WorldWideScience

Sample records for swc membership class

  1. Evidence for response membership in stimulus classes by pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urcuioli, Peter J; Jones, B Max; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen M

    2013-03-01

    Response membership in pigeons' stimulus-class formation was evaluated using associative symmetry and class expansion tests. In Experiment 1, pigeons learned hue-hue (AA) and form-form (BB) successive matching plus a modified hue-form (AB) task in which reinforcement was contingent upon a left versus right side-key response after the positive AB sequences. On subsequent BA (symmetry) probe trials, pigeons responded more often to the comparisons on the reverse of the positive than negative AB sequences and, more importantly, preferentially pecked the side key consistent with symmetry after the reversed positive sequences. In Experiment 2, the original three baseline tasks were supplemented by dot-white (CC) successive matching in which reinforcement was contingent upon a left versus right side-key response after the positive CC sequences. Class expansion was then tested by presenting nonreinforced CA and CB successive matching probes. Comparison response rates were mostly nondifferential on CA probes but were uniformly higher on CB probes that consisted of the C samples and B comparisons from the same, hypothesized class. Together, these results provide evidence that responses can become members of stimulus classes, as predicted by Urcuioli's (2008) theory of pigeons' stimulus-class formation and Sidman's (2000) theory of equivalence. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Membership

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Join the Staff Association now for 2017, the remaining quarter of 2016 is free! The membership fee of the Staff Association is free for everyone joining during the last quarter of 2016. Take this opportunity to become a member of the SA. You can also enjoy our offers and partnerships, especially as we approach the holiday season. As a reminder, the membership fee is: 0.2 % of the annual basic salary for staff members with an indefinite contract (IC); the amount will be automatically charged on the salary of January; 50.00 CHF for staff members with a limited duration contract (LD), fellows and associated members of personnel.   Don’t wait any longer, join the Staff Association. We represent and defend all of you! More information on http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/

  3. Membership

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Join the Staff Association now for 2017, the remaining quarter of 2016 is free! The membership fee of the Staff Association is free for everyone joining during the last quarter of 2016. Take this opportunity to become a member of the SA. You can also enjoy our offers and partnerships, especially as we approach the holiday season. As a reminder, the membership fee is: 0.2 % of the annual basic salary for staff members with an indefinite contract (IC); the amount will be automatically; 50.00 CHF for staff members with a limited duration contract (LD), fellows and associated members of personnel.   Don’t wait any longer, join the Staff Association that represents all of you! More information on http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/

  4. 42 CFR 416.195 - Determination of membership in new classes of new technology IOLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Determination of membership in new classes of new technology IOLs. (a) Factors to be considered. CMS uses the...) Reduced risk of intraoperative or postoperative complication or trauma; (ii) Accelerated postoperative...

  5. Sociodemographic predictors of latent class membership of problematic and disordered gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J.E. James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a series of analyses examining the predictors of gambling subtypes identified from a latent class analysis of problem gambling assessment data, pooled from four health and gambling surveys conducted in Britain between 2007 and 2012. Previous analyses have indicated that gambling assessments have a consistent three class structure showing quantitative and potentially qualitative differences. Bringing this data together is useful for studying more severe problem gamblers, where the small number of respondents has been a chronic limitation of gambling prevalence research. Predictors were drawn from sociodemographic indicators and engagement with other legal addictive behaviours, namely smoking and alcohol consumption. The pooled data was entered into a multinomial logistic regression model in which class membership was regressed along a series of demographic variables and survey year, based on previous analyses of gambling prevalence data. The results identified multiple demographic differences (age, general health, SES, being single, membership of ethnic minority groups between the non-problem and two classes endorsing some problem gambling indicators. Although these two groups tended to share a sociodemographic profile, the odds of being male, British Asian and a smoker increased between the three groups in line with problem gambling severity. Being widowed was also found to be associated with the most severe gambling class. A number of associations were also observed with other addictive behaviours. However these should be taken as indicative as these were limited subsamples of a single dataset. These findings identify specific groups in which gambling problems are more prevalent, and highlight the importance of the interaction between acute and determinant aspects of impulsivity, suggesting that a more complex account of impulsivity should be considered than is currently present in the gambling literature.

  6. Distinct trajectories of leisure time physical activity and predictors of trajectory class membership: a 22 year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauvin Lise

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking social factors to long term patterns of physical activity are lacking. In this 22 year longitudinal study, we seek to identify long term patterns of involvement in leisure time physical activity (LTPA, and explore socioeconomic and demographic predictors of distinct LTPA trajectories. Methods Among 2102 individuals aged 18–60 years in 1981 who participated in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey/1988 Campbell's Survey of Well-Being, 1186 (56.4% completed questionnaires for the 2002/04 follow-up. Complete data on LTPA at all 3 surveys were available for 884 participants. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify major classes of LTPA trajectories; predictors of class membership were identified using polytomous logistic regression. Results Four latent classes were identified: inactive, increasers, active, and decreasers (53%, 26%, 12%, and 9% of participants, respectively. Women, older participants, those with lower household income, and with lower educational attainment, were significantly less likely to follow active (Vs. inactive trajectories of LTPA. Disadvantaged groups with respect to education and income were also significantly more likely to follow decreasing (Vs. active trajectories. Conclusion There is a need for continued efforts to increase overall population levels of LTPA, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups with respect to income and education, who are most likely to experience unfavorable trajectories of LTPA.

  7. Distinct trajectories of leisure time physical activity and predictors of trajectory class membership: a 22 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tracie A; Gauvin, Lise; Craig, Cora L; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2008-11-07

    or Prospective studies linking social factors to long term patterns of physical activity are lacking. In this 22 year longitudinal study, we seek to identify long term patterns of involvement in leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and explore socioeconomic and demographic predictors of distinct LTPA trajectories. Among 2102 individuals aged 18-60 years in 1981 who participated in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey/1988 Campbell's Survey of Well-Being, 1186 (56.4%) completed questionnaires for the 2002/04 follow-up. Complete data on LTPA at all 3 surveys were available for 884 participants. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify major classes of LTPA trajectories; predictors of class membership were identified using polytomous logistic regression. Four latent classes were identified: inactive, increasers, active, and decreasers (53%, 26%, 12%, and 9% of participants, respectively). Women, older participants, those with lower household income, and with lower educational attainment, were significantly less likely to follow active (Vs. inactive) trajectories of LTPA. Disadvantaged groups with respect to education and income were also significantly more likely to follow decreasing (Vs. active) trajectories. There is a need for continued efforts to increase overall population levels of LTPA, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups with respect to income and education, who are most likely to experience unfavorable trajectories of LTPA.

  8. Biopharmaceutics permeability classification of lorcaserin, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C agonist: method suitability and permeability class membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ma, Michael G; Fullenwider, Cody L; Chen, Weichao G; Sadeque, Abu J M

    2013-12-02

    The objectives of the study were (1) to demonstrate that a Caco-2 cell-based permeability assay, developed in our laboratory, is suitable to identify the permeability classification according to the US Food and Drug Administration Biopharmaceutics Classification System guidance, and (2) to use the validated Caco-2 method to determine permeability class membership of lorcaserin. Lorcaserin, marketed in United States as Belviq, is a selective human 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C agonist used for weight management. First, the permeability of twenty commercially available drugs was determined in the apical-to-basolateral direction at a final concentration of 10 μM, with the pH of transporter buffer in the apical and basolateral compartments being 6.8 and 7.4, respectively. A rank-order relationship between in vitro permeability results and the extent of human intestinal absorption for the drugs tested was observed. Second, the apparent permeability coefficient values of lorcaserin at 2, 20, and 200 μM and apical pH values of 6.8 and 7.4 in the apical-to-basolateral direction were determined using the validated method and found to be comparable to those of the high-permeability internal standard metoprolol. Lorcaserin permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers was not dependent on the variation of apical pH. Furthermore, lorcaserin was not a substrate for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, using the validated Caco-2 permeability assay, it was shown that lorcaserin is a highly permeable compound.

  9. The Effects of Sorority and Fraternity Membership on Class Participation and African American Student Engagement in Predominantly White Classroom Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between Black Greek-letter organization membership and African American student engagement in almost exclusively White college classrooms was explored in this study. Data were collected through interviews with 131 members from seven undergraduate chapters at a large, predominantly White university in the Midwest. This study…

  10. Joint model-based clustering of nonlinear longitudinal trajectories and associated time-to-event data analysis, linked by latent class membership: with application to AIDS clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangxin; Lu, Xiaosun; Chen, Jiaqing; Liang, Juan; Zangmeister, Miriam

    2017-10-27

    Longitudinal and time-to-event data are often observed together. Finite mixture models are currently used to analyze nonlinear heterogeneous longitudinal data, which, by releasing the homogeneity restriction of nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) models, can cluster individuals into one of the pre-specified classes with class membership probabilities. This clustering may have clinical significance, and be associated with clinically important time-to-event data. This article develops a joint modeling approach to a finite mixture of NLME models for longitudinal data and proportional hazard Cox model for time-to-event data, linked by individual latent class indicators, under a Bayesian framework. The proposed joint models and method are applied to a real AIDS clinical trial data set, followed by simulation studies to assess the performance of the proposed joint model and a naive two-step model, in which finite mixture model and Cox model are fitted separately.

  11. 37 CFR 6.4 - Schedule for collective membership marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schedule for collective... Schedule for collective membership marks. All collective membership marks in applications based on sections... follows: Class Title 200 Collective Membership. ...

  12. Playful Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels; Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the implications of current attempts by organizations to adapt to a world of constant change by introducing the notion of playful organizational membership. To this end we conduct a brief semantic history of organizational play and argue that when organizations play, employees...... desire to reach out - not just to the future - but to futures beyond the future presently imaginable. The article concludes that playful membership is membership through which employees are expected to develop a surplus of potential identities and continuously cross boundaries between real and virtual...

  13. Membership Satisfaction and the Cost of Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2011-01-01

    in membership satisfaction. Furthermore the cost of administration per member and membership satisfaction is found to be able to explain differences in membership loyalty when the 29 unemployment insurance funds are compared. Finally administration costs per member are found to be dependent on the number...

  14. Mutations in the Arabidopsis SWC6 gene, encoding a component of the SWR1 chromatin remodelling complex, accelerate flowering time and alter leaf and flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Ana; Gómez-Zambrano, Angeles; López-González, Leticia; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    Mutations affecting the Arabidopsis SWC6 gene encoding a putative orthologue of a component of the SWR1 chromatin remodelling complex in plants have been characterized. swc6 mutations cause early flowering, shortened inflorescence internodes, and altered leaf and flower development. These phenotypic defects resemble those of the photoperiod independent early flowering 1 (pie1) and early in short days 1 (esd1) mutants, also affected in homologues of the SWR1 complex subunits. SWC6 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear HIT-Zn finger-containing protein, with the highest levels found in pollen. Double mutant analyses suggest that swc6 abolishes the FLC-mediated late-flowering phenotype of plants carrying active alleles of FRI and of mutants of the autonomous pathway. It was found that SWC6 is required for the expression of the FLC repressor to levels that inhibit flowering. However, the effect of swc6 in an flc null background and the down-regulation of other FLC-like/MAF genes in swc6 mutants suggest that flowering inhibition mediated by SWC6 occurs through both FLC- and FLC-like gene-dependent pathways. Both genetic and physical interactions between SWC6 and ESD1 have been demonstrated, suggesting that both proteins act in the same complex. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, it has been determined that SWC6, as previously shown for ESD1, is required for both histone H3 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation of the FLC chromatin. Altogether, these results suggest that SWC6 and ESD1 are part of an Arabidopsis SWR1 chromatin remodelling complex involved in the regulation of diverse aspects of plant development, including floral repression through the activation of FLC and FLC-like genes.

  15. Danish Party Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Political parties have as their main assignment the creation of linkage between citizens and government. They provide one of several channels of participation in modern democracies. Yet, the general trend across the Western world is that party membership figures decline. The purpose of this article...... is to report on the state of Danish party membership; the numbers and participation. The claim of the article is that total membership figures hide evidence of membership renewal and increases, and that mere party membership figures are insufficient when evaluating political parties as channels...... of participation. Instead, membership figures at party level as well as the participation of party members need to be taken into account in order to assess parties as channels of participation. This is supported by the analyses reported here which show that even though membership figures are declining, parties...

  16. Membership Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis M Bowie

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to gather feedback from Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS members, the Executive sent out a survey to the membership and received replies from approximately one-third of the membership. This was an attempt to look at the role of the CTS and what the members wanted from the CTS.

  17. Membership in cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eba Gaminde Egia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we will analyze the practical application of one of the cooperative principles, «voluntary and free membership», referring to the entering of members in cooperative societies. We will first explain the meaning of this principle, and then bring up its normative regulation, with special emphasis on those aspects in which our autonomic laws differ, and ending with a brief reference to the economic aspect and the different ways to make contributions and their consequences.Received: 31 May 2017Accepted: 14 October 2017Published online: 22 December 2017

  18. Discriminative Mixed-Membership Models

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Although mixed-membership models have achieved great success in unsupervised learning, they have not been widely applied to classification problems. In this paper,...

  19. 7 CFR 981.31 - Membership representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership representation. 981.31 Section 981.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Almond Board of California § 981.31 Membership representation. Membership of the Board...

  20. 10 YEARS AFTER NATO MEMBERSHIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ”10 years after NATO Membership. An Anniversary in the Shadow of a Crisis”, indeholder artikler fra politiske aktører, diplomater og forskere, der alle bidrog til til konferencen af samme navn, hvor den 10-året for baltisk medlemskab af NATO var omdrejningspunktet. Udover den danske...... forsvarsminister, er den estiske og litauiske forsvarsminister og NATO’s vicegeneralsekretær blandt bidragyderne. Konferencens formål var at fejre, inddrage og diskutere 10 års forsvarspolitisk NATO-samarbejde i Østersøområdet. Den internationale udvikling i Europa betød at konferencens dagsorden i stedet for kom...

  1. Refugees, nationalism, and political membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Larsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to understand how refugees present a problem for liberal nation-states. The point of departure is Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism where she argues that the continual existence of refugees within liberal nation-states threatens to break down the principle of equality before the law thereby enabling the rise of police-states and totalitarianism. In light of this diagnosis, three of Arendt’s philosophical heirs—Giorgio Agamben, Seyla Benhabib and Peg Birmingham—argue that it is necessary to think political membership in different and broader terms than national citizenship if we are to avoid a new rise of totalitarianism.

  2. Multiple group membership and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group...... membership and well-being is shaped by (a) the complexity of those groups within the overall self-concept (i.e., social identity complexity: SIC), and (b) the perceived value and visibility of individual group memberships to others (i.e., stigma). Study 1 (N = 112) found a positive relationship between...... multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression...

  3. 12 CFR 323.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership... membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee...

  4. 16 CFR 1018.15 - Membership composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership composition. 1018.15 Section 1018.15 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.15 Membership composition. The Toxicological Advisory Board, as...

  5. Other-Initiated Repair and Membership Categorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria

    2004-01-01

    membership where apparent trouble in hearing or understanding the talk are addressed (‘‘other- initiated repair’’ [Language 54 (2) (1977) 361]). These practices of membership categorizing are inferred from different kinds of structural elaborateness beyond the basic two-part repair sequence. CA is shown...

  6. Building up active membership in cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Sergaki, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active membership is crucial for agricultural cooperatives as it engenders better performance. It even is the key for cooperative competitiveness. Active membership, however, decreases in many cooperatives. Thus, it is important to know what galvanizes members to become active members. The

  7. 12 CFR 575.5 - Membership rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership rights. 575.5 Section 575.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MUTUAL HOLDING COMPANIES § 575.5... existing and future depositors of the resulting association the same membership rights in the mutual...

  8. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Hooker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a healthy, (b unhealthy, (c poor psychological wellness, and (d poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007 and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037 were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01. Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  9. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  10. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    GEERS, ALEXIE

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  11. Schatten-Class operators and frames | Koo | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By extending the works of Arias et al. and Balazs we present a natural sufficient condition via frames for the membership of the Schatten p-class operators for 1 ≤ p ≤ 2, and show that such a condition is not sufficient to guarantee the membership of the Schatten-class operators for p > 2. Quaestiones Mathematicae ...

  12. 77 FR 61379 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce... Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior Executive...

  13. 76 FR 57712 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice...) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior ] Executive Service and...

  14. 78 FR 67333 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Department of Commerce... Review Board (PRB) in accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior Executive...

  15. 75 FR 57440 - Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice... accordance with the Economics and Statistics Administration's Senior Executive Service and Senior...

  16. 40 CFR 26.1107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-nursing Adults § 26.1107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying... professional conduct and practice. The IRB shall therefore include persons knowledgeable in these areas. If an...

  17. Membership nominations in international scientific assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifeld, Philip; Fisher, Dana R.

    2017-10-01

    International scientific assessments are transnational knowledge-based expert networks with a mandate to advise policymakers. A well-known example is the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), which synthesized research on ecosystem services between 2001 and 2005, utilizing the knowledge of 1,360 expert members. Little, however, is known about the membership composition and the driving forces behind membership nominations in the MA and similar organizations. Here we introduce a survey data set on recruitment in the MA and analyse nomination patterns among experts as a complex network. The results indicate that membership recruitment was governed by prior contacts in other transnational elite organizations and a range of other factors related to personal affinity. Network analysis demonstrates how some core individuals were particularly influential in shaping the overall membership composition of the group. These findings add to recently noted concerns about the lack of diversity of views represented in international scientific assessments.

  18. 12 CFR 722.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in... membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers performing...

  19. 12 CFR 564.6 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... APPRAISALS § 564.6 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations... membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee appraisers performing...

  20. 12 CFR 34.46 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.46 Professional association membership; competency. (a... membership or lack of membership in any particular appraisal organization. (b) Competency. All staff and fee...

  1. The Influence of Membership Groups on Selecting Accommodations: the Case of the Residential Tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perez-Aranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.

  2. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  3. A PSO-based approach to optimize the triangular membership functions in a fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, Vincenzo; Lombardo, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    In this paper a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is considered in order to optimize the triangular Membership Functions (MF) in a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). PSO algorithm belongs to the class of Swarm Intelligence (SI) techniques and is considered an efficient heuristic technique for optimization problem in a continuous and multidimen-sional search spaces. Performance of a FLC depends on the fuzzy partition of each input/output space considered and the PSO algorithm can be used to obtain the optimal or near optimal parameters of the triangular membership functions in order to achieve the best results in the defuzzification process. Simulation results obtained by this approach to tune the triangular membership functions of a FLC for an application concerning the optimization of the energy consumption in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSN) are reported.

  4. Membership Functions for Fuzzy Focal Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porębski Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on data-driven diagnostic rules, which are easy to interpret by human experts. To this end, the Dempster-Shafer theory extended for fuzzy focal elements is used. Premises of the rules (fuzzy focal elements are provided by membership functions which shapes are changing according to input symptoms. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate common membership function shapes and to introduce a rule elimination algorithm. Proposed methods are first illustrated with the popular Iris data set. Next experiments with five medical benchmark databases are performed. Results of the experiments show that various membership function shapes provide different inference efficiency but the extracted rule sets are close to each other. Thus indications for determining rules with possible heuristic interpretation can be formulated.

  5. Dynamic Infinite Mixed-Membership Stochastic Blockmodel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuhui; Cao, Longbing; Xu, Richard Yi Da

    2015-09-01

    Directional and pairwise measurements are often used to model interactions in a social network setting. The mixed-membership stochastic blockmodel (MMSB) was a seminal work in this area, and its ability has been extended. However, models such as MMSB face particular challenges in modeling dynamic networks, for example, with the unknown number of communities. Accordingly, this paper proposes a dynamic infinite mixed-membership stochastic blockmodel, a generalized framework that extends the existing work to potentially infinite communities inside a network in dynamic settings (i.e., networks are observed over time). Additional model parameters are introduced to reflect the degree of persistence among one's memberships at consecutive time stamps. Under this framework, two specific models, namely mixture time variant and mixture time invariant models, are proposed to depict two different time correlation structures. Two effective posterior sampling strategies and their results are presented, respectively, using synthetic and real-world data.

  6. A CMAC-based scheme for determining membership with classification of text strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Heng; Tseng, Ying-Chih; Chen, Lu-I

    Membership determination of text strings has been an important procedure for analyzing textual data of a tremendous amount, especially when time is a crucial factor. Bloom filter has been a well-known approach for dealing with such a problem because of its succinct structure and simple determination procedure. As determination of membership with classification is becoming increasingly desirable, parallel Bloom filters are often implemented for facilitating the additional classification requirement. The parallel Bloom filters, however, tend to produce additional false-positive errors since membership determination must be performed on each of the parallel layers. We propose a scheme based on CMAC, a neural network mapping, which only requires a single-layer calculation to simultaneously obtain information of both the membership and classification. A hash function specifically designed for text strings is also proposed. The proposed scheme could effectively reduce false-positive errors by converging the range of membership acceptance to the minimum for each class during the neural network mapping. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme committed significantly less errors than the benchmark, parallel Bloom filters, with limited and identical memory usage at different classification levels.

  7. Learning unions of boxes with membership and equivalence queries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, P.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goldman, S.A.; Mathias, H.D. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The authors present two algorithms that use membership and equivalence queries to exactly identify the concepts given by the union of s discretized axis-parallel boxes in d-dimensional discretized Euclidean space where there are n discrete values that each coordinate can have. The first algorithm receives at most sd counterexamples and uses time and membership queries polynomial in s and log n for d any constant. Further, all equivalence queries made can be formulated as the union of O(sd log(s)) axis-parallel boxes. Next, they introduce a new complexity measure that better captures the complexity of a union of boxes than simply the number of boxes and dimensions. Their new measure, {sigma}, is the number of segments in the target polyhedron where a segment is a maximum portion of one of the sides of the polyhedron that lies entirely inside or entirely outside each of the other halfspaces defining the polyhedron. They then present an improvement of their first algorithm that uses time and queries polynomial in {sigma} and log n. The hypothesis class used here is decision trees of height at most 2sd. Further they can show that the time and queries used by this algorithm are polynomial in d and log n for s any constant thus generalizing the exact learnability of DNF formulas with a constant number of terms. In fact, this single algorithm is efficient for either s or d constant.

  8. 45 CFR 1700.3 - Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 1700.3 Membership. (a) The Commission is composed of the Librarian of Congress, the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (who serves as an ex officio, nonvoting...

  9. Express consent and full membership in Locke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartogh, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    It seems mysterious why Locke required express consent as a condition of full membership of civil society. It is suggested this requirement be interpreted as a political programme. In a draft of a pamphlet of 1690 Locke criticizes the oath of allegiance required after the Glorious Revolution for not

  10. 34 CFR 97.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handicapped or mentally disabled persons, consideration shall be given to the inclusion of one or more... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IRB membership. 97.107 Section 97.107 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Federal Policy for the...

  11. Growth effects of EU and EZ memberships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; Schmid, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    a positive impact of EU membership on economic growth, but no impact of being part of the EZ, except during the financial crisis, when the EZ has a negative impact on growth amongst its members. Considering the heated political debate related to the Brexit referendum, our results favour a “yes” to the EU...

  12. 14 CFR 1230.107 - IRB membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IRB membership. 1230.107 Section 1230.107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.107..., including consideration of race, gender, and cultural backgrounds and sensitivity to such issues as...

  13. Medical School Performance, Alumni Membership, and Giving: How Do Scholarship Recipients and Non-Recipients Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Carol L; Stratton, Terry D; Gilbert, Linda A; Stroth, H I; Vicini, Mary Beth; Wilson, Emery A

    2005-12-01

    This study examines student recipients of merit, need-based, service, or minority scholarships, their performance in medical school, and the relationship to future alumni association membership and financial giving. Retrospective data on grade-point average attained across the four-year curriculum and extracurricular activities reported at graduation were collected on students at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine from 1981-1991. Comparisons of academic performance and participation in institutional activities were made across scholarship recipients and non-recipients. These data were then linked to other data tracking alumni association membership and institutional giving. Compared to other scholarship recipients and non-recipients, merit scholars were more likely to be ranked above their class medians and be involved in extracurricular activities, including membership in Alpha Omega Alpha. However, seven years post-graduation, there was no difference between scholarship recipients and non-recipients in alumni association membership or donations to the medical school. Instead, students graduating in the upper half of their class, as compared to graduates in the lower half, and UKCOM graduates who attended the University of Kentucky as undergraduates, rather than students who attended other in-state or out-of state institutions, were more likely to join the medical alumni association. Alumni association members were more likely than non-members to make donations to the institution. More should be done to ensure that graduates who received scholarships are afforded meaningful ways to give back to the institution that supported them as students.

  14. Prediction of Membership in Rehabilitation Counseling Professional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brian N.; Leahy, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Declining membership is a concerning yet poorly understood issue affecting professional associations across disciplines (Bauman, 2008). Rehabilitation counseling association membership is in decline even while number of certified rehabilitation counselors continues to increase (Leahy, 2009). Factors influencing rehabilitation counseling…

  15. 12 CFR 225.66 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.66 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations. A State certified appraiser or a State licensed...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4267 - Professional association membership; competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Professional association membership; competency... POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Collateral Evaluation Requirements § 614.4267 Professional association membership; competency. (a) Membership in appraisal organizations. A State certified appraiser or a State licensed...

  17. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently seven members who joined the Union in 1941 received their gold pins in recognition of 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the other 50-year members, all of whom are listed below by the year they joined. 1941 Max Bookman, Desmond F. Glynn, William F. Guyton, Kenneth E. Lohman, Charles Miron, Russell W. Revell, and Wilbur T. Stuart

  18. Group Membership Based Authorization to CADC Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, A.; Dowler, P.; Gaudet, S.; Hill, N.

    2012-09-01

    The Group Membership Service (GMS), implemented at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC), is a prototype of what could eventually be an IVOA standard for a distributed and interoperable group membership protocol. Group membership is the core authorization concept that enables teamwork and collaboration amongst astronomers accessing distributed resources and services. The service integrates and complements other access control related IVOA standards such as single-sign-on (SSO) using X.509 proxy certificates and the Credential Delegation Protocol (CDP). The GMS has been used at CADC for several years now, initially as a subsystem and then as a stand-alone Web service. It is part of the authorization mechanism for controlling the access to restricted Web resources as well as the VOSpace service hosted by the CADC. We present the role that GMS plays within the access control system at the CADC, including the functionality of the service and how the different CADC services make use of it to assert user authorization to resources. We also describe the main advantages and challenges of using the service as well as future work to increase its robustness and functionality.

  19. Identifying Changes in Youth's Subgroup Membership over Time Based on Their Targeted Communication about Substance Use with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Using latent class/transition analyses, this study: (a) identified subgroups of youth based on their targeted communication about substance use with parents and friends, (b) examined subgroup differences in substance use, and (c) considered changes in subgroup membership over four years. Among 5,874 youth, five subgroups emerged, with parents-only…

  20. Environmental Group Membership, Collective Action and Generalised trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of generalised trust on environmental group membership from a collective action perspective. A cross-national analysis is conducted. It shows a robust and consistent, positive effect of generalised trust on environmental group membership. The paper draws...... on an existing model of environmental group membership, and the analysis demonstrates the usefulness of generalised trust and a collective action perspective in that they improve this model....

  1. Superior Weapons Systems Through Castings (SWC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    environment, too hot and our body will focus on cooling, too cold and it must focus on the conservation of heat. Both of these actions affect a human’s...system controlling thermoregulation , and that this activation of the sympathetic nervous system elevates mental alertness thus increasing general

  2. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  3. Three Steps to Engage Volunteers in Membership Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Tony

    2011-01-01

    There is a big world out there, and volunteers can make a significant impact in helping one reach out to others and grow his/her PTA membership. In fact, word-of-mouth marketing tied for the top spot as the most effective method of new member recruitment in Marketing General's 2010 Membership Marketing Benchmarking Report. So getting volunteers'…

  4. Effect of farmer group membership on agricultural technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of farmer group membership on agricultural technology adoption and crop productivity in Uganda. ... Although membership to groups resulted in increased yields for banana and cassava, negative impacts were observed for sweet potatoes, beans and maize. Group members were less likely to adopt inorganic ...

  5. 49 CFR 95.7 - Industry advisory committees: Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industry advisory committees: Membership. 95.7 Section 95.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.7 Industry advisory committees: Membership. Each industry advisory committee must be reasonably representative of the...

  6. 11 CFR 7.12 - Membership in associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership in associations. 7.12 Section 7.12... Employees or Commissioners § 7.12 Membership in associations. Commissioners or employees who are members of nongovernmental associations or organizations shall avoid activities on behalf of those associations or...

  7. 13 CFR 113.215 - Membership practices of certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations do not apply to the membership practices of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership practices of certain organizations. 113.215 Section 113.215 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...

  8. IP Profiling via Service Cluster Membership Vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoletti, A

    2009-02-23

    This study investigates the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a system of compact IP behavioral profiles as a robust means of computer anomaly definition and detection. These profiles are based upon the degree to which a system's (IP's) network traffic is distributed among stable characteristic clusters derived of the aggregate session traffic generated by each of the major network services. In short, an IP's profile represents its degree of membership in these derived service clusters. The goal is to quantify and rank behaviors that are outside of the statistical norm for the services in question, or present significant deviation from profile for individual client IPs. Herein, we establish stable clusters for accessible features of common session traffic, migrate these clusters over time, define IP behavior profiles with respect to these clusters, migrate individual IP profiles over time, and demonstrate the detection of IP behavioral changes in terms of deviation from profile.

  9. Associations of diet quality with dairy group membership, membership duration and non-membership for Kenyan farm women and children: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Colleen; Taylor, Jennifer; VanLeeuwen, John; Yeudall, Fiona; Mbugua, Samwel

    2014-02-01

    To examine associations among diet quality and dairy group membership, membership duration and non-member status for women and school-aged children in rural Kenya. A cross-sectional survey, using chain referral sampling, was conducted and diet quality indices and prevalence of inadequate intake (PII) were estimated using the 'estimated average requirement' cut-off point method from single 24 h recalls, using a Kenyan nutrient database. PII was compared among members and non-members and among membership-duration groups. Women and children of dairy group members (n 88), across membership-duration groups (1-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10+ years), and non-members (n 23) living among members. Small farms in central Kenya. Members had higher energy, percentage of energy from animal-source foods and dietary diversity. Member women and children had lower PII for respectively seven and three of eleven micronutrients. Reduced PII for milk-source micronutrients was associated with membership duration for women. Many member women (38%) had inadequate vitamin A intake and 39% of member children had inadequate Zn intake. Members' PII was also high (>45%) for Fe, Ca and vitamin B12. A higher prevalence of being overweight among member women compared with non-member women suggested nutrition transition effects of higher farm productivity. Dairy group membership was positively associated with adequate quantity and quality of diets for women and children. Long-term membership was insufficient to address micronutrient deficiencies. Understanding and addressing barriers to better diet quality and strategies to mitigate negative nutrition transition effects are needed to optimize nutritional outcomes of dairy group membership.

  10. Class Schedules Need Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  11. 75 FR 63813 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY: In...

  12. 78 FR 68025 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In...

  13. 77 FR 64794 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In...

  14. 76 FR 64072 - Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Economic Development Administration Membership of the Economic Development Administration Performance Review Board AGENCY: Economic Development Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of membership on the Economic Development Administration's Performance Review Board membership. SUMMARY: In...

  15. Democracy predicts sport and recreation membership: Insights from 52 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balish, Shea M

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence suggests sport and recreation are powerful contributors to worldwide public health, sizable gender differences persist. It is unknown whether country characteristics moderate gender differences across countries. The primary purpose of this study was to examine if countries' levels of democracy and/or gender inequality moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. The secondary purpose was to examine if democracy and/or gender inequality predicts overall rates of sport and recreation membership for both males and females. This study involved a nested cross-sectional design and employed the sixth wave (2013) of the world value survey (nSs=71,901, ncountries=52). Multiple hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli models tested: (1) if countries' levels of democracy moderate gender differences in sport and recreation membership; and (2) if democracy is associated with increased sport and recreation membership for both males and females. Countries' level of democracy fully moderated gender differences in sport and recreation membership across countries. Moreover, democracy was positively associated with both male and female membership, even when controlling for individual and country-level covariates. Democratic political regimes may confer health benefits via increased levels of sport and recreation membership, especially for females. Future research should test mediating mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infinite Multiple Membership Relational Modeling for Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    Learning latent structure in complex networks has become an important problem fueled by many types of networked data originating from practically all fields of science. In this paper, we propose a new non-parametric Bayesian multiplemembership latent feature model for networks. Contrary to existing...... multiplemembership models that scale quadratically in the number of vertices the proposedmodel scales linearly in the number of links admittingmultiple-membership analysis in large scale networks. We demonstrate a connection between the single membership relational model and multiple membership models and show...

  17. Romania: Ten Years of EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hunya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available By joining the European Union as of 1st of January 2007, Romania made use of a window of opportunity which may not have been open later. In the ten years that followed, advantages and challenges of the membership have in part been overshadowed by the impact of the global financial crisis. The country went through a boom-bust-boom economic cycle. The swing from overheating to depression and back again to overheating has been amplified by pro-cyclical economic policy. Romania has been a selective policy taker in the EU often delaying fiscal and legal actions resulting in lost benefits. By reviewing the current political uncertainties in Europe, the conclusion emerges that more effective governance and more active foreign policy is necessary under the current Europe-wide orientation loss. The country may need to develop a mobilising strategy and policy beyond the direct benefits provided by the EU, one that also contributes to the success of the European integration.

  18. 76 FR 54196 - Membership of the Departmental Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... forth below by organization: Department of Commerce Departmental Performance Review Board Membership.... Bureau of Industry and Security, Gay G. Shrum, Director of Administration. Bureau of the Census, Arnold A...

  19. Effect of nutrition education and dairy group membership on nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group membership status. Positive intervention effects on intake of vitamin A and C were found for non-member women. This study provided evidence that certain intervention effects were dependent on poverty reduction and that all women were ...

  20. Advanced Concepts in Fuzzy Logic and Systems with Membership Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Starczewski, Janusz T

    2013-01-01

    This book generalizes fuzzy logic systems for different types of uncertainty, including - semantic ambiguity resulting from limited perception or lack of knowledge about exact membership functions - lack of attributes or granularity arising from discretization of real data - imprecise description of membership functions - vagueness perceived as fuzzification of conditional attributes. Consequently, the membership uncertainty can be modeled by combining methods of conventional and type-2 fuzzy logic, rough set theory and possibility theory.            In particular, this book provides a number of formulae for implementing the operation extended on fuzzy-valued fuzzy sets and presents some basic structures of generalized uncertain fuzzy logic systems, as well as introduces several of methods to generate fuzzy membership uncertainty. It is desirable as a reference book for under-graduates in higher education, master and doctor graduates in the courses of computer science, computational intelligence, or...

  1. Uncertainty in Fuzzy Membership Functions for a River Water Quality Management Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Subhankar; Mujumdar, PP

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty associated with fuzzy membership functions for a water quality management problem is addressed through interval grey numbers. The lower and upper bounds of the membership functions are expressed as interval grey numbers, and the membership functions are modeled as imprecise membership functions. A grey fuzzy optimization model for water quality management of a river system is developed. Application of the optimization model with imprecise membership functions is illustrated with a...

  2. Loss of group memberships predicts depression in postpartum mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour-Smith, Magen; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Brodribb, Wendy

    2017-02-01

    The postpartum period presents the highest risk for women's mental health throughout the lifespan. We aimed to examine the Social Identity Model of Identity Change in this context. More specifically, we investigated changes in social identity during this life transition and their consequences for women's postpartum mental health. Women who had given birth within the last 12 months (N = 387) reported on measures of depression, social group memberships, and motherhood identification. Analyses indicated that a decrease in group memberships after having a baby, controlling for group memberships prior to birth, was associated with an increase in depressive symptomology. However, maintaining pre-existing group memberships was predictive of better mental health. New group memberships were not associated with depressive symptomology. Identification as a mother was a strong positive predictor of mental health in the postpartum period. The social identity model of identity change provides a useful framework for understanding postpartum depression. Interventions to prevent and treat postpartum depression might aim to support women in maintaining important social group networks throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  3. The impact of group membership on collaborative learning with wikis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschke, Christina; Moskaliuk, Johannes; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2013-02-01

    The social web stimulates learning through collaboration. However, information in the social web is often associated with information about its author. Based on previous evidence that ingroup information is preferred to outgroup information, the current research investigates whether group memberships of wiki authors affect learning. In an experimental study, we manipulated the group memberships (ingroup vs. outgroup) of wiki authors by using nicknames. The designated group memberships (being fans of a soccer team or not) were completely irrelevant for the domain of the wiki (the medical disorder fibromyalgia). Nevertheless, wiki information from the ingroup led to more integration of information into prior knowledge as well as more increase of factual knowledge than information from the outgroup. The results demonstrate that individuals apply social selection strategies when considering information from wikis, which may foster, but also hinder, learning and collaboration. Practical implications for collaborative learning in the social web are discussed.

