WorldWideScience

Sample records for swath mapper produced

  1. Miniature Ka-band Automated Swath Mapper (KASM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discusses the development and demonstration of a swath-based airborne instrument suite intended as a calibration and validation with relevance to the...

  2. MAppERS: a peer-produced community for emergency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    A general trend in European governance tends to shift responsibilities in territorial management from national central authorities to local/regional levels and to the citizens as first actors of Civil Protection. Prevention is a long term goal that rests not only on the capacities of professional operators and volunteers, but that has to necessarily imply the involvement and awareness of the citizens over the territory they inhabit. In fact people often do not have chance to interact in the surveillance of the territory and only face risks when they have to bear impacts on their lives. Involvement of population creates more cost-effective and context-specific strategies of territorial surveillance and management. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a EU project (funded under programme 2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) which empowers citizens as "crowd-sourced mappers" through the development of a smart phone application able to collect GPS-localised and detailed parameters, that can then be sent from citizens to civil protection operators in a contest of geospatial response. The process of app design includes feedback from citizens, involving them in training courses on the monitoring of the territory as long term objective of raising public awareness and participation from the citizens, as actors in a networked disaster response community. The project proceeds from the design and testing of the smart phone applications (module MAppERS-V for volunteers, module MAppERS-C for citizens) according to software engineering environment (Android and Iphone SDK). Information exchange and data transfer need clearness and efficiency; thus a previous research is conducted on the cost-effectiveness of already existing practices for territorial

  3. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  4. EPA Recovery Mapper

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Recovery Mapper is an Internet interactive mapping application that allows users to discover information about every American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  5. Fire Mapper Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The design of a UAV mounted Fire Mapper system is proposed. The system consists of a multi-band imaging sensor, a data processing system and a data communication...

  6. VIIRS/NPP Thermal Anomalies/Fire 6-Min L2 Swath 750m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Anomalies (VNP14) Version 1 product is produced in 6-minute temporal satellite increments (swaths) at...

  7. Image Navigation and Registration Performance Assessment Tool Set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24-hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24-hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  8. Image navigation and registration performance assessment tool set for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-05-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99. 73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  9. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  10. HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCES OF SMALL SIZE SWATH CRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermina Begovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The good seakeeping characteristics of SWATH hull form are very interesting for small working craft and pleasure boats. Intrinsic limitations as the low values of weight per inch of immersion and transversal and longitudinal instability, can be acceptable and successfully managed when the mission profile does not ask for significant load variation and shift. The exploitation of SWATH concept is limited by the craft size, but if main dimensions allow enough static stability, this configuration appears very promising. SWATH behaviour in rough sea at zero and low speed have led to consider this hull form within the small craft design research program in progress at University of Naples Federico II. The design of small size SWATH working/pleasure craft has to begin from the consideration of strut waterplane areas that are the key factor to get acceptable static and dynamic stability. Displacement has to be reduced as most as possible to increase static stability, as shown by last design trends. The results of CFD analysis concerning SWATH resistance and propulsion, aspects are presented. A numerical evaluation of the hull-propeller interactions is performed, through simulations of self-propulsion tests with a simplified method (Actuator Disk model to discretize the propeller effect. The effective wake coefficient, the thrust deduction fraction and hull efficiency are provided. To validate CFD resistance results a comparison with experimental tests performed by Authors is reported. The presented work highlights different hydrodynamic aspects, comments advantages and critical issues of SWATH concept and reports detailed CFD modelling procedure with the aim to provide a reference for SWATH small craft design.

  11. Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager and Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuccia, Frank J.; Houchin, Scott; Porter, Brian C.; Graybill, Justin; Haas, Evan; Johnson, Patrick D.; Isaacson, Peter J.; Reth, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The GOES-R Flight Project has developed an Image Navigation and Registration (INR) Performance Assessment Tool Set (IPATS) for measuring Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) INR performance metrics in the post-launch period for performance evaluation and long term monitoring. For ABI, these metrics are the 3-sigma errors in navigation (NAV), channel-to-channel registration (CCR), frame-to-frame registration (FFR), swath-to-swath registration (SSR), and within frame registration (WIFR) for the Level 1B image products. For GLM, the single metric of interest is the 3-sigma error in the navigation of background images (GLM NAV) used by the system to navigate lightning strikes. 3-sigma errors are estimates of the 99.73rd percentile of the errors accumulated over a 24 hour data collection period. IPATS utilizes a modular algorithmic design to allow user selection of data processing sequences optimized for generation of each INR metric. This novel modular approach minimizes duplication of common processing elements, thereby maximizing code efficiency and speed. Fast processing is essential given the large number of sub-image registrations required to generate INR metrics for the many images produced over a 24 hour evaluation period. Another aspect of the IPATS design that vastly reduces execution time is the off-line propagation of Landsat based truth images to the fixed grid coordinates system for each of the three GOES-R satellite locations, operational East and West and initial checkout locations. This paper describes the algorithmic design and implementation of IPATS and provides preliminary test results.

  12. Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Miller, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Natraj, Vijay; Rider, David; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary Carbon Process Mapper (GCPM) is an earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases related to climate change and human activity.Understanding of sources and sinks of CO2 is currently limited by frequency of observations and uncertainty in vertical transport. GCPM improves this situation by making simultaneous high resolution measurements of CO2, CH4, CF, and CO in near-IR, many times per day. GCPM is able to investigate processes with time scales of minutes to hours. CO2, CH4, CF, Co selected because their combination provides information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic sources/sinks. Quasi-continuous monitoring effectively eliminates atmospheric transport uncertainties from source/sink inversion modeling. will have one instrument (GeoFTS), hosted on a commercial communications satellite, planned for two years operation. GCPM will affordably advance the understanding of observed cycle variability improving future climate projections.

  13. The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, R.E.; Tripp, L.R. [Odetics, Inc., Anaheim, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant (IRMA) system combines state-of-the-art radiation sensors and microprocessor based analysis techniques to perform radiation surveys. Control of the survey function is from a control station located outside the radiation thus reducing time spent in radiation areas performing radiation surveys. The system consists of a directional radiation sensor, a laser range finder, two area radiation sensors, and a video camera mounted on a pan and tilt platform. THis sensor package is deployable on a remotely operated vehicle. The outputs of the system are radiation intensity maps identifying both radiation source intensities and radiation levels throughout the room being surveyed. After completion of the survey, the data can be removed from the control station computer for further analysis or archiving.

  14. Landsat-Swath Imaging Spectrometer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design of a high-throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution. The design is based on a 3200 x 480 element x 18 µm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  15. SMEX04 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2004...

  16. CLPX-Satellite: Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of Lansat thematic mapper imagergy collected over the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) Large Regional Study Area (LRSA), located...

  17. SMEX02 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment...

  18. Landsat Thematic Mapper Image Mosaic of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) produced a seamless, cloud-minimized remotely-sensed image spanning the State of Colorado. Multiple orthorectified Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes collected during 2006-2008 were spectrally normalized via reflectance transformation and linear regression based upon pseudo-invariant features (PIFS) following the removal of clouds. Individual Landsat scenes were then mosaicked to form a six-band image composite spanning the visible to shortwave infrared spectrum. This image mosaic, presented here, will also be used to create a conifer health classification for Colorado in Scientific Investigations Map 3103. An archive of past and current Landsat imagery exists and is available to the scientific community (http://glovis.usgs.gov/), but significant pre-processing was required to produce a statewide mosaic from this information. Much of the data contained perennial cloud cover that complicated analysis and classification efforts. Existing Landsat mosaic products, typically three band image composites, did not include the full suite of multispectral information necessary to produce this assessment, and were derived using data collected in 2001 or earlier. A six-band image mosaic covering Colorado was produced. This mosaic includes blue (band 1), green (band 2), red (band 3), near infrared (band 4), and shortwave infrared information (bands 5 and 7). The image composite shown here displays three of the Landsat bands (7, 4, and 2), which are sensitive to the shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Vegetation appears green in this image, while water looks black, and unforested areas appear pink. The lines that may be visible in the on-screen version of the PDF are an artifact of the export methods used to create this file. The file should be viewed at 150 percent zoom or greater for optimum viewing.

  19. Lightning mapper and the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    A trade-off analysis was completed that reveals how the lightning mapper detection efficiency will change as a function of interference filter bandwidth, pixel field of view, and telescope aperture. It is shown that the critical parameter on which we have minimum flexibility is filter band-width. The problem is that too narrow a filter bandwidth is incompatible with wide areal coverage. The trade-off analysis demonstrates that an 80 percent lightning detection efficiency will technically be relatively straight-forward, while a 90 percent detection efficiency will apparently be difficult to achieve. Three focal plane designs are currently under consideration. One would use a single large, solid state silicon integrating array with multiple output channels and off-the-focal-plane analog, time domain, background removing fibers. A second design would use the same technology, but the sensor would consist of up to four virtually independent focal plane arrays. This design reduces the areal coverage of each detector. Thus narrower interference filters could be utilized. Superior performance would be realized at a probable increase in cost. The final design would use a three-dimensional focal plane in order to perform background removal at the focal plane. Superior performance would be achieved along with reduced weight and power requirements. Unfortunately, this focal plane technology is still under development.

  20. Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale

    This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.

  1. SwathProfiler and NProfiler: Two new ArcGIS Add-ins for the automatic extraction of swath and normalized river profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Al-Awabdeh, M.; Azañón, J. M.; Galve, J. P.; Booth-Rea, G.; Notti, D.

    2017-07-01

    The present-day great availability of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models has improved tectonic geomorphology analyses in their methodological aspects and geological meaning. Analyses based on topographic profiles are valuable to explore the short and long-term landscape response to tectonic activity and climate changes. Swath and river longitudinal profiles are two of the most used analysis to explore the long and short-term landscape responses. Most of these morphometric analyses are conducted in GIS software, which have become standard tools for analyzing drainage network metrics. In this work we present two ArcGIS Add-Ins to automatically delineate swath and normalized river profiles. Both tools are programmed in Visual Basic . NET and use ArcObjects library-architecture to access directly to vector and raster data. The SwathProfiler Add-In allows analyzing the topography within a swath or band by representing maximum-minimum-mean elevations, first and third quartile, local relief and hypsometry. We have defined a new transverse hypsometric integral index (THi) that analyzes hypsometry along the swath and offer valuable information in these kind of graphics. The NProfiler Add-In allows representing longitudinal normalized river profiles and their related morphometric indexes as normalized concavity (CT), maximum concavity (Cmax) and length of maximum concavity (Lmax). Both tools facilitate the spatial analysis of topography and drainage networks directly in a GIS environment as ArcMap and provide graphical outputs. To illustrate how these tools work, we analyzed two study areas, the Sierra Alhamilla mountain range (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) and the Eastern margin of the Dead Sea (Jordan). The first study area has been recently studied from a morphotectonic perspective and these new tools can show an added value to the previous studies. The second study area has not been analyzed by quantitative tectonic geomorphology and the results suggest a landscape

  2. Geostationary Lightning Mapper for GOES-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William

    2007-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR optical detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and Nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 11 year data record of global lightning activity. Instrument formulation studies begun in January 2006 will be completed in March 2007, with implementation expected to begin in September 2007. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, airborne science missions (e.g., African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis, AMMA), and regional test beds (e.g, Lightning Mapping Arrays) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data now being provided to selected forecast offices will lead to improved understanding of the application of these data in the severe storm warning process and accelerate the development of the pre-launch algorithms and Nowcasting applications. Proxy data combined with MODIS and Meteosat Second Generation SEVERI observations will also lead to new

  3. The SkyMapper Transient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzo, R. A.; Yuan, F.; Childress, M. J.; Möller, A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Tucker, B. E.; Zhang, B. R.; Onken, C. A.; Wolf, C.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; Regnault, N.

    2017-07-01

    The SkyMapper 1.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory has now begun regular operations. Alongside the Southern Sky Survey, a comprehensive digital survey of the entire southern sky, SkyMapper will carry out a search for supernovae and other transients. The search strategy, covering a total footprint area of 2 000 deg2 with a cadence of ⩽5 d, is optimised for discovery and follow-up of low-redshift type Ia supernovae to constrain cosmic expansion and peculiar velocities. We describe the search operations and infrastructure, including a parallelised software pipeline to discover variable objects in difference imaging; simulations of the performance of the survey over its lifetime; public access to discovered transients; and some first results from the Science Verification data.

  4. Evaluation of corn/soybeans separability using Thematic Mapper and Thematic Mapper Simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, D. E.; Badhwar, G. D.; Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Shen, S. S.; Sorensen, C. T.; Carnes, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Multitemporal Thematic Mapper, Thematic Mapper Simulator, and detailed ground truth data were collected for a 9- by 11-km sample segment in Webster County, IA, in the summer of 1982. Three dates were acquired each with Thematic Mapper Simulator (June 7, June 23, and July 31) and Thematic Mapper (August 2, September 3, and October 21). The Thematic Mapper Simulator data were converted to equivalent TM count values using TM and TMS calibration data and model based estimates of atmospheric effects. The July 31, TMS image was compared to the August 2, TM image to verify the conversion process. A quantitative measure of proportion estimation variance (Fisher information) was used to evaluate the corn/soybeans separability for each TM band as a function of time during the growing season. The additional bands in the middle infrared allowed corn and soybeans to be separated much earlier than was possible with the visible and near-infrared bands alone. Using the TM and TMS data, temporal profiles of the TM principal components were developed. The greenness and brightness exhibited behavior similar to MSS greenness and brightness for corn and soybeans.

  5. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  6. Swath mapping system processing: Bathymetry and cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourillet, J. F.; Edy, C.; Rambert, F.; Satra, C.; Loubrieu, B.

    1996-06-01

    During swath mapping cruises various geophysical data were collected. Bathymetry, imagery and other geophysical information require specialised post-processing. Dedicated software enables post-processing and visualisation of each type of data. A graphic interface collects the files and exports them to a CAD system for cleaning and for adding extra information. The huge amount of soundings from multibeam echo sounder systems and the very particular sampling along and across the ship's track demand powerful software such as TRISMUS provides. Major steps in the processing are the merging of raw soundings with navigation corrected if necessary, the cleaning of soundings with a band-pass filter and the gridding of the data to obtain a Digital Terrain Model. Despite care and real time filtering during the acquisition phase, some errors persist and appear as abnormal patterns on contoured maps. It is often difficult to distinguish the origins of the errors and consequently to correct them in a deterministic way. But the analysis and description of typical patterns allows errors to be classified into five groups — sounding, profile, overlap area, surveyed area or gridding artefact — and in some cases to adopt specific processing techniques to reduce or cancel undesirable effects. Merging bathymetric maps and sonar mosaics can be achieved with IMAGEM or with the high level graphic interface MFEDIT. Since dedicated software splits the information up into different layers, the operator can manage the layers according to the information he wants on the final document. Additional information such as seismic reflection data and interpretation, geological logs and legends, can be imported or created as extra layers.

  7. cMapper: gene-centric connectivity mapper for EBI-RDF platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Ansari, Adnan Ahmad; Ahn, Sung-Min

    2017-01-15

    In this era of biological big data, data integration has become a common task and a challenge for biologists. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) was developed to enable interoperability of heterogeneous datasets. The EBI-RDF platform enables an efficient data integration of six independent biological databases using RDF technologies and shared ontologies. However, to take advantage of this platform, biologists need to be familiar with RDF technologies and SPARQL query language. To overcome this practical limitation of the EBI-RDF platform, we developed cMapper, a web-based tool that enables biologists to search the EBI-RDF databases in a gene-centric manner without a thorough knowledge of RDF and SPARQL. cMapper allows biologists to search data entities in the EBI-RDF platform that are connected to genes or small molecules of interest in multiple biological contexts. The input to cMapper consists of a set of genes or small molecules, and the output are data entities in six independent EBI-RDF databases connected with the given genes or small molecules in the user's query. cMapper provides output to users in the form of a graph in which nodes represent data entities and the edges represent connections between data entities and inputted set of genes or small molecules. Furthermore, users can apply filters based on database, taxonomy, organ and pathways in order to focus on a core connectivity graph of their interest. Data entities from multiple databases are differentiated based on background colors. cMapper also enables users to investigate shared connections between genes or small molecules of interest. Users can view the output graph on a web browser or download it in either GraphML or JSON formats. cMapper is available as a web application with an integrated MySQL database. The web application was developed using Java and deployed on Tomcat server. We developed the user interface using HTML5, JQuery and the Cytoscape Graph API. cMapper can be accessed at

  8. Lightning mapper development: Status and requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility for the detection and location of lightning on a continuous basis using a sensor in geostationary orbit was established. Measurements of the optical characteristics of lightning and the capabilities of solid state mosaic focal plane arrays, indicate that the question is how high a detection efficiency can be achieved. The lightning mapper development to strengthen the scientific justification for placing a lightning sensor in geostationary orbit is discussed. The U-2 and ground based lightning research, modeling, and theoretical studies are reported.

  9. SWATH2stats: An R/Bioconductor Package to Process and Convert Quantitative SWATH-MS Proteomics Data for Downstream Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Peter; Heusel, Moritz; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-01-01

    SWATH-MS is an acquisition and analysis technique of targeted proteomics that enables measuring several thousand proteins with high reproducibility and accuracy across many samples. OpenSWATH is popular open-source software for peptide identification and quantification from SWATH-MS data. For downstream statistical and quantitative analysis there exist different tools such as MSstats, mapDIA and aLFQ. However, the transfer of data from OpenSWATH to the downstream statistical tools is currently technically challenging. Here we introduce the R/Bioconductor package SWATH2stats, which allows convenient processing of the data into a format directly readable by the downstream analysis tools. In addition, SWATH2stats allows annotation, analyzing the variation and the reproducibility of the measurements, FDR estimation, and advanced filtering before submitting the processed data to downstream tools. These functionalities are important to quickly analyze the quality of the SWATH-MS data. Hence, SWATH2stats is a new open-source tool that summarizes several practical functionalities for analyzing, processing, and converting SWATH-MS data and thus facilitates the efficient analysis of large-scale SWATH/DIA datasets.

  10. Study of Wide Swath Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Techology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keshu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining synthetic-aperture imaging and coherent-light detection technology, the weak signal identification capacity of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL reaches the photo level, and the image resolution exceeds the diffraction limit of the telescope to obtain high-resolution images irrespective to ranges. This paper introduces SAL, including the development path, technology characteristics, and the restriction of imaging swath. On the basis of this, we propose to integrate the SAL technology for extending its swath. By analyzing the scanning-operation mode and the signal model, the paper explicitly proposes that the former mode will be the developmental trend of the SAL technology. This paper also introduces the flight demonstrations of the SAL and the imaging results of remote targets, showing the potential of the SAL in long-range, high-resolution, and scanning-imaging applications. The technology and the theory of the scanning mode of SAL compensates for the defects related to the swath and operation efficiency of the current SAL. It provides scientific foundation for the SAL system applied in wide swath, high resolution earth observation, and the ISAL system applied in space-targets imaging.

  11. Venus radar mapper attitude reference quaternion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D. T.

    1986-01-01

    Polynomial functions of time are used to specify the components of the quaternion which represents the nominal attitude of the Venus Radar mapper spacecraft during mapping. The following constraints must be satisfied in order to obtain acceptable synthetic array radar data: the nominal attitude function must have a large dynamic range, the sensor orientation must be known very accurately, the attitude reference function must use as little memory as possible, and the spacecraft must operate autonomously. Fitting polynomials to the components of the desired quaternion function is a straightforward method for providing a very dynamic nominal attitude using a minimum amount of on-board computer resources. Although the attitude from the polynomials may not be exactly the one requested by the radar designers, the polynomial coefficients are known, so they do not contribute to the attitude uncertainty. Frequent coefficient updates are not required, so the spacecraft can operate autonomously.

  12. Development of image mappers for hyperspectral biomedical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Robert T; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2010-04-01

    A new design and fabrication method is presented for creating large-format (>100 mirror facets) image mappers for a snapshot hyperspectral biomedical imaging system called an image mapping spectrometer (IMS). To verify this approach a 250 facet image mapper with 25 multiple-tilt angles is designed for a compact IMS that groups the 25 subpupils in a 5 x 5 matrix residing within a single collecting objective's pupil. The image mapper is fabricated by precision diamond raster fly cutting using surface-shaped tools. The individual mirror facets have minimal edge eating, tilt errors of <1 mrad, and an average roughness of 5.4 nm.

  13. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  14. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) is a sensor carried onboard the Landsat 7 satellite and has acquired images of the Earth nearly...

  15. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper NDVI and NDWI: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) data set was developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for...

  16. Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Abstract: The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) is a sensor carried onboard Landsats 4 and 5 and has acquired images of the Earth nearly continuously from July 1982 to...

  17. SMEX02 Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Iowa, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides imagery developed from Landsat 5 and 7 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for use in studying land cover features during the Soil Moisture Experiment...

  18. CLPX-Satellite: Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of Landsat thematic mapper imagery collected over the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) Large Regional Study Area (LRSA), located...

  19. The GOES-R Lightning Mapper Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Lightning Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of lightning from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of lightning activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) lightning at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between lightning optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total lightning. These total lightning observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total lightning observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total lightning data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total lightning measurements are

  20. GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of lightning "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.

  1. Multi-laboratory assessment of reproducibility, qualitative and quantitative performance of SWATH-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ben C; Hunter, Christie L; Liu, Yansheng; Schilling, Birgit; Rosenberger, George; Bader, Samuel L; Chan, Daniel W; Gibson, Bradford W; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Held, Jason M; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Hou, Guixue; Krisp, Christoph; Larsen, Brett; Lin, Liang; Liu, Siqi; Molloy, Mark P; Moritz, Robert L; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Schlapbach, Ralph; Selevsek, Nathalie; Thomas, Stefani N; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2017-08-21

    Quantitative proteomics employing mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool in life science research. Targeted proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach for reproducible quantification but is limited in the number of proteins quantified. SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics (accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity) of targeted proteomics at large scale. While previous SWATH-mass spectrometry studies have shown high intra-lab reproducibility, this has not been evaluated between labs. In this multi-laboratory evaluation study including 11 sites worldwide, we demonstrate that using SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition we can consistently detect and reproducibly quantify >4000 proteins from HEK293 cells. Using synthetic peptide dilution series, we show that the sensitivity, dynamic range and reproducibility established with SWATH-mass spectrometry are uniformly achieved. This study demonstrates that the acquisition of reproducible quantitative proteomics data by multiple labs is achievable, and broadly serves to increase confidence in SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition as a reproducible method for large-scale protein quantification.SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of a data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics on the scale of thousands of proteins. Here, using data generated by eleven groups worldwide, the authors show that SWATH-MS is capable of generating highly reproducible data across different laboratories.

  2. SEAKEEPING PERFORMANCE OF SEMI-SWATH IN FOLLOWING SEA USING CONTROLLED FINS STABILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    Semi-SWATH ship design is a result of combining the good features of SWATH and Catamaran designs. However, the disadvantage of semi-SWATH is that she has low restoring force at bow that causes a tendency to bow-dive when running in following seas. In some critical conditions, the foredeck was found to be immersed underwater. One of the efforts to improve the ship???s performance is to install fin stabilizers at bow and stern. The fin stabilizers are used to compensate for the low restoring fo...

  3. Geostationary Lightning Mapper for GOES-R and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch readiness in December 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fUlly operational. The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous, full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. Instrument formulation studies were completed in March 2007 and the implementation phase to develop a prototype model and up to four flight models will be underway in the latter part of 2007. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data are being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS

  4. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Jeliazkova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs. Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs.Results: The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API, and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms.Conclusion: We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the “representational state

  5. Nano Mapper: an Internet knowledge mapping system for nanotechnology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Daning; Dang, Yan; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Larson, Catherine A.; Chan, Joyce

    2009-04-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced rapid growth in recent years. Advances in information technology enable efficient investigation of publications, their contents, and relationships for large sets of nanotechnology-related documents in order to assess the status of the field. This paper presents the development of a new knowledge mapping system, called Nano Mapper (http://nanomapper.eller.arizona.edu), which integrates the analysis of nanotechnology patents and research grants into a Web-based platform. The Nano Mapper system currently contains nanotechnology-related patents for 1976-2006 from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), European Patent Office (EPO), and Japan Patent Office (JPO), as well as grant documents from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) for the same time period. The system provides complex search functionalities, and makes available a set of analysis and visualization tools (statistics, trend graphs, citation networks, and content maps) that can be applied to different levels of analytical units (countries, institutions, technical fields) and for different time intervals. The paper shows important nanotechnology patenting activities at USPTO for 2005-2006 identified through the Nano Mapper system.

  6. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  7. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  8. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  9. OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Vertical Profile swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Profiler...

  10. Quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS reveals sophisticated metabolic reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yanyan; Wang, Xinzheng; Sang, Zhihong; Li, Zongcheng; Liu, Feng; Mao, Jie; Yan, Dan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongli; Li, Ping; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuemin; He, Kun; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and understanding its molecular pathogenesis is pivotal to managing this disease. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) is an optimal proteomic strategy to seek crucial proteins involved in HCC development and progression. In this study, a quantitative proteomic study of tumour and adjacent non-tumour liver tissues was performed using a SWATH-MS strategy. In total, 4,216 proteins wer...

  11. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-02

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications.

  12. SWATH-MS data of Drosophila melanogaster proteome dynamics during embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Fabre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is one of the most important processes in the life of an animal. During this dynamic process, progressive cell division and cellular differentiation are accompanied by significant changes in protein expression at the level of the proteome. However, very few studies to date have described the dynamics of the proteome during the early development of an embryo in any organism. In this dataset, we monitor changes in protein expression across a timecourse of more than 20 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic development. Mass-spectrometry data were produced using a SWATH acquisition mode on a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600. A spectral library built in-house was used to analyse these data and more than 1950 proteins were quantified at each embryonic timepoint. The files presented here are a permanent digital map and can be reanalysed to test against new hypotheses. The data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD0031078.

  13. The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM): Algorithm and Instrument Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved capability for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. A joint field campaign with Brazilian researchers in 2010-2011 will produce concurrent observations from a VHF lightning mapping array, Meteosat multi-band imagery, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) overpasses, and related ground and in-situ lightning and meteorological measurements in the vicinity of Sao Paulo. These data will provide a new comprehensive proxy data set for algorithm and

  14. Forage intake and wastage by ewes in pea/hay barley swath grazing and bale feeding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of s...

  15. Mapping of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea using KOMPSAT-5 wide swath SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used for mapping sea ice because it can observe Earth's surface regardless of sun altitudes and weather conditions. Korea Multi-Purpose SATellte-5 (KOMPSAT-5) is South Korea's first satellite equipped with X-band SAR system that provides high-resolution images in various observation modes. In this study, sea ice mapping model based on Random Forest (RF), a rule-based machine learning approach, was developed for KOMPSAT-5 Enhanced Wide (EW) swath SAR data obtained from August to September 2015 in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. All SAR images were acquired in HH-polarization at incidence angle ranging from 17 to 50°. Each SAR image covers the area of 100 km × 100 km. A total of 12 texture features derived from backscattering intensity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were used as input variables for sea ice mapping model. The sea ice mapping model based on the RF produced sea ice map with a grid size of 125 m, with the overall accuracy of 99.2% and the kappa coefficient of 98.5% in the classification of sea ice and open water. Sea ice concentration (SIC) was computed from the RF-derived sea ice maps and compared with that from the observations of two passive microwave sensors— the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). SSMIS and AMSR2 estimates SIC using the NASA Team (NT) and Turbulence Interaction STudy (ARTIST) Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm, respectively. The SSMIS NT SIC was underestimated in marginal ice zone and compact ice zone, while they were overestimated in sea ice edge. Meanwhile, the AMSR2 ASI SIC was underestimated in compact ice zone and overestimated in other regions. This research was funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) under the project titled `SaTellite remote sensing on west Antarctic ocean Research (STAR) (PE16040)'.

