deliberate exposure, no BPA was detected above background in the corresponding sweat patches. In this preliminary investigation, the use of sweat patches primarily worn on the upper-outer arm did not detect BPA exposures that were documented by urine monitoring. The absence of BPA in sweat patches may be due to several factors, including insufficient quantity of specimen per patch, or extremely low concentrations of BPA in naturally occurring sweat, among others. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Transition duration of ingested deuterium oxide to eccrine sweat during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Adam; Lee, Fanny; Buono, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The time necessary for the initial appearance of ingested water as sweat during exercise in the heat remains unknown. Based on the current literature, we estimated fluid transition through the body, from ingestion to appearance as sweat, to have a minimum time duration of approximately three minutes. The purpose of this study was to test this prediction and identify the time necessary for the initial enrichment of deuterium oxide (D2O) in sweat following ingestion during exercise in the heat. Eight participants performed moderate intensity (40% of maximal oxygen uptake) treadmill exercise in an environmental chamber (40°C, 40% rH) to induce active sweating. After fifteen minutes, while continuing to walk, participants consumed D2O (0.15mlkg-1) in a final volume of 50ml water. Scapular sweat samples were collected one minute prior to and ten minutes post-ingestion. Samples were analyzed for sweat D2O concentration using isotope ratio mass spectrometry and compared to baseline. Mean±SD ∆ sweat D2O concentration at minutes one and two post-ingestion were not significantly higher than baseline (0min). Minutes three (9±3ppm) through ten (23±11ppm) post-ingestion had ∆ sweat D2O concentrations significantly (P<0.05) higher than baseline. Such results suggest that ingested water rapidly transports across the mucosal membrane of the alimentary canal into the vasculature space, enters the extravascular fluid, and is actively secreted by the eccrine sweat glands onto the surface of the skin for potential evaporation in as little as three minutes during exercise in the heat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Sweat chloride measurement using direct potentiometry: Spotchem(®) (Elitech-Arkray) evaluation and comparison with coulometry and conductivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Borgard, Jean-Pierre; Miled, Ryad; Rota, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Sweat chloride (Cl(-)) measurement is a key step for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The coulometric technique is validated in this context by international guidelines. The aim of our study was to evaluate the assay for sweat Cl(-) ions using direct potentiometry on disposable cassette (Spotchem™ SE EL-1520, Elitech-Arkray) by comparing results to those obtained on the same sample, by coulometry (Chloride analyser Sherwood 926S, Dutscher). To complete our table of correspondence between the results of Cl(-) ions and sweat conductivity (Sweat Check™ 3100), conductivity has been also achieved for 99 of the 139 sweat samples studied. Linearity of each technique performed extends from 10 to 120 mmol/L. The coefficients of variation within and between runs are Sweat Cl(-) determinations using Spotchem™ analyser meet the criteria required by analytical recommendations. The technique is standardized, easy to perform and fast. Its good practicability makes the sweat test independent to operator and allows point-of care use.

  13. The response of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to two components of human sweat, ammonia and L-lactic acid, in an olfactometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braks, M.A.H.; Meijerink, J.; Takken, W.

    2001-01-01

    In an olfactometer study on the response of the anthropophilic malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera, Culicidae) to human sweat it was found that freshly collected sweat, mostly of eccrine origin, was attractive, but that incubated sweat was significantly more attractive than fresh sweat.

  14. Pulsed direct and constant direct currents in the pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Servidoni, Maria de Fatima; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Canavezi, Paulo Jose Coelho; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Pavan, Celia Regina; Rondon, Michelle Vivine Sá Dos Santos; Lorena, Sonia Leticia Silva; Vieria, Francisco Ubaldi; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2014-12-13

    The classic sweat test (CST) is the golden standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Then, our aim was compare the production and volume of sweat, and side effects caused by pulsed direct current (PDC) and constant direct current (CDC). To determine the optimal stimulation time (ST) for the sweat collection. To verify the PDC as CF diagnosis option. Prospective study with cross-sectional experimental intervention. Experiment 1 (right arm): PDC and CDC. ST at 10 min and sweat collected at 30 min. Currents of 0.5; 0.75; 1.0 and 1.5 mA and frequencies of 0, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied. Experiment 2 (left arm): current of 1.0 mA, ST at 5 and 10 min and sweat collected at 15 and 30 min with frequencies of 0; 200; 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied Experiments 1 and 2 were performed with current density (CD) from 0.07 to 0.21 mA/cm2. Experiment 3: PDC was used in typical CF patients with two CFTR mutations screened and or with CF diagnosis by rectal biopsy and patients with atypical CF. 48 subjects (79.16% female) with average of 29.54 ± 8.87 years old were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the interaction of frequency and current in the sweat weight (p = 0.7488). Individually, positive association was achieved between weight sweat and stimulation frequency (p = 0.0088); and current (p = 0.0025). The sweat production was higher for 10 min of stimulation (p = 0.0023). The sweat collection was better for 30 min (p = 0.0019). The skin impedance was not influenced by ST and sweat collection (p > 0.05). The current frequency was inversely associated with the skin impedance (p sweat, without side effects. The optimal stimulation time and sweat collection were, respectively, 10 and 30 min.

  15. Wearable sweat detector device design for health monitoring and clinical diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuchen; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tian, Bihao; Zhang, Hongyan; Yu, Yang; Wang, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Miniaturized sensor is necessary part for wearable detector for biomedical applications. Wearable detector device is indispensable for online health care. This paper presents a concept of an wearable digital health monitoring device design for sweat analysis. The flexible sensor is developed to quantify the amount of hydrogen ions in sweat and skin temperature in real time. The detection system includes pH sensor, temperature sensor, signal processing module, power source, microprocessor, display module and so on. The sweat monitoring device is designed for sport monitoring or clinical diagnosis.

  16. Analysis of methamphetamine in hair, nail, sweat, and saliva by mass fragmentography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Inoue, T; Hori, H; Inayama, S

    1989-01-01

    A method for the detection and quantitation of methamphetamine and its major metabolite in hair, nails, sweat, and saliva from habitual users of methamphetamine by mass fragmentography has been developed. Hair and nail samples were washed with water and methanol to remove the external contamination, processed with 0.6M HCl, alkalinized, and extracted with CHCl3/isopropanol (3:1 v/v). Sweat and saliva samples were extracted with methanol. After trifluoroacetyl derivatization, the samples were analyzed by mass fragmentography. Methamphetamine and its major metabolite, amphetamine, were detected in hair, nail, and sweat samples, but methamphetamine alone was detected in saliva samples.

  17. A case of localized adrenergic urticaria mimicking an allergic reaction to a sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanova, Y; LeGrys, V; Cooper, D; Levy, D; Santora, D; Schwindt, C

    2009-09-01

    Adrenergic urticaria (AU) is a rare type of physical urticaria triggered by stress. It is frequently confused with IgE-mediated urticaria or other physical urticarias. This report describes a case of localized adrenergic urticaria triggered by a sweat chloride test in an adolescent male with multiple atopic disorders. A pruritic papular rash at the site of a sweat chloride test prompted an evaluation for allergic and physical urticarias using multiple skin test methods. A positive intradermal skin test to noradrenaline, which reproduced the rash observed during the sweat test, lead to the diagnosis of adrenergic urticaria. This is the first case report describing an immediate adrenergic urticarial reaction to sweat chloride testing in a patient with other atopic disorders. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Abnormal Axon Reflex-Mediated Sweating Correlates with High State of Anxiety in Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Kijima

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the number of study subjects was little, abnormal AXR sweating in patients with AD was observed. Correlative analysis suggests possible involvement of continuous anxiety and the immune system in such abnormal sudomotor function.

  19. System-level design of an RFID sweat electrolyte sensor patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, M; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh K; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, I; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive RFID sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of mM ionic solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smart-phone app (in-vitro tests).

  20. A new paradigm in sweat based wearable diagnostics biosensors using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs)

    OpenAIRE

    Munje, Rujuta D.; Muthukumar, Sriram; Jagannath, Badrinath; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Successful commercialization of wearable diagnostic sensors necessitates stability in detection of analytes over prolonged and continuous exposure to sweat. Challenges are primarily in ensuring target disease specific small analytes (i.e. metabolites, proteins, etc.) stability in complex sweat buffer with varying pH levels and composition over time. We present a facile approach to address these challenges using RTILs with antibody functionalized sensors on nanoporous, flexible polymer membran...

  1. Sweat composition in Arabian horses performing endurance exercise on forage-based, low Na rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, H S; Nielsen, B D; Schott, H C; Harris, P A

    2010-11-01

    Excessive sweat loss during endurance exercise may lead to electrolyte disturbances and previous research suggests dietary factors may affect hydration status. While investigating the effect of dietary fibre type on hydration status, sweat samples were collected which allowed for the evaluation of sweat composition in horses consuming forage-based, low sodium (Na) rations. To investigate sweat composition in Arabian horses performing endurance type exercise while fed forage-based, rations low in Na. Six 2-year-old Arabian horses were fed, according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square, either grass hay (G), 50:50 grass hay:alfalfa hay (GA), or 50:50 grass hay: chopped fibres (GM) without any additional electrolyte supplementation. After 14 days on each diet, horses performed a 60 km treadmill exercise test. Sweat was collected from sealed pouches on the dorsal thorax after each of four 15 km exercise bouts. Intake (g/day) of Na (2.5 ± 0.4), Cl (72 ± 16), and Mg (18 ± 3) were not different between diets but K and Ca intakes (g/day) were greater (P sweat pH (7.65 ± 0.04) or concentrations (mmol/l) of K (46 ± 3), Cl (133 ± 7), Ca (8.5 ± 1.1), or Mg (2.3 ± 0.3); yet diet did influence sweat Na concentration (P sweat constituents due to diet were observed, but more importantly both Na and Cl concentration are lower than those previously reported perhaps due to low dietary Na intake or breed of animal. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Hydration profile and sweat loss perception of male and female division II basketball players during practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thigpen, Lauren K; Green, James M; OʼNeal, Eric K

    2014-12-01

    Hydration affects multiple aspects of basketball performance, but few investigations have examined the hydration profiles of collegiate basketball players. We examined multiday prepractice hydration status of 11 male and 11 female NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division II basketball players' sweat losses, fluid intake, and how accurately players estimated their sweat losses. Urine-specific gravity (USG) was spontaneously assessed before 2 practices. Sweat losses and fluid intakes were measured during a conditioning practice (CP) and sport-specific practice (SP). After practices, players filled 1,030 ml practice bottles to estimate their sweat losses. Urine-specific gravity between practices exhibited a moderate correlation (r = 0.54; p = 0.012) and were consistently high (17% of samples = USG >1.030) with no difference in mean USG between men (1.026 ± 0.004) and women (1.022 ± 0.008). Athletes' estimations of their sweat loss volumes between CP and the longer SP were strongly correlated (r = 0.88; p < 0.001). Estimation error was high (absolute error for both practices = 71 ± 52%) and error direction varied greatly within men. Women consistently underestimated sweat losses by 63 ± 28% and 65 ± 20% during CP and SP. Sweat losses during SP equaled 2,471 ± 495 ml and 1,910 ± 441 ml for men and women, respectively, but high practice fluid intake limited body mass losses to 1.1 ± 0.6% by the end of practice. It is plausible that hypohydration is related to poor conceptualization of sweat losses. Simulating the methodology of this study could help identify chronically hypohydrated athletes and be used to educate on between-practice fluid needs.

  3. A COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE SWEAT GLAND OF CATTLE (B. INDICUS AND YAK (P. POEPHAGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Das

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yak and cattle are the species of different habitats, but are of the same genus Bos. In order to adapt to different habitats some changes may occur in cellular organizations, sweat gland morphology being one of the part of this cellular organization. The skin samples were collected from six adult nondescript male cattle and yak from five different anatomical regions viz., neck, dewlap, abdomen, back and prepuce. Sweat glands appeared tubular consisting of a secretary coil which was embedded in the dermis in cattle. In yak, the glands were saccular in the neck and dewlap regions and tubular in other regions. The sweat gland number (1729±3.44 in cattle was almost three times higher (P<0.01 than yak (615.82±3.44.Highest number of sweat gland population was found in back (1563.24±5.44 and lowest in abdomen (900.26±5.44 in both the species. Descending order of sweat gland number was detected in dewlap, neck and prepuce respectively in both the species. In cattle the sweat gland diameter was significantly (32.78±0.38 µm higher as compared to yak (27.68±0.38 ìm. The sweat gland number and nuclear diameter in cattle was more than yak. Acidophilic secretory granules of the glands were numerous in the supra-nuclear cytoplasm in case of cattle. These results suggest the hyper activity of sweat gland in controlling the thermo dynamics in cattle as compared to yak.

  4. Wearable Sensor System Powered by a Biofuel Cell for Detection of Lactate Levels in Sweat (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-04

    lactate dehydrogenase; energy harvester (EH); micropotentiostat (MP) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF...Band-Aid like RFID sensor patches and temporary tattoo-based sensors have been developed for electrolyte and lactate sensing in sweat as part of on...2008. ISABEL’08. First International Symposium on. 2008. IEEE. 27. D. P. Rose et al., “Adhesive RFID sensor patch for monitoring of sweat electrolytes

  5. Sixty-five years since the New York heat wave: advances in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Jake T B; Massie, R John; Jones, Oliver A H; LeGrys, Vicky A; Greaves, Ronda F

    2014-02-01

    The sweat test remains important as a diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis (CF) and has contributed greatly to our understanding of CF as a disease of epithelial electrolyte transport. The standardization of the sweat test, by Gibson and Cooke [Gibson and Cooke (1959) Pediatrics 1959;23:5], followed observations of excessive dehydration amongst patients with CF and confirmed the utility as a diagnostic test. Quantitative pilocarpine iontophoresis remains the gold standard for sweat induction, but there are a number of collection and analytical methods. The pathophysiology of electrolyte transport in sweat was described by Quinton [Quinton (1983) Nature 1983;301:421-422], and this complemented the developments in genetics that discovered the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial-based electrolyte transport protein. Knowledge of CF has since increased rapidly and further developments in sweat testing include: new collection methods, further standardization of the technique with international recommendations and age related reference intervals. More recently, sweat chloride values have been used as proof of effect for the new drugs that activate CFTR. However, there remain issues with adherence to sweat test guidelines in many countries and there are gaps in our knowledge, including reference intervals for some age groups and stability of sweat samples in transport. Furthermore, modern methods of elemental quantification need to be explored as alternatives to the original analytical methods for sweat electrolyte measurement. The purpose of this review is therefore to describe the development of the sweat test and consider future directions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) in terrestrial ecological and palaeoecological research: empirical efforts and recent advances in continental-scale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Brooke E; Miller, Joshua H; Bataille, Clément P

    2017-02-01

    Strontium (Sr) isotope analysis can provide detailed biogeographical and ecological information about modern and ancient organisms. Because Sr isotope ratios ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) in biologically relevant materials such as water, soil, vegetation, and animal tissues predominantly reflect local geology, they can be used to distinguish geologically distinct regions as well as identify highly mobile individuals or populations. While the application of Sr isotope analysis to biological research has been steadily increasing, high analytical costs have prohibited more widespread use. Additionally, accessibility of this geochemical tool has been hampered due to limited understanding of (i) the degree to which biologically relevant materials differ in their spatial averaging of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios, and (ii) how these differences may be affected by lithologic complexity. A recently developed continental-scale model that accounts for variability in bedrock weathering rates and predicts Sr isotope ratios of surface water could help resolve these questions. In addition, if this 'local water' model can accurately predict 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for other biologically relevant materials, there would be reduced need for researchers to assess regional Sr isotope patterns empirically. Here, we compile 87 Sr/ 86 Sr data for surface water, soil, vegetation, and mammalian and fish skeletal tissues from the literature and compare the accuracy with which the local water model predicts Sr isotope data among these five materials across the contiguous USA. We find that measured Sr isotope ratios for all five materials are generally close to those predicted by the local water model, although not with uniform accuracy. Mammal skeletal tissues are most accurately predicted, particularly in regions with low variability in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr predicted by the local water model. Increasing regional geologic heterogeneity increases both the offset and variance between modelled and empirical Sr isotope ratios, but

  7. Association between pulse wave velocity and hot flashes/sweats in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruwei; Zhou, Yang; Li, Changbin; Tao, Minfang

    2017-10-23

    As women age and go through menopause, they suffer a higher incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that a relationship exists between hot flashes/sweats and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association between hot flashes/sweats and arterial stiffness is unclear. We aim to explore the relationship between hot flashes/sweats and arterial stiffness using the modified Kupperman index (KMI) questionnaire and measure the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). The prevalence of hot flashes in our research was reported to be 41.77%. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean baPWV among groups that experienced different severities of hot flashes/sweats according to one-way ANOVA test (p hot flashes/sweats based on linear regression after adjusting for established cardiovascular confounders (95% CI: (5.86, 43.23), p = 0.01). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation to propose that baPWV may serve both as an objective index for evaluating the severity of hot flashes/sweats and as a predictor of arterial stiffness beyond Cardiac Vascular Disease (CVD) risk factors in middle-aged women.

  8. Noninvasive monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations using sweat samples in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Makoto; Hirayama, Masaaki; Tsuda, Takao; Ohno, Kinji

    2015-03-10

    L-dopa (l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) is commonly used for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). However, regardless of its prominent effect, therapeutic range of L-dopa narrows down with disease progression, which leads to development of motor complications including wearing off and dyskinesias. In addition, intestinal absorption of L-dopa is inversely correlated with the amount of oral protein intake, and shows intra- and inter-day variability. Hence, frequent monitoring of plasma L-dopa concentrations is beneficial, but frequent venipuncture imposes physical and psychological burdens on patients with PD. We investigated the usefulness of sweat samples instead of plasma samples for monitoring L-dopa concentrations. With a monolithic silica disk-packed spin column and the high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection system, L-dopa in sweat samples was successfully quantified and analyzed in 23 PD patients. We found that the Pearson's correlation coefficient of the plasma and sweat l-dopa concentrations was 0.678. Although the disease durations and severities were not correlated with the deviation of the actual sweat L-dopa concentrations from the fitted line, acquisition of the sweat samples under a stable condition was technically difficult in severely affected patients. The deviations may also be partly accounted for by skin permeability of L-dopa. Measuring L-dopa concentrations in sweat is suitable to get further insights into the L-dopa metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device with multistage transdermal drug delivery module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjae; Song, Changyeong; Hong, Yong Seok; Kim, Min Sung; Cho, Hye Rim; Kang, Taegyu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Choi, Seung Hong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis of sweat using soft bioelectronics on human skin provides a new route for noninvasive glucose monitoring without painful blood collection. However, sweat-based glucose sensing still faces many challenges, such as difficulty in sweat collection, activity variation of glucose oxidase due to lactic acid secretion and ambient temperature changes, and delamination of the enzyme when exposed to mechanical friction and skin deformation. Precise point-of-care therapy in response to the measured glucose levels is still very challenging. We present a wearable/disposable sweat-based glucose monitoring device integrated with a feedback transdermal drug delivery module. Careful multilayer patch design and miniaturization of sensors increase the efficiency of the sweat collection and sensing process. Multimodal glucose sensing, as well as its real-time correction based on pH, temperature, and humidity measurements, maximizes the accuracy of the sensing. The minimal layout design of the same sensors also enables a strip-type disposable device. Drugs for the feedback transdermal therapy are loaded on two different temperature-responsive phase change nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are embedded in hyaluronic acid hydrogel microneedles, which are additionally coated with phase change materials. This enables multistage, spatially patterned, and precisely controlled drug release in response to the patient’s glucose level. The system provides a novel closed-loop solution for the noninvasive sweat-based management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:28345030

  10. Sweat lipid mediator profiling: a noninvasive approach for cutaneous research[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Lauren A.; Foolad, Negar; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Sivamani, Raja K.; Newman, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical and sweat collection techniques provide new opportunities to identify noninvasive biomarkers for the study of skin inflammation and repair. This study aims to characterize the lipid mediator profile including oxygenated lipids, endocannabinoids, and ceramides/sphingoid bases in sweat and identify differences in these profiles between sweat collected from nonlesional sites on the unflared volar forearm of subjects with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Adapting routine procedures developed for plasma analysis, over 100 lipid mediators were profiled using LC-MS/MS and 58 lipid mediators were detected in sweat. Lipid mediator concentrations were not affected by sampling or storage conditions. Increases in concentrations of C30–C40 [NS] and [NdS] ceramides, and C18:1 sphingosine, were observed in the sweat of study participants with AD despite no differences being observed in transepidermal water loss between study groups, and this effect was strongest in men (P Sweat mediator profiling may therefore provide a noninvasive diagnostic for AD prior to the presentation of clinical signs. PMID:27875258

  11. Lack of harmonization in sweat testing for cystic fibrosis - a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Anne Lindegaard; Nybo, Mads

    2014-11-01

    Sweat testing is used in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Interpretation of the sweat test depends, however, on the method performed since conductivity, osmolality and chloride concentration all can be measured as part of a sweat test. The aim of this study was to investigate how performance of the test is organized in Denmark. Departments conducting the sweat test were contacted and interviewed following a premade questionnaire. They were asked about methods performed, applied NPU (Nomenclature for Properties and Units) code, reference interval, recommended interpretation and referred literature. 14 departments performed the sweat test. One department measured chloride and sodium concentration, while 13 departments measured conductivity. One department used a non-existing NPU code, two departments applied NPU codes inconsistent with the method performed, four departments applied no NPU code and seven applied a correct NPU code. Ten of the departments measuring conductivity applied reference intervals. Nine departments measuring conductivity had recommendations of a normal area, a grey zone and a pathological value, while four departments only applied a normal and grey zone or a pathological value. Cut-off values for normal, grey and pathological areas were like the reference intervals inconsistent. There is inconsistent use of NPU codes, reference intervals and interpretation of sweat conductivity used in the process of diagnosing cystic fibrosis. Because diagnosing cystic fibrosis is a combined effort between local pediatric departments, biochemical and genetic departments and cystic fibrosis centers, a national harmonization is necessary to assure correct clinical use.

  12. Stretchable, wireless sensors and functional substrates for epidermal characterization of sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Liu, Yuhao; Chen, Kaile; Shin, Woo-Jung; Lu, Ching-Jui; Kong, Gil-Woo; Patnaik, Dwipayan; Lee, Sang-Heon; Cortes, Jonathan Fajardo; Rogers, John A

    2014-08-13

    This paper introduces materials and architectures for ultrathin, stretchable wireless sensors that mount on functional elastomeric substrates for epidermal analysis of biofluids. Measurement of the volume and chemical properties of sweat via dielectric detection and colorimetry demonstrates some capabilities. Here, inductively coupled sensors consisting of LC resonators with capacitive electrodes show systematic responses to sweat collected in microporous substrates. Interrogation occurs through external coils placed in physical proximity to the devices. The substrates allow spontaneous sweat collection through capillary forces, without the need for complex microfluidic handling systems. Furthermore, colorimetric measurement modes are possible in the same system by introducing indicator compounds into the depths of the substrates, for sensing specific components (OH(-) , H(+) , Cu(+) , and Fe(2+) ) in the sweat. The complete devices offer Young's moduli that are similar to skin, thus allowing highly effective and reliable skin integration without external fixtures. Experimental results demonstrate volumetric measurement of sweat with an accuracy of 0.06 μL/mm(2) with good stability and low drift. Colorimetric responses to pH and concentrations of various ions provide capabilities relevant to analysis of sweat. Similar materials and device designs can be used in monitoring other body fluids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Higher sweat chloride levels in patients with asthma: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shally; Dixit, Pratibha; Maurya, Nutan

    2015-02-01

    To screen asthmatic patients by sweat chloride test to identify proportion with Cystic Fibrosis (CF); (Sweat chloride level >60 mmol/L). Also, to compare sweat chloride levels between cases of bronchial asthma and age and sex matched healthy children aged 5 mo-15 y. The present case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in India. Cases of bronchial asthma, diagnosed by GINA guideline 2008, and age matched healthy controls were included. Case to control ratio was 2:1. Sweat Chloride test was done by Pilocarpine Iontophoresis method. From April 2010 through May 2012, 216 asthmatics and 112 controls were recruited. Among asthmatics, there was no case of Cystic Fibrosis. Mean sweat chloride levels in asthmatics was 22.39 ± 8.45 mmol/L (inter-quartile range - 15-28 mmol/L) and in controls 19.55 ± 7.04 mmol/L (inter-quartile range - 15-23.5 mmol/L) (p value = 0.048). No Cystic Fibrosis case was identified among asthmatics. Mean sweat chloride levels were higher in asthmatics as compared to controls.