  4. Membership in fraternities and sororities, depression, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Rachael; Tang, Connie; Lester, David

    2014-06-01

    College student membership in fraternities/sororities may have positive or negative effects on their behavior. This study investigated the relationships between fraternity/sorority membership, depression, and suicidal behavior. 293 undergraduate students (232 women, 61 men; M age = 22.6 yr., SD = 1.5, range = 18-24; 127 sorority sisters, 35 fraternity brothers) from a rural state college participated in the study. Depression, self-esteem and perceived social support were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, respectively. Depression and suicidal ideation correlated negatively with self-esteem and perceived social support, but were not correlated with membership in fraternities/sororities.

  5. On the Cell Probe Complexity of Membership and Perfect Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2001-01-01

    We study two fundamental static data structure problems, membership and perfect hashing, in Yao's cell probe model. The first space and bit probe optimal worst case upper bound is given for the membership problem. We also give a new efficient membership scheme where the query algorithm makes just...... one adaptive choice, and probes a total of three words. A lower bound shows that two word probes generally do not suffice. For minimal perfect hashing we show a tight bit probe lower bound, and give a simple scheme achieving this performance, making just one adaptive choice. Linear range perfect...... hashing is shown to be implementable with the same number of bit probes, of which just one is adaptive. In contrast, we establish that for sufficiently sparse sets, non-adaptive perfect hashing needs exponentially more bit probes. This is the first such separation of adaptivity and non-adaptivity....

  6. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  7. Membership ballots and the value of intra-party democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether this is ......On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether...... to non-members. I discuss these implications and offer some institutional design guidelines....

  8. Image segmentation based on scaled fuzzy membership functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Ring,, P.; Christiansen, Pernille

    1993-01-01

    As a basis for an automated interpretation of magnetic resonance images, the authors propose a fuzzy segmentation method. The method uses five standard fuzzy membership functions: small, small medium, medium, large medium, and large. The method fits these membership functions to the modes...... of interest in the image histogram by means of a piecewise-linear transformation. A test example is given concerning a human head image, including a sensitivity analysis based on the fuzzy area measure. The method provides a rule-based interface to the physician...

  9. The Effect of Membership Rules and Voting Schemes on the Success of International Climate Agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finus, M. [Department of Economics Institute of Economic Theory, Hagen University, Hagen (Germany); Altamirano-Cabrera, Juan-Carlos; Van Ierland, E. [Department of Social Sciences Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We empirically test the role of membership rules and voting schemes for climate change coalitions with the STAbility of COalitions model (STACO). The model comprises twelve world regions and captures long-run effects of greenhouse gas accumulation. We apply three stability concepts that capture the notion of open membership and exclusive membership with majority and unanimity voting. We show that exclusive membership leads to superior outcomes than open membership and that unanimity voting is preferable to majority voting in welfare and environmental terms. Our results suggest restricting membership in future international environmental agreements and they provide a rationale for unanimity voting as applied in many international organizations.

  10. Identifying desertification risk areas using fuzzy membership and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Desertification risk assessment is important in order to take proper measures for its prevention. Present research intends to identify the areas under risk of desertification along with their severity in terms of degradation in natural parameters. An integrated model with fuzzy membership analysis, fuzzy rulebased inference ...

  11. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagwiza, Clarietta; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of cooperative membership among dairy producers in Selale, Ethiopia. We selected ten impact indicators: proportion of dairy income to total household income, total dairy income, proportion of crossbreed cows to the total number of cows in the herd (indicator of

  12. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagwiza, C.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of cooperative membership among dairy producers in Selale, Ethiopia. We selected ten impact indicators: proportion of dairy income to total household income, total dairy income, proportion of crossbreed cows to the total number of cows in the herd (indicator of

  13. 21 CFR 14.127 - Membership of TEPRSSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in one or more fields of science or engineering applicable to electronic product radiation safety, as... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Membership of TEPRSSC. 14.127 Section 14.127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC HEARING...

  14. 22 CFR 146.215 - Membership practices of certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apply to the membership practices of the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), the Young Women's.... 146.215 Section 146.215 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... are exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, 26 U.S.C. 501(a...

  15. Gang Membership and Drug Involvement: Untangling the Complex Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently demonstrated a relationship between gang membership and involvement in illegal substances. In addition, researchers have noted that gang members are frequently more heavily involved in drug sales, which often lead to increases in violent behaviors. Most of this research, however, is either cross-sectional or…

  16. 7 CFR 915.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 915.20 Section 915.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.30 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 1219.30 Section 1219.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  18. 18 CFR 1317.215 - Membership practices of certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Membership practices of certain organizations. 1317.215 Section 1317.215 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA), the Girl Scouts, the Boy Scouts, and Camp Fire Girls. (c...

  19. Greek Membership: The Relationship with First-Year Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBard, Robert; Sacks, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for student involvement to build a sense of belonging on college campuses. However, when it comes to membership in Greek social organizations, such involvement has been largely cast as negative. Unlike many of the anecdotal articles critical of the influence joining a Greek social organization can have on…

  20. A Technological Assessment of the SLA Membership: Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimsek, Tobi A.

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the results of a Special Libraries Association membership survey on technology. Data are reported on types of technology currently in use, parent organizations, members' relationships to technology, purchasing power, staffing, the impact of technology on staff size and services, user satisfaction, job satisfaction, type of institution…

  1. Membership of the Nigerian Library Association and Job Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and simple regression analysis were the statistics used. The result revealed a significant relationship between membership of Nigerian Library Association and job performance of Librarian. Also the construct could predict job performance of librarians in Nigerian University ...

  2. Schoolyard Corner Society: Relating Membership to Reactive and Proactive Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Svein; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether secondary schools in Norway had deviant subcultures, which could be labelled "schoolyard corner society", and how gender and age were related to membership. We also studied levels of reactive and proactive aggressiveness in students, and the relationship between these types of aggressiveness and…

  3. 24 CFR 3.215 - Membership practices of certain organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Membership practices of certain organizations. 3.215 Section 3.215 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES...

  4. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  5. 77 FR 6169 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    .... Department of State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs' Defense Trade Advisory Group (DTAG) is accepting membership applications. The Bureau of Political-Military Affairs is interested in applications from subject..., and foundation personnel. Originally announced in the Federal Register at 76 FR 72745, the Department...

  6. 76 FR 72745 - Defense Trade Advisory Group; Notice of Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    .... Department of State's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs' Defense Trade Advisory Group (DTAG) is accepting membership applications. The Bureau of Political-Military Affairs is interested in applications from subject..., and foundation personnel. The DTAG was established as a continuing committee under the authority of 22...

  7. Political attitude and trade union membership in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Strøby

    2017-01-01

    Do political attitudes influence the likelihood of employees being members of a trade union, and to what extent is this the case in the Nordic countries with their high aggregate levels of membership? In this article, I address these questions using European Social Survey data from 2012...

  8. 78 FR 52517 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Agencies: Defense Advance Research Projects Agency, Defense Commissary Agency, Defense Contract Audit... of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of... the Department of Defense, Fourth Estate, Performance Review Board (PRB) members, to include the Joint...

  9. 77 FR 49440 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Defense Agencies: Defense Advance Research Projects Agency, Defense Commissary Agency, Defense Contract... of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary of... the Department of Defense, Fourth Estate, Performance Review Board (PRB) members, to include the Joint...

  10. 76 FR 60473 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... following Defense Agencies: Defense Advance Research Projects Agency, Defense Contract Management Agency... of the Secretary Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OSD... appointment of the Department of Defense, Fourth Estate, Performance Review Board (PRB) members, to include...

  11. ASCUS Directory of Membership and Subject Field Index, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for School, College, and University Staffing, Madison, WI.

    The membership of the Association for School, College, and University Staffing (ASCUS) includes representatives of major educational institutions that prepare personnel for positions in schools, colleges, universities, school districts, and other educational agencies. This directory provides listings of those people on college campuses who are…

  12. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2013 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…

  13. 7 CFR 930.20 - Establishment and membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Handling Administrative Body § 930.20 Establishment and membership. (a) There is hereby established a... or her alternate, shall be elected by the Board from the general public. (b) District representation... representation in districts with three members shall alternate each time the term of a Board member from the...

  14. The Benefits of FFA Membership as Part of Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chelsea; Stephens, Carrie A.; Stripling, Christopher; Cross, Tim; Sanok, Danielle E.; Brawner, Shelby

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to identify the benefits of FFA membership based on the fulfillment of three basic human needs: love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization. The study focused on the fulfillment of FFA members' basic human needs as defined by Abraham Maslow. The three needs on which this study focused are: love and belonging,…

  15. 17 CFR 156.4 - Disclosure of Broker Association Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of Broker... COMMISSION BROKER ASSOCIATIONS § 156.4 Disclosure of Broker Association Membership. Each contract market shall make available to the public generally and upon request a list of all registered broker...

  16. 78 FR 5516 - Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... supervisor, and makes recommendations to the Chairman of the Review Commission regarding performance ratings, performance awards, and pay-for-performance adjustments. Members of the PRB serve for a period of 24 months... HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board Membership AGENCY...

  17. Change and stability in childhood clique membership, isolation from cliques, and associated child characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; Lier, van P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the role of clique membership and clique isolation in children’s psychosocial adjustment. We identified change and stability in early elementary school clique membership and investigated behavioral characteristics related to this change and stability. Participants were

  18. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation (Complainants...

  19. 11 CFR 100.134 - Internal communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications by corporations, labor organizations, and membership organizations. (a) General provision. Any cost incurred for any communication by a membership organization, including a labor organization, to... administer the organization, pursuant to the organization's articles, bylaws, constitution or other formal...

  20. 78 FR 68037 - Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Telecommunications and... Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  1. 76 FR 64075 - Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Telecommunications and... Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  2. 76 FR 66043 - Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration Membership of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review Board AGENCY: National Telecommunications and... Telecommunications and Information Administration's Performance Review Board Membership. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  3. Women otolaryngologist representation in specialty society membership and leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sukgi S; Miller, Robert H

    2012-11-01

    To determine the proportion of female otolaryngologists in leadership positions relative to their number in the specialty, their membership in various otolaryngology organizations, and age. Cross-sectional analyses of otolaryngology organization membership with a subgroup analysis on female membership and leadership proportion comparing 5-year male/female cohort groups. Information on the number of members and leaders was obtained from various specialty societies by direct communication and from their Web sites between June and December 2010. The number of female and male otolaryngologists and their age distribution in 5-year age groups was obtained from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS). Statistical analyses were used to determine whether women had proportional membership and leadership representation in various specialty societies. Additionally, female representation in other leadership roles was analyzed using the male/female ratio within the 5-year cohort groups. Female otolaryngologists were found to constitute approximately 11% of practicing otolaryngologists. The American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology had a higher proportion of female members (22%) compared to five other societies. When the gender composition within each organization was taken into account, female representation in specialty society leadership positions was proportionate to their membership across all societies. When gender and age were considered, women have achieved proportionate representation in each of the specialty societies' leadership positions. There was also proportionate representation of females as program directors, American Board of Otolaryngology directors, Residency Review Committee members, and journal editors/editorial board members. Finally, fewer female chairs or chiefs of departments/divisions were seen, but when age was taken into consideration, this difference was no longer significant. Women have achieved parity in

  4. Patterns of adolescent sexual behavior predicting young adult sexually transmitted infections: a latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A; Kugler, Kari C; Butera, Nicole M; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2015-04-01

    Adolescent sexual behavior is multidimensional, yet most studies of the topic use variable-oriented methods that reduce behaviors to a single dimension. In this study, we used a person-oriented approach to model adolescent sexual behavior comprehensively, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We identified five latent classes of adolescent sexual behavior: Abstinent (39%), Oral Sex (10%), Low-Risk (25%), Multi-Partner Normative (12%), and Multi-Partner Early (13%). Membership in riskier classes of sexual behavior was predicted by substance use and depressive symptoms. Class membership was also associated with young adult STI outcomes although these associations differed by gender. Male adolescents' STI rates increased with membership in classes with more risky behaviors whereas females' rates were consistent among all sexually active classes. These findings demonstrate the advantages of examining adolescent sexuality in a way that emphasizes its complexity.

  5. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  6. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the new politics opened up new opportunities for businesses and citizens. The aim of the article is to analyze the balance of the Polish membership in the European Union in the economic, financial, political and social dimensions.

  7. The chief nurse officer as a board member: membership duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, A S; Brent, N J

    1993-05-01

    This series will explore the different types of governing bodies, with their attending responsibilities, on which chief nurse officers serve. A comparison of the administrative nature of the governing body with executive management will be described relative to legal, risk management, ethical, and liability concerns. Exploration of potential and actual conflicts that nurse executives who are board members may confront will also be highlighted. Chief nurse officers, who are board members, will discuss the required investments and benefits of board membership.

  8. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  9. Gang Membership Risk Factors for Eighth-Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Martinez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood, and family were used to predict gang membership. Demographic data were also used as predictor variables. Results indicated that an increase in Community-Neighborhood Risk was associated with a decrease in joining a gang. Non-significant findings for Peer Risk, School Risk, Family Risk and demographic variables are additionally discussed. The current research identifies issues which middle school youth encounter in a county setting; provides a homegrown report to assist stakeholders (administrators, teachers, parents, students, and law enforcement in identifying locally relevant risk factors of gang behavior; and substantiates risk factors for gang membership proliferation in those neighborhoods with no recently documented history of gangs.

  10. Emotions facilitate the communication of ambiguous group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that emotions intersect with obvious social categories (e.g., race), influencing both how targets are categorized and the emotions that are read from their faces. Here, we examined the influence of emotional expression on the perception of less obvious group memberships for which, in the absence of obvious and stable physical markers, emotion may serve as a major avenue for group categorization and identification. Specifically, we examined whether emotions are embedded in the mental representations of sexual orientation and political affiliation, and whether people may use emotional expressions to communicate these group memberships to others. Using reverse correlation methods, we found that mental representations of gay and liberal faces were characterized by more positive facial expressions than mental representations of straight and conservative faces (Study 1). Furthermore, participants were evaluated as expressing more positive emotions when enacting self-defined "gay" and "liberal" versus "straight" and "conservative" facial expressions in the lab (Study 2). In addition, neutral faces morphed with happiness were perceived as more gay than when morphed with anger, and when compared to unmorphed controls (Study 3). Finally, we found that affect facilitated perceptions of sexual orientation and political affiliation in naturalistic settings (Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that emotion is a defining characteristic of person construal that people tend to use both when signaling their group memberships and when receiving those signals to categorize others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  12. Multiple Group Membership and Well-Being: Is There Always Strength in Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderlund, Anders L; Morton, Thomas A; Ryan, Michelle K

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group membership and well-being is shaped by (a) the complexity of those groups within the overall self-concept (i.e., social identity complexity: SIC), and (b) the perceived value and visibility of individual group memberships to others (i.e., stigma). Study 1 (N = 112) found a positive relationship between multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued and visible group memberships compromised well-being relative to multiple valued group memberships, or devalued group memberships that were invisible. Together, these studies suggest that the benefits of multiple group membership depend on factors beyond their number. Specifically, the features of group memberships, individually and in combination, and the way in which these guide self-expression and social action, determine whether these are a benefit or burden for individual well-being.

  13. Multiple Group Membership and Well-Being: Is There Always Strength in Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderlund, Anders L.; Morton, Thomas A.; Ryan, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group membership and well-being is shaped by (a) the complexity of those groups within the overall self-concept (i.e., social identity complexity: SIC), and (b) the perceived value and visibility of individual group memberships to others (i.e., stigma). Study 1 (N = 112) found a positive relationship between multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104) also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued and visible group memberships compromised well-being relative to multiple valued group memberships, or devalued group memberships that were invisible. Together, these studies suggest that the benefits of multiple group membership depend on factors beyond their number. Specifically, the features of group memberships, individually and in combination, and the way in which these guide self-expression and social action, determine whether these are a benefit or burden for individual well-being. PMID:28680414

  14. Multiple Group Membership and Well-Being: Is There Always Strength in Numbers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders L. Sønderlund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research points to the value of multiple group memberships for individual well-being. However, much of this work considers group memberships very broadly and in terms of number alone. We conducted two correlational studies exploring how the relationship between multiple group membership and well-being is shaped by (a the complexity of those groups within the overall self-concept (i.e., social identity complexity: SIC, and (b the perceived value and visibility of individual group memberships to others (i.e., stigma. Study 1 (N = 112 found a positive relationship between multiple group membership and well-being, but only for individuals high in SIC. This effect was mediated by perceived identity expression and access to social support. Study 2 (N = 104 also found that multiple group memberships indirectly contributed to well-being via perceived identity expression and social support, as well as identity compatibility and perceived social inclusion. But, in this study the relationship between multiple group memberships and well-being outcomes was moderated by the perceived value and visibility of group memberships to others. Specifically, possessing multiple, devalued and visible group memberships compromised well-being relative to multiple valued group memberships, or devalued group memberships that were invisible. Together, these studies suggest that the benefits of multiple group membership depend on factors beyond their number. Specifically, the features of group memberships, individually and in combination, and the way in which these guide self-expression and social action, determine whether these are a benefit or burden for individual well-being.

  15. Variations in Social Network Type Membership Among Older African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W

    2017-07-01

    This study examined race differences in the probability of belonging to a specific social network typology of family, friends, and church members. Samples of African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites aged 55+ were drawn from the National Survey of American Life. Typology indicators related to social integration and negative interactions with family, friendship, and church networks were used. Latent class analysis was used to identify typologies, and latent class multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the influence of race, and interactions between race and age, and race and education on typology membership. Four network typologies were identified: optimal (high social integration, low negative interaction), family-centered (high social integration within primarily the extended family network, low negative interaction), strained (low social integration, high negative interaction), and ambivalent (high social integration and high negative interaction). Findings for race and age and race and education interactions indicated that the effects of education and age on typology membership varied by race. Overall, the findings demonstrate how race interacts with age and education to influence the probability of belonging to particular network types. A better understanding of the influence of race, education, and age on social network typologies will inform future research and theoretical developments in this area.

  16. Individual versus collective responses to membership in a low-status group: the effects of stability and individual ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, F; Vanbeselaere, N

    2001-12-01

    To test predictions of social identity theory (SIT; M. A. Hogg & D. Abrams, 1988; H. Tajfel & J. C. Turner, 1979) and the 5-stage model (FSM; D. M. Taylor & D. J. McKirnan, 1984) concerning reactions to membership in a low-status group, the authors led 112 pupils to believe that another (anonymous) class outperformed their class. In an overall permeable and legitimate intergroup context, the authors manipulated the stability of the low group status and the individual ability of the group members. Contrary to SIT and FSM, the pupils generally favored collective normative action. Individual mobility was preferred only by group members, especially boys, with high individual ability who thought that the low status of their group was stable. The results support FSM assumptions (a) that individual ability is a powerful determinant of intergroup behavior but (b) that one should consider its impact in combination with perceived stability.

  17. Handbook of mixed membership models and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Airoldi, Edoardo M; Erosheva, Elena A; Fienberg, Stephen E

    2014-01-01

    In response to scientific needs for more diverse and structured explanations of statistical data, researchers have discovered how to model individual data points as belonging to multiple groups. Handbook of Mixed Membership Models and Their Applications shows you how to use these flexible modeling tools to uncover hidden patterns in modern high-dimensional multivariate data. It explores the use of the models in various application settings, including survey data, population genetics, text analysis, image processing and annotation, and molecular biology.Through examples using real data sets, yo

  18. Poland in the European Union.Ten Years of Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Kolodziejczyk

    2016-01-01

    Twelve years have passed since the Polish entry into the European Union. For Poland the date of 1 May 2004 is the culmination of a transformation process launched at the end of the Cold War in 1989. One of the priorities of Polish foreign policy, the expansion of the political, economic and cultural relations with Western Europe and the United States has been met. This approach has been described as ‘the return to Europe’. Membership in the European Union changed the Polish economy and the ne...

  19. Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unraveling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2011-01-01

    Within the social capital literature it is often assumed that membership of voluntary associations causes generalized social trust and not the other way around. This study challenges this assumption by investigating if generalized social trust causes membership in a novel design that yields valid...... provide rare individual level evidence for a connection between generalized social trust and collective action in that generalized social trust in particular increases membership of associations producing public goods....... results despite possible feed-back effects from membership to trust. Using individual level data from several countries, the paper shows that trust does increase membership. Treating associational membership as exogenous to trust produces biased results, it is therefore concluded. Moreover, the study...

  20. Does generalized social trust lead to associational membership? Unraveling a bowl of well-tossed spaghetti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    Within the social capital literature it is often assumed that membership of voluntary associations causes generalized social trust and not the other way around. This study challenges this assumption by investigating if generalized social trust causes membership in a novel design that yields valid....... Moreover, the study provide rare individual level evidence for a connection between generalized social trust and collective action in that generalized social trust in particular increases membership of associations producing public goods....... results despite possible feed-back effects from membership to trust. Using both individual and country level data in a multilevel analysis, the paper shows that trust does increase membership. Treating associational membership as exogenous to trust produces biased results, it is therefore concluded...

  1. Measuring Multi-Membership in Economic Integration and Its Trade Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.

    2014-01-01

    impact in two major African regional blocs, Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS) and Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find...... a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare with an insignificant impact within the SADC....

  2. Ethnicity and Occupational Pension Membership in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reflecting a relatively low‐value Basic State Pension, occupational pensions have historically been a key aspect of pension protection within Britain. Existing research shows that minority ethnic groups are less likely to benefit from such pensions and are more likely to face poverty in later life, as a result of the interaction of their labour market participation and pension membership patterns. However, the lack of adequate data on ethnic minorities has so far prevented the direct comparison of different ethnic groups, as well as their comparison to the White British group. Using data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, this article explores patterns of employment and the odds ratios of membership in an employer's pension scheme among working‐age individuals from minority ethnic groups and the White British population, taking into account factors not used by previous research, such as one's migration history and sector of employment (public/private). The analysis provides new empirical evidence confirming that ethnicity remains a strong determinant of one's pension protection prospects through being in paid work, being an employee and working for an employer who offers a pension scheme. However, once an individual is working for an employer offering a pension scheme, the effect of ethnicity on that person's odds of being a member of that scheme reduces, except among Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals for whom the differentials remain. The article also provides evidence on the pension protection of Polish individuals, a relatively ‘new’ minority group in the UK. PMID:27563161

  3. The reformed confessions and church membership ethically appraised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herm J.G. Zandman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The reformed churches historically call themselves confessional churches, with the confessions adopted by church councils being the yardstick according to which membership is either permitted or refused. The reformed churches consequently consider it necessary for all members of the church to express agreement with the confessions. The reason why the confessions are held as the summary standard of belief is founded in the conviction that they are faithful expressions of the teachings handed down from the apostles.  These confessions have been attributed a twofold purpose regarding their function in the reformed churches. Firstly, they protect believers and congregations from error, and secondly, they help attain unity of faith among the believers in the reformed churches – both at the congregational and denominational level.   Currently this view is under siege from those who hold the conviction that the traditional approach of giving the confessions such prominence is too narrow and binding in terms of who may or may not be awarded membership of the reformed churches.   This article seeks to consider the place of the confessions and to evaluate the claim that de-emphasis on the confessions is desirable in order to celebrate the unity of all believers. Furthermore, the article seeks to demonstrate that ethical integrity is contingent on seeking to exercise church government within the demarcation of the confessional framework.

  4. On the robustness of set-membership adaptive filtering algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Hamed; Lima, Markus V. S.; Diniz, Paulo S. R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we address the robustness, in the sense of l 2-stability, of the set-membership normalized least-mean-square (SM-NLMS) and the set-membership affine projection (SM-AP) algorithms. For the SM-NLMS algorithm, we demonstrate that it is robust regardless of the choice of its parameters and that the SM-NLMS enhances the parameter estimation in most of the iterations in which an update occurs, two advantages over the classical NLMS algorithm. Moreover, we also prove that if the noise bound is known, then we can set the SM-NLMS so that it never degrades the estimate. As for the SM-AP algorithm, we demonstrate that its robustness depends on a judicious choice of one of its parameters: the constraint vector (CV). We prove the existence of CVs satisfying the robustness condition, but practical choices remain unknown. We also demonstrate that both the SM-AP and SM-NLMS algorithms do not diverge, even when their parameters are selected naively, provided the additional noise is bounded. Numerical results that corroborate our analyses are presented.

  5. Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L

    2009-12-01

    A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs.

  6. Fuzzy Number Addition with the Application of Horizontal Membership Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Piegat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents addition of fuzzy numbers realised with the application of the multidimensional RDM arithmetic and horizontal membership functions (MFs. Fuzzy arithmetic (FA is a very difficult task because operations should be performed here on multidimensional information granules. Instead, a lot of FA methods use α-cuts in connection with 1-dimensional classical interval arithmetic that operates not on multidimensional granules but on 1-dimensional intervals. Such approach causes difficulties in calculations and is a reason for arithmetical paradoxes. The multidimensional approach allows for removing drawbacks and weaknesses of FA. It is possible thanks to the application of horizontal membership functions which considerably facilitate calculations because now uncertain values can be inserted directly into equations without using the extension principle. The paper shows how the addition operation can be realised on independent fuzzy numbers and on partly or fully dependent fuzzy numbers with taking into account the order relation and how to solve equations, which can be a difficult task for 1-dimensional FAs.

  7. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...

  8. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  9. Identification and Prediction of Latent Classes of Weight-loss Strategies Among Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Birch, Leann L.

    2009-01-01

    We apply latent class analysis (LCA) to quantify multidimensional patterns of weight-loss strategies in a sample of 197 women, and explore the degree to which dietary restraint, disinhibition, and other individual characteristics predict membership in latent classes of weight-loss strategies. Latent class models were fit to a set of 14 healthy and unhealthy weight-loss strategies. BMI, weight concern, body satisfaction, depression, dietary disinhibition and restraint, and the interaction of d...

  10. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class setting. Some hospitals are beginning to offer online courses, too.Expect to be required to pay ... called The Mongan Method, HypnoBirthing helps women learn self-hypnosis techniques to deliver their babies in a ...

  11. I want to join the zoo! A conjoint study of membership program preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Klenosky; Chi-Ok Oh; Christopher C. Panek; Jerry F. Luebke

    2009-01-01

    Membership programs are an important and often vital element for the success and economic sustainability of leisure and tourism visitor attractions. Unfortunately, very little research is available to guide membership program development and promotion efforts. To address this gap in the research literature, a research project assessed member and nonmember preferences...

  12. 29 CFR 452.42 - Membership in particular branch or segment of the union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Membership in particular branch or segment of the union... LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.42 Membership in particular branch or segment of the union. A labor organization may not limit...

  13. Understanding Gang Membership and Crime Victimization among Jail Inmates: Testing the Effects of Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kathleen A.; Lane, Jodi; Akers, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has examined factors related to gang membership and offending, research on the relationship between gangs and victimization is limited. The present study builds on previous research and examines gang membership, victimization, and self-control among 2,414 jail inmates. Results from self-report surveys indicate that gang…

  14. Change and Stability in Childhood Clique Membership, Isolation from Cliques, and Associated Child Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the role of clique membership and clique isolation in children's psychosocial adjustment. We identified change and stability in early elementary school clique membership and investigated behavioral characteristics related to this change and stability. Participants were first-grade pupils (N = 300), followed over a 1-year…

  15. Longitudinal Associations between Clique Membership Status and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems during Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal link between clique membership status and the development of psychopathology in 451 children followed annually from age 9 to 12 years. Classroom clique membership status was identified through social network analysis, and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed using peer nominations. Controlling…

  16. Analysing "Migrant" Membership Frames through Education Policy Discourse: An Example of Restrictive "Integration" Policy within Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Shaik, Farah

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes combining discourse theory and perspectives on political membership developments in Western European societies. It combines theories and examples of policy discourses about "migrant integration" in the Swiss national context in the sphere of education. This examination aims to deconstruct specific membership framing…

  17. The interactional establishment of the membership category ‘nonnative speaker’ in gatekeeping encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Louise; Kappa, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    and related to studies that demonstrate how membership categories are fundamentally indexical of the context of interaction (Day, 2006; Drew & Heritage, 1992; Mondada, 2004). By taking on a membership categorization analysis (MCA) approach and utilizing conversation analytic (CA) tools, this paper shows three...

  18. Peer Group Membership and a Sense of Belonging: Their Relationship to Adolescent Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Barbara M.; Lohman, Brenda J.; Newman, Philip R.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored three aspects of peer group membership in adolescence: peer group affiliation, the importance of group membership, and a sense of peer group belonging. Each is considered in relationship to adolescents' behavior problems as measured by the Achenbach Youth Self-Report. Participants included an ethnically and socioeconomically…

  19. Democracy in retreat? Decline in political party membership : the case of The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schuur, H.; Voerman, G.; Wejnert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Membership in political parties is declining in The Netherlands, as it is in the rest of Europe. Between 1978 and 2010 membership dropped by a third, from about 450,000 to about 300,000, or 2.5% of the electorate; in 2007 alone, 29,000 people left their party, whereas only 21,000 joined. This is

  20. Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017 Starting from September 1st, membership of the Staff Association is free for all new members for the period up to the end of 2017. This is to allow you to participate in the Staff Council elections, by voting and electing your representatives. Do not hesitate any longer; join now!

  1. Analysis of Animal Research Ethics Committee Membership at American Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Chandna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs were created to review, approve and oversee animal experiments and to balance the interests of researchers, animals, institutions and the general public. This study analyzed the overall membership of IACUCs at leading U.S. research institutions. We found that these committees and their leadership are comprised of a preponderance of animal researchers, as well as other members who are affiliated with each institution; some of whom also work in animal laboratories. This overwhelming presence of animal research and institutional interests may dilute input from the few IACUC members representing animal welfare and the general public, contribute to previously-documented committee bias in favor of approving animal experiments and reduce the overall objectivity and effectiveness of the oversight system.

  2. Dignity, Health, and Membership: Who Counts as One of Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    This essay serves as an introduction to this issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. The five articles in this issue address a range of topics from the human embryo and substantial change to conceptions of disability. They engage claims of moral status, defense of our humanity, and argue for an accurate and just classification of persons of different communities within a healthcare system. I argue in this essay that though their concerns are diverse, the authors in this issue help to answer a common question: “Who counts as one of us?” Reading these articles through the lens of membership and the themes of dignity illustrates this commonality and bears fruit for further reflection on many of the challenging issues addressed in the subsequent papers. PMID:26868673

  3. 10th January 2012 - President of the Republic of Serbia B. Tadic on the occasion of the signature of the Agreement concerning the granting of the status of associate membership as the pre-stage to membership at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    10th January 2012 - President of the Republic of Serbia B. Tadic on the occasion of the signature of the Agreement concerning the granting of the status of associate membership as the pre-stage to membership at CERN.

  4. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.

    2012-01-01

    descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction...... chemistry compounds (over 30,000 chemicals). Based on this application, we suggest that solubility, and not permeability, is the major difference between NMEs and drugs. We anticipate that the forecast of BDDCS categories in early drug discovery may lead to a significant R&D cost reduction....

  5. Membership and Dynamical Parameters of the Open Cluster NGC 1039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Xu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the open cluster NGC 1039. This young open cluster is observed as a part of Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut Multicolor Sky Survey. Combining our observations with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data, we employ the Padova stellar model and the zero-age main-sequence curve to the data to derive a reddening, E(B-V)=0.10+/- 0.02, and a distance modulus, {(m-M)}0=8.4+/- 0.2, for NGC 1039. The photometric membership probabilities of stars in the region of NGC 1039 are derived using the spectral energy distribution-fitting method. According to the membership probabilities ({P}{SED}) obtained here, 582 stars are cluster members with {P}{SED} larger than 60%. In addition, we determine the structural parameters of NGC 1039 by fitting its radial density profile with the King model. These parameters are a core radius, {R}{{c}}=4.44+/- 1.31 {pc}; a tidal radius, {R}{{t}}=13.57+/- 4.85 {pc}; and a concentration parameter of {C}0={log}({R}{{t}}/{R}{{c}})=0.49+/- 0.20. We also fit the observed mass function of NGC 1039 with masses from 0.3 {M}⊙ to 1.65 {M}⊙ with a power-law function {{Φ }}(m)\\propto {m}α to derive its slopes of mass functions of different spatial regions. The results obtained here show that the slope of the mass function of NGC 1039 is flatter in the central regions (α = 0.117), becomes steeper at larger radii (α = -2.878), and breaks at {m}{break}≈ 0.80 {M}⊙ . In particular, for the first time, our results show that the mass segregation appears in NGC 1039.

  6. Group membership and social identity in addiction recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Sarah A; Frings, Daniel; Albery, Ian P

    2013-12-01

    Despite a growing interest in how group membership can positively impact health, little research has addressed directly the role social identity processes can have on recovery from addiction. Drawing on social identity theory and self-categorization theory, the present study investigated how recovery group membership can introduce a new social identity associated with recovery, compared to the social identity associated with addiction. We hypothesized that two processes--evaluative differentiation and identity preference--would be linked with higher self-efficacy and positive health outcomes (i.e., reduced relapse, lower levels of appetitive behavior, and elevated feelings of social connectedness [Study 2]). Study 1 recruited members (N = 61) from United Kingdom based mutual aid groups of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Study 2 recruited ex-smokers (N = 81) from online sources. In Study 1, evaluative differentiation was significantly related to lowered relapse and reduced appetitive behavior. Identity preference was related to higher levels of self-efficacy, which was related to months drug-free and reduced levels of appetitive behaviors. In Study 2, evaluative differentiation was related to identity preference. Identity preference was also related to higher self-efficacy, which in turn was related to lower relapse. Although exploratory, these results suggest that developing a social identity as a "recovering addict" or an "ex-smoker" and subsequently highlighting the difference between such identities may be a useful strategy for reducing relapse among people with problems associated with addictive behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. A mathematical typology analysis of DSM-III-R personality disorder classification: grade of membership technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurnberg, H G; Woodbury, M A; Bogenschutz, M P

    1999-01-01

    This study employed grade of membership (GoM) analysis in a clinical setting to determine if the DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD) diagnostic criteria cluster into recognizable disorders resembling the official axis II nosology. The GoM model, based on fuzzy-set theoretic concepts, explicitly examines medical diagnostic systems by quantitatively identifying and characterizing subpatterns of illness within a broad class. A semistructured assessment of 110 outpatients was performed for 12 PDs and their 112 diagnostic criteria. GoM analysis was performed using internal variables of the 112 PD criteria rated as present or absent. Demographic variables, axis I and II diagnosis (structured clinical Interview for DSM [SCID]), and treatment response (Global Adjustment Scale [GAS]) information were used as external validators. Four pure types (PT) provided the most satisfactory solution to the data. PT-I is characterized by marked maladaptive personality pathology, which is manipulative, egocentric, impulsive, and alloplastic. PT-II consists primarily of exaggerated socially anxious and detached traits. PT-III is sociably dependent and autoplastic. PT-IV is essentially asymptomatic. GoM provides a more parsimonious handling of the PD criteria than provided by classifying according to DSM categories. The analysis fails to confirm the natural occurrence of any single specific axis II PD or cluster.

  8. Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, Nyla R; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Jones, Janelle M; Cui, Lijuan; Dingle, Genevieve; Liu, James; Murphy, Sean C; Murphy, Sean; Thai, Anh; Walter, Zoe; Zhang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups...

  9. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas...

  10. Measuring multi-membership in economic integration and its trade-impact. A comparative study of ECOWAS and SADC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; van Bergeijk, Peter A.G.

    in two major African Regional blocs, ECOWAS and SADC. We find that the impact of multi-membership critically depends on the characteristics of the multi-membership of regional integration initiatives. We find a positive impact if an additional membership complements the integration process...... of the original regional integration initiative: overlapping memberships had a much stronger and significant positive effect on bilateral trade within ECOWAS compare to an insignificant impact within SADC....