  16. Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radar Mapper - Design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, G. H.; Horwood, D. F.; Keller, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Radar Mapper Experiment, carried aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft, is designed to obtain a near-global picture of the topography, meter-scale surface slopes and reflectivity of Venus. Constraints imposed by the choice of orbit limit radar coverage to a latitude band lying between 74 deg N and 61 deg S completely around the planet. In addition to the altimetry objectives, the experiment seeks an image of the radar scattering properties of the surface at oblique incidence. Sensitivity limits the imaged region to a band around the planet lying between 45 deg N and 10 deg S. Altimetric error is less than 200 m; altimetric surface 'footprint' size varies from about 10 km in diameter at a spacecraft altitude of 200 km, to 50 km at a maximum altitude of 4700 km. Imaging varies from 20 to 40 km, depending on spacecraft altitude.

  17. Trajectory Design for the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Dunham, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The presented trajectory was designed for the Lunar Polar Hydrogen Mapper (LunaH-Map) 6U CubeSat, which was awarded a ride on NASAs Space Launch System (SLS) with Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) via NASAs 2015 SIMPLEX proposal call. After deployment from EM-1s upper stage (which is planned to enter heliocentric space via a lunar flyby), the LunaH-Map CubeSat will alter its trajectory via its low-thrust ion engine to target a lunar flyby that yields a Sun-Earth-Moon weak stability boundary transfer to set up a ballistic lunar capture. Finally, the orbit energy is lowered to reach the required quasi-frozen science orbit with periselene above the lunar south pole.

  18. Technical Evaluation of the 60 Foot Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) Ship HALCYON

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Microwave Oven) Head (Sink, Shower, Water Closet) 37 ft2 Berthing (2 bunks) 63 ft2 Payload/Berthing (unfinished) 200 ft2 Anchor 90 lb. Danforth 400 ft. 1... kelp pad. 27 - COMPARISON OF SWATH HALCYON AND PT KNOLL SIGNIFICANT MOTIONS IN 5 FT SEAS, USING RAO CALCULATIONS. SPEED 17 KNOTS HALCYON PT KNOLL

  19. The effect of wide swathing on wilting times and nutritive value of alfalfa haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M

    2010-04-01

    On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper Film Only: 1982-1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center archive holds data collected by the Landsat suite of satellites. The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), a...

  1. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper NDVI and NDWI: Oklahoma, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) data set was developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for...

  2. SMEX03 Landsat Thematic Mapper NDVI and NDWI: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) data set was developed from Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data for...

  3. Analysis of micro-rearrangements in 25 eukaryotic species pairs by SyntenyMapper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kaufmann

    Full Text Available High-quality mapping of genomic regions and genes between two organisms is an indispensable prerequisite for evolutionary analyses and comparative genomics. Existing approaches to this problem focus on either delineating orthologs or finding extended sequence regions of common evolutionary origin (syntenic blocks. We propose SyntenyMapper, a novel tool for refining predefined syntenic regions. SyntenyMapper creates a set of blocks with conserved gene order between two genomes and finds all minor rearrangements that occurred since the evolutionary split of the two species considered. We also present TrackMapper, a SyntenyMapper-based tool that allows users to directly compare genome features, such as histone modifications, between two organisms, and identify genes with highly conserved features. We demonstrate SyntenyMapper's advantages by conducting a large-scale analysis of micro-rearrangements within syntenic regions of 25 eukaryotic species. Unsurprisingly, the number and length of syntenic regions is correlated with evolutionary distance, while the number of micro-rearrangements depends only on the size of the harboring region. On the other hand, the size of rearranged regions remains relatively constant regardless of the evolutionary distance between the organisms, implying a length constraint in the rearrangement process. SyntenyMapper is a useful software tool for both large-scale and gene-centric genome comparisons.

  4. Overlay performance assessment of MAPPER's FLX-1200 (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattard, Ludovic; Servin, Isabelle; Pradelles, Jonathan; Blancquaert, Yoann; Rademaker, Guido; Pain, Laurent; de Boer, Guido; Brandt, Pieter; Dansberg, Michel; Jager, Remco J. A.; Peijster, Jerry J. M.; Slot, Erwin; Steenbrink, Stijn W. H. K.; Vergeer, Niels; Wieland, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Mapper Lithography has introduced its first product, the FLX-1200, which is installed at CEA-Leti in Grenoble (France). This is a mask less lithography system, based on massively parallel electron-beam writing with high-speed optical data transport for switching the electron beams. This FLX platform is initially targeted for 1 wph performance for 28 nm technology nodes, but can also be used for less demanding imaging. The electron source currently integrated is capable of scaling to 10 wph at the same resolution performance, which will be implemented by gradually upgrading the illumination optics. The system has an optical alignment system enabling mix-and-match with optical 193 nm immersion systems using standard NVSM marks. The tool at CEA-Leti is in-line with a Sokudo Duo clean track. Mapper Lithography and CEA-Leti are working in collaboration to develop turnkey solution for specific applications. At previous conferences we have presented imaging results including 28nm node resolution, cross wafer CDu of 2.5nm 3 and a throughput of half a wafer per hour, overhead times included. At this conference we will present results regarding the overlay performance of the FLX-1200. In figure 2 an initial result towards measuring the overlay performance of the FLX-1200 is shown. We have exposed a wafer twice without unloading the wafer in between exposures. In the first exposure half of a dense dot array is exposed. In the second exposure the remainder of the dense dot array is exposed. After development the wafer has been inspected using a CD-SEM at 480 locations distributed over an area of 100mm x 100mm. For each SEM image the shift of the pattern written in the first exposure relative to the pattern written in the second exposure is measured. Cross wafer this shift is 7 nm u+3s in X and 5 nm u+3s in Y. The next step is to evaluate the impact of unloading and loading of the wafer in between exposures. At the conference the latest results will be presented.

  5. Unsupervised change detection in a particular vegetation land cover type using spectral angle mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renza, Diego; Martinez, Estibaliz; Molina, Iñigo; Ballesteros L., Dora M.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new unsupervised change detection methodology for multispectral images applied to specific land covers. The proposed method involves comparing each image against a reference spectrum, where the reference spectrum is obtained from the spectral signature of the type of coverage you want to detect. In this case the method has been tested using multispectral images (SPOT5) of the community of Madrid (Spain), and multispectral images (Quickbird) of an area over Indonesia that was impacted by the December 26, 2004 tsunami; here, the tests have focused on the detection of changes in vegetation. The image comparison is obtained by applying Spectral Angle Mapper between the reference spectrum and each multitemporal image. Then, a threshold to produce a single image of change is applied, which corresponds to the vegetation zones. The results for each multitemporal image are combined through an exclusive or (XOR) operation that selects vegetation zones that have changed over time. Finally, the derived results were compared against a supervised method based on classification with the Support Vector Machine. Furthermore, the NDVI-differencing and the Spectral Angle Mapper techniques were selected as unsupervised methods for comparison purposes. The main novelty of the method consists in the detection of changes in a specific land cover type (vegetation), therefore, for comparison purposes, the best scenario is to compare it with methods that aim to detect changes in a specific land cover type (vegetation). This is the main reason to select NDVI-based method and the post-classification method (SVM implemented in a standard software tool). To evaluate the improvements using a reference spectrum vector, the results are compared with the basic-SAM method. In SPOT5 image, the overall accuracy was 99.36% and the κ index was 90.11%; in Quickbird image, the overall accuracy was 97.5% and the κ index was 82.16%. Finally, the precision results of the method are

  6. Accuracy verification of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, I.; González-Jorge, H.; Riveiro, B.; Arias, P.

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR technology is one of the most effective and reliable means of data collection. Given the increasing use of LiDAR data for close range metrology applications such as deformation monitoring and infrastructure inspection, it becomes necessary to test the relative accuracy, boresight calibration of both LiDAR sensors and performance of navigation solution (or absolute accuracy) of any mobile laser scanning system employed for this purpose. Therefore, the paper's primary contribution is a set of tests for the characterization and evaluation of any mobile laser scanning system based on two LiDAR sensors. We present experimental results of the Lynx Mobile Mapper system from Optech Inc. Employing a low-cost calibration standard, we demonstrated sub-cm accuracy of targets at distances up to 10 m. Also, we introduce boresighting results derived from the Lynx system. Moreover, the global system's accuracy is tested with a series of rigorous experiments operated at a maximum scan frequency of 200 Hz, pulse repetition frequency of 500 kHz per sensor and a 360° scanning field of view. Assuring good GPS conditions, we proved a good global performance of the system, which makes it suitable for very accurate applications.

  7. Lynx Mobile Mapper for Surveying City Centers and Highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, D.; Zampa, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two years the Lynx Mobile Mapper has become the new lidar solution developed for surveying large areas that are impractical with static lidar sensors and require an accuracy and resolution that exceed airborne technologies. The system allows the scanning at a speed up to 100 km/h, obtaining accuracy better than 5 cm with an up to 7 mm resolution. Therefore, this solution proves to be an excellent tool for surveying city centers, highways, railways, thanks also to a very fast, safe and accurate data collection. This paper will present two applications: 1- The survey of the entire ancient city center of Brescia (Italy) with it medieval castle, the narrows streets and the main squares. It also has been run a test to survey with the Lynx the tunnel that go underneath the castle and compare the result with a static laser scanner survey, 2- The survey of the Calatrava Bridge on the A1 highway. The central bridge, which crosses over the high-speed rail line and the A1 motorway is composed as a single symmetrical arch, placed longitudinally, which rises to a height of 46m. During the survey the two A1 motorway carriageways have been scanned and the upper part of the bridge for a complete 3D model of this structure.

  8. The GOES-R Series Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), which will have just completed Critical Design Review and move forward into the construction phase of instrument development. The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (an engineering development unit and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms

  9. The Goes-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved storm diagnostic capability with the Advanced Baseline Imager. The GLM will map total lightning activity (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground lighting flashes) continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms, cal/val performance monitoring tools, and new applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this paper we will report on new Nowcasting and storm warning applications being developed and evaluated at various NOAA Testbeds.

  10. Estuary Data Mapper: A coastal information system to propel ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) is a free, interactive virtual gateway to coastal data aimed to promote research and aid in environmental management. The graphical user interface allows users to custom select and subset data based on their spatial and temporal interests giving them easy access to visualize, retrieve, and save data for further analysis. Data are accessible across estuarine systems of the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Pacific regions of the United States and includes: (1) time series data including tidal, hydrologic, and weather, (2) water and sediment quality, (3) atmospheric deposition, (4) habitat, (5) coastal exposure indices, (6) historic and projected land-use and population, (7) historic and projected nitrogen and phosphorous sources and load summaries. EDM issues Web Coverage Service Interface Standard queries (WCS; simple, standard one-line text strings) to a public web service to quickly obtain data subsets by variable, for a date-time range and area selected by user. EDM is continuously being enhanced with updated data and new options. Recent additions include a comprehensive suite of nitrogen source and loading data, and inputs for supporting a modeling approach of seagrass habitat. Additions planned for the near future include 1) support for Integrated Water Resources Management cost-benefit analysis, specifically the Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool and 2) visualization of the combined effects of climate change, land-use a

  11. DotMapper: an open source tool for creating interactive disease point maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine M; Hayward, Andrew C

    2016-04-12

    Molecular strain typing of tuberculosis isolates has led to increased understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of the disease and improvements in its control, diagnosis and treatment. However, molecular cluster investigations, which aim to detect previously unidentified cases, remain challenging. Interactive dot mapping is a simple approach which could aid investigations by highlighting cases likely to share epidemiological links. Current tools generally require technical expertise or lack interactivity. We designed a flexible application for producing disease dot maps using Shiny, a web application framework for the statistical software, R. The application displays locations of cases on an interactive map colour coded according to levels of categorical variables such as demographics and risk factors. Cases can be filtered by selecting combinations of these characteristics and by notification date. It can be used to rapidly identify geographic patterns amongst cases in molecular clusters of tuberculosis in space and time; generate hypotheses about disease transmission; identify outliers, and guide targeted control measures. DotMapper is a user-friendly application which enables rapid production of maps displaying locations of cases and their epidemiological characteristics without the need for specialist training in geographic information systems. Enhanced understanding of tuberculosis transmission using this application could facilitate improved detection of cases with epidemiological links and therefore lessen the public health impacts of the disease. It is a flexible system and also has broad international potential application to other investigations using geo-coded health information.

  12. Arctic sea ice freeboard from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, D.; Harbeck, J. P.; Manizade, S.; Kurtz, N. T.; Studinger, M.; Hofton, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Data from an IceBridge Arctic campaign on April 20, 2010 with both the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) in operation were used in this study. The LVIS data were collected first on the outgoing track at a higher altitude. The ATM data were collected on the same track on the way back at a lower altitude. The transmitted and received ATM and LVIS lidar waveforms were fitted with Gaussian curves to calculate pulse width, peak location, pulse amplitude, and noise level. For each transmitted and received waveform, centroid, skewness, kurtosis, and pulse area were also calculated. Received waveform parameters, such as pulse width, pulse amplitude, pulse area, skewness, and kurtosis show geographically correlated patterns along an ATM or LVIS swath. These parameters, combined with elevation, were used to identify leads in ATM and LVIS sea ice freeboard calculation. The relationship between these parameters and sea ice freeboard and surface features were studied by comparing the parameters with ATM and LVIS derived freeboard and coincident Continuous Airborne Mapping By Optical Translator (CAMBOT) and Digital Mapping System (DMS) images which have been used to classify sea ice surface types such as leads, thin ice, grey ice and thick ice. A scan-angle-related elevation bias was found in the ATM data and an empirical correction (peak to peak is about 15 cm) as a function of scan angle is applied to the ATM elevations. The newly derived ATM freeboard is compared with the current ATM freeboard product at NSIDC. The ATM freeboards were also compared with the freeboard derived from LVIS data. Over the studied area, the mean freeboard for the ATM product at NSIDC is 0.535 m, for the ATM after empirical elevation correction is 0.551 m, and for LVIS is 0.512 m. The details of the differences of ATM and LVIS in flight altitude, footprint size, scan pattern, and their impact on waveform parameters and measured freeboard will also be

  13. NPP/VIIRS Moderate-Resolution Dual Gain Bands Calibrated Radiance 6-Min L1B Swath 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level-1 and Level-2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m, Version 006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m (MYD10_L2) data set contains snow cover and Quality Assessment (QA) data, latitudes and longitudes...

  15. OMPS/NPP PCA SO2 Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50km NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is data set "MODIS/AQUA Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min 2 Swath 10 km" See the MODIS Science Team homepage for more dataset...

  17. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  18. Estimation of Effective Swath Width for Dual-Head Multibeam Echosounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grządziel Artur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many surveying companies and maritime institutions are now using multibeam systems for their operations, either offshore or in coastal and inland waters. Since the time the first multibeam echosounder appeared (late 1970s the technology has advanced enormously. Modern systems now boast far greater angular coverage (typically 120°-150° and form hundreds of beams. Dual-head multibeam systems can potentially cover the entire sector (180° underneath the ship. However surveyors must be aware that the outer beams of these acoustic systems return the most errors causing that the effective swath width is shorter than what the manufacturers declare. The paper presents the methods of estimating of effective (usable swath width of dual-head multibeam echosounder EM 3002D. Results of the hydrographic survey performed by the polish navy survey ship ORP ‘Arctowski’ have been showed in the article.

  19. Identifying high frequency signals in the daily swath mascon solutions from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided us with unique information about the total water column in the Earth system over the past 14 years. The GRACE project provides a monthly mean time-variable gravity solution. There has been significant progress in the community over the years to develop shorter time-window gravity solutions. The daily swath mascon solutions, which are under development at the Center for Space Research (CSR), are computed using daily GRACE observation data. This paper discusses the development and the progress of this product. This paper summarizes the analysis of these solutions with special emphasis on identifying the higher frequency natural processes observed by GRACE using these daily swath mascon solutions.

  20. Improving Protein Detection Confidence Using SWATH-Mass Spectrometry with Large Peptide Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jemma X; Pascovici, Dana; Ignjatovic, Vera; Song, Xiaomin; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    Protein quantification using data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH-MS most commonly relies on spectral matching to a reference MS/MS assay library. To enable deep proteome coverage and efficient use of existing data, in silico approaches have been described to use archived or publicly available large reference spectral libraries for spectral matching. Since implicit in the use of larger libraries is the increasing likelihood of false-discoveries, new workflows are needed to ensure high confidence in protein matching under these conditions. We present a workflow which introduces a range of filters and thresholds aimed at increasing confidence that the resulting proteins are reliably detected and their quantitation is consistent and reproducible. We demonstrated the workflow using extended libraries with SWATH data from human plasma samples and yeast-spiked human K562 cell lysate digest. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Classification of building infrastructure and automatic building footprint delineation using airborne laser swath mapping data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Jhon

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of urban infrastructure comprise critical data for planners working on problems in wireless communications, environmental monitoring, civil engineering, and urban planning, among other tasks. Photogrammetric methods have been the most common approach to date to extract building models. However, Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) observations offer a competitive alternative because they overcome some of the ambiguities that arise when trying to extract 3D information from 2D images. Regardless of the source data, the building extraction process requires segmentation and classification of the data and building identification. In this work, approaches for classifying ALSM data, separating building and tree points, and delineating ALSM footprints from the classified data are described. Digital aerial photographs are used in some cases to verify results, but the objective of this work is to develop methods that can work on ALSM data alone. A robust approach for separating tree and building points in ALSM data is presented. The method is based on supervised learning of the classes (tree vs. building) in a high dimensional feature space that yields good class separability. Features used for classification are based on the generation of local mappings, from three-dimensional space to two-dimensional space, known as "spin images" for each ALSM point to be classified. The method discriminates ALSM returns in compact spaces and even where the classes are very close together or overlapping spatially. A modified algorithm of the Hough Transform is used to orient the spin images, and the spin image parameters are specified such that the mutual information between the spin image pixel values and class labels is maximized. This new approach to ALSM classification allows us to fully exploit the 3D point information in the ALSM data while still achieving good class separability, which has been a difficult trade-off in the past. Supported by the spin

  2. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  3. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2 is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities. Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2. We use this data (1997-2001 to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information. The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories. The small spatial extent of NO2 'hot spots' allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale. The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT, OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA or GOME II (to be launched 2005 with an improved spatial resolution.

  4. Definition of a RACK1 Interaction Network in Drosophila melanogaster Using SWATH-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Kuhn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Receptor for Activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1 is a scaffold protein that has been found in association with several signaling complexes, and with the 40S subunit of the ribosome. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we recently showed that RACK1 is required at the ribosome for internal ribosome entry site (IRES-mediated translation of viruses. Here, we report a proteomic characterization of the interactome of RACK1 in Drosophila S2 cells. We carried out Label-Free quantitation using both Data-Dependent and Data-Independent Acquisition (DDA and DIA, respectively and observed a significant advantage for the Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH method, both in terms of identification of interactants and quantification of low abundance proteins. These data represent the first SWATH spectral library available for Drosophila and will be a useful resource for the community. A total of 52 interacting proteins were identified, including several molecules involved in translation such as structural components of the ribosome, factors regulating translation initiation or elongation, and RNA binding proteins. Among these 52 proteins, 15 were identified as partners by the SWATH strategy only. Interestingly, these 15 proteins are significantly enriched for the functions translation and nucleic acid binding. This enrichment reflects the engagement of RACK1 at the ribosome and highlights the added value of SWATH analysis. A functional screen did not reveal any protein sharing the interesting properties of RACK1, which is required for IRES-dependent translation and not essential for cell viability. Intriguingly however, 10 of the RACK1 partners identified restrict replication of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV, an IRES-containing virus.

  5. Means to achieve wide swath widths in synthetic aperture satellite borne radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The radar range equation including processing gains for pulse compression and synthetic aperture generation was the starting point. System geometry considerations were introduced. For simplicity, flat earth geometry was used, although it was realized that this was not a good model for satellite-borne radars. Next, the constraints were introduced. These included those needed to avoid ambiguities in both range and azimuth, those needed to acheive the desired resolution, and those needed to achieve the desired swath width.

  6. Space-based Swath-imaging Laser Altimeter for Cryospheric Topography and Surface Property Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Abshire, J. B.; Sun, X.; Dabney, P. W.; Shuman, C. A.; Seas, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past decade airborne laser swath mapping has provided unprecedented measurements of ice and land topography, and vegetation canopy three-dimensional structure. These data have enabled new approaches to studies of the Earth's cryosphere, biosphere, and land surface processes, including those related to natural hazards and water resources. Achieving laser altimeter swath mapping in Earth orbit would provide timely global access that enables greatly expanded utilization of this rapidly advancing remote sensing capability. First year activities of an ESTO-funded project directed toward this goal, Push-broom Laser Altimeter Demonstration for Space-based Cryospheric Topographic and Surface Property Mapping, provide a foundation for development of a prototype Swath-imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL). A high net electrical efficiency is key to achieving a swath mapping capability on orbit. An analysis of measurement efficiencies, considering three pulse modulation schemes, three wavelengths, and three receiver approaches, indicates that the combination of a micropulse transmitter and single photon detection offers the highest efficiency. Assessment of component readiness indicates that in the near-term fiber lasers, frequency doubled to 532 nm, and solid state Si APD detectors offer the best development path. Light penetration at visible wavelengths poses potential uncertainty in 532 nm laser ranging to snow and ice surfaces. However, new laboratory retro-reflection measurements of natural snow and ice samples with nanosecond precision documents that there is no appreciable range delay due to penetration, likely because volume scattering causes the retro-return from beneath the surface to be negligible compared to the direct surface backscatter. Depolarization measurements, using parallel and perpendicular receiver channels, will differentiate surface types, such as liquid and frozen water, based on the proportion of diffuse to specular

  7. Comparative Lipidomics of Caenorhabditis elegans Metabolic Disease Models by SWATH Non-Targeted Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan K. Prasain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical (SWATH mass spectra generates a comprehensive archive of lipid species within an extract for retrospective, quantitative MS/MS analysis. Here we apply this new technology in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans to identify potential lipid mediators and pathways. The DAF-1 type I TGF-β and DAF-2 insulin receptors transmit endocrine signals that couple metabolic status to fertility and lifespan. Mutations in daf-1 and daf-2 reduce prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (i.e., Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis, increase triacylglyceride storage, and alter transcription of numerous lipid metabolism genes. However, the extent to which DAF-1 and DAF-2 signaling modulate lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. MS/MSALL with SWATH analysis across the groups identified significant changes in numerous lipids, including specific triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, and phosphatidylinositols. Examples are provided, using retrospective neutral loss and precursor ion scans as well as MS/MS spectra, to help identify annotated lipids and search libraries for lipids of interest. As proof of principle, we used comparative lipidomics to investigate the prostaglandin metabolism pathway. SWATH data support an unanticipated model: Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis may involve lysophosphatidylcholine and other lyso glycerophospholipids. This study showcases the power of comprehensive, retrospectively searchable lipid archives as a systems approach for biological discovery in genetic animal models.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL BIO-NONWOVEN FABRICS FOR EYES'S SWATH AND DIAPERS FOR INFANT'S INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElSayed A. ElNashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An infant incubator is a piece of equipment common to pediatric hospitals, birthing centers and neonatal intensive care units. While the unit may serve several specific functions, it is generally used to provide a safe and stable environment for newborn infants, often those who were born prematurely or with an illness or disability that makes them especially vulnerable for the first several months of life. The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of New Approach for a Bio-Nonwoven fabrics and infant's incubator in terms of the specific materials as MaterBi/PCL® as Bioplastic and the elements of comfort, drivers associated with it and its waste biodegradation by different methods. Shortly after birth, the beginning in first hours of life babies with neonatal, a byproduct of the red blood cells decomposition. Many convenient features to consider with tow basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers on infant’s incubator options: cloth of basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers, with their end use properties. The form design of eyes` swathe® and diapers® shapes, for infant’s incubator stage then consider convenience, cost, and environmental waste.

  9. Hyperspectral Soil Mapper (HYSOMA) software interface: Review and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillat, Sabine; Guillaso, Stephane; Eisele, Andreas; Rogass, Christian

    2014-05-01

    With the upcoming launch of the next generation of hyperspectral satellites that will routinely deliver high spectral resolution images for the entire globe (e.g. EnMAP, HISUI, HyspIRI, HypXIM, PRISMA), an increasing demand for the availability/accessibility of hyperspectral soil products is coming from the geoscience community. Indeed, many robust methods for the prediction of soil properties based on imaging spectroscopy already exist and have been successfully used for a wide range of soil mapping airborne applications. Nevertheless, these methods require expert know-how and fine-tuning, which makes them used sparingly. More developments are needed toward easy-to-access soil toolboxes as a major step toward the operational use of hyperspectral soil products for Earth's surface processes monitoring and modelling, to allow non-experienced users to obtain new information based on non-expensive software packages where repeatability of the results is an important prerequisite. In this frame, based on the EU-FP7 EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research) project and EnMAP satellite science program, higher performing soil algorithms were developed at the GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences as demonstrators for end-to-end processing chains with harmonized quality measures. The algorithms were built-in into the HYSOMA (Hyperspectral SOil MApper) software interface, providing an experimental platform for soil mapping applications of hyperspectral imagery that gives the choice of multiple algorithms for each soil parameter. The software interface focuses on fully automatic generation of semi-quantitative soil maps such as soil moisture, soil organic matter, iron oxide, clay content, and carbonate content. Additionally, a field calibration option calculates fully quantitative soil maps provided ground truth soil data are available. Implemented soil algorithms have been tested and validated using extensive in-situ ground truth data sets. The source of the HYSOMA

  10. Evaluation of thematic mapper data for natural resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, R.H.; Waltz, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center evaluated the utility of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) date for natural resource assessment, emphasizing manual interpretation and digital classification of the data for U.S. Department of the Interior applications. Substantially more information was derived from TM data than from Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data. Greater resolution of TM data aided in locating roads, small stock ponds, and many other land features that could be used as landmarks. The improved spatial resolution of TM data also permitted more efficient visual interpretations of land use, better identification of resource types, and improved assessment of ecological status of natural vegetation. TM data also provided a new source of spectral information that was useful for natural resource assessment. New mid-infrared spectral bands, TM band 5 and band 7, aided in distinguishing water resources, wetland vegetation resources, and other important terrain features. The added information was useful for both manual interpretation and digital data classification of vegetation resources and land features. Results from the analyses of both TM and TM simulator (TMS) spectral data suggest that the coefficient of variation for major land cover types is generally less for TM data than for MSS data taken from the same area. This reduction in variance should contribute to an improved multispectral analysis, contributing new information about vegetation in natural ecosystems. Although the amount of new information in TM bands 5 and 7 is mall, it is unique in that the same information cannot be derived from four-band Landsat MSS spectral data.

  11. Image navigation and registration for the geostationary lightning mapper (GLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bezooijen, Roel W. H.; Demroff, Howard; Burton, Gregory; Chu, Donald; Yang, Shu S.

    2016-10-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mappers (GLM) for the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) GOES-R series will, for the first time, provide hemispherical lightning information 24 hours a day from longitudes of 75 and 137 degrees west. The first GLM of a series of four is planned for launch in November, 2016. Observation of lightning patterns by GLM holds promise to improve tornado warning lead times to greater than 20 minutes while halving the present false alarm rates. In addition, GLM will improve airline traffic flow management, and provide climatology data allowing us to understand the Earth's evolving climate. The paper describes the method used for translating the pixel position of a lightning event to its corresponding geodetic longitude and latitude, using the J2000 attitude of the GLM mount frame reported by the spacecraft, the position of the spacecraft, and the alignment of the GLM coordinate frame relative to its mount frame. Because the latter alignment will experience seasonal variation, this alignment is determined daily using GLM background images collected over the previous 7 days. The process involves identification of coastlines in the background images and determination of the alignment change necessary to match the detected coastline with the coastline predicted using the GSHHS database. Registration is achieved using a variation of the Lucas-Kanade algorithm where we added a dither and average technique to improve performance significantly. An innovative water mask technique was conceived to enable self-contained detection of clear coastline sections usable for registration. Extensive simulations using accurate visible images from GOES13 and GOES15 have been used to demonstrate the performance of the coastline registration method, the results of which are presented in the paper.