  14. A new paradigm in sweat based wearable diagnostics biosensors using Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munje, Rujuta D; Muthukumar, Sriram; Jagannath, Badrinath; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-05-16

    Successful commercialization of wearable diagnostic sensors necessitates stability in detection of analytes over prolonged and continuous exposure to sweat. Challenges are primarily in ensuring target disease specific small analytes (i.e. metabolites, proteins, etc.) stability in complex sweat buffer with varying pH levels and composition over time. We present a facile approach to address these challenges using RTILs with antibody functionalized sensors on nanoporous, flexible polymer membranes. Temporal studies were performed using both infrared spectroscopic, dynamic light scattering, and impedimetric spectroscopy to demonstrate stability in detection of analytes, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Cortisol, from human sweat in RTILs. Temporal stability in sensor performance was performed as follows: (a) detection of target analytes after 0, 24, 48, 96, and 168 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization; and (b) continuous detection of target analytes post-antibody sensor functionalization. Limit of detection of IL-6 in human sweat was 0.2 pg/mL for 0-24 hours and 2 pg/mL for 24-48 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization. Continuous detection of IL-6 over 0.2-200 pg/mL in human sweat was demonstrated for a period of 10 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization. Furthermore, combinatorial detection of IL-6 and Cortisol in human sweat was established with minimal cross-talk for 0-48 hours post-antibody sensor functionalization.

  15. Normative data on regional sweat-sodium concentrations of professional male team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Tiller, Nicholas B; Ramchandani, Girish; Jutley, Raj; Blow, Andrew; Tye, Jonny; Drury, Ben

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report normative data on regional sweat sweat-sodium concentrations of various professional male team-sport athletes, and to compare sweat-sodium concentrations among sports. Data to this effect would inform our understanding of athlete sodium requirements, thus allowing for the individualisation of sodium replacement strategies. Accordingly, data from 696 athletes (Soccer, n = 270; Rugby, n = 181; Baseball, n = 133; American Football, n = 60; Basketball, n = 52) were compiled for a retrospective analysis. Regional sweat-sodium concentrations were collected using the pilocarpine iontophoresis method, and compared to self-reported measures collected via questionnaire. Sweat-sodium concentrations were significantly higher (p sports. There were strong positive correlations between sweat-sodium concentrations and self-reported sodium losses in American football (rs = 0.962, p sports science/medicine practitioners in generating bespoke hydration and electrolyte-replacement strategies to meet the sodium demands of professional team-sport athletes. Moreover, these novel data suggest that self-reported measures of sodium loss might serve as an effective surrogate in the absence of direct measures; i.e., those which are more expensive or non-readily available.

  16. 87 Sr/86 Sr anomalies in Late Cretaceous–Early Tertiary strata of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sr anomalies in Late Cretaceous–Early Tertiary strata of the Cauvery basin, south India: Constraints on nature and rate of environmental changes across K–T boundary. Mu Ramkumar Doris Stüben Zsolt Berner Jens Schneider. Volume 119 ...

  17. New functions and applications of walter, the sweating fabric manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jintu; Qian, Xiaoming

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, latest developments on Walter, a sweating fabric manikin, are reported. These include the improved simulation of "walking motion", the design and construction of an automated water supply, and real-time measurement of evaporative water loss and regulation of "skin" temperature through the regulation of the pumps inside the manikin body. Testing of commercial garment ensembles showed that the measurement of thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance of clothing is very reproducible with the coefficient of variation being generally less than 5%. It was also shown that, in addition to the thermal insulation and moisture-vapour resistance, the percentage of moisture accumulation within clothing is a very useful parameter of clothing comfort. The improved manikin has been used to investigate the effects of walking motion on thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of clothing. The trend of the effects of walking speed up to 1.13 m s(-1) for the nude manikin and when it was wearing garments of different sizes are reported.

  18. Corrosion Performance of Cu-Based Coins in Artificial Sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Porcayo-Calderon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of different Cu-based coins in artificial sweat was evaluated. The electrochemical behavior of the coins was determined by potentiodynamic polarization curves, linear polarization resistance, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Regardless of the chemical composition of the Cu-based coins, they showed similar polarization curves; particularly, the observed similarity in the anodic zone suggests that the corrosion mechanism is the same in all cases. The presence of Ni and Zn does not appreciably affect the corrosion resistance of Cu. However, the presence of both elements affects the corrosion resistance of Cu. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed the presence of three time constants with very similar characteristics, again indicating that the main corrosion mechanism is the same in all cases. Equivalent circuits confirmed that the corrosion performance of the Ni-Zn-Cu coins depends on the Zn/Ni ratio, such that decreasing this value decreases the corrosion resistance of the alloy. In general, nickel has a detrimental effect due to the formation of highly soluble Ni-based corrosion products.

  19. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, R Hugh; Sparkes, Diane L; Dascombe, Benjamin J; Macdonald, Margaret M; Evans, Craig A; Stevens, Christopher J; Crompton, Marcus J; Gottfries, Johan; Franks, Jesse; Murphy, Grace; Wood, Ryan; Roberts, Timothy K

    2016-01-01

    Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF) produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32-34°C and 20-30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as "faux" sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine, serine, glycine

  20. Sweat Facilitated Amino Acid Losses in Male Athletes during Exercise at 32-34°C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Hugh Dunstan

    Full Text Available Sweat contains amino acids and electrolytes derived from plasma and athletes can lose 1-2L of sweat per hour during exercise. Sweat may also contain contributions of amino acids as well as urea, sodium and potassium from the natural moisturizing factors (NMF produced in the stratum corneum. In preliminary experiments, one participant was tested on three separate occasions to compare sweat composition with surface water washings from the same area of skin to assess contributions from NMF. Two participants performed a 40 minute self-paced cycle session with sweat collected from cleansed skin at regular intervals to assess the contributions to the sweat load from NMF over the period of exercise. The main study investigated sweat amino acid composition collected from nineteen male athletes following standardised endurance exercise regimes at 32-34°C and 20-30% RH. Plasma was also collected from ten of the athletes to compare sweat and plasma composition of amino acids. The amino acid profiles of the skin washings were similar to the sweat, suggesting that the NMF could contribute certain amino acids into sweat. Since the sweat collected from athletes contained some amino acid contributions from the skin, this fluid was subsequently referred to as "faux" sweat. Samples taken over 40 minutes of exercise showed that these contributions diminished over time and were minimal at 35 minutes. In the main study, the faux sweat samples collected from the athletes with minimal NMF contributions, were characterised by relatively high levels of serine, histidine, ornithine, glycine and alanine compared with the corresponding levels measured in the plasma. Aspartic acid was detected in faux sweat but not in the plasma. Glutamine and proline were lower in the faux sweat than plasma in all the athletes. Three phenotypic groups of athletes were defined based on faux sweat volumes and composition profiles of amino acids with varying relative abundances of histidine

  1. Variability of sweat chloride concentration in subjects with cystic fibrosis and G551D mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, F; Le Camus, C; Davies, J C; Bilton, D; Milenković, D; De Boeck, K

    2017-01-01

    Sweat chloride concentration, a biomarker of CFTR function, is an appropriate outcome parameter in clinical trials aimed at correcting the basic CF defect. Although there is consensus on a cut-off value to diagnose CF, we have only limited information on the within subject variability of sweat chloride over time. Such information would be useful for sample size calculations in clinical trials. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed repeated sweat chloride values obtained in patients with G551D mutation(s) assigned to placebo in an ivacaftor interventional trial. In subjects with G551D at least 12years of age, a pilocarpine sweat test using Macroduct collector was taken on both arms at 8 time points over 48weeks. We explored 1062 pilocarpine sweat test values obtained in 78 placebo patients of the VX08-770-102 trial. Mean overall sweat chloride value (all patients, all tests, n=1062) was 100.8mmol/L (SD 12.7mmol/L). Using a multilevel mixed model, the between-subject standard deviation (SD) for sweat chloride was 8.9mmol/L (95% CI 7.4-10.6) and within-subject SD was 8.1mmol/L (95% CI 7.5-8.7). Limits of repeatability for repeat measurements were -19.7 to +21.6mmol/L using values from one arm, and -13.3 to 11.8mmol/L using mean of values obtained at 4 test occasions. Sample size calculations showed that the minimal treatment effect on sweat chloride concentration that can be demonstrated for a group of 5 patients is around 15mmol/L, using a cross-over design and combinations of 4 tests for each phase of the trial. Although the sweat test is considered a robust measure, sweat chloride measurements in patients with CF and a G551D mutation had an inherent biological variability that is higher than commonly considered. Further analyses of placebo group data are crucial to learn more about the natural variability of this outcome parameter. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of sweat chloride concentration at time of diagnosis and CFTR genotype with mortality and cystic fibrosis phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Edward F; Velentgas, Priscilla; Swenson, Anna J; Goss, Christopher H

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which sweat chloride concentration predicts survival and clinical phenotype independently of CFTR genotype in cystic fibrosis is not well understood. We analyzed the US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry data using Cox regression to examine the relationship between sweat chloride concentration (sweat chloride, CFTR genotype, and measures of lung function and growth. When included in the same model, CFTR genotype, but not sweat chloride, was independently associated with survival and with lung function, height, and BMI. Among patients with unclassified CFTR genotype, sweat chloride was an independent predictor of survival (Sweat chloride concentration may be a useful predictor of mortality and clinical phenotype when CFTR genotype functional class is unclassified. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase in dermcidin-derived peptides in sweat of patients with atopic eczema caused by a humorous video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD)-derived peptide is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the sweat glands. However, the levels of DCD-derived peptide in sweat were decreased in patients with atopic eczema (AE). The effect of viewing a humorous video on the levels of DCD-derived peptide was studied. Twenty patients with AE viewed an 87-min humorous video (Modern Times, featuring Charlie Chaplin). Just before and immediately after viewing, sweat was collected, and the levels of DCD-derived peptide and total protein in sweat were measured. Viewing a humorous video increased the levels of DCD-derived peptide without affecting the levels of total protein in sweat. Viewing a humorous video increased DCD-derived peptide in sweat of patients with AE, and thus, it may be helpful in the treatment of skin infection of AE.

  4. Influences of Sr dose on the crystal structure parameters and Sr distributions of Sr-incorporated hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, D G; Hao, Y Z; Li, H Y; Fang, C Q; Sun, L J; Zhu, H; Wang, J; Huang, X F; Ni, P F; Xu, K W

    2013-10-01

    Stoichiometric strontium-incorporated hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA) with different Sr concentrations [Sr/(Sr+Ca)] were synthesized using a wet chemical approach and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transformed infrared absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Rietveld Structure Refinement. The crystal lattice parameter, Sr distribution, chemical state of Sr, and also the relationships between their variations and the Sr concentrations have been intensively studied. The results show that both the crystal lattice parameters and crystal plane space of Sr-HA remarkably increase with the Sr concentration increasing. Whether Sr preferably occupies the Ca(I) site or Ca(II) site after incorporated into apatite lattice depends on the Sr number incorporated into apatite. All the Sr ions completely occupy the Ca(II) sites when the Sr concentration is below 5%. With the exception of partial Sr ions occupying the Ca(II) sites, the other Sr ions start to occupy the Ca(I) sites when the Sr concentration doped in HA is beyond 10%. The ratio of Sr ions occupying the Ca(I) sites increases with the further raising Sr concentration up to 20%. The Sr ions inherit the chemical state and environment of the original Ca(I) or Ca(II) site after incorporated into apatite. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cognitive-behavior therapy for menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweats): moderators and mediators of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Sam; Chilcot, Joseph; Hunter, Myra S

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) has been found in recent randomized controlled trials (MENOS1 and MENOS2) to reduce the impact of hot flushes and night sweats (HFNS). In the MENOS2 trial, group CBT was found to be as effective as self-help CBT in reducing the impact of HFNS. This study investigates for whom and how CBT works for women in the MENOS2 trial. This study performed a secondary analysis of 140 women with problematic HFNS who were recruited to the MENOS2 trial: 48 were randomly assigned to group CBT, 47 were randomly assigned to self-help CBT, and 45 were randomly assigned to usual care. Self-report questionnaires were completed at baseline, 6 weeks postrandomization, and 26 weeks postrandomization. Potential moderators and mediators of treatment effects on the primary outcome-hot flush problem rating-were examined using linear mixed-effects models and path analysis, respectively. CBT was effective at reducing HFNS problem rating regardless of age, body mass index, menopause status, or psychological factors at baseline. Fully reading the manual in the self-help CBT arm and completing most homework assignments in the group CBT arm were related to greater improvement in problem rating at 6 weeks. The effect of CBT on HFNS problem rating was mediated by changes in cognitions (beliefs about coping/control of hot flushes, beliefs about night sweats and sleep) but not by changes in mood. These findings suggest that CBT is widely applicable for women having problematic HFNS, regardless of sociodemographic or health-related factors, and that CBT works mainly by changing the cognitive appraisal of HFNS.

  6. Epidermal Microfluidic Electrochemical Detection System: Enhanced Sweat Sampling and Metabolite Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Aida; Kim, Jayoung; Kurniawan, Jonas F; Sempionatto, Juliane R; Moreto, Jose R; Tang, Guangda; Campbell, Alan S; Shin, Andrew; Lee, Min Yul; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Joseph

    2017-12-22

    Despite tremendous recent efforts, noninvasive sweat monitoring is still far from delivering its early analytical promise. Here, we describe a flexible epidermal microfluidic detection platform fabricated through hybridization of lithographic and screen-printed technologies, for efficient and fast sweat sampling and continuous, real-time electrochemical monitoring of glucose and lactate levels. This soft, skin-mounted device judiciously merges lab-on-a-chip and electrochemical detection technologies, integrated with a miniaturized flexible electronic board for real-time wireless data transmission to a mobile device. Modeling of the device design and sweat flow conditions allowed optimization of the sampling process and the microchannel layout for achieving attractive fluid dynamics and rapid filling of the detection reservoir (within 8 min from starting exercise). The wearable microdevice thus enabled efficient natural sweat pumping to the electrochemical detection chamber containing the enzyme-modified electrode transducers. The fabricated device can be easily mounted on the epidermis without hindrance to the wearer and displays resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from such epidermal wear. Amperometric biosensing of lactate and glucose from the rapidly generated sweat, using the corresponding immobilized oxidase enzymes, was wirelessly monitored during cycling activity of different healthy subjects. This ability to monitor sweat glucose levels introduces new possibilities for effective diabetes management, while similar lactate monitoring paves the way for new wearable fitness applications. The new epidermal microfluidic electrochemical detection strategy represents an attractive alternative to recently reported colorimetric sweat-monitoring methods, and hence holds considerable promise for practical fitness or health monitoring applications.

  7. Variability of measurements of sweat sodium using the regional absorbent-patch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Christine E; Ross, Megan L; Slater, Gary J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    There is interest in including recommendations for the replacement of the sodium lost in sweat in individualized hydration plans for athletes. Although the regional absorbent-patch method provides a practical approach to measuring sweat sodium losses in field conditions, there is a need to understand the variability of estimates associated with this technique. Sweat samples were collected from the forearms, chest, scapula, and thigh of 12 cyclists during 2 standardized cycling time trials in the heat and 2 in temperate conditions. Single measure analysis of sodium concentration was conducted immediately by ion-selective electrodes (ISE). A subset of 30 samples was frozen for reanalysis of sodium concentration using ISE, flame photometry (FP), and conductivity (SC). Sweat samples collected in hot conditions produced higher sweat sodium concentrations than those from the temperate environment (P = .0032). A significant difference (P = .0048) in estimates of sweat sodium concentration was evident when calculated from the forearm average (mean ± 95% CL; 64 ± 12 mmol/L) compared with using a 4-site equation (70 ± 12 mmol/L). There was a high correlation between the values produced using different analytical techniques (r2 = .95), but mean values were different between treatments (frozen FP, frozen SC > immediate ISE > frozen ISE; P sweat sodium concentration estimates differed depending on the number of sites included in the calculation. Environmental testing conditions should be considered in the interpretation of results. The impact of sample freezing and subsequent analytical technique was small but statistically significant. Nevertheless, when undertaken using a standardized protocol, the regional absorbent-patch method appears to be a relatively robust field test.

  8. Long-term outcomes of children with intermediate sweat chloride values in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Tyler; Robinson, Paul; Wiley, Veronica; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2015-06-01

    To describe the clinical course of children who have intermediate sweat chloride values on initial screening for cystic fibrosis (CF). We performed a retrospective review of children with intermediate sweat chloride values (raised immunoreactive trypsinogen/1 copy of p.F508del CF mutation on newborn screening (NBS)/sweat chloride value of 30-59 mmol/L) presenting to The Children's Hospital at Westmead over 15 years. Patients with an intermediate sweat chloride evolving to a formal diagnosis of CF (termed "delayed CF") were matched (2:1) with NBS positive patients with CF (termed "NBS positive CF"). Clinical outcomes were compared. Fourteen of 29 (48%, 95% CI 0.3-0.66) patients with intermediate sweat chloride value evolved to a diagnosis of CF and were matched with 28 NBS positive patients with CF. Delayed CF had less pancreatic insufficiency (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01-0.44, P = .006), less colonization with nonmucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.38, P = .005), milder obstructive lung disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio), and overall disease severity (Shwachman scores) at 10 years (mean difference 5.93, 95% CI 0.39-11.46, P = .04; mean difference 4.72, 95% CI 0.9-8.53, P = .015, respectively). Nutritional outcomes were better at 2 years for delayed CF but did not persist to later ages. In this cohort, approximately one-half of infants with intermediate sweat chloride value were later diagnosed with CF. The clinical course of delayed CF was milder in some aspects compared with NBS positive CF. These results emphasize the importance of ongoing follow-up of infants with intermediate sweat chloride values. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei

    2015-08-01

    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  10. The use of heterospecific scent marks by the sweat bee Halictus aerarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Tomoyuki; Goulson, Dave; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2007-12-01

    To forage effectively amongst flowers, some bee species utilize olfactory cues left by previous visitors in addition to direct assessment of visual cues to identify rewarding flowers. This ability can be more advantageous if the bees can recognize and use scent marks left by heterospecifics, not just marks left by members of their own species. We conducted field experiments to investigate whether the sweat bee Halictus aerarius avoids visiting flowers of trailing water willow Justicia procumbens emptied by other bee species. We found that H. aerarius rejected the flowers visited by both heterospecifics and conspecifics. They also rejected visited flowers artificially replenished with nectar. Our results demonstrate that social bees outside the Apidae can detect marks left on flowers by heterospecifics but that (on this plant species) they are unable to discriminate against flowers by directly detecting nectar volume. H. aerarius exhibited different rejection rates according to the identity of the previous bee species. We suggest that the frequency of rejection responses may depend on the amount of chemical substances left by the previous bee. In general, the use of scent marks left by previous visitors is almost certainly advantageous, enabling foragers to avoid flowers with depleted nectar levels and thereby improving their foraging efficiency.

  11. Strong kinetic effects on Sr/Ca ratios in the calcitic bivalve

    OpenAIRE

    Lorrain, Anne; Gillikin, David Paul; Paulet, Yves-Marie; Chauvaud, L.; Le Mercier, Alain; Navez, Jacques; André, Luc

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Although Sr/Ca ratios in abiogenic calcite are strongly controlled by precipitation rates, such a kinetic effect has never been demonstrated in calcitic bivalve shells. Therefore, we report Sr/Ca ratios together with daily growth rates in the calcitic shells of 4 individuals of the bivalve Pecten maximus (age class I). Ratios of Sr/Ca were found to be variable among individuals that grew at the same location, illustrating that vital effects dominate over environmental ...

  12. The mechanism of eccrine sweat pore plugging by aluminium salts using microfluidics combined with small angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, Alice; Cotot, Franck; Arnaud-Roux, Mireille; Sztucki, Michael; Cabane, Bernard; Galey, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-05-24

    Aluminium salts are widely used to control sweating for personal hygiene purposes. Their mechanism of action as antiperspirants was previously thought to be a superficial plugging of eccrine sweat pores by the aluminium hydroxide gel. Here we present a microfluidic T junction device that mimics sweat ducts, and is designed for the real time study of interactions between sweat and ACH (Aluminium Chloro Hydrate) under conditions that lead to plug formation. We used this device to image and measure the diffusion of aluminium polycationic species in sweat counter flow. We report the results of small angle X-ray scattering experiments performed to determine the structure and composition of the plug, using BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin) as a model of sweat proteins. Our results show that pore occlusion occurs as a result of the aggregation of sweat proteins by aluminium polycations. Mapping of the device shows that this aggregation is initiated in the T junction at the location where the flow of aluminium polycations joins the flow of BSA. The mechanism involves two stages: (1) a nucleation stage in which aggregates of protein and polycations bind to the wall of the sweat duct and form a tenuous membrane, which extends across the junction; (2) a growth stage in which this membrane collects proteins that are carried by hydrodynamic flow in the sweat channel and polycations that diffuse into this channel. These results could open up perspectives to find new antiperspirant agents with an improved efficacy.

  13. Prediction of risk of depressive symptoms in menopausal women based on hot flash and sweating symptoms: a multicentre study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng YW

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yanwei Zheng,1 Yibei Zhou,1 Jiangshan Hu,1 Jieping Zhu,2 Qi Hua,3 Minfang Tao1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Branch, 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, International Peace Maternal and Child Health Hospital of the China Welfare Institute, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Objective: The present study aimed to develop a symptom-based (namely, hot flashes and sweating scoring system for predicting the risk of depressive symptoms in menopausal women via a multicentre cross-sectional survey. Methods: The data examined in the present study were obtained from 1,004 women aged 40–60 years who underwent physical examination at A Hospital. The basic information was obtained using a questionnaire-based survey. A self-rating depression scale was used to obtain the depressive symptom scores, while the Kupperman Menopausal Index was used to obtain the scores for the frequency of hot flashes and sweating. A logistic regression model was also established. The resulting β coefficient was employed to calculate and predict the risk of depressive symptoms in these women and a risk scoring system was established. The scoring system was validated using samples from 2 other centers (validation sample 1: B Hospital, 440 women; validation sample 2: C Hospital, 247 women. Results: The scoring system developed to predict the risk of depressive symptoms in menopausal women was based on hot flash and sweating symptoms and associated with menopausal status, hot flash scores, education level (high school education and below and being diabetic. The scoring system yielded a total score of 0–54 points. For women in the study sample, the area under the curve (AUC of depressive symptom risk score was 0.750 (95% CI, 0.708–0.793. Validation sample 1 had an AUC of 0.731 (95% CI, 0.667–0.794, while

  14. Latherin: a surfactant protein of horse sweat and saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona E McDonald

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Horses are unusual in producing protein-rich sweat for thermoregulation, a major component of which is latherin, a highly surface-active, non-glycosylated protein. The amino acid sequence of latherin, determined from cDNA analysis, is highly conserved across four geographically dispersed equid species (horse, zebra, onager, ass, and is similar to a family of proteins only found previously in the oral cavity and associated tissues of mammals. Latherin produces a significant reduction in water surface tension at low concentrations (< or = 1 mg ml(-1, and therefore probably acts as a wetting agent to facilitate evaporative cooling through a waterproofed pelt. Neutron reflection experiments indicate that this detergent-like activity is associated with the formation of a dense protein layer, about 10 A thick, at the air-water interface. However, biophysical characterization (circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry in solution shows that latherin behaves like a typical globular protein, although with unusual intrinsic fluorescence characteristics, suggesting that significant conformational change or unfolding of the protein is required for assembly of the air-water interfacial layer. RT-PCR screening revealed latherin transcripts in horse skin and salivary gland but in no other tissues. Recombinant latherin produced in bacteria was also found to be the target of IgE antibody from horse-allergic subjects. Equids therefore may have adapted an oral/salivary mucosal protein for two purposes peculiar to their lifestyle, namely their need for rapid and efficient heat dissipation and their specialisation for masticating and processing large quantities of dry food material.