  11. Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

  12. Implicit and explicit drinking identity predict latent classes that differ on the basis of college students' drinking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Fairlie, Anne M; Olin, Cecilia C; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinct classes of college students on the basis of recent and past drinking behaviors and evaluate how implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity predict membership in these classes. US undergraduate students (N=456) completed online implicit (Implicit Association Test) and explicit (self-report) measures of drinking identity and assessments of drinking behaviors, including past month drinking, at-risk drinking in the past year, and lifetime history of intoxication. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify classes of college students based on their drinking behaviors. LCA identified five classes: (1) Lifetime Nondrinker, (2) Recent Nondrinker/Past Risk, (3) Light Drinker, (4) Moderate Drinker, and (5) Heavy Drinker. Overall, stronger implicit and explicit drinking identities were uniquely associated with greater odds of belonging to classes with greater alcohol consumption and related consequences relative to those classes characterized by lower alcohol consumption and consequences. Notably, explicit drinking identity was positively associated with odds of membership to the Recent Nondrinker/Past Risk class relative to the Lifetime Nondrinker and Light Drinker classes, and implicit and explicit drinking identities were positively associated with odds of membership to the Heavy Drinker class relative to all other classes. Findings suggest that drinking identity is sensitive to risky drinking experiences in the past, is especially strong among the highest-risk group of college student drinkers, and may be an important cognitive factor to consider as a target for intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Demographic Analysis of American Geophysical Union Membership with Implications for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    Demographers use population pyramids to characterize the age/gender structure of societal groups. Diagrams of the population of age cohorts for both sexes assume the shape of a pyramid in rapidly expanding groups, having many more young people than older adults. Stable populations have similar numbers of people in age cohorts from infants through middle-age adults. Shrinking populations have fewer children and relatively larger numbers of adults. Demographic analysis of the American Geophysical Union's (AGU) membership reveals significant differences among the numerous specialties and the membership as a whole. The population structure diagram of the total AGU membership is highly asymmetrical with 77.5% male and 22.5% female. Males outnumber females in every age cohort. This is most noticeable among members born prior to 1945. Males belonging to these cohorts make up 16.5% of the total membership, while female members of equivalent age include 0.8% of the total. The largest membership cohort (29% of the total) is comprised of males born between 1950 and 1964, a group that includes both the "baby boom" generation and post-war petroleum exploration expansion. In contrast, the female cohort with birth years from 1970 to 1979 is the largest grouping of women members (8.4% of AGU's membership). Furthermore, women comprise 36% of the members born since 1965, and only 14.5% of those born before 1965. Considered separately, the female membership's age structure is characteristic of a growing population, while the male side is in relative decline. The population structure of the entire membership is mirrored in some specialties, but there are remarkable differences in others. The largest specialty group (hydrology) includes 16.9% of the total AGU membership and has a population structure that differs little from that of the whole organization. Four specialties, Atmospheric Chemistry, Biogeosciences, and Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, and Marine Geochemistry differ

  14. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  15. An Initial Membership Profile of the Financial Therapy Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Coffman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Financial Therapy Association (FTA was established in 2010 to bring practitioners and researchers together to develop tools and techniques to address emotional, behavioral, relational, cognitive, and economic aspects of financial health. Ultimately, those interested in the new field of financial therapy are most interested in answering the following key questions: Why do people do what they do with money and how can practitioners better help their clients deal with the complexities of the volatile economy that places tremendous stress on individuals and families? Financial therapy is emerging as a unique field that links scholars, practitioners, and mental health professionals in ways that consider these and other important questions. FTA is especially unique because of its diverse and accomplished membership, which includes mental health and financial professionals, educators, and researchers. The purpose of this “Profile” is to highlight how experienced and established professionals from both the mental health and finance domains have joined together to build a new profession, and to provide benchmark information regarding how the practice of financial therapy is occurring in the United States and other countries.

  16. Does ethical membership matter? Moral identification and its organizational implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Douglas R; Chang, Young K; Shao, Ruodan

    2015-05-01

    This research meaningfully connects the literatures on identification and business ethics by proposing the new construct of moral identification. Moral identification is defined here as the perception of oneness or belongingness associated with an organization that exhibits ethical traits (e.g., care, kindness, and compassion), which also involves a deliberate concern of the membership with an ethical organization. Integrating social identity theory with theory on the moral self, this research examines an overall theoretical model where moral identification plays a significant role in explaining employee attraction, motivation, and retention (i.e., 3 components of the overall theoretical framework). These components were examined separately in 3 empirical studies and findings from these studies first revealed that moral identification explained why job seekers with strong (vs. weak) moral identities were more attracted to a socially responsible organization (Study 1). Second, moral identification was associated with lower employee unethical proorganizational behavior (Study 2). Finally, moral identification was negatively related to employees' turnover intentions. Organizations' legal compliance moderated this relation such that it was stronger when organizations have higher (vs. lower) levels of legal compliance (Study 3). Taken together, these studies suggest that moral identification offers new insights in explaining both potential and current employees' behaviors when morality is contextually relevant and subjectively meaningful. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Turkey’s Road to European Union Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mărgărit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of Turkey to become member of the European Union has raised numerousdebates and concerns. Even the founding principle of unity in diversity seems to be challenged by thepossibility of Turkish accession as this country possesses several features that are different from therest of EU member states. Opinions related to Turkey EU membership are often divergent, each siderelying on their own arguments. Proponents argue that Turkey is a regional power with a largeeconomy and a strong military force that will enhance EU's position as a global geostrategic player.On the other hand, opponents emphasize the demographic projections which indicate that, in aroundten years, Turkey will become EU’s most populous state. They also draw attention upon Turkey’sdifferent cultural and religious background. Objectives: This paper is focused on revealing keyaspectsof EU-Turkey relations in the context of accession negotiations. Furthermore, the paperpresents the image of Turkey as a candidate country, emphasizing the opinion of officials but also theview of citizens, both from the European Union and Turkey. Approach: The paper is based onreviewing and analysis of existing research on the topic, including web-based documentation,statistics, press reports, EU reports.

  18. A Latent Class Analysis of Adolescent Gambling: Application of Resilience Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Faulkner, Breanne; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Chermack, Stephen; Walton, Maureen A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the application of resilience theory to adolescent gambling using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to establish subtypes of adolescent gamblers and to explore risk and promotive factors associated with gambling group membership. Participants were a diverse sample of 249 adolescents ages 14 to 18 (30.1 % female, 59.4 % African…

  19. Stratification on the Menu: Using Restaurant Menus to Examine Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wynne; Ransom, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This article chronicles the authors' effort to construct a pedagogical exercise to help students connect food consumption to social class membership through the analysis of restaurant menus. Similar to Albers and Bach's (2003) use of music as an element of popular culture, the authors use food to convey sociological concepts related to social…

  20. Age-Graded Themes in White American Middle-Class Slang: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    It is proposed that middle- and upper-middle-class slang used among white young people in modern America shows age-related themes. For youngsters between the ages of eight and early adolescence, the major theme in slang use is to establish in-group and out-group membership, with standards of judgment based on clothes, manners, and physical appeal.…

  1. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Michael; Sopeña, Arthur; Platow, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi). Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China). Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.

  2. When Is Group Membership Zero-Sum? Effects of Ethnicity, Threat, and Social Identity on Dual National Identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smithson

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into marginalizing racism, a form of prejudice whereby ingroup members claim that specific individuals belong to their group, but also exclude them by not granting them all of the privileges of a full ingroup member. One manifestation of this is that perceived degree of outgroup membership will covary negatively with degree of ingroup membership. That is, group membership may be treated as a zero-sum quantity (e.g., one cannot be both Australian and Iraqi. Study 1 demonstrated that judges allocate more zero-sum membership assignments and lower combined membership in their country of origin and their adopted country to high-threat migrants than low-threat migrants. Study 2 identified a subtle type of zero-sum reasoning which holds that stronger degree of membership in one's original nationality constrains membership in a new nationality to a greater extent than stronger membership in the new nationality constrains membership in one's original nationality. This pattern is quite general, being replicated in large samples from four nations (USA, UK, India, and China. Taken together, these studies suggest that marginalizing racism is more than a belief that people retain a "stain" from membership in their original group. Marginalizing racism also manifests itself as conditional zero-sum beliefs about multiple group memberships.

  3. Incorporating Student Mobility in Achievement Growth Modeling: A Cross-Classified Multiple Membership Growth Curve Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Matthew W; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2010-05-28

    Multiple membership random effects models (MMREMs) have been developed for use in situations where individuals are members of multiple higher level organizational units. Despite their availability and the frequency with which multiple membership structures are encountered, no studies have extended the MMREM approach to hierarchical growth curve modeling (GCM). This study introduces a cross-classified multiple membership growth curve model (CCMM-GCM) for modeling, for example, academic achievement trajectories in the presence of student mobility. Real data are used to demonstrate and compare growth curve model estimates using the CCMM-GCM and a conventional GCM that ignores student mobility. Results indicate that the CCMM-GCM represents a promising option for modeling growth for multiple membership data structures.

  4. Certified Health Education Specialists' Participation in Professional Associations: Implications for Marketing and Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.; Roe, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    A number of health education professional associations exist to advance the profession through research, practice, and professional development. Benefits of individual membership may include continuing education, networking, leadership, professional recognition, advocacy, professional mobility, access to research findings, advances in the…

  5. Impacts of extension access and cooperative membership on technology adoption and household welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wossen, Tesfamicheal; Abdoulaye, Tahirou; Alene, Arega; Haile, Mekbib G; Feleke, Shiferaw; Olanrewaju, Adetunji; Manyong, Victor

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the impacts of access to extension services and cooperative membership on technology adoption, asset ownership and poverty using household-level data from rural Nigeria. Using different matching techniques and endogenous switching regression approach, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have a positive and statistically significant effect on technology adoption and household welfare. Moreover, we find that both extension access and cooperative membership have heterogeneous impacts. In particular, we find evidence of a positive selection as the average treatment effects of extension access and cooperative membership are higher for farmers with the highest propensity to access extension and cooperative services. The impact of extension services on poverty reduction and of cooperatives on technology adoption is significantly stronger for smallholders with access to formal credit than for those without access. This implies that expanding rural financial markets can maximize the potential positive impacts of extension and cooperative services on farmers' productivity and welfare.

  6. 75 FR 68599 - Solicitation for Membership to the Forestry Research Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... their broad expertise, leadership and relevancy to a membership category. Geographic balance and a... regard for race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, mental or physical handicap, marital status...

  7. The Prospects of Membership in International Organizations: The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Emini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspective of Kosovo and its membership in international organizations. There are three pillars upon which the analysis of the paper is built. Initially the general question of theoretical frameworks in general the organizations which focus on the elaboration of the very concept of statehood and state-building in general and specifically on Kosovo. The final section deals with a range of behaviors and initiatives of countries in general and the challenges for membership in international organizations. With the aim of contextualizing the subject, the paper focuses on the case of Kosovo state and membership in international organizations with a view to strengthening the international subjectivity and security in the international arena. Finally, the paper concludes that the importance of the accession countries, namely Kosovo's membership in international organizations, and the use of multilateral diplomacy are vital to their safety and welfare.

  8. An investigation of membership functions on performance of ANFIS for solving classification problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, Noureen; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Hussain, Kashif

    2017-08-01

    Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is one of the efficient machine learning techniques, which has been successfully employed in wide variety of applications. The performance of ANFIS depends on the selection of the number and shape of membership functions as these two factors influence the most on computational complexity and accuracy of the designed ANFIS-based model. Mostly, an expert knowledge is required in this regard. However, there is an immense need of an investigative study for helping researchers make better decision on the number and shape of membership functions for thier ANFIS models. Hence, this study examines the role of four popular shapes of membership functions on the performance of ANFIS while solving various classification problems. According to experiments, Gaussian membership function demonstrated higher degree of accuracy with lesser computational complexity as compared to the counterparts.

  9. The impact of ignoring multiple membership data structures in multilevel models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyewon; Beretvas, S Natasha

    2012-05-01

    This study compared the use of the conventional multilevel model (MM) with that of the multiple membership multilevel model (MMMM) for handling multiple membership data structures. Multiple membership data structures are commonly encountered in longitudinal educational data sets in which, for example, mobile students are members of more than one higher-level unit (e.g., school). While the conventional MM requires the user either to delete mobile students' data or to ignore prior schools attended, MMMM permits inclusion of mobile students' data and models the effect of all schools attended on student outcomes. The simulation study identified underestimation of the school-level predictor coefficient, as well as underestimation of the level-two variance component with corresponding overestimation of the level-one variance when multiple membership data structures were ignored. Results are discussed along with limitations and ideas for future MMMM methodological research as well as implications for applied researchers. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Information Technology Strategies for Honor Society and Organization Membership Retention in Online Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Emily E; Wasco, Jennifer J

    Membership retention in an honor society or organization is of utmost importance for sustainability. However, retaining members in organizations that serve online education nursing students can be a challenging task. Understanding the importance of creating a sense of community to promote retention within an honor society chapter, nursing faculty at a small private university implemented different online approaches. This article highlights successful information technology strategies to promote membership retention in organizations for online nursing students.

  11. Predictors of Latent Trajectory Classes of Dating Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Foshee, Vangie; Ennett, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study identified classes of developmental trajectories of physical dating violence victimization from grades 8 to 12 and examined theoretically-based risk factors that distinguished among trajectory classes. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study spanning 8th through 12th grade (n = 2,566; 51.9% female). Growth mixture models were used to identify trajectory classes of physical dating violence victimization separately for girls and boys. Logistic and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify situational and target vulnerability factors associated with the trajectory classes. For girls, three trajectory classes were identified: a low/non-involved class; a moderate class where victimization increased slightly until the 10th grade and then decreased through the 12th grade; and a high class where victimization started at a higher level in the 8th grade, increased substantially until the 10th grade, and then decreased until the 12th grade. For males, two classes were identified: a low/non-involved class, and a victimized class where victimization increased slightly until the 9th grade, decreased until the 11th grade, and then increased again through the 12th grade. In bivariate analyses, almost all of the situational and target vulnerability risk factors distinguished the victimization classes from the non-involved classes. However, when all risk factors and control variables were in the model, alcohol use (a situational vulnerability) was the only factor that distinguished membership in the moderate trajectory class from the non-involved class for girls; anxiety and being victimized by peers (target vulnerability factors) were the factors that distinguished the high from the non-involved classes for the girls; and victimization by peers was the only factor distinguishing the victimized from the non-involved class for boys. These findings contribute to our understanding of the heterogeneity in physical dating violence victimization during

  12. Rejected applications: an early American Academy of Neurology struggles to define its membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D

    2014-07-22

    To review membership application materials (especially rejected applications) to the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) during its formative years (1947-1953). Detailed study of materials in the AAN Historical Collection. The author identified 73 rejected applications. Rejected applicants (71 male, 2 female) lived in 25 states. The largest number was for the Associate membership category (49). These were individuals "in related fields who have made and are making contributions to the field of neurology." By contrast, few applicants to Active membership or Fellowship status were rejected. The largest numbers of rejectees were neuropsychiatrists (19), neurosurgeons (16), and psychiatrists (14). The AAN, established in the late 1940s, was a small and politically vulnerable organization. A defining feature of the fledgling society was its inclusiveness; its membership was less restrictive than that of the older American Neurological Association. At the same time, the society needed to preserve its core as a neurologic society rather than one of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Hence, the balance between inclusiveness and exclusive identity was a difficult one to maintain. The Associate membership category, more than any other, was at the heart of this issue of self-definition. Associate members were largely practitioners of psychiatry or neurosurgery. Their membership was a source of consternation and was to be carefully been held in check during these critical formative years. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  13. Abide with me: religious group identification among older adults promotes health and well-being by maintaining multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyk, Renate; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration in health and well-being, but previous research suggests that this can be attenuated by maintaining group memberships and the valued social identities associated with them. In this regard, religious identification may be especially beneficial in helping individuals withstand the challenges of aging, partly because religious identity serves as a basis for a wider social network of other group memberships. This paper aims to examine relationships between religion (identification and group membership) and well-being among older adults. The contribution of having and maintaining multiple group memberships in mediating these relationships is assessed, and also compared to patterns associated with other group memberships (social and exercise). Study 1 (N = 42) surveyed older adults living in residential care homes in Canada, who completed measures of religious identity, other group memberships, and depression. Study 2 (N = 7021) longitudinally assessed older adults in the UK on similar measures, but with the addition of perceived physical health. In Study 1, religious identification was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, and membership in multiple groups mediated that relationship. However, no relationships between social or exercise groups and mental health were evident. Study 2 replicated these patterns, but additionally, maintaining multiple group memberships over time partially mediated the relationship between religious group membership and physical health. Together these findings suggest that religious social networks are an especially valuable source of social capital among older adults, supporting well-being directly and by promoting additional group memberships (including those that are non-religious).

  14. The effects of membership in church-related associations and labor unions on age differences in voluntary association affiliations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, J; Cutler, S J

    2001-04-01

    When compositional differences between age groups are controlled, the bivariate, curvilinear pattern of age differences in voluntary association memberships is replaced by one in which peak membership levels occur in late middle age and remain relatively stable thereafter. We sought to determine if this adjusted pattern persists when widespread memberships in two types of associations are removed: (1) church-related organizations, in which membership increases with age but may be confounded with church membership per se; and (2) labor unions, in which membership is also widespread but may not be "voluntary." Total memberships in 14 types of associations were examined using aggregated data from 12 national surveys conducted between 1974 and 1994. The familiar curvilinear relationship at the bivariate level appears, but in the multivariate analysis, membership levels rise from ages 18-24 through 55-59 and persist close to that level through ages 85 and older. The results reaffirm that age differences in voluntary association affiliations are due to age-based compositional differences; they also show, however, that the pattern observed with controls is neither driven by membership in church-related "associations" nor altered when membership in labor unions is excluded.

  15. Typicality effects in contingency-shaped generalized equivalence classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizio, Mark; Stewart, Katherine L; Pilgrim, Carol

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted using match-to-sample methodologies in an effort to model lexical classes, which include both arbitrary and perceptual relations between class members. Training in both experiments used a one-to-many mapping procedure with nonsense syllables as samples and eight sets of abstract stimuli as comparisons. These abstract stimuli differed along a number of dimensions, four of which were critical to the experimenter-defined class membership. Stimuli in some comparison sets included only one of the class-defining features, but stimuli in other sets included two, three, or all four of the critical features. After mastery of the baseline training, three types of probe tests were conducted: symmetry, transitivity/equivalence, and novel probe tests in which the training nonsense syllables served as samples, and comparisons were novel abstract stimuli that included one or more of the class-defining features. Symmetry and transitivity/equivalence probe tests showed that the stimuli used in training became members of equivalence classes. The novel stimuli also became class members on the basis of inclusion of any of the critical features. Thus these probe tests revealed the formation of open-ended generalized equivalence classes. In addition, typicality effects were observed such that comparison sets with more critical features were learned with fewer errors, responded to more rapidly, and judged to be better exemplars of the class. Contingency-shaped stimulus classes established through a match-to-sample procedure thus show several important behavioral similarities to natural lexical categories.

  16. Demographic Change in the American Geophysical Union's United States Membership, 2006-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    AGU's demographic characteristics changed during the period 2006-2014 in response to the aging of the Baby Boom generation and an increase in the number of women geoscientists. This analysis deals only with the portion of AGU's membership with mailing addresses within the US, a group that comprised 65% of the worldwide total in 2006 and 61% of the total membership in 2014. Using the US membership data that include both the members' birthdate and gender, a comparison of the population structures in 2006 and 2014 reveals characteristics of the changing US workforce. Since 2006, the percent of the US membership represented by the Baby Boom has decreased 5.2%, from 37.2% to 32.0%. That trend will continue for the next 20 years and the rate will accelerate before slowing again. At the same time the Boomers are decreasing in number, the percentage of the membership represented by the more recent age-cohorts (born 1965-1989) has grown. For example, in 2006, the 1985-1989 cohort was barely represented (0.14%). By February 2014, the cohort had become 8.25% of the U.S. membership. The four cohorts covering birth years 1965 through 1984, each increased slightly in size. In addition, each had a larger number of women, reflecting AGU's increased female membership from 22.5% to 25.3%. The 1985-1989 cohort is somewhat smaller than the previous four cohorts. If the smaller size of this represents a reversal of the growth trend over the last 25 years, the implications for the size of the US workforce are important. Perhaps the most significant change in the demographic structure of AGU's US membership is that the general shape of the age-gender diagram, while still asymmetrical because of the larger number of men, is becoming more straight sided due to the similar size of recent cohorts. This shape is characteristic of stable populations when dealing with self-reproducing groups. The implications for the future of a scientific society are less clear, but the cause reflects a period

  17. Implementation of the World Health Organization checklist and debriefing improves accuracy of surgical wound class documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Deidre L; Smith, Samuel D; Dassinger, Melvin S

    2015-12-01

    Surgical wound classification (SWC) is a component of surgical site infection risk stratification. Studies have demonstrated that SWC is often incorrectly documented. This study examines the accuracy of SWC after implementation of a multifaceted plan targeted at accurate documentation. A reviewer examined operative notes of 8 pediatric operations and determined SWC for each case. This SWC was compared with nurse-documented SWC. Percent agreement pre- and postintervention was compared. Analysis was performed using chi-square and a P value less than .05 was significant. Preintervention concordance was 58% (112/191) and postintervention was 83% (163/199, P = .001). Appendectomy accuracy was 28% and increased to 80% (P = .0005). Fundoplication accuracy increased from 44% to 84% (P = .016) and gastrostomy tube from 56% to 100% (P = .0002). The most accurate operation preintervention was pyloromyotomy and postintervention was gastrostomy tube and inguinal hernia. The least accurate pre- and postintervention was cholecystectomy. Implementation of a multifaceted approach improved accuracy of documented SWC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT IN THE CANDIDATE COUNTRIES FOR EU MEMBERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Despotović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of deficit and debt are the traditional drivers of the recession in the past. Due to the high impact of the budget deficit to increase in indebtedness and deterioration of a macroeconomic performance, the European Union in Maastricht Treaty and later in the Pact of Stability and Growth strictly defined fiscal criteria which the member states should adhere to. Fiscal criteria are particularly important when it comes to candidate countries for EU membership. The aim of this paper is that, through theoretical and empirical basis perform a comparative analysis of the budget deficit in EU countries and candidates for membership in the EU, to rank the 34 countries according to the criteria of public finances and to show the causality between the candidate countries for membership of the EU and EU member states.

  20. Language Membership Identification Precedes Semantic Access: Suppression during Bilingual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoversten, Liv J; Brothers, Trevor; Swaab, Tamara Y; Traxler, Matthew J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research suggests that bilingual comprehenders access lexical representations of words in both languages nonselectively. However, it is unclear whether global language suppression plays a role in guiding attention to target language representations during ongoing lexico-semantic processing. To help clarify this issue, this study examined the relative timing of language membership and meaning activation during visual word recognition. Spanish-English bilinguals performed simultaneous semantic and language membership classification tasks on single words during EEG recording. Go/no-go ERP latencies provided evidence that language membership information was accessed before semantic information. Furthermore, N400 frequency effects indicated that the depth of processing of words in the nontarget language was reduced compared to the target language. These results suggest that the bilingual brain can rapidly identify the language to which a word belongs and subsequently use this information to selectively modulate the degree of processing in each language accordingly.

  1. Political Participation of Unemployed Youth: The Moderator Effect of Associational Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Baglioni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how associational membership can compensate for that lack of opportunities and motivation necessary for political participation that unemployment usually provokes. We investigate such a moderator effect of associational membership by means of a CATI survey of young people realized in two different cities: Turin in Italy and Kielce in Poland. The survey was part of a larger research on youth unemployment funded by the EU FP7 program (Younex. We propose an exploratory analysis allowing us to assess at a low level of abstraction and through a local level comparison, how far associational membership performs even across different contexts as a promoter of political engagement of a specific group of young, deprived, individuals.

  2. Evaluation of recent pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, C A; Pitterle, M E; Raehl, C L

    1994-01-01

    To document information on recent bachelor of science (B.S.) pharmacy graduates' practice patterns, professional lifelong learning (PLL) methods, pharmacy organization memberships, and salary. The association between advanced training and education on PLL methods, pharmacy organization membership, and salary are explored. Pertinent literature was identified by MEDLINE searches (1966-1992). The results of a Fall 1991 survey of recent B.S. pharmacy graduates (n = 371) of the University of Wisconsin School of Pharmacy are reported (55 percent response rate). Hospital pharmacists devoted more time to PLL outside of work (18.00 +/- 17.89 h/mo) than community pharmacists (9.93 +/- 8.76 h/mo), t = 5.02, degrees of freedom (df) = 289, p degree program, residency, or fellowship (advanced degree/training [ADT]) spent more time in PLL (17.76 +/- 10.63 h/mo) compared with graduates who had only obtained a B.S. degree (10.63 +/- 8.56 h/mo), t = 3.80, df = 311, p degree only) showed the strongest correlation of membership affiliation, which was about equal with ASHP (phi = 0.32) and ACCP (phi = 0.33). Although pharmacists changed their individual pharmacy organization memberships during the first seven years after graduation, there was no evidence of a decline in overall interest in pharmacy organization membership. Pharmacists who had completed ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,112 +/- $10,012; those pharmacists who did not complete an ADT program had an annual mean salary of $46,440 +/- $7802, a difference of $4672 per year. Hospital pharmacists who had obtained ADT had an annual mean salary of $51,840 +/- $9765; B.S. pharmacists without ADT in hospital practice had an annual mean salary of $43,603 +/- $8192, a difference of $8237 per year. Pharmacists' PLL methods, organization memberships, and salaries varied significantly by their practice site and the completion of an ADT program.

  3. Weapon carrying, physical fighting and gang membership among youth in Washington state military families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sarah C; Bell, Janice F; Edwards, Todd C

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between parental military service and school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership among youth. We used cross-sectional data from the 2008 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey collected in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades of public schools (n = 9,987). Parental military service was categorized as none (reference group), without combat zone deployment, or deployed to a combat zone. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between parental military service and three outcomes: school-based weapon carrying, school-based physical fighting and gang membership. Standard errors were adjusted for the complex survey design. In 8th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting gang membership (OR = 1.8) among girls, and higher odds of physical fighting (OR = 1.6), and gang membership (OR = 1.9) among boys. In 10th/12th grade, parental deployment was associated with higher odds of reporting physical fighting (OR = 2.0) and gang membership (OR = 2.2) among girls, and physical fighting (OR = 2.0), carrying a weapon (OR = 2.3) among boys. Parental military deployment is associated with increased odds of reporting engagement in school-based physical fighting, school-based weapon carrying, and gang membership, particularly among older youth. Military, school, and public health professionals have a unique, collaborative opportunity to develop school- and community-based interventions to prevent violence-related behaviors among youth and, ultimately, improve the health and safety of youth in military families. Ideally, such programs would target families and youth before they enter eighth grade.

  4. Improved Membership Probability for Moving Groups: Bayesian and Machine Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Song, Inseok

    2018-01-01

    Gravitationally unbound loose stellar associations (i.e., young nearby moving groups: moving groups hereafter) have been intensively explored because they are important in planet and disk formation studies, exoplanet imaging, and age calibration. Among the many efforts devoted to the search for moving group members, a Bayesian approach (e.g.,using the code BANYAN) has become popular recently because of the many advantages it offers. However, the resultant membership probability needs to be carefully adopted because of its sensitive dependence on input models. In this study, we have developed an improved membership calculation tool focusing on the beta-Pic moving group. We made three improvements for building models used in BANYAN II: (1) updating a list of accepted members by re-assessing memberships in terms of position, motion, and age, (2) investigating member distribution functions in XYZ, and (3) exploring field star distribution functions in XYZUVW. Our improved tool can change membership probability up to 70%. Membership probability is critical and must be better defined. For example, our code identifies only one third of the candidate members in SIMBAD that are believed to be kinematically associated with beta-Pic moving group.Additionally, we performed cluster analysis of young nearby stars using an unsupervised machine learning approach. As more moving groups and their members are identified, the complexity and ambiguity in moving group configuration has been increased. To clarify this issue, we analyzed ~4,000 X-ray bright young stellar candidates. Here, we present the preliminary results. By re-identifying moving groups with the least human intervention, we expect to understand the composition of the solar neighborhood. Moreover better defined moving group membership will help us understand star formation and evolution in relatively low density environments; especially for the low-mass stars which will be identified in the coming Gaia release.

  5. Secession and EU Membership - Is an EU member state secessionist territory automatically within EU after archiving its independence or have to reapply for membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiro Paço

    2015-07-01

    To answer to this question I will analyses the possible past experiences in secessionist territory getting membership in international organization like UN. The Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties is a good material to use in case of succession but the fact that is not in force and not signed by the greatest part of EU member state make it only advisory and not binding.

  6. Turkey’s Membership in the European Union: Analyzing Potential Benefits and Drawbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Turkey’s Membership Upon the EU,” 40. 21 A.M. Lejour, R.A. de Mooji and C.H. Capel , “Assessing the Economic Implications of Turkish Accession to...C.H. Capel , an expert on Turkey at the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs, assesses the potential effects of Turkey’s membership from the economic... Capel , “Assessing the Economic Implications of Turkish Accession to the EU,” 49. 29 Özge Ağar and Orçun Doğan, “AB-Türkiye Bitmeyen Vals,” Middle East

  7. Robust fault detection of linear systems using a computationally efficient set-membership method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Bak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a computationally efficient set-membership method for robust fault detection of linear systems is proposed. The method computes an interval outer-approximation of the output of the system that is consistent with the model, the bounds on noise and disturbance, and the past measureme...... is trivially parallelizable. The method is demonstrated for fault detection of a hydraulic pitch actuator of a wind turbine. We show the effectiveness of the proposed method by comparing our results with two zonotope-based set-membership methods....

  8. 78 FR 24036 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...This rule reapportions the membership of the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of processed pears grown in Oregon and Washington, and is administered locally by the Committee. This rule reapportions the processor membership such that the three processor members and alternate members will be selected from the production area at-large rather than from a specific district. In an industry with few processors, this change will provide the flexibility needed to help ensure that all processor member positions are filled, resulting in effective representation of the processed pear industry on the Committee.

  9. 77 FR 72245 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Committee Membership Reapportionment for Processed Pears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ...This rule invites comments on reapportionment of the membership of the Processed Pear Committee (Committee) established under the Oregon-Washington pear marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of processed pears grown in Oregon and Washington, and is administered locally by the Committee. This rule would reapportion the processor membership such that the three processor members and alternate members would be selected from the production area-at-large rather than from a specific district. In an industry with few processors, this change would provide the flexibility needed to help ensure that all processor member positions are filled, resulting in effective representation of the processed pear industry.

  10. Influential internal and external factors in German policy towards Turkey’s EU membership: more than ‘privileged partnership’; less than full membership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcen ÖNER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the internal and external factors that influence Germany’s policy concerning Turkey’s EU membership bid. Firstly, it explains the theoretical framework and historical background of Germany’s policies regarding Turkey’s EU membership. Secondly, it analyses the role of internal and external factors related to the EU as well as external factors related to Turkey. The internal factors include the integration problems of Turkish immigrants and the rise of Islamophobia in Europe. Their influence on the role of the German public opinion is analysed. Then, the perceptions of Germany’s political elites and civil society are discussed, based on face-to-face, in-depth interviews conducted by the author with representatives of several politicians from different political parties in the German federal parliament. Additional interviews were conducted with representatives of several foundations and business organisations in Berlin and one German-Turkish business organisation in Istanbul. Finally, the article argues that Germany has been trying to develop a policy which is in between the idea of a ‘privileged partnership’ and the full membership of Turkey and tries to evaluate the reasons behind that.

  11. X-shooter spectroscopy of young stellar objects in Lupus. Atmospheric parameters, membership, and activity diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasca, A.; Biazzo, K.; Alcalá, J. M.; Manara, C. F.; Stelzer, B.; Covino, E.; Antoniucci, S.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: A homogeneous determination of basic stellar parameters of young stellar object (YSO) candidates is needed to confirm their pre-main sequence evolutionary stage and membership to star forming regions (SFRs), and to get reliable values of the quantities related to chromospheric activity and accretion. Methods: We used the code ROTFIT and synthetic BT-Settl spectra for the determination of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g), veiling (r), radial (RV), and projected rotational velocity (vsini) from X-shooter spectra of 102 YSO candidates (95 of infrared Class II and seven Class III) in the Lupus SFR. The spectral subtraction of inactive templates, rotationally broadened to match the vsini of the targets, enabled us to measure the line fluxes for several diagnostics of both chromospheric activity and accretion, such as Hα, Hβ, Ca II, and Na I lines. Results: We have shown that 13 candidates can be rejected as Lupus members based on their discrepant RV with respect to Lupus and/or the very low log g values. At least 11 of them are background giants, two of which turned out to be lithium-rich giants. Regarding the members, we found that all Class III sources have Hα fluxes that are compatible with a pure chromospheric activity, while objects with disks lie mostly above the boundary between chromospheres and accretion. Young stellar objects with transitional disks display both high and low Hα fluxes. We found that the line fluxes per unit surface are tightly correlated with the accretion luminosity (Lacc) derived from the Balmer continuum excess. This rules out that the relationships between Lacc and line luminosities found in previous works are simply due to calibration effects. We also found that the Ca II-IRT flux ratio, FCaII8542/FCaII8498, is always small, indicating an optically thick emission source. The latter can be identified with the accretion shock near the stellar photosphere. The Balmer decrement reaches instead, for several accretors, high

  12. Distinct trajectories of leisure time physical activity and predictors of trajectory class membership: a 22 year cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gauvin Lise; Barnett Tracie A; Craig Cora L; Katzmarzyk Peter T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Prospective studies linking social factors to long term patterns of physical activity are lacking. In this 22 year longitudinal study, we seek to identify long term patterns of involvement in leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and explore socioeconomic and demographic predictors of distinct LTPA trajectories. Methods Among 2102 individuals aged 18–60 years in 1981 who participated in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey/1988 Campbell's Survey of Well-Being, 1186 (56.4%) comp...

  13. The Driving Forces and Economic Impact of Co-operative Membership: Empirical Evidence from the Mexican Coffee Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Padron, B.; Ruben, R.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    We identify key factors influencing membership of co-operative organisations in Mexico's coffee sector. We also determine the impact of membership on the incomes that are derived from coffee cultivation. Factors at all levels are found to be relevant: individual factors, family characteristics, farm

  14. Having a lot of a good thing: multiple important group memberships as a source of self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda Jetten

    Full Text Available Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a, older adults (Study 1b, and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c. Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem.

  15. The pernicious effects of unstable work group membership : How work group changes undermine unique task contributions and newcomer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rink, Floor; Ellemers, Naomi

    This research demonstrates that group membership instability tends to raise self-related concerns that make it less likely that people value and accept constructive task contributions offered by newcomers. In Study 1 (N = 88), unstable group membership heightened self-related concerns. Participants

  16. Trends in Female Authorships, Editorial Board Memberships, and Editorships in Educational Psychology Journals from 2003 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Carlton J.; Yoo, Julia H.; Jones, Sara J.; Torres, Laura G.; Decker, Mark Lowry

    2009-01-01

    Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan ("Contemporary Educational Psychology," 23, 331-343, 1998) reported that women were underrepresented in terms of authorships, editorial board memberships, and editorships in the field of educational psychology based on membership trends. More recently, Evans, Hsieh, and Robinson ("Educational Psychology Review,"…

  17. Having a Lot of a Good Thing: Multiple Important Group Memberships as a Source of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Jolanda; Branscombe, Nyla R.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Jones, Janelle M.; Cui, Lijuan; Dingle, Genevieve; Liu, James; Murphy, Sean; Thai, Anh; Walter, Zoe; Zhang, Airong

    2015-01-01

    Membership in important social groups can promote a positive identity. We propose and test an identity resource model in which personal self-esteem is boosted by membership in additional important social groups. Belonging to multiple important group memberships predicts personal self-esteem in children (Study 1a), older adults (Study 1b), and former residents of a homeless shelter (Study 1c). Study 2 shows that the effects of multiple important group memberships on personal self-esteem are not reducible to number of interpersonal ties. Studies 3a and 3b provide longitudinal evidence that multiple important group memberships predict personal self-esteem over time. Studies 4 and 5 show that collective self-esteem mediates this effect, suggesting that membership in multiple important groups boosts personal self-esteem because people take pride in, and derive meaning from, important group memberships. Discussion focuses on when and why important group memberships act as a social resource that fuels personal self-esteem. PMID:26017554

  18. Prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress in bereaved children: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Spuij, Mariken; Reijntjes, Albert H A

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have yet examined subgroups among children (aged 8-18) confronted with the death of a close loved one, characterized by different profiles of symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and symptoms of bereavement-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study sought to identify such subgroups and socio-demographic and loss-related variables associated with subgroup membership. We used data from 332 children, most of whom (> 80%) were confronted with the death of a parent, mostly (> 50%) due to illness. Latent class analysis revealed three classes of participants: a resilient class (38.6%), a predominantly PGD class (35.2%), and a combined PGD/PTSD class (26.2%). Class membership was associated with self-rated levels of depression and functional impairment, and parent-rated behavioural problems. No significant between-class differences on demographics or loss-related variables were found. The current findings of distinct classes of PGD, and PGD plus PTSD attest to the construct validity of PGD as a distinct disorder, and can inform theory building and the development of diagnostic instruments relevant to children with pervasive distress following loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 7133 - Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Advisory Committee on Supply Chain Competitiveness Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION... Committee is to advise the Secretary on the necessary elements of a comprehensive, holistic national freight...