  12. The BHVI-EyeMapper: peripheral refraction and aberration profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Holden, Brien A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, -3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (-2.00 to -5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to -5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development.

  13. Development of a Near-Real Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The Midwest is home to one of the world's largest agricultural growing regions. Between the time period of late May through early September, and with irrigation and seasonal rainfall these crops are able to reach their full maturity. Using moderate to high resolution remote sensors, the monitoring of the vegetation can be achieved using the red and near-infrared wavelengths. These wavelengths allow for the calculation of vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The vegetation growth and greenness, in this region, grows and evolves uniformly as the growing season progresses. However one of the biggest threats to Midwest vegetation during the time period is thunderstorms that bring large hail and damaging winds. Hail and wind damage to crops can be very expensive to crop growers and, damage can be spread over long swaths associated with the tracks of the damaging storms. Damage to the vegetation can be apparent in remotely sensed imagery and is visible from space after storms slightly damage the crops, allowing for changes to occur slowly over time as the crops wilt or more readily apparent if the storms strip material from the crops or destroy them completely. Previous work on identifying these hail damage swaths used manual interpretation by the way of moderate and higher resolution satellite imagery. With the development of an automated and near-real time hail swath damage identification algorithm, detection can be improved, and more damage indicators be created in a faster and more efficient way. The automated detection of hail damage swaths will examine short-term, large changes in the vegetation by differencing near-real time eight day NDVI composites and comparing them to post storm imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi NPP. In addition land surface temperatures from these instruments will be examined as

  14. Fast Genome-Wide Functional Annotation through Orthology Assignment by eggNOG-Mapper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Forslund, Kristoffer; Coelho, Luis Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Orthology assignment is ideally suited for functional inference. However, because predicting orthology is computationally intensive at large scale, and most pipelines are relatively inaccessible (e.g., new assignments only available through database updates), less precise homology-based functional...... protein by 15%. Compared with InterProScan, eggNOG-mapper achieved similar proteome coverage and precision while predicting, on average, 41 more terms per protein and increasing the rate of experimentally validated terms recovered over total term assignments per protein by 35%. EggNOG-mapper predictions...

  15. MR 201104: Evaluation of Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results and MR 201157: Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results) and ESTCP MR-201157 (Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis ... Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results) and ESTCP MR-201157 (Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis ). All...MR-201104 and MR-201157) MR-201104: Evaluation of Discrimination Technologies and Classification Results MR-201157: Demonstration of MetalMapper

  16. A visible and near-infrared photometric correction for Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, S.; Sunshine, J.; Staid, M.; Boardman, J.; Pieters, C.; Guasqui, P.; Malaret, E.; McLaughlin, S.; Yokota, Y.; Li, J.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the Moon obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument were acquired at various local viewing geometries. To compensate for this, a visible near-infrared photometric correction for the M3 observations of the lunar surface has been derived. Images are corrected to the standard geometry of 30° phase angle with an incidence of 30° and an emission of 0°. The photometric correction is optimized for highland materials but is also a good approximation for mare deposits. The results are compared with ground-based observations of the lunar surface to validate the absolute reflectance of the M3 observations. This photometric model has been used to produce the v1.0 Level 2 delivery of the entire set of M3 data to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The photometric correction uses local topography, in this case derived from an early version of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data, to more accurately determine viewing geometry. As desired, this photometric correction removes most of the topography of the M3 measurements. In this paper, two additional improvements of the photometric modeling are discussed: (1) an extrapolated phase function long ward of 2500 nm to avoid possible misinterpretation of spectra in the wavelength region that includes possible OH/H2O absorptions and (2) an empirical correction to remove a residual cross-track gradient in the data that likely is an uncorrected instrumental effect. New files for these two effects have been delivered to PDS and can be applied to the M3 observations.

  17. The SWATH Concept: Designing Superior Operability into a Surface Displacement Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    assistance from the Naval Underseas Center (NUC) as well as industrial and academic institutions. The Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) has...17. The SWATH ship speed degradation band also shown in Figure 17 is based on engineering judgment as to the combined effects of additional wave...in unpublished form). 56 ■ ■■■-■I’^W*« WMW *«Wlil^^ r U « < H T y p e of W a v e s CO i a: eg . an d rr eg . eg . an d rr eg . eg

  18. Coastal interferometric swath bathymetry data collected in 2015 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Jake J.; Buster, Noreen A.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (USGS SPCMSC), collected swath bathymetry data at the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana in September 2015. This USGS Data Release includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM). For further information regarding data collection and/or processing please see the metadata associated with this data release and previous data series published by the USGS SPCMSC http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds847 and http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds848.

  19. Using Classified Landsat Thematic Mapper Data for Stratification in a Statewide Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Daniel G. Wendt

    2000-01-01

    The 1998 Indiana/Illinois forest inventory (USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)) used Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM} data for stratification. Classified images made by the National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) stratified FIA plots into four classes (nonforest, nonforest/forest, forest/nonforest, and forest) based on a two pixel forest edge buffer zone...

  20. Estuary Data Mapper: A coastal information system to propel emerging science and inform environmental management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) is a free, interactive virtual gateway to coastal data aimed to promote research and aid in environmental management. The graphical user interface allows users to custom select and subset data based on their spatial and temporal interests giving them...

  1. Cryogenic LED pixel-to-frequency mapper for kinetic inductance detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Guo, W.; Wang, Y.; Wei, L. F.; Mckenney, C. M.; Dober, B.; Billings, T.; Hubmayr, J.; Ferreira, L. S.; Vissers, M. R.; Gao, J.

    2017-07-01

    We present a cryogenic wafer mapper based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) for spatial mapping of a large microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) array. In this scheme, an array of LEDs, addressed by DC wires and collimated through horns onto the detectors, is mounted in front of the detector wafer. By illuminating each LED individually and sweeping the frequency response of all the resonators, we can unambiguously correspond a detector pixel to its measured resonance frequency. We have demonstrated mapping a 76.2 mm 90-pixel MKID array using a mapper containing 126 LEDs with 16 DC bias wires. With the frequency to pixel-position correspondence data obtained by the LED mapper, we have found a radially position-dependent frequency non-uniformity of ≲ 1.6 % over the 76.2 mm wafer. Our LED wafer mapper has no moving parts and is easy to implement. It may find broad applications in superconducting detectors and quantum computing/information experiments.

  2. Swath bathymetric survey of Englebright Lake, Yuba-Nevada Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Stevenson, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    In March, 2004, the USGS conducted a swath bathymetric survey of Englebright Lake, a 9-mile long reservoir located in the Sierra Nevada foothills of northern California on the Yuba River. This survey was follow-on to an earlier bathymetric survey and sediment thickness analysis done by the USGS in 2001 (Childs and others, 2003). The primary purpose of these studies is to assess the quantity and nature of the sediment that has accumulated since the dam was completed in 1940. The specific purpose of the swath bathymetry was to map in high detail the prograding delta that is being formed as the lake fills in with sediment. In the event of another large flood such as occurred on January 1, 1997, the survey could be repeated to determine the effect of such an event on the sediment volume and distribution. This study was conducted under the auspices of the Upper Yuba River Studies Program (UYRSP) . The UYRSP is funded by the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, whose mission is to "develop and implement a long-term comprehensive plan that will restore ecological health and improve water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Bay-Delta System".

  3. Spectral Libraries for SWATH-MS Assays for Drosophila melanogaster and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bertrand; Korona, Dagmara; Mata, Clara I; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Russell, Steven; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative proteomics methods have emerged as powerful tools for measuring protein expression changes at the proteome level. Using MS-based approaches, it is now possible to routinely quantify thousands of proteins. However, prefractionation of the samples at the protein or peptide level is usually necessary to go deep into the proteome, increasing both MS analysis time and technical variability. Recently, a new MS acquisition method named SWATH is introduced with the potential to provide good coverage of the proteome as well as a good measurement precision without prior sample fractionation. In contrast to shotgun-based MS however, a library containing experimental acquired spectra is necessary for the bioinformatics analysis of SWATH data. In this study, spectral libraries for two widely used models are built to study crop ripening or animal embryogenesis, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The spectral libraries comprise fragments for 5197 and 6040 proteins for S. lycopersicum and D. melanogaster, respectively, and allow reproducible quantification for thousands of peptides per MS analysis. The spectral libraries and all MS data are available in the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifiers MSV000081074 and MSV000081075 and the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifiers PXD006493 and PXD006495. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. CryoTop - CryoSat-2 swath elevation and derived Digital Elevation Models and rates of elevation change products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Hogg, A.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Wuite, J.; Nagler, T.; Roca, M.; Shepherd, A.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of ice sheet margin topography is critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat-2 aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the cryosphere, in particular over the steep slopes typically found along ice sheet margins where the majority of the mass loss is taking place. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry, the corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over ice sheet margins and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA), or level-2, is a standard product of the CryoSat-2 mission. CryoSat-2 SARIn mode allows a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the CryoSat-2 record and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 level-2 products. In this so-called CryoSat-2 Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the entire waveform is analysed providing elevation beyond the POCA, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional level-2 product. As part of the European Space Agency project CryoTop Evolution we are generating CSSARIn elevation, Digital Elevation Models and maps of rates of surface elevation change over the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. These products will be generated and distributed to the community. Here we will present the methods and quality assessment of the products as well as showcase examples of the added value of the products.

  5. Monitoring Global Precipitation through UCI CHRS's RainMapper App on Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P.; Huynh, P.; Braithwaite, D.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Water and Development Information for Arid Lands-a Global Network (G-WADI) Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks—Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) GeoServer has been developed through a collaboration between the Center for Hydrometeorology and Remote Sensing (CHRS) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) and the UNESCO's International Hydrological Program (IHP). G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer provides near real-time high resolution (0.04o, approx 4km) global (60oN - 60oS) satellite precipitation estimated by the PERSIANN-CCS algorithm developed by the scientists at CHRS. The G-WADI PERSIANN-CCS GeoServer utilizes the open-source MapServer software from the University of Minnesota to provide a user-friendly web-based mapping and visualization of satellite precipitation data. Recent efforts have been made by the scientists at CHRS to provide free on-the-go access to the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data through an application named RainMapper for mobile devices. RainMapper provides visualization of global satellite precipitation of the most recent 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72-hour periods overlaid with various basemaps. RainMapper uses the Google maps application programing interface (API) and embedded global positioning system (GPS) access to better monitor the global precipitation data on mobile devices. Functionalities include using geographical searching with voice recognition technologies make it easy for the user to explore near real-time precipitation in a certain location. RainMapper also allows for conveniently sharing the precipitation information and visualizations with the public through social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. RainMapper is available for iOS and Android devices and can be downloaded (free) from the App Store and Google Play. The usefulness of RainMapper was demonstrated through an application in tracking the evolution of the recent Rammasun Typhoon over the

  6. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  7. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primary T cells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primary T cell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  8. Pre-Launch GOES-R Risk Reduction Activities for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Boccippio, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a new instrument planned for GOES-R that will greatly improve storm hazard nowcasting and increase warning lead time day and night. Daytime detection of lightning is a particularly significant technological advance given the fact that the solar illuminated cloud-top signal can exceed the intensity of the lightning signal by a factor of one hundred. Our approach is detailed across three broad themes which include: Data Processing Algorithm Readiness, Forecast Applications, and Radiance Data Mining. These themes address how the data will be processed and distributed, and the algorithms and models for developing, producing, and using the data products. These pre-launch risk reduction activities will accelerate the operational and research use of the GLM data once GOES-R begins on-orbit operations. The GLM will provide unprecedented capabilities for tracking thunderstorms and earlier warning of impending severe and hazardous weather threats. By providing direct information on lightning initiation, propagation, extent, and rate, the GLM will also capture the updraft dynamics and life cycle of convective storms, as well as internal ice precipitation processes. The GLM provides information directly from the heart of the thunderstorm as opposed to cloud-top only. Nowcasting applications enabled by the GLM data will expedite the warning and response time of emergency management systems, improve the dispatch of electric power utility repair crews, and improve airline routing around thunderstorms thereby improving safety and efficiency, saving fuel and reducing delays. The use of GLM data will assist the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service in quickly detecting lightning ground strikes that have a high probability of causing fires. Finally, GLM data will help assess the role of thunderstorms and deep convection in global climate, and will improve regional air quality and global chemistry/climate modeling

  9. TaxMapper: an analysis tool, reference database and workflow for metatranscriptome analysis of eukaryotic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisser, Daniela; Graupner, Nadine; Grossmann, Lars; Timm, Henning; Boenigk, Jens; Rahmann, Sven

    2017-10-16

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are increasingly applied to analyse complex microbial ecosystems by mRNA sequencing of whole communities, also known as metatranscriptome sequencing. This approach is at the moment largely limited to prokaryotic communities and communities of few eukaryotic species with sequenced genomes. For eukaryotes the analysis is hindered mainly by a low and fragmented coverage of the reference databases to infer the community composition, but also by lack of automated workflows for the task. From the databases of the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Marine Microbial Eukaryote Transcriptome Sequencing Project, 142 references were selected in such a way that the taxa represent the main lineages within each of the seven supergroups of eukaryotes and possess predominantly complete transcriptomes or genomes. From these references, we created an annotated microeukaryotic reference database. We developed a tool called TaxMapper for a reliably mapping of sequencing reads against this database and filtering of unreliable assignments. For filtering, a classifier was trained and tested on each of the following: sequences of taxa in the database, sequences of taxa related to those in the database, and random sequences. Additionally, TaxMapper is part of a metatranscriptomic Snakemake workflow developed to perform quality assessment, functional and taxonomic annotation and (multivariate) statistical analysis including environmental data. The workflow is provided and described in detail to empower researchers to apply it for metatranscriptome analysis of any environmental sample. TaxMapper shows superior performance compared to standard approaches, resulting in a higher number of true positive taxonomic assignments. Both the TaxMapper tool and the workflow are available as open-source code at Bitbucket under the MIT license: https://bitbucket.org/dbeisser/taxmapper and as a Bioconda package: https://bioconda.github.io/recipes/taxmapper/README.html .

  10. CheS-Mapper - Chemical Space Mapping and Visualization in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gütlein Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyzing chemical datasets is a challenging task for scientific researchers in the field of chemoinformatics. It is important, yet difficult to understand the relationship between the structure of chemical compounds, their physico-chemical properties, and biological or toxic effects. To that respect, visualization tools can help to better comprehend the underlying correlations. Our recently developed 3D molecular viewer CheS-Mapper (Chemical Space Mapper divides large datasets into clusters of similar compounds and consequently arranges them in 3D space, such that their spatial proximity reflects their similarity. The user can indirectly determine similarity, by selecting which features to employ in the process. The tool can use and calculate different kind of features, like structural fragments as well as quantitative chemical descriptors. These features can be highlighted within CheS-Mapper, which aids the chemist to better understand patterns and regularities and relate the observations to established scientific knowledge. As a final function, the tool can also be used to select and export specific subsets of a given dataset for further analysis.

  11. OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit V1 (OMPS_NPP_LP_L2_AER675_DAILY) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit collection contains the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients at 675 nm (AER675)...

  12. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  13. Effects of cross-education on the muscle after a period of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charlene R. A. Magnus; Trevor S. Barss; Joel L. Lanovaz; Jonathan P. Farthing

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cross-education during 4 wk of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe to investigate the effects on muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle activation...

  14. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMMYDCLD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  15. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMSO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  16. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMNO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved nitrogen dioxide (NO2)...

  17. ROI-ORIENTATED SENSOR CORRECTION BASED ON VIRTUAL STEADY REIMAGING MODEL FOR WIDE SWATH HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirement of high accuracy and high speed processing for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery under emergency situation in both ground processing system and on-board processing system. This paper proposed a ROI-orientated sensor correction algorithm based on virtual steady reimaging model for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery. Firstly, the imaging time and spatial window of the ROI is determined by a dynamic search method. Then, the dynamic ROI sensor correction model based on virtual steady reimaging model is constructed. Finally, the corrected image corresponding to the ROI is generated based on the coordinates mapping relationship which is established by the dynamic sensor correction model for corrected image and rigours imaging model for original image. Two experimental results show that the image registration between panchromatic and multispectral images can be well achieved and the image distortion caused by satellite jitter can be also corrected efficiently.

  18. Covering localization, mapping and evaluation of ducts, using Pipeline Current Mapper Methods (PCM); Localizacao, mapeamento e avaliacao de revestimento de dutos, utilizando o metodo Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Antonio Jorge [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., together with the PETROBRAS - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., comes accomplishing the Location, Geo positioning, Mapping and Inspection of the Coating in more than 5.000 km of pipes in several areas of the country. The works come being executed seeking the obtaining of the real position of Ducts (They-Built) and the conditions in that meets the coating of the same ones. The risings base on the method Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), using the equipment of production of Radio detection to locate and to inspect the conditions of the coating. This work presents the results, analyses, precision, benefits and difficulties found during the execution of the surveying. (author)

  19. The use of LC predicted retention times to extend metabolites identification with SWATH data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Tobias; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2017-12-15

    The application of predicted LC retention time to support metabolite identification was evaluated for a metabolomics MS/MS database containing 532 compounds representative for the major human metabolite classes. LC retention times could be measured for two C18 type columns using a mobile phase of pH=3.0 for positive ESI mode (n=337, 228) and pH=8.0 for negative ESI mode (n=410, 233). A QSRR modelling was applied with a small set of model compound selected based on the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The models were implemented in the R environment and can be applied to any library. The prediction model was built with two molecular descriptors, LogD2 and the molecular volume. A limited set of model compounds (LC CalMix, n=16) could be validated on two different C18 reversed phase LC columns and with comparable prediction accuracy. The CalMix can be used to compensate for different LC systems. In addition, LC retention prediction was found, in combination with SWATH-MS, to be attractive to eliminate false positive identification as well as for ranking purpose different metabolite isomeric forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New Approach for Unambiguous High-Resolution Wide-Swath SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueguan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS SAR system uses a small antenna for transmitting waveform and multiple antennas both in elevation and azimuth for receiving echoes. It has the potential to achieve wide spatial coverage and fine azimuth resolution, while it suffers from elevation pattern loss caused by the presence of topographic height and impaired azimuth resolution caused by nonuniform sampling. A new approach for HRWS SAR imaging based on compressed sensing (CS is introduced. The data after range compression of multiple elevation apertures are used to estimate direction of arrival (DOA of targets via CS, and the adaptive digital beamforming in elevation is achieved accordingly, which avoids the pattern loss of scan-on-receive (SCORE algorithm when topographic height exists. The effective phase centers of the system are nonuniformly distributed when displaced phase center antenna (DPCA technology is adopted, which causes Doppler ambiguities under traditional SAR imaging algorithms. Azimuth reconstruction based on CS can resolve this problem via precisely modeling the nonuniform sampling. Validation with simulations and experiment in an anechoic chamber are presented.

  1. Produce documents and media information. [on lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzmann, Melanie A.; Miller, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lightning data and information were collected from the United States, Germany, France, Brazil, China, and Australia for the dual purposes of compiling a global lightning data base and producing publications on the Marshall Space Flight Center's lightning program. Research covers the history of lightning, the characteristics of a storm, types of lightningdischarges, observations from airplanes and spacecraft, the future fole of planes and spacecraft in lightning studies, lightning detection networks, and the relationships between lightning and rainfall. Descriptions of the Optical Transient Dectector, the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and the Lightning Mapper Sensor are included.

  2. Titan Radar Mapper observations from Cassini's T3 fly-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elachi, C.; Wall, S.; Janssen, M.; Stofan, E.; Lopes, R.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Paganelli, F.; Soderblom, L.; Wood, C.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Ostro, S.; Allison, M.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Johnson, W.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cassini's Titan Radar Mapper imaged the surface of Saturn's moon Titan on its February 2005 fly-by (denoted T3), collecting high-resolution synthetic-aperture radar and larger-scale radiometry and scatterometry data. These data provide the first definitive identification of impact craters on the surface of Titan, networks of fluvial channels and surficial dark streaks that may be longitudinal dunes. Here we describe this great diversity of landforms. We conclude that much of the surface thus far imaged by radar of the haze-shrouded Titan is very young, with persistent geologic activity. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  3. A spectral haze diagnostic feature for normalizing Landsat Thematic Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of atmospheric haze on Thematic Mapper data, transformed to TM Tasseled Cap features, are illustrated by means of simulation. A spectral feature by which the amount of atmospheric haze may be inferred is derived and described for both simulated and actual TM data. Results presented for two actual TM scenes illustrate the diagnostic feature's sensitivity to changes in haze level as well as its insensitivity to scene-class-related variability. The method by which such a diagnostic feature might be incorporated into a haze normalization procedure is also discussed.

  4. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  5. Crowdsourcing as citizen-empowered tool for natural hazards. The MAppERS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giulia; Mantovani, Matteo; Frigerio, Simone; Møller Janniche, Amalie; Bianchizza, Chiara; Del Bianco, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    MAppERS is a co-financed project by European Commission and it is focused on natural hazards risk prevention and emergency response, through the development of a smartphone application. The idea relies on the role of citizens and volunteers as 'territorial mappers' and the information they can provide to civil protection operators through the use of their smartphones. The strategy is to promote the active participation of citizens and volunteers in disaster risk reduction promoting responsibility and preparedness. The application embraces tools for crowdsourcing data collection, for preparedness, prevention and alert warnings. The pilot activity conducted in order to assess its usability and performance is presented. One activity presented took place in Denmark, by Frederikssund Halsnæs Fire & Rescue Service, where 12 voluntary citizens were enrolled. The age ranged between young and elderly people with different educational level. Two separated groups were defined; one followed an introductory course on the application usage and were supervised during the test, while the other was untrained and without support. The usability of the app was assessed through the filling in of a form. Results showed that volunteers were extremely interested in the app and were seeing the advantage of using it. The app was considered user-friendly even to elderly people. The differences in comprehension of several aspects of the application by the two groups allowed to highlight the weak points in terms of approachability. These were then addressed in the following release of the app.

  6. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  7. netCDF Operators for Rapid Analysis of Measured and Modeled Swath-like Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Swath-like data (hereafter SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all Level 2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level 3 data, and model data on curvilinear grids. Researchers and data centers want user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. To meet these needs, large research-oriented agencies and modeling center such as NASA, DOE, and NOAA increasingly employ the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package applicable to netCDF and HDF data. NCO includes extensive, fast, parallelized regridding features to facilitate analysis and intercomparison of SLD and model data. Remote sensing, weather and climate modeling and analysis communities face similar problems in handling SLD including how to easily: 1. Specify and mask irregular regions such as ocean basins and political boundaries in SLD (and rectangular) grids. 2. Bin, interpolate, average, or re-map SLD to regular grids. 3. Derive secondary data from given quality levels of SLD. These common tasks require a data extraction and analysis toolkit that is SLD-friendly and, like NCO, familiar in all these communities. With NCO users can 1. Quickly project SLD onto the most useful regular grids for intercomparison. 2. Access sophisticated statistical and regridding functions that are robust to missing data and allow easy specification of quality control metrics. These capabilities improve interoperability, software-reuse, and, because they apply to SLD, minimize transmission, storage, and handling of unwanted data. While SLD analysis still poses many challenges compared to regularly gridded, rectangular data, the custom analyses scripts SLD once required are now shorter, more powerful, and user-friendly.

  8. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Tucson, AZ 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K.P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen; Bleamaster, Leslie F.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Report of the Annual Mappers Meeting Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona June 28 and 29, 2007 Approximately 22 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The 2007 meeting was convened by Tracy Gregg, Les Bleamaster, Steve Saunders, and Ken Tanaka and was hosted by David Crown and Les Bleamaster of the Planetary Science Institute (PSI) in Tucson, Arizona. Oral presentations and poster discussions took place on Thursday, June 28 and Friday, June 29. This year's meeting also included a unique opportunity to visit the operations centers of two active Mars missions; field trips to the University of Arizona took place on Thursday and Friday afternoons. Outgoing Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) chairperson, Tracy Gregg, commenced the meeting with an introduction and David Crown followed with a discussion of logistics and the PSI facility; Steve Saunders (Planetary Geology and Geophysics Discipline Scientist) then provided a brief program update. Science presentations kicked off with Venus mapper Vicki Hansen and graduate students Eric Tharalson and Bhairavi Shankar of the University of Minnesota, Duluth, showing a 3-D animation of the global distribution of tesserae and discussing the implications, a progress report for V-45 quadrangle mapping, and a brief discussion of circular lows. Les Bleamaster (PSI) followed with a progress report on mapping of the V-50 quadrangle and the 1:10M Helen Planitia quadrangle. David Crown (PSI) concluded the Venus presentations with a discussion of progress made on the V-30 quadrangle. The remainder of Thursday's presentations jumped around the Solar System including Mars, Io, and Earth. Ken Tanaka of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began the afternoon with a general discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS. Buck Janes (University of Arizona) provided background information about the Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) and

  9. Live Site Demonstrations: Former Camp Beale Demonstration of MetalMapper Static Data Acquisition and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    location recorded by the intrusive team. 4.0 SITE DESCRIPTION The former Camp Beale is approximately 10 miles east of Marysville, California, in Yuba ... Yuba County, California Legend I I Combined Grids - Combined Area I I MM Grids - Metal Mapper Area I I Portable Grids - Portable Areas c

  10. Evaluation of NASA SPoRT's Pseudo-Geostationary Lightning Mapper Products in the 2011 Spring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Carcione, Brian; Siewert, Christopher; Kuhlman, Kristin M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a contributing partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) preparing forecasters to understand and utilize the unique products that will be available in the GOES-R era. This presentation emphasizes SPoRT s actions to prepare the end user community for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This preparation is a collaborative effort with SPoRT's National Weather Service partners, the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), and the Hazardous Weather Testbed s Spring Program. SPoRT continues to use its effective paradigm of matching capabilities to forecast problems through collaborations with our end users and working with the developers at NSSL to create effective evaluations and visualizations. Furthermore, SPoRT continues to develop software plug-ins so that these products will be available to forecasters in their own decision support system, AWIPS and eventually AWIPS II. In 2009, the SPoRT program developed the original pseudo geostationary lightning mapper (PGLM) flash extent product to demonstrate what forecasters may see with GLM. The PGLM replaced the previous GLM product and serves as a stepping-stone until the AWG s official GLM proxy is ready. The PGLM algorithm is simple and can be applied to any ground-based total lightning network. For 2011, the PGLM used observations from four ground-based networks (North Alabama, Kennedy Space Center, Oklahoma, and Washington D.C.). While the PGLM is not a true proxy product, it is intended as a tool to train forecasters about total lightning as well as foster discussions on product visualizations and incorporating GLM-resolution data into forecast operations. The PGLM has been used in 2010 and 2011 and is likely to remain the primary lightning training tool for the GOES-R program for the near future. This presentation will emphasize the feedback received during the 2011 Spring Program. This will discuss several topics. Based on feedback

  11. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  12. Washington D.C. Lightning Mapping Array Demonstration Project Risk Reduction for GOES Lightning Mapper Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephan B.; Goodman, Steven; Krehbiel, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A 10-site, ground-based total lightning mapping array (LMA) has been installed in the Washington D.C. metropolitan area in 2006. The total lightning data from DC LMA are being processed in real-time and derived products are being provided to the forecasters of the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Sterling, Virginia. The NWS forecasters are using the products to monitor convective activity along with conventional radar and satellite products. Operational experience with these products is intended to inform decision making in how to best utilize in NWS operations similar data available from the GOES Lightning Mapper. The paper will discuss specifics of the LMA as well as proposed research into use of total lightning data in predicting and warning for cloud-to-ground lightning.

  13. Standardized mappings--a framework to combine different semantic mappers into a standardized web-API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Philipp; Doods, Justin; Dugas, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Automatic coding of medical terms is an important, but highly complicated and laborious task. To compare and evaluate different strategies a framework with a standardized web-interface was created. Two UMLS mapping strategies are compared to demonstrate the interface. The framework is a Java Spring application running on a Tomcat application server. It accepts different parameters and returns results in JSON format. To demonstrate the framework, a list of medical data items was mapped by two different methods: similarity search in a large table of terminology codes versus search in a manually curated repository. These mappings were reviewed by a specialist. The evaluation shows that the framework is flexible (due to standardized interfaces like HTTP and JSON), performant and reliable. Accuracy of automatically assigned codes is limited (up to 40%). Combining different semantic mappers into a standardized Web-API is feasible. This framework can be easily enhanced due to its modular design.