  15. Enrichment of 88Sr in continental waters due to calcium carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Netta; Gavrieli, Ittai; Halicz, Ludwik; Sandler, Amir; Stein, Mordechai; Lazar, Boaz

    2017-02-01

    δ88/86Sr data published over the last few years suggest that continental waters are enriched with 88Sr as compared to the rocks in their drainage basins. In an attempt to understand this phenomenon, this study established the fractionation in the 88Sr/86Sr ratio during precipitation of continental carbonates (i.e., carbonates precipitated on land from surface, pedogenic, or ground waters), and evaluated the contribution of this process to the 88Sr-enrichment in rivers. For this, stable and radiogenic Sr isotopes (88Sr, 87Sr and 86Sr) were measured in calcite samples and their precipitating waters collected in various continental environments, such as soil, cave, streams and groundwater. The results indicate that continental carbonates are 88Sr-depleted relative to their precipitating waters, placing them as one of the most 88Sr-depleted reservoirs on earth. The average difference in δ88/86Sr values between waters and solid CaCO3 (tufas or speleothems) that they precipitate is Δcarb-water = - 0.218 ± 0.014 ‰ (1SD). An even larger fractionation (εcarb-water = - 0.285 ± 0.02 ‰) was measured in groundwater with particularly high carbonate-alkalinity and high carbonate precipitation rate that depleted ∼65% of the Sr in the groundwater, resulting in substantial 88Sr-enrichment in the residual dissolved Sr (δ88/86Sr = 0.656 ‰). Results also suggest that pedogenic carbonate precipitation in soil profile removes 50-85% of the Sr from the recharging soil-water, thereby increasing the δ88/86Sr value of the soil-water from ∼ 0.18 ‰ to 0.3 ‰- 0.6 ‰. Similar 88Sr-enrichment was observed in drip water from a karst cave. A maximum removal flux of Sr into continental carbonates of about 20 Gmol(Sr)ṡy-1 is required to yield the reported 88Sr-enrichment in global rivers (δ88/86Sr = 0.32 ‰) relative to their rock sources when using the fractionation factor derived in this study, Δcarb-water = - 0.218 ‰, and the published δ88/86Sr composition of marine

  16. Sweat osmolarity shows intra-animal regional variation in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Samantha; Thatcher, Rhys; Jones, Arwel W; Warren, Lori K; Tenbroeck, Saundra H; Nottage, Florence; McEwan, Neil R

    2015-10-01

    Sweating is important in regulating body temperature but can be a source of loss of both fluids and electrolytes. Although the process has been studied in horses, the variation in sweat osmolarity across the body has not. This work describes an investigation to determine if there is regional variation in the osmolarity of sweat across different anatomical regions of the horse. Ten horses were used in the study and were animals either stabled for riding lessons or had livery on-site. Sweat samples were collected from five regions on each horse following exercise and the osmolarity measurements were made using an Osmomat 030 (Gonotec, Berlin, Germany). Values were analysed by paired t-tests and analysis of variance. Samples from the back and ears had statistically (P sweat collected from the horse's back. The current work demonstrates that these values are probably an underestimation of electrolyte loss, which may have implications for the composition and administration of rehydration compounds. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Correlation of sweat chloride and percent predicted FEV1in cystic fibrosis patients treated with ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Meredith C; Beusmans, Jack; Panorchan, Paul; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV 1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV 1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor. The goal of the analysis was to help define the potential value of sweat chloride as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for use in CFTR modulator trials. For any given study, reductions in sweat chloride levels and improvements in absolute ppFEV 1 were not correlated for individual patients. However, when the data from all studies were combined, a statistically significant correlation between sweat chloride levels and ppFEV 1 changes was observed (psweat chloride level changes in response to potentiation of the CFTR protein by ivacaftor appear to be a predictive pharmacodynamic biomarker of lung function changes on a population basis but are unsuitable for the prediction of treatment benefits for individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry and blushing (anger and happiness is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  19. Realistic facial expression of virtual human based on color, sweat, and tears effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics.

  20. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Basori, Ahmad Hoirul; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Mohamed, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. PMID:25136663

  1. Eccrine sweat gland anatomy in cockayne syndrome: a possible diagnostic aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landing, B H; Sugarman, G; Dixon, L G

    1983-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease, which includes as major features motor and mental retardation (beginning in the second year), microcephaly, ataxia, retinal degeneration and pigmentation, cataracts, progeroid features, intracranial calcification, hypogonadism, and growth retardation. Many other diseases have some of these features, so that diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome can be difficult, especially in younger children. Eccrine sweat glands were microdissected from autopsy or biopsy specimens from patients with Cockayne syndrome, and mean values for duct length, secretory coil volume, ratio of coil volume to duct length, and axis ratio of the secretory coil were determined. In comparison with values for eccrine glands of patients with no known genetic or chromosomal disease, eccrine glands in Cockayne syndrome are abnormally small for age. Whether other diseases with various similarities to Cockayne syndrome produce similar growth abnormality of eccrine sweat glands is not known, but determination of sweat gland size may provide data suggesting or supporting the diagnosis of Cockayne syndrome.

  2. The influence of Sr on the microstructure, degradation and stress corrosion cracking of the Mg alloys - ZK40xSr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianxi; Bin, Yuanhong; Zou, Wenqi; Wang, Xiaojian; Li, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, new magnesium (Mg) alloys (Mg-4Zn-0.6Zr-xSr, x=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6wt%; ZK40xSr) were prepared and studied as potential biodegradable materials. The influence of strontium (Sr) addition on the properties of the new Mg alloys was investigated, which included microstructure, corrosion degradation, and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility. The average grain size of the ZK40Sr was approximately 100µm, which was significantly smaller than that of ZK40 alloy without Sr (402.3±40.2µm). The size of grain boundaries precipitates in the ZK40xSr alloys gradually increased with the increase of Sr content. The grain boundaries finally showed a continuously distribution and net-like shape. The degradation test showed that the average degradation rate of the ZK40xSr alloys increased with the increase of Sr addition. In the case of Mg-4Zn-0.6Zr, the degradation rate was 2.2mgcm-2day-1, which was lower than that of Mg-4Zn-0.6Zr-1.6Sr (4.93mgcm-2day-1). When the ZK40xSr alloys were immersed in m-SBF, the rod-like Sr-contained hydroxyapatite (HA) substance was detected, which was known to enhance cell growth around bone implants. The fracture surfaces of the as-cast Mg-4Zn-0.6Zr-1.6Sr were shown intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) patterns. The increase of SCC susceptibility of the higher Sr ZK40xSr alloys was attributed to the increase of micro-galvanic corrosion between the α-Mg and the grain boundaries precipitates. The SCC susceptibility values were ≈0.13 and ≈0.41 for the Mg-4Zn-0.6Zr-0.4Sr and the Mg-4Zn-0.6Zr-1.6Sr, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Whole body sweat collection in humans: an improved method with preliminary data on electrolyte content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirreffs, S M; Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    Previous methods used to collect human sweat for electrolyte analysis have been criticized because they involve only regional sampling or because of methodological problems associated with whole body-washdown techniques. An improved method for collection of whole body sweat from exercising subjects is described. It involved construction of a plastic frame that supports a large plastic bag within which the subject exercises. The subject and the equipment are washed with distilled, deionized water before exercise begins. After exercise is completed, the subject and equipment are again washed with water containing a marker not present in sweat (ammonium sulfate). Total sweat loss is calculated from the change in body mass, and the volume of sweat not evaporated is calculated from dilution of the added marker. Recovery of added water was 102 +/- 2% (SD) of the added volume, and recovery of added electrolytes was 99 +/- 2% for sodium, 98 +/- 9% for potassium, and 101 +/- 4% for chloride. Repeated trials (n = 4) on five subjects to establish the reproducibility of the method gave a coefficient of variation of 17 +/- 5% for sodium, 23 +/- 6% for potassium, and 15 +/- 6% for chloride. These values include the biological variability between trials as well as the error within the method. The biological variability thus appears to be far greater than the methodological error. Normal values for the composition of sweat induced by exercise in a hot, humid environment in healthy young men and women were (in mM) 50.8 +/- 16.5 sodium, 4.8 +/- 1.6 potassium, 1.3 +/- 0.9 calcium, 0.5 +/- 0.5 magnesium, and 46.6 +/- 13.1 chloride.

  4. Amino acid composition, including key derivatives of eccrine sweat: potential biomarkers of certain atopic skin conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Harker; Harding, Clive R

    2013-04-01

    The free amino acid (AA) composition of eccrine sweat is different from other biological fluids, for reasons which are not properly understood. We undertook the detailed analysis of the AA composition of freshly isolated pure human eccrine sweat, including some of the key derivatives of AA metabolism, to better understand the key biological mechanisms governing its composition. Eccrine sweat was collected from the axillae of 12 healthy subjects immediately upon formation. Free AA analysis was performed using an automatic AA analyser after ninhydrin derivatization. Pyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid (PCA) and urocanic acid (UCA) levels were determined using GC/MS. The free AA composition of sweat was dominated by the presence of serine accounting for just over one-fifth of the total free AA composition. Glycine was the next most abundant followed by PCA, alanine, citrulline and threonine, respectively. The data obtained indicate that the AA content of sweat bears a remarkable similarity to the AA composition of the epidermal protein profilaggrin. This protein is the key source of free AAs and their derivatives that form a major part of the natural moisturizing factor (NMF) within the stratum corneum (SC) and plays a major role in maintaining the barrier integrity of human skin. As perturbations in the production of NMF can lead to abnormal barrier function and can arise as a consequence of filaggrin genotype, we propose the quantification of AAs in sweat may serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for certain atopic skin conditions, that is, atopic dermatitis (AD). © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Role of Sweat in Accumulation of Orally Administered Griseofulvin in Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vinod P.; Epstein, William L.; Riegelman, Sidney

    1974-01-01

    Griseofulvin, an orally effective antimicrobial agent, appears in the stratum corneum within 4-8 h after oral administration. Griseofulvin distribution was found to be highest in the outermost layers of the stratum corneum (level I, 20.8±1.5 ng/mg) and lowest inside (level II, 10.0±1.5; level III, 7.5±2.2 ng/mg). In order to study the precise mechanism of griseofulvin transfer to stratum corneum, the role of sweat in the accumulation of griseofulvin was considered. Heat-induced total body sweating decreased the mean stratum corneum concentration of griseofulvin by 55%, and 200-300 ng of griseofulvin accumulated per ml of sweat. A silicone hydrophobic resin was used to differentiate between “wash-off” and carrier properties of sweat for griseofulvin. Prevention of transepidermal water and sweat loss by (a) topical application of formaldehyde-releasing cream to one palm, (b) occlusion by a 2 × 2-cm patch on one arm, and (c) wearing a rubber glove for 24 h, showed a lower griseofulvin concentration when compared to control areas in the same subjects. The results of the gloved hand experiment show that a complete equilibrium is established at all three levels of stratum corneum, thereby removing the reversed gradient. These results support the hypothesis that a “wick effect” is responsible for the observed reversed drug gradient within the stratum corneum. The results of the experiments suggest that sweat and transepidermal fluid loss play an important role in griseofulvin transfer in stratum corneum. PMID:4830229

  6. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label free quantification mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, Éva; Emri, Gabriella; Kalló, Gergő; Tsaprailis, George; Tőzsér, József

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily-collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. METHODS Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labeled reference peptides were used for method validation. RESULTS 95 sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. CONCLUSION Our findings in regards to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. PMID:26307449

  7. Enhancing the Oxygen Permeation Rate of Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 - La0.8Sr0.2Cr0.5Fe0.5O3-δ Dual-Phase Hollow Fiber Membrane by Coating with Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 Nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Yao; Yuan, Ronghua; Gao, Jianfeng; Chen, Chusheng; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92−La0.8Sr0.2Cr0.5Fe0.5O3−δ (YSZ-LSCrF) dual-phase composite hollow fiber membranes were prepared by a combined phase-inversion and sintering method. The shell surface of the hollow fiber membrane was modified with Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) via a drop−coating method. As the rate of oxygen

  8. 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix mimics facilitate directed differentiation of epithelial progenitors for sweat gland regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Yao, Bin; Xie, Jiangfan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-03-01

    Sweat glands perform a vital thermoregulatory function in mammals. Like other skin appendages, they originate from epidermal progenitors. However, they have low regenerative potential in response to injury, and whether adult epidermal progenitors could be specified to differentiate to a sweat gland cell lineage remains largely unexplored. We used bioprinting technology to create a functional in vitro cell-laden 3D extracellular matrix mimics (3D-ECM) with composite hydrogels based on gelatin and sodium alginate because of chemical and structural similarity to ECM components. To achieve specific cell differentiation, mouse plantar dermis and epidermal growth factor were synchronously incorporated into the 3D-ECM mimics to create an inductive niche for epidermal progenitor cells obtained from mice. The biological 3D construct could maintain cell viability, thereby facilitating cell spreading and matrix formation. In vitro data by immunofluorescence and gene expression assay of key cell-surface markers demonstrated that the bioprinted 3D-ECM could effectively create a restrictive niche for epidermal progenitors that ensures unilateral differentiation into sweat gland cells. Furthermore, direct delivery of bioprinted 3D-ECM into burned paws of mice resulted in functional restoration of sweat glands. This study represents the rational design to enhance the specific differentiation of epidermal lineages using 3D bioprinting and may have clinical and translational implications in regenerating sweat glands. Sweat gland regeneration after injury is of clinical importance but remains largely unsolved because of low regenerative potential and lack of a definite niche. Some studies have shown sweat gland regeneration with gene-based interventions or cell-based induction via embryonic components, but translation to clinic is challenging. The novelty and significance of the work lies in the fact that we design a 3D bioprinted extracellular matrix that provides the spatial

  9. Real-time sweat analysis: Concept and development of an autonomous wearable micro-fluidic platform

    OpenAIRE

    Curto, Vincenzo F.; Coyle, Shirley; Byrne, Robert; Diamond, Dermot; Benito-Lopez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    In this work the development of an autonomous, robust and wearable micro-fluidic platform capable of performing on-line analysis of pH in sweat is discussed. Through the means of an optical detection system based on a surface mount light emitting diode (smLED) and a photodiode as a detector, a wearable system was achieved in which realtime monitoring of sweat pH can be performed during sport activity. We show how through systems engineering, integrating miniaturised electrical com...

  10. The Effect of Varying the Composition of Fingerprint Sweat Deposits on the Corrosion of Brass and Fingerprint Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Dunn, Alice; Jones, Owen; Bond, John W

    2017-09-01

    Corrosion of α-phase brass by sebaceous sweat fingerprint deposits produced identifiable impressions in a majority of samples (n = 40) 4 days after deposition. Combining sebaceous with eccrine sweat yielded a greater percentage of identifiable fingerprint deposits, although this increase was not statistically significant. Production of identifiable fingerprints from eccrine sweat deposits was dependent on the sampling time of year with deposits taken during summer months giving similar percentages of identifiable fingerprints to sebaceous deposits. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between elapsed days after deposition and identifiable eccrine (ρ = 0.787, p sweat deposits was statistically significant compared to winter eccrine deposits (p sweat. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Pulsed laser ablation of LaSrCoO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, E.A.F.; Roesthuis, Frank J.G.; Blank, David H.A.; Rogalla, Horst

    1999-01-01

    The ablation process of La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 by a spatial uniform 248 nm excimer laser beam has been characterized. Ablation rates, changes in the target surface morphology and composition have been studied as a function of the laser fluence. The dependence of the ablation rate on the laser fluence has

  12. A = Ba, Sr or Pb

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion in the transmission mode. The samples were rotated ... The profiles were fitted using a pseudo-Voigt function. The Chebyshev ... Crystal data for ABi4Ti4O15 (A = Ba, Sr or Pb) at. 298 K. Formula. BaBi4Ti4O15. SrBi4Ti4O15. PbBi4Ti4O15. Formula weight. 1404⋅85. 1355⋅13. 1474⋅70. Colour. Yellow. Yellow. Yellow.

  13. Sauna, sweat and science - quantifying the proportion of condensation water versus sweat using a stable water isotope ((2)H/(1)H and (18)O/(16)O) tracer experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Michael; Bösel, Stefanie; Tuthorn, Mario; Benesch, Marianne; Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Most visitors of a sauna appreciate the heat pulse that is perceived when water is poured on the stones of a sauna stove. However, probably only few bathers are aware that this pleasant heat pulse is caused by latent heat being released onto our skin due to condensation of water vapour. In order to quantify the proportion of condensation water versus sweat to dripping water of test persons we conducted sauna experiments using isotopically labelled (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) thrown water as tracer. This allows differentiating between 'pure sweat' and 'condensation water'. Two ways of isotope mass balance calculations were applied and yielded similar results for both water isotopes. Accordingly, condensation contributed considerably to dripping water with mean proportions of 52 ± 12 and 54 ± 7% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2011/12 and 30 ± 13 and 33 ± 6% in a sauna experiment in winter semester 2012/13, respectively, depending on the way of calculating the isotope mass balance. It can be concluded from the results of our dual isotope labelling sauna experiment that it is not all about sweat in the sauna.

  14. Store-operated Ca2+ entry regulates Ca2+-activated chloride channels and eccrine sweat gland function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Axel R; Vaeth, Martin; Wagner, Larry E; Eckstein, Miriam; Hecht, Lee; Yang, Jun; Crottes, David; Seidl, Maximilian; Shin, Hyosup P; Weidinger, Carl; Cameron, Scott; Turvey, Stuart E; Issekutz, Thomas; Meyts, Isabelle; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Cuk, Mario; Yule, David I; Feske, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are essential for sweating and thermoregulation in humans. Loss-of-function mutations in the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel genes ORAI1 and STIM1 abolish store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), and patients with these CRAC channel mutations suffer from anhidrosis and hyperthermia at high ambient temperatures. Here we have shown that CRAC channel-deficient patients and mice with ectodermal tissue-specific deletion of Orai1 (Orai1K14Cre) or Stim1 and Stim2 (Stim1/2K14Cre) failed to sweat despite normal sweat gland development. SOCE was absent in agonist-stimulated sweat glands from Orai1K14Cre and Stim1/2K14Cre mice and human sweat gland cells lacking ORAI1 or STIM1 expression. In Orai1K14Cre mice, abolishment of SOCE was associated with impaired chloride secretion by primary murine sweat glands. In human sweat gland cells, SOCE mediated by ORAI1 was necessary for agonist-induced chloride secretion and activation of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) anoctamin 1 (ANO1, also known as TMEM16A). By contrast, expression of TMEM16A, the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and other regulators of sweat gland function was normal in the absence of SOCE. Our findings demonstrate that Ca2+ influx via store-operated CRAC channels is essential for CaCC activation, chloride secretion, and sweat production in humans and mice.

  15. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Patterns of Ca/Sr and 87Sr/ 86Sr variation before and after a whole watershed CaSiO 3 addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezat, Carmen A.; Blum, Joel D.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2010-06-01

    ratio (in late summer base flow) increased, providing evidence that Ca and Sr had increasingly infiltrated to the deepest flow paths. Strong seasonal variations in Ca/Sr and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of stream water resulted from the wollastonite addition to upland forest soils, and these ratios have become sensitive to changing flow paths during the annual cycle. Most notably, high flow events now produce large excursions in stream geochemistry toward the high Ca/Sr and low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of wollastonite. Nine years after the application we estimate that ˜360 kg of Ca from wollastonite has been exported from the watershed in stream flow. The rate of export of Ca from wollastonite dissolution has stabilized at about 11 kg of Ca per year, which accounts for ˜30% of the dissolved Ca in the stream water. Given that 19 metric tons of Ca were applied to the watershed, and assuming this current rate of loss, it should take over 1000 years for this added Ca to be transported from the watershed.

  17. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  18. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthong Kornphimol

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus and Gram-negative (E. coli bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

  19. Cation transport by sweat ducts in primary culture. Ionic mechanism of cholinergically evoked current oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, I; Pedersen, P S

    1990-01-01

    1. The coiled reabsorptive segment of human sweat ducts was cultured in vitro. Cells were then harvested and plated onto a dialysis membrane which was glued over a hole in a small disc. Cultures were maintained in a low serum, hormone-supplemented medium that allowed the cells to grow to confluency...

  20. The Italian pilot external quality assessment program for cystic fibrosis sweat test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Marco; Floridia, Giovanna; Amato, Annalisa; Censi, Federica; Carta, Claudio; de Stefano, Maria Chiara; Ferrari, Gianluca; Tosto, Fabrizio; Capoluongo, Ettore; Caruso, Ubaldo; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Cirilli, Natalia; Corbetta, Carlo; Padoan, Rita; Raia, Valeria; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-05-01

    Sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. In 2014 the Istituto Superiore di Sanità established the Italian pilot external quality assessment program for CF sweat test (IEQA-ST). Ten laboratories, included among the 33 Italian CF Referral Centers, were selected and enrolled on the basis of their attitude to perform sweat test (ST) analysis by using methods recommended by the Italian Guidelines. They received three different sweat-like samples (normal, borderline and pathologic chloride concentration), with mock clinical indications, for analysis according to routine procedures. Assessment, performed by a panel of experts, covered analytical performance, interpretation and reporting of results; categories of "poor" and "satisfactory" performance were not defined. All data were managed through a web utility. The program identified important areas of interest and, in some case, of concern. It is important to underline that results are referred to a small proportion, i.e. about 30%, of Italian laboratories performing CF ST in the context of the Referral Centers. Data collected highlight the importance of participation in EQA programs as it may improve laboratory/clinical performance; our study represents a model for the setting up of a large-scale EQA scheme for ST. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human communication of emotion via sweat : How specific is it? (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.A.M.; Toet, A.; Duinkerken, R.; Groot, J. de; Kaldewaij, A.; Hout, M.A. van den; et al

    2011-01-01

    Females evaluate ambiguous facial expression – morphed between happy and fearful – faces as more fearful when exposed to fear sweat as compared to control odor (Zhou & Chen, 2009). We investigated the specificity of this effect, i.e. whether processing of fearful faces is affected specifically by

  2. Morphological study of human sweat ducts for the investigation of THz-wave interaction (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kodo; Tripathi, Saroj R.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, some studies reported that the sweat ducts act as a low-Q-factor helical antenna due to their helical structure, and resonate in the terahertz frequency range according to their structural parameters. According to the antenna theory, when the duct works as a helical antenna, the dimension of the helix plays a key role to determine the frequency of resonance. Therefore, the accurate determination of structural parameters of sweat duct is crucially important to obtain the reliable frequency of resonance and modes of operations. Therefore, here we performed the optical coherence tomography (OCT) of human subjects on their palm and foot to investigate the density, distribution and morphological features of sweat ducts. Moreover, we measured the dielectric properties of stratum corneum using terahertz time domain spectroscopy and based upon this information, we determined the frequency of resonance. We recruited 32 subjects for the measurement and the average duct diameter was 95±11μm. Based upon this information on diameter of duct and THz dielectric properties of stratum corneum (ɛ=5.1±1.3), we have calculated the frequency of resonance of sweat duct. Finally, we determined that the center frequency of resonance was 442±76 GHz. We believe that these findings will facilitate further investigation of the THz-skin interaction and provide guidelines for safety levels with respect to human exposure. We will also report on the EEG measurement while being shined by micro watt order THz waves.

  3. Genotoxicological assessment of two reactive dyes extracted from cotton fibres using artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; de Oliveira, Gisele Augusto Rodrigues; Meireles, Gabriela; dos Santos, Tuane Cristina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2014-02-01

    Human eyes have a remarkable ability to recognize hundreds of colour shades, which has stimulated the use of colorants, especially for clothing, but toxicological studies have shown that some textile dyes can be hazardous to human health. Under conditions of intense perspiration, dyes can migrate from coloured clothes and penetrate into human skin. Garments made from cotton fabrics are the most common clothing in tropical countries, due to their high temperatures. Aiming to identify safe textile dyes for dyeing cotton fabrics, the genotoxicity [in vitro Comet assay with normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF), Tail Intensity] and mutagenicity [Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay (30min), tester strains TA98, TA100, YG1041 and YG1042] of Reactive Blue 2 (RB2, CAS No. 12236-82-7, C.I. 61211) and Reactive Green 19 (RG19, CAS No. 61931-49-5, C.I. 205075) were evaluated both in the formulated form and as extracted from cotton fibres using different artificial sweats. Both the dyes could migrate from cotton fibres to sweat solutions, the sweat composition and pH being important factors during this extraction. However, the dye sweat solutions showed no genotoxic/mutagenic effects, whereas a weak mutagenic potential was detected by the Ames test for both dyes in their formulated form. These findings emphasize the relevance of textile dyes assessment under conditions that more closely resemble human exposure, in order to recognize any hazard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Group Therapy for Navajo Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmant, Stephen A.; Merta, Rod J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the sweat lodge ceremony used at a residential treatment center located on the Navajo Nation and compares the ceremony to modern group work identifying Yalom's (1995) 11 therapeutic factors of group therapy within the ceremony. Considers widespread use of the ceremony with Native Americans and nonnative Americans as well as…

  5. Measurements of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating thermal manikin: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Faming

    2017-01-01

    Evaporative resistance has been widely used to describe the evaporative heat transfer property of clothing. It is also a critical variable in heat stress models for predicting human physiological responses in various environmental conditions. At present, sweating thermal manikins provide a fast and cost-effective way to determine clothing evaporative resistance. Unfortunately, the measurement repeatability and reproducibility of evaporative resistance are rather low due to the complicated moisture transfer processes through clothing. This review article presents a systematical overview on major influential factors affecting the measurement precision of clothing evaporative resistance measurements. It also illustrates the state-of-the-art knowledge on the development of test protocol to measure clothing evaporative resistance by means of a sweating manikin. Some feasible and robust test procedures for measurement of clothing evaporative resistance using a sweating manikin are described. Recommendations on how to improve the measurement accuracy of clothing evaporative resistance are addressed and expected future trends on development of advanced sweating thermal manikins are finally presented. PMID:28566566

  6. Utility of No-Sweat Labels for Apparel Consumers: Profiling Label Users and Predicting Their Purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Marsha A.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 547 of 2,000 consumers indicated consumer support for socially responsible purchasing. For 16%, "No-Sweat" labels indicating the working conditions of apparel makers were a strong purchasing influence. Women, especially unmarried females with lower educational attainment, were most likely to purchase clothing with No-Sweat…

  7. The comfort, measured by means of a sweating manikin (WalterTM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the growing importance of clothing comfort in South African and overseas markets for locally produced clothing, the Council for Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR) acquired an advanced sweating fabric manikin for measuring clothing comfort. This preliminary investigation covers the comfort related properties, ...