  20. The Influence of Randomly Allocated Group Membership when Developing Student Task Work and Team Work Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Giles Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether randomly assigning group membership enhances the student learning experience. The paper starts with a critical analysis of the approaches to student learning within higher education and how these approaches conflict with findings from applied psychology on group behaviour. The study adopts a serendipitous qualitative…

  1. Racial Group Membership and Multicultural Training: Examining the Experiences of Counseling and Counseling Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Lee, Minsun; Fetzer, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    This study documents various process elements of multicultural training from the perspective of counseling and counseling psychology students within the United States (US). Using a mixed-methods approach, findings indicate that racial group membership is an important variable that differentially impacts White students and students of Color while…

  2. Fraternity Membership and Sexual Aggression: An Examination of Mediators of the Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingree, Jeffrey B.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study examined attitudes (ie, hostility toward women, acceptance of rape myths), peer influences (ie, peer pressure to have sex, peer approval of forced sex), and risky behaviors (ie, high-risk alcohol use, number of sexual partners) as possible mediators of the association between fraternity membership and sexual…

  3. Measuring the Economic Impact of Rural Tourism Membership on Local Economy: A Korean Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hio-Jung Shin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of rural tourism membership can aid in boosting economic growth in rural areas. This study examines households’ preferences for rural tourism experience in association with sales of local agricultural products. Using a choice experiment method developed by experimental designs, this paper examines households’ preferences to trade off purchasing costs of local agricultural products against various benefits provided by the rural tourism membership. The methods utilized in this paper represent an effective approach to evaluate the value of local tourism resources and the influence of these resources on the local economy. In empirical estimation we applied econometric approaches that allow for different preferences by incorporating income and residence effects into the models. Findings reveal that respondents place a premium on tourism attributes such as invitation seats and outdoor adventure tickets when choosing a tourism membership. We also find that the economic impacts associated with inducing higher-level tourism membership are substantial. This paper illustrates the potential for the development of a strategy associated with rural tourism management to enhance the local economy.

  4. 75 FR 39201 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... notice announces that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is soliciting nominations for membership... expertise in the fields of epidemiology, food technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and predictive...

  5. 75 FR 37754 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... notice announces that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is soliciting nominations for membership... expertise in the fields of epidemiology, food technology, microbiology (food, clinical, and predictive...

  6. Ratings in the Research Assessment Exercise 2001 -- The Patterns of University Status and Panel Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen; Coleman, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Ratings awarded to university departments in the UK Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) 2001 were analysed to determine whether they were influenced either by the status of the university (pre-1992 or post-1992) or by whether the university was represented on the panel that determined the ratings. There was little evidence that panel membership has…

  7. The Impact of Clique Membership on Children's Social Behavior and Status Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Lease, A. Michele; Hoffman, Lesa

    2012-01-01

    The impact of children's clique membership on their peer nominations for social behaviors and status was examined in a sample of 455 third- through fifth-grade children. Social identity theory (SIT) and children's peer group affiliation and context served as primary conceptual frameworks for this investigation. As suggested by SIT, results…

  8. 78 FR 7434 - Medicare Program: Notice of Two Membership Appointments to the Advisory Panel on Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Appointments to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid... announces two new membership appointments to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the Panel). The two new appointments to the Panel will each serve a 4-year period. The new members will have...

  9. 77 FR 9255 - Medicare Program: Notice of Six Membership Appointments to the Advisory Panel on Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Appointments to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid... announces six new membership appointments to the Advisory Panel on Hospital Outpatient Payment (HOP, the Panel). The six appointments to the 19 member Panel will each serve a 4-year period. Five of the new...

  10. The Effects of School Membership on Academic and Behavioral Performance of At-Risk Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sunyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the perceptions of school membership, risk factors, and school outcomes among a sample of alternative school students. The study subjects were 48 7th-9th graders who were at high risk for school failure because of their serious and chronic behavioral and academic problems. All…

  11. Smoking and Membership in a Fraternity or Sorority: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Harris, LaNita W.; Gowin, Mary J.; Huber, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Fraternity and sorority members have higher rates of smoking than other college students. This systematic review examines studies that included fraternity/sorority membership in their investigation of smoking behaviors. Participants/Methods: Studies identified in MEDLINE, PsychInfo, JSTOR, CINAHL, ERIC, and Google Scholar published…

  12. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  13. The Membership Intake Movement of Historically Black Greek-Letter Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Walter M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the history of pledging and the recent movements for reform of this practice among historically Black fraternities and sororities. Describes the membership intake process that has been adopted and its resultant problems. Suggests that the national leadership should emphasize founding ideals as a means of overcoming resistance to change.…

  14. Bounded mirroring: joint action and group membership in political theory and cognitive neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Vander Valk, F.

    2012-01-01

    A crucial socio-political challenge for our age is how to redefine or extend group membership in such a way that it adequately responds to phenomena related to globalization like the prevalence of migration, the transformation of family and social networks, and changes in the position of the nation

  15. 75 FR 36356 - Announcement of Changes to the Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Assistant Secretary for Services, ITA. 6. Lisa A. Casias, Director for Financial Management, OS. Dated: June... International Trade Administration Announcement of Changes to the Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Performance Review...

  16. 78 FR 68029 - Announcement of Changes to the Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Commerce, Office of the Secretary (OS) Lisa A. Casias, Director for Financial Management and Deputy Chief... International Trade Administration Announcement of Changes to the Membership of the Performance Review Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Performance Review...

  17. American Association for Health Education (AAHE) 2011 Membership Survey: Summary of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Elizabeth H.; Chavarria, Enmanuel; Stellefson, Michael L.; Birch, David A.; Spear, Caile

    2012-01-01

    The American Association for Health Education (AAHE), a national health education organization with the mission of advancing the profession of health education, launched the 2011 AAHE membership survey between October 13, 2011 and November 1, 2011, under the leadership of the AAHE Board of Directors and AAHE Staff. The primary objective of the…

  18. 75 FR 3967 - Bank Secrecy Act Advisory Group; Solicitation of Application for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... discretion on all membership decisions. The Director may consider prior years' applications when making... evaluated on the information provided through this application process. Applications should consist of: Name...) Industry Trade Groups--Casino (1 vacancy) Industry Trade Groups--Money Services Businesses (1 vacancy...

  19. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  20. 75 FR 65528 - Membership of the National Science Board's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Membership of the National Science Board's Senior Executive Service Performance Review Board AGENCY: National... the IG community. Dated: October 18, 2010. Judith S. Sunley, Interim Director, Division of Human...

  1. Greek Organization Membership and Collegiate Outcomes at an Elite, Private University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jay K.; Martin, Nathan D.; Hussey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we use detailed survey and institutional data from a prospective panel study of students attending a highly selective, private university to examine the effects of fraternity or sorority membership on a range of collegiate outcomes. Previous research has given insufficient attention to selection issues inherent in the study of…

  2. Ingroup/outgroup membership modulates fairness consideration: neural signatures from ERPs and EEG oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Zhen; Bai, Liying; Lin, Chongde; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-01-04

    Previous studies have shown that ingroup/outgroup membership influences individual's fairness considerations. However, it is not clear yet how group membership influences brain activity when a recipient evaluates the fairness of asset distribution. In this study, subjects participated as recipients in an Ultimatum Game with alleged members of both an experimentally induced ingroup and outgroup. They either received extremely unequal, moderately unequal, or equal offers from proposers while electroencephalogram was recorded. Behavioral results showed that the acceptance rates for unequal offers were higher when interacting with ingroup partners than with outgroup partners. Analyses of event related potentials revealed that proposers' group membership modulated offer evaluation at earlier processing stages. Feedback-related negativity was more negative for extremely and moderately unequal offers compared to equal offers in the ingroup interaction whereas it did not show differential responses to different offers in the outgroup interaction. Analyses of event related oscillations revealed that the theta power (4-6 Hz) was larger for moderately unequal offers than equal offers in the ingroup interaction whereas it did not show differential responses to different offers in the outgroup interaction. Thus, early mechanisms of fairness evaluation are strongly modulated by the ingroup/outgroup membership of the interaction partner.

  3. Gang Membership: Links to Violence Exposure, Paranoia, PTSD, Anxiety, and Forced Control of Behavior in Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jane; Dennard, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Gang membership inherently links to violence, and violent experiences strongly relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and paranoia. Yet to date, gang members' mental health has received little attention, and their paranoia has not been examined. This study, using established measures, assessed street gang and nongang prisoners' levels of violence exposure, symptoms of PTSD, paranoia, and anxiety, forced behavioral control, and segregation in prison. Participants were 65 (32 gang and 33 nongang) prisoners, recruited using opportunity sampling. Participants provided informed consent and were interviewed individually. Interviews were anonymized to maintain confidentiality. Chi-square and discriminant function analyses were used to compare participants' demographics, segregation levels, mental health symptoms, and to identify predictors of street gang membership. As compared to nongang prisoners, street gang prisoners have higher levels of exposure to violence, symptoms of paranoia, PTSD, anxiety, and forced control of their behavior in prison. Street gang prisoners were not more likely to be segregated, but they were more likely to belong to ethnic minorities. Street gang prisoners were only found to be younger than nongang prisoners, when other variables were controlled for. Mental health deserves more attention in gang research. The implications of findings are that gang membership may undermine members' mental health, and/or that individuals with existing mental health problems may be those attracted to gang membership. Moreover, justice responses, via policies and intervention strategies, need to identify and address the mental health needs in gang member prisoners, if successful rehabilitation of gang members is to be achieved.

  4. Is Multiple Team Membership a Challenge or a Hindrance for Individual Employees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brake, Hendrik; Walter, Frank; Rink, Floor; Essens, Peter; van der Vegt, Gerben S.

    Many employees in today’s organizations are concurrently involved in more than one team at the same time. This study investigates the individual-level relationships between such multiple team memberships (MTM) and employees’ wellbeing and job performance. Building on the challenge-hindrance stressor

  5. Estimating group size: effects of category membership, differential construal and selective exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosveld, W.; Koomen, W.; van der Pligt, J.

    1996-01-01

    Examined the role of category membership, differential construal, and selective exposure in consensus estimation concerning the social categorization of religion. 54 involved and less involved Christians and 40 non-believers were asked to estimate the percentage of Christians in the Netherlands

  6. The Conservative Corner of the Liberal Academy? Fraternity/Sorority Membership, Politics, and Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Michael S.; Weeden, Dustin D.; Pasquesi, Kira; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2015-01-01

    We use a longitudinal dataset to explore the effect of fraternity/sorority membership on political orientation and social/political activism. After controlling for a variety of potentially confounding variables, including pretests on the dependent variables, fraternity and sorority members were significantly less liberal that their unaffiliated…

  7. Late Adolescents' Perspectives on Marital Rape: The Impact of Gender and Fraternity/Sorority Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Carol J.; Leone, Janel M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward marital rape-in particular, the impact of gender and fraternity/sorority membership on respondents' views regarding marital rape versus rape by a stranger, as well as feelings about actions that a victim of marital rape may take. While fraternity and nonfraternity men showed significant differences in responses, sorority…

  8. 77 FR 3030 - Membership in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... members of the group. Representatives of the Administrator and Director serve alternating 1-year terms as... Majenty. Mr. Majenty's term begins on April 3, 2012. The term of service for NPOAG ARC members is 3 years... Federal Aviation Administration Membership in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation...

  9. 75 FR 18014 - Membership in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Administrator of the FAA and the Director of NPS (or their designees) serve as ex officio members of the group...'s term begins on May 20, 2010. The term of service for NPOAG ARC members is 3 years. Issued in... Federal Aviation Administration Membership in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation...

  10. 77 FR 9251 - Solicitation of Nominations for Membership on the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... of business on March 16, 2012. DATES: Nominations for membership on the Committee must be received no..., the application of minimal research risk standards, the granting of waivers, education programs..., and biomedical ethics. To qualify for consideration of appointment to the Committee, an individual...

  11. Interactions Between Item Content And Group Membership on Achievement Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Robert L.; Harnisch, Delwyn L.

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the interaction of item content and group membership on achievement test items. Estimates of the parameters of the three parameter logistic model were obtained on the 46 item math test for the sample of eighth grade students (N = 2055) participating in the Illinois Inventory of Educational Progress,…

  12. Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers' Views on the EU Membership Process: A Multidimensional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençtürk, Ebru

    2015-01-01

    One of the general purposes of Social Studies is to integrate individuals with the social life by providing accurate knowledge and skills about their environment and society. As well as the role of Social Studies in raising consciousness on EU relations, Social Studies teachers' views about EU membership and the sources of these views are…

  13. 75 FR 43944 - Membership of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Senior Executive Service (SES) Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Defense Logistics Agency Membership of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Senior Executive Service (SES... 16, 2010. ADDRESSES: Defense Logistics Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Suite 2533, Fort Belvoir... Resources (J-14), Defense Logistics Agency, (703) 767-6447. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In accordance with 5...

  14. 76 FR 66931 - Medicare Program: Notice of Two Membership Appointments to the Advisory Panel on Ambulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Appointments to the Advisory Panel on Ambulatory Payment Classification Groups AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... notice announces two new membership appointments to the Advisory Panel on Ambulatory Payment... the CMS Web site at: https://www.cms.gov/FACA/05_AdvisoryPanelonAmbulatoryPaymentClassificationGroups...

  15. 12 CFR 208.3 - Application and conditions for membership in the Federal Reserve System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (1) Financial condition and management. The financial history and condition of the applying bank and the general character of its management. (2) Capital. The adequacy of the bank's capital in accordance... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application and conditions for membership in...

  16. 78 FR 10104 - Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1210 Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan; Importer Membership Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed... file a written petition with the Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) if they believe that the Plan...

  17. Stability and Change in Personality Type Membership and Anxiety in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, Joyce; Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the stability and changeability of personality has long been debated, many studies now agree that personality changes over the life course. Although the changes in rank-order and mean-level stability are well established, the stability in personality type membership during adolescence is not yet clear. Little research has been conducted…

  18. 76 FR 6186 - Applications for Membership on the Electronic Tax Administration Advisory Committee (ETAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... on the Electronic Tax Administration Advisory Committee (ETAAC) AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... applications of individuals to be considered for membership on the Electronic Tax Administration Advisory... IRS' strategy for electronic tax administration. The ETAAC also provides an organized public forum for...

  19. 78 FR 10693 - Open Season for Membership to the Electronic Tax Administration Advisory Committee (ETAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Season for Membership to the Electronic Tax Administration Advisory Committee... Applications. SUMMARY: The Electronic Tax Administration Advisory Committee (ETAAC) was established to provide... electronic tax administration. The ETAAC provides an organized public forum for discussion of electronic tax...

  20. Comorbidity classes and associated impairment, demographics and 9/11-exposures in 8,236 children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronazzo-Alman, Lupo; Guffanti, Guia; Eisenberg, Ruth; Fan, Bin; Musa, George J; Wicks, Judith; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Duarte, Cristiane S; Hoven, Christina

    2018-01-01

    The extensive comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents leads to clinical heterogeneity, and is an often-overlooked issue in etiopathogenic and treatment studies in developmental psychopathology. In a representative sample (N=8236) of New York City public school students assessed six months after 9/11, latent class analysis was applied to 48 symptoms across seven disorders: posttraumatic stress, agoraphobia, separation anxiety, panic disorder, generalized anxiety (GAD), major depression (MDD) and conduct disorder (CD). Our objective was to identify classes defined by homogenous symptom profiles, and to examine the association between class membership and gender, age, race, different types of exposure to 9/11, and impairment. Eight homogenous comorbidity patterns were identified, including four severe disturbance classes: a multimorbid internalizing class (INT), a class with a high probability of CD, MDD, and GAD symptoms (Distress/EXT), a non-comorbid externalizing class, and a non-comorbid MDD class. Demographic and 9/11-related exposures showed some degree of specificity in their association with severe symptom profiles. Impairment was particularly high in the INT and Distress/EXT classes. A better characterization of phenomic data, that takes comorbidity into account, is essential to understand etiopathogenic processes, and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine. The high probability of endorsing symptoms of multiple disorders in the INT and Distress/EXT classes supports the use of treatments focusing on multimorbidity. Clinical trials should evaluate the effectiveness of disorder-specific versus transdiagnostic interventions. The association between class membership and demographic and exposure variables suggests that interventions may be improved by considering specific predictors of class membership. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Criteria Among Heavy-Drinking College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Young Doctor Movements: motives for membership among aspiring and young family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Kenneth; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Nashat, Nagwa

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, young doctor movements (YDMs) have gained recognition for their efforts in promoting the discipline of family medicine. With growth and expansion comes the need for an inquiry into the membership motives of current/intending members. This study was aimed at determining the main reasons why young and aspiring family physicians (FPs) joined their regional YDM. It was also concerned with determining the main factors that will make non-members want to join a YDM as well as assessing for differences in the responses within YDM members on the one hand, and between YDM members and non-members on the other. This was a cross-sectional web-based study. Using a list of 11 items generated following a series of discussions and feedback among selected FPs and FP trainees, respondents annotated levels of agreement on reasons for current or desired YDM membership. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the distribution and differences in the mean of rank scores of the responses from YDM and non-YDM members while the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to describe same for the various YDMs. The total number of respondents was 200, out of which 102 (51.0%) were current YDM members, 97 (48.5%) were non-members and 1 (0.5%) respondent did not state his/her membership status. Non-YDM members indicated a predominantly academic/professional motive for membership while YDM members indicated the opportunity to socialise with FPs abroad and in their country as their foremost reasons for membership. A mixture of academic, professional and social motives was observed for respondents from Vasco da Gama; predominantly academic and professional motives for respondents from Spice route. While gaining recognition and improving one's practice may be the ultimate goal of an aspiring FP, socialising within a network of like-minded professionals maybe the young FP's way of coping with demands of the discipline.

  3. Diversity in membership and leadership positions in a regional vascular society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satiani, Bhagwan; Vaccaro, Patrick S; Go, Michael R

    2010-04-01

    To determine diversity in the membership and analyze representation of private practitioners and ethnic and racial minorities/women in senior leadership roles in a regional vascular society. The program book distributed at the 2008 annual meeting was used to compile information on membership categories, academic status, gender, and ethnic origin of members. Excluded from further analysis were all but active and senior members (n = 386). Officers for President and current President-Elect (P, n = 31), Secretary (S, n = 10), Treasurer (T, n = 11), and Councilor (C, n = 33) over a 30-year period were scrutinized for similar information. Members were considered to be "academic" if they worked full time at an academic medical center or as faculty at a teaching hospital with a vascular fellowship and national recognition. Private practice (PP) or academic practice (AP) was determined by personal knowledge, mailing address, e-mail address, and search engines. Ethnic and racial origin was determined by name, personal knowledge, or a web search. Of the 386 active and senior members in the society, 86% were white, 13.7% were of various ethnic/racial groups, and 5.7% were women. Sixty-eight percent of members were in PP. Female members were more likely to be in AP compared with male members (68.1% vs 29.6%, P academics (WMAs) (23.7% of membership) occupied 86% of all senior leadership and 57% of C positions compared with 13% and 42%, respectively, for the rest of the membership (P academics are under represented in senior leadership positions. With changing demographics, a predicted shortage of vascular surgeons, the need for role models in leadership positions and a push to culturally competent care, regional and national societies must change course and promote a more diverse membership and representative senior leadership. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  4. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  5. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances......, not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  6. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was successfully employed for predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with respect to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters and their interplay. The major assumption of BDDCS is that the extent of metabolism (EoM) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport are not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated with in vitro assays, could anticipate disposition and potential DDIs of new molecular entities (NMEs). Here we describe a computational procedure for predicting BDDCS class from molecular structures. The model was trained on a set of 300 oral drugs, and validated on an external set of 379 oral drugs, using 17 descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction the accuracy was 82% in training and 79% in external validation. The actual BDDCS class corresponded to the highest ranked calculated class for 55% of the validation molecules, and it was within the top two ranked more than 92% of the times. The unbalanced stratification of the dataset didn’t affect the prediction, which showed highest accuracy in predicting classes 2 and 3 with respect to the most populated class 1. For class 4 drugs a general lack of predictability was observed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed the degree of accuracy for the prediction of the different BDDCS classes is tied to the structure of the dataset. This model could routinely be used in early drug discovery to prioritize in vitro tests for NMEs (e.g., affinity to transporters

  7. Automatic threshold selection for multi-class open set recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherreik, Matthew; Rigling, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Multi-class open set recognition is the problem of supervised classification with additional unknown classes encountered after a model has been trained. An open set classifer often has two core components. The first component is a base classifier which estimates the most likely class of a given example. The second component consists of open set logic which estimates if the example is truly a member of the candidate class. Such a system is operated in a feed-forward fashion. That is, a candidate label is first estimated by the base classifier, and the true membership of the example to the candidate class is estimated afterward. Previous works have developed an iterative threshold selection algorithm for rejecting examples from classes which were not present at training time. In those studies, a Platt-calibrated SVM was used as the base classifier, and the thresholds were applied to class posterior probabilities for rejection. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of other base classifiers when paired with the threshold selection algorithm and compare their performance with the original SVM solution.

  8. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which ar...

  9. Latent Class Analysis of the Child Behavior Checklist Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Robert R.; Rettew, David C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hudziak, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The Obsessive Compulsive Scale (OCS) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) predicts Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and is highly heritable. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) of the OCS was used to identify profiles within this 8-item scale and to examine heritability of those profiles. LCA was performed on maternal CBCL reports of their 6–18 year-old children from 2 U.S. nationally representative samples from 1989 (n=2475, 50% male) and 1999 (n=2029, 53% male) and from Dutch Twins in the Netherlands Twin Registry at ages 7 (n=10,194, 49.3% male), 10 (n=6448, 48.1% male), and 12 (n=3674, 48.6% male). The heritability of the resultant classes was estimated using odds ratios of twin membership across classes. A 4-class solution fit all samples best. The resulting classes were a “no or few symptoms” class, a “worries and has to be perfect” class, a “thought problems class, and an “OCS” class. Within class odds ratios were higher than across class odds ratios and were higher for MZ than DZ twins. We conclude that LCA identifies an OCS class and that class is highly heritable using across-twin comparisons. PMID:19840599

  10. Year in college and sorority membership in predicting self-esteem of a sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Bryan K; Johnson, Kristen B

    2007-12-01

    The empirical base for judging whether fraternity membership may be associated with higher self-esteem of college women as well as men is not strong and does not extend beyond the freshman year. This study was done to examine the relations among year in college, sorority membership, and self-esteem. Senior women reported highest scores on self-esteem. Members of sororities did not have a higher mean self-esteem than those who were not. No significant interaction between year in college and sorority membership was noted.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Membership in stellar kinematic groups (Klutsch+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsch, A.; Freire Ferrero, R.; Guillout, P.; Frasca, A.; Marilli, E.; Montes, D.

    2014-09-01

    The search for new members of close young associations and SKGs was done earlier by using mainly qualitative methods, such as the Eggen's criteria (Eggen 1958MNRAS.118...65E, 1995AJ....110.2862E). To gain in objectivity, we determine the membership by means of probabilistic procedures using the kinematic properties of known SKG members (Klutsch 2008, Ph.D. thesis, Observatoire de Strasbourg, France; Klutsch et al. in Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI, eds. M.R. Zapatero Osorio, J. Gorgas, J. Maiz Apellaniz, J. R. Pardo, & A. Gil de Paz, p. 534). We tried different methods to handle kinematic data, and we succeeded to develop two independent procedures (CES and M2M) to be able to identify new candidates of five young MGs. We widely used n-dimensional normal Gaussian distributions to determine the kinematic membership probabilities of each stellar candidate (1 data file).

  12. Review Article.n European Identity and Turkey’s Quest for the EU Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Engin I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the post-Single European Act period, debates around European identity have intensified, particularly in the context of EU enlargement. The EU’s move to being a supranational political entity in the past two decades has caused serious concerns in some sections of the elite and people across the EU member states. While French and Dutch rejections of the constitutional treaty set an important milestone, Turkey’s quest for the EU membership has complicated to a great extent controversies on European identity. The reviewed books here contribute to efforts to understand the extent to which European identity and Turkey’s bid for the EU membership has entangled. It is more likely to witness debates around both European identity and Turkey’s candidacy for the Union for many years to come; therefore, these books will more likely remain relevant for the academic and policy circles.

  13. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Internet Addiction and Social Media Membership on University Students’ Psychological Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Simsek, Eylem; Balaban Sali, Jale

    2014-01-01

    How Internet addiction affects happiness of university students in terms of their cognitive and emotional resources was not adequately investigated. One of the inner resources of life satisfaction and happiness is defined as psychological capital (PsyCap), under the paradigm of positive psychology. PsyCap consists of four main sub-factors: hope, resilience, self-efficacy, and optimism. The major purpose of this study is to examine the role of Internet addiction and social media membership on...

  15. Impact of cooperative membership on farmers' uptake of technological innovations in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kolade, Oluwaseun; Harpham, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Routledge. The underutilization of agriculture in Nigeria with attendant low yield per hectare is generally attributed to lack of innovation to cope with the challenges of climate change and land degradation. In this study, using information from 326 farmers in Southwest Nigeria, we examined the relative impact of cooperative membership compared with the effects of other socioeconomic factors on farmers’ adoption of technological innovations. Cooperative mem...

  16. NATO, Russia, Poland, and Ukraine: Perspectives on the Ukraine Candidacy for NATO Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    which crowned its post-Cold War democratization and independence by obtaining memberships with both the EU and NATO. This chapter traces the relevant...conduct was less cruel and base than that of Prussia.168 Catherine’s son Paul I (1796–1801) succeeded his mother to the throne. Initially, he made...Alexander III was crowned in 1894 and given the official title of Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias. He did not pursue any substantial changes

  17. Moving in Social Circles – Social Circle Membership and Performance Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeke, Willem; Wuyts, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate social circles in intra-firm settings. First, we argue that social circles are inhabited by individuals whose attitudes display fit with the objectives of the social circle rather than more self-centered instrumentalism or calculation. For a test of this hypothesis, we distinguish between friendship circles and strategy-influence circles. We find that friendship circle membership is positively associated with attitudes that display empathic concern but negatively wi...

  18. Turkey’s accession to NATO membership through the US press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamedov Zaur Imalverdi oglu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the US periodicals on a topic of the Turkish Republic accession to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It considers the evolution of the image of this event in the American press of the first half of the 1950s. Turkey's accession to NATO was for certain reasons which the author cites in conclusions. The key issue of the article is the analysis of how Turkey's membership in NATO was presented to the American people in newspapers.

  19. Development of strategic options for Italian wine cooperatives through a new membership integration pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta CAPITELLO; Lara AGNOLI

    2009-01-01

    Italian agro-food cooperatives are involved in mergers, acquisition and alliances processes, that require a renovating model of membership management. Wine cooperatives are particularly dynamic in this context. The aim of the research is to identify new integration patterns between the cooperative and its members, starting from the analysis of the members’ structural and strategic choices. The research has been conducted in a wine cooperative of Veneto Region. Five elements of differentiation...

  20. Application of a New Membership Function in Nonlinear Fuzzy PID Controllers with Variable Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuda Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a nonlinear fuzzy PID control algorithm, whose membership function (MF is adjustable, is universal, and has a wide adjustable range. Appling this function to fuzzy control theory will increase system’s tunability. The continuity of this function is proved. This method was employed in the simulation and HIL experiments. Effectiveness and feasibility of this function are demonstrated in the results.

  1. A Note on the Core of TU-cooperative Games with Multiple Membership Externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich H. Nax

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A generalization of transferable utility cooperative games from the functional forms introduced by von Neumann and Morgenstern (1944, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior and Lucas and Thrall (1963, Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 10, 281–298 is proposed to allow for multiple membership. The definition of the core is adapted analogously and the possibilities for the cross-cutting of contractual arrangements are illustrated and discussed.

  2. Defining Components of Team Leadership and Membership in Prehospital Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Remle P; Wagoner, Robert L; Rodriguez, Severo A; Bentley, Melissa A; Page, David

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork is critical for patient and provider safety in high-stakes environments, including the setting of prehospital emergency medical services (EMS). We sought to describe the components of team leadership and team membership on a single patient call where multiple EMS providers are present. We conducted a two-day focus group with nine subject matter experts in crew resource management (CRM) and EMS using a structured nominal group technique (NGT). The specific question posed to the group was, "What are the specific components of team leadership and team membership on a single patient call where multiple EMS providers are present?" After round-robin submission of ideas and in-depth discussion of the meaning of each component, participants voted on the most important components of team leadership and team membership. Through the NGT process, we identified eight components of team leadership: a) creates an action plan; b) communicates; c) receives, processes, verifies, and prioritizes information; d) reconciles incongruent information; e) demonstrates confidence, compassion, maturity, command presence, and trustworthiness; f) takes charge; g) is accountable for team actions and outcomes; and h) assesses the situation and resources and modifies the plan. The eight essential components of team membership identified included: a) demonstrates followership, b) maintains situational awareness, c) demonstrates appreciative inquiry, d) does not freelance, e) is an active listener, f) accurately performs tasks in a timely manner, g) is safety conscious and advocates for safety at all times, and h) leaves ego and rank at the door. This study used a highly structured qualitative technique and subject matter experts to identify components of teamwork essential for prehospital EMS providers. These findings and may be used to help inform the development of future EMS training and assessment initiatives.

  3. Examination of polytrauma typologies: A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Erin; Contractor, Ateka A; Gerber, Monica M; Neumann, Craig

    2017-09-01

    Potentially traumatizing events (PTE) are highly prevalent, and are associated with detrimental effects on psychological health, including increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multiple endorsed PTEs (polytraumatization) may have even greater effects on a person's health than the impact of a single index event. To better understand patterns of polytraumatization, person-centered analytic techniques such as Latent class analysis (LCA) are recommended. The current study used LCA to explore latent subgroupings of people based on their endorsement of PTEs, thus defining patterns in PTE exposure. The sample included 850 participants who endorsed at least one PTE on a web-administered Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results indicated a best-fitting 3-class solution: (1) a class with a greater probability of experiencing interpersonal PTEs and other PTEs, (2) a class with moderate PTE exposure and higher probability of mugging and accidents, and (3) a class with low PTE exposure. Differences in age, gender, and PTSD symptom severity accounted for class membership. Results suggest the experience of interpersonal PTEs may be a risk factor for additional lifetime PTE exposure, and is associated with increased PTSD severity. Additional findings underscore the heterogenity of trauma experiences, highlighting the importance of examining such patterns in future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Bayesian Non-Parametric Hierarchical Modeling for Multiple Membership Data in Grouped Attendance Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Terrance D; Paddock, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    We develop a dependent Dirichlet process (DDP) model for repeated measures multiple membership (MM) data. This data structure arises in studies under which an intervention is delivered to each client through a sequence of elements which overlap with those of other clients on different occasions. Our interest concentrates on study designs for which the overlaps of sequences occur for clients who receive an intervention in a shared or grouped fashion whose memberships may change over multiple treatment events. Our motivating application focuses on evaluation of the effectiveness of a group therapy intervention with treatment delivered through a sequence of cognitive behavioral therapy session blocks, called modules. An open-enrollment protocol permits entry of clients at the beginning of any new module in a manner that may produce unique MM sequences across clients. We begin with a model that composes an addition of client and multiple membership module random effect terms, which are assumed independent. Our MM DDP model relaxes the assumption of conditionally independent client and module random effects by specifying a collection of random distributions for the client effect parameters that are indexed by the unique set of module attendances. We demonstrate how this construction facilitates examining heterogeneity in the relative effectiveness of group therapy modules over repeated measurement occasions.

  5. Membership in voluntary organizations on the Colorado Plateau: A reexamination of the technical information quandary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, K.; Lamb, B.L.

    2005-01-01

    Many scholars note the increasing desire of the public to be involved in the policy process. Others observe, however, that public participation in governance is declining. One possible explanation for this is that people do not know the technical and scientific language that is frequently used in these decision processes. Citizens simply lack the information to participate in a meaningful way. This is what is known as the “technical information quandary” (i.e., how citizen desires for increased participation can be balanced against the increasingly technical nature of public policy). Research on public participation suggests membership in voluntary associations or organizations is positively associated with higher levels of technical policy knowledge. Recreation management on the Colorado Plateau provides an excellent opportunity to examine the relationship between membership in voluntary organizations and the level of policy knowledge. In 1998, we surveyed the public living on the Colorado Plateau to ascertain their level of knowledge of technical terms and their level of participation in voluntary organizations. We found that a variety of factors were related to people's membership in these organizations. In particular, our findings indicate that those with higher levels of knowledge were significantly more likely to be members of voluntary organizations and that this knowledge was most likely to come from the organizations. These findings have important implications for environmental managers, as well as for the voluntary organizations themselves.

  6. Barriers to voluntary organization membership: an examination of race and cohort differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, S; Tolnay, S

    1998-09-01

    This research uses age stratification, isolation, compensatory, and ethnic community perspectives to predict differences by race in the utilization of formal organizations across cohorts. Voluntary organizations are classified into three general types: social service clubs, job-related groups, and neighborhood organizations. We hypothesize that racial differences in organizational participation will be wider for older cohorts than for younger cohorts, as a result of historical racism. Moreover, we expect the racial differences across cohorts to be greater for those organizations (i.e., social service and job-related groups) where racial barriers to membership were strongest. We use the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) and logistic regression analysis to determine the predicted probabilities of membership in organizations by race, age, and type of membership. The results reveal higher levels of participation in organizations for young Blacks (than for young Whites). At the oldest ages, however, the race differential reverses direction for social/service and job-related organizations. For neighborhood organizations, the race differential is more stable across cohorts, consistent with expectations. We interpret these race-cohort patterns as evidence of historical discrimination that affected the oldest cohorts to a greater extent--especially for social/service and job-related organizations.

  7. The Effect of Sorority Membership on Eating Disorders, Body Weight, and Disordered-Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, Susan; Terrizzi, Sabrina; Wang, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Eating disorders are currently the deadliest mental disorder in the United States, affecting an estimated 12%-25% of all college women. Previous research has found a positive correlation between sorority membership and eating disorders, but the causal link has not been firmly established. We contribute to the literature by investigating a possible causal link among sororities and diagnosed eating disorders, measurable weight outcomes, and disordered-eating behaviors using data from the American College Health Association Survey. We handle the potential endogeneity of sorority membership using propensity score matching and instrumental variable methods to determine whether joining a sorority is a cause of the weight-related outcomes we study. We find that sorority members exhibit worse weight-related outcomes than those not in a sorority. However, our propensity score matching and instrumental variable results suggest that, other than BMI, this is merely a correlation, and there is little evidence that sorority membership is a cause of the outcomes we study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Gaussian membership functions are most adequate in representing uncertainty in measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinovich, V.; Quintana, C.; Reznik, L.

    1992-01-01

    In rare situations, like fundamental physics, we perform experiments without knowing what their results will be. In the majority of real-life measurement situations, we more or less know beforehand what kind of results we will get. Of course, this is not the precise knowledge of the type 'the result will be between alpha - beta and alpha + beta,' because in this case, we would not need any measurements at all. This is usually a knowledge that is best represented in uncertain terms, like 'perhaps (or 'most likely', etc.) the measured value x is between alpha - beta and alpha + beta.' Traditional statistical methods neglect this additional knowledge and process only the measurement results. So it is desirable to be able to process this uncertain knowledge as well. A natural way to process it is by using fuzzy logic. But, there is a problem; we can use different membership functions to represent the same uncertain statements, and different functions lead to different results. What membership function do we choose? In the present paper, we show that under some reasonable assumptions, Gaussian functions mu(x) = exp(-beta(x(exp 2))) are the most adequate choice of the membership functions for representing uncertainty in measurements. This representation was efficiently used in testing jet engines to airplanes and spaceships.