  14. Mapping thermal maturity in the Chainman shale, near Eureka, Nevada, with Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between measurements of organic matter (OM) maturity and laboratory measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance, and if Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images could be used to map maturity. The maturity of Mississippian Chainman Shale samples collected in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah was determined by using vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TM 4/TM 5 values correspond well to vitrinite reflectance and hydrogen index variations, and therefore this ratio was used to evaluate a TM image of the Eureka, Nevada, area for mapping thermal maturity differences in the Chainman Shale. -from Authors

  15. Thematic Mapper Data Quality and Performance Assessment in Renewable Resources/agriculture/remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of the early thematic mapper (TM) data indicate the TM sensor and associated ground processing are performing equal to the high expectations and within advertised specifications. The overall TM system with improved resolution, together with additional and more optimumly placed spectral bands shows much promise for benefits in future analysis activities. By selecting man-made features of known dimensions (e.g., highways, airfields, buildings, and isolated water bodies), an assessment was made of the TM performance relative to the specified 30-meter (98-foot) resolution. The increase of spatial resolution of TM (30 m) over MSS (80 M) appears to be significant not only in resolving spectrally distinct classes that were previously undefinable but also in distinguishing within-field variability. An Important result of the early TM evaluation and pre-TM analyses was the development of an integrated system to receive LANDSAT-4 TM (as well as MSS) data and analyze the data via various approaches.

  16. Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P. W.; Wells, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    Remote sensing with the Landsat Thematic Mapper of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes between 18 and 27 deg S revealed, for the first time, the presence of 28 breached volcanic cones and 11 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, several of which cover areas in excess of 100 sq km. It is concluded that such avalanche deposits are normal products of the evolution of large composite volcanoes, comparable with lava and pyroclastic flow deposits. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the same area indicated that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000 and 3000 m may undergo sector collapse. The paper describes morphological criteria for identifying breached composite cones and volcanic debris avalanches using orbital images.

  17. Development of a New Time Resolved Irradiance Uniformity Mapper at Spasolab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barber C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a time-resolved uniformity mapper developed at Spasolab based on two main premises: easy adaptability to different solar simulators and versatility in terms of irradiance operation range, extended up to 2 AM0. A modular two-stage design features independent bias PCB’s per each photodiode that allow for easy sensor swapping or different biasing for future sensor replacements. A new type of photodiode active biasing is also presented, with the main feature of being capable of switching on the bias voltage only during the acquisition process, hence reducing self-heating. Ad-hoc software developed in LabVIEW and PXI instrumentation enable the system to have different acquisition modes further expanding the irradiance range to be tested without risking hazard to the system due to overheating. Finally, outdoor calibration method and results for the system are also presented.

  18. MAppERS experience: natural processes and preparedness in the societal context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bossi, Giulia; Mantovani, Matteo; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Within natural processes responsibilities from central authorities to local levels as first actors of civil protection is a changing pattern. Prevention and preparedness in natural hazards are long-term goals based on capacities of professional volunteers, and improving the awareness of the citizens as local inhabitants. Local people have impacts on their lives but training and involvement towards specific techniques change their role within risk communication and emergency preparedness. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a funded project (2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) based on human role as "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone application able to share GPS-localised and detailed parameters. The feedback from testing and the training courses aim to raising public awareness and participation in a networked disaster response. The project implies design and test of smart phone linked with a real-time dashboard platform for rescue services citizens and volunteers of civil protection. Two pilot sites, including trainings on modules functioning control usability and quality of the product. The synchronized platform offers the activity of cloud data collection with a central data dashboard. Information is collected in a context of floods processes, with crowdsourcing action from local population, for proper awareness with own personal flood plan and long-term preparedness. A second context tested pre-emergency actions on field with rescue team, collecting state-of-art and condition of hazards.

  19. SurveillanceMapper: a simple method for creating an overview of quality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Kjeld B

    2008-02-01

    The amount of quality data continues to increase. To help prioritise resources for quality improvement, managers need thorough reviews to help them decide which indicators are most important to improve. The reality is that data is presented in piles of reports and hundreds of tables and graphs that are very time-consuming to go through and that rarely result in a simple comprehensive overview. This paper presents an empirically tested tool to create a simple overview of complex quality data. Data comes from a questionnaire-based patient satisfaction survey of 13,129 patients and 1,589 staff members at Ribe County Hospital. A method is described: how to use colour coding in order to present the results for 16 indicators, measured both by patients and three staff member groups, for 28 departments and 46 ambulatories, in one page. Data for mean satisfaction scores on all questions are shown for each department in a core map. Aggregated departmental mean satisfaction scores are then calculated, as are hospital mean scores for each question. The same is done for staff members' evaluation and for outpatient care. Few problems are universal and most of the problematic scores are related to a minority of departments, calling for local activities to improve quality. Diversity seems to be the rule. The SurveillanceMapper-tool proved effective for handling the complexity of quality measures. It is easy to translate hundreds of graphs and tables into the SurveillanceMapper-tool format. The method facilitates easy spotting areas for quality improvements and evaluating the results of intervention.

  20. EVALUATION OF SWATH-MS BASED QUANTIFICATION FOR ITS ACCURACY AND CONSISTENCY ACROSS CONCENTRATIONS OF SPIKED-IN PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bhat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry based proteomics have emerged as an important tool for studying different aspects of biological networks. However, the major challenges in this field are reproducibility, accuracy and sensitivity for detecting and quantifying low abundant proteins. We have previously reported that sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH–MS holds the ability to quantitate larger number of low abundant proteins as compared to isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. Here we provide a detailed evaluation of the quantification performance of SWATH-MS for its precision and reproducibility in quantifying peptides of different abundance using β-galactosidase as a reference protein. This study demonstrates that SWATH-MS can reproducibly quantitate peptides as low as 2.5 fmoles. The coefficient of variation was below 13% at 2.5 fmoles while it was < 8% for concentrations above 25 fmoles clearly indicating good reproducibility between replicates. Thus, our analysis further supports the strength of this method to quantitate low abundant proteins.

  1. The beauty of being (label)-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Capuano, Floriana; Campbell, Kate; Deery, Michael J; Lilley, Kathryn S; Ralser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA) and data independent (SWATH) acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  2. SWATH-MS Quantitative Proteomic Investigation Reveals a Role of Jasmonic Acid during Lead Response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chan, Wai-Lung; Chen, Mo-Xian; Kong, Ricky P W; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Lo, Clive

    2016-10-07

    Lead (Pb) pollution is a growing environment problem that continuously threatens the productivity of crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to Pb toxicity, we examined proteome changes in Arabidopsis seedlings following Pb treatment by SWATH-MS, a label-free quantitative proteomic platform. We identified and quantified the expression of 1719 proteins in water- and Pb-treated plants. Among them, 231 proteins showed significant abundance changes (151 elevated and 80 reduced) upon Pb exposure. Functional categorization revealed that most of the Pb-responsive proteins are involved in different metabolic processes. For example, down-regulation of photosynthesis and biosynthesis of isoprenoids and tetrapyrroles in chloroplasts were observed. On the contrary, pathways leading to glutathione, jasmonic acid (JA), glucosinolate (GSL), and phenylpropanoid production are up-regulated. Experimental characterizations demonstrated a rapid elevation of endogenic JA production in Pb-treated Arabidopsis seedlings, while a JA-deficient mutant and a JA-insensitive mutant showed hypersensitivity to root inhibition by Pb, implicating an essential role of JA during Pb responses. Consistently, methyl jasmonate supplementation alleviated Pb toxicity in the wild-type and JA-deficient mutant. Furthermore, GSL levels were substantially enhanced following Pb treatment, while such induction was not detected in the JA mutant, suggesting that the Pb-induced GSL accumulation is JA-dependent. Overall, our work represents the first SWATH-MS analysis in Arabidopsis and highlights a potential mediating role of JA during Pb stress.

  3. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC06S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  4. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  5. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Total Precip Water Vapor 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC05S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Total Precip Water Vapor 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC05S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  8. Land and Water Interface of Louisiana from 2002 Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2005) [landwater_interface_la_03ac_LOSCO_2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — These are polygon and raster data sets derived from 2002 Landsat Thematic Mapper Satellite Imagery that indicates areas of land and areas of water in Louisiana. The...

  9. Pre-Launch Algorithms and Risk Reduction in Support of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper for GOES-R and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Petersen, Walt; Buechler, Dennis; Krehbiel, Paul; Gatlin, Patrick; Zubrick, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total lightning activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of lightning from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational.The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous,full-disk lightning measurements for storm warning and Nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of lightning. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global lightning activity. Instrument formulation studies were completed in March 2007 and the implementation phase to develop a prototype model and up to four flight units is expected to begin in latter part of the year. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2B algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) sate]lite and regional test beds (e.g., Lightning Mapping Arrays in North Alabama and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data provided to selected National Weather Service forecast offices in Southern and Eastern Region are also improving

  10. Radiometric Cross Calibration of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)

    OpenAIRE

    Nischal Mishra; Md. Obaidul Haque; Larry Leigh; David Aaron; Dennis Helder; Brian Markham

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the radiometric consistency between Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) using cross calibration techniques. Two approaches are used, one based on cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event on 29–30 March 2013. The other approach is based on using time series of image statistics acquired by these two sensors over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration ...

  11. The Venus Emissivity Mapper - gaining a global perspective on the surface composition of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, Joern; Dyar, Melinda; Widemann, Thomas; Marcq, Emmanuel; Maturilli, Alessandro; Mueller, Nils; Kappel, David; Ferrari, Sabrina; D'Amore, Mario; Tsang, Constantine; Arnold, Gabriele; Smrekar, Suzanne; VEM Team

    2017-10-01

    The permanent cloud cover of Venus prohibits observations of the surface with traditional imaging techniques over much of the EM spectral range, leading to the false notion that information about the composition of Venus’ surface could only be derived from lander missions. However, harsh environmental conditions on the surface cause landed missions to be sole site, highly complex, and riskier than orbiting missions.It is now known that 5 transparency windows occur in the Venus atmosphere, ranging from 0.86 µm to 1.18 µm. Recent advances in high temperature laboratory spectroscopy at the PSL at DLR these windows are highly diagnostic for surface mineralogy. Mapping of the southern hemisphere of Venus with VIRTIS on VEX in the 1.02 µm band was a proof-of-concept for an orbital remote sensing approach to surface composition and weathering studies[1-3]. The Venus Emissivity Mapper [4] proposed for the NASA’s Venus Origins Explorer (VOX) and the ESA EnVision proposal builds on these recent advances. It is the first flight instrument specially designed with a sole focus on mapping the surface of Venus using the narrow atmospheric windows around 1 µm. Operating in situ from Venus orbit, VEM will provide a global map of surface composition as well as redox state of the surface, providing a comprehensive picture of surface-atmosphere interaction and support for landing site selection. Continuous observation of the thermal emission of the Venus will provide tight constraints on the current day volcanic activity[5]. This is complemented by measurements of atmospheric water vapor abundance as well as cloud microphysics and dynamics. These data will allow for accurate correction of atmospheric interference on the surface measurements, which provide highly valuable science on their own. A mission combining VEM with a high-resolution radar mapper such as VOX or EnVision in a low circular orbit will provide key insights into the divergent evolution of Venus.1. Smrekar, S

  12. MixupMapper: correcting sample mix-ups in genome-wide datasets increases power to detect small genetic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Harm-Jan; Jansen, Ritsert C; Fehrmann, Rudolf S N; te Meerman, Gerard J; van Heel, David; Wijmenga, Cisca; Franke, Lude

    2011-08-01

    Sample mix-ups can arise during sample collection, handling, genotyping or data management. It is unclear how often sample mix-ups occur in genome-wide studies, as there currently are no post hoc methods that can identify these mix-ups in unrelated samples. We have therefore developed an algorithm (MixupMapper) that can both detect and correct sample mix-ups in genome-wide studies that study gene expression levels. We applied MixupMapper to five publicly available human genetical genomics datasets. On average, 3% of all analyzed samples had been assigned incorrect expression phenotypes: in one of the datasets 23% of the samples had incorrect expression phenotypes. The consequences of sample mix-ups are substantial: when we corrected these sample mix-ups, we identified on average 15% more significant cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs). In one dataset, we identified three times as many significant cis-eQTLs after correction. Furthermore, we show through simulations that sample mix-ups can lead to an underestimation of the explained heritability of complex traits in genome-wide association datasets. MixupMapper is freely available at http://www.genenetwork.nl/mixupmapper/

  13. PharmMapper 2017 update: a web server for potential drug target identification with a comprehensive target pharmacophore database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Shen, Yihang; Wang, Shiwei; Li, Shiliang; Zhang, Weilin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Lai, Luhua; Pei, Jianfeng; Li, Honglin

    2017-05-03

    The PharmMapper online tool is a web server for potential drug target identification by reversed pharmacophore matching the query compound against an in-house pharmacophore model database. The original version of PharmMapper includes more than 7000 target pharmacophores derived from complex crystal structures with corresponding protein target annotations. In this article, we present a new version of the PharmMapper web server, of which the backend pharmacophore database is six times larger than the earlier one, with a total of 23 236 proteins covering 16 159 druggable pharmacophore models and 51 431 ligandable pharmacophore models. The expanded target data cover 450 indications and 4800 molecular functions compared to 110 indications and 349 molecular functions in our last update. In addition, the new web server is united with the statistically meaningful ranking of the identified drug targets, which is achieved through the use of standard scores. It also features an improved user interface. The proposed web server is freely available at http://lilab.ecust.edu.cn/pharmmapper/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekang Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC, the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, High-intensity discharge (HID, and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM, Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM, and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM. The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen.

  15. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  16. Quantification of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Stoichiometry in Proteins Using Mass Spectrometric Data-Independent Acquisitions (SWATH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G; D'Souza, Alexandria K; Sorensen, Dylan J; Rardin, Matthew J; Wolfe, Alan J; Gibson, Bradford W; Schilling, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modification of lysine residues by N Ɛ -acylation is an important regulator of protein function. Many large-scale protein acylation studies have assessed relative changes of lysine acylation sites after antibody enrichment using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Although relative acylation fold-changes are important, this does not reveal site occupancy, or stoichiometry, of individual modification sites, which is critical to understand functional consequences. Recently, methods for determining lysine acetylation stoichiometry have been proposed based on ratiometric analysis of endogenous levels to those introduced after quantitative per-acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride. However, in our hands, we find that these methods can overestimate acetylation stoichiometries because of signal interferences when endogenous levels of acylation are very low, which is especially problematic when using MS1 scans for quantification. In this study, we sought to improve the accuracy of determining acylation stoichiometry using data-independent acquisition (DIA). Specifically, we use SWATH acquisition to comprehensively collect both precursor and fragment ion intensity data. The use of fragment ions for stoichiometry quantification not only reduces interferences but also allows for determination of site-level stoichiometry from peptides with multiple lysine residues. We also demonstrate the novel extension of this method to measurements of succinylation stoichiometry using deuterium-labeled succinic anhydride. Proof of principle SWATH acquisition studies were first performed using bovine serum albumin for both acetylation and succinylation occupancy measurements, followed by the analysis of more complex samples of E. coli cell lysates. Although overall site occupancy was low (<1%), some proteins contained lysines with relatively high acetylation occupancy. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Quantification of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Stoichiometry in Proteins Using Mass Spectrometric Data-Independent Acquisitions (SWATH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G.; D'Souza, Alexandria K.; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modification of lysine residues by NƐ-acylation is an important regulator of protein function. Many large-scale protein acylation studies have assessed relative changes of lysine acylation sites after antibody enrichment using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Although relative acylation fold-changes are important, this does not reveal site occupancy, or stoichiometry, of individual modification sites, which is critical to understand functional consequences. Recently, methods for determining lysine acetylation stoichiometry have been proposed based on ratiometric analysis of endogenous levels to those introduced after quantitative per-acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride. However, in our hands, we find that these methods can overestimate acetylation stoichiometries because of signal interferences when endogenous levels of acylation are very low, which is especially problematic when using MS1 scans for quantification. In this study, we sought to improve the accuracy of determining acylation stoichiometry using data-independent acquisition (DIA). Specifically, we use SWATH acquisition to comprehensively collect both precursor and fragment ion intensity data. The use of fragment ions for stoichiometry quantification not only reduces interferences but also allows for determination of site-level stoichiometry from peptides with multiple lysine residues. We also demonstrate the novel extension of this method to measurements of succinylation stoichiometry using deuterium-labeled succinic anhydride. Proof of principle SWATH acquisition studies were first performed using bovine serum albumin for both acetylation and succinylation occupancy measurements, followed by the analysis of more complex samples of E. coli cell lysates. Although overall site occupancy was low (<1%), some proteins contained lysines with relatively high acetylation occupancy.

  18. Mapping Land, Vegetation, and Ice with Wide-swath, Full-waveform Laser Altimetry from High-altitude UAV Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.; Rabine, D. L.; Wake, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Mitchell, S.

    2011-12-01

    While the majority of airborne lidar sensors are restricted to low-altitude operations due to sensor limitations, the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS - formerly the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor) has transitioned to the Global Hawk aircraft for operations at 20 km altitude. NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) has assisted in procuring funding to transition the LVIS sensor into the Global Hawk aircraft and the sensor is readying for integration onto the aircraft based at NASA Dryden. The current LVIS sensor has operated with sub-decimeter accuracy from as high as 13 km altitude while fully mapping a > 2 km wide swath and the new instrument will maintain that level of accuracy while extending the swath coverage to 4 km. Both the transmitted waveform and the return echo waveform are sampled and recorded for post-processing for a wide range of Earth science applications, including ice sheet elevation and change mapping, sea ice coverage, natural hazards such as volcanoes, and forest mapping for biomass and habitat assessment. The LVIS data are distributed in a unique waveform vector format that is an accurate representation of the entire interaction of the laser pulse with the surface roughness, texture, slope, and any complex structure such as forest canopies or crevassed ice surfaces. End-user scientists can reinterpret the waveform using their own algorithms and still capture the full accuracy of the sensor data. Once LVIS is fully operational on the Global Hawk aircraft, it will collect data at a rate of 2,500 km^2 per hour and the Global Hawk has a flight duration of over 30 hours. The extraordinary range of the Global Hawk opens up the possibility of mapping remote areas such as Antarctica and Greenland. Performance expectations and examples of existing data will be shown as well as potential future flight plans.

  19. Kadının ve Kaderin “Tırpan”ı Swath Of Woman And Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim DURUKOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The novel Tırpan (Swath would be the most prominent outcome of a historical and literary brainstorming about the World Women’s Day in particular and the unfortunate faith of women in general. The novel Tırpan, which first merges and then separates the concepts of woman and faith, is one or probably the only work with a thesis that comes to the mind first in that it was written with the naïve belief that the faith will show up not before but after it is lived and generally all people particularly the women can write their faith; it questions the faith or the unfortunate faith of people, especially the that of women within the boundaries of the genre of novel, expanding to cover class clashes, the breaths of Marxist ideologies, and feminist viewpoints. Inherited from an image of old tool in our mind, accompanied with the motive of Azrael claiming lives with the swath in its hands, swath gains a function beyond that of an agricultural tool in this novel. Swath changes hand from Azrael to women and the woman punishes the man who disrespects her field of existence and freedom, thus reclaims and rewrites her faith with her own hands using the swath. Swath would preserve its function as a goal and an instrument in the writer’s hand, however, in terms of its consequences it will transform into a symbol of woman’s revolution as the hammer and sickle of the Bolshevist revolution. The author, who wants to create a resisting, active and activist women spirit and mentality instead of an understanding which takes it as an escape to commit suicide by hanging themselves when they are forced to get married as a passive reaction, tries to impose the fatalist Turkish society and Turkish women with the idea that they can reclaim their faiths and direct their own lives, offering and inspiring a shift of awareness through this novel. Özelde Dünya Kadınlar Günü ve genelde kadının makus talihi ve tarihi ekseninde ve edebiyat düzleminde yapaca

  20. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Planetary Geologic Mappers, Nampa, Idaho 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 18 people attended this year's mappers meeting, and many more submitted abstracts and maps in absentia. The meeting was held on the campus of Northwest Nazarene University (NNU), and was graciously hosted by NNU's School of Health and Science. Planetary mapper Dr. Jim Zimbelman is an alumnus of NNU, and he was pivotal in organizing the meeting at this location. Oral and poster presentations were given on Friday, June 30. Drs. Bill Bonnichsen and Marty Godchaux led field excursions on July 1 and 2. USGS Astrogeology Team Chief Scientist Lisa Gaddis led the meeting with a brief discussion of the status of the planetary mapping program at USGS, and a more detailed description of the Lunar Mapping Program. She indicated that there is now a functioning website (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/PlanetaryMapping/Lunar/) which shows which lunar quadrangles are available to be mapped. Like other USGS-published maps, proposals to complete a lunar geologic map must be submitted to the regular Planetary Geology & Geophysics (PGG) program for peer review. Jim Skinner (USGS) later presented the progress of the 1:2.5M-scale map of the lunar Copernicus quadrangle, and demonstrated the wide range of data that are available to support these maps. Gaddis and Skinner encouraged the community to submit proposals for generating lunar geologic maps, and reminded us that, as for all planetary maps, the project must be science-driven. Venus mapper Jim Zimbelman of the Smithsonian Institution (SI) presented the progress for his V-15 and V-16 quadrangles; Vicki Hansen (University of Minnesota Duluth) showed her preliminary work on V-45. Zimbelman addressed an issue that has been plaguing the community: 'delinquent Venus mappers'. In short, there were a number of Venus maps funded in the early 1990s under the Venus Data Analysis Program (VDAP). Unfortunately, funding for this program was cut before many Venus maps could be completed, resulting in about 10 Venus maps that

  1. High Impact Weather Forecasts and Warnings with the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Mach, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) is the next series to follow the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. A major advancement over the current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). The GLM will operate continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Science Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop cal/val performance monitoring tools and new applications using the GLM alone, in conjunction with other instruments, and merged or blended integrated observing system products combining satellite, radar, in-situ and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional ground-based lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms, test data sets, and applications, as well as improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. In this presentation we review the planned implementation of the instrument and suite of operational algorithms.

  2. Improved hyperspectral vegetation detection using neural networks with spectral angle mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Okan Bilge; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral images have been used in many areas including city planning, mining and military decision support systems. Hyperspectral image analysis techniques have a great potential for vegetation detection and classification with their capability to identify the spectral differences across the electromagnetic spectrum due to their ability to provide information about the chemical compositions of materials. This study introduces a vegetation detection method employing Artificial Neural Network (ANN) over hyperspectral imaging. The algorithm employed backpropagation MLP algorithm for training neural networks. The performance of ANN is improved by the joint use with Spectral Angle Mapper(SAM). The algorithm first obtains the certainty measure from ANN, following the completion of this process, every pixels' angular distance is computed by SAM. The certainty measure is divided by angular distance. Results from ANN, SAM and Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms are compared and evaluated with the result of the algorithm. Limited number of training samples are used for training. The results demonstrate that joint use of ANN and SAM significantly improves classification accuracy for smaller training samples.

  3. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; hide

    2014-01-01

    for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

  4. Thematic mapper data quality and performance assessment in renewable resource/agricultural remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Macdonald, R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A "quick look" investigation of the initial LANDSAT-4, thematic mapper (TM) scene received from Goddard Space Flight Center was performed to gain early insight into the characteristics of TM data. The initial scene, containing only the first four bands of the seven bands recorded by the TM, was acquired over the Detroit, Michigan, area on July 20, 1982. It yielded abundant information for scientific investigation. A wide variety of studies were conducted to assess all aspects of TM data. They ranged from manual analyses of image products to detect obvious optical, electronic, or mechanical defects to detailed machine analyses of the digital data content for evaluation of spectral separability of vegetative/nonvegetative classes. These studies were applied to several segments extracted from the full scene. No attempt was made to perform end-to-end statistical evaluations. However, the output of these studies do identify a degree of positive performance from the TM and its potential for advancing state-of-the-art crop inventory and condition assessment technology.

  5. Detection and mapping vegetation cover based on the Spectral Angle Mapper algorithm using NOAA AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoub, Houria; Belbachir, Ahmed Hafid; Benabadji, Noureddine

    2014-06-01

    Satellite data, taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been proposed and used for the detection and the cartography of vegetation cover in North Africa. The data used were acquired at the Analysis and Application of Radiation Laboratory (LAAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor of 1 km spatial resolution. The Spectral Angle Mapper Algorithm (SAM) is used for the classification of many studies using high resolution satellite data. In the present paper, we propose to apply the SAM algorithm to the moderate resolution of the NOAA AVHRR sensor data for classifying the vegetation cover. This study allows also exploiting other classification methods for the low resolution. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is extracted from two channels 1 and 2 of the AVHRR sensor. In order to obtain an initial density representation of vegetal formation distribution, a methodology, based on the combination between the threshold method and the decision tree, is used. This combination is carried out due to the lack of accurate data related to the thresholds that delimit each class. In a second time, and based on spectral behavior, a vegetation cover map is developed using SAM algorithm. Finally, with the use of low resolution satellite images (NOAA AVHRR) and with only two channels, it is possible to identify the most dominant species in North Africa such as: forests of the Liege oaks, other forests, cereal's cultivation, steppes and bar soil.

  6. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, Catherine D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  7. Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, J.F.; Pieters, C.M.; Isaacson, P.J.; Head, J.W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Klima, R.L.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Runyon, C.J.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Diurnal changes of remote sensing reflectance over Chesapeake Bay: Observations from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hu, Chuanmin; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    Using hyperspectral data collected by the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) and a shipborne radiometer in Chesapeake Bay in July-August 2011, this study investigates diurnal changes of surface remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Atmospheric correction of ACAM data is performed using the traditional "black pixel" approach through radiative transfer based look-up-tables (LUTs) with non-zero Rrs in the near-infrared (NIR) accounted for by iterations. The ACAM-derived Rrs was firstly evaluated through comparison with Rrs derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite measurements, and then validated against in situ Rrs using a time window of ±1 h or ±3 h. Results suggest that the uncertainties in ACAM-derived Rrs are generally comparable to those from MODIS satellite measurements over coastal waters, and therefore may be used to assess whether Rrs diurnal changes observed by ACAM are realistic (i.e., with changes > 2 × uncertainties). Diurnal changes observed by repeated ACAM measurements reaches up to 66.8% depending on wavelength and location and are consistent with those from the repeated in situ Rrs measurements. These findings suggest that once airborne data are processed using proper algorithms and validated using in situ data, they are suitable for assessing diurnal changes in moderately turbid estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay. The findings also support future geostationary satellite missions that are particularly useful to assess short-term changes.

  9. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  10. A comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network classifiers combined with Landsat TM imagery analysis for obtaining burnt area mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Xanthopoulos, Gavriil; Karantounias, George; Scholze, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878) the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795). Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ≈ 1% for ANN and ≈ 6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

  11. A Comparison of Spectral Angle Mapper and Artificial Neural Network Classifiers Combined with Landsat TM Imagery Analysis for Obtaining Burnt Area Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Scholze

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing, with its unique synoptic coverage capabilities, can provide accurate and immediately valuable information on fire analysis and post-fire assessment, including estimation of burnt areas. In this study the potential for burnt area mapping of the combined use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM classifiers with Landsat TM satellite imagery was evaluated in a Mediterranean setting. As a case study one of the most catastrophic forest fires, which occurred near the capital of Greece during the summer of 2007, was used. The accuracy of the two algorithms in delineating the burnt area from the Landsat TM imagery, acquired shortly after the fire suppression, was determined by the classification accuracy results of the produced thematic maps. In addition, the derived burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were compared with independent estimates available for the study region, obtained from the analysis of higher spatial resolution satellite data. In terms of the overall classification accuracy, ANN outperformed (overall accuracy 90.29%, Kappa coefficient 0.878 the SAM classifier (overall accuracy 83.82%, Kappa coefficient 0.795. Total burnt area estimates from the two classifiers were found also to be in close agreement with the other available estimates for the study region, with a mean absolute percentage difference of ~1% for ANN and ~6.5% for SAM. The study demonstrates the potential of the examined here algorithms in detecting burnt areas in a typical Mediterranean setting.