  8. COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL TREATMENTS OF FEAR OF BLUSHING, SWEATING OR TREMBLING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    Social phobic patients (n = 30) with fear of blushing, sweating or trembling as the predominant complaint were randomly assigned to three treatment conditions: (1) exposure in vivo followed by cognitive therapy, (2) cognitive therapy followed by exposure in vivo, or (3) a cognitive-behavioural

  9. Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthong, Kornphimol; Srisung, Sujittra; Boonpavanitchakul, Kanittha; Kangwansupamonkon, Wiyong; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2010-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

  10. Sweating responses and the muscle metaboreflex under mildly hyperthermic conditions in sprinters and distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Koga, Shunsaku; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the effects of different training methods on nonthermal sweating during activation of the muscle metaboreflex, we compared sweating responses during postexercise muscle occlusion in endurance runners, sprinters, and untrained men under mild hyperthermia (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 50%). Ten endurance runners, nine sprinters, and ten untrained men (maximal oxygen uptakes: 57.5 ± 1.5, 49.3 ± 1.5, and 36.6 ± 1.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P sprinters than in untrained men (32.2 ± 4.4 vs. 17.3 ± 2.6 mmHg, respectively; P sprinters and untrained men (0.38 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.03, and 0.11 ± 0.04 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1), respectively; P sprinters and untrained men. Our results suggest that the specificity of training modalities influences the sweating response during activation of the muscle metaboreflex. In addition, these results imply that a greater activation of the muscle metaboreflex does not cause a greater sweating response in sprinters.

  11. In vivo single human sweat gland activity monitoring using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and two-photon excited autofluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Gasecka, P; Formanek, F; Galey, J-B; Rigneault, H

    2016-04-01

    Eccrine sweat secretion is of central importance for control of body temperature. Although the incidence of sweat gland dysfunction might appear of minor importance, it can be a real concern for people with either hypohidrosis or hyperhidrosis. However, sweat gland function remains relatively poorly explored. To investigate the function of single human sweat glands. We describe a new approach for noninvasive imaging of single sweat gland activity in human palms in vivo up to a depth of 100 μm, based on nonlinear two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). These techniques appear to be useful compared with approaches already described for imaging single sweat gland activity, as they allow better three-dimensional spatial resolution of sweat pore inner morphology and real-time monitoring of individual sweat events. By filling the sweat pore with oil and tuning the CARS contrast at 2845 cm(-1) , we imaged the ejection of sweat droplets from a single sweat gland when oil is pushed out by sweat flow. On average, sweat events lasted for about 30 s every 3 min under the conditions studied. On the other hand, about 20% of sweat glands were found inactive. TPEF and CARS were also used to study, at the single pore level, the antiperspirant action of aluminium chlorohydrate (ACH) and to reveal, for the first time in vivo, the formation of a plug at the pore entrance, in agreement with reported ACH antiperspirant mechanisms. Although data were acquired on human palms, these techniques show great promise for a better understanding of sweat secretion physiology and should be helpful to improve the efficacy of antiperspirant formulations. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Comparison of sweat loss estimates for women during prolonged high-intensity running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Haymes, Emily M; Sawka, Michael N

    2002-08-01

    This study evaluated the error produced by four commonly used field estimates and two prediction equations of total body sweat loss. Eight women distance runners were studied during a 30-km treadmill run (approximately 70% .VO(2max)) in a warm (30 degrees C T(db)) and a cool (14 degrees C T(db)) environment. Total sweat loss (TSL) was determined from changes in body mass corrected for fluid intake (FI), urine losses (UL), clothing (trapped sweat, TS), CO(2)-O(2) exchange (metabolic mass loss, MML), and respiratory water loss (RWL). TSL was compared with four estimates of sweat losses (often employed in the field) from body mass changes corrected for: a) FI only (F-1); b) FI and TS (F-2); c) FI and UL (F-3); or d) FI, TS, and UL (F-4). Two prediction equations were used also for comparison to TSL values. In the warm environment, F-1, F-3, and F-4 accurately estimated (0.2-6.9%; P > 0.05) TSL, whereas F-2 produced a large error (15.3%; P equations markedly underestimated (20-22%) TSL in the warm environment and underestimated (41%) or overestimated (20%) TSL in the cool environment. TSL can be accurately estimated from changes in body mass using F-1, F-3, or F-4 methods in hot environments; however, none of the methods accurately estimated actual TSL values in a cool environment. Neither prediction equation provided accurate estimates of TSL in warm or cool conditions for women runners. These results illustrate the difficulty of accurately estimating and predicting sweat losses in the field.

  13. Regional differences in sweat rate response of steers to short-term heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six Angus steers (319±8.5 kg) were assigned to one of two groups (hot or cold exposure) of three steers each, and placed into two environmental chambers initially maintained at 16.5–18.8°C air temperature (Ta). cold chamber Ta was lowered to 8.4°C, while Ta within the hot chamber was increased to 32...

  14. Leaching from the stratum corneum does not explain the previously reported elevated potassium ion concentration in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Stone, Michael; Cannon, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if K+ is leached from the stratum corneum when sweat is present on the skin's surface. The results will help address whether sweat [K+] previously reported in the literature are artifactually elevated as a result of K+ leaching. Twelve (six female, six male) healthy volunteers participated in this study. After thorough skin cleansing and preparation with isopropyl alcohol and high-performance liquid chromatography-grade distilled water, three sites were chosen and a 50 μL drop of artificial sweat was pipetted directly onto the skin. The artificial sweat had a [K+] of 4 mEq·L-1, an osmolality of 120 mosm·L-1, and a pH of 6.0. Immediately following, a clear plastic cover slip (~6 cm2) with a shallow 0.8 cm2 convex impression in the center was applied over each drop, preventing evaporation. Each sample was allowed to sit on the forearm, under the plastic cover slip, for 10 min. The mean (±SD) [K+] in 'artificial' sweat not exposed to the skin was measured to be 4.2±0.4 mEq·L-1. After 10 min of exposure to the stratum corneum of the forearm, the artificial sweat had a mean (±SD) [K+] of 3.9±0.3 mEq·L-1. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the [K+] between the control artificial sweat and the samples collected after 10 min of exposure to forearm skin. These results do not support the hypothesis that significant K+ leaching from the stratum corneum into standing sweat is the cause for the previously reported elevated sweat [K+].

  15. Strong kinetic effects on Sr/Ca ratios in the calcitic bivalve Pecten maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, Anne; Gillikin, David P.; Paulet, Yves-Marie; Chauvaud, Laurent; Le Mercier, Alain; Navez, Jacques; André, Luc

    2005-12-01

    Although Sr/Ca ratios in abiogenic calcite are strongly controlled by precipitation rates, such a kinetic effect has never been demonstrated in calcitic bivalve shells. Therefore, we report Sr/Ca ratios together with daily growth rates in the calcitic shells of four individuals of the bivalve Pecten maximus (age class I). Ratios of Sr/Ca were found to be variable among individuals that grew at the same location, illustrating that vital effects dominate over environmental controls. Although daily growth rate was correlated with shell Sr/Ca ratios, it explained only half of the Sr/Ca variations. However, daily shell surface area increment, an estimation of the total quantity of carbonate precipitated for a given time, explained 74% of the Sr/Ca variability in the shells of P. maximus. This proves, for the first time in a calcitic bivalve, that shell Sr/Ca partitioning is mainly controlled by kinetic effects. The Sr/Ca ratio should therefore be tested as a potential proxy of calcification rate in modern or fossil calcitic biocarbonates.

  16. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting, E-mail: qixiaoting@cnu.edu.cn

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  17. Printing artificial sweat using ink jet printers for the test set generation in forensics: an image quality assessment of the reproducibility of the printing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Sturm, Jennifer; Dittmann, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In order to use scientific expert evidence in court hearings, several criteria must be met. In the US jurisdiction the Daubert decision2 has defined several criteria that might be assessed if a testimony is challenged. In particular the potential for testing or actual testing, as well as known or potential error rate are two very important criteria. In order to be able to compare the results with each other, the reproducible creation of evaluation samples is necessary. However, each latent fingerprint is unique due to external inuence factors such as sweat composition or pressure during the application of a trace. Hence, Schwarz1 introduces a method to print latent fingerprints using ink jet printers equipped with artificial sweat. In this paper we assess the image quality in terms of reproducibility and clarity of the printed artificial sweat patterns. For that, we determine the intra class variance from one printer on the same and on different substrates based on a subjective assessment, as well as the inter class variance between different printers of the same model using pattern recognition techniques. Our results indicate that the intra class variance is primarily inuenced by the drying behavior of the amino acid. The inter class is surprisingly large between identical models of one printer. Our evaluation is performed using 100 samples on an overhead foil and 50 samples on a compact disk surface with 5 different patterns (two line structures, a fingerprint image and two di_erent arrows with a larger area with amino acid) acquired with a Keyence VK-X110 laser scanning confocal microscope.11 The results show a significant difference between the two identical printers allowing for differentiating between them with an accuracy of up to 99%.

  18. Accumulation of FDG in axillary sweat glands in hyperhidrosis: a pitfall in whole-body PET examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsson, H. [Department of Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Celsing, F. [Department of Haematology and Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ingvar, M. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, S. [Department of Cognitive Neurophysiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)]|[Karolinska Pharmacy, Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, S.A. [Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-03-27

    A diabetic male with severe autonomic neuropathy and recently discovered Hodgkin`s disease demonstrated bilateral uptake of [2-{sup 18}F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) in the axillary sweat glands during profuse sweating caused by hypoglycaemia at positron emission tomography examination. It is not yet clear whether the sweating interfered with the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical. Regardless of the cause or mechanism for the uptake, the finding is clinically relevant. A bilateral symmetrical accumulation of FDG in the axillae of a tumour patient does not necessarily indicate malignant involvement of the lymph nodes. (orig.) With 1 fig., 9 refs.

  19. Strong kinetic effects on Sr/Ca ratios in the calcitic bivalve Pecten maximus

    OpenAIRE

    A. Lorrain; Gillikin, D. P.; Paulet, Y.-M.; Chauvaud, L.; Le Mercier, A.; Navez, J.; André, L.

    2005-01-01

    Although Sr/Ca ratios in abiogenic calcite are strongly controlled by precipitation rates, such a kinetic effect has never been demonstrated in calcitic bivalve shells. Therefore, we report Sr/Ca ratios together with daily growth rates in the calcitic shells of four individuals of the bivalve Pecten maximus (age class I). Ratios of Sr/Ca were found to be variable among individuals that grew at the same location, illustrating that vital effects dominate over environmental controls. Although da...

  20. Computational investigation of 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production rates in a subcritical UO2(NO32 aqueous solution reactor driven by a 30-MeV proton accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gholamzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of subcritical aqueous homogenous reactors driven by accelerators presents an attractive alternative for producing 99Mo. In this method, the medical isotope production system itself is used to extract 99Mo or other radioisotopes so that there is no need to irradiate common targets. In addition, it can operate at much lower power compared to a traditional reactor to produce the same amount of 99Mo by irradiating targets. In this study, the neutronic performance and 99Mo, 89Sr, and 131I production capacity of a subcritical aqueous homogenous reactor fueled with low-enriched uranyl nitrate was evaluated using the MCNPX code. A proton accelerator with a maximum 30-MeV accelerating power was used to run the subcritical core. The computational results indicate a good potential for the modeled system to produce the radioisotopes under completely safe conditions because of the high negative reactivity coefficients of the modeled core. The results show that application of an optimized beam window material can increase the fission power of the aqueous nitrate fuel up to 80%. This accelerator-based procedure using low enriched uranium nitrate fuel to produce radioisotopes presents a potentially competitive alternative in comparison with the reactor-based or other accelerator-based methods. This system produces ∼1,500 Ci/wk (∼325 6-day Ci of 99Mo at the end of a cycle.

  1. A comparison of fingerprint sweat corrosion of different alloys of brass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Stephanie; Bond, John W

    2013-01-01

    Fingerprint sweat from 40 donors was deposited onto samples of five α and α + β phase brasses, comprising five alloys with different copper and zinc concentrations, two of which also had the addition of small concentrations of lead. Visual grading of the visibility of the corrosion revealed that brasses with the least amount of zinc produced the most visible and fully formed fingerprints from the most donors. Consideration of previously reported mechanisms for the corrosion of brass suggests red copper (I) oxide as a likely corrosion product for low zinc brasses, and a consideration of the color, composition, and solubility of fingerprint sweat corrosion products suggests that copper (I) oxide produces good contrast and visibility with the brass substrate. Scanning electron microscope images of the corrosion of all five alloys confirmed the enhanced contrast between corroded and uncorroded areas for low zinc alloys. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Optimization study for metabolomics analysis of human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Jurado-Gámez, B; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-14

    Sweat has recently gained popularity as a potential tool for diagnostics and biomarker monitoring as it is a non-invasive biofluid the composition of which could be modified by certain pathologies, as is the case with cystic fibrosis, which increases chloride levels in sweat. The aim of the present study was to develop an analytical method for analysis of human sweat by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS/MS) in high resolution mode. Thus, different sample preparation strategies and different chromatographic modes (HILIC and C18 reverse modes) were compared to check their effect on the profile of sweat metabolites. Forty-one compounds were identified by the MS/MS information obtained with a mass tolerance window below 4 ppm. Amino acids, dicarboxylic acids and other interesting metabolites such as inosine, choline, uric acid and tyramine were identified. Among the tested protocols, direct analysis after dilution was a suited option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome. In addition, sample clean up by C18 SpinColumn SPE cartridges improved the sensitivity of most identified compounds and reduced the number of interferents. As most of the identified metabolites are involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new possibilities to the use of sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of specific disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nanoduct Sweat Conductivity Measurements in 2664 Patients: Relationship to Age, Arterial Blood Gas, Serum Electrolyte Profiles and Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Aydemir, Gokhan; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Paketci, Cem; Karaoglu, Abdulbaki; Aydinoz, Secil; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Background The Nanoduct® device has acceptable diagnostic accuracy, but there is not enough systematic data supporting its usage in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods A retrospective review of patients with an indication for the sweat test was conducted. The conductivity test was repeated in patients who had values higher than 60 mmol/L, and they were referred for sweat chloride measurements. Associations between sweat conductivity measurements and age, gender, (pH, HCO3, pCO2, Na, K, Cl), family history, consanguinity, indications for the test and number of hospitalization were studied. Results Among 2,664 patients, 16 children had sweat conductivity values higher than 80. The median age of patients diagnosed with CF was 4 months old. Age, pH, HCO3, Na, Cl, K and the sweat conductivity test were statistically related (P conductivity test and the sweat test. Conclusions Patients suspected to have CF can be screened using the Nanoduct® conductivity device in non-qualified centers. PMID:23390474

  4. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kycko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  5. Analisis Brand Equity Pocari Sweat Dalam Persaingan Industri Minuman (Studi Kasus: Mahasiswa Di Bogor)

    OpenAIRE

    Pratama, Fredie; Jono M Munandar

    2010-01-01

    Isotonic drink is a new kind of product in Indonesian consumer goods. This kind of product entered Indonesian market in mid-80s. However, isotonic drink industry is growing up along with the increase of people's welfare and awareness of body health. One of isotonic drinks marketed in Indonesia is Pocari Sweat, produced by PT Amerta Indah Otsuka, which is the market leader in Indonesian isotonic drink industry. High level of competition put more burdens on the producer. PT Amerta has to ensure...

  6. Effects of age on histological parameters of the sweat glands of Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Regina Bueno de Mattos Nascimento

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sweat glands are important in thermoregulation of cattle in a warm environment as they help dissipate heat through evaporation. Studies on gland histology are important to define its secretion potential and the capacity of perspiration and heat removal. The objective of this study was to determine, by histomorphometry, glandular epithelium height, the depth of the gland, length of the glandular portion and number of glands per cm2 of the sweat glands of the three age groups of Nellore cattle. Thirty females were used in this study. They were equally divided into calves, heifers and cows. Histological sections were obtained and analyzed by digital images in Trinocular BX40 Olympus microscope coupled to an Oly - 200 camera, connected to a computer. The images were obtained with microscope with 2x, 4x, 10x and 40x magnification objectives. The measurements were performed using HL Image 97 program. The height of glandular epithelium, depth of the glands, length and density of the glandular portion per cm2 , were all analyzed. The calves showed greater height of the glandular epithelium than heifers (P = 0.0024, and cows (P = 0.0191. The depth of the gland was not influenced by age. Cows had higher length of secretory portion than heifers (P = 0.0379 and calves (P = 0.0077. Heifers had a greater number of sweat glands per cm2 of skin than cows (P = 0.023. In cattle, the height of glandular epithelium and the density decreases as animals get older. On the other hand, the length of the secretor portion increases but with no changes in the depth of the sweat glands

  7. Men Smelling Women: Null Effects of Exposure to Ovulatory Sweat on Men's Testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Roney

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species, humans included, exhibit rapid testosterone increases after exposure to conspecific females. Female chemical stimuli are sufficient to trigger these responses in many nonhuman species, which raises the possibility of similar effects in humans. Recently, Miller and Maner (2010 reported that smelling T-shirts worn by women near ovulation can trigger testosterone responses in men; however, men were aware that they were smelling women's scents, and thus mental imagery associated with that knowledge may have contributed to the hormone responses. Here, we collected axillary sweat samples from women on days near ovulation. In a crossover design, men who were not explicitly aware of the specific stimuli smelled the sweat samples in one session and water samples in a second session. There were no differences in testosterone responses across the experimental conditions. Our null findings suggest that the relevant chemical signal is not found in axillary sweat, and/or that knowledge of the stimulus source is necessary for hormone responses. These results thus suggest boundary conditions for the effects reported in Miller and Maner (2010, and recommend further research to define the precise circumstances under which men's testosterone may respond to chemosensory cues from women.

  8. Indirect measurements of sweat electrolyte concentration in the laboratory diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeley, M.; Woolf, D.; Heeley, A.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate whether analytical methods based on the colligative physical chemical properties of ions or solutes in sweat are less effective than the specific measurement of electrolytes in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF).
METHODS—A single sweat sample was collected (Macroduct) from each of 211 infants and children, of whom 57 had CF, for the measurment of sodium, chloride, osmolality, and conductivity.
RESULTS—The ranges within which CF and non-CF individual values overlapped (equivocal ranges), were wider for sodium and osmolality measurement than for chloride or conductivity. Neither of the latter two measurements provided a discriminatory advantage over the other. The utilisation of broadly based age related ranges for non-CF control subjects served to improve the discriminatory power of all four measurements to an extent that, in this cohort, both chloride and conductivity provided complete discrimination.
CONCLUSION—Sweat conductivity is as effective as chloride measurement in the laboratory diagnosis of CF.

 PMID:10799439

  9. Intraparotid Location of the Great Auricular Nerve: A New Anatomical Basis for Gustatory Sweating Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Gaoussou

    2015-11-01

    Gustatory sweating syndrome (also known as Frey syndrome or auriculotemporal nerve syndrome) is thought to result from a lesion of the auriculotemporal nerve. A lesion of this nerve can lead to aberrant regeneration of nerve fibers to the sweat glands and blood vessels. The occurrence of signs outside the region of the auriculotemporal nerve prompted the author to search for another anatomical basis for this syndrome. The author dissected 46 great auricular nerves from their origin to the parotid gland and in the infratemporal fossa. The author investigated the different connections of the great auricular nerve with the facial nerve and the auriculotemporal nerve. The great auricular nerve was found to essentially be a parotid nerve. There was a set of intraparotid nerve connections on 14 of the 46 half-heads that were dissected. The author was able to discern three types of parotid great auricular nerve connections, which he designates as either type 1, connection with the trunk of the facial nerve and its branches; type 2, connection with the auriculotemporal nerve; or type 3, connection with the auriculotemporal nerve and the facial nerve with the formation of an intraparotid nerve circle. Having clearly established the nerve connections of the great auricular nerve, the author believes that it is primarily this nerve that is responsible for gustatory sweating syndrome. This allows for a better understanding of the sympathetic nervous system features and the manifestation of the syndrome outside the region of the auriculotemporal nerve.

  10. Formaldehyde solutions in simulated sweat increase human melanoma but not normal human keratinocyte cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, M; Cravello, B; Tonello, S; Renò, F

    2016-12-01

    Our skin is in close contact with clothes most of the time thus risking potentially noxious chemicals contact. One of the potentially harmful manufacturing by-products that can be released by textiles when sweating is formaldehyde, used as an anti-crease treatment. As it is known to be carcinogenic to humans and a potent skin sensitizer, the aim of this study was to investigate its effects on both normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) and on a highly invasive malignant melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-28) in order to contribute to the definition of safety cut-off to be applied to the production processes. Formaldehyde concentrations below the commonly accepted limits (10-50μM) were obtained by diluting formaldehyde in simulated sweat (UNI EN ISO 105-E04). The effects on cell proliferation were evaluated by cell counting, while ERK pathway activation was evaluated by western blot. Low concentrations of formaldehyde (10μM) in both acidic and alkaline simulated sweat were able to increase malignant melanoma cell proliferation, while not affecting normal keratinocytes. Melanoma proliferation increase was greater in acidic (pH=5.5) than in alkaline (pH=8) conditions. Moreover, formaldehyde stimulation was able to induce ERK pathway activation. The data obtained suggest the need for an even increasing attention to the potentially harmful effects of textile manufacturing by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Circular polarization induced by the three-dimensional chiral structure of human sweat ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayut, Itai; Ben Ishai, Paul; Agranat, Aharon J; Feldman, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    The upper part of the human eccrine sweat ducts, embedded within the epidermis layer, have a well-defined helical structure. It was recently suggested that, as electromagnetic entities, the sweat ducts interact with sub-mm waves [Y. Feldman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 128102 (2008)]. Although correlation between changes in the reflectance spectrum in this frequency range and physiological activities has been shown, a direct link between the electromagnetic reflection and the helical structure itself has remained to be established. The fact that the sweat ducts manifest natural homochirality is henceforth used to produce this link. We report the detection of circular polarization asymmetry in the electromagnetic reflection from the human skin at sub-THz frequencies in vivo. We compare the results to numerical simulations and to measurements of a fabricated metamaterial. We argue that the observed circular dichroism can be interpreted uniquely as the signature of the helical structure itself. By twisting reflected electromagnetic waves, the human skin exhibits properties which are usually discussed only in the framework of metamaterial science.

  12. Measurement of sodium concentration in sweat samples: comparison of 5 analytical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Eric D B; Asselin, Audrey; Gosselin, Jonathan; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-08-01

    Sweat sodium concentration (SSC) can be determined using different analytical techniques (ATs), which may have implications for athletes and scientists. This study compared the SSC measured with 5 ATs: ion chromatography (IChr), flame photometry (FP), direct (DISE) and indirect (IISE) ion-selective electrode, and ion conductivity (IC). Seventy sweat samples collected from 14 athletes were analyzed with 5 instruments: the 883 Basic IC Plus (IChr, reference instrument), AAnalyst 200 (FP), Cobas 6000 (IISE), Sweat-Chek (IC), and B-722 Laqua Twin (DISE). Instruments showed excellent relative (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ≥ 0.999) and absolute (coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 2.6%) reliability. Relative validity was also excellent between ATs (ICC ≥ 0.961). In regards to the inter-AT absolute validity, compared with IChr, standard error of the estimates were similar among ATs (2.8-3.8 mmol/L), but CV was lowest with DISE (3.9%), intermediate with IISE (7.6%), and FP (6.9%) and highest with IC (12.3%). In conclusion, SSC varies depending on the AT used to analyze samples. Therefore, results obtained from different ATs are scarcely comparable and should not be used interchangeably. Nevertheless, taking into account the normal variability in SSC (∼±12%), the imprecision of the recommendations deriving from FP, IISE, IC, and DISE should have trivial health and physiological consequences under most exercise circumstances.

  13. Textile Functionalization and Its Effects on the Release of Silver Nanoparticles into Artificial Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Sandra; Dommershausen, Nils; Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Mitrano, Denise; Nowack, Bernd; Schneider, Gregor; Luch, Andreas

    2016-06-07

    This study addresses the release of total silver (Ag) and silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from textiles into artificial sweat, particularly considering the functionalization technology used in textile finishing. Migration experiments were conducted for four commercially available textiles and for six laboratory-prepared textiles. Two among these lab-prepared textiles represent materials in which Ag-NPs were embedded within the textile fibers (composites), whereas the other lab-prepared textiles contain Ag particles on the respective fiber surfaces (coatings). The results indicate a smaller release of total Ag from composites in comparison to surface-coated textiles. The particulate fraction determined within the artificial sweat was negligible for most textiles, meaning that the majority of the released Ag is present as dissolved Ag. It is also relevant to note that nanotextiles do not release more particulate Ag than conventional Ag textiles. The results rather indicate that the functionalization type is the most important parameter affecting the migration. Furthermore, after measuring different Ag-NP types in their pristine form with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the single particle mode, there is evidence that particle modifications, like surface coating, may also influence the dissolution behavior of the Ag-NPs in the sweat solutions. These factors are important when discussing the likelihood of consumer exposure.