  9. Diversity and general student scholarship recipient essays: 2010 National Society of Genetic Counselors Membership Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina; Patek, Kyla; Schneider, Kami Wolfe

    2011-12-01

    In an effort to increase the diversity of the membership of the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC), the Membership Committee provided two $500 scholarships to genetic counseling students planning to attend the NSGC AEC meeting in Dallas, Texas in October 2010. Requirements for applicants of both scholarships included enrollment in the fall of 2010, good standing at an accredited genetic counseling training program, and NSGC membership or plans to join in 2011. Students who are from communities underrepresented in the NSGC, including, but not limited to, those of minority cultural/ethnic backgrounds and those with disabilities were eligible to apply for the "Diversity" scholarship. Students from all backgrounds who have an interest in diversity issues were eligible to apply for the "General" scholarship. Applicants wrote essays 1000 words or less answering the following questions: How has your identity as a member of a group underrepresented in the genetic counseling profession affected your pursuit of this career? What do you feel is lacking in genetic counseling to address the issues of underrepresented groups? What strategies do you recommend for addressing these issues and/or increasing diversity? Why do you think diversity is an important issue for the field of genetic counseling? What strategies do you recommend to attract and retain students, especially those from underrepresented populations, into the field of genetic counseling? How do you envision contributing to these strategies? The essays by the award recipients elucidated interesting perspectives and ideas for increasing diversity in the genetic counseling profession.

  10. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu; Ph.D Charles Onugu; Uchenna Ph.D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State...

  11. Latent class profiles of internalizing and externalizing psychosocial health indicators are differentially associated with sexual transmission risk: Findings from the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems (CNICS) cohort study of HIV-infected men engaged in primary care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Biello, Katie; Reisner, Sari L; Crane, Heidi M; Wilson, Johannes; Grasso, Chris; Kitahata, Mari M; Mathews, Wm Christopher; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    To examine whether latent class indicators of negative affect and substance use emerged as distinct psychosocial risk profiles among HIV-infected men, and if these latent classes were associated with high-risk sexual behaviors that may transmit HIV. Data were from HIV-infected men who reported having anal intercourse in the past 6 months and received routine clinical care at 4 U.S. sites in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort (n = 1,210). Latent class membership was estimated using binary indicators for anxiety, depression, alcohol and/or drug use during sex, and polydrug use. Generalized estimating equations modeled whether latent class membership was associated with HIV sexual transmission risk in the past 6 months. Three latent classes of psychosocial indicators emerged: (a) internalizing (15.3%; high probability of anxiety and major depression); (b) externalizing (17.8%; high probability of alcohol and/or drug use during sex and polydrug use); (c) low psychosocial distress (67.0%; low probability of all psychosocial factors examined). Internalizing and externalizing latent class membership were associated with HIV sexual transmission risk, compared to low psychosocial class membership; externalizing class membership was also associated with higher sexual transmission risk compared to internalizing class membership. Distinct patterns of psychosocial health characterize this sexually active HIV-infected male patient population and are strongly associated with HIV sexual transmission risk. Public Health intervention efforts targeting HIV sexual risk transmission may benefit from considering symptom clusters that share internalizing or externalizing properties. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Influence of Loyalty Program Membership Card and Customer Experience on Customer Loyalty at the Urban Gym Aston Hotel Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Emor, Keizia Laureina

    2016-01-01

    Customer loyalty plays an important role in gaining the company's profit. In order to maintain the customer loyalty, company need to find out some strategies for increase their sales. The strategy to maintain the customer loyalty that set by The Urban Gym Aston Hotel is Loyalty Program Membership Card and provide the best service to their members so the members will get a great experience in there. The objective of this research is to analyze the influence of loyalty program membership card ...

  13. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu; Ph.D Charles Onugu; Uchenna Ph.D

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative...

  14. Young Doctor Movements: motives for membership among aspiring and young family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past decade, young doctor movements (YDMs have gained recognition for their efforts in promoting the discipline of family medicine. With growth and expansion comes the need for an inquiry into the membership motives of current/intending members. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed at determining the main reasons why young and aspiring family physicians (FPs joined their regional YDM. It was also concerned with determining the main factors that will make non-members want to join a YDM as well as assessing for differences in the responses within YDM members on the one hand, and between YDM members and non-members on the other. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional web-based study. Using a list of 11 items generated following a series of discussions and feedback among selected FPs and FP trainees, respondents annotated levels of agreement on reasons for current or desired YDM membership. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the distribution and differences in the mean of rank scores of the responses from YDM and non-YDM members while the Kruskal-Wallis test was used to describe same for the various YDMs. Results: The total number of respondents was 200, out of which 102 (51.0% were current YDM members, 97 (48.5% were non-members and 1 (0.5% respondent did not state his/her membership status. Non-YDM members indicated a predominantly academic/professional motive for membership while YDM members indicated the opportunity to socialise with FPs abroad and in their country as their foremost reasons for membership. A mixture of academic, professional and social motives was observed for respondents from Vasco da Gama; predominantly academic and professional motives for respondents from Spice route. Conclusions: While gaining recognition and improving one′s practice may be the ultimate goal of an aspiring FP, socialising within a network of like-minded professionals maybe the young FP′s way of coping with

  15. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  16. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  17. Latent class analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Kevin L; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A J P; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E; den Boer, Johan A; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Jenike, Michael A; Stein, Dan J; Cath, Danielle C; Mathews, Carol A

    2011-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms; but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD based on symptoms. Latent class analysis models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, sex, symptom severity, and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Latent class analysis models of best fit yielded 3 classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    , discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  19. Distinct Classes of Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in a National Sample of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Diamond, Pamela M; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2016-09-01

    : First-year college students are at particular risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences that may set the stage for experiencing such consequences in later life. Latent class analysis is a person-centered approach that, based on observable indicator variables, divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups ('classes'). To date, no studies have examined the latent class structure of negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by first-year college students just before entering college. The aims of this study were to (a) identify classes of first-year college students based on the patterns of negative alcohol-related consequences they experienced just before entering college, and (b) determine whether specific covariates were associated with class membership. Incoming freshmen from 148 colleges and universities (N = 54,435) completed a baseline questionnaire as part of an alcohol education program they completed just prior to their first year of college. Participants answered questions regarding demographics and other personal characteristics, their alcohol use in the past 2 weeks, and the negative alcohol-related consequences they had experienced during that time. Four distinct classes of students emerged: (a) No Problems, (b) Academic Problems, (c) Injured Self and (d) Severe Problems. Average number of drinks per drinking day, total number of drinking days, age of drinking initiation, intention to join a fraternity or sorority and family history of alcohol problems were associated with membership in all of the problem classes relative to the No Problems class. These results can inform future campus-based prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  20. Membership Finland

    CERN Multimedia

    Rubbia,C

    1991-01-01

    Le DG C.Rubbia et la vice présidente du conseil du Cern souhaite la bienvenue à l'adhésion de la Finlande, comme 15me membre du Cern depuis le 1. janvier 1991 en présence du secrétaire generale et de l'ambassadeur

  1. Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charak, Ruby; Byllesby, Brianna M; Roley, Michelle E; Claycomb, Meredith A; Durham, Tory A; Ross, Jana; Armour, Cherie; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-12-01

    The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; Mage=35.0years; 55.9% female) who had experienced a lifetime traumatic event. Sixty four percent had experienced poly-victimization (four or more victimization experiences) and 38.8% met the cut-off score for suicidal behavior. Three distinct classes emerged namely, the Least victimization (Class 1), the Predominantly crime and sibling/peer victimization (Class 2), and the Poly-victimization (Class 3) classes. Regression analysis controlling for age and gender indicated that only the main effect of anger was significantly associated with suicidal behavior. The interaction term suggested that those in the Poly-victimization class were higher on suicidal behavior as a result of a stronger association between anger and suicidal behavior in contrast to the association found in Class 2. Clinical implications of findings entail imparting anger management skills to facilitate wellbeing among adult with childhood poly-victimization experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical relevance and effect of surgical wound classification in appendicitis: Retrospective evaluation of wound classification discrepancies between surgeons, Swissnoso-trained infection control nurse, and histology as well as surgical site infection rates by wound class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Chan, Anastasija; Gingert, Christian; Angst, Eliane; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2017-07-01

    Surgical wound classification (SWC) is used for risk stratification of surgical site infection (SSI) and serves as the basis for measuring quality of care. The objective was to examine the accuracy and reliability of SWC. This study was purposed to evaluate the discrepancies in SWC as assessed by three groups: surgeons, an infection control nurse, and histopathologic evaluation. The secondary aim was to compare the risk-stratified SSI rates using the different SWC methods for 30 d postoperatively. An analysis was performed of the appendectomies from January 2013 to June 2014 in the Cantonal Hospital of Schaffhausen. SWC was assigned by the operating surgeon at the end of the procedure and retrospectively reviewed by a Swissnoso-trained infection control nurse after reading the operative and pathology report. The level of agreement among the three different SWC assessment groups was determined using kappa statistic. SSI rates were analyzed using a chi-square test. In 246 evaluated cases, the kappa scores for interrater reliability among the SWC assessments across the three groups ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 signifying slight agreement between the groups. SSIs were more frequently associated with trained infection control nurse-assigned SWC than with surgeons based SWC. Our study demonstrated a considerable discordance in the SWC assessments performed by the three groups. Unfortunately, the currently practiced SWC system suffers from ambiguity in definition and/or implementation of these definitions is not clearly stated. This lack of reliability is problematic and may lead to inappropriate comparisons within and between hospitals and surgeons. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving organizational climate for quality and quality of care: does membership in a collaborative help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nembhard, Ingrid M; Northrup, Veronika; Shaller, Dale; Cleary, Paul D

    2012-11-01

    The lack of quality-oriented organizational climates is partly responsible for deficiencies in patient-centered care and poor quality more broadly. To improve their quality-oriented climates, several organizations have joined quality improvement collaboratives. The effectiveness of this approach is unknown. To evaluate the impact of collaborative membership on organizational climate for quality and service quality. Twenty-one clinics, 4 of which participated in a collaborative sponsored by the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Pre-post design. Preassessments occurred 2 months before the collaborative began in January 2009. Postassessments of service quality and climate occurred about 6 months and 1 year, respectively, after the collaborative ended in January 2010. We surveyed clinic employees (eg, physicians, nurses, receptionists, etc.) about the organizational climate and patients about service quality. Prioritization of quality care, high-quality staff relationships, and open communication as indicators of quality-oriented climate and timeliness of care, staff helpfulness, doctor-patient communication, rating of doctor, and willingness to recommend doctor's office as indicators of service quality. There was no significant effect of collaborative membership on quality-oriented climate and mixed effects on service quality. Doctors' ratings improved significantly more in intervention clinics than in control clinics, staff helpfulness improved less, and timeliness of care declined more. Ratings of doctor-patient communication and willingness to recommend doctor were not significantly different between intervention and comparison clinics. Membership in the collaborative provided no significant advantage for improving quality-oriented climate and had equivocal effects on service quality.

  4. The Czech Republic – impacts of and experience with EU membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo ŠLOSARČÍK

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the post-accession experience of the Czech Republic in the years 2004-2011. In particular, it focuses on the integration into the EU internal market, preparation for Eurozone accession, transfers from the EU budget and the formulation of the EU energy policy. In each policy area, both the impact of the existing EU regulatory framework and Czech preferences for its reforms are covered. The last section of the paper (chapter 6 describes the Czech institutional adaptation to the EU membership, in particular the 2009 Czech presidency experience.

  5. The influence of group membership on the neural correlates involved in empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eEres

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Empathy involves affective, cognitive and emotion regulative components. The affective component relies on the sharing of emotional states with others and is discussed here in relation to the human Mirror System. On the other hand, the cognitive component is related to understanding the mental states of others and draws upon literature surrounding Theory of Mind. The final component, emotion regulation depends on executive function and is responsible for managing the degree to which explicit empathic responses are made. This mini-review provides information on how each of the three components is individually affected by group membership and how this leads to in-group bias.

  6. The influence of group membership on the neural correlates involved in empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Robert; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Empathy involves affective, cognitive, and emotion regulative components. The affective component relies on the sharing of emotional states with others and is discussed here in relation to the human Mirror System. On the other hand, the cognitive component is related to understanding the mental states of others and draws upon literature surrounding Theory of Mind (ToM). The final component, emotion regulation, depends on executive function and is responsible for managing the degree to which explicit empathic responses are made. This mini-review provides information on how each of the three components is individually affected by group membership and how this leads to in-group bias.

  7. Racial Disparities in Medical Student Membership in the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatright, Dowin; Ross, David; O'Connor, Patrick; Moore, Edward; Nunez-Smith, Marcella

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have found racial and ethnic inequities in the receipt of academic awards, such as promotions and National Institutes of Health research funding, among academic medical center faculty. Few data exist about similar racial/ethnic disparities at the level of undergraduate medical education. To examine the association between medical student race/ethnicity and induction into the Alpha Omega Alpha (AΩA) honor society. This study analyzed data from the Electronic Residency Application Service, the official service used by US medical students to apply to residency programs. A total of 4655 US medical students from 123 allopathic US medical schools who applied to 12 distinct residency programs associated with one academic health center in the 2014 to 2015 academic year were studied. Membership in the AΩA society among black, white, Hispanic, and Asian medical students. A total of 4655 unique applications were analyzed in the study (median age, 26 years; 2133 women [45.8%]). Overall, self-reported race/ethnicity in our sample was 2605 (56.0%) white (691 [71.5%] of AΩA applicants were white), 276 (5.9%) black (7 [0.7%] AΩA), 186 (4.0%) Hispanic (27 [2.8%] AΩA), and 1170 (25.1%) Asian (168 [17.4%] AΩA). After controlling for US Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores, research productivity, community service, leadership activity, and Gold Humanism membership, the study found that black (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.16; 95% CI, 0.07-0.37) and Asian (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.42-0.65) medical students remained less likely to be AΩA members than white medical students. No statistically significant difference was found in AΩA membership between white and Hispanic medical students (aOR, 0.79; 99% CI, 0.45-1.37) in the adjusted model. Black and Asian medical students were less likely than their white counterparts to be members of AΩA, which may reflect bias in selection. In turn, AΩA membership selection may affect future opportunities for minority medical

  8. Staff Association membership is free of charge for the rest of 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Starting from September 1st, membership of the Staff Association is free for all new members for the period up to the end of 2017. This is to allow you to participate in the Staff Council elections. Indeed, only Employed Members of the Personnel (MPE: staff and fellows) and Associated Members of the Personnel (MPA), who are members of the Staff Association, can: stand for election and become a delegate of the personnel; vote and elect their representatives to the Staff Council. Do not hesitate any longer; join now!

  9. The intersectionality of discrimination attributes and bullying among youth: an applied latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice Raveche; Masyn, Katherine E; Austin, S Bryn; Miller, Matthew; Williams, David R; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-08-01

    Discrimination is commonly experienced among adolescents. However, little is known about the intersection of multiple attributes of discrimination and bullying. We used a latent class analysis (LCA) to illustrate the intersections of discrimination attributes and bullying, and to assess the associations of LCA membership to depressive symptoms, deliberate self harm and suicidal ideation among a sample of ethnically diverse adolescents. The data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey where students were asked whether they had experienced discrimination based on four attributes: race/ethnicity, immigration status, perceived sexual orientation and weight. They were also asked whether they had been bullied or assaulted for these attributes. A total of 965 (78%) students contributed to the LCA analytic sample (45% Non-Hispanic Black, 29% Hispanic, 58% Female). The LCA revealed that a 4-class solution had adequate relative and absolute fit. The 4-classes were characterized as: low discrimination (51%); racial discrimination (33%); sexual orientation discrimination (7%); racial and weight discrimination with high bullying (intersectional class) (7%). In multivariate models, compared to the low discrimination class, individuals in the sexual orientation discrimination class and the intersectional class had higher odds of engaging in deliberate self-harm. Students in the intersectional class also had higher odds of suicidal ideation. All three discrimination latent classes had significantly higher depressive symptoms compared to the low discrimination class. Multiple attributes of discrimination and bullying co-occur among adolescents. Research should consider the co-occurrence of bullying and discrimination.

  10. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  11. Puppy socialization classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seksel, K

    1997-05-01

    Setting up a puppy training program is one of the most important services veterinarians can offer. Puppy socialization classes aim not only to socialize the puppies so that they learn to interact well with children, adults, and other dogs, but also to teach basic obedience exercises. The classes build a strong bond between puppy, owner, and veterinary clinic. This article covers the techniques used, the structure of the classes, and outlines benefits for the dog, owner, veterinarian, and community.

  12. Patterns of high-intensity drinking among young adults in the United States: A repeated measures latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; Schulenberg, John E; Bray, Bethany C

    2017-11-01

    Using a national sample of young adults, this study identified latent classes of alcohol use including high-intensity drinking (10+ drinks) from ages 18 to 25/26, and explored associations between time-invariant covariates measured at age 18 and class membership. Longitudinal data from the national Monitoring the Future study were available for 1078 individuals (51% female) first surveyed as 12th grade students in 2005-2008, and followed through modal age 25/26. Repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify latent classes based on self-reported alcohol use: no past 30-day drinking, 1-9 drinks per occasion in the past 2weeks, and 10+ drinks per occasion. Four latent classes of alcohol use from ages 18 to 25/26 were identified: (1) Non-Drinkers (21%); (2) Legal Non-High-Intensity Drinkers (23%); (3) Persistent Non-High-Intensity Drinkers (40%); and (4) High-Intensity Drinkers (16%). Membership in the High-Intensity Drinkers class was characterized by higher than average probabilities of high-intensity drinking at all ages, with the probability of high-intensity drinking increasing between ages 18 and 21/22. Both gender and race/ethnicity significantly differentiated class membership, whereas neither parental education (a proxy for socioeconomic status) nor college plans at 12th grade showed significant associations. More than one in seven individuals who were seniors in high school experienced a long-term pattern of high-intensity drinking lasting into middle young adulthood. Young adult high-intensity drinking is often preceded by high-intensity drinking in high school, suggesting the importance of screening and prevention for high-intensity drinking during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Discrimination and well-being amongst the homeless: the role of multiple group membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Melissa; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A.; Parsell, Cameron; Walter, Zoe C.

    2015-01-01

    The homeless are a vulnerable population in many respects. Those experiencing homelessness not only experience personal and economic hardship they also frequently face discrimination and exclusion because of their housing status. Although past research has shown that identifying with multiple groups can buffer against the negative consequences of discrimination on well-being, it remains to be seen whether such strategies protect well-being of people who are homeless. We investigate this issue in a longitudinal study of 119 individuals who were homeless. The results showed that perceived group-based discrimination at T1 was associated with fewer group memberships, and lower subsequent well-being at T2. There was no relationship between personal discrimination at T1 on multiple group memberships at T2. The findings suggest that the experience of group-based discrimination may hinder connecting with groups in the broader social world — groups that could potentially protect the individual against the negative impact of homelessness and discrimination. PMID:26082741

  14. How membership of the CERN Pension Fund is taken into account by certain French Pension Funds

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Information for current and former CERN staff members from the Rhône-Alpes branch of the Caisse Régionale d’Assurance Maladie (CRAM) The Rhône-Alpes branch of the Caisse Régionale d’Assurance Maladie (CRAM) has recently informed CERN that, since 1 January 2010, periods of membership of the CERN Pension Fund can, under certain conditions, be used in the calculation of the pension paid by certain French pension funds. For more information on this subject, please consult Circular DSS/DACI/2010/85 of 4 March 2010 pertaining to the manner in which periods of membership of compulsory pension funds of European or international organisations, to which France is a party, are taken into account in determining the period used by French pension funds to establish the pension entitlement. The Circular can be accessed at the following sites: http://www.securite-sociale.fr/textes/retraite/international/affiliation_instut_international_eu.htm and http://www.c...

  15. Modeling Temporal Behavior in Large Networks: A Dynamic Mixed-Membership Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, R; Gallagher, B; Neville, J; Henderson, K

    2011-11-11

    Given a large time-evolving network, how can we model and characterize the temporal behaviors of individual nodes (and network states)? How can we model the behavioral transition patterns of nodes? We propose a temporal behavior model that captures the 'roles' of nodes in the graph and how they evolve over time. The proposed dynamic behavioral mixed-membership model (DBMM) is scalable, fully automatic (no user-defined parameters), non-parametric/data-driven (no specific functional form or parameterization), interpretable (identifies explainable patterns), and flexible (applicable to dynamic and streaming networks). Moreover, the interpretable behavioral roles are generalizable, computationally efficient, and natively supports attributes. We applied our model for (a) identifying patterns and trends of nodes and network states based on the temporal behavior, (b) predicting future structural changes, and (c) detecting unusual temporal behavior transitions. We use eight large real-world datasets from different time-evolving settings (dynamic and streaming). In particular, we model the evolving mixed-memberships and the corresponding behavioral transitions of Twitter, Facebook, IP-Traces, Email (University), Internet AS, Enron, Reality, and IMDB. The experiments demonstrate the scalability, flexibility, and effectiveness of our model for identifying interesting patterns, detecting unusual structural transitions, and predicting the future structural changes of the network and individual nodes.

  16. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discrimination and well-being amongst the homeless: The role of multiple group membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eJohnstone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The homeless are a vulnerable population in many respects. Those experiencing homelessness not only experience personal and economic hardship they also frequently face discrimination and exclusion because of their housing status. Although past research has shown that identifying with multiple groups can buffer against the negative consequences of discrimination on well-being, it remains to be seen whether such strategies protect well-being of people who are homeless. We investigate this issue in a longitudinal study of 119 homeless individuals. The results showed that perceived group-based discrimination at T1 was associated with fewer group memberships, and lower subsequent well-being at T2. There was no relationship between personal discrimination at T1 on multiple group memberships at T2. The findings suggest that the experience of group-based discrimination may hinder connecting with groups in the broader social world — groups that could potentially protect the individual against the negative impact of homelessness and discrimination.

  18. Discrimination and well-being amongst the homeless: the role of multiple group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Melissa; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A; Parsell, Cameron; Walter, Zoe C

    2015-01-01

    The homeless are a vulnerable population in many respects. Those experiencing homelessness not only experience personal and economic hardship they also frequently face discrimination and exclusion because of their housing status. Although past research has shown that identifying with multiple groups can buffer against the negative consequences of discrimination on well-being, it remains to be seen whether such strategies protect well-being of people who are homeless. We investigate this issue in a longitudinal study of 119 individuals who were homeless. The results showed that perceived group-based discrimination at T1 was associated with fewer group memberships, and lower subsequent well-being at T2. There was no relationship between personal discrimination at T1 on multiple group memberships at T2. The findings suggest that the experience of group-based discrimination may hinder connecting with groups in the broader social world - groups that could potentially protect the individual against the negative impact of homelessness and discrimination.

  19. 'Belonging before believing': Some missiological implications of membership and belonging in a Christian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Weyers

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the final stages of the modern period the power of hegemonic ideologies is coming to an end as people identify less with grand ideologies and more with subcultures related to technology and social and economic networks of different kinds. The post-Christendom phase has begun and is radically challenging Christendom notions of membership and ministry. We have to assume that in a post-Christendom society, the familiarity with Christian concepts will fade as the decline of Christendom has meant that Christian discourse has been losing its status as a lingua franca. It is therefore important that the church will anticipate longer journeys towards faith and not move on to disciple new converts too quickly. Post-Christendom evangelisation will consequently take longer, start further back and move more slowly. For these reasons the authors propose that the question of standards for membership be reconsidered where churches are planted in postmodern contexts. They propose that the old order of �believing before belonging� be replaced by �belonging before believing�.

  20. Affiliation affects generosity in young children: The roles of minimal group membership and shared interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Erin; Schinkel, Meghan G; Moore, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Young children's willingness to share with others is selective, and is affected by their level of affiliation with the recipients of their generosity. We explored affiliation's impact on sharing behavior with two experiments comparing the effects of two distinct affiliative cues-minimal group membership and shared interests. Children (4- to 6-year-olds) completed a resource allocation task, making forced-choice decisions as to how to distribute stickers between themselves and others. In Experiment 1, the sharing partners were minimal in- and out-group members; in Experiment 2, they differed in their opinion of the participants' interests. Both experiments' manipulations affected feelings of affiliation, as indicated by children's stated friendship preferences and perceptions of similarity. More notably, both minimal group membership and interests affected sharing behavior. Children made fewer generous allocations toward out-group members than toward in-group members. Similarly, children made fewer generous allocations when recipients disliked their interests than when recipients shared those interests or when their opinions were unknown. Across experiments, the recipient manipulations' effects on generosity were similar in their pattern and magnitude despite fundamental differences between the two affiliative cues. These findings highlight the broad impact of affiliation on young children's sharing behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gangs, clubs, and alcohol: The effect of organizational membership on adolescent drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chan S; Brashears, Matthew E; Genkin, Michael

    2016-07-01

    How does adolescent organizational membership in general, and simultaneous membership in distinct types of organizations in particular, impact drinking behavior? While past studies have focused either on the learning effect of involvement with gangs or on the constraining influence of conventional organizations on adolescent problem behavior, we explore the possibility that conventional school clubs can serve as socializing opportunities for existing gang members to engage in drinking behavior with non-gang club members. Using the Add Health data, we show that gang members drink more often, and engage in more binge drinking, than non-members. More importantly, individuals who are members of both gangs and school clubs drink alcohol at greater levels than those who are solely involved in gangs. In addition, non-gang adolescents who are co-members with gang members in the same school club are more likely to drink alcohol than non-members. This result has important implications for understanding the role of organizations in adolescent behavior and suggests that the study of delinquent behaviors would benefit from devoting more attention to individuals who bridge distinct types of organizations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of nutrition club membership with markers of health: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sai Krupa; Vail, Taylor A; Lebrón-Torres, Namibia; Livingston, Kara A; Roberts, Susan B; Rogers, Gail T; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Urban, Lorien E; Saltzman, Edward; McKeown, Nicola M; Folta, Sara C

    2017-04-11

    Nutrition clubs (NC) operate in community settings and provide members with nutrition education and meal replacements for weight management. NC are owned and operated by distributors of Herbalife products. There are over 6200 NC in the US, but there has been no independent assessment of the association of these NC with biomarkers of health. We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to compare the health status of 100 NC members to 100 community-matched controls (CC) in the greater Boston area. Each CC was matched to a NC member for community of residence (zip code), age category, gender, BMI category, race/ethnicity, education level (category), and readiness to make health changes. Measures obtained included cardio-metabolic risk factors, body composition, markers of nutritional status, reported health status, dietary intake, physical activity, sleep and depression. Participants were predominantly female (64%) and Hispanic (73%). NC members had significantly lower fasting insulin (P Herbalife NC membership for themselves and their families. A higher percentage of NC members (86%) compared to CC (32%) reported being in much better or somewhat better health compared to a year ago (P Herbalife NC membership was positively associated with perceived health and measured cardiometabolic benefits. However, causality cannot be inferred from these findings.

  3. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Associations between membership of farm assurance and organic certification schemes and compliance with animal welfare legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KilBride, A L; Mason, S A; Honeyman, P C; Pritchard, D G; Hepple, S; Green, L E

    2012-02-11

    Animal health (AH) defines the outcome of their inspections of livestock holdings as full compliance with the legislation and welfare code (A), compliance with the legislation but not the code (B), non-compliance with legislation but no pain, distress or suffering obvious in the animals (C) or evidence of unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress (D). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether membership of farm assurance or organic certification schemes was associated with compliance with animal welfare legislation as inspected by AH. Participating schemes provided details of their members, past and present, and these records were matched against inspection data from AH. Multivariable multilevel logistic binomial models were built to investigate the association between compliance with legislation and membership of a farm assurance/organic scheme. The percentage of inspections coded A, B, C or D was 37.1, 35.6, 20.2 and 7.1 per cent, respectively. Once adjusted for year, country, enterprise, herd size and reason for inspection, there was a pattern of significantly reduced risk of codes C and D compared with A and B, in certified enterprises compared with the enterprises that were not known to be certified in all species.

  5. The impact of alcohol management practices on sports club membership and revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, L; Kingsland, M; Rowland, B; Dodds, P; Sidey, M; Sherker, S; Wiggers, J

    2016-04-13

    Issue addressed: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an alcohol management intervention on community sporting club revenue (total annual income) and membership (number of club players, teams and spectators).Methods: The study employed a cluster randomised controlled trial design that allocated clubs either an alcohol accreditation intervention or a control condition. Club representatives completed a scripted telephone survey at baseline and again ~3 years following. Demographic information about clubs was collected along with information about club income.Results: Number of players and senior teams were not significantly different between treatment groups following the intervention. The intervention group, however, showed a significantly higher mean number of spectators. Estimates of annual club income between groups at follow-up showed no significant difference in revenue.Conclusions: This study found no evidence to suggest that efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm in community sporting clubs will compromise club revenue and membership.So what?: These findings suggest that implementation of an intervention to improve alcohol management of sporting clubs may not have the unintended consequence of harming club viability.

  6. Energy drink use and its relationship to masculinity, jock identity, and fraternity membership among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, David J; Levant, Ronald F

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined whether previous findings linking masculinity constructs and health behaviors applied to a relatively recent health risk behavior for men, the consumption of energy drinks. In addition, it also examined whether self-identifying as a jock and being a member of a fraternity would moderate the relationships between masculinity constructs and energy drink consumption. A total of 589 men completed measures of three masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, conformity to masculine norms, and gender role conflict), energy drink consumption, jock identity, and fraternity membership, in addition to a demographic questionnaire. Age, endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology, and conforming to the masculine norms of risk taking and primacy of work were identified to be significant predictors of energy drink consumption. Furthermore, jock identity moderated the relationship between the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and energy drink consumption whereas fraternity membership moderated the relationship between conforming to the masculine norm of violence and energy drink consumption. Limitations, implications, and potential future directions are discussed.

  7. Visualizing the structure of RNA-seq expression data using grade of membership models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal K Dey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grade of membership models, also known as "admixture models", "topic models" or "Latent Dirichlet Allocation", are a generalization of cluster models that allow each sample to have membership in multiple clusters. These models are widely used in population genetics to model admixed individuals who have ancestry from multiple "populations", and in natural language processing to model documents having words from multiple "topics". Here we illustrate the potential for these models to cluster samples of RNA-seq gene expression data, measured on either bulk samples or single cells. We also provide methods to help interpret the clusters, by identifying genes that are distinctively expressed in each cluster. By applying these methods to several example RNA-seq applications we demonstrate their utility in identifying and summarizing structure and heterogeneity. Applied to data from the GTEx project on 53 human tissues, the approach highlights similarities among biologically-related tissues and identifies distinctively-expressed genes that recapitulate known biology. Applied to single-cell expression data from mouse preimplantation embryos, the approach highlights both discrete and continuous variation through early embryonic development stages, and highlights genes involved in a variety of relevant processes-from germ cell development, through compaction and morula formation, to the formation of inner cell mass and trophoblast at the blastocyst stage. The methods are implemented in the Bioconductor package CountClust.

  8. The Nearby, Young, Argus Association: Membership, Age, and Dusty Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Ben

    2018-01-01

    The Argus Association (AA) defined by Torres et al. (2008) is distinguished from other nearby young moving groups by virtue of its unusual Galactic U-velocity. As defined by Torres et al, their initial AA consisted of 35 members of the IC 2391 open cluster (~135 pc from Earth) and 29 “field members”, 15 of which are within 100 pc of Earth. The spectral types range from F through K with the exception of two M-type members of IC 2391. Zuckerman et al. (2011 & 2012) proposed 13 additional field members – 12 A-type and one F-type -- all of which lie within 80 pc of Earth. Additional AA members have been proposed, typically a few at a time, by other researchers. Deduced ages of the AA (via various techniques) lie, typically, between 40 and 60 Myr. Bell et al (2015) consider the membership and age of a subset of proposed AA stars via color-magnitude diagrams combined with a Bayesian analysis (following Malo et al 2013 & 2014). For the sample of AA stars that they considered, the group age, membership status of individual stars, and even the reality of a coeval moving group were in some doubt. The purpose of the present communication is to consider all proposed AA members – including the frequency of dusty debris disks -- in an attempt to bring some clarity to what is going on.

  9. Shrinking membership in the American Society of Animal Science: does the discipline of poultry science give us some clues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeke, P R

    1999-08-01

    Concerns have been expressed by the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS) leadership about the declining membership in ASAS. I present the viewpoint that the history of the Poultry Science Association (PSA) membership and the elimination of poultry science departments from many land grant universities could be an indication of what the future holds for animal science. I suggest that the industrialization of poultry production has led to a decline in the demand for traditionally trained poultry scientists. Industrialization of swine production is proceeding rapidly, with other animal-based industries showing the same trend. If maintaining a large ASAS membership is indeed a priority, new opportunities must be developed. Equine and companion animal programs offer such possibilities, tapping into a high level of student interest.

  10. An empirical study on the effect of WTO membership on Iranian Handicraft industry: A case study of Persian carpet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shirzour Aliabadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The world Trade Organization (WTO is one of the few organizations, which could significantly influence on foreign trade and consequently on the economic structure of the countries. There are literally different people in Iran who either encourage or discourage WTO membership. Therefore, it is important to analyze Iran’s WTO membership to empower Iranian handmade carpet in international trades and to help improvement in quality of production. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Iran’s membership in WTO to empower this industry by performing an empirical survey among 100 experts in this industry. Findings demonstrate that access to WTO plays an important role on increasing production of handmade carpet and developing this industry. In addition, the industry needs to incorporate the recent advances on technology to ensure cost efficient production materials. The industry also needs more creative and innovative ideas due to an increase competition in handmade carpet producers from other countries.

  11. Which benefits and limits derive from ESA membership for European Countries owning ;medium-sized; space agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Giorgio; Bigliardi, Barbara; Galati, Francesco; Petroni, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the benefits and limits deriving from membership with ESA of six medium-sized space agencies in terms of strengthening and development (or not) of space technologies, as well as their contribution to the growth of productive activities and to the increase of services for citizens. This research contributes to the more general issue of the usefulness of space activities, not only for scientific or military-political purposes but also for economic and social development. Results show that, on the one hand, the membership with ESA has allowed smaller Countries to access space programs, to develop advanced technologies and to support the growth of their firms in some significant markets, but, on the other hand, the membership has also limited the access to space to few companies, without encouraging the broad dissemination of technological knowledge.

  12. Polynomial fuzzy model-based control systems stability analysis and control synthesis using membership function dependent techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Hak-Keung

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research on the stability analysis of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based control systems where the concept of partially/imperfectly matched premises and membership-function dependent analysis are considered. The membership-function-dependent analysis offers a new research direction for fuzzy-model-based control systems by taking into account the characteristic and information of the membership functions in the stability analysis. The book presents on a research level the most recent and advanced research results, promotes the research of polynomial-fuzzy-model-based control systems, and provides theoretical support and point a research direction to postgraduate students and fellow researchers. Each chapter provides numerical examples to verify the analysis results, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed polynomial fuzzy control schemes, and explain the design procedure. The book is comprehensively written enclosing detailed derivation steps and mathematical derivations also for read...

  13. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  14. Class II Microcins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  15. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  16. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa...