  12. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  13. Fast rockfall hazard assessment along a road section using the new LYNX Mobile Mapper Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dario, Carrea; Celine, Longchamp; Michel, Jaboyedoff; Marc, Choffet; Marc-Henri, Derron; Clement, Michoud; Andrea, Pedrazzini; Dario, Conforti; Michael, Leslar; William, Tompkinson

    2010-05-01

    The terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is an active remote sensing technique providing high resolution point clouds of the topography. The high resolution digital elevations models (HRDEM) derived of these point clouds are an important tool for the stability analysis of slopes. The LYNX Mobile Mapper is a new TLS generation developed by Optech. Its particularity is to be mounted on a vehicle and providing a 360° high density point cloud at 200-khz measurement rate in a very short acquisition time. It is composed of two sensors improving the resolution and reducing the laser shadowing. The spatial resolution is better than 10 cm at 10 m range and at a velocity of 50 km/h and the reflectivity of the signal is around 20% at a distance of 200 m. The Lidar is also equipped with a DGPS and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) which gives real time position and georeferences directly the point cloud. Thanks to its ability to provide a continuous data set from an extended area along a road, this TLS system is useful for rockfall hazard assessment. In addition, this new scanner decrease considerably the time spent in the field and the postprocessing is reduced thanks to resultant georeferenced data. Nevertheless, its application is limited to an area close to the road. The LYNX has been tested near Pontarlier (France) along roads sections affected by rockfall. Regarding to the tectonic context, the studied area is located in the Folded Jura mainly composed of limestone. The result is a very detailed point cloud with a point spacing of 4 cm. The LYNX presents detailed topography on which a structural analysis has been carried out using COLTOP-3D. It allows obtaining a full structural description along the road. In addition, kinematic tests coupled with probabilistic analysis give a susceptibility map of the road cut or natural cliffs above the road. Comparisons with field survey confirm the Lidar approach.

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Classifier Systems for Landslide Identification in LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Manfré

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslide scar location is fundamental for the risk management process, e.g., it allows mitigation of these areas, decreasing the associated hazards for the population. Remote sensing data usage is an essential tool for landslide identification, mapping, and monitoring. Despite its potential use for landslide risk management, remote sensing usage does have a few drawbacks. The aforementioned events commonly occur at high steep slope regions, frequently associated with shadow occurrence in satellite images, which impairs the identification process and results in low accuracy classifications. In this sense, this paper aims to evaluate the accuracy of different ensembles of multiple classifier systems (MCSs for landslide scar identification. A severe landslide event on a steep slope with a high rainfall rate area in the southeast region of Brazil was chosen. Ten supervised classifiers were used to identify this severe event and other possible features for the LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM from June of 2000. The results were evaluated, and nine MCSs were constructed based on the accuracy of the classifiers. Voting was applied through the ensemble method, coupled with contextual analysis and random selection tie-breaker methods. Accuracy was evaluated for each classification ensemble, and a progressive enhancement in the ensemble accuracy was noted as the least accurate classifiers were removed. The best accuracy for landslide identification emerged from the ensemble of the three most accurate classification results. In summary, MCS application generally improved the classification quality and led to fewer omission errors, coupled with a better classification percentage for the ‘landslide’ class. However, the MCS ensemble algorithm selection must be customized to the purpose of the classification. It is crucial to assess single accuracy indicators of each algorithm to ascertain those with the most consistent performance regarding the final results.

  15. Lightning Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R Geostationary Lightning Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Current work on the lightning jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the lightning jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the lightning jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total lightning mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and lightning jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the lightning jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/lightning jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).

  16. Enhancement of thematic mapper satellite images for geological mapping of the Cho Dien area, Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won-In, Krit; Charusiri, Punya

    2003-06-01

    Information available from the earth science image processing package (ESIPP) software program was applied to enhance the satellite image data of the Cho Dien area, northern Vietnam. The area with dense vegetation covers is dominated by several small Zn-Pb prospects in middle Paleozoic limestone units. Interpretation of satellite image data using the digital enhancement ESIPP program, forms the prime objective of this study, which is to improve the image quality and visual interpretation of regional geology, lineament and structural geology. Thematic mapper of bands 7, 5 and 4 with the false-color composites: blue, green and red, respectively, are considered to be the most appropriate for geologic interpretation. Dark pixel correction is carried out prior to other enhancement analyses which include high-pass filtering, albedo correction, image classification, principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios. High-pass filtering enhancement is considered to be the most suitable approach for lineament analysis. Albedo is good for differentiating lithology, and image classification is also successfully used for lineament interpretation and discrimination of lithologies but is regarded not better than high-pass filtering and albedo. PCA and ratio of band enhancements are considered not good because there are many disturbed and excavated land areas such as abandoned and current open pits in the concerned area. The result of Landsat interpretation indicate that most lineament structures developed in a roughly N-trending anticlinal structure are in NE-, E- and N-trends. Minor lineaments are in roughly NW-trend, and cross-cutting the NE- and E-trends. Interpretation from enhanced Landsat information also fits very well with field evidences. The interpreted map is slightly different from those of the previous mapping works, particularly with respect to detailed lithological boundaries.

  17. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal, Marc D.; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 microseconds) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  18. Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.

    2009-01-01

    The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or

  19. Post launch calibration and testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal, Marc; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 μs) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  20. Constraining calving front processes on W Greenland outlet glaciers using inertial-corrected laser scanning & swath-bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Hubbard, A.; Neale, M.; Woodward, J.; Box, J. E.; Nick, F.

    2010-12-01

    Calving and submarine melt account for the majority of loss from the Antarctic and over 50% of that from the Greenland Ice Sheet. These ice-ocean processes are highly efficient mass-loss mechanisms, providing a rapid link between terrestrial ice (storage) and the oceanic sink (sea level/freshwater flux) which renders the ocean-outlet-ice sheet system potentially highly non-linear. Despite this, the controls on tidewater processes are poorly understood and a process based description of them is lacking from the present generation of coupled ice sheet models. We present details from an innovative study where two survey techniques are integrated to enable the construction of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the aerial and submarine ice front of calving outlet glaciers. A 2km range terrestrial laser scanner was combined with a 416KHz swath-interferometric system and corrected via an inertial motion unit stabilized by RTK GPS and gyro-compass data. The system was mounted aboard a heavy displacement (20,000kg) yacht in addition to a light displacement (100kg) semi-autonomous boat and used to image the aerial and submarine calving fronts of two large outlet glaciers in W Greenland. Six daily surveys, each 2.5km long were repeated across Lille Glacier during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were observed and captured from on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse sequences. A curtain of CTD and velocity casts were also conducted to constrain the fresh and oceanic mass and energy fluxes within the fjord. The residual of successive DTMs yield the spatial pattern of frontal change enabling the processes of aerial and submarine calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. These observed frontal changes are tentatively related to local dynamic, atmospheric and oceanographic processes that drive them. A partial survey of Store Glacier (~7km calving front & W Greenland 2nd largest outlet after Jakobshavn Isbrae

  1. Change in Land Cover along the Lower Columbia River Estuary as Determined from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garono, Ralph; Anderson, Becci; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    The Lower Columbia River Estuary Management Plan (Jerrick, 1991) recognizes the positive relationship between the conservation of fish and wildlife habitat, and sustaining their populations. An important component of fish and wildlife conservation and management is the identification of habitats, trends in habitat change, and delineation of habitat for preservation, restoration or enhancement. Alterations to the environment, such as hydropower generation, dredging, forestry, agriculture, channel alteration, diking, bank stabilization and floodplain development, have dramatically altered both the type and distribution of habitats along the Columbia River Estuary (CRE) and its floodplain. Along the Columbia River, tidally influenced habitats occur from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam, a distance of 230 km. If we are to effectively manage the natural resources of the Columbia River ecosystem, there is a need to understand how habitats have changed because fish and wildlife populations are known to respond to changes in habitat quality and distribution. The goal of this study was to measure the amount and type of change of CRE land cover from 1992 to 2000. We performed a change analysis on two spatial data sets describing land cover along the lower portion of the estuary (Fig. 1). The 1992 data set was created by the NOAA Coastal Remote Sensing, Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) in cooperation with Columbia River Estuary Study Task Force (CREST), the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Point Adams Field Station, and State of Washington Department of Natural Resources (DNR). The 2000 data set was produced by Earth Design Consultants, Inc. (EDC) and the Wetland Ecosystem Team (WET: University of Washington) as part of a larger Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) habitat mapping study. Although the image classification methodologies used to create the data sets differed, both data sets were produced by classifying Landsat

  2. Generation of High-Quality SWATH(®) Acquisition Data for Label-free Quantitative Proteomics Studies Using TripleTOF(®) Mass Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W; Hunter, Christie L

    2017-01-01

    Data-independent acquisition is a powerful mass spectrometry technique that enables comprehensive MS and MS/MS analysis of all detectable species, providing an information rich data file that can be mined deeply. Here, we describe how to acquire high-quality SWATH(®) Acquisition data to be used for large quantitative proteomic studies. We specifically focus on using variable sized Q1 windows for acquisition of MS/MS data for generating higher specificity quantitative data.

  3. Statistical analysis of Thematic Mapper Simulator data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types in southwest Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Weinstock, K. J.; Mouat, D. A.; Card, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for the geobotanical discrimination of rock types based on vegetative cover characteristics is addressed in this research. A methodology for accomplishing this evaluation utilizing univariate and multivariate techniques is presented. TMS data acquired with a Daedalus DEI-1260 multispectral scanner were integrated with vegetation and geologic information for subsequent statistical analyses, which included a chi-square test, an analysis of variance, stepwise discriminant analysis, and Duncan's multiple range test. Results indicate that ultramafic rock types are spectrally separable from nonultramafics based on vegetative cover through the use of statistical analyses.

  4. Effects of cross-education on the muscle after a period of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Barss, Trevor S; Lanovaz, Joel L; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cross-education during 4 wk of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe to investigate the effects on muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle activation. Twenty-five right-handed participants were assigned to one of three groups as follows: the Immob + Train group wore a sling and swathe and strength trained (n = 8), the Immob group wore a sling and swathe and did not strength train (n = 8), and the Control group received no treatment (n = 9). Immobilization was applied to the nondominant (left) arm. Strength training consisted of maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension of the dominant (right) arm 3 days/wk. Torque (dynamometer), muscle thickness (ultrasound), maximal voluntary activation (interpolated twitch), and electromyography (EMG) were measured. The change in right biceps and triceps brachii muscle thickness [7.0 ± 1.9 and 7.1 ± 2.2% (SE), respectively] was greater for Immob + Train than Immob (0.4 ± 1.2 and -1.9 ± 1.7%) and Control (0.8 ± 0.5 and 0.0 ± 1.1%, P effect on maximal voluntary activation or EMG. The cross-education effect on the immobilized limb was greater after elbow extension training. This study suggests that strength training the nonimmobilized limb benefits the immobilized limb for muscle size and strength.

  5. A Comparison of the Fractional MODIS and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper with Ground-Based Snow Surveys in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R.; Bales, R. C.; Kirchner, P. B.; Saksa, P. C.; Rittger, K. E.; Painter, T. H.; Dozier, J.

    2010-12-01

    Snow surveys were performed within 1- and 2-km2 grids during the accumulation and ablation periods in the Sierra Nevada of California in 2006, 2008, and 2009, and provide ground-truth for the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size/albedo (MODSCAG) model. In addition, LANDSAT Thematic Mapper using the TMSCAG model at a 30-m resolution was used to compare results with MODIS and the snow surveys. The availability of accurate, fractional snow covered area (fSCA) from MODIS at a 500-m resolution offers unprecedented detail on snow accumulation and melt across variable terrain. fSCA from MODIS provides the only daily basin-wide snow coverage estimation for the western United States, where snow is a dominant component of precipitation and runoff. However, MODSCAG produces the projected fractional snow cover, which does not include snow under the tree canopy. A proposed modification to the method is to divide the observed fractional snow by the canopy opening, i.e. 1.0 minus the forest fraction. A comparison of mean fSCA during the accumulation season across eight 300-m elevation bands, in the 1500-3900 m range, in the Tuolumne and Merced River basins showed that canopy with openings less than 50% obscure significant snow cover. In snow surveys performed within 1- and 2- km2 grids in forested terrain with canopy openings of 50% or less, surveys measured complete snow cover, but MODIS detected fSCA across the study area of 0.3-0.4, comparable to the vegetation gap fraction. During the onset of ablation in a forested area with canopy openings of 0.6- 0.9, snow surveys measured nearly complete snow cover, and MODIS detected a mean fSCA across a 1-km2 study area of 0.83 (range 0.4-0.9). During the ablation period, when snowcover becomes highly variable, a ground survey in an area with canopy openings of 0.4-0.6 provided a snowcover estimate of 0.5, versus 0.1 for fSCA from MODIS. When compared to the 30-m fractional fSCA from the TMSCAG model there were mixed results. When

  6. Quality Assessment of the CCI ECV Soil Moisture Product Using ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Data over Spain, Ireland and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, great progress has been made by the scientific community in generating satellite-derived global surface soil moisture products, as a valuable source of information to be used in a variety of applications, such as hydrology, meteorology and climatic modeling. Through the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI, the most complete and consistent global soil moisture (SM data record based on active and passive microwaves sensors is being developed. However, the coarse spatial resolution characterizing such data may be not sufficient to accurately represent the moisture conditions. The objective of this work is to assess the quality of the CCI Essential Climate Variable (ECV SM product by using finer spatial resolution Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three regions in Europe. Ireland, Spain, and Finland have been selected with the aim of assessing the spatial and temporal representativeness of the ECV SM product over areas that differ in climate, topography, land cover and soil type. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values. A good temporal and spatial agreement has been observed between the three soil moisture datasets for the Irish and Spanish sites, while poorer results have been found at the Finnish sites. Overall, the two different satellite derived products capture the soil moisture temporal variations well and are in good agreement with each other.

  7. Mass Spectral Enhanced Detection of Ubls Using SWATH Acquisition: MEDUSA—Simultaneous Quantification of SUMO and Ubiquitin-Derived Isopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, John R.; Chicooree, Navin; Connolly, Yvonne; Neffling, Milla; Lane, Catherine S.; Knapman, Thomas; Smith, Duncan L.

    2014-05-01

    Protein modification by ubiquitination and SUMOylation occur throughout the cell and are responsible for numerous cellular functions such as apoptosis, DNA replication and repair, and gene transcription. Current methods for the identification of such modifications using mass spectrometry predominantly rely upon tryptic isopeptide tag generation followed by database searching with in vitro genetic mutation of SUMO routinely required. We have recently described a novel approach to ubiquitin and SUMO modification detection based upon the diagnostic a' and b' ions released from the isopeptide tags upon collision-induced dissociation of reductively methylated Ubl isopeptides (RUbI) using formaldehyde. Here, we significantly extend those studies by combining data-independent acquisition (DIA) with alternative labeling reagents to improve diagnostic ion coverage and enable relative quantification of modified peptides from both MS and MS/MS signals. Model synthetic ubiquitin and SUMO-derived isopeptides were labeled with mTRAQ reagents (Δ0, Δ4, and Δ8) and subjected to LC-MS/MS with SWATH acquisition. Novel diagnostic ions were generated upon CID, which facilitated the selective detection of these modified peptides. Simultaneous MS-based and MS/MS-based relative quantification was demonstrated for both Ub and SUMO-derived isopeptides across three channels in a background of mTRAQ-labeled Escherichia coli digest.

  8. Coseismic slip in the 2010 Yushu earthquake (China, constrained by wide-swath and strip-map InSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 14 April 2010, an Mw = 6.9 earthquake occurred in the Yushu county of China, which caused ~3000 people to lose their lives. Integrated with the information from the observed surface ruptures and aftershock locations, the faulting pattern of this earthquake is derived from the descending wide-swath and ascending strip mode PALSAR data collected by ALOS satellite. We used a layered crustal model and stress drop smoothing constraint to infer the coseismic slip distribution. Our model suggests that the earthquake fault can be divided into four segments and the slip mainly occurs within the upper 12 km with a maximum slip of 2.0 m at depth of 3 km on the Jiegu segment. The rupture of the upper 12 km is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip motion. The relatively small slip along the SE region of Yushu segment suggests a slip deficit there. The inverted geodetic moment is approximately Mw = 6.9, consistent with the seismological results. The average stress drop caused by the earthquake is about 2 MPa with a maximum stress drop of 8.3 MPa. Furthermore, the calculated static Coulomb stress changes in surrounding regions show increased Coulomb stress occurred in the SE region along the Yushu segment but with less aftershock, indicating an increased seismic hazard in this region after the earthquake.

  9. The Venus Emissivity Mapper - Investigating the Atmospheric Structure and Dynamics of Venus’ Polar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemann, Thomas; Marcq, Emmanuel; Tsang, Constantine; Mueller, Nils; Kappel, David; Helbert, Joern; Dyar, Melinda; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    Venus displays the best-known case of polar vortices evolving in a fast-rotating atmosphere. Polar vortices are pervasive in the Solar System and may also be present in atmosphere-bearing exoplanets. While much progress has been made since the early suggestion that the Venus clouds are H2O-H2SO4 liquid droplets (Young 1973), several cloud parameters are still poorly constrained, particularly in the lower cloud layer and optically thicker polar regions. The average particle size is constant over most of the planet but increases toward the poles. This indicates that cloud formation processes are different at latitudes greater than 60°, possibly as a result of the different dynamical regimes that exist in the polar vortices (Carlson et al. 1993, Wilson et al. 2008, Barstow et al. 2012).Few wind measurements exist in the polar region due to unfavorable viewing geometry of currently available observations. Cloud-tracking data indicate circumpolar circulation close to solid-body rotation. E-W winds decrease to zero velocity close to the pole. N-S circulation is marginal, with extremely variable morphology and complex vorticity patterns (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 2008, Luz et al. 2011, Garate-Lopez et al. 2013).The Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM; Helbert et al., 2016) proposed for NASA’s Venus Origins Explorer (VOX) and the ESA M5/EnVision orbiters has the capability to better constrain the microphysics (vertical, horizontal, time dependence of particle size distribution, or/and composition) of the lower cloud particles in three spectral bands at 1.195, 1.310 and 1.510 μm at a spatial resolution of ~10 km. Circular polar orbit geometry would provide an unprecedented simultaneous study of both polar regions within the same mission. In addition, VEM’s pushbroom method will allow short timescale cloud dynamics to be assessed, as well as local wind speeds, using repeated imagery at 90 minute intervals. Tracking lower cloud motions as proxies for wind measurements at high

  10. TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper: database-driven creation and analysis of transcriptome maps from multiple sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danieli Gian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several tools have been developed to perform global gene expression profile data analysis, to search for specific chromosomal regions whose features meet defined criteria as well as to study neighbouring gene expression. However, most of these tools are tailored for a specific use in a particular context (e.g. they are species-specific, or limited to a particular data format and they typically accept only gene lists as input. Results TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper is a new general tool that allows the simple generation and analysis of quantitative transcriptome maps, starting from any source listing gene expression values for a given gene set (e.g. expression microarrays, implemented as a relational database. It includes a parser able to assign univocal and updated gene symbols to gene identifiers from different data sources. Moreover, TRAM is able to perform intra-sample and inter-sample data normalization, including an original variant of quantile normalization (scaled quantile, useful to normalize data from platforms with highly different numbers of investigated genes. When in 'Map' mode, the software generates a quantitative representation of the transcriptome of a sample (or of a pool of samples and identifies if segments of defined lengths are over/under-expressed compared to the desired threshold. When in 'Cluster' mode, the software searches for a set of over/under-expressed consecutive genes. Statistical significance for all results is calculated with respect to genes localized on the same chromosome or to all genome genes. Transcriptome maps, showing differential expression between two sample groups, relative to two different biological conditions, may be easily generated. We present the results of a biological model test, based on a meta-analysis comparison between a sample pool of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and a sample pool of megakaryocytic cells. Biologically relevant chromosomal segments and gene

  11. TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper): database-driven creation and analysis of transcriptome maps from multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Luca; Facchin, Federica; Piva, Francesco; Giulietti, Matteo; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Frabetti, Flavia; Vitale, Lorenza; Casadei, Raffaella; Canaider, Silvia; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Coppe, Alessandro; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Principato, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Strippoli, Pierluigi

    2011-02-18

    Several tools have been developed to perform global gene expression profile data analysis, to search for specific chromosomal regions whose features meet defined criteria as well as to study neighbouring gene expression. However, most of these tools are tailored for a specific use in a particular context (e.g. they are species-specific, or limited to a particular data format) and they typically accept only gene lists as input. TRAM (Transcriptome Mapper) is a new general tool that allows the simple generation and analysis of quantitative transcriptome maps, starting from any source listing gene expression values for a given gene set (e.g. expression microarrays), implemented as a relational database. It includes a parser able to assign univocal and updated gene symbols to gene identifiers from different data sources. Moreover, TRAM is able to perform intra-sample and inter-sample data normalization, including an original variant of quantile normalization (scaled quantile), useful to normalize data from platforms with highly different numbers of investigated genes. When in 'Map' mode, the software generates a quantitative representation of the transcriptome of a sample (or of a pool of samples) and identifies if segments of defined lengths are over/under-expressed compared to the desired threshold. When in 'Cluster' mode, the software searches for a set of over/under-expressed consecutive genes. Statistical significance for all results is calculated with respect to genes localized on the same chromosome or to all genome genes. Transcriptome maps, showing differential expression between two sample groups, relative to two different biological conditions, may be easily generated. We present the results of a biological model test, based on a meta-analysis comparison between a sample pool of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and a sample pool of megakaryocytic cells. Biologically relevant chromosomal segments and gene clusters with differential expression during

  12. Next generation hyper resolution wide swath and multi-channel optical payload for CBERS series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang

    2017-11-01

    The China-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) program, (also called ZY-1) the result of a space technology agreement between China and Brazil, was officially signed in 1988 after the first joint work report produced by National Institute for Space Research (INPE) and the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). During the 26 years of its existence, the program of cooperation between China and Brazil in space has achieved the successful launch of three satellites. It has become a unique example of cooperation in cutting edge technology between emerging nations. CBERS satellite is the first generation data-transferring remote sensing satellite developed by China. CBERS satellite data are widely applied to crop yield estimation, exploration of land and resources, urban planning, environmental protection and monitoring, disaster reduction, and other fields. CBERS series is just like Landsat series of USA and SPOT series of France.

  13. AN ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF 1997 LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DERIVED LAND COVER FOR THE UPPER SAN PEDRO WATERSHED (U.S./MEXICO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-Resolution airborne color video data were used to evaluate the accuracy of a land cover map of the upper San Pedro River watershed, derived from June 1997 Landsat Thematic Mapper data. The land cover map was interpreted and generated by Instituto del Medio Ambiente y el Bes...

  14. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  15. mzDB: a file format using multiple indexing strategies for the efficient analysis of large LC-MS/MS and SWATH-MS data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssié, David; Dubois, Marc; Nasso, Sara; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Aebersold, Ruedi; Monsarrat, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    The analysis and management of MS data, especially those generated by data independent MS acquisition, exemplified by SWATH-MS, pose significant challenges for proteomics bioinformatics. The large size and vast amount of information inherent to these data sets need to be properly structured to enable an efficient and straightforward extraction of the signals used to identify specific target peptides. Standard XML based formats are not well suited to large MS data files, for example, those generated by SWATH-MS, and compromise high-throughput data processing and storing. We developed mzDB, an efficient file format for large MS data sets. It relies on the SQLite software library and consists of a standardized and portable server-less single-file database. An optimized 3D indexing approach is adopted, where the LC-MS coordinates (retention time and m/z), along with the precursor m/z for SWATH-MS data, are used to query the database for data extraction. In comparison with XML formats, mzDB saves ∼25% of storage space and improves access times by a factor of twofold up to even 2000-fold, depending on the particular data access. Similarly, mzDB shows also slightly to significantly lower access times in comparison with other formats like mz5. Both C++ and Java implementations, converting raw or XML formats to mzDB and providing access methods, will be released under permissive license. mzDB can be easily accessed by the SQLite C library and its drivers for all major languages, and browsed with existing dedicated GUIs. The mzDB described here can boost existing mass spectrometry data analysis pipelines, offering unprecedented performance in terms of efficiency, portability, compactness, and flexibility. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. The Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network of the U.S. Geological Survey—Past and future implementation of storm-response monitoring, data collection, and data delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Richard J.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Robbins, Jeanne C.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Mullaney, John R.; Massey, Andrew J.; Banks, William S.; Roland, Mark A.; Jenter, Harry L.; Peppler, Marie C.; Suro, Thomas P.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-06-20

    After Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the northeastern Atlantic coast of the United States on October 29, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) carried out scientific investigations to assist with protecting coastal communities and resources from future flooding. The work included development and implementation of the Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network consisting of more than 900 monitoring stations. The SWaTH network was designed to greatly improve the collection and timely dissemination of information related to storm surge and coastal flooding. The network provides a significant enhancement to USGS data-collection capabilities in the region impacted by Hurricane Sandy and represents a new strategy for observing and monitoring coastal storms, which should result in improved understanding, prediction, and warning of storm-surge impacts and lead to more resilient coastal communities.As innovative as it is, SWaTH evolved from previous USGS efforts to collect storm-surge data needed by others to improve storm-surge modeling, warning, and mitigation. This report discusses the development and implementation of the SWaTH network, and some of the regional stories associated with the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, as well as some previous events that informed the SWaTH development effort. Additional discussions on the mechanics of inundation and how the USGS is working with partners to help protect coastal communities from future storm impacts are also included.

  17. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  18. Comparison of Classification Algorithms and Training Sample Sizes in Urban Land Classification with Landsat Thematic Mapper Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of new image classification algorithms have been developed, they are rarely tested with the same classification task. In this research, with the same Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM data set and the same classification scheme over Guangzhou City, China, we tested two unsupervised and 13 supervised classification algorithms, including a number of machine learning algorithms that became popular in remote sensing during the past 20 years. Our analysis focused primarily on the spectral information provided by the TM data. We assessed all algorithms in a per-pixel classification decision experiment and all supervised algorithms in a segment-based experiment. We found that when sufficiently representative training samples were used, most algorithms performed reasonably well. Lack of training samples led to greater classification accuracy discrepancies than classification algorithms themselves. Some algorithms were more tolerable to insufficient (less representative training samples than others. Many algorithms improved the overall accuracy marginally with per-segment decision making.

  19. Preliminary Assessment of Detection Efficiency for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper Using Intercomparisons with Ground-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte; Mach, Douglas; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William

    2018-01-01

    As part of the calibration/validation (cal/val) effort for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-16, we need to assess instrument performance (detection efficiency and accuracy). One major effort is to calculate the detection efficiency of GLM by comparing to multiple ground-based systems. These comparisons will be done pair-wise between GLM and each other source. A complication in this process is that the ground-based systems sense different properties of the lightning signal than does GLM (e.g., RF vs. optical). Also, each system has a different time and space resolution and accuracy. Preliminary results indicate that GLM is performing at or above its specification.

  20. An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper data for the classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Anderson, J. E.; Brannon, D. P.; Hill, C. L.

    1982-01-01

    An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.

  1. Extending the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions with the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite nadir mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Yang, K.; Prata, A. J.; Krotkov, N. A.