  14. Rapid method for determining Sr-89 and Sr-90 using Cherenkov and proportional counting; Schnellmethode zur Bestimmung von SR-89 und SR-90 durch Cerenkov- und Proportionalzaehlermessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Wende, C.; Schwokowski, R.; Alisch-Mark, M.; Abraham, A.; Heinrich, T. [Staatliche Betriebsgesellschaft fuer Umwelt und Landwirtschaft, Radebeul (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A rapid method for determining Sr-89 and Sr-90 in water, milk and biological samples has been developed and tested. After sample preparation strontium is separated by extraction chromatography using Sr resin. Eluate is divided and transfered to LSC vial and filter paper by SrCO{sub 3} precipitation. A Hidex 300 SL TDCR liquid scintillation counter and Thermo Fisher low level proportional counter have been used. Chemical yield of Sr-85 tracer is determined by Gamma spectroscopy. Uncertainty budget, decision threshold and detection limit are calculated in accordance with GUM and ISO 11929.

  15. Sr Isotopes at the Onset of the Ice Ages at the Northern Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Rita; Lazar, Boaz; Angiolini, Lucia; Crippa, Gaia; Stein, Mordechai

    2017-04-01

    show normal late Pliocene - early Pleistocene marine values of 87Sr/86Sr ratios (˜ 0.709). On the other hand, the calcite skeleton organisms from the same bed, Ostrea edulis (bivalve) and Terebratula scillae (brachiopod), show continental effect on the 87Sr/86Sr isotopes (values ranging from 0.7084 to 0.7089). It should be noted that these two groups of organisms have also different life styles and metabolic rates. Measuring the δ88/86Sr values on the fossils with "normal" marine radiogenic Sr composition and those with continental radiogenic Sr signal may provide additional constraints on the sources and processes that affected the geochemistry of these species and yield a reliable marine δ88/86Sr value for that period.

  16. In vitro and in vivo studies on a Mg-Sr binary alloy system developed as a new kind of biodegradable metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X N; Xie, X H; Li, N; Zheng, Y F; Qin, L

    2012-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have shown potential as biodegradable metallic materials for orthopedic applications due to their degradability, resemblance to cortical bone and biocompatible degradation/corrosion products. However, the fast corrosion rate and the potential toxicity of their alloying element limit the clinical application of Mg alloys. From the viewpoint of both metallurgy and biocompatibility, strontium (Sr) was selected to prepare hot rolled Mg-Sr binary alloys (with a Sr content ranging from 1 to 4 wt.%) in the present study. The optimal Sr content was screened with respect to the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Sr binary alloys and the feasibility of the use of Mg-Sr alloys as orthopedic biodegradable metals was investigated by in vitro cell experiments and intramedullary implantation tests. The mechanical properties and corrosion rates of Mg-Sr alloys were dose dependent with respect to the added Sr content. The as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy exhibited the highest strength and slowest corrosion rate, suggesting that the optimal Sr content was 2 wt.%. The as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy showed Grade I cytotoxicity and induced higher alkaline phosphatase activity than the other alloys. During the 4 weeks implantation period we saw gradual degradation of the as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy within a bone tunnel. Micro-computer tomography and histological analysis showed an enhanced mineral density and thicker cortical bone around the experimental implants. Higher levels of Sr were observed in newly formed peri-implant bone compared with the control. In summary, this study shows that the optimal content of added Sr is 2 wt.% for binary Mg-Sr alloys in the rolled state and that the as-rolled Mg-2Sr alloy in vivo produces an acceptable host response. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of botulinum toxin type B on residual limb sweating and pain. Is there a chance for indirect phantom pain reduction by improved prosthesis use?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K-U; Kohl, M; Seifert, U; Schlereth, T

    2012-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis of a residual limb after amputation is one of the most common reasons for impaired prosthesis use and quality of life and affects 30-50% of all amputees causing skin irritation in about 25%. Thus the probability of residual limb pain increases in addition to an increased likelihood of phantom pain due to shorter duration of prothesis use. Development of both types of pain was studied following treatment of hyperhidrosis in 9 amputees. A total of 9 lower limb amputees received injections of 1750 units of botulinum toxin type B (BTX-B) for the treatment of hyperhidrosis of a residual limb (20 intracutaneous injections each). Prior to injections and 4 weeks and 3 months afterwards, patients rated the impairments regarding residual limb pain, phantom pain and sweating of the residual limb. Furthermore the duration of use of the prosthetic device and quality of life were rated on a numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10). Stump pain (n=9) was highly significantly reduced after 3 months (baseline: NRS 5; 4 weeks: NRS 4, p=0.109; 3 months: NRS 3, p=0.008) and also a tendency for phantom pain after 3 months (baseline NRS 5; 3 months: NRS 3; p=0.109). Sweating of the residual limb prior to BTX-B application was rated as a median 7 on the NRS scale with significant improvements after 4 weeks (NRS 3, p=0.027) and 3 months (NRS 3, p=0.020). Impaired duration of prothesis use improved from NRS 8 to NRS 2 (4 weeks; p=0.023) and NRS 3 (3 months; p=0.023) as well as the quality of life (p=0.016, p=0.023, respectively). Residual limb pain improved 3 months after intracutaneous, low-dose BTX-B in a trial with 9 patients and also phantom pain by tendency. Sweating of the residual limb was significantly reduced, probably thereby improving the duration of prothesis use. Larger studies should confirm these findings and conclusions.

  18. Potential Analysis of Thunderstorm Occurrence Using SWEAT Method at Meteorology Station Sultan Iskandar Muda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Kurnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu hal penting dalam mengutamakan keselamatan penerbangan ialah informasi meteorologi yang tepat dan akurat terutama mengenai kondisi cuaca buruk seperti thunderstorm. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan prakiraan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm, sehingga pihak maskapai penerbangan dapat menyesuaikan prosedur keselamatan baik pada saat take off, on the route, maupun landing. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis data radiosonde pada 2 (dua musim, yaitu musim kemarau dan musim hujan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama periode April-Desember 2016 dan Januari-Maret 2017. Data radiosonde tersebut diperoleh dari Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda yang telah diukur setiap dua kali dalam satu hari. Waktu pengukurannya ialah pada pukul 00Z dan pukul 12Z. Dengan menggunakan Software Rawinsonde Observation (RAOB versi 5.7, dilakukan pengolahan data radiosonde sehingga diperoleh informasi parameter atmosfer seperti temperatur, titik embun, dan kecepatan angin. Parameter atmosfer tersebut dapat digunakan untuk memprakirakan potensi terjadinya thunderstorm selama dua belas jam kedepan, yaitu dengan menggunakan metode SWEAT (Severe Weather Threat sehingga diperoleh SWEAT Indeks untuk setiap pengukuran radiosonde. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan, diketahui SWEAT Indeks untuk wilayah Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda berkisar antara 39,8 - 355,4. Hasil analisis metode SWEAT diverifikasi dengan data aktual (data synop yang diamati di Stasiun Meteorologi Sultan Iskandar Muda dan diketahui persentase kesesuaian antara data prakiraan dengan kondisi aktual yaitu 58,62-66,67%.   One of the most important things in aviation safety is the accurate information of meteorology especially on bad weather conditions as thunderstorm. Therefore, need to forecast about potential occurrence of thunderstorm, so the airlines can adjust safety aviation when take of, an the route, and landing. In this research was analysis of

  19. Effect of Sr Additive Amount and Holding Time on Microstructure of A390 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. H.; Xing, S. M.; Han, Q. Y.; Guo, Q.; Wang, R. F.

    2017-11-01

    The microstructure of A390 alloy under different Sr additive amounts and holding times was studied by means of direct reading spectrum analysis, energy spectrum analysis, optical microscope and electron microscope. The results show that Sr has a good modification to eutectic Si, while it has a negative effect on primary silicon. The Sr addition will increase the size of primary silicon. When the addition amount of Al-10Sr alloy is 0.6%, the modification of eutectic silicon is the optimum. The Sr has a short incubation period and a fine modification at 10min, but it is more serious burning rate in small furnace smelting, and the modification effect disappears basically after 100min.

  20. Sex differences in amino acids lost via sweating could lead to differential susceptibilities to disturbances in nitrogen balance and collagen turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, R H; Sparkes, D L; Dascombe, B J; Stevens, C J; Murphy, G R; Macdonald, M M; Gottfries, J; Gottfries, C-G; Roberts, T K

    2017-08-01

    Fluid collected during sweating is enriched with amino acids derived from the skin's natural moisturising factors and has been termed "faux" sweat. Little is known about sex differences in sweat amino acid composition or whether faux sweat amino acid losses affect nitrogen balance. Faux sweat collected by healthy adults (n = 47) after exercise, and at rest by chronic fatigue patients, was analysed for amino acid composition. Healthy females had higher total amino acid concentrations in sweat (10.5 ± 1.2 mM) compared with healthy males (6.9 ± 0.9 mM). Females had higher levels of 13 amino acids in sweat including serine, alanine and glycine. Higher hydroxyproline and proline levels suggested greater collagen turnover in females. Modelling indicated that with conservative levels of exercise, amino acid losses in females via faux sweat were triple than those predicted for urine, whereas in males they were double. It was concluded that females were more susceptible to key amino acid loss during exercise and/or hot conditions. Females reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of methionine in faux sweat than healthy females. Males reporting chronic fatigue had higher levels of numerous amino acids in faux sweat compared to healthy males. Higher amino acid loss in faux sweat associated with chronic fatigue could contribute to a hypometabolic state. Depending on activity levels, climatic conditions and gender, amino acid losses in sweat and skin leachate could influence daily protein turnover where periods of continuously high turnover could lead to a negative net nitrogen balance.

  1. The significance of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat and serum in cholinergic urticaria: cholinergic urticaria may have different subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Kwan Ho; Cho, Hyun Hee; Kang, Hoon; Park, Young Min; Park, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Jun Young

    2015-07-01

    The pathogenesis of cholinergic urticaria (ChU) has been unclear except for the involvement of acetylcholine. Attempts to classify ChU according to etiology have rarely been performed. To evaluate the significance of responsiveness to autologous sweat and serum in ChU in relation to their clinical characteristics. This study involved 18 patients diagnosed with ChU between January 2010 and April 2011 in the Catholic Medical Center-St. Paul's Hospital. History taking included symptom duration, association with atopy, decreased sweat secretions, seasonal variation, and response to treatment. Intradermal autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous sweat skin test (ASwST) and basophil histamine release test with sweat were done. Sweat hypersensitivity was proven by a positive ASwST and basophil histamine release test in only 37.5% of patients with ChU, and in none of the healthy controls. The weal size of ASwST correlated with percentage basophil histamine release. A positive response to autologous serum was displayed by 38.9% of patients, whereas 10% of healthy controls showed a positive ASST response. Intriguingly, patients with a positive ASwST had a negative ASST, and vice versa. Despite this, there was no difference in the clinical characteristics between positive ASST and positive ASwST groups. The frequency of hypersensitivity to autologous sweat and serum was significantly higher in patients with ChU, compared with healthy controls. This suggests that autoimmunity to an unknown serum factor as well as sweat hypersensitivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of ChU. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of SrHAp/ZnO composite implant coating on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zeng, Hongjuan; Wang, Xuexin; Wang, Deshun

    2014-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of electrodeposited ZnO containing and strontium doped hydroxyapatite (SrHAp/ZnO) coating on titanium (Ti) substrate was investigated. The microstructure, phase composition and corrosion resistance of the coating were studied. The results reveal that Sr2+ and ZnO incorporation markedly increased the density of HAp coating, i.e. the fabricated coating had significantly lower porosity than the original HAp coating. The SrHAp/ZnO coating was dense and uniform, with a flocculent morphological structure of apatite. The SrHAp/ZnO crystals were carbonated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite, and Sr2+ and ZnO were homogeneously distributed in the coating. The thickness of the composite coating was almost 10 μm without delamination or cracks at the interface. Bond strength test revealed that the adhesion of the SrHAp/ZnO coating was more enhanced than that of the HAp coating. The SrHAp/ZnO-coated Ti had a lower corrosion rate than the pure HAp-coated sample, which suggests the protective characteristic of the composite coating. Osteoblast cellular tests demonstrated that the SrHAp/ZnO composite coating greatly enhanced the in vitro biocompatibility of the Ti substrate.

  3. Effect of SR manipulation on conduit artery dilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Howard H; Dawson, Ellen A; Birk, Gurpreet K; Spence, Angela L; Naylor, Louise H; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    The impact of manipulating shear stress on conduit artery vasodilation has not been comprehensively described in vivo. We hypothesized that manipulation of SR through the brachial and radial arteries would be associated with corresponding changes in diameter. We performed a series of studies involving the following: (1) leg cycle exercise at increasing intensities (≈70 and 85% maximum heart rate [HRmax]) with simultaneous bilateral measurement of SR in the radial arteries; (2) leg cycle exercise for 30 minutes at 80% HRmax with simultaneous bilateral measurement of velocity and diameter in the brachial arteries; and (3) bilateral forearm heating for 30 minutes with simultaneous bilateral measurement of brachial artery diameter and blood velocity. Cycling and forearm heating interventions were performed in the presence of unilateral cuff inflation throughout the experiment, or starting during the intervention (15 minutes), to manipulate SR responses. Cuff placement was associated with lower radial artery SR responses (cuffed versus uncuffed, 248±49 versus 349±105 L/s 85% HRmax; P<0.01), and diameter responses were similarly attenuated (2.45±0.30 versus 2.78±0.20 mm 85% HRmax; P<0.05). Exercise performed at 80% HRmax in the presence of unilateral cuff inflation also reduced brachial artery SR (cuffed versus uncuffed; 258±107 versus 454±157 L/s; P<0.01) and diameter (3.96±0.39 versus 4.20±0.45 mm). Finally, cuff inflation decreased the impact of forearm heating on brachial SR (cuffed versus uncuffed; 262±97 versus 440±106 L/s; P<0.01) and diameter (4.35±0.54 versus 4.87±0.47 mm; P<0.05). Similar significant differences between the cuffed and uncuffed limbs in SR and diameter were observed when cuff inflation occurred during exercise or heating. Our findings strongly implicate SR as an important stimulus to increase conduit artery diameter in humans.

  4. Report on the assessment of the heat stress in working places, underground in the mines. Part 3: An examination of the extent to which metabolic rate is taken into account by the P4SR index

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wyndham, CH

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available In this report for the Transvaal and Orange Free State Chamber of Mines Research Organization, a detailed analysis is made of the effect of different metabolic rates, corresponding to light, moderate and hard work, on the rectal temperatures, heart...

  5. Morphology of human sweat ducts observed by optical coherence tomography and their frequency of resonance in the terahertz frequency region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Saroj R.; Miyata, Eisuke; Ishai, Paul Ben; Kawase, Kodo

    2015-03-01

    It is crucial to understand the various biological effects induced by terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves with the rapid development of electronic and photonic devices operating in the THz frequency region. The presence of sweat glands plays an important role in THz wave interactions with human skin. We investigated the morphological features of sweat ducts using optical coherence tomography (OCT) to further understand such phenomena. We observed remarkable features of the ducts, such as their clear helical structure. The intersubject and intrasubject variations in the diameter of sweat ducts were considerably smaller than the variations in other structural parameters, such as length and number of turns. Based on the sweat duct dimensions and THz dielectric properties of skin measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS), we calculated the resonating frequency of the sweat duct under the assumption of it functioning as a helical antenna. Here, we show that the resonance frequency in the axial mode of operation lies in the THz wave region with a centre frequency of 0.44 +/- 0.07 THz. We expect that these findings will further our understanding of the various health consequences of the interaction of THz waves with human beings.

  6. 2nd dimensional GC-MS analysis of sweat volatile organic compounds prepared by solid phase micro-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Oh, Chang-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of an individual's odor from sweat, breath and skin provide important information for criminal tracking in field of forensic science. Solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was used to determine human sweat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles. The mass spectrometric analysis (with electron impact mode) followed by 2nd dimensional separation with two different GC columns (one polar and one relatively nonpolar) connected in parallel were used to identify the 574 compounds from sweat samples. The components included alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatics/aromatics, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, and other organic compounds (amides/amines, thio/thioesters, oxide, sulfides, nitro compounds). Of these compounds, 1-tridecanol, 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethyl ethyl)-benzene, 4,4'-(1-methylethylidene) bis-phenol and 7-acetyl-6-ethyl-1,1,4,4,-tetramethyl-tetraline were common components in all donor's sweat volatile samples. Age-related specific compounds were also detected. The results suggest that characteristic volatile profiles of human sweat emanations could provide the valuable information to forensic scientists.

  7. 90Sr liquid scintillation urine analysis utilizing different approaches for tracer recovery.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piraner, Olga; Preston, Rose T.; Shanks, Sonoya Toyoko; Jones, Robert

    2010-08-01

    90Sr is one of the isotopes most commonly produced by nuclear fission. This medium lived isotope presents serious challenges to radiation workers, the environment, and following a nuclear event, the general public. Methods of identifying this nuclide have been in existence for a number of years (e.g. Horwitz, E.P. [1], Maxwell, S.L.[2], EPA 905.0 [3]) which are time consuming, requiring a month or more for full analysis. This time frame is unacceptable in the present security environment. It is therefore important to have a dependable and rapid method for the determination of Sr. The purposes of this study are to reduce analysis time to less than half a day by utilizing a single method of radiation measurement while continuing to yield precise results. This paper presents findings on three methods that can meet this criteria; (1) stable Sr carrier, (2) 85Sr by gamma spectroscopy, and (3) 85Sr by LSC. Two methods of analyzing and calculating the 85Sr tracer recovery were investigated (gamma spectroscopy and a low energy window-Sr85LEBAB by LSC) as well as the use of two different types of Sr tracer (85Sr and stable Sr carrier). Three separate stock blank urine samples were spiked with various activity levels of 239Pu, 137Cs, 90Sr /90Y to determine the effectiveness of the Eichrome Sr-spec resin 2mL extractive columns. The objective was to compare the recoveries of 85Sr versus a stable strontium carrier, attempt to compare the rate at which samples can be processed by evaluating evaporation, neutralization, and removing the use of another instrument (gamma spectrometer) by using the LSC spectrometer to obtain 85Sr recovery. It was found that when using a calibration curve comprised of a different cocktail and a non-optimum discriminator setting reasonable results (bias of « 25%) were achieved. The results from spiked samples containing 85Sr demonstrated that a higher recovery is obtained when using gamma spectroscopy (89-95%) than when using the LEB window

  8. A new method of artificial latent fingerprint creation using artificial sweat and inkjet printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Hong, Ingi; Han, Aleum; Seo, Jin Yi; Namgung, Juyoung

    2015-12-01

    In order to study fingerprinting in the field of forensic science, it is very important to have two or more latent fingerprints with identical chemical composition and intensity. However, it is impossible to obtain identical fingerprints, in reality, because fingerprinting comes out slightly differently every time. A previous research study had proposed an artificial fingerprint creation method in which inkjet ink was replaced with amino acids and sodium chloride solution: the components of human sweat. But, this method had some drawbacks: divalent cations were not added while formulating the artificial sweat solution, and diluted solutions were used for creating weakly deposited latent fingerprint. In this study, a method was developed for overcoming the drawbacks of the methods used in the previous study. Several divalent cations were added in this study because the amino acid-ninhydrin (or some of its analogues) complex is known to react with divalent cations to produce a photoluminescent product; and, similarly, the amino acid-1,2-indanedione complex is known to be catalyzed by a small amount of zinc ions to produce a highly photoluminescent product. Also, in this study, a new technique was developed which enables to adjust the intensity when printing the latent fingerprint patterns. In this method, image processing software is used to control the intensity of the master fingerprint patterns, which adjusts the printing intensity of the latent fingerprints. This new method opened the way to produce a more realistic artificial fingerprint in various strengths with one artificial sweat working solution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical behaviour of brass in chloride solution concentrations found in eccrine fingerprint sweat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, John W., E-mail: jwb13@le.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, George Porter Building, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lieu, Elaine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion of brass in NaCl concentrations found in eccrine sweat was investigated. • Concentrations < 0.2 M produce a layer of mainly zinc oxide after 24 h. • A concentration of 0.2 M enables active corrosion of brass at room temperature. • 0.2 M NaCl gives both zinc and copper dissolution. • 24-h immersion of brass in 0.2 M NaCl gives an oxide film thickness of 1.3 nm. - Abstract: In this work, the corrosion properties of α phase brass immersed in concentrations of aqueous NaCl solutions that are typically found in eccrine fingerprint sweat and range between 0.01 M and 0.2 M have been analysed. Analysis methods employed were electrochemical techniques, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical profiling. For NaCl concentrations <0.2 M, active corrosion did not occur although, after a period of 24 h, a passivating layer of mainly zinc oxide formed. At a concentration of 0.2 M active corrosion did occur, with measured corrosion potentials consistent with both brass and copper dissolution. A 1 h contact time at this concentration (0.2 M) resulted in the formation of a zinc oxide passivating layer with the surface ratio of zinc oxide to copper oxide increasing with time. Film thickness was calculated to be of the order of 1.3 nm after 24 h contact. Formation of oxide layers on brass by fingerprint sweat as observed here may well have implications for the successful investigation of crime by the visualisation of corrosion fingerprint ridge patterns or the reduction of hospital environmental contamination by hand contact with brass objects such as door handles or taps.

  10. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  11. A case of radiation myelopathy with characteristic findings of thermoregulatory sweat distribution and magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Katsumasa; Sannomiya, Kunihiro; Nagao, Shinichiro; Nakazato, Okifumi; Tsuda, Tomiyasu (Oita Medical University, Hazama (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    A 73-year-old man had undergone resection of a lung carcinoma of the right upper lobe in 1987. Post-operative irradiation (40 Gy) was given to the right hilus. In November 1988, recurrence was detected in the trachea. Laser therapy was done in December 1988. From January 9 to February 13 in 1989, irradiation (50 Gy) was given to the mediastinum. From the beginning of 1991, the patient developed muscle weakness in the right lower extremity and pain temperature sensations were impaired below the Th12 level on the left side. On October 3, 1991, he was admitted to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mild muscle weakness in the right lower extremity. Superficial sensations were impaired below the Th6 level bilaterally. Deep tendon reflexes were hyperactive in the lower extremities. A bilateral Babinski sign was positive. The T1 weighted MRI showed a low signal intensity in the spinal cord at the level of thoracic vertebra (TV)2-TV6. T2 weighted images revealed a high signal intensity area of the spinal cord from TV4-TV6. A gadolinium-DTPA injection revealed an enhancement on the left side of the spinal cord at the TV2-3 level, and right side of the spinal cord at the TV4-5 level on the sagittal and axial images. A thermal sweating test revealed hypohidrosis below the Th8 level on the right side, and the Th11 level on the left side. Sweating was delayed at the Th7-8 levels on the right side and Th10-11 levels on the left side. An irradiated field on the chest revealed hypohidrosis. There were differences between spinal lesions in MRI and thermoregulatory sweat distribution. Sweat distribution of this case could not be explained by damage of intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord. We speculated that the sympathetic sudomotor pathways were partially disturbed at the upper thoracic cord. But the exact mechanism could not been elucidated. (author).

  12. Luminescent studies of impurity doped SrS phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 1 ... SrS phosphors; ESR; photoluminescence; thermoluminescence. Abstract. SrS phosphors activated with Ce and Dy ions were prepared by solid-state diffusion method. Photoluminescent study was carried out on SrS : Ce, SrS : Dy and SrS : Dy, Ce.

  13. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly. Final tabulation of monthly /sup 90/Sr fallout data: 1954--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the monthly /sup 90/Sr deposition data derived from a global network of stations started in 1954. This program was carried out to assess the distribution patterns and inventory the amount of fallout of radionuclies from atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1976, monthly deposition rates had diminished to the point where measurable levels of /sup 90/Sr were rarely observed.

  14. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87Sr/86Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87Sr/86Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87Sr/86Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  15. Radioactivity determination of [sup 90]Y, [sup 90]Sr and [sup 89]Sr mixtures by spectral deconvolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A. (Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Rodriguez Barquero, L. (Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)); Grau Carles, A. (Inst. de Investigacion Basica, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-22

    The measurement of [sup 90]Y, [sup 90]Sr and [sup 89]Sr in environmental samples has received considerable attention since the advent of the nuclear era. These three radionuclides are pure beta-ray emitters and a nondestructive sample analysis procedure is not available. It is necessary to use complex radiochemical separation procedures to isolate these radionuclides prior to counting. The result is a significant delay between the sample treatment and the activity determination. A rapid analytical procedure is required to obtain the activity of these radionuclides and would appear to be an important goal. A deconvolution method has been applied to logarithmic spectra obtained with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. In a previous paper, this procedure was applied to samples in which [sup 90]Y and [sup 90]Sr were in equilibrium. Samples have been assessed in which [sup 90]Y activity was higher or lower than [sup 90]Sr activity, and medium and low activities were considered. Samples with count rates below background were analyzed, and the limits of detection of the procedure were determined. The effects of chemical quench and the different activity ratios were studied. It was shown that this treatment of the beta spectra is adequate and represents a rapid method of determining these radionuclides. (orig.)