  17. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  18. Are clusters of dietary patterns and cluster membership stable over time? Results of a longitudinal cluster analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walthouwer, Michel Jean Louis; Oenema, Anke; Soetens, Katja; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2014-11-01

    Developing nutrition education interventions based on clusters of dietary patterns can only be done adequately when it is clear if distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived and reproduced over time, if cluster membership is stable, and if it is predictable which type of people belong to a certain cluster. Hence, this study aimed to: (1) identify clusters of dietary patterns among Dutch adults, (2) test the reproducibility of these clusters and stability of cluster membership over time, and (3) identify sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. This study had a longitudinal design with online measurements at baseline (N=483) and 6 months follow-up (N=379). Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis was performed, followed by a K-means cluster analysis. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the sociodemographic predictors of cluster membership and cluster transition. At baseline and follow-up, a comparable three-cluster solution was derived, distinguishing a healthy, moderately healthy, and unhealthy dietary pattern. Male and lower educated participants were significantly more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern. Further, 251 (66.2%) participants remained in the same cluster, 45 (11.9%) participants changed to an unhealthier cluster, and 83 (21.9%) participants shifted to a healthier cluster. Men and people living alone were significantly more likely to shift toward a less healthy dietary pattern. Distinctive clusters of dietary patterns can be derived. Yet, cluster membership is unstable and only few sociodemographic factors were associated with cluster membership and cluster transition. These findings imply that clusters based on dietary intake may not be suitable as a basis for nutrition education interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A MIT-Based Nonlinear Adaptive Set-Membership Filter for the Ellipsoidal Estimation of Mobile Robots' States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Song

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive extended set-membership filter (AESMF for nonlinear ellipsoidal estimation suffers a mismatch between real process noise and its set boundaries, which may result in unstable estimation. In this paper, a MIT method-based adaptive set-membership filter, for the optimization of the set boundaries of process noise, is developed and applied to the nonlinear joint estimation of both time-varying states and parameters. As a result of using the proposed MIT-AESMF, the estimation effectiveness and boundary accuracy of traditional AESMF are substantially improved. Simulation results have shown the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  20. On stable Baire classes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlova, Olena; Mykhaylyuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study adhesive spaces. Using this concept we obtain a characterization of stable Baire maps $f:X\\to Y$ of the class $\\alpha$ for wide classes of topological spaces. In particular, we prove that for a topological space $X$ and a contractible space $Y$ a map $f:X\\to Y$ belongs to the $n$'th stable Baire class if and only if there exist a sequence $(f_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of continuous maps $f_k:X\\to Y$ and a sequence $(F_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of functionally ambiguous sets of the $n$'th...

  1. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... the central elements of the semantic analysis used in the Mjølner BETA compiler....

  2. Chemical fingerprints encode mother–offspring similarity, colony membership, relatedness, and genetic quality in fur seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Martin A.; Caspers, Barbara A.; Forcada, Jaume; Giannakara, Athina; Baier, Markus; Eberhart-Phillips, Luke; Müller, Caroline; Hoffman, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical communication underpins virtually all aspects of vertebrate social life, yet remains poorly understood because of its highly complex mechanistic basis. We therefore used chemical fingerprinting of skin swabs and genetic analysis to explore the chemical cues that may underlie mother–offspring recognition in colonially breeding Antarctic fur seals. By sampling mother–offspring pairs from two different colonies, using a variety of statistical approaches and genotyping a large panel of microsatellite loci, we show that colony membership, mother–offspring similarity, heterozygosity, and genetic relatedness are all chemically encoded. Moreover, chemical similarity between mothers and offspring reflects a combination of genetic and environmental influences, the former partly encoded by substances resembling known pheromones. Our findings reveal the diversity of information contained within chemical fingerprints and have implications for understanding mother–offspring communication, kin recognition, and mate choice. PMID:26261311

  3. Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O; Chae, Mark H; Brown, Christa F; Kelly, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample.

  4. Memory bias for negative emotional words in recognition memory is driven by effects of category membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Corey N; Kapucu, Aycan; Bruno, Davide; Rotello, Caren M; Ratcliff, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Recognition memory studies often find that emotional items are more likely than neutral items to be labelled as studied. Previous work suggests this bias is driven by increased memory strength/familiarity for emotional items. We explored strength and bias interpretations of this effect with the conjecture that emotional stimuli might seem more familiar because they share features with studied items from the same category. Categorical effects were manipulated in a recognition task by presenting lists with a small, medium or large proportion of emotional words. The liberal memory bias for emotional words was only observed when a medium or large proportion of categorised words were presented in the lists. Similar, though weaker, effects were observed with categorised words that were not emotional (animal names). These results suggest that liberal memory bias for emotional items may be largely driven by effects of category membership.

  5. Use of triangular membership function for prediction of compressive strength of concrete containing nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, application of fuzzy logic technique using triangular membership function for developing models for predicting compressive strength of concrete with partial replacement of cement with nanosilica has been carried out. For this, the data have been taken from various literatures and help in optimizing the constituents available and reducing cost and efforts in studying design to develop mixes by predefining suitable range for experimenting. The use of nanostructured materials in concrete can add many benefits that are directly related to the durability of various cementitious materials, besides the fact that it is possible to reduce the quantities of cement in the composite. Successful prediction by the model indicates that fuzzy logic could be a useful modelling tool for engineers and research scientists in the area of cement and concrete. Compressive strength values of concrete can be predicted in fuzzy logic models without attempting any experiments in a quite short period of time with tiny error rates.

  6. Association between the Medical College Admission Test scores and Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honors Society membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauer, Jacqueline L; Jackson, J Brooks

    2017-01-01

    Medical schools worldwide are faced with the challenge of selecting from among many qualified applicants. One factor that might help admissions committees identify future exceptional medical students is scores on standardized entrance exams. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scores on the most commonly used standardized medical school entrance exam in the USA, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and election to the US medical honors society, Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA). MCAT scores and AOA membership data were analyzed for all the students pursuing Doctor of Medicine degrees at the University of Minnesota Medical School and who graduated between 2012-2016 (n=1,309). An independent-samples t-test found a significant difference (t=6.132, pmedical school was significantly associated with higher MCAT scores. Admissions committees should carefully consider the role of standardized entrance exam scores, in the context of a holistic review, when selecting for exceptional medical students.

  7. Employee exposure to coworker substance use and negative consequences: the moderating effects of work group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E

    1999-09-01

    The current study assesses: (1) whether the relationship between individual exposure to coworker substance use and negative consequences resulting from exposure depends on work group membership, and (2) whether group-level characteristics moderate the relationship between exposure and consequences. At the group-level, we assessed occupations involving safety risk or high mobility and social factors of drinking climate and group cohesiveness. We conducted Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) across two samples of municipal employees (ns = 650, 878; n of groups = 50, 49). Our results revealed that groups with higher proportions of jobs involving risk (e.g., machine work) and, to a lesser extent, groups with a higher level of drinking climate were those most vulnerable to consequences under conditions of exposure. Importantly, our findings controlled for individual risk factors (e.g., personal drinking, job stress). Our discussion examines the implications of this study for theory and policy related to workplace substance abuse.

  8. Design and Implementation of a Scalable Membership Service for Supercomputer Resiliency-Aware Runtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Yoav [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Mandler, Benjamin [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Jones, Terry R [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    As HPC systems and applications get bigger and more complex, we are approaching an era in which resiliency and run-time elasticity concerns be- come paramount.We offer a building block for an alternative resiliency approach in which computations will be able to make progress while components fail, in addition to enabling a dynamic set of nodes throughout a computation lifetime. The core of our solution is a hierarchical scalable membership service provid- ing eventual consistency semantics. An attribute replication service is used for hierarchy organization, and is exposed to external applications. Our solution is based on P2P technologies and provides resiliency and elastic runtime support at ultra large scales. Resulting middleware is general purpose while exploiting HPC platform unique features and architecture. We have implemented and tested this system on BlueGene/P with Linux, and using worst-case analysis, evaluated the service scalability as effective for up to 1M nodes.

  9. Explaining Leaving Union Membership by the Degree of Labour Market Attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Vandaele, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    By particularly stressing the weaker labour market attachment of workers with non-standard contracts, this article contributes to the rather unexplored issue of mainly non-union-related reasons for leaving trade unions. Germany has been selected as a case study because German unions experienced....... Their analysis shows the impact of labour market attachment and firm-level characteristics on union leaving and points especially to important differences across gender....... a steady decline in membership, while at the same time non-standard employment arrangements increased considerably and more so than the European average. Using the German Socio-Economic Panel data, the authors construct a labour market attachment variable capturing different degrees of attachment...

  10. Predictors of drinking patterns in adolescence: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicki; Denny, Simon; Sheridan, Janie; Fleming, Terry; Clark, Terryann; Teevale, Tasileta; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2014-02-01

    Uni-dimensional measures of alcohol consumption may be unable to fully capture the complexity of adolescent drinking and experience of alcohol-related harms. Latent class analysis provides an empirical method to understand different adolescent drinking patterns. Latent class analysis was used to create typologies of drinking among the 5018 current drinkers in the national Youth '07 survey. Determinants of drinking patterns were identified using multinomial logistic regression. Four latent classes were identified, demonstrating an overall increase in risk of alcohol-related outcomes from increasing consumption. One class strongly deviated from this pattern, having moderate consumption patterns but disproportionately high levels of alcohol-related problems. Multinomial logistic regression found that the strongest predictors of belonging to high-risk drinking typologies were having a positive attitude to regular alcohol use, buying own alcohol, peers using alcohol, and obtaining alcohol from friends and/or other adults. Other significant predictors included being male, having a strong connection to friends, having parents with a low level of knowledge of their daily activities and poor connection to school. Class membership also varied by ethnicity. The latent class approach demonstrated variability in alcohol-related harms across groups of students with different drinking patterns. Longitudinal studies are necessary to determine the causes of this variability in order to inform the development of targeted policy and preventative interventions. Legislative controls, such as increasing the legal purchase age and reducing the commercial availability of alcohol, will continue to be important strategies for reducing harm in young people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Second-Class Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, Harold H.

    1972-01-01

    Those factors which motivate citizens to define themselves as first" or second" class are realistically discussed and alternatives to the present trends in the role of American citizenship are suggested. (JB)

  12. Special classes of semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Attila

    2001-01-01

    In semigroup theory there are certain kinds of band decompositions, which are very useful in the study of the structure semigroups There are a number of special semigroup classes in which these decompositions can be used very successfully The book focuses attention on such classes of semigroups Some of them are partially discussed in earlier books, but in the last thirty years new semigroup classes have appeared and a fairly large body of material has been published on them The book provides a systematic review on this subject The first chapter is an introduction The remaining chapters are devoted to special semigroup classes These are Putcha semigroups, commutative semigroups, weakly commutative semigroups, R-Commutative semigroups, conditionally commutative semigroups, RC-commutative semigroups, quasi commutative semigroups, medial semigroups, right commutative semigroups, externally commutative semigroups, E-m semigroups, WE-m semigroups, weakly exponential semigroups, (m,n)-commutative semigroups and n(2)...

  13. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated.......Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...

  14. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  15. One Class, Many Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonne, Sylvie; Lucas, Keith B.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of a physics class in which few interactions occur among students. Concludes, through observations and interviews. that students describe both the social and physical world in different ways. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  16. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C Costa

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton, enramycin (10g/ton; halquinol® (30g/ton; virginiamycin (16,5g/ton and avilamycin (10g/ton on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500 arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96 was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05. Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001 and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004 and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015, and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004. Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken.

  17. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcio C; Bessegatto, Jose A; Alfieri, Amauri A; Weese, J Scott; Filho, João A B; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken.

  18. Association of nutrition club membership with markers of health: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Krupa Das

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition clubs (NC operate in community settings and provide members with nutrition education and meal replacements for weight management. NC are owned and operated by distributors of Herbalife products. There are over 6200 NC in the US, but there has been no independent assessment of the association of these NC with biomarkers of health. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study to compare the health status of 100 NC members to 100 community-matched controls (CC in the greater Boston area. Each CC was matched to a NC member for community of residence (zip code, age category, gender, BMI category, race/ethnicity, education level (category, and readiness to make health changes. Measures obtained included cardio-metabolic risk factors, body composition, markers of nutritional status, reported health status, dietary intake, physical activity, sleep and depression. Results Participants were predominantly female (64% and Hispanic (73%. NC members had significantly lower fasting insulin (P < 0.001 and lower HbA1c (P = 0.008, higher levels of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (P = 0.001, and vitamin E:cholesterol ratio (P < 0.001, and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (P = 0.02 compared to CC. In addition, most of the NC members (99% were satisfied with Herbalife NC membership for themselves and their families. A higher percentage of NC members (86% compared to CC (32% reported being in much better or somewhat better health compared to a year ago (P < 0.001; and they reported significantly better physical health (P = 0.03, and fewer sleep problems (P = 0.03. Conclusion Herbalife NC membership was positively associated with perceived health and measured cardiometabolic benefits. However, causality cannot be inferred from these findings.

  19. Sparse Multipath Channel Estimation Using Norm Combination Constrained Set-Membership NLMS Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A norm combination penalized set-membership NLMS algorithm with l0 and l1 independently constrained, which is denoted as l0 and l1 independently constrained set-membership (SM NLMS (L0L1SM-NLMS algorithm, is presented for sparse adaptive multipath channel estimations. The L0L1SM-NLMS algorithm with fast convergence and small estimation error is implemented by independently exerting penalties on the channel coefficients via controlling the large group and small group channel coefficients which are implemented by l0 and l1 norm constraints, respectively. Additionally, a further improved L0L1SM-NLMS algorithm denoted as reweighted L0L1SM-NLMS (RL0L1SM-NLMS algorithm is presented via integrating a reweighting factor into our L0L1SM-NLMS algorithm to properly adjust the zero-attracting capabilities. Our developed RL0L1SM-NLMS algorithm provides a better estimation behavior than the presented L0L1SM-NLMS algorithm for implementing an estimation on sparse channels. The estimation performance of the L0L1SM-NLMS and RL0L1SM-NLMS algorithms is obtained for estimating sparse channels. The achieved simulation results show that our L0L1SM- and RL0L1SM-NLMS algorithms are superior to the traditional LMS, NLMS, SM-NLMS, ZA-LMS, RZA-LMS, and ZA-, RZA-, ZASM-, and RZASM-NLMS algorithms in terms of the convergence speed and steady-state performance.

  20. Determining Fuzzy Membership for Sentiment Classification: A Three-Layer Sentiment Propagation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanjun; Wang, Suge; Li, Deyu

    2016-01-01

    Enormous quantities of review documents exist in forums, blogs, twitter accounts, and shopping web sites. Analysis of the sentiment information hidden in these review documents is very useful for consumers and manufacturers. The sentiment orientation and sentiment intensity of a review can be described in more detail by using a sentiment score than by using bipolar sentiment polarity. Existing methods for calculating review sentiment scores frequently use a sentiment lexicon or the locations of features in a sentence, a paragraph, and a document. In order to achieve more accurate sentiment scores of review documents, a three-layer sentiment propagation model (TLSPM) is proposed that uses three kinds of interrelations, those among documents, topics, and words. First, we use nine relationship pairwise matrices between documents, topics, and words. In TLSPM, we suppose that sentiment neighbors tend to have the same sentiment polarity and similar sentiment intensity in the sentiment propagation network. Then, we implement the sentiment propagation processes among the documents, topics, and words in turn. Finally, we can obtain the steady sentiment scores of documents by a continuous iteration process. Intuition might suggest that documents with strong sentiment intensity make larger contributions to classification than those with weak sentiment intensity. Therefore, we use the fuzzy membership of documents obtained by TLSPM as the weight of the text to train a fuzzy support vector machine model (FSVM). As compared with a support vector machine (SVM) and four other fuzzy membership determination methods, the results show that FSVM trained with TLSPM can enhance the effectiveness of sentiment classification. In addition, FSVM trained with TLSPM can reduce the mean square error (MSE) on seven sentiment rating prediction data sets.

  1. Fault Detection of Wind Turbines with Uncertain Parameters: A Set-Membership Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a set-membership approach for fault detection of a benchmark wind turbine is proposed. The benchmark represents relevant fault scenarios in the control system, including sensor, actuator and system faults. In addition we also consider parameter uncertainties and uncertainties on the torque coefficient. High noise on the wind speed measurement, nonlinearities in the aerodynamic torque and uncertainties on the parameters make fault detection a challenging problem. We use an effective wind speed estimator to reduce the noise on the wind speed measurements. A set-membership approach is used generate a set that contains all states consistent with the past measurements and the given model of the wind turbine including uncertainties and noise. This set represents all possible states the system can be in if not faulty. If the current measurement is not consistent with this set, a fault is detected. For representation of these sets we use zonotopes and for modeling of uncertainties we use matrix zonotopes, which yields a computationally efficient algorithm. The method is applied to the wind turbine benchmark problem without and with uncertainties. The result demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to other proposed methods applied to the same problem. An advantage of the proposed method is that there is no need for threshold design, and it does not produce positive false alarms. In the case where uncertainty on the torque lookup table is introduced, some faults are not detectable. Previous research has not addressed this uncertainty. The method proposed here requires equal or less detection time than previous results.

  2. Patterns of HIV Risks and Related Factors among People Who Inject Drugs in Kermanshah, Iran: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Hamid; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Noroozi, Alireza; Marshall, Brandon D L; Farhoudian, Ali; Higgs, Peter; Vameghi, Meroe; Mohhamadi Shahboulaghi, Farahnaz; Qorbani, Mostafa; Massah, Omid; Armoon, Bahram; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore patterns of drug use and sexual risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. We surveyed 500 PWID in Kermanshah concerning demographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and drug-related risk behaviors in the month prior to study. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to establish a baseline model of risk profiles and to identify the optimal number of latent classes, and we used ordinal regression to identify factors associated with class membership. Three classes of multiple HIV risk were identified. The probability of membership in the high-risk class was 0.33, compared to 0.26 and 0.40 for the low- and moderate-risk classes, respectively. Compared to members in the lowest-risk class (reference group), the highest-risk class members had higher odds of being homeless (OR = 4.5, CI: 1.44-8.22; p = 0.001) in the past 12 months. Members of the high-risk class had lower odds of regularly visiting a needle and syringe exchange program as compared to the lowest-risk class members (AOR = 0.42, CI: 0.2-0.81; p = 0.01). Findings show the sexual and drug-related HIV risk clusters among PWID in Iran, and emphasize the importance of developing targeted prevention and harm reduction programs for all domains of risk behaviors, both sexual and drug use related.

  3. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Manson, Spero M; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-04-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Program, a lifestyle intervention program to prevent diabetes among American Indians and Alaska Natives. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify the longitudinal patterns of SoC for regular exercise reported at three time points. LCA with distal outcomes was performed to investigate the associations between latent class membership and behavioral changes after the intervention. The parameters and standard errors of the LCA with distal outcomes models were estimated using an improved three-step approach. Three latent classes were identified: Pre-action, Transition, and Maintenance classes. The Transition class, where stage progression occurred, had the greatest improvements in physical activity and weight outcomes at both time points post-baseline among female participants. It also had the largest improvements in weight outcomes among male participants. Furthermore, the Pre-action class had more attenuation in the improvements they had achieved initially than the other two classes. These findings suggest the potential importance of motivating participants to modify their readiness for behavioral change in future lifestyle interventions.

  4. Gang Membership, School Violence, and the Mediating Effects of Risk and Protective Behaviors in California High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Joey Nuñez, Jr.; Gilreath, Tamika D.; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2014-01-01

    There is insufficient empirical evidence exploring associations between gang membership and school violence behaviors. Using a sample of 272,863 high school students, this study employs a structural equation model to examine how school risk and protective behaviors and attitudes mediate effects of gang members' involvement with school violence…

  5. Proper Motions in Terzan 5: Membership of the Multi-iron Subpopulations and First Constraint on the Orbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Miocchi, P.; Bellini, A.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Rich, R. M.; Mucciarelli, A.

    By exploiting two sets of high-resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Wide Field Channel over a baseline of ∼10 years, we have measured relative proper motions (PMs) of ∼70,000 stars in the stellar system Terzan 5. The results confirm the membership of

  6. Intergroup visual perspective-taking: Shared group membership impairs self-perspective inhibition but may facilitate perspective calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Austin J; Todd, Andrew R

    2017-09-01

    Reasoning about what other people see, know, and want is essential for navigating social life. Yet, even neurodevelopmentally healthy adults make perspective-taking errors. Here, we examined how the group membership of perspective-taking targets (ingroup vs. outgroup) affects processes underlying visual perspective-taking. In three experiments using two bases of group identity (university affiliation and minimal groups), interference from one's own differing perspective (i.e., egocentric intrusion) was stronger when responding from an ingroup versus an outgroup member's perspective. Spontaneous perspective calculation, as indexed by interference from another's visual perspective when reporting one's own (i.e., altercentric intrusion), did not differ across target group membership in any of our experiments. Process-dissociation analyses, which aim to isolate automatic processes underlying altercentric-intrusion effects, further revealed negligible effects of target group membership on perspective calculation. Meta-analytically, however, there was suggestive evidence that shared group membership facilitates responding from others' perspectives when self and other perspectives are aligned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Membership function model for defining optimality of vapor pressure deficit in closed-field cultivation of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamshiri, R.; Che Man, H.; Zakaria, A.J.; Beveren, van Peter; Wan Ismail, W.I.; Ahmad, D.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of plant's evapotranspiration (ET) or water loss to the atmosphere depends on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of the closed-field environment (greenhouse). The objective of this work was to develop a membership function model for defining optimal VPD of greenhouse air for tomato

  8. Social learning in fish producers' organizations: how fishers perceive their membership experience and what they learn from it

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karadzic, V; Grin, J.; Antunes, P.; Banovic, M

    2014-01-01

    Fish producers' organizations (POs) bring together fishers or fish farmers on a voluntary basis so as to ensure the best market conditions for their fish. How fishers perceive and understand their membership Experience is crucial to their capacity to learn from each other and adapt when interacting

  9. Undergraduate Understanding of Climate Change: The Influences of College Major and Environmental Group Membership on Survey Knowledge Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxster, Joanna K.; Uribe-Zarain, Ximena; Kempton, Willett

    2015-01-01

    A survey covering the scientific and social aspects of climate change was administered to examine U.S. undergraduate student mental models, and compare knowledge between groups based on major and environmental group membership. A Knowledge Score (scale 0-35, mean score = 17.84) was generated for respondents at two, central East Coast, U.S.…

  10. An Analysis of the Role of Preexisting Internal Factors in Collegiate Alcohol Abuse within Membership of Social Groups/Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusilier, Kristy D.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized the administration of the CORE Drug and Alcohol Survey long form, with the inclusion of 10 additional questions to assess prior history of behaviors, social organization membership status, and reasons for utilization of alcohol, to a representative sample of 2500 college students within a single university in order to determine…

  11. The Road to Gang Membership: Characteristics of Male Gang and Nongang Members from Ages 10 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy M.; Vitaro, Frank; Gagnon, Claude; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined stability of gang membership in early adolescence, concurrent behaviors, family characteristics, friendships, and school attitudes of stable and unstable gang and nongang members. Found that stable gang members, compared to nongang members, had higher teacher ratings of fighting behavior, hyperactivity, inattention and oppositional…

  12. From Overseas Visitor to Permanent Resident: Reflections on Attendances at Conferences and Membership of PESA--1981-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspin, David

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a personal narrative of his experiences as an overseas visitor to Australia, and his decision to become a permanent resident (and ultimately an Australian citizen). He also reflects on his attendances at various conferences and his membership in the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA).

  13. Social Preference, Social Prominence, and Group Membership in Late Elementary School: Homophilic Concentration and Peer Affiliation Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Leung, Man-Chi; Hall, Cristin M.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; McDonough, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the social preference and social prominence of 622 5th graders (290 boys, 332 girls) in relation to peer group membership. The sample was recruited from 11 elementary schools in a southeastern state. The ethnicity of participants was 55% European American, 41% African American, and 4% other. Peer groups were classified on…

  14. The role of psychological symptoms and social group memberships in the development of post-traumatic stress after traumatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janelle M; Williams, W Huw; Jetten, Jolanda; Haslam, S Alexander; Harris, Adrian; Gleibs, Ilka H

    2012-11-01

    The costs associated with traumatic injury are often exacerbated by the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms. However, it is unclear what decreases the development of post-traumatic symptoms over time. The aim of the present research was to examine the role of psychological symptoms and social group memberships in reducing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms after orthopaedic injuries (OIs) and acquired brain injuries (ABIs). A longitudinal prospective study assessed self-reported general health symptoms, social group memberships, and post-traumatic stress symptoms among participants with mild or moderate ABI (n= 62) or upper limb OI (n= 31) at 2 weeks (T1) and 3 months (T2) after injury. Hierarchical regressions revealed that having fewer T1 general health symptoms predicted lower levels of T2 post-traumatic stress symptoms after OI but forming more new group memberships at T1 predicted lower levels of T2 post-traumatic stress symptoms after ABI. A focus on acquiring group memberships may be particularly important in reducing the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms after injuries, such as ABI, which result in long-term life changes. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  15. The Etiology of Female Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Membership: A Test of Psychological and Social Structural Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Lee H.; Klein, Malcolm W.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female delinquency and gang membership in 122 black female juveniles using data from the 1960s. Concluded that racism, sexism, poverty, and limited opportunity are more important predictors of delinquency than personality and family relationships. Relationships with girl friends were more significant predictors than heterosexual…

  16. Moving beyond Alcohol: A Review of Other Issues Associated with Fraternity Membership with Implications for Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddix, J. Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This review of research synthesizes more than a decade of published studies on problems associated with fraternity membership beyond alcohol misuse. Topics include sex-related issues, drug use, hazing, and other issues such as gambling, academic dishonesty, campus civility, and fake identification use. Recommendations suggest the need for a role…

  17. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-2 - Membership in a voluntary employees' beneficiary association; employees; voluntary association of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to employment, such as a limitation to a reasonable classification of workers, a limitation based on... be controlled— (i) By its membership, (ii) By independent trustee(s) (such as a bank), or (iii) By... employees, according to objective criteria set forth in the plan. Z establishes a separate bank account...

  18. Homosexuality as a Discrete Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alyssa L; Marcus, David K; Green, Bradley A

    2015-12-01

    Previous research on the latent structure of sexual orientation has returned conflicting results, with some studies finding a dimensional structure (i.e., ranging quantitatively along a spectrum) and others a taxonic structure (i.e., categories of individuals with distinct orientations). The current study used a sample (N = 33,525) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). A series of taxometric analyses were conducted using three indicators of sexual orientation: identity, behavior, and attraction. These analyses, performed separately for women and men, revealed low-base-rate same-sex-oriented taxa for men (base rate = 3.0%) and women (base rate = 2.7%). Generally, taxon membership conferred an increased risk for psychiatric and substance-use disorders. Although taxa were present for men and women, women demonstrated greater sexual fluidity, such that any level of same-sex sexuality conferred taxon membership for men but not for women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Membership Trends in the Health Physics Society: How Did We Get Here and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS), formed in 1956, is a scientific organization of professionals who specialize in radiation safety. Its mission is to support its members in the practice of their profession and to promote excellence in the science and practice of radiation safety. HPS has been a diverse body since its beginnings, encompassing professionals from different disciplines with an interest in radiation safety issues. At that time, health physics was just beginning to emerge as a distinct discipline, initially spurred by the development of the atomic bomb and amplified by the commercial use of nuclear power, and there was a need for a professional group to discuss issues and share ideas and experiences in the field. Over the following years, both the field of health physics and the ranks of the HPS membership experienced a steady increase in numbers and interest. HPS continued to grow in numbers and thrive through the mid-1990s but then began to retract. Concern regarding the "graying" of HPS was being discussed as far back as the late 1990s, yet despite efforts to broaden the base of membership through additional membership criteria, the numbers of Plenary (now referred to as Full) members have continued to shrink. The "graying" of HPS is real-although age demographic data are only available for about the past 15 y (and are provided voluntarily), the shift in age distribution over this timeframe is clear. A recent survey indicated that over 50% of HPS members are over 50 y of age, and over half of the respondents plan to retire within 10 y. As members age, they convert to Emeritus membership or drop their membership altogether, with some members unable to continue for financial or health-related reasons. There is now an age gap-members in their 30s and early 40s are missing from the mix. Potential causes for declining membership may include smaller enrollments in academic programs, reduced employment opportunities, and societal factors. There appears to be

  20. Shape similarity, better than semantic membership, accounts for the structure of visual object representations in a population of monkey inferotemporal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Baldassi

    Full Text Available The anterior inferotemporal cortex (IT is the highest stage along the hierarchy of visual areas that, in primates, processes visual objects. Although several lines of evidence suggest that IT primarily represents visual shape information, some recent studies have argued that neuronal ensembles in IT code the semantic membership of visual objects (i.e., represent conceptual classes such as animate and inanimate objects. In this study, we investigated to what extent semantic, rather than purely visual information, is represented in IT by performing a multivariate analysis of IT responses to a set of visual objects. By relying on a variety of machine-learning approaches (including a cutting-edge clustering algorithm that has been recently developed in the domain of statistical physics, we found that, in most instances, IT representation of visual objects is accounted for by their similarity at the level of shape or, more surprisingly, low-level visual properties. Only in a few cases we observed IT representations of semantic classes that were not explainable by the visual similarity of their members. Overall, these findings reassert the primary function of IT as a conveyor of explicit visual shape information, and reveal that low-level visual properties are represented in IT to a greater extent than previously appreciated. In addition, our work demonstrates how combining a variety of state-of-the-art multivariate approaches, and carefully estimating the contribution of shape similarity to the representation of object categories, can substantially advance our understanding of neuronal coding of visual objects in cortex.

  1. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Meredith C; Roesch, Scott C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lindsay, Suzanne; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Gaines, Tommi L

    2017-03-24

    Patterns of polydrug use among people who inject drugs (PWID) may be differentially associated with overdose and unique human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors. Subgroups of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico, were identified based on substances used, route of administration, frequency of use and co-injection indicators. Participants were PWID residing in Tijuana age ≥18 years sampled from 2011 to 2012 who reported injecting an illicit substance in the past month (n = 735). Latent class analysis identified discrete classes of polydrug use characterised by 11 indicators of past 6 months substance use. Multinomial logistic regression examined class membership association with HIV risk behaviours, overdose and other covariates using an automated three-step procedure in mplus to account for classification error. Participants were classified into five subgroups. Two polydrug and polyroute classes were defined by use of multiple substances through several routes of administration and were primarily distinguished from each other by cocaine use (class 1: 5%) or no cocaine use (class 2: 29%). The other classes consisted primarily of injectors: cocaine, methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 3: 4%); methamphetamine and heroin injection (class 4: 10%); and heroin injection (class 5: 52%). Compared with the heroin-only injection class, memberships in the two polydrug and polyroute use classes were independently associated with both HIV injection and sexual risk behaviours. Substance use patterns among PWID in Tijuana are highly heterogeneous, and polydrug and polyroute users are a high-risk subgroup who may require more tailored prevention and treatment interventions. [Meacham MC, Roesch SC, Strathdee SA, Lindsay S, Gonzalez-Zuniga P, Gaines TL. Latent classes of polydrug and polyroute use and associations with human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviours and overdose among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017

  2. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  3. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  4. Academic and Social Functioning Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Latent Class Analyses of Trajectories from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.

  5. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wechsberg WM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg,1–4 Irene A Doherty,1 Felicia A Browne,1,5 Tracy L Kline,1 Monique G Carry,6 Jerris L Raiford,6 Jeffrey H Herbst6 1Substance Abuse Treatment Evaluations and Interventions Research Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 2Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 3Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, 4Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 6Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001. The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04. Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02. Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40], experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5], report emotional abuse from

  6. Latent classes of childhood trauma exposure predict the development of behavioral health outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, E D; Van Eck, K; Musci, R J; Hart, S R; Storr, C L; Breslau, N; Wilcox, H C

    2015-11-01

    To develop latent classes of exposure to traumatic experiences before the age of 13 years in an urban community sample and to use these latent classes to predict the development of negative behavioral outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. A total of 1815 participants in an epidemiologically based, randomized field trial as children completed comprehensive psychiatric assessments as young adults. Reported experiences of nine traumatic experiences before age 13 years were used in a latent class analysis to create latent profiles of traumatic experiences. Latent classes were used to predict psychiatric outcomes at age ⩾13 years, criminal convictions, physical health problems and traumatic experiences reported in young adulthood. Three latent classes of childhood traumatic experiences were supported by the data. One class (8% of sample), primarily female, was characterized by experiences of sexual assault and reported significantly higher rates of a range of psychiatric outcomes by young adulthood. Another class (8%), primarily male, was characterized by experiences of violence exposure and reported higher levels of antisocial personality disorder and post-traumatic stress. The final class (84%) reported low levels of childhood traumatic experiences. Parental psychopathology was related to membership in the sexual assault group. Classes of childhood traumatic experiences predict specific psychiatric and behavioral outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term adverse effects of childhood traumas are primarily concentrated in victims of sexual and non-sexual violence. Gender emerged as a key covariate in the classes of trauma exposure and outcomes.

  7. Distributed and Robust Tracking by Exploiting Set-Membership and Sparsity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Shahrokh

    2011-12-01

    method-of-multipliers based solvers are derived for DRS. For settings where the state remains invariant or varies slowly with time, an online robust recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm referred to as OR-RLS is also derived. Both DRS and OR-RLS are compared against existing robust alternatives and shown to significantly improve the performance. Finally, a consensus-based distributed particle filter referred to as set-membership constrained particle filter (SMC-PF) is introduced for tracking with wireless sensor networks. Consensus-based algorithms possess well-known merits such as robustness to sensor and link failures, scalability, and only local message exchanges with one-hop neighbors. In addition, SMC-PF provides a consensus-based mechanism for data adaptation based on set-membership ideas. SMC-PF outperforms state-of-the-art distributed particle filters in terms of performance and communication complexity.

  8. Science learning, group membership, and identity in an urban middle school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, Stacy I.

    2005-12-01

    The issue of inequalities in science education outcomes among students from different racial and socioeconomic backgrounds in the U.S. is related not only to access to resources, but also to schools' inability to facilitate students developing identities associated with science. While some of the obstacles to identity development in science relate to issues over which teachers and students have limited control, others are more amenable to local efforts toward change. This dissertation describes an interpretive case study of a racially, ethnically, and socio-economically diverse eighth grade science classroom in an urban magnet school in order to explore the relationship between school and classroom structures, student and teacher agency in enacting positive changes within classrooms, and identity formation in science. The results of this study indicate that structural issues such as the high status ascribed to science, the school's selection process, discourses surrounding the purposes of learning, resource inequalities, and negative stereotype threat can contribute to classroom interactions in which some students' claims to membership in a community centered on science are rejected, thereby interfering with group membership. While some teacher practices accentuated the impacts of these structures, others, such as de-emphasizing standardized tasks and providing students with opportunities to make unique, science-related contributions reduced them. In addition, the teacher's strategies when she was teaching out of field, which included positioning herself as a learner and making visible her "backstage" performance of exploring ideas and accessing resources were associated with a greater diversity of students participating. Further, students were able to develop interest and a sense of solidarity surrounding even new, abstract content when such content became associated with successful interaction rituals during which science language and procedures served as a

  9. Longitudinal patterns of stages of change for exercise and lifestyle intervention outcomes: an application of latent class analysis with distal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Luohua; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Ben; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M.; Manson, Spero M.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    Stages of change measure an individual's readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and distal outcomes. We analyzed data from th...

  10. Longitudinal Patterns of Stages of Change for Exercise and Lifestyle Intervention Outcomes: An Application of Latent Class Analysis with Distal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, L; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Beals, J; Mitchell, CM; Manson, SM; Roubideaux, Y; The, SDPFIDPDP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Prevention Research Stages of change measure an individual’s readiness to alter a health behavior. This study examined the latent longitudinal patterns of stages of change (SoC) for regular exercise over time among individuals participating in a lifestyle intervention project. It also investigated the association between the longitudinal patterns of SoC and intervention outcomes using a new statistical method to assess the relationship between latent class membership and di...

  11. Cluster membership probabilities from proper motions and multi-wavelength photometric catalogues. I. Method and application to the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarro, L. M.; Bouy, H.; Berihuete, A.; Bertin, E.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Barrado, D.; Solano, E.

    2014-03-01

    Context. With the advent of deep wide surveys, large photometric and astrometric catalogues of literally all nearby clusters and associations have been produced. The unprecedented accuracy and sensitivity of these data sets and their broad spatial, temporal and wavelength coverage make obsolete the classical membership selection methods that were based on a handful of colours and luminosities. We present a new technique designed to take full advantage of the high dimensionality (photometric, astrometric, temporal) of such a survey to derive self-consistent and robust membership probabilities of the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at developing a methodology to infer membership probabilities to the Pleiades cluster from the DANCe multidimensional astro-photometric data set in a consistent way throughout the entire derivation. The determination of the membership probabilities has to be applicable to censored data and must incorporate the measurement uncertainties into the inference procedure. Methods: We use Bayes' theorem and a curvilinear forward model for the likelihood of the measurements of cluster members in the colour-magnitude space, to infer posterior membership probabilities. The distribution of the cluster members proper motions and the distribution of contaminants in the full multidimensional astro-photometric space is modelled with a mixture-of-Gaussians likelihood. Results: We analyse several representation spaces composed of the proper motions plus a subset of the available magnitudes and colour indices. We select two prominent representation spaces composed of variables selected using feature relevance determination techniques based in Random Forests, and analyse the resulting samples of high probability candidates. We consistently find lists of high probability (p > 0.9975) candidates with ≈1000 sources, 4 to 5 times more than obtained in the most recent astro-photometric studies of the cluster. Conclusions: Multidimensional data sets require

  12. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  13. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  14. Classes of Instructional Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David

    1979-01-01

    Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)

  15. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. The Class Number Problem - An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 28-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Charlo Class Scheduling Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Leo J.