    2015-02-01

    Uninterrupted, global space-based monitoring of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions is critical for climate modeling and aviation hazard mitigation. We report the first volcanic SO2 measurements using ultraviolet (UV) Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper data. OMPS was launched on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite in October 2011. We demonstrate the sensitivity of OMPS SO2 measurements by quantifying SO2 emissions from the modest eruption of Paluweh volcano (Indonesia) in February 2013 and tracking the dispersion of the volcanic SO2 cloud. The OMPS SO2 retrievals are validated using Ozone Monitoring Instrument and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder measurements. The results confirm the ability of OMPS to extend the long-term record of volcanic SO2 emissions based on UV satellite observations. We also show that the Paluweh volcanic SO2 reached the lower stratosphere, further demonstrating the impact of small tropical volcanic eruptions on stratospheric aerosol optical depth and climate.

  2. MAPPER: a search engine for the computational identification of putative transcription factor binding sites in multiple genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riva Alberto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cis-regulatory modules are combinations of regulatory elements occurring in close proximity to each other that control the spatial and temporal expression of genes. The ability to identify them in a genome-wide manner depends on the availability of accurate models and of search methods able to detect putative regulatory elements with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Results We describe the implementation of a search method for putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs based on hidden Markov models built from alignments of known sites. We built 1,079 models of TFBSs using experimentally determined sequence alignments of sites provided by the TRANSFAC and JASPAR databases and used them to scan sequences of the human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast genomes. In several cases tested the method identified correctly experimentally characterized sites, with better specificity and sensitivity than other similar computational methods. Moreover, a large-scale comparison using synthetic data showed that in the majority of cases our method performed significantly better than a nucleotide weight matrix-based method. Conclusion The search engine, available at http://mapper.chip.org, allows the identification, visualization and selection of putative TFBSs occurring in the promoter or other regions of a gene from the human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast genomes. In addition it allows the user to upload a sequence to query and to build a model by supplying a multiple sequence alignment of binding sites for a transcription factor of interest. Due to its extensive database of models, powerful search engine and flexible interface, MAPPER represents an effective resource for the large-scale computational analysis of transcriptional regulation.

  3. Effect of maturity at harvest on yield, chemical composition, and in situ degradability for annual cereals used for swath grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, C L; Górka, P; Beattie, A D; Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Lardner, H A; Penner, G B

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how harvest maturity of whole-crop cereals commonly used in swath grazing systems in western Canada affects yield, chemical composition, and in situ digestibility. We hypothesized that the increase in yield with advancing maturity would not offset the decline in digestibility and, thus, the yield of effectively degradable DM (EDDM) would decline with advanced stages of maturity. Four replicate plots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; cv. CDC Cowboy), millet (Panicum milliaceum; cv. Red Proso), oat (Avena sativa L., spp.; CDC Weaver), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; cv. 07FOR21) were grown, with a subsection in each replicate harvested at 4 different maturities: head elongation, late milk, hard dough, and fully mature. At each stage of maturity, the wet and DM yields, and chemical composition (DM, OM, NDF, crude fat, and nonfiber carbohydrates; NFC) were determined. Whole-crop samples were ground (2-mm screen) and weighed into nylon bags (pore size of 53 ± 10 µm), and duplicate incubation runs were conducted by crop type. For each incubation run, nylon bags were randomly allocated (randomized by field replication, stage of maturity, and incubation time) to 1 of 7 heifers (32 bags/heifer during each run). Degradation rates were determined using a first-order kinetic model and data were analyzed with stage of maturity as a fixed effect and plot as a random effect. The DM, OM, and NFC yields increased linearly for barley and oat (P oat, and wheat (P = 0.044). There were no changes in CP yield observed for barley, millet, or oat with advancing maturity, but there was a linear increase observed for wheat (P = 0.002). The NFC concentration increased linearly for barley, millet, and oat (P oat, and wheat (P = 0.003). The degradation rate of NDF decreased linearly with advancing maturity (P ≤ 0.014) for millet, oat, and wheat, but was not affected for barley (P = 0.13). The yield EDDM increased linearly for barley and oat (P < 0

  4. Identifying Urinary and Serum Exosome Biomarkers for Radiation Exposure Using a Data Dependent Acquisition and SWATH-MS Combined Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Koller, Antonius [Proteomics Center, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mani, Kartik M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wen, Ruofeng [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Alfieri, Alan; Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wang, Jian [Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Patel, Purvi [Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Bandeira, Nuno [Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Early and accurate assessment of radiation injury by radiation-responsive biomarkers is critical for triage and early intervention. Biofluids such as urine and serum are convenient for such analysis. Recent research has also suggested that exosomes are a reliable source of biomarkers in disease progression. In the present study, we analyzed total urine proteome and exosomes isolated from urine or serum for potential biomarkers of acute and persistent radiation injury in mice exposed to lethal whole body irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: For feasibility studies, the mice were irradiated at 10.4 Gy WBI, and urine and serum samples were collected 24 and 72 hours after irradiation. Exosomes were isolated and analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-based workflow for radiation exposure signatures. A data dependent acquisition and SWATH-MS combined workflow approach was used to identify significantly exosome biomarkers indicative of acute or persistent radiation-induced responses. For the validation studies, mice were exposed to 3, 6, 8, or 10 Gy WBI, and samples were analyzed for comparison. Results: A comparison between total urine proteomics and urine exosome proteomics demonstrated that exosome proteomic analysis was superior in identifying radiation signatures. Feasibility studies identified 23 biomarkers from urine and 24 biomarkers from serum exosomes after WBI. Urinary exosome signatures identified different physiological parameters than the ones obtained in serum exosomes. Exosome signatures from urine indicated injury to the liver, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. In contrast, serum showed vascular injuries and acute inflammation in response to radiation. Selected urinary exosomal biomarkers also showed changes at lower radiation doses in validation studies. Conclusions: Exosome proteomics revealed radiation- and time-dependent protein signatures after WBI. A total of 47 differentially secreted

  5. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  6. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometerfor lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on‐orbit measurements, science data calibration and on‐orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pieters,; P. Mouroulis,; M. Eastwood,; J. Boardman,; Green, R.O.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Barr, D.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  7. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  8. 2001 USGS/NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) Lidar: Coastal Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a non-bare earth data set. ASCII xyz point cloud data were produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements cooperatively by...

  9. The use of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping Data in Watershed Analysis to Guide Restoration Priorities: the Napa River Watershed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Bellugi, D.; Real de Asua, R.; Iordache, I.; Allen, D.; Napolitano, M.; Trso, M.

    2004-12-01

    A necessary step in the management and restoration of ecosystem functions in a watershed is to quantify the linkages between landuse practices and channel habitat. With the advent of widely available digital elevation data, increasing numerical skills, and increasing insight about physical and ecological processes, models are being built that explore these linkages. Development and application of these models, however, strongly depends on the resolution of the toporgraphic data. Critical details of hillslope topography are not captured by the highest resolution USGS data (10 m), and, impotantly, channel banks are not a topographic feature in the digital elevation model. Instead the position of the main channels are delineated from hand mapped "blue lines" of USGS topographic quadrangle and then the smaller channels are typically estimated to occur at grid cells receiving drainage area exceeding some critical amount. High-resolution airborne laser swath mapping data (ALSM)) captures much of the finer scale topography, including that of channel banks, but introduces new challenges in both accuracy determination and GIS applications. As part of work to guide development of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis of the Napa Watershed, ALSM data were acquired for the entire 1100 km2 Napa River (California) watershed by the University of Florida. The filtered bare earth data set exceeded 1 billion points and gave an average data density of 1.5 m with areas in grasslands dropping below 1 m. Many GIS tools exist to analyze digital elevation data, but we have found many of them inadequate for the large, detailed data set. A central goal of the data acquisition was to create an accurate delineation of the channel network and to estimate channel morphology and grain size to help define the extent of available habitat for salmon. Over 400 on-channel dams and 4000 channel road crossings were identified, which create topographic barriers of significance to modeling and watershed

  10. Three-dimensional displays for natural hazards analysis, using classified Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and large-scale digital elevation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Brown, Daniel G.

    1991-01-01

    Methods are described for using Landsat Thematic Mapper digital data and digital elevation models for the display of natural hazard sites in a mountainous region of northwestern Montana, USA. Hazard zones can be easily identified on the three-dimensional images. Proximity of facilities such as highways and building locations to hazard sites can also be easily displayed. A temporal sequence of Landsat TM (or similar) satellite data sets could also be used to display landscape changes associated with dynamic natural hazard processes.

  11. The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) for the GOES-R Series Next Generation Operational Environmental Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William; Petersen, Walter; Carey, Larry; Mach, Douglas; Buechler, Dennis; Bateman, Monte; McCaul, Eugene; Bruning, Eric; hide

    2010-01-01

    The next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2015 is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. The system will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. The system provides products including lightning, cloud properties, rainfall rate, volcanic ash, air quality, hurricane intensity, and fire/hot spot characterization. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for the 16-channel Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), an optical transient detector will map total (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the higher level algorithms and applications using the GLM alone and decision aids incorporating information from the ABI, ground-based weather radar, and numerical models. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional lightning networks are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time total lightning mapping data are also being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via

  12. Demonstration of centimeter-level precision, swath mapping, full-waveform laser altimetry from high altitude on the Global Hawk UAV for future application to cryospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. B.; Wake, S.; Rabine, D.; Hofton, M. A.; Mitchell, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) is a high-altitude, wide-swath laser altimeter that has, for over 15 years, demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in surface altimetry, including many aspects of remote sensing of the cryosphere such as precise topography of ice sheets and sea ice. NASA Goddard, in cooperation with NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), has developed a new, more capable sensor that can operate autonomously from a high-altitude UAV aircraft to further enhance the LVIS capability and extend its reach and coverage. In June 2012, this latest sensor, known as LVIS-GH, was integrated onto NASA's Global Hawk aircraft and completed a successful high-altitude demonstration flight over Death Valley, Owens Valley, and the Sierra Nevada region of California. Data were collected over a wide variety of terrain types from 58,000' (> 17 km) altitude during the 6 hour long test flight. The full-waveform laser altimetry technique employed by LVIS and LVIS-GH provides precise surface topography measurements for solid earth and cryospheric applications and captures the vertical structure of forests in support of territorial ecology studies. LVIS-GH fully illuminates and maps a 4 km swath and provides cm-level range precision, as demonstrated in laboratory and horizontal range testing, as well as during this test flight. The cm range precision is notable as it applies to accurate measurements of sea ice freeboard and change detection of subtle surface deformation such as heaving in permafrost areas. In recent years, LVIS has primarily supported Operation IceBridge activities, including deployments to the Arctic and Antarctic on manned aircraft such as the NASA DC-8 and P-3. The LVIS-GH sensor provides an major upgrade of coverage capability and remote access; LVIS-GH operating on the long-duration Global Hawk aircraft can map up to 50,000 km^2 in a single flight and can provide access to remote regions such as the entirety of Antarctica. Future

  13. Metadata Mapper: a web service for mapping data between independent visual analysis components, guided by perceptual rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Matasci, Naim

    2011-03-01

    The explosion of online scientific data from experiments, simulations, and observations has given rise to an avalanche of algorithmic, visualization and imaging methods. There has also been enormous growth in the introduction of tools that provide interactive interfaces for exploring these data dynamically. Most systems, however, do not support the realtime exploration of patterns and relationships across tools and do not provide guidance on which colors, colormaps or visual metaphors will be most effective. In this paper, we introduce a general architecture for sharing metadata between applications and a "Metadata Mapper" component that allows the analyst to decide how metadata from one component should be represented in another, guided by perceptual rules. This system is designed to support "brushing [1]," in which highlighting a region of interest in one application automatically highlights corresponding values in another, allowing the scientist to develop insights from multiple sources. Our work builds on the component-based iPlant Cyberinfrastructure [2] and provides a general approach to supporting interactive, exploration across independent visualization and visual analysis components.

  14. Radiometric cross calibration of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nischal; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Leigh, Larry; Aaron, David; Helder, Dennis; Markham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the radiometric consistency between Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) using cross calibration techniques. Two approaches are used, one based on cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event on 29–30 March 2013. The other approach is based on using time series of image statistics acquired by these two sensors over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS) (+28.55°N, +23.39°E). Analyses from these approaches show that the reflectance calibration of OLI is generally within ±3% of the ETM+ radiance calibration for all the reflective bands from visible to short wave infrared regions when the ChKur solar spectrum is used to convert the ETM+ radiance to reflectance. Similar results are obtained comparing the OLI radiance calibration directly with the ETM+ radiance calibration and the results in these two different physical units (radiance and reflectance) agree to within ±2% for all the analogous bands. These results will also be useful to tie all the Landsat heritage sensors from Landsat 1 MultiSpectral Scanner (MSS) through Landsat-8 OLI to a consistent radiometric scale.

  15. Automated Storm Tracking and the Lightning Jump Algorithm Using GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) Proxy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Christopher Joseph; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a fully automated lightning jump system encompassing objective storm tracking, Geostationary Lightning Mapper proxy data, and the lightning jump algorithm (LJA), which are important elements in the transition of the LJA concept from a research to an operational based algorithm. Storm cluster tracking is based on a product created from the combination of a radar parameter (vertically integrated liquid, VIL), and lightning information (flash rate density). Evaluations showed that the spatial scale of tracked features or storm clusters had a large impact on the lightning jump system performance, where increasing spatial scale size resulted in decreased dynamic range of the system's performance. This framework will also serve as a means to refine the LJA itself to enhance its operational applicability. Parameters within the system are isolated and the system's performance is evaluated with adjustments to parameter sensitivity. The system's performance is evaluated using the probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) statistics. Of the algorithm parameters tested, sigma-level (metric of lightning jump strength) and flash rate threshold influenced the system's performance the most. Finally, verification methodologies are investigated. It is discovered that minor changes in verification methodology can dramatically impact the evaluation of the lightning jump system.

  16. Water on the surface of the Moon as seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Distribution, abundance, and origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph E

    2017-09-01

    A new thermal correction model and experimentally validated relationships between absorption strength and water content have been used to construct the first global quantitative maps of lunar surface water derived from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared reflectance data. We find that OH abundance increases as a function of latitude, approaching values of ~500 to 750 parts per million (ppm). Water content also increases with the degree of space weathering, consistent with the preferential retention of water originating from solar wind implantation during agglutinate formation. Anomalously high water contents indicative of interior magmatic sources are observed in several locations, but there is no global correlation between surface composition and water content. Surface water abundance can vary by ~200 ppm over a lunar day, and the upper meter of regolith may contain a total of ~1.2 × 1014 g of water averaged over the globe. Formation and migration of water toward cold traps may thus be a continuous process on the Moon and other airless bodies.

  17. Cross-Comparative Analysis of GF-1 Wide Field View and Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.-Q.; Gu, X.-F.; Meng, Q.-Y.; Yu, T.; Jia, K.; Zhan, Y.-L.; Wang, Ch.-M.

    2017-11-01

    The wide field view (WFV) sensor on-board GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with moderate spatial resolution, which holds great potential for monitoring the Earth's surface. This study assesses WFV data through cross-comparison of spectral band reflectances and vegetation indices with Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data. The four vegetation indices considered in this study are the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the ratio vegetation index (RVI), and the soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). The R2 between the WFV and ETM+ data were 0.82, 0.89, 0.92, and 0.80 for the blue, green, red, and near-infrared bands reflectance, and 0.90, 0.84, 0.83, and 0.91 for NDVI, EVI, RVI, and SAVI, respectively. The results displayed a high correlation between the spectral reflectances and vegetation indices of the two sensors' data, which indicated the reliability of the WFV data. Furthermore, the WFV data were better than the ETM+ data with regards to spatial and temporal resolutions.

  18. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  19. Multiple endmember spectral-angle-mapper (SAM) analysis improves discrimination of Savanna tree species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ). The measurements were made on sunlit leaves. 2.2. Data analysis First, the spectral data for each species were randomly split into the training (1/3) and test (2/3) data. A resampling procedure was adopted in the splitting the data. Ten replicates were...). The overall, users and producers classification accuracies were determined as the mean values for the ten replicates from the confusion matrices between the observed and predicted data. The effect of within species spectral similarity or dissimilarity...

  20. Analysis of ASAR Wide Swath Mode time series for the retrieval of soil moisture in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifeneder, Felix; Notarnicola, Claudia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Spindler, Nadine; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Stamenkovic, Jelena; Wagner, Wolgang

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key element in the global cycles of water, energy, and carbon. Knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of the soil moisture content (SMC) is therefore essential for a number of hydrological applications as well as earth sciences like meteorology or climatology (Heathman et al., 2003). In the last few years there has been an increasing interest towards the estimation of SMC at local scales using active microwave sensors (Barret et al., 2009). Compared to passive microwave sensors, SAR offers the potential to provide data at high spatial resolution (modern sensors can acquire images with up to approximately 1 m), which is particularly important in mountainous areas. So far, these areas have been considered only marginally in research and only pioneer studies can be found in the literature (Brocca et al., 2012; Bertoldi et al. 2013). In this work we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the surface SMC (0 - 5 cm depth) on the basis of ground data collected by fixed meteorological stations located in the emerging Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site Mazia Valley (Province of Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy), SAR data from ENVISATs ASAR sensor, wide swath (WS) mode (acquired between 2005 and 2012), and SMC estimates from the hydrological model GEOtop (Endrizzi et al., 2013). The SMC retrieval process was based on the support vector regression (SVR) method introduced by Pasolli et al. (2011). The training of the algorithm was based on data acquired in 2010. Furthermore, the SAR backscatter and derived SMC have been compared with time-series derived from the distributed hydrological model GEOtop. The differences in terms of temporal and spatial dynamic have been analyzed. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of SAR derived SMC at field scale and to correlate them with ground information. This is a preparatory study to establish a methodology for the retrieval of SMC with high spatial and

  1. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) level-2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) data (Shortname: MOD11_L2) incorporate 1 km pixels, which are produced...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) level-2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) data (Shortname: MYD11_L2) incorporate 1 km pixels, which are produced...

  3. A New Lunar Globe as Seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Image Coverage Spectral Dimensionality and Statistical Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Sunshine, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Isaacson, P.; Lundeen, S. R.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity, was launched October 22, 2008 from Shriharikota in India on board the Indian ISRO Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft for a nominal two-year mission in a 100-km polar lunar orbit. M3 is a high-fidelity imaging spectrometer with 260 spectral bands in Target Mode and 85 spectral bands in a reduced-resolution Global Mode. Target Mode pixel sizes are nominally 70 meters and Global pixels (binned 2 by 2) are 140 meters, from the planned 100-km orbit. The mission was cut short, just before halfway, in August, 2009 when the spacecraft ceased operations. Despite the abbreviated mission and numerous technical and scientific challenges during the flight, M3 was able to cover more than 95% of the Moon in Global Mode. These data, presented and analyzed here as a global whole, are revolutionizing our understanding of the Moon. Already, numerous discoveries relating to volatiles and unexpected mineralogy have been published [1], [2], [3]. The rich spectral and spatial information content of the M3 data indicates that many more discoveries and an improved understanding of the mineralogy, geology, photometry, thermal regime and volatile status of our nearest neighbor are forthcoming from these data. Sadly, only minimal high-resolution Target Mode images were acquired, as these were to be the focus of the second half of the mission. This abstract gives the reader a global overview of all the M3 data that were collected and an introduction to their rich spectral character and complexity. We employ a Principal Components statistical method to assess the underlying dimensionality of the Moon as a whole, as seen by M3, and to identify numerous areas that are low-probability targets and thus of potential interest to selenologists.

  4. The Geostationary Lighting Mapper (GLM) for GOES-R: A New Operational Capability to Improve Storm Forecasts and Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, W. A.; Carey, L.; Mah, D.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series is a follow on to the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. Superior spacecraft and instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES capabilities include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved spectral (3x), spatial (4x), and temporal (5x) resolution for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM, an optical transient detector and imager operating in the near-IR at 777.4 nm will map all (in-cloud and cloud-to-ground) lighting flashes continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product refresh rate of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions, from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency. In parallel with the instrument development (a prototype and 4 flight models), a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group Lightning Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. Proxy total lightning data from the NASA Lightning Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time lightning mapping data are being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS) national centers and forecast offices via the GOES-R Proving Ground to help improve our understanding of the application of these data in operational settings and

  5. Effect of Landsat Thematic Mapper sensor parameters on land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Selected sensor parameter differences between TM and MSS were assessed through classification performance of a suburban/regional test site. Overall classification accuracy of a seven-band Landsat TM scene in comparison to MSS yielded an improvement in accuracy from 74.8 percent to 83.2 percent. To study the possible causes for the difference in classification performance, key sensor parameter differences between MSS and TM, including: (1) spatial resolution (30 m for TM versus 80 m for MSS), (2) quantization level (256 levels for TM versus 64 for MSS), and (3) spectral regions (seven bands in four major spectral regions for TM versus four bands in two regions for MSS), were evaluated. Landsat TM data were processed to stimulate all possible combinations of these MSS and TM parameters, yielding a three-factor design with two levels per factor. The results indicated that the added spectral regions (TM 1, TM 5, and TM 7) and to a lesser degree the increase in quantization level to eight bits produced the improved TM classification accuracy. However, in this study, the higher 30 m spatial resolution of TM contributed to a reduced classification accuracy from increased within-field variability or class heterogeneity.

  6. HIA: a genome mapper using hybrid index-based sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongpill; Park, Kiejung; Cho, Seong Beom; Chung, Myungguen

    2015-01-01

    A number of alignment tools have been developed to align sequencing reads to the human reference genome. The scale of information from next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments, however, is increasing rapidly. Recent studies based on NGS technology have routinely produced exome or whole-genome sequences from several hundreds or thousands of samples. To accommodate the increasing need of analyzing very large NGS data sets, it is necessary to develop faster, more sensitive and accurate mapping tools. HIA uses two indices, a hash table index and a suffix array index. The hash table performs direct lookup of a q-gram, and the suffix array performs very fast lookup of variable-length strings by exploiting binary search. We observed that combining hash table and suffix array (hybrid index) is much faster than the suffix array method for finding a substring in the reference sequence. Here, we defined the matching region (MR) is a longest common substring between a reference and a read. And, we also defined the candidate alignment regions (CARs) as a list of MRs that is close to each other. The hybrid index is used to find candidate alignment regions (CARs) between a reference and a read. We found that aligning only the unmatched regions in the CAR is much faster than aligning the whole CAR. In benchmark analysis, HIA outperformed in mapping speed compared with the other aligners, without significant loss of mapping accuracy. Our experiments show that the hybrid of hash table and suffix array is useful in terms of speed for mapping NGS sequencing reads to the human reference genome sequence. In conclusion, our tool is appropriate for aligning massive data sets generated by NGS sequencing.

  7. Potential Use of a Bayesian Network for Discriminating Flash Type from Future GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakiewiz, Richard; Koshak, William

    2008-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of the ratio of cloud flashes to ground flashes may provide a better understanding of thunderstorm dynamics, intensification, and evolution, and it may be useful in severe weather warning. The National Lighting Detection Network TM (NLDN) senses ground flashes with exceptional detection efficiency and accuracy over most of the continental United States. A proposed Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) will look at the western hemisphere, and among the lightning data products to be made available will be the fundamental optical flash parameters for both cloud and ground flashes: radiance, area, duration, number of optical groups, and number of optical events. Previous studies have demonstrated that the optical flash parameter statistics of ground and cloud lightning, which are observable from space, are significantly different. This study investigates a Bayesian network methodology for discriminating lightning flash type (ground or cloud) using the lightning optical data and ancillary GOES-R data. A Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) is set up with lightning as a "root" and data observed by GLM as the "leaves." This allows for a direct calculation of the joint probability distribution function for the lighting type and radiance, area, etc. Initially, the conditional probabilities that will be required can be estimated from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) together with NLDN data. Directly manipulating the joint distribution will yield the conditional probability that a lightning flash is a ground flash given the evidence, which consists of the observed lightning optical data [and possibly cloud data retrieved from the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) in a more mature Bayesian network configuration]. Later, actual GLM and NLDN data can be used to refine the estimates of the conditional probabilities used in the model; i.e., the Bayesian

  8. Peripheral refraction and higher-order aberrations with cycloplegia and fogging lenses using the BHVI-EyeMapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi Chandra; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Thomas, Varghese; Holden, Brien Anthony

    2016-01-01

    To determine if a fogging lens ameliorates accommodative effects driven by the closed-view design of the BHVI-EyeMapper (EM) instrument. We compared cycloplegic refraction and higher-order aberration measurements of the EM with those obtained with a fogging lens. Twenty-six, young, participants (15F, 25±5 years, range: 18-35 years, SE: +0.25 D and -3.50 D) with good ocular health were recruited. Five independent measurements of on- and off-axis refraction and higher-order aberrations were recorded across the horizontal visual field, under two conditions: non-cycloplegic measurements with +1.00 D fogging lens and cycloplegia, always in the same sequence. The contralateral eye was occluded during the measurements. Two drops of 1% Tropicamide delivered within 5 min facilitated cycloplegic measurements. All participants were refracted 30 min after installation of the second drop. Mean spherical equivalent measures of the non-cycloplegic condition were significantly more myopic than their cycloplegic counterparts (p<0.05); approximately by 0.50 D centrally, increasing to 1.00 D towards the periphery. The horizontal astigmatic component, J180, demonstrated small but statistically significant differences between the test conditions. Differences were predominant for eccentricities greater than 30°, in both nasal and temporal meridians. The oblique astigmatic component, J45, was not significantly different between the test conditions. The primary spherical aberration coefficient C(4, 0) was significantly less positive for the non-cycloplegic state than its cycloplegic counterpart. This result held true across the entire horizontal visual field. The horizontal coma and trefoil coefficients C(3, 1) and C(3, 3) were not significantly different between the two conditions. The use of +1.00 D fogging lens without cycloplegia did not provide complete relaxation of accommodation. The discrepancies between cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic EM measurements were found to be more

  9. Peripheral refraction and higher-order aberrations with cycloplegia and fogging lenses using the BHVI-EyeMapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi Chandra; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Thomas, Varghese; Holden, Brien Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if a fogging lens ameliorates accommodative effects driven by the closed-view design of the BHVI-EyeMapper (EM) instrument. We compared cycloplegic refraction and higher-order aberration measurements of the EM with those obtained with a fogging lens. Methods Twenty-six, young, participants (15F, 25 ± 5 years, range: 18–35 years, SE: +0.25 D and −3.50 D) with good ocular health were recruited. Five independent measurements of on- and off-axis refraction and higher-order aberrations were recorded across the horizontal visual field, under two conditions: non-cycloplegic measurements with +1.00 D fogging lens and cycloplegia, always in the same sequence. The contralateral eye was occluded during the measurements. Two drops of 1% Tropicamide delivered within 5 min facilitated cycloplegic measurements. All participants were refracted 30 min after installation of the second drop. Results Mean spherical equivalent measures of the non-cycloplegic condition were significantly more myopic than their cycloplegic counterparts (p < 0.05); approximately by 0.50 D centrally, increasing to 1.00 D towards the periphery. The horizontal astigmatic component, J180, demonstrated small but statistically significant differences between the test conditions. Differences were predominant for eccentricities greater than 30°, in both nasal and temporal meridians. The oblique astigmatic component, J45, was not significantly different between the test conditions. The primary spherical aberration coefficient C(4, 0) was significantly less positive for the non-cycloplegic state than its cycloplegic counterpart. This result held true across the entire horizontal visual field. The horizontal coma and trefoil coefficients C(3, 1) and C(3, 3) were not significantly different between the two conditions. Conclusions The use of +1.00 D fogging lens without cycloplegia did not provide complete relaxation of accommodation. The discrepancies between cycloplegic and non

  10. SWATH label-free proteomics analyses revealed the roles of oxidative stress and antioxidant defensing system in sclerotia formation of Polyporus umbellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Tian, Xiaofang; Wang, Chunlan; Zeng, Xu; Xing, Yongmei; Ling, Hong; Yin, Wanqiang; Tian, Lixia; Meng, Zhixia; Zhang, Jihui; Guo, Shunxing

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the initiation and maturing mechanisms is important for rational manipulating sclerotia differentiation and growth from hypha of Polyporus umbellatus. Proteomes in P. umbellatus sclerotia and hyphae at initial, developmental and mature phases were studied. 1391 proteins were identified by nano-liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in Data Dependant Acquisition mode, and 1234 proteins were quantified successfully by Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment ion spectra-MS (SWATH-MS) technology. There were 347 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in sclerotia at initial phase compared with those in hypha, and the DEP profiles were dynamically changing with sclerotia growth. Oxidative stress (OS) in sclerotia at initial phase was indicated by the repressed proteins of respiratory chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle and the activation of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways were determined based on DEPs. The impact of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis on sclerotium induction was further verified by glycerol addition assays, in which 5% glycerol significantly increased sclerotial differentiation rate and biomass. It can be speculated that OS played essential roles in triggering sclerotia differentiation from hypha of P. umbellatus, whereas antioxidant activity associated with glycolysis is critical for sclerotia growth. These findings reveal a mechanism for sclerotial differentiation in P. umbellatus, which may also be applicable for other fungi.