  16. Dissolution of the metal sensitizers Ni, Be, Cr in artificial sweat to improve estimates of dermal bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Duling, Mathew G; Geer, Laura; Virji, M Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Dermal exposure to sensitizing metals is a serious occupational and public health problem. The usual approach to dermal exposure assessment is to process samples by chemical methods that use reactants to digest the metal particles and quantify the mass. In the case of dermal exposure assessment, these reactants are not representative of the skin surface film liquids and hence, may overestimate bioaccessibility. We hypothesize that the amount and form of sensitizer on a sample that leaches in a biological fluid, as can be estimated using artificial sweat, may be a more relevant metric for assessing health risks. Beryllium metal (Be), nickel metal (Ni), and chromium carbide (Cr3C2) particles were characterized and masses of sensitizing ions were measured using established reactant-assisted digestion procedures and extraction in artificial sweat under physiologically relevant conditions. Chromium ions released into artificial sweat were speciated to understand valence states. The ratios of the fraction of metal dissolved in artificial sweat relative to that dissolved by chemical-specific reactants were 1/2 (Be), 1/108 (Ni), and 1/2500 (Cr). The divalent Be and Ni cations were stable in artificial sweat over time (did not precipitate) whereas hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] ions decayed over time. Further analysis using speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry revealed that the decay of Cr(VI) was accompanied by the formation of Cr(III) in the sweat model. Use of reactant-assisted analytical chemistry to quantify amounts of metal sensitizers on samples could overestimate biologically relevant exposure. In addition to mass, the valence state also influences penetration through the outer stratum corneum of the skin and is an important consideration when assessing exposure to complex sensitizers such as Cr which have multiple valence states with differing penetration efficiencies.

  17. Development of a method for enhancing metabolomics coverage of human sweat by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-01-28

    Sweat has recently gained popularity as clinical sample in metabolomics analysis as it is a non-invasive biofluid the composition of which could be modified by certain pathologies, as is the case with cystic fibrosis that increases chloride levels in sweat. However, the whole composition of sweat is still unknown and there is a lack of analytical strategies for sweat analysis. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a method for metabolomic analysis of human sweat by gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) in high resolution mode. Thus, different sample preparation strategies were compared to check their effect on the profile of sweat metabolites. Sixty-six compounds were tentatively identified by the obtained MS information. Amino acids, dicarboxylic acids and other interesting metabolites such as myo-inositol and urocanic acid were identified. Among the tested protocols, methyoxiamination plus silylation after deproteinization was the most suited option to obtain a representative snapshot of sweat metabolome. The intra-day repeatability of the method ranged from 0.60 to 16.99% and the inter-day repeatability from 2.75 to 31.25%. As most of the identified metabolites are involved in key biochemical pathways, this study opens new possibilities to the use of sweat as a source of metabolite biomarkers of specific disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label-free quantification mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csősz, É; Emri, G; Kalló, G; Tsaprailis, G; Tőzsér, J

    2015-10-01

    The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analysed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labelled reference peptides were used for method validation. Ninety-five sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin-inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. Our findings with regard to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label-free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Effects of Immediate Telephone Follow-Up with Providers on Sweat Chloride Test Timing after Cystic Fibrosis Newborn Screening Identifies a Single Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pean, Alison; Farrell, Michael H.; Eskra, Kerry L.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether reporting “possible cystic fibrosis (CF)” newborn screening (NBS) results via fax plus simultaneous telephone contact with primary care providers (PCPs), versus fax alone, influenced three outcomes: getting a sweat chloride test, age at sweat chloride test, and sweat-testing before 8 weeks old. Study Design Retrospective cohort comparison of infants born in Wisconsin whose PCPs received telephone intervention (n=301), versus recent historical controls whose PCP did not (n=355). Intervention data were collected during a longitudinal research and quality improvement effort; de-identified comparison data were constructed from auxiliary NBS tracking information. Parametric and nonparametric statistical analyses tested for group differences. Results Most infants (92%) with “possible CF” NBS results whose PCPs lacked telephone intervention ultimately underwent sweat-testing, underlining efficacy for fax-only reporting. Telephone intervention was significantly associated with improvements in infants undergoing sweat-testing at both ≤6 and sweat-testing. The effect of telephone intervention was greater for PCPs whose patients underwent sweat-testing at community-affiliated medical centers versus academic medical centers (p=0.008). Conclusion Reporting “possible CF” NBS results via fax plus simultaneous telephone follow-up with PCPs increases the number of infants who have sweat chloride tests before 8 weeks of age, when affected infants are more likely to receive full benefits of early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23102590

  20. Portable Chronic Alcohol Consumption Monitor in Human Sweat through Square-Wave Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, David; Muthukumar, Sriram; Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Prasad, Shalini

    2017-09-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is a significant financial and physical burden in the United States each year. Alcohol consumption monitors focus on establishing a state of intoxication, not assessing a user's health risks as a function of consumed alcohol. This work demonstrates a biosensor for a chronic alcohol consumption monitor through the electrochemical detection of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human sweat using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). A novel affinity assay was demonstrated in which monoclonal antibodies were chemically coabsorbed onto a gold electrode surface in parallel with thiolated charge transfer molecule. Concentration-dependent EtG binding was detected by measuring a reduction in the charge transfer of the sensor, manifesting as a current response during SWV measurement. A companion compact electronic reader was constructed, demonstrating comparable sensitivity to a conventional lab instrument. Both tools demonstrated a limit of detection of 0.1 µg/L and a linear dynamic range of 0.1-100 µg/L corresponding to the physiologically relevant range of EtG expression in human sweat. This device can address the need for a chronic alcohol consumption monitor toward establishing a user's long-term consumption habits to assess the risk of developing specific diseases and conditions associated with regular alcohol consumption, through integration with existing technologies.

  1. Identical transitions in the strongly deformed Sr-99 and Sr-100

    CERN Document Server

    Lhersonneau, G; Gabelmann, H; Kratz, K L

    2001-01-01

    The decay of the very neutron-rich nucleus Rb-100 has been studied by gamma-spectroscopy of on-line mass-separated samples. Schemes for beta-decay to Sr-100 and beta-n-decay to Sr-99 are presented. New sets of transitions in Sr-99 and Sr-100 with identical energies are observed. All identical bands so far observed in neutron-rich Sr isotopes obey a simple energy rule valid for even-even, odd-even and odd-odd bands.

  2. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  3. No Sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Explains how changes in school design in the last 10 years have caused heating, ventilation, and cooling system (HVAC) designers to reexamine their choice of classroom unit ventilators (UV). The influence of indoor lighting systems, insulation, indoor air quality, energy code compliance, and HVAC system design on UV decision making are also…

  4. 'Sweat Equity' _

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denote the process by which households organise the processes of acquiring their own housing without state ... It is the process of involvement in the progressive improvement of the starter—unit (core) that is a concern in ..... teria used to recruit builders focused on individuals who had prior experience in construction work ...

  5. Assessing response of local moisture conditions in central Brazil to variability in regional monsoon intensity using speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Barbara E.; Wong, Corinne I.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; McGee, David; Montañez, Isabel P.; Troy Rasbury, E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Sharp, Warren D.; Glessner, Justin J. G.; Santos, Roberto V.

    2017-04-01

    Delineating the controls on hydroclimate throughout Brazil is essential to assessing potential impact of global climate change on water resources and biogeography. An increasing number of monsoon reconstructions from δ18O records provide insight into variations in regional monsoon intensity over the last millennium. The strength, however, of δ18O as a proxy of regional climate limits its ability to reflect local conditions, highlighting the need for comparable reconstructions of local moisture conditions. Here, speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values are developed as a paleo-moisture proxy in central Brazil to complement existing δ18O-based reconstructions of regional monsoon intensity. Speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values are resolved using laser ablation and conventional solution mass spectrometry at high resolution relative to existing (non-δ18O-based) paleo-moisture reconstructions to allow comparisons of centennial variability in paleo-monsoon intensity and paleo-moisture conditions. Variations in speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values from Tamboril Cave are interpreted to reflect varying extents of water interaction with the carbonate host rock, with more interaction resulting in greater evolution of water isotope values from those initially acquired from the soil to those of the carbonate bedrock. Increasing speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values over the last millennium suggest progressively less interaction with the carbonate host rock likely resulting from higher infiltration rates, expected under wetter conditions. Increasingly wetter conditions over the last millennium are consistent with an overall trend of increasing monsoon intensity (decreasing δ18O values) preserved in many existing δ18O records from the region. Such a trend, however, is absent in δ18O records from our site (central Brazil) and Cristal Cave (southeast Brazil), suggesting the existence of divergent (relevant to δ18Oprecip) shifts in the climate patterns within and outside the core monsoon region.

  6. Level structure of 87Sr from the 86Sr(n, γ) and 86Sr(d, p) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Ch.; Krusche, B.; Lieb, K. P.; Schmidt, H. H.; Von Egidy, T.; Hungerford, P.; Hoyler, F.; Börner, H. G.

    1986-12-01

    The γ-ray spectrum emitted after thermal neutron capture in 86Sr was studied at the ILL high flux reactor with pair- and intrinsic Ge spectrometers. 759 transitions were assigned to the reaction 86Sr(n, γ) 87Sr and 385 of them were placed into a 87Sr level scheme of 80 levels. This represents 90% of the observed intensity. The level energies were determined with a precision of better than 20 ppm; the neutron binding energy was determined to be 8428.16 (17)keV. In a second set of experiments high resolution particle spectra of the reactions 86Sr(d, p) 87Sr and 88Sr(d, t) 87Si were recorded at 20 MeV deuteron energy with the München Q3D spectrometer. These data were used to establish newly found levels and to differentiate between primary and secondary transitions in the (n, γ) data. The observed level densities and primary transition strengths are compared with statistical models.

  7. A new dimension to the Sr isotope system - (88/86)Sr record of marine carbonates in the Phanerozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstaedt, H.; Eisenhauer, A.; Krabbenhoeft, A.; Farkas, J.; Veizer, J.

    2009-12-01

    For the first time we extend and complete the application of the radiogenic Sr isotope system (87Sr/86Sr) with a simultaneous measurement of radiogenic and stable strontium (Sr) isotopes (δ(88/86)Sr[‰]=(88Sr/86Srsample/88Sr/86Sr(NBS987)-1)*1000). Taking Sr isotope fractionation into account this opens a new dimension for the Sr isotope system allowing to gain quantitative information about the Sr output from the ocean. Applying a 87Sr/84Sr-double spike we measured paired δ(88/86)Sr-87Sr/86Sr* ratios of Phanerozoic marine carbonates samples which were screened for diagenesis prior to the measurement. The 87Sr/86Sr* ratios are renormalized to δ(88/86)Sr=0‰ (88Sr/86Sr=8.375209) in order to be compatible to the radiogenic Sr isotope system values. Data reduction and denormalization follows an iterative algorithm by Krabbenhöft et al. (2009). External δ(88/86)Sr reproducibility based on an internal coral carbonate standard (JCp-1) corresponds to 0.008‰ (2SEM). Our data reveal that the δ(88/86)Sr values of Phanerozoic brachiopods and belemnites samples are in the range of modern marine carbonates (JCp-1 coral standard value: 0.192±0.008‰) but isotopically lighter than modern seawater (δ(88/86)Sr(IAPSO)= 0.385±0.007‰) being in the range between ~0.080‰ and ~0.370‰ (mean of 0.168). We observe a decrease in δ(88/86)Sr from Ordovician (0.200‰) to Silurian period (0.080‰) with a consequent increase in δ(88/86)Sr towards the upper Permian period. Highest values (~0.370‰) of δ(88/86)Sr are reached close to the Permian/Triassic boundary. This study examines the main factors that control δ(88/86)Sr on Phanerozoic timescale. It was found that temperature is not the main factor that drives δ(88/86)Sr of marine carbonates. Rather we suggest that the δ(88/86)Sr of Phanerozoic seawater is controlled by changes in the Sr fluxes in and out of the ocean. Modeling of our data allows a quantification of the Phanerozoic imbalance between the Sr input and

  8. Electronic parameters of Sr2M2O7 (M = V, Nb, Ta) and Sr-O chemical bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atuchin, Victor V.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Zhang, Zhaoming

    2010-01-01

    on the formation of the Sr-O bonds. The chemical bonding effects were considered on the basis of our XPS results for Sr2Nb2O7 and Sr2Ta2O7 and the previously published structural and XPS data for other Sr-oxide compounds. A new empirical relationship between Δ(O-Sr) and L(Sr-O) was obtained. Possible applications...

  9. High-resolution dating of deep-sea clays using Sr isotopes in fossil fish teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, B. Lynn

    1995-09-01

    Strontium isotopic compostitions of ichthyoliths (microscopic fish remains) in deep-sea clays recovered from the North Pacific Ocean (ODP holes 885A, 886B, and 886C) are used to provide stratigraphic age control within these otherwise undatable sediments. Age control within the deep-sea clays is crucial for determining changes in sedimentation rates, and for calculating fluxes of chemical and mineral components to the sediments. The Sr isotopic ages are in excellent agreement with independent age datums from above (diatom ooze), below (basalt basement) and within (Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary) the clay deposit. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of fish teeth from the top of the pelagic clay unit (0.708989), indicate an Late Miocene age (5.8 Ma), as do radiolarian and diatom biostratigraphic ages in the overlying diatom ooze. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio (0.707887) is consistent with a Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary age, as identified by anomalously high iridium, shocked quartz, and sperules in Hole 886C. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of pretreated fish teeth from the base of the clay unit are similar to Late Cretaceous seawater (0.707779-0.707519), consistent with radiometric ages from the underlying basalt of 81 Ma. Calculation of sedimentation rates based on Sr isotopic ages from Hole 886C indicate an average sedimentation rate of 17.7 m/Myr in Unit II (diatom ooze), 0.55 m/Myr in Unit IIIa (pelagic clay), and 0.68 m/Myr in Unit IIIb (distal hydrothermal precipitates). The Sr isotopic ages indicate a period of greatly reduced sedimentation (or possible hiatus) between about 35 and 65 Ma (Eocene-Paleocene), with a linear sedimentation rate of only 0.04 m/Myr The calculated sedimentation rates are generally inversely proportional to cobalt accumulation rates and ichthyolith abundances. However, discrepancies between Sr isotope ages and cobalt accumulation ages of 10-15 Myr are evident, particularly in the middle of the clay unit IIIa (Oligocene-Paleocene).

  10. Latent heat loss and sweat gland histology of male goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Cíntia Carol; Maia, Alex Sandro Campos; Neto, José Domingues Fontenele; Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work was to quantify the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of goats in an equatorial semi-arid environment. The latent heat loss from the body surfaces of these ten undefined breed goats was measured using a ventilated capsule in sun and shade and in the three body regions (neck, flank and hindquarters). Skin samples from these three regions were histologically analyzed to relate the quantity of sweat glands, the area of sweat glands and the epithelium thickness of each of these regions to the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation of the examined goats. The epithelium thickness that was measured varied significantly for body regions with different quantities and areas of sweat glands ( P < 0.01). Among the body regions that were examined, the samples from the neck demonstrated the highest epithelium thickness (16.23 ± 0.13 μm). However, the samples of sweat glands from the flank had the biggest area (43330.51 ± 778.71 μm2) and quantity per square centimeter (390 ± 9 cm-2). After the animals were exposed to sun, the flanks lost the greatest amount of heat by cutaneous evaporation (73.03 ± 1.75 W m-2) and possessed the highest surface temperatures (39.47 ± 0.18 °C). The histological characteristics may have influenced the heat loss by cutaneous evaporation that was observed in the flank region after the animals were exposed to sun.

  11. Ion chromatography for the precise analysis of chloride and sodium in sweat for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, J.; Storteboom, T. T. R.; Mulder, A. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Rottier, B. L.; Kema, I. P.

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of chloride in sweat is an essential part of the diagnostic algorithm for cystic fibrosis. The lack in sensitivity and reproducibility of current methods led us to develop an ion chromatography/high-performance liquid chromatography (IC/HPLC) method, suitable for the analysis

  12. Maxdose-SR and popdose-SR routine release atmospheric dose models used at SRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, G. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Trimor, P. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are used to calculate dose to the offsite Reference Person and to the surrounding Savannah River Site (SRS) population respectively following routine releases of atmospheric radioactivity. These models are currently accessed through the Dose Model Version 2014 graphical user interface (GUI). MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are personal computer (PC) versions of MAXIGASP and POPGASP, which both resided on the SRS IBM Mainframe. These two codes follow U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Regulatory Guides 1.109 and 1.111 (1977a, 1977b). The basis for MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR are USNRC developed codes XOQDOQ (Sagendorf et. al 1982) and GASPAR (Eckerman et. al 1980). Both of these codes have previously been verified for use at SRS (Simpkins 1999 and 2000). The revisions incorporated into MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR Version 2014 (hereafter referred to as MAXDOSE-SR and POPDOSE-SR unless otherwise noted) were made per Computer Program Modification Tracker (CPMT) number Q-CMT-A-00016 (Appendix D). Version 2014 was verified for use at SRS in Dixon (2014).

  13. A comparison between SR-90 and two types of CR-39 nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Jarad, F. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Laboratory, Research Inst.

    1993-12-31

    A new nuclear track detector, called SR-90, has been compared with two types of CR-39 nuclear track detectors (i) super grade PM-355 Pershore Mouldings/U.K. and (ii) MA-ND/{alpha}/Hungary. All types were irradiated with alpha and fission fragments and all etched under the same etching conditions. The bulk etching rate (V{sub B}) of SR-90 was twice that of the CR-39 for all etching times. The track etching rate (V{sub t}) of SR-90 starts with 8.5 {mu}m.h{sup -1} at 2 h etching time and increased to 13 {mu}m.h{sup -1} at 6.5 h, while for CR-39 remains nearly constant (2{mu}m.h{sup -1}) for all etching time. Thus, the sensitivity of SR-90 was found to improve with etching time. The surface of SR-90 is found to be rough and less transparent than both types of CR-39 detectors. The shape of perpendicular alpha and fission fragment tracks in SR-90 was not a uniform circular shape as in the CR-39. (author).

  14. Groundwater Paleohydrology Using Microsample Sr Isotopic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, G.; Fritz, D. E.

    2003-12-01

    Physical microsampling of silicate alteration phases produced during past episodes of groundwater flow, combined with Sr isotopic data, can be used to determine the age of the alteration phases and to define paleogroundwater flow paths. For example, we have obtained microsamples of secondary adularia present in the K-metasomatized, mid-Tertiary Lemitar Tuff in southern New Mexico. The microsamples (~25 micrograms) yield a Rb-Sr "errochron" (MSWD~29) of 6.3 Ma, and an 87Sr/86Sr (6 Ma)=0.7206. The adularia isotopic compositions are considerably higher than those determined for igneous plagioclase and sanidine phenocrysts in the same tuff (0.710), or for the tuff matrix, and indicate that the radiogenic Sr incorporated into the adularia was introduced to the tuff during alteration. Na-Ca sulfates present in playa deposits in the Tertiary Popotosa Formation have Sr isotopic compositions similar to the unaltered tuffs, and not the adularia, and suggest that the fluids responsible for the K-metasomatism of the Lemitar Tuff were not down-flowing saline fluids originating from playa lakes in the Popotosa Basin. Instead, we argue that the fluids were generated during topographically driven flow of meteoric waters through high 87Sr/86Sr Precambrian basement-cored horsts generated during early Basin and Range extension in this area. These data illustrate the utility of such Sr isotopic information in investigations of paleogroundwater flow and we are currently extending the technique to study the origin of the multiple low-T groundwater flow events recorded in the various secondary silicate, sulfate, and carbonate phases present in the Late Paleozoic Fountain Formation in northern Colorado.

  15. Examination of SR101 shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-01

    Four SR101 shipping packages were removed from service and provided for disassembly and examination of the internal fiberboard assemblies. These packages were 20 years old, and had experienced varying levels of degradation. Two of the packages were successfully disassembled and fiberboard samples were removed from these packages and tested. Mechanical and thermal property values are generally comparable to or higher than baseline values measured on fiberboard from 9975 packages, which differs primarily in the specified density range. While baseline data for the SR101 material is not available, this comparison with 9975 material suggests that the material properties of the SR101 fiberboard have not significantly degraded.

  16. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  17. Study of sample preparation for quantitative analysis of amino acids in human sweat by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Povedano, M M; Calderón-Santiago, M; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2016-01-01

    The determination of physiological levels of amino acids is important to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of several diseases and nutritional status of individuals. Amino acids are frequently determined in biofluids such as blood (serum or plasma) and urine; however, there are less common biofluids with different concentration profiles of amino acids that could be of interest. One of these biofluids is sweat that can be obtained in a non-invasive manner and is characterized by low complex composition. The analysis of amino acids in human sweat requires the development of sample preparation strategies according to the sample matrix and small collected volume. The influence of sample preparation on the quantitative analysis of amino acids in sweat by LC-MS/MS has been assessed through a comparison between two strategies: dilution of sweat and centrifugal microsolid-phase extraction (c-μSPE). In both cases, several dilution factors were assayed for in-depth knowledge of the matrix effects, and the use of c-μSPE provided the best results in terms of accuracy. The behavior of the target analytes was a function of the dilution factor, thus providing a pattern for sample preparation that depended on the amino acid to be determined. The concentration of amino acids in sweat ranges between 6.20 ng mL(-1) (for homocysteine) and 259.77 µg mL(-1) (for serine) with precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, within 1.1-21.4%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Vecchio-Pagán, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Waheed, Abdul; Li, Xiaopeng; Raraigh, Karen S; Robbins, Sarah; Han, Sangwoo T; Franca, Arianna L; Pellicore, Matthew J; Evans, Taylor A; Arcara, Kristin M; Nguyen, Hien; Luan, Shan; Belchis, Deborah; Hertecant, Jozef; Zabner, Joseph; Sly, William S; Cutting, Garry R

    2016-05-15

    Elevated sweat chloride levels, failure to thrive (FTT), and lung disease are characteristic features of cystic fibrosis (CF, OMIM #219700). Here we describe variants in CA12 encoding carbonic anhydrase XII in two pedigrees exhibiting CF-like phenotypes. Exome sequencing of a white American adult diagnosed with CF due to elevated sweat chloride, recurrent hyponatremia, infantile FTT and lung disease identified deleterious variants in each CA12 gene: c.908-1 G>A in a splice acceptor and a novel frameshift insertion c.859_860insACCT. In an unrelated consanguineous Omani family, two children with elevated sweat chloride, infantile FTT, and recurrent hyponatremia were homozygous for a novel missense variant (p.His121Gln). Deleterious CFTR variants were absent in both pedigrees. CA XII protein was localized apically in human bronchiolar epithelia and basolaterally in the reabsorptive duct of human sweat glands. Respiratory epithelial cell RNA from the adult proband revealed only aberrant CA12 transcripts and in vitro analysis showed greatly reduced CA XII protein. Studies of ion transport across respiratory epithelial cells in vivo and in culture revealed intact CFTR-mediated chloride transport in the adult proband. CA XII protein bearing either p.His121Gln or a previously identified p.Glu143Lys missense variant localized to the basolateral membranes of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, but enzyme activity was severely diminished when assayed at physiologic concentrations of extracellular chloride. Our findings indicate that loss of CA XII function should be considered in individuals without CFTR mutations who exhibit CF-like features in the sweat gland and lung. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 24-h Fluid Kinetics and Perception of Sweat Losses Following a 1-h Run in a Temperate Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric K. O'Neal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 24-h post-run hydration status and sweat loss estimation accuracy in college age runners (men = 12, women = 8 after completing a 1-h self-paced outdoor run (wet bulb globe temperature = 19.9 ± 3.0 °C. Sweat losses (1353 ± 422 mL; 1.9% ± 0.5% of body mass were significantly greater (p < 0.001 than perceived losses (686 ± 586 mL. Cumulative fluid consumption equaled 3876 ± 1133 mL (218 ± 178 mL during with 37% of fluid ingested lost through urine voids (1450 ± 678 mL. Fluid balance based on intake and urine production equaled +554 ± 669 mL at 12 h and +1186 ± 735 mL at 24 h. Most runners reported euhydrated (pre-run urine specific gravity (USG = 1.018 ± 0.008 with no changes (p = 0.33 at hours 12 or 24 when both genders were included. However, USG was higher (p = 0.004 at 12 h post-run for men (1.025 ± 0.0070 vs. 1.014 ± 0.007, who consumed 171% ± 40% of sweat losses at 12 h vs. 268% ± 88% for women. Most runners do not need intervention concerning between bout hydration needs in temperate environments. However, repeated USG measurements were able to identify runners who greatly under or over consumed fluid during recovery. Practitioners can use multiple USG assessments as cheap method to detect runners who need to modify their hydration strategies and should promote assessment of sweat losses by change in body mass, as runners had poor perception of sweat losses.