    The design and implementation of a rotating class schedule which was put into effect in the Charlo High School, Charlo, Montana in September 1969 is discussed in this paper. The schedule, described in this report, consists of a 75-minute period followed by 2, 60-minute periods in the morning and 4, 45-minute afternoon periods. The program…

  17. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  18. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    -back of Adivasis against their age-old colonization or the work of ‘external’ agitators. Capitalist restructuring and ‘globalization’ was generally seen as simply the latest chapter in the suffering of these Adivasis. Little focused attention was paid to the recent class trajectory of their lives under changing...

  19. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce their intr......The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce...... their intracellular response. The overall goal of this thesis was to improve the understanding of class I cytokine receptor activation and regulation at an atomic level. Two members of the class I cytokine receptor family, the human growth hormone receptor (hGHR), and the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) have...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  20. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  1. Identification and prediction of latent classes of weight-loss strategies among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T; Savage, Jennifer S; Birch, Leann L

    2010-04-01

    We apply latent class analysis (LCA) to quantify multidimensional patterns of weight-loss strategies in a sample of 197 women, and explore the degree to which dietary restraint, disinhibition, and other individual characteristics predict membership in latent classes of weight-loss strategies. Latent class models were fit to a set of 14 healthy and unhealthy weight-loss strategies. BMI, weight concern, body satisfaction, depression, dietary disinhibition and restraint, and the interaction of disinhibition and restraint were included as predictors of latent class membership. All analyses were conducted with PROC LCA, a recently developed SAS procedure available for download. Results revealed four subgroups of women based on their history of weight-loss strategies: No Weight Loss Strategy (10.0%), Dietary Guidelines (26.5%), Guidelines+Macronutrients (39.4%), and Guidelines+Macronutrients+Restrictive (24.2%). BMI, weight concerns, the desire to be thinner, disinhibition, and dietary restraint were all significantly related to weight-control strategy latent class. Among women with low dietary restraint, disinhibition increases the odds of engaging in any set of weight-loss strategies vs. none, whereas among medium- and high-restraint women disinhibition increases the odds of use of unhealthy vs. healthy strategies. LCA was an effective tool for organizing multiple weight-loss strategies in order to identify subgroups of individuals who have engaged in particular sets of strategies over time. This person-centered approach provides a measure weight-control status, where the different statuses are characterized by particular combinations of healthy and unhealthy weight-loss strategies.

  2. Identifying Health Maintenance Organization membership through self-report of health plan name: ascertainment and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Karen M; Cohen, Bruce B; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Brooks, Daniel R; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wood, Phillip A

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of (1) identifying Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) membership by ascertaining self-reported health plan name in a telephone survey and (2) using external information to determine whether the plan was an HMO. Respondents to the 1999-2001 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the 1999 Massachusetts Colorectal Cancer (CRC) survey were asked to name their health plan. The authors used information from external sources to classify the plan as an HMO or a non-HMO. Test-retest reliability of reported plan name was examined overall, by demographic characteristics, and by health plan name. Reliability of HMO classification was tested with the kappa statistic. More than 88 percent of respondents with commercial health insurance provided their health plan name; 84 percent reported a plan that could be assigned as either an HMO or a non-HMO. The percentage whose HMO status could be assigned differed by demographic characteristics. Among those assigned, the distribution of specific HMOs among survey respondents was similar to the distribution reported by the Massachusetts Division of Insurance. In a subsample, 78 percent reported the same health plan during a follow-up interview. Agreement was higher for men, and differed according to the plan reported at the first time point. Kappa for HMO classification from health plan name was 0.87. Self-report of health plan name is a feasible and reliable method to ascertain health insurance information in a telephone interview.

  3. Advocacy Priorities and Strategies for ASAHP: A Survey of the ASAHP Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donna; Demo, David H; Devine, Nancy; Butler, Andrew; Saladin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) recently established a strategic goal to increase advocacy efforts. The purpose of this study was to identify advocacy priorities and preferred advocacy strategies among the ASAHP membership. A brief Advocacy Priorities and Strategies Survey was sent to 234 ASAHP members included in the ASAHP email list using an online survey software. Forty-eight members (20%) completed the survey. Data were analyzed using the online survey software and response frequency counts. ASAHP members identified the following federal advocacy priorities: 1) support for students entering allied health professions, 2) support for faculty seeking higher degrees to enhance quality of education in allied health programs, 3) support for higher education institutions to increase capacity of professional programs to address projected allied health workforce needs identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and 4) support for research funding from federal agencies for allied health. The need for education regarding allied health professions to enhance advocacy efforts was also reported. Preferred advocacy strategies included scheduling ASAHP conferences in Washington, DC, to facilitate trips to Capitol Hill and visiting legislators in home states. Members also indicated a need to participate in advocacy training to enhance their advocacy skills.

  4. Dynamic Output Feedback Robust MPC with Input Saturation Based on Zonotopic Set-Membership Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xubin Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For quasi-linear parameter varying (quasi-LPV systems with bounded disturbance, a synthesis approach of dynamic output feedback robust model predictive control (OFRMPC with the consideration of input saturation is investigated. The saturated dynamic output feedback controller is represented by a convex hull involving the actual dynamic output controller and an introduced auxiliary controller. By taking both the actual output feedback controller and the auxiliary controller with a parameter-dependent form, the main optimization problem can be formulated as convex optimization. The consideration of input saturation in the main optimization problem reduces the conservatism of dynamic output feedback controller design. The estimation error set and bounded disturbance are represented by zonotopes and refreshed by zonotopic set-membership estimation. Compared with the previous results, the proposed algorithm can not only guarantee the recursive feasibility of the optimization problem, but also improve the control performance at the cost of higher computational burden. A nonlinear continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  5. A Practical Set-Membership Proof for Privacy-Preserving NFC Mobile Ticketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfaoui Ghada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the privacy of users in transport systems, researchers are working on new protocols providing the best security guarantees while respecting functional requirements of transport operators. In this paper1, we design a secure NFC m-ticketing protocol for public transport that preserves users’ anonymity and prevents transport operators from tracing their customers’ trips. To this end, we introduce a new practical set-membership proof that does not require provers nor verifiers (but in a specific scenario for verifiers to perform pairing computations. It is therefore particularly suitable for our (ticketing setting where provers hold SIM/UICC cards that do not support such costly computations. We also propose several optimizations of Boneh-Boyen type signature schemes, which are of independent interest, increasing their performance and efficiency during NFC transactions. Our m-ticketing protocol offers greater flexibility compared to previous solutions as it enables the post-payment and the off-line validation of m-tickets. By implementing a prototype using a standard NFC SIM card, we show that it fulfils the stringent functional requirement imposed by transport operators whilst using strong security parameters. In particular, a validation can be completed in 184.25ms when the mobile is switched on, and in 266.52ms when the mobile is switched off or its battery is flat.

  6. Exploring Mixed Membership Stochastic Block Models via Non-negative Matrix Factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2014-12-01

    Many real-world phenomena can be modeled by networks in which entities and connections are represented by nodes and edges respectively. When certain nodes are highly connected with each other, those nodes forms a cluster, which is called community in our context. It is usually assumed that each node belongs to one community only, but evidences in biology and social networks reveal that the communities often overlap with each other. In other words, one node can probably belong to multiple communities. In light of that, mixed membership stochastic block models (MMB) have been developed to model those networks with overlapping communities. Such a model contains three matrices: two incidence matrices indicating in and out connections and one probability matrix. When the probability of connections for nodes between communities are significantly small, the parameter inference problem to this model can be solved by a constrained non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) algorithm. In this paper, we explore the connection between the two models and propose an algorithm based on NMF to infer the parameters of MMB. The proposed algorithms can detect overlapping communities regardless of knowing or not the number of communities. Experiments show that our algorithm can achieve a better community detection performance than the traditional NMF algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.

  7. Social Exclusion Based on Group Membership is a Form of Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An evaluation of demographic factors affecting performance in a paediatric membership multiple-choice examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Lara; Minson, Susan; Brightwell, Alexandra; Davies-Muir, Anna; Long, Andrew; Fertleman, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    To determine if demographic factors are associated with outcome in a multiple-choice, electronically marked paediatric postgraduate examination. Retrospective analysis of pass rates of UK trainees sitting Membership of the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (MRCPCH) part 1B from 2007 to 2011. Data collected by the RCPCH from examination candidates were analysed to assess the effects of gender, age, and country and university of medical qualification on examination outcome. At first attempt at MRCPCH part 1B, the overall pass rate from 2007 to 2011 was 843/2056 (41.0%). In univariate analysis, passing the examination was associated with being a UK graduate (649/1376 (47.2%)) compared with being an international medical graduate (130/520 (25.0%)) (OR 2.68 (95% CI 2.14 to 3.36), psex and whether the part 1A examination was taken concurrently, being a UK graduate was still strongly associated with passing the examination (OR 3.17 (95% CI 2.41 to 4.17), peducation for these trainees and to inform development of undergraduate curricula and help trainees prepare more successfully for postgraduate examinations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The Big Five Health Insurers' Membership And Revenue Trends: Implications For Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Collins, Sara R

    2017-12-01

    The five largest US commercial health insurance companies together enroll 125 million members, or 43 percent of the country's insured population. Over the past decade these insurers have become increasingly dependent for growth and profitability on public programs, according to an analysis of corporate reports. In 2016 Medicare and Medicaid accounted for nearly 60 percent of the companies' health care revenues and 20 percent of their comprehensive plan membership. Although headlines have focused on losses in the state Marketplaces created by the Affordable Care Act (ACA), the Marketplaces represent only a small fraction of insurers' members. Overall, the five largest insurers have remained profitable since passage of the ACA as a result of profits in other market segments. Notably, companies with significant Medicare or Medicaid enrollment have continued to insure beneficiaries in states where the insurers do not participate in Marketplaces. Given the insurers' dependence on public programs, there is potential to improve access if federal or state governments, or both, required insurers that participate in Medicare or Medicaid to also participate in the Marketplaces in the same geographic area. Such requirements could ensure more viable and less volatile insurance, benefiting people insured within each market as well as those who cycle on and off public and private insurance.

  10. Neuronal Assembly Detection and Cell Membership Specification by Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.; Ribeiro, Sidarta T.; Tort, Adriano B. L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1949, Donald Hebb postulated that assemblies of synchronously activated neurons are the elementary units of information processing in the brain. Despite being one of the most influential theories in neuroscience, Hebb's cell assembly hypothesis only started to become testable in the past two decades due to technological advances. However, while the technology for the simultaneous recording of large neuronal populations undergoes fast development, there is still a paucity of analytical methods that can properly detect and track the activity of cell assemblies. Here we describe a principal component-based method that is able to (1) identify all cell assemblies present in the neuronal population investigated, (2) determine the number of neurons involved in ensemble activity, (3) specify the precise identity of the neurons pertaining to each cell assembly, and (4) unravel the time course of the individual activity of multiple assemblies. Application of the method to multielectrode recordings of awake and behaving rats revealed that assemblies detected in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus typically contain overlapping neurons. The results indicate that the PCA method presented here is able to properly detect, track and specify neuronal assemblies, irrespective of overlapping membership. PMID:21698248

  11. “Trade Liberalization with Chinese Characteristics”: Few Notes on PRC’s WTO Membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Butiseacă

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a significant amount of published empirical studies that describe the relation of the People’s Republic of China with the World Trade Organization as the vehicle through which this country has reached the goal of opening further its domestic economy by freeing its foreign trade. If those ruling the Chinese people’s destiny saw in the WTO accession, along with the acceptance of its basic rules, a path that will lead them to the benefits and opportunities offered by some sectors’ liberalization, this judgment raises several concerns. An obvious one could be: Why not doing this unilaterally? Benefits might have been consistent. Not only that this would have been much easier, if the will of the Party, but the effects of opening market to other nations, within or outside the WTO, could have spurred earlier and stronger. Noteworthy is that many much economically freer countries are not yet members of the WTO. Then, if it is considered that the accession to this organization, by the values, rules and principles that it promotes, will allow any domestic economy to thrive, why do we assist to China’s failure in fulfilling all the WTO membership criteria and in complying with all the rules? In our opinion, Chinese authorities tried to accommodate pragmatically some liberalization to inspire trustworthiness for FDI with a boost for national companies still benefiting from public support and newly opened markets, thus seeking not pure freedom, but wise access to the workings of managed world trade.

  12. Characterizing long-term patterns of weight change in China using latent class trajectory modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Paynter

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, obesity-related diseases have increased tremendously in China, and are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Patterns of weight change can be used to predict risk of obesity-related diseases, increase understanding of etiology of disease risk, identify groups at particularly high risk, and shape prevention strategies.Latent class trajectory modeling was used to compute weight change trajectories for adults aged 18 to 66 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS data (n = 12,611. Weight change trajectories were computed separately for males and females by age group at baseline due to differential age-related patterns of weight gain in China with urbanization. Generalized linear mixed effects models examined the association between weight change trajectories and baseline characteristics including urbanicity, BMI category, age, and year of study entry.Trajectory classes were identified for each of six age-sex subgroups corresponding to various degrees of weight loss, maintenance and weight gain. Baseline BMI status was a significant predictor of trajectory membership for all age-sex subgroups. Baseline overweight/obesity increased odds of following 'initial loss with maintenance' trajectories. We found no significant association between baseline urbanization and trajectory membership after controlling for other covariates.Trajectory analysis identified patterns of weight change for age by gender groups. Lack of association between baseline urbanization status and trajectory membership suggests that living in a rural environment at baseline was not protective. Analyses identified age-specific nuances in weight change patterns, pointing to the importance of subgroup analyses in future research.

  13. Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the Pre-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the Agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the Pre-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the Agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

  14. Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the pr-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Amendment to the Agreement between CERN and the Republic of Cyprus concerning the granting of the status of Associate Membership as the pr-stage to Membership at CERN Extension of the deadline for internal approval of the agreement by the Republic of Cyprus

  15. Active fault detection and isolation of discrete-time linear time-varying systems: a set-membership approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Active fault detection and isolation (AFDI) is used for detection and isolation of faults that are hidden in the normal operation because of a low excitation signal or due to the regulatory actions of the controller. In this paper, a new AFDI method based on set-membership approaches is proposed...... un-falsified, the AFDI method is used to generate an auxiliary signal that is injected into the system for detection and isolation of faults that remain otherwise hidden or non-isolated using passive FDI (PFDI) methods. Having the set-valued estimation of the states for each model, the proposed AFDI....... In set-membership approaches, instead of a point-wise estimation of the states, a set-valued estimation of them is computed. If this set becomes empty the given model of the system is not consistent with the measurements. Therefore, the model is falsified. When more than one model of the system remains...

  16. Undergraduate Social Support and Career Networking as a Result of Membership in the University of Arizona Astronomy Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Allison P.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; McGraw, A. M.; Robertson, A.; Smith, C.; Biddle, L. I.; Turner, J.

    2013-06-01

    Membership in formal or informal groups of students with similar interests provides many benefits to undergraduate astronomy majors at the University of Arizona. First and foremost, members benefit from peer social and academic support within the major. These benefits are both tangible and intangible: students form friendships with like-minded peers, which can sustain them through difficult periods of study, but these social networks are the basis of later professional networks as well. Students in the U of A Astronomy Club have received both informal and formal research positions at other institutions as a direct result of the support, peer mentoring, and connections of club members, and at least six also hold paid, non-research positions within the department as a result of their connection to the club. Finally, most Astronomy Club members take their first steps into professional astronomy, such as attendance at a AAS Meeting, as a result of Club membership and the encouragement of older club members.

  17. Generalized Frol\\'ik classes

    OpenAIRE

    Lipparini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The class $\\mathfrak C $ relative to countably compact topological spaces and the class $\\mathfrak P$ relative to pseudocompact spaces introduced by Z. Frol\\'ik are naturally generalized relative to every topological property. We provide a characterization of such generalized Frol\\'ik classes in the broad case of properties defined in terms of filter convergence. If a class of spaces can be defined in terms of filter convergence, then the same is true for its Frol\\'ik class.

  18. Optimization of Membership Functions for the Fuzzy Controllers of the Water Tank and Inverted Pendulum with Differents PSO Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Melin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Particle Swarm Optimization metaheuristic and two of its variants (inertia weight and constriction coefficient are used as an optimization strategy for the design of optimal membership functions of fuzzy control systems for the water tank and inverted pendulum benchmark problems. Each variant has its own advantages in the algorithm, allowing the exploration and exploitation in different ways and this allows finding the optimal solution in a better way.

  19. The Economic Returns to Membership of a Dairy Discussion Group: Evidence from the Irish National Farm Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hennessy, Thia C.; Lapple, Doris; Newman, Carol F.

    2011-01-01

    In December 2009 the Irish Department of Agriculture launched the Dairy Efficiency Programme. The Programme, which is operated through a series of discussion groups, is designed to promote technology transfer to dairy farmers. Drawing on National Farm Survey data from 2009, the purpose of this paper is to quantify the economic return to membership of dairy discussion groups. An endogenous switching regression model is specified for over 300 dairy farms to assess the impact of discussion group...

  20. Too Few Indians and Too Many Chiefs. Is This One Reason for Declining Trade Union Membership in Denmark?

    OpenAIRE

    Søren Voxted; Jens Lind

    2012-01-01

    The decline in trade union membership in many countries since the 1970s and the consequent weakening of the trade unions is due to a number of reasons, including occupational changes, welfare state and social regulation, liberalism and individualization, and in Denmark (and Sweden and Finland) changes in unemployment insurance legislation and the institutional settings of the unemployment insurance system. All these factors are well known and have been analyzed in the literature. This article...

  1. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  2. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  3. Findings from the analysis of the American College of Nurse-Midwives' membership surveys: 2000-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiling, Kerri Durnell; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Fullerton, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Findings from the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) membership data provide descriptive information about selected characteristics of certified nurse-midwives (CNMs), certified midwives (CMs), and students enrolled in ACNM-accredited programs who are members of the organization. This article presents findings from the analysis of membership data for the years 2000 to 2003. Members remain predominantly white and female, with their age averaging in the mid-40s. Similarly, student demographics reflect little change from those reported in prior years. Students are primarily white, female, and in the mid-30s. Proportionately, there has been little increase in the diversity of members. The proportion of CNMs/CMs with a bachelor's degree continues to rise, as does the proportion of CNMs/CMs holding doctoral degrees. The majority of CNMs/CMs identified a broad domain of clinical midwifery practice as their primary responsibility in their primary employment, and hospitals remain the largest employer of responding midwives. The salaries of employed midwives appear to be increasing, although the modal salary (60,000 US dollars to 69,000 US dollars ) is unchanged from prior years. The profile of the membership has remained fairly constant, with small changes in the trend over time noted for age, employment patterns, and attendance at birth sites for the 4 years analyzed.

  4. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  5. Psychopathy and self-injurious thoughts and behaviour: application of latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Katie; Boduszek, Daniel; Palmer, Derrol; Shevlin, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Although early conceptualisations posited an inverse relationship between psychopathy and self-injury, little research has tested this. To examine the self-injurious thoughts and behaviours associated with psychopathy. Data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Project (N = 871) were used to examine homogenous subtypes of participants based on their responses to six self-injury items. A binary logistic regression model was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes by estimating the associations with the four psychopathy factors, mixed anxiety-depression, violence victimisation, and gender. A 2-class solution provided the best fit to the data. Most participants (86.2%) were assigned to the baseline ("low self-injury risk") group. "The high-risk self-injury group" was characterised by a higher probability of endorsing all self-injury items, particularly "thoughts of hurting self" and "attempts to hurt self". The four psychopathy factors showed differential associations with self-injury group membership. Participant's scorings, higher on the affective component and lower on interpersonal component of psychopathy, were significantly more likely to be assigned to the high risk group. Significant associations were also found between mixed anxiety/depression and gender, and "high-risk self-injury group" membership. These findings have important implications for the identification of individuals at risk of self-injury.

  6. A Study of the Effects of Rank and Gender on Officers' Club Membership and Club Usage at U.S. Air Force Bases in the Continental United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, C

    1999-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between both officer rank and officer gender and both club membership and member usage at Air Force officers' clubs in the Continental United States (CONUS...

  7. Latent classes of alcohol problems in Mauritian men: Results from the Joint Child Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Prescott, Carol A; Venables, Peter H

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify latent classes of alcohol problems and their sociodemographic correlates in the east African nation of Mauritius. Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study of a 1969-1970 birth cohort of 1795 individuals. In mid-adulthood (M = 37 years), all available participants (n = 1206; 67% of the original cohort) were assessed for demographic characteristics, and lifetime drinkers were assessed for alcohol-related problems. Given the low endorsement of problems by women, only male lifetime drinkers (n = 520) were included in the latent class analyses. Analyses indicated the best-fitting model contained four classes of drinkers: Non-problematic (66%), Moderate (16%), Hazardous (11%) and Severe (6%). Lower education and occupation were associated with Moderate and Severe problem classes, whereas higher education and occupation were associated with the Hazardous class. Being Hindu, Tamil and Creole were differentially predictive of class membership, but being Muslim was not. Our findings provide evidence of a distinct Hazardous drinking class that has unique demographic correlates and may represent a cluster of problems that is more bound by cultural factors. We also found problem classes on a severity continuum from none to moderate to severe problems. This study highlights the importance of examining societal, subgroup and person-level factors to produce a more nuanced understanding of distinct classes of alcohol-related problems. [Luczak SE, Prescott CA, Venables PH. Latent classes of alcohol problems in Mauritian men: Results from the Joint Child Health Project. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. FY98 Class Convening Schedule for Coast Guard Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-12

    This Notice publishes the FY98 class convening schedule of Coast Guard Class "A" : and "C" resident and exportable training courses defined by program/force : managers as essential or directly related to mission accomplishment for : achievement of pr...

  9. Multiple-membership multiple-classification models for social network and group dependences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranmer, Mark; Steel, David; Browne, William J

    2014-02-01

    The social network literature on network dependences has largely ignored other sources of dependence, such as the school that a student attends, or the area in which an individual lives. The multilevel modelling literature on school and area dependences has, in turn, largely ignored social networks. To bridge this divide, a multiple-membership multiple-classification modelling approach for jointly investigating social network and group dependences is presented. This allows social network and group dependences on individual responses to be investigated and compared. The approach is used to analyse a subsample of the Adolescent Health Study data set from the USA, where the response variable of interest is individual level educational attainment, and the three individual level covariates are sex, ethnic group and age. Individual, network, school and area dependences are accounted for in the analysis. The network dependences can be accounted for by including the network as a classification in the model, using various network configurations, such as ego-nets and cliques. The results suggest that ignoring the network affects the estimates of variation for the classifications that are included in the random part of the model (school, area and individual), as well as having some influence on the point estimates and standard errors of the estimates of regression coefficients for covariates in the fixed part of the model. From a substantive perspective, this approach provides a flexible and practical way of investigating variation in an individual level response due to social network dependences, and estimating the share of variation of an individual response for network, school and area classifications.

  10. Attitudes of the physician membership of the society for adolescent medicine toward medical abortions for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N H; Miller, D J; Pinkston Koenigs, L M

    1998-05-01

    To document the practices and attitudes of the US physician members of the Society for Adolescent Medicine (SAM) regarding adolescent abortion and contraception, as well as physician willingness to prescribe medical abortion if approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Participants. The entire physician membership of SAM (N = 1001) was surveyed. A total of 713 physicians responded, with 668 usable surveys yielding an adjusted response rate of 70%. Of the respondents, 81% were trained as pediatricians; 58% had additional adolescent medicine training. Ninety-six percent prescribed contraception for their patients. Sixty-one percent of respondents identified abortion as an option for pregnant adolescents in all circumstances, whereas 4% believed abortion should never be an option. Eighty-nine percent referred their patients for abortions; 90% were aware of medications to induce abortions medically. If these medications (methotrexate and misoprostol, RU-486) were FDA-approved, 42% would prescribe them for their patients; 34% were unsure. Fifty-four percent believed if medical abortions were routinely available, they should be available from primary care physicians. Physicians were significantly more likely to consider prescribing medical abortions if the physician were female, offered postcoital contraception, performed Norplant insertions, referred adolescents for abortions, or performed postabortion medical checkups. Physicians were no more likely to consider prescribing medical abortions according to physician age, specialty training, or date of residency training. Religious affiliation per se was not associated with likelihood of prescribing medical abortions, but Catholic physicians were significantly less likely to consider prescribing medical abortions. Virtually all SAM physician respondents (96%) reported that abortion for pregnant adolescents should be available under some circumstances. Forty-two percent would

  11. Using Dynamic Classes and Role Classes to Model Object Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; de Jonge, Wiebren; Spruit, Paul

    1995-01-01

    n this paper, we argue that object-oriented models must be able to represent three kinds of taxonomic structures: static classes, dynamic classes, and role classes, that behave differently with respect to object migration. If CAR is a static subclass of V EHICLE, then a vehicle that is not a car can

  12. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  13. Class field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2009-01-01

    This classic book, originally published in 1968, is based on notes of a year-long seminar the authors ran at Princeton University. The primary goal of the book was to give a rather complete presentation of algebraic aspects of global class field theory, and the authors accomplished this goal spectacularly: for more than 40 years since its first publication, the book has served as an ultimate source for many generations of mathematicians. In this revised edition, two mathematical additions complementing the exposition in the original text are made. The new edition also contains several new foot

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  15. Probability maps as a way to communicate uncertainty in soil texture classes at landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Barry; Lark, Murray

    2014-05-01

    Soil texture is critical for a range of functions and degradation threats including soil carbon cycling, hydrology and erosion. The texture of a soil at a point in the landscape is often expressed as a class in a soil texture triangle. The boundaries between these classes are based on the proportions of sand, silt and clay-sized particles. Soils are typically attributed to a single class, without considering the uncertainty associated with class membership. We demonstrate an approach for communicating uncertainty in spatial prediction of soil texture classes using a database of 2600 measurements of particle size distribution across part of England. A subset of these measurements included repeated analyses of separate aliquots from the same sample from which we could compute uncertainties associated with analytical and subsampling variance to include in our uncertainty analysis. After appropriate transformation for compositional variables, the spatial variation of the soil particle size classes was modelled geostatistically using robust variogram estimators to produce a validated linear model of coregionalization. This was then used to predict the composition of topsoil at the nodes of a fine grid. The predictions were backtransformed to the original scales of measurement by a Monte Carlo integration over the prediction distribution on the transformed scale. This approach allowed the probability to be computed for each class in the soil texture classification, at each node on the grid. The probability of each class, and derived information such as the class of maximum probability could therefore be mapped. We validated the predictions at a set of randomly sampled locations. We consider this technique has the potential to improve the communication of uncertainty associated with the application of soil texture classifications in soil science.

  16. Status of Co-Curricular and Extra Class Activities of Student Organizations from Selected Tertiary Institutions in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena R. Abrea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the co-curricular and extra class activities of selected Tertiary Education Institutions (TEIs in Batangas Province and the impact of these activities to students’ development. The descriptive method of research was utilized with the use of a questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument, supplemented by documentary analysis, interview and focus group discussion. Respondents of the study were 16 administrators, 96 faculty members and 494 student officers from nine selected colleges in the province. Frequency, percentage, ranking, weighted mean, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA or F-test were the statistical tools used in the study. Results of the study revealed that all the colleges have recognized student organizations, and its membership except in student government was based on students’ interests. The goals were in line with the vision and mission of the institution and membership fee was the primary source of fund. The respondents assessed that there was an extensive participation of students in co-curricular and extra class activities. The strategies applied were effective and delivery systems were frequently used by the students’ organization. It was found out that the administration was supportive in student activities specifically in the use of physical facilities. The findings revealed that the identified activities contributed to a great extent to students’ mental, social, physical, behavioral and moral development. The strengths of the activities were evident, however, weaknesses were sometimes observed. A management guide on co-curricular and extra class activities was the output of the study.

  17. Unsupervised learning of broad phonetic classes with a statistical mixture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2004-05-01

    Unsupervised learning of broad phonetic classes by infants was simulated using a statistical mixture model. A mixture model assumes that data are generated by a certain number of different sources-in this case, broad phonetic classes. With the phonetic labels removed, hand-transcribed segments from the TIMIT database were used in model-based clustering to obtain data-driven classes. Simple hidden Markov models were chosen to be the components of the mixture, with mel-cepstral coefficients as the front end. The mixture model was trained using an expectation-maximization-like algorithm. The EM-like algorithm was initialized by a K-means procedure and then applied to estimate the parameters of the mixture model after iteratively partitioning the clusters. The results of running this algorithm on the TIMIT segments suggested that the partitions may be interpreted as gradient acoustic features, and that to some degree the resulting clusters correspond to knowledge-based phonetic classes. Although such correspondences are rather rough, a careful examination of the clusters showed that the class membership of some sounds is highly dependent on their phonetic contexts. Thus, the clusters may reflect the preliminary phonological categories formed during language learning in early childhood.

  18. Likelihood analysis of spatial capture-recapture models for stratified or class structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Fuller, Angela K.; Sun, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a likelihood analysis framework for fitting spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models to data collected on class structured or stratified populations. Our interest is motivated by the necessity of accommodating the problem of missing observations of individual class membership. This is particularly problematic in SCR data arising from DNA analysis of scat, hair or other material, which frequently yields individual identity but fails to identify the sex. Moreover, this can represent a large fraction of the data and, given the typically small sample sizes of many capture-recapture studies based on DNA information, utilization of the data with missing sex information is necessary. We develop the class structured likelihood for the case of missing covariate values, and then we address the scaling of the likelihood so that models with and without class structured parameters can be formally compared regardless of missing values. We apply our class structured model to black bear data collected in New York in which sex could be determined for only 62 of 169 uniquely identified individuals. The models containing sex-specificity of both the intercept of the SCR encounter probability model and the distance coefficient, and including a behavioral response are strongly favored by log-likelihood. Estimated population sex ratio is strongly influenced by sex structure in model parameters illustrating the importance of rigorous modeling of sex differences in capture-recapture models.

  19. Characteristics of cyclist crashes in Italy using latent class analysis and association rule mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Prati

    Full Text Available The factors associated with severity of the bicycle crashes may differ across different bicycle crash patterns. Therefore, it is important to identify distinct bicycle crash patterns with homogeneous attributes. The current study aimed at identifying subgroups of bicycle crashes in Italy and analyzing separately the different bicycle crash types. The present study focused on bicycle crashes that occurred in Italy during the period between 2011 and 2013. We analyzed categorical indicators corresponding to the characteristics of infrastructure (road type, road signage, and location type, road user (i.e., opponent vehicle and cyclist's maneuver, type of collision, age and gender of the cyclist, vehicle (type of opponent vehicle, and the environmental and time period variables (time of the day, day of the week, season, pavement condition, and weather. To identify homogenous subgroups of bicycle crashes, we used latent class analysis. Using latent class analysis, the bicycle crash data set was segmented into 19 classes, which represents 19 different bicycle crash types. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the association between class membership and severity of the bicycle crashes. Finally, association rules were conducted for each of the latent classes to uncover the factors associated with an increased likelihood of severity. Association rules highlighted different crash characteristics associated with an increased likelihood of severity for each of the 19 bicycle crash types.

  20. Hip Surveillance for Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Survey of the POSNA Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Shrader, Michael W; Narayanan, Unni; Miller, Freeman; Graham, H Kerr; Mulpuri, Kishore

    Currently, hip surveillance programs for children with cerebral palsy exist in Europe, Australasia, and parts of Canada, but a neuromuscular hip surveillance program has yet to be adopted in the United States. The purpose of this study was to report the current orthopaedic practice of hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy, identify areas of practice variation, and suggest steps moving forward to generate guidelines for national neuromuscular hip surveillance. The entire membership of the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) was surveyed in 2016 for information regarding their practice for hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy. Detailed information regarding timing, frequency, and practice of hip surveillance was obtained in answers to 26 different questions. A survey response rate of 27% was obtained (350/1300 members) during the study period. The majority of respondents treated pediatric patients exclusively (97%), worked in an academic practice (70%), and was affiliated with a university (76%). In total, 18% (69/350) of respondents followed a regular cerebral palsy hip surveillance program, about half of whom (44%, 30/69) had adopted the Australian guidelines. Respondents agreed that a dislocated hip in a child with cerebral palsy was painful (90% agreement) and should be prevented by hip surveillance (93% agreement). Furthermore, 93% of respondents indicated they would follow a national surveillance program if one was in place. Age (79%), Gross Motor Function Classification System (81%), and migration percentage (MP) (78%) were all identified as critical elements to a hip surveillance program. The majority of respondents felt that a hip "at risk" for hip displacement had a MP between 20% and 30% (57% of respondents), whereas surgery should be utilized once the MP exceeded 40% (50% of respondents). Results from this survey demonstrate 90% of respondents agree that a dislocated hip could be painful and 93% would follow a

  1. A new method to assign galaxy cluster membership using photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castignani, G.; Benoist, C.

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new effective strategy to assign group and cluster membership probabilities Pmem to galaxies using photometric redshift information. Large dynamical ranges both in halo mass and cosmic time are considered. The method takes into account the magnitude distribution of both cluster and field galaxies as well as the radial distribution of galaxies in clusters using a non-parametric formalism, and relies on Bayesian inference to take photometric redshift uncertainties into account. We successfully test the method against 1208 galaxy clusters within redshifts z = 0.05-2.58 and masses 1013.29-14.80M⊙ drawn from wide field simulated galaxy mock catalogs mainly developed for the forthcoming Euclid mission. Median purity and completeness values of and are reached for galaxies brighter than 0.25 L∗ within r200 of each simulated halo and for a statistical photometric redshift accuracy σ((zs-zp)/(1 + zs)) = 0.03. The mean values p̅=56% and c̅=93% are consistent with the median and have negligible sub-percent uncertainties. Accurate photometric redshifts (σ((zs-zp)/(1 + zs)) ≲ 0.05) and robust estimates for the cluster redshift and cluster center coordinates are required. The dependence of the assignments on photometric redshift accuracy, galaxy magnitude and distance from the halo center, and halo properties such as mass, richness, and redshift are investigated. Variations in the mean values of both purity and completeness are globally limited to a few percent. The largest departures from the mean values are found for galaxies associated with distant z ≳ 1.5 halos, faint ( 0.25 L∗) galaxies, and those at the outskirts of the halo (at cluster-centric projected distances r200) for which the purity is decreased, Δp ≃ 20% at most, with respect to the mean value. The proposed method is applied to derive accurate richness estimates. A statistical comparison between the true (Ntrue) vs. estimated richness (λ = ∑ Pmem) yields on average to unbiased

  2. Defeminization and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, J

    1985-02-01

    The hypothesis that there might occur selective defeminization by social class between childhood and adulthood among homosexual men was explored. Interview data on 686 homosexual men were employed. It was found that there is a greater tendency for cross-gender propensities to persist into adulthood among respondents from blue-collar backgrounds. Effeminate respondents from such backgrounds were found to be disproportionately involved in same-sex sexual activities during adolescence. They were also sexually responsive to same-sex persons earlier. The interpretation is offered that early homosexual experiences reinforce cross-gender propensities among blue-collar respondents because of the greater gender role dichotomization found in blue-collar culture. Such reinforcement may explain the tendency for there to be greater persistence of cross-gendering among blue-collar men.

  3. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  4. Findings from the analysis of the American College of Nurse-Midwives' membership surveys: 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuiling, Kerri Durnell; Sipe, Theresa Ann; Fullerton, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) Core Data Survey is an annual membership survey that collects demographic and selected workforce data about certified nurse-midwives (CNMs), certified midwives (CMs), and students enrolled in midwifery education programs accredited by the Accreditation Commission for Midwifery Education, who are members of the organization. This article presents findings from the analysis of membership data for the years 2006 to 2008. An e-mail invitation to participate in the online survey was sent to all ACNM members who provided ACNM with an e-mail address. A paper copy of the survey was available upon request. The survey instrument for the years 2006 to 2008 focused on five categories: demographics, certification, education, employment, and licensure. ACNM member respondents continue to remain predominantly white and female. The average age of CNMs/CMs for 2008 is 51 years, and the majority holds a master's degree as their highest degree. Very few advances have been made in the effort to increase the diversity of ACNM membership. The number of CNMs earning doctoral degrees (including the doctor of nursing practice degree) is increasing. A majority of CNMs/CMs continue to identify a broad domain of clinical midwifery practice as their primary responsibility in their primary employment, and hospitals and physician practices remain the largest employers of midwives. Salaries for midwifery-related work are rising, but it is unclear if midwives are earning more because salaries are higher or because the higher salaries reflect market wage adjustments that occur over time. Copyright 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. All rights reserved.