  11. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  12. METH-33 - Performance assessment for the high resolution and wide swath (HRWS) post-Sentinel-1 SAR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zonno, Mariantonietta; Maria J., Sanjuan-Ferrer,; Lopez-Dekker, Paco

    requirements on the design of spaceborne SAR systems. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that by applying Digital Beam Forming (DBF) techniques, such as Scan-on-Receive (SCORE), and Multiple Azimuth Phase centers (MAPS), it becomes possible to overcome these fundamental limitations of conventional SAR...... or numerical models and, if these are not available, real SAR images as well as numerical algorithms and some explicit simulations of the data and of the inversion process are employed. The tool uses as input the HRWS SAR instrument performance for the different applicable modes and produces as output results...

  13. Network topology mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Daniel A [Los Alamos, NM; Gavrilov, Eugene M [Los Alamos, NM; Fisk, Michael E [Jemez, NM

    2008-01-15

    A method enables the topology of an acyclic fully propagated network to be discovered. A list of switches that comprise the network is formed and the MAC address cache for each one of the switches is determined. For each pair of switches, from the MAC address caches the remaining switches that see the pair of switches are located. For each pair of switches the remaining switches are determined that see one of the pair of switches on a first port and the second one of the pair of switches on a second port. A list of insiders is formed for every pair of switches. It is determined whether the insider for each pair of switches is a graph edge and adjacent ones of the graph edges are determined. A symmetric adjacency matrix is formed from the graph edges to represent the topology of the data link network.

  14. Natural gas leak mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Thomas A [Livermore, CA; Luong, Amy Khai [Dublin, CA; Kulp, Thomas J [Livermore, CA; Devdas, Sanjay [Albany, CA

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  15. An Automatic Target Detection Algorithm for Swath Sonar Backscatter Imagery, Using Image Texture and Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fakiris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodological scheme, bringing together common Acoustic Seabed Classification (ASC systems and a powerful data decomposition approach, called Independent Component Analysis (ICA, is demonstrated regarding its suitability for detecting small targets in Side Scan Sonar imagery. Traditional ASC systems extract numerous texture descriptors, leading to a large feature vector, the dimensionality of which is reduced by means of data decomposition techniques, usually Principal Component Analysis (PCA, prior to classification. However, in the target detection issue, data decomposition should point towards finding components that represent sub-ordinary image information (i.e., small targets rather than a dominant one. ICA has long been proved to be suitable for separating targets from a background, and this study represents a novel exhibition of its applicability to Side Scan Sonar (SSS images. The present study attempts to build a fully automated target detection approach that combines image based feature extraction, ICA, and unsupervised classification. The suitability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated using an SSS data-set containing more than 70 manmade targets, most of them metallic, validated through a marine magnetic survey or ground truthing inspection. The method exhibited very good performance as it was able to detect more than 77% of the targets and it produced less than seven false alarms per km2. Moreover, it was compared to cases where, in the exact same methodological scheme, no decomposition technique is used, or PCA is employed instead of ICA, achieving the highest detection rate, but, more importantly, producing more than six times less false alarms, thus proving that ICA successfully manages to maximize target to background separation.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FAMILY OF LIGHTWEIGHT AND WIDE SWATH UAV CAMERA SYSTEMS AROUND AN INNOVATIVE DUAL-SENSOR ON-SINGLE-CHIP DETECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Delauré

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Together with a Belgian industrial consortium VITO has developed the lightweight camera system MEDUSA. It combines high spatial resolution with a wide swath to support missions for large scale mapping and disaster monitoring applications. MEDUSA has been designed to be operated on a solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle flying in the stratosphere. The camera system contains a custom designed CMOS imager with 2 sensors (each having 10000 × 1200 pixels on 1 chip. One sensor is panchromatic, one is equipped with colour filters. The MEDUSA flight model camera has passed an extensive test campaign and is ready to conduct its maiden flight. First airborne test flights with an engineering model version of the camera have been executed to validate the functionality and the performance of the camera. An image stitching work flow has been developed in order to generate an image composite in near real time of the acquired images. The unique properties of the dual-sensor-on-single-chip detector triggered the development of 2 new camera designs which are currently in preparation. MEDUSA-low is a modified camera system optimised for compatibility with more conventional UAV systems with a payload capacity of 5–10 kg flying at an altitude around 1 km. Its camera acquires both panchromatic and colour images. The MEDUSA geospectral camera is an innovative hyperspectral imager which is equipped with a spatially varying spectral filter installed in front of one of the two sensors. It acquires both hyperspectral and broad band high spatial resolution image data from one and the same camera.

  17. Remote Sensing and Mapping of Tamarisk along the Colorado River, USA: A Comparative Use of Summer-Acquired Hyperion, Thematic Mapper and QuickBird Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry A. Griffith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamarisk (Tamarix spp., saltcedar is a well-known invasive phreatophyte introduced from Asia to North America in the 1800s. This report compares the efficacy of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM5, QuickBird (QB and EO-1 Hyperion data in discriminating tamarisk populations near De Beque, Colorado, USA. As a result of highly correlated reflectance among the spectral bands provided by each sensor, relatively standard image analysis methods were employed. Multispectral data at high spatial resolution (QB, 2.5 m Ground Spatial Distance or GSD proved more effective in tamarisk delineation than either multispectral (TM5 or hyperspectral (Hyperion data at moderate spatial resolution (30 m GSD.

  18. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  19. Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Brookhaven Linac Isoptope Producer (BLIP)—positioned at the forefront of research into radioisotopes used in cancer treatment and diagnosis—produces commercially...

  20. The beauty of being (label-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/36i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Vowinckel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA and data independent (SWATH acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  1. The beauty of being (label-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2ed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Vowinckel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA and data independent (SWATH acquisition. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  2. 1-meter contours produced from swath bathymetry collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA and St. Petersburg, FL offshore of the Gulf Islands, MS, 2010 (ESRI polyline shapefile, tmunro_1m_bathycontours_MLLW.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey in Woods Hole, MA and St. Petersburg, FL, in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District conducted...

  3. 10-m Hillshaded-relief image of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds produced from lead-line and single-beam sonar soundings, swath-interferometric, multibeam, and lidar datasets (TIFF image, UTM Zone 19N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and Western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived...

  4. 30-m Hillshaded relief image produced from swath interferometric, multibeam, and lidar datasets (navd_bath_30m.tif GeoTIFF Image; UTM, Zone 19N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are qualitatively derived interpretive polygon shapefiles and selected source raster data defining surficial geology, sediment type and distribution, and...

  5. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  6. Comparative techniques used to evaluate Thematic Mapper data for land cover classification in Logan County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, J. O.; Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Several digital data processing techniques were evaluated in an effort to identify and map active/abandoned, partially reclaimed, and fully revegetated surface mine areas in the central portion of Logan County. The TM data were first subjected to various enhancement procedures, including a linear contrast stretch, principal components and canonical analysis transformations. At the same time, four general procedures were followed to produce six classifications as a means of comparing the techniques involved. Preliminary results show that various feature extraction/data reduction techniques provide classification results equal or superior to the more straightforward unsupervised clustering technique. Analyst interaction time for labelling clusters is reduced using the canonical analysis and principal components procedures, though the canonical technique has clearly produced better results to date.

  7. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-01-14

    This patent relates to a method of producing neutrons in which there is produced a heated plasma containing heavy hydrogen isotope ions wherein heated ions are injected and confined in an elongated axially symmetric magnetic field having at least one magnetic field gradient region. In accordance with the method herein, the amplitude of the field and gradients are varied at an oscillatory periodic frequency to effect confinement by providing proper ratios of rotational to axial velocity components in the motion of said particles. The energetic neutrons may then be used as in a blanket zone containing a moderator and a source fissionable material to produce heat and thermal neutron fissionable materials. (AEC)

  8. Cross-calibration of the reflective solar bands of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus over PICS using different approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Mishra, Nischal; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Helder, Dennis

    2015-10-01

    Both Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) have been successfully operating for over 15 years to collect valuable measurements of the earth's land, ocean, and atmosphere. The land-viewing bands of both sensors are widely used in several scientific products such as surface reflectance, normalized difference vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index etc. A synergistic use of the multi-temporal measurements from both sensors can greatly benefit the science community. Previous effort from the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) was focused on comparing the top-of-atmosphere reflectance of the two sensors over Libya 4 desert target. Uncertainties caused by the site/atmospheric BRDF, spectral response mismatch, and atmospheric water-vapor were also characterized. In parallel, an absolute calibration approach based on empirical observation was also developed for the Libya 4 site by the South Dakota State University's (SDSU) Image Processing Lab. Observations from Terra MODIS and Earth Observing One (EO-1) Hyperion were used to model the Landsat ETM+ TOA reflectance. Recently, there has been an update to the MODIS calibration algorithm, which has resulted in the newly reprocessed Collection 6 Level 1B calibrated products. Similarly, a calibration update to some ETM+ bands has also resulted in long-term improvements of its calibration accuracy. With these updates, calibration differences between the spectrally matching bands of Terra MODIS and L7 ETM+ over the Libya 4 site are evaluated using both approaches.

  9. Passive airborne remote sensing and plume model inversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plants measured by the MAMAP/CarbonMapper instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Thomas; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Buchwitz, Michael; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John [Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen (Germany); Tretner, Andreas; Sachs, Torsten; Erzinger, Joerg [Helmholtz Centre, Potsdam (Germany). GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

    2010-07-01

    MAMAP/CarbonMapper is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed for measuring columns of methane and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) below the aircraft. Retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically 2% or better. Its ground pixel size is about 25m x 35m for an aircraft altitude of 1000 m and a ground speed of 200 km/h. In 2007 measurement campaigns at the coal-fired power plants Jaenschwalde and Schwarze Pumpe operated by Vattenfall Europe were performed. The column parameters for CO{sub 2} have been retrieved with a modified version of SCIAMACHY's WFM-DOAS algorithm. To invert for the CO{sub 2} emission rates of the power plants a gaussian plume model approach has been chosen. The results are compared to a simple Gaussian Integral method approach and to the CO{sub 2} emission rates directly derived from power generation as stated by Vattenfall.

  10. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  11. Radiometric Cross Calibration of Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nischal Mishra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the radiometric consistency between Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ using cross calibration techniques. Two approaches are used, one based on cross calibration between the two sensors using simultaneous image pairs, acquired during an underfly event on 29–30 March 2013. The other approach is based on using time series of image statistics acquired by these two sensors over the Libya 4 pseudo invariant calibration site (PICS (+28.55°N, +23.39°E. Analyses from these approaches show that the reflectance calibration of OLI is generally within ±3% of the ETM+ radiance calibration for all the reflective bands from visible to short wave infrared regions when the ChKur solar spectrum is used to convert the ETM+ radiance to reflectance. Similar results are obtained comparing the OLI radiance calibration directly with the ETM+ radiance calibration and the results in these two different physical units (radiance and reflectance agree to within ±2% for all the analogous bands. These results will also be useful to tie all the Landsat heritage sensors from Landsat 1 MultiSpectral Scanner (MSS through Landsat-8 OLI to a consistent radiometric scale.

  12. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  13. Archive of Side Scan Sonar and Swath Bathymetry Data collected during USGS Cruise 10CCT02 Offshore of Petit Bois Island Including Petit Bois Pass, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, William R.; Flocks, James G.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Forde, Arnell S.; Kelso, Kyle; Thompson, Phillip R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama (fig. 1). These efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geologic stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorphological changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts on Ship Island, Mississippi. For more information please refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, seabed backscatter images, and ASCII x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  14. New Insight of Common Regulatory Pathways in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells in Response to Dexamethasone and Prednisolone Using an Integrated Quantitative Proteomics: SWATH and MRM-HR Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Sze Wan; Do, Chi Wai; Lam, Thomas Chuen; Kong, Ricky Pak Wing; Li, King Kit; Chun, Ka Man; Stamer, William Daniel; To, Chi Ho

    2017-10-06

    The molecular pathophysiology of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension (CIH) is not well understood. To determine the biological mechanisms of CIH, this study investigated protein expression profiles of human trabecular meshwork (hTM) cells in response to dexamethasone and prednisolone treatment. Both discovery-based sequential windowed data independent acquisition of the total high-resolution mass spectra (SWATH-MS) and targeted based high resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-HR) confirmation were applied using a hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A comprehensive list of 1759 proteins (1% FDR) was generated from the hTM. Quantitative proteomics revealed 20 differentially expressed proteins (p-value ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.67) commonly induced by prednisolone and dexamethasone, both at 300 nM. These included connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), two proteins previously implicated in ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and the transforming growth factor-β pathway. Their gene expressions in response to corticosteroids were further confirmed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together with other novel proteins identified in the data sets, additional pathways implicated by these regulated proteins were the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, integrin cell surface interaction, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, and ECM-receptor interaction. Our results indicated that an integrated platform of SWATH-MS and MRM-HR allows high throughput identification and confirmation of novel and known corticosteroid-regulated proteins in trabecular meshwork cells, demonstrating the power of this technique in extending the current understanding of the pathogenesis of CIH.

  15. Produce Sanitation System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    was also expected to improve food safety (i.e., reduce microbes) and reduce premature spoilage while minimizing environmental impact and unpleasant...PRECISION REDUCTION VEGETABLES CONTAMINATION TEST AND EVALUATION SAFETY PH FACTOR SANITATION FRESH FOODS MICROORGANISMS ...fruits and vegetables (FF&V) aboard Navy vessels, The sink saves labor associated with the washing of produce in food service operations by

  16. Measuring moonlight: An overview of the spatial properties, lunar coverage, selenolocation, and related Level 1B products of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Joseph W.; Pieters, C. M.; Green, R. O.; Lundeen, S. R.; Varanasi, P.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Isaacson, P.; Besse, S.; Taylor, L. A.

    2011-06-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a high-resolution, high-precision imaging spectrometer, flew on board India's Chandrayaan-1 Mission from October 2008 through August 2009. This paper describes some of the spatial sampling aspects of the instrument, the planned mission, and the mission as flown. We also outline the content and context of the resulting Level 1B spatial products that form part of the M3 archive. While designed and planned to operate for 2 years in a 100 km lunar orbit, M3 was able to meet its lunar coverage requirements despite the shortened mission; an increase of the orbit altitude to 200 km; and several relevant problems with spacecraft attitude, timing, and ephemeris. The unexpected spacecraft issues required us to invent a novel two-step approach for selenolocation. Leveraging newly available Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter-Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) topography and an improved spacecraft ephemeris, we have created a method that permits us to bootstrap spacecraft attitude estimates from the image data themselves. This process performs a nonlinear optimization to honor a set of data-derived image-to-image tie points and image-to-LOLA control points. Error analysis of the final results suggests we have converged to a selenolocation result that has image-to-image root-mean-square (RMS) errors less than 200 m and image-to-LOLA RMS errors less than 450 m, despite using data-derived spacecraft attitude results. The Level 1B products include the lunar coordinates resulting from this inversion process and 10 relevant observational geometry parameters that fully characterize the ray tracing geometry on a pixel-by-pixel basis.

  17. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  18. Laser-produced microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, Sigurdur; Takehara, K.; Etoh, T. G.; Ohl, C.-D.

    2009-11-01

    We use ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the formation of a micro-jet when a laser-produced shock hits a bubble sitting under a free surface. The bubble is formed inside a sessile drop, sitting on a glass slide and buoyancy drives it to its top. The jetting is forced by an Nd:YAG-laser pulse of about 30 mJ, focused by a microscope objective sitting under the glass plate. The jet is initiated when the shock hits the curved bottom of the bubble. It emerges out of a bottom crown and has a very regular shape. For water the jets are a few microns in size and can emerge at over 200 m/s. In intermediate viscosity liquids the jetting can be even faster and can emerge at over 500 m/s, depending on the depth of the laser focus. Jets can even be produced in pure glycerin where they emerge at about 100 m/s.

  19. Insights into Lunar Far-side Highlands Crustal Development from the Moscoviense Basin and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper onboard Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaisen, K. G.; Taylor, L. A.; Head, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Kramer, G. Y.; McCord, T. B.; Staid, M.; Petro, N. E.; Isaacson, P.

    2009-12-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a reflectance spectrometer on India’s Chandrayaan-1, has enabled the detailed mineralogical and geological mapping of the Moon. Much of the highlands terrain on the Moon’s nearside has been drastically modified by the 3.8-4.09 Ga heavy bolide bombardment and subsequent volcanism. However, remote sensing observations, in combination with studies of Apollo and Luna samples, have provided invaluable insights into the complex nature of nearside lunar crustal material. When compared to the significant basin forming episodes, which literally changed the face of the nearside of the Moon, the northern hemisphere of the lunar farside consists of relatively undisturbed highlands, albeit with a few impact basins that may present cross-sections of the pristine products of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) and early crustal magmatism. The Moscoviense basin is one of these farside, multi-ring impact basins. It resulted from a major impact during the Nectarian Period (3.85-3.92 Ga), and experienced subsequent mare volcanism during the Upper Imbrian Epoch (3.2-3.8 Ga) and possibly even as recent as 1.1-3.2 Ga. It is approximately 445 km across, and its floor is >5 km below the surrounding rim. The inner peak-ring is represented by a half ring of approximately 105 km radius, stands 2-3 km above the basin floor, and is open to the northeast. The middle ring, which is the best approximation of the original crater rim, has a radius of about 220 km and is nearly continuous around the basin. A fault scarp, which formed during the late stages of basin formation as the crust collapsed into the crater, can be identified approximately 275 km west of the center of the basin. The surrounding rim is higher to the west and south with corresponding steeper slopes into the basin than to the north and east, which contain lower rims, gentler slopes, and distinct slump blocks. Much of the floor of the basin has been filled by mare basalts of varying compositions and

  20. Looking Forward to the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper: Use of Total Lightning Information within Short-Term Forecasts and Hazardous Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Total lightning data, such as that provided by the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), provides a particularly attractive addition to the current, radar-only analyses and subsequent forecasts of severe convective storms. The connection between total lightning rates and severe weather has been well documented, but until recently, the detection and monitoring of total lightning has been primarily utilized only within research activity or for unique events such as space missions. Satellite-based lightning data from the GLM has the potential to provide information for convective storms across large territories, including typically data sparse regions such as offshore and within mountainous terrain. Additionally, lightning data may be able to provide extra lead-time over traditional radar data, highlighting which storms are electrically active and growing quickly as opposed to those that are not. Since 2010, the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) has been successfully utilized to provide forecasters with a first-hand look at the latest research concepts and products integrating total lightning data while also educating lightning research scientists on the challenges, needs, and constraints of National Weather Service (NWS) warning forecasters. During the live spring experiments, one to five-minute grids of total lightning density and subsequent lightning-derived algorithms, such as the lightning jump, have been incorporated by NWS forecasters within their real-time warning-decision process for various storm modes over multiple regions of the US. Both formal and informal research protocols were used to collect observations, data, and feedback and included online surveys, live blogging and post-event discussions. In their evaluations, forecasters have noted that total lightning data and algorithms could be an incredibly useful situational awareness tool and may be able to provide additional guidance during a warning decision. Additionally, total lightning data shows

  1. Cross-Comparison of Vegetation Indices Derived from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS are currently operational for routine Earth observation. There are substantial differences between instruments onboard both satellites. The enhancements achieved with Landsat-8 refer to the scanning technology (replacing of whisk-broom scanners with two separate push-broom OLI and TIRS scanners, an extended number of spectral bands (two additional bands provided and narrower bandwidths. Therefore, cross-comparative analysis is very necessary for the combined use of multi-decadal Landsat imagery. In this study, 3,311 independent sample points of four major land cover types (primary forest, unplanted cropland, swidden cultivation and water body were used to compare the spectral bands of ETM+ and OLI. Eight sample plots with different land cover types were manually selected for comparison with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI, the Land Surface Water Index (LSWI and the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR. These indices were calculated with six pairs of ETM+ and OLI cloud-free images, which were acquired over the border area of Myanmar, Laos and Thailand just two days apart, when Landsat-8 achieved operational obit. Comparative results showed that: (1 the average surface reflectance of each band differed slightly, but with a high degree of similarities between both sensors. In comparison with ETM+, the OLI had higher values for the near-infrared band for vegetative land cover types, but lower values for non-vegetative types. The new sensor had lower values for the shortwave infrared (2.11–2.29 µm band for all land cover types. In addition, it also basically had higher values for the shortwave infrared (1.57–1.65 µm band for non-water land cover types. (2 The subtle differences of vegetation indices derived from both sensors and their high linear correlation

  2. Power Producer Production Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kněžek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing developments in the electricity market, in particular the establishment of the Prague Energy Exchange (PXE and the associated transfer from campaign-driven sale to continuous trading, represent a significant change for power companies.  Power producing companies can now optimize the sale of their production capacities with the objective of maximizing profit from wholesale electricity and supporting services. The Trading Departments measure the success rate of trading activities by the gross margin (GM, calculated by subtracting the realized sales prices from the realized purchase prices and the production cost, and indicate the profit & loss (P&L to be subsequently calculated by the Control Department. The risk management process is set up on the basis of a business strategy defining the volumes of electricity that have to be sold one year and one month before the commencement of delivery. At the same time, this process defines the volume of electricity to remain available for spot trading (trading limits. 

  3. Liquid chromatography, in combination with a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (LC QTOF), with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) acquisition: systematic studies on its use for screenings in clinical and forensic toxicology and comparison with information-dependent acquisition (IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmelt, Andreas T; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-02

    Forensic and clinical toxicological screening procedures are employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) approaches more and more often. It is known that the complexity of a sample and the IDA settings might prevent important compounds from being triggered. Therefore, data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods should be more suitable for systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The DIA method sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH), which uses Q1 windows of 20-35 Da for data-independent fragmentation, was systematically investigated for its suitability for STA. Quality of SWATH-generated mass spectra were evaluated with regard to mass error, relative abundance of the fragments, and library hits. With the Q1 window set to 20-25 Da, several precursors pass Q1 at the same time and are fragmented, thus impairing the library search algorithms to a different extent: forward fit was less affected than reverse fit and purity fit. Mass error was not affected. The relative abundance of the fragments was concentration dependent for some analytes and was influenced by cofragmentation, especially of deuterated analogues. Also, the detection rate of IDA compared to SWATH was investigated in a forced coelution experiment (up to 20 analytes coeluting). Even using several different IDA settings, it was observed that IDA failed to trigger relevant compounds. Screening results of 382 authentic forensic cases revealed that SWATH's detection rate was superior to IDA, which failed to trigger ∼10% of the analytes.

  4. Diviner observations of crystalline plagioclase-rich regions on the Moon as observed by the Spectral Profiler and Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Wyatt, M. B.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Paige, D. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Pieters, C. M.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.

    2009-12-01

    Near infrared observations from the SELENE Spectral Profiler (SP) and the Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) have been used to identify iron-bearing crystalline plagioclase in the central peaks of several highland craters and the Inner and Outer Rook mountains of Orientale Basin. The crystalline plagioclase-rich regions are identified by a diagnostic absorption band at 1.2 μm and a lack of mafic absorptions in near infrared spectra. These observations are significant because they validate the near-infrared identification of plagioclase on the Moon. Shocked plagioclase had been previously inferred from a lack of Fe2+ absorptions in near-infrared telescopic and Clementine measurements of high albedo locations on the lunar surface. The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) will provide the first global coverage maps of thermal infrared derived compositions of the lunar surface. Extensive thermal infrared laboratory studies of plagioclase minerals and plagioclase-rich rocks show that both plagioclase abundances and compositions can be determined by linear deconvolution of mixed spectra. Diviner has three mineralogy spectral channels centered at 7.81, 8.28, and 8.55 μm chosen specifically to identify the location of the Christiansen Feature (CF). The CF is an emission maximum and is diagnostic of compositions as the wavelength position changes with the change in bond strength and molecular geometry associated with varying mineralogy. Recent studies of laboratory emissivity spectra convolved to Diviner’s three spectral band pass filters indicate that the CF position and simple band ratios can be used to distinguish between: (1) individual minerals (plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and olivine), (2) lunar lithologies (mare basalt vs. anorthositic highlands), and (3) Ca-rich, intermediate and Na-rich plagioclase compositions. Here we focus on crystalline plagioclase-rich regions on the Moon to investigate

  5. Fossil fuel producers under threat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas producers face three threats: prolonged low oil and gas prices, tightening of climate policy and a tough budget on cumulative carbon emissions, and technological innovation producing cheap substitutes for oil and gas. These threats pose real risks of putting oil and gas producers out of

  6. Land cover/use classification of Cairns, Queensland, Australia: A remote sensing study involving the conjunctive use of the airborne imaging spectrometer, the large format camera and the thematic mapper simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heric, Matthew; Cox, William; Gordon, Daniel K.

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the land cover/use classification accuracy obtainable from remotely sensed multispectral imagery, Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-1 (AIS-1) images were analyzed in conjunction with Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) Large Format Camera color infrared photography and black and white aerial photography. Specific portions of the combined data set were registered and used for classification. Following this procedure, the resulting derived data was tested using an overall accuracy assessment method. Precise photogrammetric 2D-3D-2D geometric modeling techniques is not the basis for this study. Instead, the discussion exposes resultant spectral findings from the image-to-image registrations. Problems associated with the AIS-1 TMS integration are considered, and useful applications of the imagery combination are presented. More advanced methodologies for imagery integration are needed if multisystem data sets are to be utilized fully. Nevertheless, research, described herein, provides a formulation for future Earth Observation Station related multisensor studies.

  7. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  8. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  9. Improvement in Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System/Surface and Atmosphere Radiation Budget Dust Aerosol Properties, Effects on Surface Validation of Clouds and Radiative Swath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutan, D.; Rose, F.; Charlock, T.P.