  20. Chemical Visualization of Sweat Pores in Fingerprints Using GO-Enhanced TOF-SIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lesi; Xia, Meng-Chan; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhao, Ya-Bin; Li, Zhanping; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2017-08-15

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used in imaging of small molecules (600 Da) and controlled drugs, and antibiotics (>700 Da) in fingerprints. Detail features of fingerprints such as the number and distribution of sweat pores in a ridge and even the delicate morphology of one pore were clearly revealed in SIMS images of relatively high mass molecules. The detail features combining with identified chemical composition were sufficient to establish a human identity and link the suspect to a crime scene. The wide detectable mass range and high spatial resolution make GO-enhanced TOF-SIMS a promising tool in accurate and fast analysis of fingerprints, especially in fragmental fingerprint analysis.

  1. Prerenal azotemia from excessive sweating in an adult with a cystic fibrosis gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, S V; Flume, P A; Stenbit, A E; Ullian, M E

    2011-07-01

    We present the case of a 58-year-old male with chronic kidney disease who was admitted to the hospital multiple times with extracellular fluid volume depletion and prerenal azotemia. Some episodes were associated with gastrointestinal fluid losses and others with profuse diaphoresis in the absence of gastrointestinal fluid losses. At the age of 57 years, a common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein mutation and a family history of cystic fibrosis were documented. We hypothesize that the abnormal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator resulted in repeated bouts of excessive sweating, extracellular fluid volume depletion, and acute renal failure. This case is unique because of the prolonged period of time over which multiple documented episodes of prerenal acute renal failure occurred and because of the onset of the episodes in adulthood.

  2. Clinicopathologic characteristics of extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum associated with sweat gland adenocarcinoma—a clinical retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Extramammary Paget’s disease of the scrotum with sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor. This study aims to summarize the clinicopathologic characteristics related to the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Clinical datum of four patients with scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma, treated in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital from 2002 to 2009 was analyzed, and a literature review was conducted. The typical manifestation of scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland carcinoma was eczematoid-like skin lesions. All patients underwent primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy. Three patients had inguinal lymph metastasis. One of them developed distant metastases in bone and bone marrow and died of metastatic carcinoma. The dead patient had higher serum carcinoma embryonic antigen (CEA level, Her-2 overexpression and shorter disease course than the other patients. The other patients were observed for at least 3 years, and lived without tumor. Scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma may be prone to inguinal lymph node and bone metastasis. Serum CEA level, Her-2 overexpression, dermis and lymphovascular invasion may be associated with the prognosis of scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The primary lesion resection plus inguinal lymphadenectomy is the major treatment for scrotal Paget’s disease with sweat gland adenocarcinoma. The effect of combination chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic extramammary Paget’s disease remains to be proven by prolonged follow-up and wide experience.

  3. Using traditional acupuncture for breast cancer-related hot flashes and night sweats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valois, Beverley A; Young, Teresa E; Robinson, Nicola; McCourt, Christine; Maher, Elizabeth J

    2010-10-01

    Women taking tamoxifen experience hot flashes and night sweats (HF&NS); acupuncture may offer a nonpharmaceutical method of management. This study explored whether traditional acupuncture (TA) could reduce HF&NS frequency, improve physical and emotional well-being, and improve perceptions of HF&NS. DESIGN/SETTINGS/LOCATION: This was a single-arm observational study using before and after measurements, located in a National Health Service cancer treatment center in southern England. Fifty (50) participants with early breast cancer completed eight TA treatments. Eligible women were ≥ 35 years old, ≥ 6 months post active cancer treatment, taking tamoxifen ≥ 6 months, and self-reporting ≥ 4 HF&NS incidents/24 hours for ≥ 3 months. Participants received weekly individualized TA treatment using a core standardized protocol for treating HF&NS in natural menopause. Hot Flash Diaries recorded HF&NS frequency over 14-day periods; the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) assessed physical and emotional well-being; the Hot Flashes and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ) assessed HF&NS as a problem. Measurements taken at five points over 30 weeks included baseline, midtreatment, end of treatment (EOT), and 4 and 18 weeks after EOT. Results for the primary outcome: Mean frequency reduced by 49.8% (95% confidence interval 40.5-56.5, p acupuncture to manage HF&NS, as well as research on nonhormonal pharmaceutical treatments. In addition to reduced HF&NS frequency, women enjoyed improved physical and emotional well-being, and few side-effects were reported. Further research is warranted into this approach, which offers breast cancer survivors choice in managing a chronic condition.

  4. Consequences of a warming climate for social organisation in sweat bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Roger; Accleton, Christopher; Field, Jeremy

    The progression from solitary living to caste-based sociality is commonly regarded as a major evolutionary transition. However, it has recently been shown that in some taxa, sociality may be plastic and dependent on local conditions. If sociality can be environmentally driven, the question arises as to how projected climate change will influence features of social organisation that were previously thought to be of macroevolutionary proportions. Depending on the time available in spring during which a foundress can produce worker offspring, the sweat bee Halictus rubicundus is either social or solitary. We analysed detailed foraging data in relation to climate change predictions for Great Britain to assess when and where switches from a solitary to social lifestyle may be expected. We demonstrate that worker numbers should increase throughout Great Britain under predicted climate change scenarios, and importantly, that sociality should appear in northern areas where it has never before been observed. This dramatic shift in social organisation due to climate change should lead to a bigger workforce being available for summer pollination and may contribute towards mitigating the current pollinator crisis. The sweat bee Halictus rubicundus is socially polymorphic, expressing both solitary and social forms, and is socially plastic, capable of transitioning from solitary to social forms, depending on local environmental conditions. Here, we analyse detailed foraging data in relation to climate change predictions for Great Britain to show that worker numbers and sociality both increase under predicted climate change scenarios. Especially dramatic will be the appearance of social H. rubicundus nests in the north of Britain, where previously only solitary forms are found. Particularly, if more taxa are found to be socially plastic, environmentally driven shifts in social organisation may help to mitigate future pollinator crises by providing more individuals for pollination.

  5. Ionic mechanisms of Ca(2+)-dependent electrolyte transport across equine sweat gland epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, W H; Chan, H C; Chew, S B; Wong, P Y

    1996-01-01

    1. The ionic mechanism involved in Ca(2+)-stimulated electrolyte transport in cultured equine sweat gland epithelial cells was studied using the short-circuit current (ISC) technique. 2. Microscopy revealed that the cultured cells grown on Millipore filters formed polarized monolayers with tight junctions. Monolayers exhibited a mean transepithelial resistance of 333.9 +/- 40.4 omega cm2. 3. Ca(2+)-mobilizing agents, A23187 (1 microM) or thapsigargin (0.01-1 microM), stimulated ISC while forskolin exerted little effect on the ISC. 4. Replacement of external Cl- by gluconate significantly reduced the ISC by 63% when stimulated by 0.1 microM thapsigargin. Residual ISC could be abolished (> 99%) by elimination of HCO3- from the bathing solution. 5. Basolateral addition of bumetanide (0.1 mM), ouabain (0.01 mM) and acetazolamide (45 microM) and apical addition of methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA, 1-100 microM) all had inhibitory effects on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC to various extents. 6. Substantial current inhibition could be obtained using 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate (DPC) in a concentration-dependent manner. 7. The K+ channel blocker barium (5 mM) was effective on both sides of the epithelium with a much larger effect on the basolateral side. 8. The inhibitory effects of acetazolamide, amiloride, MIA, DIDS and DPC on the thapsigargin-stimulated ISC were also observed when a Cl(-)-free solution was used. 9. The results provide evidence for Ca(2+)-stimulated HCO3- as well as Cl- secretion by equine sweat gland epithelium. Images Figure 1 PMID:8799908

  6. Spectroscopy of 88Sr with the 87Sr(n, γ) and 87Sr(d, p) reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Ch.; Krusche, B.; Lieb, K. P.; Weber, T.; Hlawatsch, G.; Von Egidy, T.; Hoyler, F.

    1987-10-01

    The γ-ray spectrum emitted after thermal neutron capture in 87Sr was studied at the ILL high flux reactor with pair- and intrinsic Ge-spectrometers. 661 transitions were assigned to the reaction 87Sr(n, γ) 88Sr and 205 of them were placed into a 88Sr level scheme of 47 levels. This represents 88% of the observed intensity. The level energies were determined with a precision of better than 20 ppm; the neutron binding energy was determined as 11 112.69 (22) keV. To aid the analysis high resolution particle spectra of the reaction 87Sr(d, p) 88Sr were measured at 20 MeV deuteron energy with the Munich Q3D spectrometer. 85 states were observed with this reaction. The data helped to establish newly found levels and to differentiate between primary and secondary transitions in the (n, γ) data. The observed level densities and primary transition strengths are compared with statistical model predictions and non-statistical effects are discussed.

  7. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Fava, Maurizio; Trivedi, M H

    2012-01-01

    Bech P, Fava M, Trivedi MH, Wisniewski SR, Rush AJ. Outcomes on the pharmacopsychometric triangle in bupropion-SR vs. buspirone augmentation of citalopram in the STAR*D trial. Objective: To compare within the framework of a novel pharmacopsychometric triangle, augmentation treatment with bupropion...... intention to treat sample was used. Results: Within the pharmacopsychometric triangle, bupropion-SR (sustained release) was superior to buspirone when augmented to the current citalopram treatment. Thus, in the domain of pure antidepressive effect, bupropion-SR was superior (P = 0.05) on the HAM-D(6) , IDS......-C(6) , and IDS-C(30) , but not on the HAM-D(17) . In the domain of side effects, the total scores on the Patient Rated Inventory of Side Effects (PRISE) were reduced significantly more by bupropion-SR than by buspirone (P = 0.03). In the domain of quality of life, the total scores on the Quality...

  8. What does the Sr-substituted 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of photosystem II reveal about the water oxidation mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, Richard; Petrie, Simon; Pace, Ron J; Stranger, Robert

    2014-03-25

    A density functional study of the Sr-substituted photosystem II water oxidising complex demonstrates that its recent X-ray crystal structure is consistent with a (Mn(III))4 oxidation state pattern, and with a Sr-bound hydroxide ion. The Sr-water-hydroxide interactions rationalize differences in the exchange rates of substrate water and kinetics of dioxygen bond formation relative to the Ca-containing structure.

  9. U-Sr isotopic speedometer: Fluid flow and chemical weatheringrates inaquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Kate; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2005-12-27

    Both chemical weathering rates and fluid flow are difficultto measure in natural systems. However, these parameters are critical forunderstanding the hydrochemical evolution of aquifers, predicting thefate and transport of contaminants, and for water resources/water qualityconsiderations. 87Sr/86Sr and (234U/238U) activity ratios are sensitiveindicators of water-rock interaction, and thus provide a means ofquantifying both flow and reactivity. The 87Sr/86Sr values in groundwaters are controlled by the ratio of the dissolution rate to the flowrate. Similarly, the (234U/238U) ratio of natural ground waters is abalance between the flow rate and the dissolution of solids, andalpha-recoil loss of 234U from the solids. By coupling these two isotopesystems it is possible to constrain both the long-term (ca. 100's to1000's of years) flow rate and bulk dissolution rate along the flow path.Previous estimates of the ratio of the dissolution rate to theinfiltration flux from Sr isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) are combined with a modelfor (234U/238U) to constrain the infiltration flux and dissolution ratefor a 70-m deep vadose zone core from Hanford, Washington. The coupledmodel for both (234U/238U) ratios and the 87Sr/86Sr data suggests aninfiltration flux of 5+-2 mm/yr, and bulk silicate dissolution ratesbetween 10-15.7 and 10-16.5 mol/m2/s. The process of alpha-recoilenrichment, while primarily responsible for the observed variation in(234U/238U) of natural systems, is difficult to quantify. However, therate of this process in natural systems affects the interpretation ofmost U-series data. Models for quantifying the alpha-recoil loss fractionbased on geometric predictions, surface area constraints, and chemicalmethods are also presented. The agreement between the chemical andtheoretical methods, such as direct measurement of (234U/238U) of thesmall grain size fraction and geometric calculations for that sizefraction, is quite good.

  10. Minimal model for calcium alternans due to SR release refractoriness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalapiedra, Inma R.; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Peñaranda, Angelina; Echebarria, Blas

    2017-09-01

    In the heart, rapid pacing rates may induce alternations in the strength of cardiac contraction, termed pulsus alternans. Often, this is due to an instability in the dynamics of the intracellular calcium concentration, whose transients become larger and smaller at consecutive beats. This alternation has been linked experimentally and theoretically to two different mechanisms: an instability due to (1) a strong dependence of calcium release on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, together with a slow calcium reuptake into the SR or (2) to SR release refractoriness, due to a slow recovery of the ryanodine receptors (RyR2) from inactivation. The relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the RyR2 has been more elusive than the corresponding SR Ca load mechanism. To study the former, we reduce a general calcium model, which mimics the deterministic evolution of a calcium release unit, to its most basic elements. We show that calcium alternans can be understood using a simple nonlinear equation for calcium concentration at the dyadic space, coupled to a relaxation equation for the number of recovered RyR2s. Depending on the number of RyR2s that are recovered at the beginning of a stimulation, the increase in calcium concentration may pass, or not, over an excitability threshold that limits the occurrence of a large calcium transient. When the recovery of the RyR2 is slow, this produces naturally a period doubling bifurcation, resulting in calcium alternans. We then study the effects of inactivation, calcium diffusion, and release conductance for the onset of alternans. We find that the development of alternans requires a well-defined value of diffusion while it is less sensitive to the values of inactivation or release conductance.

  11. Radiogenic and stable Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr, δ88/86Sr) as tracers of riverine cation sources and biogeochemical cycling in the Milford Sound region of Fiordland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, M. Grace; Jacobson, Andrew D.; Lehn, Gregory O.; Horton, Travis W.; Craw, Dave

    2016-01-01

    This study reports radiogenic Sr isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr), stable Sr isotope ratios (δ88/86Sr), and major ion concentrations for river, rock, sediment, soil, and plant samples collected from the Cleddau and Hollyford catchments in the Milford Sound region of Fiordland, New Zealand. The catchments primarily drain gabbro, but some tributaries access limestone and volcanogenic sediments. The goal of the study was to understand controls on riverine δ88/86Sr values in a landscape with multiple factors that may influence chemical weathering, including dense vegetation, high rainfall, and abundant, freshly-eroded Holocene fluvio-glacial and landslide debris. Rivers draining gabbro have higher δ88/86Sr values than bedrock, by as much as ∼0.14‰, and the δ88/86Sr values strongly correlate with molar Ca/Sr ratios (R2 = 0.69). Leaching of rocks and sediment reveals no evidence for the preferential dissolution of minerals having high δ88/86Sr values and Ca/Sr ratios. In-stream Sr isotope fractionation seems unlikely because comparison against 87Sr/86Sr and Ca/Sr ratios demonstrates that riverine δ88/86Sr values conservatively trace water-mass mixing. The riverine data are best explained by the input of soil water, which is distinct from potential bedrock end-members (i.e., silicates and carbonates) based on δ88/86Sr but indistinguishable in terms of Ca/Sr and 87Sr/86Sr. While strontium isotope fractionation during secondary mineral formation and pedogenesis is possible, clay mineral formation is minor and most soils are poorly developed. Instead, soil water δ88/86Sr values more likely reflect plant uptake. Plant samples yielded a wide range of δ88/86Sr values, but on average, they are lower than those for bedrock, consistent with the expectation that plants preferentially incorporate lighter Sr isotopes. Mass-balance constraints, together with 87Sr/86Sr ratios, indicate that soil water δ88/86Sr values are ∼0.30‰ higher than bedrock δ88/86Sr values, and

  12. Atomic layer deposited ZrO2nanofilm on Mg-Sr alloy for enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyue; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Xiangmei; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Pan, Haobo; Wu, Shuilin

    2017-08-01

    The biodegradability and good mechanical property of magnesium alloys make them potential biomedical materials. However, their rapid corrosion rate in the human body's environment impairs these advantages and limits their clinical use. In this work, a compact zirconia (ZrO 2 ) nanofilm was fabricated on the surface of a magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloy by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method, which can regulate the thickness of the film precisely and thus also control the corrosion rate. Corrosion tests reveal that the ZrO 2 film can effectively reduce the corrosion rate of Mg-Sr alloys that is closely related to the thickness of the film. The cell culture test shows that this kind of ZrO 2 film can also enhance the activity and adhesion of osteoblasts on the surfaces of Mg-Sr alloys. The significance of the current work is to develop a zirconia nanofilm on biomedical MgSr alloy with controllable thickness precisely through atomic layer deposition technique. By adjusting the thickness of nanofilm, the corrosion rate of Mg-Sr alloy can be modulated, thereafter, the degradation rate of Mg-based alloys can be controlled precisely according to actual clinical requirement. In addition, this zirconia nanofilm modified Mg-Sr alloys show excellent biocompatibility than the bare samples. Hence, this work provides a new surface strategy to control the degradation rate while improving the biocompatibility of substrates. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetoelectric Response in Multiferroic SrFe12O19 Ceramics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolong Tan

    Full Text Available We report here realization of ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism and magnetocapacitance effect in singleSrFe12O19ceramic at room temperature. The ceramics demonstrate a saturated polarization hysteresis loop, two nonlinear I-V peaks and large anomaly of dielectric constant near Curie temperature, which confirm the intrinsic ferroelectricity of SrFe12O19 ceramicswith subsequent heat-treatment in O2atmosphere. The remnant polarization of the SrFe12O19 ceramic is estimated to be 103μC/cm2. The ceramic also exhibits strong ferromagnetic characterization, the coercive field and remnant magnetic moment are 6192Oe and 35.8emu/g, respectively. Subsequent annealing SrFe12O19 ceramics in O2 plays a key role on revealing its intrinsic ferroelectricity and improving the ferromagnetism through transforming Fe2+ into Fe3+. By applying a magnetic field, the capacitance demonstrates remarkable change along with B field, the maximum rate of change in ε (Δε(B/ε(0 is 1174%, which reflects a giant magnetocapacitance effect in SrFe12O19. XPS and molecular magnetic moment measurements confirmed the transformation of Fe2+ into Fe3+ and removal of oxygen vacancies upon O2 heat treatment. These combined functional responses in SrFe12O19 ceramics opens substantial possibilities for applications in novel electric devices.

  14. Paired Sr isotope (87Sr/86Sr, δ88/86Sr) systematic of pore water profiles: A new perspective in marine weathering and seepage studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liebetrau, Volker; Haeckel, Matthias; Eisenhauer, Anton; Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Reitz, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The simultaneous and independent determination of the radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr) and the fractionation reflecting stable (!88/86Sr) Sr isotope ratio on pore waters, sediments and precipitates (e.g. carbonates and sulfates) opens a new perspective in the field of submarine weathering and Sr contribution to the ocean chemistry. Four initial case studies covering (1.) CO2 seeps of the Okinawa Trough (OT), (2.) mud volcanoes (MV) and mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) and the (...

  15. First-principle calculations of the thermal properties of SrTiO3 and SrO(SrTiO3)n (n=1,2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanli; Jia, Dewei; Gao, Feng; Hu, Tingting; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The thermal properties of SrTiO3 and SrO(SrTiO3)n (n=1,2) with layered perovskite structure are analyzed using the Debye-Grüneisen model combined with ab initio calculations. The thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat at constant pressure CP and specific heat at constant volume CV, adiabatic bulk modulus BS and isothermal bulk modulus BT, entropy, and Debye temperature are investigated. At temperatures higher than 550 °C, the thermal expansion coefficient and the discrepancies between CP and CV, as well as that between BS and BT, of Sr3Ti2O7 increase the fastest as the temperature rises, followed by those of Sr2TiO4, and those of SrTiO3 increase the slowest. The bulk module and Debye temperature of Sr2TiO4, Sr3Ti2O7, and SrTiO3 increase with decreasing SrO/SrTiO3 ratio at 0 K. With increasing temperature, however, the bulk modulus and Debye temperature of Sr3Ti2O7 both rapidly decrease and even fall below those of Sr2TiO4 when the temperature is higher than specific values. We also analyzed the thermal properties of these three compounds in the pressure range from 0 GPa to 16 GPa at 300 K.

  16. Comparing Pt/SrTiO3 to Rh/SrTiO3 for hydrogen photocatalytic production from ethanol

    KAUST Repository

    Wahab, A. K.

    2013-08-13

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production from ethanol as an example of biofuel is studied over 0.5 wt% Rh/SrTiO3 and 0.5 wt% Pt/SrTiO3 perovskite materials. The rate of hydrogen production, rH2, over Pt/SrTiO3 is found to be far higher than that observed over Rh/SrTiO3 (4 × 10−6 mol of H2 g catal. −1 min−1 (1.1 × 10−6 mol of H2 m catal. −2 min−1) compared to 0.7 × 10−6 mol of H2 g catal. −1 min−1 (5.5 × 10−8 mol of H2 m catal. −2 min−1), respectively, under UV excitation with a flux equivalent to that from the sun light (ca. 1 mW cm−2). Analyses of the XPS Rh3d and XPS Pt4f indicate that Rh is mainly present in its ionic form (Rh3+) while Pt is mainly present in its metallic form (Pt0). A fraction of the non-metallic state of Rh in the catalyst persisted even after argon ion sputtering. The tendency of Rh to be oxidized compared to Pt might be the reason behind the lower activity of the former compared to the later. On the contrary, a larger amount of methane are formed on the Rh containing catalyst compared to that observed on the Pt containing catalyst due to the capacity of Rh to break the carbon–carbon bond of the organic compound.

  17. Investigation of a dynamic seawater intrusion event using strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niels Oluf; Andersen, Martin S.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2008-01-01

    isotopes reflect recharge conditions and mixing between groundwater and seawater. The 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios are controlled by aquifer matrix chemistry. The 87Sr/86Sr ratio distribution and Sr content reveal a ternary mixing system in the shallow aquifer, encompassing brackish seawater, fresh shallow...... of Palaeocene (Danian) limestone. Stable isotopes (18O and 2H), strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) and the elements Sr and Cl were measured to delineate the mixing of seawater and groundwater in the shallow aquifer and to determine the contribution from different water sources along the flow paths. The stable...... groundwater and deep groundwater from the underlying limestone aquifer as end-members. A mixing analysis is performed using the Cl contents and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios. The mixing analysis indicates a zone with leakage of deep groundwater from the limestone aquifer into the lower part of the shallow sandy...

  18. Diagnostic and co-dominant PCR markers for wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr25 and Sr26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixin; Yu, Long-Xi; Singh, Ravi P; Jin, Yue; Sorrells, Mark E; Anderson, James A

    2010-02-01

    Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat. A new race of the pathogen named TTKSK (syn. Ug99) and its derivatives detected in East Africa are virulent to many designated and undesignated stem rust resistance genes. The emergence and spread of those races pose an imminent threat to wheat production worldwide. Genes Sr25 and Sr26 transferred into wheat from Thinopyrum ponticum are effective against these new races. DNA markers for Sr25 and Sr26 are needed to pyramid both genes into adapted germplasm. The previously published dominant markers Gb for Sr25 and Sr26#43 for Sr26 were validated with eight wheat lines with or without Sr25 or Sr26. We tested six published STS (sequence tagged site) markers amplifying diagnostic bands of Th. ponticum. Marker BF145935 consistently amplified well and can be used as a co-dominant marker for Sr25. Among 16 STS markers developed from wheat ESTs mapped to deletion bin 6AL8-0.90-1.00, none was co-dominant for tagging Sr26. However, five 6A-specific markers were identified. Multiplex PCR with marker Sr26#43 and 6A-specific marker BE518379 can be used as a co-dominant marker for Sr26. The co-dominant markers for Sr25 and Sr26 were validated with 37 lines with known stem rust resistance genes. A diverse set of germplasm consisting 170 lines from CIMMYT, China, USA and other counties were screened with the co-dominant markers for Sr25 and Sr26. Five lines with the diagnostic fragment for Sr25 were identified, and they all have 'Wheatear' in their pedigrees, which is known to carry Sr25. None of the 170 lines tested had Sr26, as expected.

  19. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2009-02-01

    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  20. 878787Sr/868686Sr anomalies in Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary; strontium isotope; biotic turnover; sea level changes. .... or volcanic activity in Godavari basin could have ...... climate and the. 87. Sr/. 86. Sr ratio of seawater; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 188 459–474. Donovan A D, Baum G R, Blechschmidt L, Loutit T S,. Pflum C E and Vail P R 1988 Sequence ...