  5. The factors and motivations behind United Kingdom chiropractic professional association membership: a survey of the Welsh Institute of Chiropractic Alumni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Sheena E; McCarthy, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    There are many professional associations representing chiropractors and chiropractic in the United Kingdom (UK). Each has its unique selling points (USPs) and chiropractors can choose to join as many as they like; however, cost of membership has to be weighed against perceived benefits. The predictors of UK chiropractic association membership and motivational factors to join these associations, have not formally been identified. This research study aimed to identify some of the factors and motivations in Welsh Institute of Chiropractic (WIOC) Alumni regarding their decision to join (or not) a UK chiropractic professional association. An online survey instrument, comprising 23 questions, was administered from November-December 2015 via a link announced on 'The WIOC Alumni' Facebook group (N = 655), the active platform for the WIOC Alumni Organisation. One hundred forty-eight respondents (approximately 22.6 % of 'The WIOC Alumni' Facebook group membership) completed the survey. Ten factors were reported to be important in decision making: 'promoting public awareness of chiropractic' (91.2 %), 'access to professional indemnity insurance' (89.2 %), 'overall professionalism of the association' (87.2 %), 'the identity of the association' (77.7 %), 'positive attitude to research' (77.0 %), 'workplace support and advice' (68.9 %), 'access to events \\ courses \\ seminars' (64.2 %), 'Continuing Professional Development (CPD) activities' (62.2 %), 'cost of membership' (59.5 %) and 'addresses my area of interest' (56.1 %). 'Many of my friends have joined' (71.6 %) was considered unimportant, whereas 'Lobbying: Influencing policy' and 'career development' were considered important by almost twice as many as those that consider them unimportant (45.3 %: 25.7 % and 43.9 %: 27.0 % respectively), 'requirement of employment' and 'associations newsletter' were seen as unimportant by roughly twice as many as those considering them important (44.6 %: 28.4 % and

  6. Drinking patterns of alcohol intoxicated adolescents in the emergency department: A latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Kriston, Levente; Arnaud, Nicolas; Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Härter, Martin; Thomasius, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    The increasing number of children and adolescents in need of emergency medical treatment following acute alcohol intoxication has been a major public health concern in Europe in recent years. However, little is known about drinking habits and associated risks in this population. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine drinking patterns and associated risks in adolescent emergency department patients following alcohol intoxication. The aim of this study is to establish a classification system for admitted adolescents Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents with distinct patterns of habitual drinking as defined by the quantity of consumed alcohol on a typical drinking occasion, frequency of binge drinking and drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, prior alcohol-related hospitalizations and alcohol-related risk behaviors. Subgroup characteristics were examined with regard to sociodemographics, other substance use and psychosocial problems using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests. A total of 316 adolescents aged 12-17 treated in 6 urban emergency departments in Germany were analyzed. Five classes of drinking patterns were identified: one class representing low-risk drinking (class 1 "low-risk" (61.2%)), two classes representing risky drinking (class 2 "moderate-risk" (5.7%) and class 3 "frequent drunk" (15.8%)), as well as two classes representing high-risk drinking (class 4 "alcohol-related problems" (11.4%) and class 5 "excessive drinking" (5.1%)). Membership of classes 4 and 5 was associated with the most severe psychosocial problems, especially with regard to aggressive-dissocial behaviors. The CRAFFT-d and brief RAPI screening tools allowed identifying the two risky drinking classes and two high-risk drinking classes. Our findings provide the first in-depth analysis of habitual drinking in this study population and may help practitioners to better tailor interventions to patients' needs by using the

  7. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure......) and the advantage of integrating equivalent rules into a European rule set. The Danish rules, which have now been in effect for some years, are then considered....

  8. Adaptive Base Class Boost for Multi-class Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    We develop the concept of ABC-Boost (Adaptive Base Class Boost) for multi-class classification and present ABC-MART, a concrete implementation of ABC-Boost. The original MART (Multiple Additive Regression Trees) algorithm has been very successful in large-scale applications. For binary classification, ABC-MART recovers MART. For multi-class classification, ABC-MART considerably improves MART, as evaluated on several public data sets.

  9. Risk of re-report: A latent class analysis of infants reported for maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Andrea Lane; Mitchell, Michael N; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge facing child protective services (CPS) is identifying children who are at greatest risk of future maltreatment. This analysis examined a cohort of children with a first report to CPS during infancy, a vulnerable population at high risk of future CPS reports. Birth records of all infants born in California in 2006 were linked to CPS records; 23,871 infants remaining in the home following an initial report were followed for 5 years to determine if another maltreatment report occurred. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subpopulations of infants based on varying risks of re-report. LCA model fit was examined using the Bayesian information criterion, a likelihood ratio test, and entropy. Statistical indicators and interpretability suggested the four-class model best fit the data. A second LCA included infant re-report as a distal outcome to examine the association between class membership and the likelihood of re-report. In Class 1 and Class 2 (lowest risk), the probability of a re-report was 44%; in contrast, the probability in Class 4 (highest risk) was 78%. Two birth characteristics clustered in the medium- and highest-risk classes: lack of established paternity and delayed or absent prenatal care. Two risk factors from the initial report of maltreatment emerged as predictors of re-report in the highest-risk class: an initial allegation of neglect and a family history of CPS involvement involving older siblings. Findings suggest that statistical techniques can be used to identify families with a heightened risk of experiencing later CPS contact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Spanish version of the Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM in Chilean adolescents and its association with school-related outcomes and substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Gaete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School membership appears to be an important factor in explaining the relationship between students and schools, including school staff. School membership is associated with several school-related outcomes, such as academic performance and expectations. Most studies on school membership have been conducted in developed countries. The Psychological Sense of School Membership (PSSM scale (18 items: 13 positively worded items, 5 negatively worded items has been widely used to measure this construct, but no studies regarding its validity and reliability have been conducted in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. This study investigates the psychometric properties, factor structure and reliability of this scale in a sample of 1250 early adolescents in Chile. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provide evidence of an excellent fit for a one-factor solution after removing the negatively worded items. The internal consistency of this new abbreviated version was 0.92. The association analyses demonstrated that high school membership was associated with better academic performance, stronger school bonding, a reduced likelihood of school misbehavior and reduced likelihood of substance use. Analyses showed support for the reliability and validity of the PSSM among Chilean adolescents.

  11. A QUARTER OF A CENTURY OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC’S MEMBERSHIP IN THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marková Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide information on the current standing of the Czech Republic in the International Monetary Fund (IMF with respect to its role as one of the main institutions that tries to solve contemporary problems of world economy on the one hand, and the problems of the IMF itself on the other hand. The paper focuses on individual phases of the country’s membership since 1990, when the Czech Republic joined the IMF. It provides information on both reasons for and forms of financial and technical help that the Czech Republic has utilised until now, and the help that the Czech Republic has provided to weaker members of the International Monetary Fund. Also, the paper analyses the quota reform and the IMF governance and their impact on the Czech Republic’s standing within the institution. It draws attention to a rising foreign exchange exposure of the Czech Republic to the IMF that originates from both an increase in membership quotas and extending of loans to other members. Naturally, the paper also analyses the increased risk of the loans that have been provided.

  12. Psychological Sense of University Membership: An Adaptation Study of the PSSM Scale for Turkish University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Neşe

    2016-01-01

    The Psychological Sense of School Membership Scale (PSSM) is a widely used instrument to assess the sense of belonging to a school among adolescents. Despite its widespread use in middle and high school students, to date no particular adaptation study has been conducted for its use among university students. For this reason, the present study conducted an adaptation of the PSSM scale for these students. Five hundred and nine students at a Turkish university voluntarily participated in the study, and the PSSM Scale's factor structure was examined by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, identifying three factors representing the students' sense of university membership with acceptable internal consistencies: acceptance by faculty members (.70), belonging (.75), and acceptance by students (.76). The internal consistency of the 18-item scale was calculated as .84. As hypothesized, the convergent and discriminant validity of the scale was also tested. The self-report sense of belonging and degree of satisfaction with the university were positively correlated with the three dimensions of the scale. Also, the scores regarding the students' intention to drop out of university along with loneliness were negatively correlated with all the dimension of the PSSM scale.

  13. Assessment of health risk due to PM 10 using fuzzy linear membership kriging with particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jeetendra B.; Reddy, Vijay S.; Jana, Soumya [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; De, Swades [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Air quality is an important determinant of individual as well as broader well-being. Major pollutants include gasses as well as assorted suspended particulate matter (PM). In this paper, we focus on PM10, which are a collection of particles with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m that remains suspended in the air for long periods. PM10, usually consist of smoke, dirt and dust particles, as well as spores and pollen, could easily be inhaled deep into lung. As a result, high outdoor PM10 concentration poses significant health hazard, and accurate modeling and prediction of health risk due to PM10 assume importance in pollution and public health management. In this backdrop, we propose an improved health risk assessment technique, and demonstrate its efficacy using widely used California PM10 database. At the heart of the proposed method lies indicator kriging, a well-known risk estimation technique. However, improved assessment of subjective health risk is achieved by posing the problem in a fuzzy setting, and optimizing the associated membership functions. In particular, we employ particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has been motivated by natural behavior of organisms such as fish-schooling and bird flocking, and proven effective in various optimization contexts. We apply the fuzzy PSO membership grade kriging technique to predict the PM10 spatial distribution over the entire California state. (orig.)

  14. Effects Of Membership Of Cooperative Organisations And Determinants On Farmer-Members Income In Rural Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkechi Cordelia Ojiagu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined the effect of membership of cooperative societies on the economic activities of farmers as well as the determinants of their income in rural Nigeria focusing on Anambra State. Data from 2506 members selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling were analyzed. The study found among others that members incomes are dependent upon their socio-economic profile such as age marital status and membership or otherwise of cooperative societies education cooperative marketing credit gender and business expertise. Also respondents depend largely on farming related activities for generation of income in the study area. Furthermore it was found that the major challenge of the farmer-members is inadequate fund poor education and illiteracy among most members conflict among members and lack of access to farm input. The Nigerian government is advised to formulate policies that will incorporate information from the local level that can support planning implementation and evaluation of programmes that can enhance farmers income this however will influence the pattern of agricultural growth in ways that can change income level of rural farmers to grow fast. The study recommends that cooperatives should intensify their education of members to gain more benefits and that government non-governmental organizations and international development agencies should show interest in supervising and providing development support to Farmers Cooperative Societies in rural Nigeria.

  15. Too Few Indians and Too Many Chiefs. Is This One Reason for Declining Trade Union Membership in Denmark?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Voxted

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The decline in trade union membership in many countries since the 1970s and the consequent weakening of the trade unions is due to a number of reasons, including occupational changes, welfare state and social regulation, liberalism and individualization, and in Denmark (and Sweden and Finland changes in unemployment insurance legislation and the institutional settings of the unemployment insurance system. All these factors are well known and have been analyzed in the literature. This article sums up all these facts and reasons for trade union decline in Denmark, but the main analysis focuses on a supplementary reason for membership decline among LO (the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions-affiliated unions: many trade union members leave their unions to become members of unions that organize managers. When workers become managers, some prefer to join an organization expert in servicing managerial staff, while others leave their trade unions because they define themselves as managers without being formally appointed as such and without having formal managerial responsibilities. Reasons for this behavior will be discussed in the article.

  16. Overcoming access barriers to health services through membership-based microfinance organizations: a review of evidence from South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2014-06-30

    It is a challenge for the poor to overcome the barriers to accessing health services. Membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes can improve health outcomes for the poor. This study reviewed the evidence published between 1993 and 2013 on the role of membership-based microfinance with associated health programmes in improving health outcomes for the poor in South Asia. A total of 661 papers were identified and 26 selected for inclusion, based on the relevance and rigour of the research methods. Of these 26, five were evidence reviews. Of the remaining 21 papers, 12 were from India, seven from Bangladesh, and one each from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Three papers addressed more than one theme. Five key themes emerged from the review: (i) the impact of microfinance programmes on the social and economic situation of the poor; (ii) the impact of microfinance programmes on community health; (iii) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on raising client awareness; (iv) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on financing health care; and (v) the impact of integrated microfinance health programmes on affordable health-care products and services. The review provides new evidence on the pathways through which microfinance helps to improve population health and value for money for such programmes. Among countries with large populations in the informal sector, there is a strong case for policy-makers to support these groups in providing access to life-saving health care among the poor.

  17. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  18. What factors facilitate the engagement with flipped classrooms used in the preparation for postgraduate medical membership examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    The "flipped classroom," a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved "students" (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with "tutors" (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students' expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education.

  19. Application of the fractal method to determine the membership function parameter for geoelectrical data (case study: Hamyj copper deposit, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi Ferdows, Mohammad; Ramazi, Hamidreza

    2015-12-01

    The selection of a suitable membership function and its parameters plays a critical role in the integration of layer information by the fuzzy method. In this paper, parameters of membership function for induced polarization (IP) and resistivity (RS) data (in the Hamyj copper deposit) have been determined by the threshold parameter of IP and resistivity data, already determined by expert opinion or drilling data. The Hamyj deposit is located about 80 km west of Birjand city, South Khorasan province, Iran. In this area, resistivity and induced polarization data have been surveyed by dipole-dipole array. In this paper, outlier-induced polarization data have been corrected by the Doerffel method and then IP and resistivity data have been inversed by the Newton and Gauss-Newton methods. The threshold of the IP data is recognized by statistical (gap statistic) and fractal (concentration-area) methods. The determined threshold by the fractal method is higher than the gap statistic. These two thresholds have been used to determine the S-shape function for the IP data. The thresholds of the RS data are recognized by the fractal method. These two thresholds have been used to determine the Z-shape function for the RS data. The integration of geoelectrical layer information has been carried out by the Gama method. Finally, the best drilling points were proposed based on fuzzy modelling for the area. The results show that the optimum exploration borehole is located at a depth of 25 m.

  20. ClassPrep: A Peer Review System for Class Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyong

    2017-01-01

    Class preparation is recommended by instructors in most college courses, but checking whether a student does so is not easy. A new blended learning system, named ClassPrep, has been proposed and implemented. The usability of the system was examined for two undergraduate psychology courses: one advanced course (n = 11) and one introductory course…

  1. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  2. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  3. A Three-Step Latent Class Analysis to Identify How Different Patterns of Teen Dating Violence and Psychosocial Factors Influence Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Weston, Rebecca; Temple, Jeff R

    2017-04-01

    Although multiple forms (i.e., physical, threatening, psychological, sexual, and relational abuse) and patterns (i.e., perpetration and victimization) of violence can co-occur, most existing research examines these experiences individually. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate: (1) homogenous subgroups based on victimization and perpetration of multiple forms of teen dating violence; (2) predictors of membership in these subgroups; and (3) mental health consequences associated with membership in each subgroup. Nine hundred eighteen adolescents in the 9th or 10th grade at seven public high schools in Texas participated in the survey (56 % female, White: 30 %, Hispanic: 32 %, African American: 29 %, others: 9 %). A three-step latent class analysis was employed. Five latent teen dating violence classes were identified: (1) nonviolence; (2) emotional/verbal abuse; (3) forced sexual contact; (4) psychological + physical violence; and (5) psychological abuse. Females, African Americans, and youth who had higher acceptance of couple violence scores and whose parents had less education were more likely to members of dating violence classes compared with the nonviolence class. Adolescents who experienced multiple types of dating violence reported greater mental health concerns. Prevention programs may benefit by identifying the homogenous subgroups of teen dating violence and targeting adolescent teen dating violence accordingly.

  4. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  5. Sexual Initiation Patterns of U.S. Sexual Minority Youth: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Shoshana K; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2017-03-01

    The typical understanding of sexual debut as first vaginal intercourse is often irrelevant to sexual minority youth. Better understanding of sexual initiation patterns among these youth is necessary to inform efforts to safeguard their sexual and reproductive health. Early sexual experiences were examined among 1,628 female and 526 male sexual minority participants in Waves 1 (1994-1995) and 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Latent class analyses identified initiation patterns distinguished by the timing, sequence and spacing of first experiences of sexual behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analyses assessed correlates of various patterns. Initiation classes for females were categorized as typical debut (representing 41% of the sample, characterized by vaginal intercourse and short spacing between first two behaviors); dual behavior debut (35%, characterized by vaginal and oral sex in the same year); early sexual debut (17%, characterized by average debut at 13, vaginal intercourse, and anal sex before 18); and delayed debut with oral sex (6%). Male classes were single behavior (50%, characterized by oral sex and longer spacing); multiple behavior (32%, characterized by vaginal and oral sex); early anal sex (11%, characterized by anal intercourse before 18); and very early debut (6%, characterized by oral sex and average debut at 10). Class membership was associated with socioeconomic status for females; age and sexual victimization for males; and race, ethnicity and religiosity for both. Initiation patterns of sexual minority youth differ between genders and involve noncoital behaviors and characteristics beyond timing. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. Subgrouping High School Students for Substance Abuse-Related Behaviors: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyati, Fariba; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar; Allahverdipour, Hamid; AsghariJafarabadi, Mohammad; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the prevalence of latent groups in terms of smoking, hookah, and alcohol in a sample of Iranian high school students. In this cross-sectional study, 4,422 high school students were assessed in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. Latent class analysis was applied to determine the subgroups and prevalence of each class using the procLCA in SAS 9.2 software. The prevalence of hookah smoking was the highest among the other substances and had the greatest abuse among males than females. Nearly 86%, 9.5%, and 4.6% of the participants were low risk, tobacco experimenter, and high risk, respectively. The odds ratio indices of membership in each class, compared with the first class, associated with the independent variables. A fair number of students, males in particular, were identified as high risk-takers. Considering the simultaneous incidence of multiple high-risk behaviors, interventions must cover multiple aspects of the issue at the same time.

  7. Certain subphenotypes of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease distinguished by latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Grazyna; Kuschill-Dziurda, Joanna; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Plutecka, Hanna; Szczeklik, Andrzej; Nizankowska-Mogilnicka, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is recognized as a distinct asthma phenotype. It usually has a severe course accompanied by chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis with nasal polyps, blood eosinophilia, and increased concentrations of urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4). More insightful analysis of individual patients shows this group to be nonhomogeneous. We sought to identify any likely subphenotypes in a cohort of patients with AERD through the application of latent class analysis (LCA). Clinical data from 201 patients with AERD (134 women) were collected from questionnaires. Standard spirometry, atopy traits, blood eosinophilia, and urinary LTE4 concentrations were evaluated. LCA was applied to identify possible AERD subphenotypes. Four classes (subphenotypes) within the AERD phenotype were identified as follows: class 1, asthma with a moderate course, intensive upper airway symptoms, and blood eosinophilia (18.9% of patients); class 2, asthma with a mild course, relatively well controlled, and with low health care use (34.8% of patients); class 3, asthma with a severe course, poorly controlled, and with severe exacerbations and airway obstruction (41.3% of patients); and class 4, poorly controlled asthma with frequent and severe exacerbations in female subjects (5.0% of patients). Atopic status did not affect class membership. Patients with particularly intensive upper airway symptoms had the highest levels of blood eosinophilia and the highest concentrations of urinary LTE4. LCA revealed unique AERD subphenotypes, thus corroborating the heterogeneity of this population. Such discrimination might facilitate more individualized treatment in difficult-to-treat patients. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DOES EU-INTEGRATION CHANGE AGGLOMERATION PROCESS? THE IMPACT OF EU MEMBERSHIP PROCESS ON THE CITY-SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the eventual impacts of European Union (EU membership process and other conventional factors on the city-size distribution of a candidate country (Turkey. I can state main results as follows: Analyzing from different estimation methods the direct effect of the EU reforms on agglomerating forces rather than congesting forces are revealed to be dominant for Turkey. However, the main impact of the EU membership process has positive but modest coefficient that indicate the weak willingness of the country for EU reforms.Keywords: Economic itegration, agglomeration, city-size distribution, EU, Turkey.JEL Classification: F15, F22, R12, R23

  9. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  10. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation...

  11. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ...

  12. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  13. Bringing the Brain to Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for encouraging the gifted child's brain to make the most of learning opportunities. Strategies include offering programming enrichment classes, accelerated classes, and teachers trained in differentiating instruction. The importance of providing enrichment, challenges, and feedback are stressed and the game…

  14. A latent class analysis of weight-related health behaviors among 2- and 4-year college students and associated risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2- and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health behaviors that represent multiple theoretically/clinically relevant dimensions of obesity risk among 2- versus 4-year college students using cross-sectional statewide surveillance data (N = 17,584). Additionally, differences in class membership on selected sociodemographic characteristics were examined using a model-based approach. Analysis was conducted separately for both college groups, and five and four classes were identified for 2- and 4-year college students, respectively. Four classes were similar across 2- and 4-year college groups and were characterized as "mostly healthy dietary habits, active"; "moderately high screen time, active"; "moderately healthy dietary habits, inactive"; and "moderately high screen time, inactive." "Moderately healthy dietary habits, high screen time" was the additional class unique to 2-year college students. These classes differed on a number of sociodemographic characteristics, including the proportion in each class who were classified as obese. Implications for prevention scientists and future intervention programs are considered. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-23

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  16. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2004-12-28

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the U.S. petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the first quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period include: (1) hosting the SWC spring proposal meeting in Golden Colorado, (2) planning of the upcoming SWC fall technology transfer meetings, and (3) recruiting the SWC base membership.

  17. ESTABLISHMENT OF AN INDUSTRY-DRIVEN CONSORTIUM FOCUSED ON IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC STRIPPER WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison

    2001-09-14

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory will establish, promote, and manage a national industry-driven stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that will be focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The consortium creates a partnership with the US petroleum and natural gas industries and trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report serves as the four quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. During this reporting period, Penn State primary focus was on finalizing all subcontracts, planning the SWC technology transfer meeting and two workshops in the southern US, and preparing the next SWC newsletter. Membership in the SWC now stands at 49.

  18. Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected.

  19. Predictors and Consequences of Gang Membership: Comparing Gang Members, Gang Leaders, and Non-Gang-Affiliated Adjudicated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Gibson, Lauren; Steinberg, Laurence; Piquero, Alex; Fagan, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This 7-year study of 1,170 male adjudicated youth examined how self-esteem, psychopathy, and psychosocial maturity relate to gang status (low-level member, leader, and non-gang member). Low temperance, perspective, and responsibility predicted being a low-level gang member, whereas only lower temperance predicted being a gang leader. Low self-esteem predicted gang membership (low-level and high-level) at a younger age (i.e., during adolescence). However, higher self-esteem and grandiose-manipulative traits predicted being a gang leader during young adulthood. Over time, low-level members became more psychopathic and less psychosocially mature. Gang leaders also became more psychopathic and undercontrolled (as indicted by lower temperance). However, their perspective and responsibility aspects of psychosocial maturity were not affected. PMID:27087767

  20. Utility of predicting group membership and the role of spatial visualization in becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, L G; Lubinski, D; Yao, G

    1993-04-01

    This article has two themes: First, we explicate how the prediction of group membership can augment test validation designs restricted to prediction of individual differences in criterion performance. Second, we illustrate the utility of this methodology by documenting the importance of spatial visualization for becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist. This involved various longitudinal analyses on a sample of 400,000 high school students tracked after 11 years following their high school graduation. The predictive validities of Spatial-Math and Verbal-Math ability composites were established by successfully differentiating a variety of educational and occupational groups. One implication of our findings is that physical science and engineering disciplines appear to be losing many talented persons by restricting assessment to conventional mathematical and verbal abilities, such as those of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

  1. Short- and long-term effects of fraternity and sorority membership on heavy drinking: a social norms perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, K J; Bartholow, B D; Nanda, S

    2001-03-01

    This study sought to determine whether the well-established relation between fraternity/sorority (Greek) membership and heavy alcohol use persists beyond the college years and whether some common third variables might account for the relation between Greek status and heavy drinking. During each of 4 years of college and 1 additional year, young adults (N = 319) completed measures of alcohol use, personality, alcohol expectancies, and environmental influences on drinking. Throughout the college years, Greeks consistently drank more heavily than non-Greeks. Statistically controlling for previous alcohol use did not eliminate this effect. However, Greek status did not predict postcollege heavy drinking levels. Also, perceived peer norms for heavy drinking mediated the relation between Greek affiliation and heavy alcohol use. Results are discussed in terms of situational determinants of heavy alcohol involvement in young adults.

  2. Improvement of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the sub-arctic and arctic areas under the WTO membership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Aleksandrovich Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the necessity to change the role of the state in technological and socio-economic development of the agricultural sector. The author considers the forms and methods of state regulation and analyses the current budget support provided to agriculture; he highlights its drawbacks with regard to sub-arctic and arctic territories of the Republic of Komi. The article shows the influence of state support on the farmers’ level of income and identifies modernization risks and threats under Russia’s WTO membership. The author proposes measures to improve state support of the agrarian sector and change the adverse conditions of its functioning. He substantiates the approach that helps improve the state regulation of the agrarian sector in the framework of regional and municipal programs for rural development

  3. Is Conformity a Mediating Variable on Increased Risk-Taking Behavior Across Years of Membership in the Greek System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHLOË ELIZABETH LEE-ZORN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the college subculture of Greek Life, members adhere to specific rules and norms in order to remain accepted, which could beindicative of conformity. This notion raises the question: what is the role of conformity on the risk taking behaviors of alcoholusage and sexual promiscuity as well as on the academic performance across years of membership? The article examines conformityin 31 fraternity members, cross-sectionally, using a compressed longitudinal design and hypothesizes members develop lower levelsof conformity after initiation, making them less susceptible to risk taking behaviors such as binge drinking, sexual promiscuityand decreased academic performance. Surveys were administered in paper format, and results were evaluated using a series ofanalysis of variance equations. The results indicated an interaction effect between peer conformity (high, low and alcoholicbeverages consumed as well as a main effects for between peer involvement (high, low and time on college GPA.

  4. GENERIC PROPERTIES OF HOMOCLINIC CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS MARIA CARBALLO

    2001-01-01

    Uma classe homoclínica de um campo vetorial é o fecho do conjunto de pontos homoclínicos transversais associados a uma órbita periódica hiperbólica. Provamos as propriedades seguintes. 1. As classes homoclínicas de campos vetoriais C¹ genéricos em variedades de dimensão n são conjuntos transitivos maximais, saturados, e isolados se e somente se omega-isolados. 2. Os campos vetorias C¹ genéricos não têm ciclos formados por classes homoclínicas. 3. A...

  5. What factors facilitate the engagement with flipped classrooms used in the preparation for postgraduate medical membership examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    Background The “flipped classroom,” a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Methods Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved “students” (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with “tutors” (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Results Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students’ expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. Conclusion The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education. PMID:28721116

  6. Multidimensional profiles of health status: an application of the grade of membership model to the world health survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Andreotti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO conducted the World Health Survey (WHS between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision

  7. Multidimensional Profiles of Health Status: An Application of the Grade of Membership Model to the World Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessandra; Minicuci, Nadia; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath

    2009-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted the World Health Survey (WHS) between 2002 and 2004 in 70 countries to provide cross-population comparable data on health, health-related outcomes and risk factors. The aim of this study was to apply Grade of Membership (GoM) modelling as a means to condense extensive health information from the WHS into a set of easily understandable health profiles and to assign the degree to which an individual belongs to each profile. Principal Findings This paper described the application of the GoM models to summarize population health status using World Health Survey data. Grade of Membership analysis is a flexible, non-parametric, multivariate method, used to calculate health profiles from WHS self-reported health state and health conditions. The WHS dataset was divided into four country economic categories based on the World Bank economic groupings (high, upper-middle, lower-middle and low income economies) for separate GoM analysis. Three main health profiles were produced for each of the four areas: I. Robust; II. Intermediate; III. Frail; moreover population health, wealth and inequalities are defined for countries in each economic area as a means to put the health results into perspective. Conclusions These analyses have provided a robust method to better understand health profiles and the components which can help to identify healthy and non-healthy individuals. The obtained profiles have described concrete levels of health and have clearly delineated characteristics of healthy and non-healthy respondents. The GoM results provided both a useable way of summarising complex individual health information and a selection of intermediate determinants which can be targeted for interventions to improve health. As populations' age, and with limited budgets for additional costs for health care and social services, applying the GoM methods may assist with identifying higher risk profiles for decision-making and resource

  8. 'This very difficult debate about Wik': stake, voice and the management of category memberships in race politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCouteur, A; Rapley, M; Augoustinos, M

    2001-03-01

    The issue of 'race' has assumed an extraordinarily salient position in Australian politics since the election of the conservative Howard government in 1996. Central to debate in the Australian policy has been the nature of the relationship between indigenous, or Aboriginal, Australians and the rest of the population, in particular over the issue of the land rights of indigenous people. Land rights, or 'native title', assumed a pre-eminent position in national political life in 1996/97 with the handing down by the High Court of the so-called 'Wik judgment'. The discursive management of the ensuing debate by Australia's political leaders is illuminative of key sites of interest in the analysis of political rhetoric and the construction of 'racially sensitive' issues. Taking the texts of 'addresses to the nation' on Wik by the leaders of the two major political parties as analytic materials, we examine two features of the talk. First, examine how the speakers manage their stake in the position they advance, with an extension of previous work on reported speech into the area of set-piece political rhetoric. Second, in contrast to approaches which treat social categories as routine, mundane and unproblematic objects, we demonstrate the local construction of category memberships and their predicates as strategic moves in political talk. Specifically, we demonstrate how the categories of 'Aborigines' and 'farmers', groups central to the dispute, are strategically constructed to normatively bind certain entitlements to activity to category membership. Furthermore, inasmuch as such categories do not, in use, reflect readily perceived 'objective' group entities in the 'real' world, so too 'standard' discursive devices and rhetorical structures are themselves shown to be contingently shaped and strategically deployed for contrasting local, ideological and rhetorical ends.

  9. Is psychological membership in the classroom a function of standing out while fitting in? Implications for achievement motivation and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, DeLeon L

    2017-04-01

    Education researchers have consistently linked students' perceptions of "fitting in" at school with patterns of motivation and positive emotions. This study proposes that "standing out" is also helpful for producing these outcomes, and that standing out works in concert with perceptions of fitting in. In a sample of 702 high school students nested within 33 classrooms, principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were each conducted on half of the sample. Results support the proposed structure of measures of standing out and fitting in. Multilevel latent profile analysis was then used to classify students into four profiles of standing out while fitting in (SOFI): Unfulfilled, Somewhat Fulfilled, Nearly Fulfilled, and Fulfilled. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students of color and those on who paid free/reduced prices lunch were overrepresented in the Unfulfilled and Somewhat Fulfilled profiles. A multilevel path analysis was then performed to assess the direct and indirect associations of profile membership with measures of task value and achievement emotions. Relative to the other profiles, students in the Fulfilled SOFI Profile express greater psychological membership in their classrooms and, in turn, express higher valuing of academic material (i.e., intrinsic value, utility value, and attainment value) and more positive achievement emotions (i.e., more enjoyment and pride; less boredom, hopelessness, and shame). This investigation provides critical insights on the potential benefits of structuring academic learning environments to foster feelings of distinctiveness among adolescents; and has implications for cultivating identities and achievement motivation in academic settings. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Three subgroups of pain profiles identified in 227 women with arthritis: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Katie; Parkinson, Lynne; Downie, Aron; Blyth, Fiona; Byles, Julie

    2017-03-01

    The objectives were to identify subgroups of women with arthritis based upon the multi-dimensional nature of their pain experience and to compare health and socio-demographic variables between subgroups. A latent class analysis of 227 women with self-reported arthritis was used to identify clusters of women based upon the sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions of the pain experience. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between cluster membership and health and sociodemographic characteristics. A three-class cluster model was most parsimonious. 39.5 % of women had a unidimensional pain profile; 38.6 % of women had moderate multidimensional pain profile that included additional pain symptomatology such as sensory qualities and pain catastrophizing; and 21.9 % of women had severe multidimensional pain profile that included prominent pain symptomatology such as sensory and affective qualities of pain, pain catastrophizing, and neuropathic pain. Women with severe multidimensional pain profile have a 30.5 % higher risk of poorer quality of life and a 7.3 % higher risk of suffering depression, and women with moderate multidimensional pain profile have a 6.4 % higher risk of poorer quality of life when compared to women with unidimensional pain. This study identified three distinct subgroups of pain profiles in older women with arthritis. Women had very different experiences of pain, and cluster membership impacted significantly on health-related quality of life. These preliminary findings provide a stronger understanding of profiles of pain and may contribute to the development of tailored treatment options in arthritis.

  11. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Baring, Rito V; Sta Maria, Madelene A

    2016-02-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students.

  12. Relationships between Risk Factors, Perceptions of School Membership and Academic and Behavioral Engagement of Students Who Attend an Alternative School for Behavioral and Emotional Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Simpson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the perceptions of school membership, risk factors, and behavioral and academic engagement among a sample of alternative school students. The study subjects were 48 7th-9th graders who were at high risk for school failure because of their serious and chronic behavioral and…

  13. Job insecurity, union support and the intention to resign membership. A psychological contract perspective tested among union members in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Witte, Hans; Sverke, Magnus; Van Ruysseveldt, Joris; Goslinga, Sjoerd; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Hellgren, Johnny; Näswall, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of job insecurity among union members. Starting from the dominance of the instrumental motive for union membership, and using psychological contract theory, we hypothesize that the perception of job insecurity will correlate with a lower level of perceived union

  14. Gender Variations in the Effects of Number of Organizational Memberships, Number of Social Networking Sites, and Grade-Point Average on Global Social Responsibility in Filipino University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B.; Baring, Rito V.; Sta. Maria, Madelene A.

    2016-01-01

    The study seeks to estimate gender variations in the direct effects of (a) number of organizational memberships, (b) number of social networking sites (SNS), and (c) grade-point average (GPA) on global social responsibility (GSR); and in the indirect effects of (a) and of (b) through (c) on GSR. Cross-sectional survey data were drawn from questionnaire interviews involving 3,173 Filipino university students. Based on a path model, the three factors were tested to determine their inter-relationships and their relationships with GSR. The direct and total effects of the exogenous factors on the dependent variable are statistically significantly robust. The indirect effects of organizational memberships on GSR through GPA are also statistically significant, but the indirect effects of SNS on GSR through GPA are marginal. Men and women significantly differ only in terms of the total effects of their organizational memberships on GSR. The lack of broad gender variations in the effects of SNS, organizational memberships and GPA on GSR may be linked to the relatively homogenous characteristics and experiences of the university students interviewed. There is a need for more path models to better understand the predictors of GSR in local students. PMID:27247700

  15. The Effects of Fraternity and Sorority Membership in the Fourth Year of College: A Detrimental or Value-Added Component of Undergraduate Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Michael S.; Martin, Georgianna L.; Weeden, Dustin D.; Pascarella, Ernest T.

    2015-01-01

    We use a longitudinal national dataset to explore the direct and conditional effects of fraternity/sorority membership on students' educational outcomes in the 4th year of college. Controlling for a variety of potentially confounding variables, including pretest measures of the outcomes, we find no direct effect of fraternity/sorority membership…

  16. Teachers in Politics: Impact of Political Party Membership on Teachers' Freedom and Stability. The Case of Nigste-Saba High School, Adwa, Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyum, Berihu Asgele; Gebremedhin, Mewcha Amha

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to explore the main influences of politics on teacher's academic freedom and on the independence of academic institutions. The general objective of this study was assessing the impact of political party membership among teachers on their freedom in the study area. Nigste Saba is a model high school which is selected…

  17. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples.

  18. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  19. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  20. Actions of mapping class groups

    OpenAIRE

    PAPADOPOULOS, ATHANASE

    2014-01-01

    This paper has three parts. The first part is a general introduction to rigidity and to rigid actions of mapping class group actions on various spaces. In the second part, we describe in detail four rigidity results that concern actions of mapping class groups on spaces of foliations and of laminations, namely, Thurston's sphere of projective foliations equipped with its projective piecewise-linear structure, the space of unmeasured foliations equipped with the quotient topology, the reduced ...