  1. The Phanerozoic δ88/86Sr record of seawater: New constraints on past changes in oceanic carbonate fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollstaedt, Hauke; Eisenhauer, Anton; Wallmann, Klaus; Böhm, Florian; Fietzke, Jan; Liebetrau, Volker; Krabbenhöft, André; Farkaš, Juraj; Tomašových, Adam; Raddatz, Jacek; Veizer, Ján

    2014-03-01

    calcite” sea episodes. On time scales less than 20 Myrs the F(Sr)carb seems to be controlled by variable combinations of carbonate burial rate, shelf carbonate weathering and recrystallization, ocean acidification, and ocean anoxia. In particular, the Permian/Triassic transition is marked by a prominent positive δ88/86Srsw-peak that reflects a significantly enhanced burial flux of Sr and carbonate, likely driven by bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and the related alkalinity production in deeper anoxic waters. We also argue that the residence time of Sr in the Phanerozoic ocean ranged from ˜1 to ˜20 Myrs.

  2. Investigating the hydrological significance of stalagmite geochemistry (Mg, Sr) using Sr isotope and particulate element records across the Late Glacial-to-Holocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, R.; Borsato, A.; Frisia, S.; Drysdale, R.; Maas, R.; Greig, A.

    2017-02-01

    The trace element and Sr isotope records in two coeval stalagmites characterized by different growth rates and flow regimes at Savi cave (Grotta Savi, NE Italy) reveal different sources and incorporation mechanisms for Mg and Sr. Mg is sourced primarily from dissolved cave host rock while particulate Mg derived from soil plays a subordinate role. The presence of particulate-borne Mg is inferred from the co-variation of Mg and particle-associated elements (Th, Al and Mn) which are preferentially concentrated in open columnar calcite layers. Variation in Mg concentrations corrected for particle-influenced components, the Mgc parameter, is controlled by water-rock interaction, with higher and lower Mgc during dry and wet phases, respectively. This is thought to reflect incongruent dissolution of Mg-rich phases. Correction of Sr concentrations for contributions from airborne exogenic Sr, based on 87Sr/86Sr ratios, yields the bedrock-only contribution (Src). Src variation in stalagmite calcite is influenced by speleothem growth rate and by variation of the calcite-water Sr partitioning in wet and dry phases, and only to a minor extent by incongruent dissolution of Mg-rich phases. Concentration profiles for Mgc and Srcg (corrected for growth rate effects) show inverse correlations and are inferred to show hydrological significance which is captured in a hydrological index, HI. We suggest HI provides robust information on water-rock interaction related to hydrological changes and can be utilized in both wet and semi-arid environments, provided the corrections for soil Mg and exogenic Sr can be applied with confidence. Application of the HI index allows correction of Grotta Savi oxygen isotope data, to yield a δ18Oc time series that shows when changes in moisture sources and atmospheric reorganization, or changes in moisture amount, were significant. This is especially evident during the Younger Dryas (YD). The Savi record supports the concept of a two-phase YD, marked by

  3. Validity and reliability of a field technique for sweat Na+ and K+ analysis during exercise in a hot‐humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Ungaro, Corey T.; Barnes, Kelly A.; Nuccio, Ryan P.; Reimel, Adam J.; Stofan, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared a field versus reference laboratory technique for extracting (syringe vs. centrifuge) and analyzing sweat [Na+] and [K+] (compact Horiba B‐722 and B‐731, HORIBA vs. ion chromatography, HPLC) collected with regional absorbent patches during exercise in a hot‐humid environment. Sweat samples were collected from seven anatomical sites on 30 athletes during 1‐h cycling in a heat chamber (33°C, 67% rh). Ten minutes into exercise, skin was cleaned/dried and two sweat patches were applied per anatomical site. After removal, one patch per site was centrifuged and sweat was analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (CENTRIFUGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (CENTRIFUGE HPLC). Sweat from the second patch per site was extracted using a 5‐mL syringe and analyzed with HORIBA in the heat chamber (SYRINGE HORIBA) versus HPLC (SYRINGE HPLC). CENTRIFUGE HORIBA, SYRINGE HPLC, and SYRINGE HORIBA were highly related to CENTRIFUGE HPLC ([Na+]: ICC = 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively; [K+]: ICC = 0.87, 0.92, and 0.84, respectively), while mean differences from CENTRIFUGE HPLC were small but usually significant ([Na+]: 4.7 ± 7.9 mEql/L, −2.5 ± 9.3 mEq/L, 4.0 ± 10.9 mEq/L (all P sweat [Na+] and [K+] obtained with SYRINGE HORIBA falls within ±15.4 mEq/L and ±0.68 mEq/L, respectively, of CENTRIFUGE HPLC 95% of the time. The field (SYRINGE HORIBA) method of extracting and analyzing sweat from regional absorbent patches may be useful in obtaining sweat [Na+] when rapid estimates in a hot‐humid field setting are needed. PMID:24793982

  4. [The fatty acid composition of the lipids in the sweat of patients with complications in the acute period of a myocardial infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichka, S G; Briuzgina, T S; Reva, S N

    1998-06-01

    Sweat lipids fatty acid (FA) composition was determined in patients presenting with uncomplicated course of acute myocardial infarction and in the development of pulmonary edema and pneumonia with the aid of a gas-chromatographic technique. The development in the patients of pulmonary complications was found out to be accompanied by a substantial elevation of sweat lipids content of polyunsaturated FA, linoleic and arachidonic FA in particular, which fact can be taken as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion.

  5. Sweat chloride and immunoreactive trypsinogen in infants carrying two CFTR mutations and not affected by cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Carlo; Tridello, Gloria; Tamanini, Anna; Assael, Baroukh M

    2017-07-01

    Newborns with raised immunotrypsinogen levels who have non-pathological sweat chloride values and carry two cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations of which at least one is not acknowledged to be cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing are at risk of developing clinical manifestations consistent with CFTR-related disorders or even CF. It is not known whether newborns with similar genotypes and normal immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) may share the same risk. This study found that newborns with these characteristics and normal IRT have lower sweat chloride values than those with raised IRT (p=0.007). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Women's collective constructions of embodied practices through memory work: Cartesian dualism in memories of sweating and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Val; Harden, Angela; Johnson, Katherine; Reavey, Paula; Strange, Vicki; Willig, Carla

    2004-03-01

    The research presented in this paper uses memory work as a method to explore six women's collective constructions of two embodied practices, sweating and pain. The paper identifies limitations in the ways in which social constructionist research has theorized the relationship between discourse and materiality, and it proposes an approach to the study of embodiment which enjoins, rather than bridges, the discursive and the non-discursive. The paper presents an analysis of 25 memories of sweating and pain which suggests that Cartesian dualism is central to the women's accounts of their experiences. However, such dualism does not operate as a stable organizing principle. Rather, it offers two strategies for the performance of a split between mind and body. The paper traces the ways in which dualism can be both functional and restrictive, and explores the tensions between these two forms. The paper concludes by identifiying opportunities and limitations associated with memory work as a method for studying embodiment.

  7. Distributions of Sr and Fe and their influence on modification of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Lan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cooling rate and Fe-containing phases on Sr-modification of Si phases in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, a problem with great industrial importance, was investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. A new method of electron probe microanalysis (EPMA map scanning was used to analyze the Sr distribution, which gave quantitative results covering more Si particles. EPMA map scanning, together with SEM with EDX, was also used in analyzing the distribution of Fe phases. Results show that Fe-containing phase was related to the unmodified Si particles in samples with partial modification failure and the plate-like Si phases in samples without modification failure. Such a relationship was further confirmed by the microstructure observation. In conclusion, a partial failure of Sr-modification can be caused by both slow cooling rate and Fe-containing phases.

  8. Concurrent Co2+ and Sr2+ sorption from binary mixtures using aluminum industry waste: Kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, A.; Smičiklas, I.; Šljivić-Ivanović, M.; Vukelić, N.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-component sorption studies are essential to identify the applicability of red mud as a lowcost sorbent for the simultaneous removal of metal ions from wastewaters. Sorption kinetics of Co2+ and Sr2+ ions was investigated, at different total concentrations of mixtures and different molar ratios of two cations. Kinetics of metal sorption from binary systems was found to be well described by pseudo-second order rate model. Equilibrium sorbed amounts and equilibrium times for Co2+ sorption increased with the increase of its total concentration in the mixture, whereas pseudo-second order rate constants exhibited the opposite trend. Sr2+ sorption was strongly suppressed in the presence of Co2+ ions, and the removal efficiency decreased with increasing concentration and mole fraction of Co2+. Red mud can be used for simultaneous Co2+ and Sr2+ removal from mixtures of lower initial concentration, otherwise Co2+ sorption is dominant.

  9. Photosynthetic biomineralization of radioactive Sr via microalgal CO2 absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Ju Eun; Lee, Keon Ah; Lee, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Ji Young; Lee, Jae Kwang; Jeong, Jong Tae; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2014-11-01

    Water-soluble radiostrontium ((90)Sr) was efficiently removed as a carbonate form through microalgal photosynthetic process. The immobilization of soluble (90)Sr radionuclide and production of highly-precipitable radio-strontianite ((90)SrCO3) biomineral are achieved by using Chlorella vulgaris, and the biologically induced mineralization drastically decreased the (90)Sr radioactivity in water to make the highest (90)Sr removal ever reported. The high-resolution microscopy revealed that the short-term removal of soluble (90)Sr by C. vulgaris was attributable to the rapid and selective carbonation of (90)Sr together with the consumption of dissolved CO2 during photosynthesis. A small amount of carbonate in water could act as Sr(2+) sinks through the particular ability of the microalga to make the carbonate mineral of Sr stabilized firmly at the surface site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of serotonergic/noradrenergic gene polymorphisms on nausea and sweating induced by milnacipran in the treatment of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Higuchi, Hitoshi Takahashi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hisashi Higuchi1, Hitoshi Takahashi2, Mitsuhiro Kamata3, Keizo Yoshida41Department of Psychiatry, St. Marianna University, School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yuri-Kumiai General Hospital, Yuri-Honjo, Akita, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Aichi, JapanAbstract: The present study was conducted to find out the predictors of side effects such as nausea and excessive sweating induced by milnacipran, a serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Both clinical characteristics prior to the treatment and gene polymorphisms such as serotonin transporter (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR, a variable number of tandem repeats in the second intron of the 5-HTT gene (5-HTTVNTR, 5-HT2A receptor gene (5-HT2A G-1438A, a TPH gene polymorphism in intron 7 (TPH A218C, norepinephrine transporter (NET gene polymorphism in the promoter region (NET T-182C and in the exon 9 (NET G1287A, a variable number of tandem repeats in the promoter region of monoamine oxidase A, were items to be assessed in this study. Ninety-six patients with major depressive disorder were treated with milnacipran. Side effects were assessed at 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks of treatment with Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side effects scale. The results showed that no gene polymorphisms included in this study affected the susceptibility of nausea and excessive sweating induced by milnacipran. Patients with older age are more likely to develop excessive sweating than others. The major limitation of this study is a small sample size. Further studies with larger populations and more kinds of gene polymorphisms should be needed to see if specific gene polymorphisms determine the susceptibility of side effects induced by milnacipran. Keywords: milnacipran, nausea, excessive sweating, gene polymorphisms

  11. Evaluation and review of body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, M; Stoop, R; Vetsch, T; Hohenauer, E; Pini, M; Clarys, P; Pereira, F; Clijsen, R

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity. The selected articles included healthy subjects, biochemical hydration assessment markers and a well-described (de)hydration procedure. The included studies (n=16) revealed that the setting and the method of collecting respectively accessing body fluids are particularly important aspects to choose the optimal hydration marker. To obtain a sample of saliva is one of the simplest ways to collect body fluids. During exercise and heat exposures, saliva composition might be an effective index but seems to be highly variable. The collection of sweat is a more extensive and time-consuming technique making it more difficult to evaluate dehydration and to make a statement about the hydration status at a particular time. The collection procedure of tear fluid is easy to access and causes very little discomfort to the subject. Tear osmolarity increases with dehydration in parallel to alterations in plasma osmolality and urine-specific gravity. But at the individual level, its sensitivity has to be further determined.

  12. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours.

  13. Reduced expression of dermcidin, a peptide active against propionibacterium acnes, in sweat of patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Arai, Satoru; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-09-01

    Dermcidin (DCD), an antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria such as Propionibacterum acnes, is expressed constitutively in sweat in the absence of stimulation due to injury or inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between DCD expression and acne vulgaris associated with P. acnes. The antimicrobial activity of recombinant full-length DCD (50 μg/ml) was 97% against Escherichia coli and 100% against Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity against P. acnes ranged from 68% at 50 μg/ml DCD to 83% at 270 μg/ml DCD. DCD concentration in sweat from patients with acne vulgaris (median 9.8 μg/ml, range 6.9-95.3 μg/ml) was significantly lower than in healthy subjects (median 136.7 μg/ml, range 45.4-201.6 μg/ml) (p = 0.001). DCD demonstrated concentration-dependent, but partial, microbicidal activity against P. acnes. These results suggest that reduced DCD concentration in sweat in patients with inflammatory acne may permit proliferation of P. acnes in pilosebaceous units, resulting in progression of inflammatory acne.

  14. Facile Synthesis of SrCO3-Sr(OH2/PPy Nanocomposite with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity under Visible Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Márquez-Herrera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrole monomer was chemically polymerized onto SrCO3-Sr(OH2 powders to obtain SrCO3-Sr(OH2/polypyrrole nanocomposite to be used as a candidate for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue dye (MB. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. It was observed from transmission electronic microscopy (TEM analysis that the reported synthesis route allows the production of SrCO3-Sr(OH2 nanoparticles with particle size below 100 nm which were embedded within a semiconducting polypyrrole matrix (PPy. The SrCO3-Sr(OH2 and SrCO3-Sr(OH2/PPy nanocomposites were tested in the photodegradation of MB dye under visible light irradiation. Also, the effects of MB dye initial concentration and the catalyst load on photodegradation efficiency were studied and discussed. Under the same conditions, the efficiency of photodegradation of MB employing the SrCO3-Sr(OH2/PPy nanocomposite increases as compared with that obtained employing the SrCO3-Sr(OH2 nanocomposite.

  15. Ninhydrin sweat test: a simple method for detecting antibodies neutralizing botulinum toxin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, Bernhard; Moraru, Ekaterina; Auff, Eduard; Benesch, Michael; Poewe, Werner; Wissel, Jörg; Müller, Jörg; Entner, Tanja; Bigalke, Hans; Schnider, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Approximately 5% of patients with cervical dystonia receiving repeated botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) injections develop secondary loss of treatment benefit. Currently available tests to directly detect neutralizing BoNT/A antibodies (BoNT/A-AB) are either expensive or time consuming. To establish a simple, clinically useful test for antibody detection, we adapted the ninhydrin sweat test (NST). Eighteen dystonic patients with secondary nonresponse and clinically suspected BoNT/A-AB formation were tested for BoNT/A-AB in the mouse diaphragm test (MDT). In addition, the size of the anhidrotic area was determined by the NST 21 days after an intradermal dose of 10 U Dysport into the hypothenar region of the left palm. In nine patients, positive BoNT-AB titers were found in the MDT. There was a significant correlation between the BoNT/A-AB titers and the anhidrotic area (Spearman's rho = -0.9, P < 0.0001). Both tests provided comparably good results with respect to qualitative antibody detection. In the clinical situation of secondary nonresponse to BoNT/A therapy, the economical NST may be a helpful tool to detect neutralizing BoNT/A-AB. Copyright 2004 Movement Disorder Society

  16. Sweat control in male by the use of alunogen and cypripedium pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of my study is to investigate upon the quality and quantity of the free fatty acids secreted by apocrine glands, as chief index to determine the real efficacy of a new model of antiperspirant-deodorant, that interferes directly with apocrine glands (by reducing drastically the secretion of free fatty acids and indirectly with eccrine glands, by minimising the salted water secretion. I created an innovative cosmetic formula that comprises the Alunogen, idest the heptadecahydrated form of aluminium sulphate, since the generic aluminium sulphate has been recently accused of the onset of the Alzheimer’s disease, when penetrating the epidermis, although definitive scientific proof is difficult to establish due to the lack of longitudinal studies, and therefore could be banished in the very next future. The formula comprises also the concrète of Cypripedium Pubescens (Lady’s slipper which contains, inter alia, the cypripedin, a quinine-analog, endowed by anticholinergic activities, that can be reputed useful as astringent agent with regards to eccrine glands, synergically to the action upon apocrine glands performed by alunogen. I recruited 11 young men, 11 bricklayers that customarily have to work 9 hours pro day after the hot summer sun and assert without doubt to sweat copiously, in order to carry out my experience.

  17. FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This report documents the analysis and processing of features, events and processes, FEPs, that has been carried out within the safety assessment SR-Site, and forms an important part of the reporting of the project. The main part of the work was conducted within the earlier safety assessment SR-Can, which was a preparatory stage for the SR-Site assessment. The overall objective of the FEP analysis and processing in both SR-Can and SR-Site included development of a database of features, events and processes, an SKB FEP database, in a format that facilitates both a systematic analysis of FEPs and documentation of that FEP analysis, as well as facilitating revisions and updates to be made in connection with new safety assessments. The primary objective in SR-Site was to establish an SR-Site FEP catalogue within the framework of the SKB FEP database. This FEP catalogue was required to contain all FEPs that needed to be handled in SR-Site and is an update of the corresponding SR-Can FEP catalogue that was established for the SR-Can assessment. The starting point for the handling of FEPs in SR-Site was the SR-Can version of the SKB FEP database and associated SR-Can reports. The SR-Can version of the SKB FEP database includes the SR-Can FEP catalogue, as well as the sources for the identification of FEPs in SR-Can, namely the SR 97 processes and variables, Project FEPs in the NEA International FEP database version 1.2 and matrix interactions in the Interaction matrices developed for a deep repository of the KBS-3 type. Since the completion of the FEP work within SR-Can, an updated electronic version, version 2.1, of the NEA FEP database has become available. Compared with version 1.2 of the NEA FEP database, version 2.1 contains FEPs from two more projects. As part of SR-Site, all new Project FEPs in version 2.1 of the NEA FEP database have been mapped according to the methodology adopted in SR-Can resulting in an SR-Site version of the SKB FEP database. The SKB FEP

  18. Onset of Hot Tearing in Ternary Mg-Al-Sr Alloy Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, G.; Haygood, I.; Kou, S.

    2010-08-01

    Ternary Mg-Al-Sr alloys are the base of a few new creep-resistant, lightweight Mg alloys for automobiles. Hot tearing of Mg-Al-Sr alloys was studied by constrained rod casting (CRC) in a steel mold equipped with a load cell and a thermocouple. The alloys investigated included, in order of decreasing hot tearing susceptibility, Mg-4Al-1.5Sr, Mg-6Al-1.5Sr, Mg-8Al-1.5Sr, and Mg-8Al-3Sr. Two different molds were used, one for 8.7-mm-diameter rods and the other 7.9 mm. The cooling rate was varied by varying mold preheating from 523 K (250 °C) to 658 K (385 °C) and mold insulation. The load curve showed a clear peak when hot tearing occurred in all but Mg-8Al-3Sr due to its high resistance to hot tearing. From the peak and the cooling curve, the temperature at which hot tearing occurred was determined and found to decrease with increasing Al content from 4 to 8 pct. For a specific alloy, the hot tearing onset temperature did not change significantly with the rod diameter or mold preheating, at least within the experimental conditions used. The Scheil solidification model was used to estimate the fraction solid at the onset of hot tearing. It was found that hot tearing occurred near the end of primary solidification L → α (Mg) and that the fraction solid at which hot tearing occurred decreased with increasing Al content. The validity of the Scheil model was discussed.

  19. A high 87Sr 86Sr mantle source for low alkali tholeiite, northern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, R.K.; Lee, Hu C.; Bowman, H.R.; Asaro, F.; McKee, E.H.; Coats, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Olivine tholeiites, the youngest Tertiary units (about 8-11 m.y. old) at five widely spaced localities in northeastern Nevada, are geologically related to the basalts of the Snake River Plain, Idaho, to the north and are similar in major element and alkali chemistry to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and island arc tholeiites. The measured K (1250-3350 ppm), Rb (1??9-6??2 ppm) and Sr (140-240 ppm) concentrations overlap the range reported for MORB. Three of the five samples have low, unfractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns, the other two show moderate light-REE enrichment. Barium concentration is high and variable (100-780 ppm) and does not correlate with the other LIL elements. The rocks have 87Sr/86Sr = 0??7052-0??7076, considerably higher than MORB (~0??702-0??703). These samples are chemically distinct (i.e. less alkalic) from the olivine tholeiites from the adjacent Snake River Plain, but their Sr isotopic compositions are similar. They contain Sr that is distinctly more radiogenic than the basalts from the adjacent Great Basin. About 10 b.y. would be required for the mean measured Rb/Sr (~ 0??02) of these samples to generate, in a closed system, the radiogenic Sr they contain. The low alkali content of these basalts makes crustal contamination an unlikely mechanism. If the magma is uncontaminated, the time-averaged Rb/Sr of the source material must have been ~0??04. A significant decrease in Rb/Sr of the source material (a factor 2??) thus most probably occurred in the relatively recent (1??09 yr) past. Such a decrease of Rb/Sr in the mantle could accompany alkali depletion produced by an episode of partial melting and magma extraction. In contrast, low 87Sr 86Sr ratios indicate that the source material of the mid-ocean ridge basalts may have been depleted early in the Earth's history. ?? 1975.

  20. Radioecological studies of {sup 90}Sr in limnological ecosystems. Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Sadaaki [Saitama Inst. of Public Health (Japan); Izumo, Yoshiro [Association of Public Health Promotion, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and excretion of {sup 85}Sr in goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus, rearing in the radioactive freshwater were investigated in order to elucidate the accumulation mechanism of {sup 90}Sr in naturally living fishes. The accumulation of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in concentration ratio (CR) between fish and water, in whole body of the fish showed a increasing tendency with the rearing time, and the CR value reached 5.4{+-}0.4 (mean{+-}standard error) at 7th day. On the other hand, the excretion of {sup 85}Sr, expressed in retention rate, in whole body rearing in non-radioactive freshwater following the accumulation above the 7 days demonstrated a rapid decreasing at first few days, and then a gradual decreasing tendency indicating the biological half lives about 4 days and 205 days, respectively. The retention rate resulted in nearly 75% of initial radioactivity, i.e. 25% of excretion, at 25th day. As for the tissues and organs, the CR values of {sup 85}Sr reared in the radioactive freshwater for 7 days were 62.3 (vertebra: bone), 31.1 (scale), 12.5 (gill), 0.6 (viscera) and 0.4 (muscle). On the other hand, higher excretion was found in the viscera and the muscle than that in the bone, the scale and the gill. It is so suggested that the metabolic turnover rate of this radionuclide is different among these tissues and organs particularly characterizing higher accumulation and lower excretion in the vertebra (bone) and scale. (author)

  1. Analysis of coupled Sr/Ca and 87Sr/ 86Sr variations in enamel using laser-ablation tandem quadrupole-multicollector ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Vincent; Telouk, Philippe; Reynard, Bruno; Braga, José; Thackeray, Francis; Albarède, Francis

    2008-08-01

    We present in this study results obtained with a laser-ablation coupled with both a quadrupole and a multi-collector ICPMS. The simultaneous in situ Sr/Ca and 87Sr/ 86Sr measurements along growth profiles in enamel allows the concomitant diet and migration patterns in mammals to be reconstructed. Aliquots of the powdered international standard NIST "SRM1400 Bone Ash" with certified Sr and Ca contents, was sintered at high pressure and temperature and was adopted as the reference material for external reproducibility and calibration of the results. A total of 145 coupled elemental and isotopic measurements of herbivores enamel from the Kruger National Park, South Africa, gives intra-tooth Sr/Ca and 87Sr/ 86Sr variations that are well larger than external reproducibility. Sr/Ca profiles systematically decrease from the dentine-enamel junction to the outer enamel whereas 87Sr/ 86Sr profiles exhibit variable patterns. Using a simple geometric model of hypsodont teeth growth, we demonstrate that a continuous recording of the 87Sr/ 86Sr variations can be reconstructed in the tooth length axis. This suggests that the mobility of a mammal can be reconstructed over a period of more than a year with a resolution of a ten of days, by sampling enamel along growth profiles. Our geometric model of hypsodont teeth growth predicts that an optimal distance between two successive profiles is equal to the enamel thickness. However, this model does not apply to the Sr/Ca signal which is likely to be altered during the enamel maturation stage due to differential maturation processes along enamel thickness. Here, the observed constant decreases of the Sr/Ca ratios in the ungulates of Kruger National Park suggests that they did not changed of diet, while some of them were migrating.

  2. Radionuclide transport report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document compiles radionuclide transport calculations of a KBS-3 repository for the safety assessment SR-Site. The SR-Site assessment supports the licence application for a final repository at Forsmark, Sweden

  3. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  4. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and so