    2005-03-18

    Within the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team (Wielicki et al. 1996), the Surface and Atmospheric Radiation Budget (SARB) group is tasked with calculating vertical profiles of heating rates, globally, and continuously, beneath CERES footprint observations of Top of Atmosphere (TOA) fluxes. This is accomplished using a fast radiative transfer code originally developed by Qiang Fu and Kuo-Nan Liou (Fu and Liou 1993) and subsequently highly modified by the SARB team. Details on the code and its inputs can be found in Kato et al. (2005) and Rose and Charlock (2002). Among the many required inputs is characterization of the vertical column profile of aerosols beneath each footprint. To do this SARB combines aerosol optical depth information from the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument along with aerosol constituents specified by the Model for Atmosphere and Chemical Transport (MATCH) of Collins et al. (2001), and aerosol properties (e.g. single scatter albedo and asymmetry parameter) from Tegen and Lacis (1996) and OPAC (Hess et al. 1998). The publicly available files that include these flux profiles, called the Clouds and Radiative Swath (CRS) data product, available from the Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/). As various versions of the code are completed, publishable results are named ''Editions.'' After CRS Edition 2A was finalized it was found that dust aerosols were too absorptive. Dust aerosols have subsequently been modified using a new set of properties developed by Andy Lacis and results have been released in CRS Edition 2B. This paper discusses the effects of changing desert dust aerosol properties, which can be significant for the radiation budget in mid ocean, a few thousand kilometers from the source regions. Resulting changes are validated via comparison of surface observed fluxes from the Saudi Solar Village surface site (Myers et al

  10. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijay [Katy, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony [Houston, TX; Bauldreay, Joanna M [Chester, GB

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  11. Backscatter [SWATH]--Offshore Santa Cruz, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Santa Cruz map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  12. Backscatter E [Swath]--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Bolinas map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  13. Pulley Ridge Swath Bathymetry Grid - filtered

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  14. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  15. Synthetic Stellar Photometry. II-Testing the bolometric flux scale, and tables of bolometric corrections for the Hipparcos/Tycho, Pan-STARRS1, SkyMapper and JWST systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, L.; VandenBerg, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    We use MARCS model atmosphere fluxes to compute synthetic colours, bolometric corrections and reddening coefficients for the Hipparcos/Tycho, Pan-STARRS1, SkyMapper and JWST systems. Tables and interpolation subroutines are provided to transform isochrones from the theoretical to various observational planes, to derive bolometric corrections, synthetic colours and colour-temperature relations at nearly any given point of the HR diagram for 2600 {K} ≤ T_{eff}≤ 8000 {K}, and different values of reddening in 85 photometric filters. We use absolute spectrophotometry from the CALSPEC library to show that bolometric fluxes can be recovered to ˜2 percent from bolometric corrections in a single band, when input stellar parameters are well known for FG dwarfs at various metallicities. This sole source of uncertainty impacts interferometric Teff to ≃ 0.5 percent (or 30 K at the solar temperature). Uncertainties are halved when combining bolometric corrections in more bands, and limited by the fundamental uncertainty of the current absolute flux scale at 1 percent. Stars in the RAVE DR5 catalogue are used to validate the quality of our MARCS synthetic photometry in selected filters across the optical and infrared range. This investigation shows that extant MARCS synthetic fluxes are able to reproduce the main features observed in stellar populations across the Galactic disc.

  16. Price satisfaction and producer loyalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutonyi, Sarah; Beukel, Karin; Gyau, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate which dimensions of price satisfaction influence producers’ trust in buyers and assess the mediating role of such trust in the relationship between price satisfaction and producer loyalty in fresh fruit supply chains. Design/methodology/approach...

  17. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  18. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  19. Development of producer gas engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, G.; Sridhar, H.V.; Dasappa, S.; Paul, P.J.; Rajan, N.K.S.; Mukunda, H.S. [Indian Institute of of Science, Bangalore (India). Combustion Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory

    2005-03-15

    This paper summarizes the findings involved in the development of producer gas fuelled reciprocating engines over a time frame of six years. The high octane rating, ultra clean, and low energy density producer gas derived from biomass has been examined. Development efforts are aimed at a fundamental level, wherein the parametric effects of the compression ratio and ignition timing on the power output are studied. These findings are subsequently applied in the adaptation of commercially available gas engines at two different power levels and make. Design of a producer gas carburettor also formed a part of this developmental activity. The successful operations with producer gas fuel have opened possibilities for adapting a commercially available gas engine for large-scale power generation application, albeit with a loss of power to an extent of 20-30 per cent. This loss in power is compensated to a much larger extent by the way toxic emissions are reduced; these technologies generate smaller amounts of toxic gases (low NO{sub x} and almost zero SO{sub x}), being zero for greenhouse gas (GHG). (author)

  20. Smoke producing and inflammable materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms EB; van Xanten NHW; Meulenbelt J

    1990-01-01

    On behalf of the AMGB (Afdeling Militair Geneeskundig Beleid) toxicological reviews have been made about several smoke producing and inflammable materials. The reviews have been made after a literature search and are meant to complete or to replace the concerning chapters in the NATO handbook on

  1. The Top Theological Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues in Higher Education" publishes a list of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M. H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at Indiana University Bloomington. This year, for the first…

  2. amylase producing thermophile Bacillus sphaericus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the -amylase-producing thermophilic bacterium isolated and identified from a hot spring in Jordan and designated as Bacillus sphaericus were carried out in a laboratory scale fermenter. The growth and enzyme production optimum conditions were pH 7 and 50oC. The kinetic study of cellular growth indicates ...

  3. ESBL-Producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Frederik Boetius

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one the most common bacterial infections and is regularly treated in primary health care. The most common cause of UTI is extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) already present in the intestinal microflora, often as the dominating strain. Resistance...... in E.coli is increasing and especially isolates producing Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) have been reported worldwide. Treatment of UTI is usually initiated by the general practitioners and a significant proportion of clinical isolates are now resistant to first line antibiotics. The global...... dissemination of resistant E.coli has in particular been driven by the spread of a few specific E.coli-lineages and it seems that there is a difference between the sequence types found among resistant E.coli, ESBL-producing E.coli and antibiotic susceptible E.coli. The overall objectives of this thesis were...

  4. Producing a complex aluminum lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmec, F.

    1982-12-31

    The thickener for the complex laminar lubricant is produced through a reaction between aluminum alcoholate and a high molecular organic fatty acid of the C16 to C22 fraction, the product is partially hydrolized by water and the obtained oil soluble hydrolysis product is subjected to a reaction with a low molecular organic aromatic acid, chiefly, benzoic acid in an oil solvent. The obtained thickner is well dispersed, which makes it possible to reduce the temperature of its dispersion in the oil.

  5. Nonlinear Pricing to Produce Information

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Braden; Oren, Shmuel S.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the firm's dynamic nonlinear pricing problem when facing consumers whose tastes vary according to a scalar index. We relax the standard assumption that the firm knows the distribution of this index. In general the firm should determine its marginal price schedule as if it were myopic, and produce information by lowering the price schedule; “bunching” consumers at positive purchase levels should be avoided. As a special case we also consider a market characterized by homogeneous...

  6. Antiprotons Produced in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-01-01

    We present the energy spectrum of antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNR). The model includes reacceleration of already existing in interstellar medium antiprotons as well as creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shock. It is shown that antiprotons production in SNRs produces considerable effect in their result...

  7. Using ground based geophysics to evaluate hydrogeologic effects of subsurface drip irrigation systems used to manage produced water in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sams, J.I.; Lipinski, B.A.; Veloski, G.A.

    2008-04-01

    The U.S Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has been evaluating various geophysical methods for site characterization regarding environmental issues associated with fossil fuels including produced water management. A relatively new method of managing produced water from coal bed natural gas production is through subsurface drip irrigation. This system involves disposing the produced water near the bottom of the root zone in agricultural fields, which would provide a beneficial use of this resource. The focus of this paper is to present results from a pre-injection geophysical survey for site assessment and background data. A pre-construction survey of approximately 1.2 km2 was completed in June 2007 using a Geophex GEM-2 broadband sensor over six fields along the Powder River floodplain. Quality assurance measures included drift checks, duplicate line surveys, and repeat field surveys using the Geometrics OhmMapper instrument. Subsequent surveys will be completed once the system is installed and operational. Geophysical inversion models were completed to provide a detailed cross-section of the subsurface geoelectrical structure along each line. Preliminary interpretations reveal that the subsurface conductivity distribution correlates to geomorphologic features.

  8. Biochemical degradation treats produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-20

    In Colombia, Kelt Oil Co. employs a lined, reed-based, root-zone filtering system to remove contaminants from water produced with crude oil. The roots of the reeds absorb the contaminants. The treated water is then used for agriculture. Kelt has operated te system for over 1 year near Trinidad, in the Casanare district of eastern Colombia. After 1 year, the system removed 90% of the phenol compounds. It expects 3 years will be required for the system to achieve full efficiency.

  9. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  10. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  11. Mutation in Aldosterone Producing Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jhong Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries of somatic mutations permit the recognition of subtypes of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs with distinct clinical presentations and pathological features. Catenin β1 (CTNNB1 mutation in APAs has been recently described and discussed in the literature. However, significant knowledge gaps still remain regarding the prevalence, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and outcomes in APA patients harboring CTNNB1 mutations. Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway will further modulate tumorigenesis. We also discuss the recent knowledge of CTNNB1 mutation in adrenal adenomas.

  12. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    to be a committed artist, and how that translates into supporting al-Assad’s rule in Syria; the Ramadan programme Harrir Aqlak’s attempt to relaunch an intellectual renaissance and to promote religious pluralism; and finally, al-Mayadeen’s cooperation with the pan-Latin American TV station TeleSur and its ambitions...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  13. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  14. Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-Young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

    2010-04-01

    Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

  15. Using the Sonoran and Libyan Desert test sites to monitor the temporal stability of reflective solar bands for Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus and Terra moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Chander, Gyanesh; Wu, Aisheng

    2010-01-01

    Remote sensing imagery is effective for monitoring environmental and climatic changes because of the extent of the global coverage and long time scale of the observations. Radiometric calibration of remote sensing sensors is essential for quantitative & qualitative science and applications. Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing sensors. This paper focuses on the use of the Sonoran Desert site to monitor the radiometric stability of the Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. The results are compared with the widely used Libya 4 Desert site in an attempt to evaluate the suitability of the Sonoran Desert site for sensor inter-comparison and calibration stability monitoring. Since the overpass times of ETM+ and MODIS differ by about 30 minutes, the impacts due to different view geometries or test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are also presented. In general, the long-term drifts in the visible bands are relatively large compared to the drift in the near-infrared bands of both sensors. The lifetime Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance trends from both sensors over 10 years are extremely stable, changing by no more than 0.1% per year (except ETM+ Band 1 and MODIS Band 3) over the two sites used for the study. The use of a semi-empirical BRDF model can reduce the impacts due to view geometries, thus enabling a better estimate of sensor temporal drifts.

  16. Analysis of the effect of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey Atlantic coastal marshes based on landsat thematic mapper and operational land imager data: 2000-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Riter, J. C. Alexis; Kearney, Michael S.; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2017-01-01

    This USGS Data Release represents geospatial data sets that were created for the analysis of the effect of Hurricane Sandy on New Jersey Atlantic Coastal Marshes. The following listed image products were generated:1) Fifteen marsh surface condition index (MSCI) data sets were calculated from yearly summer collections of ETM+ image data from 2000 to 2015. Three classes described the results of the MSCI mapping; classs1-severely impacted, class 2-moderately impacted, and class 3-intact marsh.2) Marsh change data product using Landsat images of July 14, 2011 (before) and July 19, 2013 (after) Hurricane Sandy is based on the difference in the percentage of vegetation. It shows a pattern of an increasing loss of marsh vegetation for the marshes closest to where Sandy made landfall near Brigantine, New Jersey.3) Land cover classification using Landsat TM of 14 July 2011 and 19 July 2013, 30 m spatial resolution. Eleven classes namely i) high salt marsh ii) estuarine high salt marsh iii) forested wetland iv) Phragmites australis and Spartina cynosuroides v) salt shrub scrub vi) marsh substrate from estuarine marsh area vii) marsh substrate located near lagoon viii) unconsolidated beach sediment ix) ponds and other shallow bodies on marsh x) small tidal creeks xi) urban development areasThe data release was produced in compliance with the new 'open data' requirements as a way to make the scientific products associated with USGS research efforts and publications available to the public.

  17. How Mobility Systems Produce Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions for the forma......This paper explores a crucial aspect of sustainable mobility: the production of social inequality in mobility systems. The approach taken is to focus on how, as new transit infrastructures create alternative ways of traveling in and accessing the city, they create changed conditions...... for the formation of subject identities. New types of travellers are realised in the newly engineered spaces of mobility. The paper argues that this focus on these emergent mobile subject types can be useful in investigating the social inequalities that can result from the introduction of new infrastructures...... are constructed and how social inequality is materially produced....

  18. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T., E-mail: ksenofon@ikfia.sbras.ru [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677891 Yakutsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  19. Antiprotons Produced in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-01

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  20. Estuarine and Tidal Freshwater Habitat Cover Types Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    Developing an understanding of the distribution and changes in estuarine and tidal floodplain ecosystems is critical to the management of biological resources in the lower Columbia River. Columbia River plants, fish, and wildlife require specific physicochemical and ecological conditions to sustain their populations. As habitats are degraded or lost, this capability is altered, often irretrievably; those species that cannot adapt are lost from the ecosystem. The Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership (Estuary Partnership) completed a comprehensive ecosystem protection and enhancement plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary in 1999 (Jerrick, 1999). The plan identified habitat loss and modification as a critical threat to the integrity of the lower Columbia River ecosystem and called for a habitat inventory as a key first step in its long term restoration efforts. In 2000, the Estuary Partnership initiated a multiphase project to produce a spatial data set describing the current location and distribution of estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover types along the lower Columbia River from the river mouth to the Bonneville Dam using a consistent methodology and data sources (Fig. 1). The first phase of the project was the development of a broadbrush description of the estuarine and tidal freshwater habitat cover classes for the entire study area ({approx}146 river miles) using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite imagery. Phase II of the project entailed analysis of the classified satellite imagery from Phase I. Analysis of change in landcover and a summary of the spatial relationships between cover types are part of Phase II. Phase III of the project included the classification of the high resolution hyperspectral imagery collected in 2000 and 2001 for key focal areas within the larger study area. Finally, Phase IV consists of this final report that presents results from refining the Landsat ETM+ classification and provides recommendations for future actions

  1. Hydrodynamic Instabilities Produced by Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Cruz, Julio Cesar Ruben; Hernandez-Zapata, Sergio; Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2012-11-01

    When a liquid layer (alcohol in the present work) is in an environment where its relative humidity is less than 100 percent evaporation appears. When RH is above a certain threshold the liquid is at rest. If RH decreases below this threshold the flow becomes unstable, and hydrodynamic cells develop. The aim of this work is to understand the formation of those cells and its main features. Firstly, we investigate how the cell size depends on the layer width. We also study how temperature depends on the vertical coordinate when the cells are present. An inverse temperature gradient is found, that is, the bottom of liquid layer is colder than the free surface. This shows that the intuitive idea that the cells are due to a direct temperature gradient, following a Marangoni-like process, does not work. We propose the hypothesis that the evaporation produce a pressure gradient that is responsible of the cell development. On the other hand, using a Schlieren technique we study the topography of the free surface when cells are present. Finally the alcohol vapor layer adjacent to the liquid surface is explored using scattering experiments, giving some insight on the plausibility of the hypothesis described previously. Authors acknowledge support by DGAPA-UNAM under project IN116312 ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  2. Yeast: A new oil producer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  3. Engineering microbes to produce biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackett, LP

    2011-06-01

    The current biofuels landscape is chaotic. It is controlled by the rules imposed by economic forces and driven by the necessity of finding new sources of energy, particularly motor fuels. The need is bringing forth great creativity in uncovering new candidate fuel molecules that can be made via metabolic engineering. These next generation fuels include long-chain alcohols, terpenoid hydrocarbons, and diesel-length alkanes. Renewable fuels contain carbon derived from carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is derived directly by a photosynthetic fuel-producing organism(s) or via intermediary biomass polymers that were previously derived from carbon dioxide. To use the latter economically, biomass depolymerization processes must improve and this is a very active area of research. There are competitive approaches with some groups using enzyme based methods and others using chemical catalysts. With the former, feedstock and end-product toxicity loom as major problems. Advances chiefly rest on the ability to manipulate biological systems. Computational and modular construction approaches are key. For example, novel metabolic networks have been constructed to make long-chain alcohols and hydrocarbons that have superior fuel properties over ethanol. A particularly exciting approach is to implement a direct utilization of solar energy to make a usable fuel. A number of approaches use the components of current biological systems, but re-engineer them for more direct, efficient production of fuels.

  4. Human kidney pericytes produce renin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanska, Ania; Kenyon, Christopher; Christian, Helen C; Buckley, Charlotte; Shaw, Isaac; Mullins, John J; Péault, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro. Additionally, renin expression was triggered in cultured kidney pericytes by cyclic AMP as confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy, and secretion of enzymatically functional renin, capable of generating angiotensin I. Pericytes derived from second trimester human placenta also expressed renin in an inducible fashion although the renin activity was much lower than in renal pericytes. Thus, our results confirm and extend the recently discovered developmental plasticity of microvascular pericytes, and may open new perspectives to the therapeutic regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Excel® : importer, mettre en forme et manipuler des données de génotypage microsatellites produites par le logiciel GeneMapper® V4.1. avec l'aide de macros codées en langage visual basic for application

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Cet article présente les fonctionnalités d’un fichier Excel® permettant par le biais de plusieurs Macros VBA d’importer, mettre en forme et manipuler des données de génotypage issues de l’analyse faite par le logiciel GeneMapper® en Version 4.1. Les différentes fonctionnalités et outils seront exposés. Le fichier est en téléchargement libre.

  6. Producing song: the vocal apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthers, Roderick A; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2004-06-01

    In order to achieve the goal of understanding the neurobiology of birdsong, it is necessary to understand the peripheral mechanisms by which song is produced. This paper reviews recent advances in the understanding of syringeal and respiratory motor control and how birds utilize these systems to create their species-typical sounds. Songbirds have a relatively homogeneous duplex vocal organ in which sound is generated by oscillation of a pair of thickened labia on either side of the syrinx. Multiple pairs of syringeal muscles provide flexible, independent control of sound frequency and amplitude, and each side of the syrinx exhibits a degree of acoustic specialization. This is in contrast to many non-songbirds, including vocal learners such as parrots, which have fewer syringeal muscles and use syringeal membranes to generate sound. In doves, at least, these membranes generate a harmonic signal in which the fundamental frequency is regulated by respiratory pressure in the air sac surrounding the syrinx and the overtones are filtered out by the vocal tract. The songs of adult songbirds are generally accompanied by precisely coordinated respiratory and syringeal motor patterns that, despite their relative stereotypy, are modulated in real time by somatosensory feedback. Comparative studies indicate songbirds have evolved species-specific motor patterns that utilize the two sides of the syrinx in specific ways and enhance the particular acoustic effects characterizing the species song. A vocal mimic tutored with heterospecific song uses the same motor pattern as the tutor species when he accurately copies the song, suggesting that physical or physiological constraints on sound production have had a prominent role in the evolution of species-specific motor patterns. An understanding of the relationship between the central processing and peripheral performance of song motor programs is essential for an understanding of the development, function, and evolution of these

  7. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  8. Genetic engineering of to produce Bacterial Polyhydroxyalkanotes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHAs), in the sense of an environmental precaution appears meaningful and necessary. In order to more economically produce microbial products, this investigation was focused on suitable producers, like the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe ...

  9. PRODUCING ENERGY AND RADIOACTIVE FISSION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, E.; Kennedy, J.W.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-10-13

    This patent broadly discloses the production of plutonium by the neutron bombardment of uranium to produce neptunium which decays to plutonium, and the fissionability of plutonium by neutrons, both fast and thermal, to produce energy and fission products.

  10. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    OpenAIRE

    Thonart P.; Destain J.; Tine E.; Ngom A.; Diop MB.; Dubois-Dauphin R.

    2007-01-01

    A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identifi ed from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by L...

  11. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Utility Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  12. ArchaeoMapper Beta Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    instruments. Beta Test Design Testing Environment The Geomatics II teaching lab is located in the J.B. Hunt Transport (JBHT) Services Inc. Center for...Figure 1. Geomatics II classroom in the J.B. Hunt Center for Academic Excellence Building. We did not take photos during the beta test, however, this...the test via an instructor workstation and 5 projectors (1 overhead and 4 LCD monitors in the corners of the classroom). The Geomatics II lab

  13. Biomedical Terminology Mapper for UML projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Julien C; Frey, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    As the biomedical community collects and generates more and more data, the need to describe these datasets for exchange and interoperability becomes crucial. This paper presents a mapping algorithm that can help developers expose local implementations described with UML through standard terminologies. The input UML class or attribute name is first normalized and tokenized, then lookups in a UMLS-based dictionary are performed. For the evaluation of the algorithm 142 UML projects were extracted from caGrid and automatically mapped to National Cancer Institute (NCI) terminology concepts. Resulting mappings at the UML class and attribute levels were compared to the manually curated annotations provided in caGrid. Results are promising and show that this type of algorithm could speed-up the tedious process of mapping local implementations to standard biomedical terminologies.

  14. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Feasibility Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  15. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  16. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Completed Installations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  17. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  18. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  19. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 8

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  20. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 10

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  1. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  2. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  3. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  4. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  5. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Large Scale

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  6. EPA RE-Powering Mapper Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Office of Communications, Partnerships and Analysis (OCPA) initiated...

  7. Off shore produced water treatment with pertraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas also water is produced. This produced water contains dispersed and dissolved oil components. The impact of offshore emissions of produced water on the environment and the treatment of technologies for it are currently under discussion. Emission limits tend to

  8. 7 CFR 1126.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1126.13 Section 1126.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1126.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  9. 7 CFR 1131.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1131.13 Section 1131.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1131.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1001.13 Section 1001.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1001.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1032.13 Section 1032.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1032.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  12. 7 CFR 1006.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1006.13 Section 1006.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1006.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  13. 7 CFR 1033.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1033.13 Section 1033.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1033.13 Producer milk. Producer milk means the skim milk (or the skim equivalent of...

  14. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs and...

  15. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  16. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  17. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  20. Bioavailability of isoflavones from soy products in equol producers and non-producers in Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Miura

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The results in this study suggest that bioavailability of isoflavones are different between equol producers and non-producers, because the 24 h urinary excretion of equol in the equol producers were significantly lower than those in the equol non-producers.

  1. Stable, fertile, high polyhydroxyalkanoate producing plants and methods of producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2015-08-04

    Transgenic plants that produce high levels of polyhydroxybutyrate and methods of producing them are provided. In a preferred embodiment the transgenic plants are produced using plastid transformation technologies and utilize genes which are codon optimized. Stably transformed plants able to produce greater than 10% dwt PHS in tissues are also provided.

  2. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caggianiello, Graziano; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is able to produce capsular or extracellular polysaccharides, with various chemical compositions and properties. Polysaccharides produced by LAB alter the rheological properties of the matrix in which they are dispersed, leading to typically viscous and

  3. Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum F1 and Lactobacillus brevis OG1. S.T. Ogunbanwo, A.I. Sanni, A. A. Onilude. Abstract. Lactobacillus plantarum F1 and L. brevis OG1 isolated from Nigerian fermented food products, produced bacteriocins that had broad spectrum of inhibition against both ...

  4. Understanding producers' motives for adopting sustainable practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-Barrera, Andres; Pennings, Joost M.E.; Hofenk, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the motives and risk attitudes of producers to engage in sustainable practices is important for policy-makers who wish to increase the likelihood of adoption and improve the design of incentives. This article examines the underlying motives of producers to adopt sustainable

  5. Prevalence and characterization of verotocytoxin producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verotoxigenic producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) or Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli. (STEC) are recognized as an important human pathogen of public health concern (Bettelheim & Beutin, 2003). Whereas STEC isolates belong to many different sero- types, E. coli O157:H7 and an occasional non-motile.

  6. Automatic produce quality monitoring in Reefer containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasse, L.J.S.; Sanders, M.G.; Kramer, de J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Current day perishable supply chains require intermediate points for manual produce quality inspection. Over the last decade international seatransport of fruit and vegetables in reefer containers has grown tremendously. Reefer containers may completely close the cold chain only if produce quality

  7. Taxomyces andreanae : A Presumed Paclitaxel Producer Demystified?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, Agata; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    The 1990s brought an abundance of reports on paclitaxel-producing endophytes, initially heralded as a discovery having tremendous implications for cancer therapy. As the vision of large-scale fermentation tanks producing vast quantities of relatively inexpensive paclitaxel and novel taxanes has

  8. 7 CFR 1005.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1005.13 Section 1005.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  9. 7 CFR 1007.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1007.13 Section 1007.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1007.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1124.13 Section 1124.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (f) of this...

  11. 7 CFR 1030.13 - Producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Producer milk. 1030.13 Section 1030.13 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.13 Producer milk. Except as provided for in paragraph (e) of this section...

  12. Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Producing ergosterol from corn straw hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Ergosterol is an economically important metabolite produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the production of ... Cultivation in 10 L bioreactor was carried out under the optimized corn straw hydrolysate medium. According to ...

  13. Heavy oils produced by Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Price, Neil P J; Leathers, Timothy D; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2011-06-01

    From a survey of more than 50 diverse strains of Aureobasidium pullulans, 21 produced extracellular heavy oils. Most oil producers fell into phylogenetic clades 8, 9, and 11. Oil colors ranged from bright yellow to malachite. More than half of the strains produced oil that was fluorescent. In medium containing 5% (w/v) sucrose, oil yields ranged from 0.5 to 6 g oil/l. Strain CU 43 reached stationary growth phase at day 4 while oil yields were maximal at day 6. CU 43 produced bright yellow, highly fluorescent oil that also was visible as intracellular droplets under fluorescent microscopy. Oil was surface active, suggesting that it functions as a biosurfactant. Oil from two strains (CU 43 and NRRL Y-12974) differentially inhibited mammalian cancer cell lines. MALDI-TOF MS spectra suggested that A. pullulans strains produce a family of related oil structures.

  14. Bacteriocin producers from traditional food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thonart P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 220 strains of LAB isolated from 32 samples of traditional fermented food from Senegal were screened for bacteriocin production. Two bacteriocin producers, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Enterococcus faecium, were identified from 12 bacteriocin-producing isolates on the basis of phenotypic analyses and 16S rDNA sequence. Both bacteriocins produced by new isolates show antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus coagulans whereas only that produced by Lactococcus lactis has an activity against Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains were found in a variety of traditional foods indicating a high potential of growth of this strain in variable ecological complex environment. Partial 16S rDNA of the two bacteriocin producers obtained in this study has been registered to Genbank databases under the accession number AY971748 for Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (named CWBI-B1410 and AY971749 for Enterococcus faecium (named CWBI-B1411. The new bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strain has been selected for identification and application of the bacteriocin to food preservation.

  15. "The Film Producer as a Creative Force"

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, A

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to shed new light on our understanding of the work of the film producer, discussing the creative nature of this craft. It does that by searching for answers to two questions: Firstly, up to what point can we talk about creativity in the producing of films? And secondly, how is that creativity practiced? To deal with both these questions it offers a historical overview of the creative producer and how it is presently considered. Finally, it also briefly addresses the influen...

  16. (CX) enzymes produced by Pythium aphanidermatum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of culture ages on the production and activities of polygalacturonase and cellulase (CX) enzymes produced by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson Fitzpat.) Isolated from soft stem rot disease of cowpea.

  17. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Grant L; O& #x27; Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  18. Do bacteria, not fish, produce 'fish kairomone'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.; Van Gool, E.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-associated chemicals enhance phototactic downward swimming in Daphnia. If perch were treated with the antibiotic ampicillin, this enhancement was significantly decreased. Therefore, not fish, but bacteria associated with fish, seem to produce this kairomone. [KEYWORDS: Diel vertical migration;

  19. 9 CFR 114.16 - Producing subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.16 Producing subsidiaries. A serial or subserial of a biological product may be...

  20. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  1. Diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batani Dimitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the general challenges of plasma diagnostics for laser-produced plasmas and give a few more detailed examples: spherically bent crystals for X-ray imaging, velocity interferometers (VISAR for shock studies, and proton radiography.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: aldosterone-producing adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produced from these genes transports certain ions across cell membranes . The flow of these ions creates an electrical charge across the cell membrane, which affects certain biochemical processes. In adrenal gland ...

  3. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  4. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...

  5. 7 CFR 906.8 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORANGES AND GRAPEFRUIT GROWN IN LOWER RIO... engaged in a proprietary capacity in the production of fruit for market. (a) Independent producer...

  6. Natural rubber producing plants: An overview | Venkatachalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Hevea and also other natural rubber producing species for alternative source of latex production in the near future. Keywords: Alternative rubber sources, biotechnology, breeding, Hevea brasiliensis, Parthenium argentatum, Taraxacum koksaghyz, Ficus bengalensis, Lactuca serriola. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  7. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, B.; Graaf, de R.M.; Staay, van der G.W.M.; Alen, T.A.; Richard, G.; Gabalon, T.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Moon - van der Staay, S.Y.; Koopman, W.J.H.; Hellemond, van J.J.; Tielens, A.G.M.; Friedrich, T.; Veenhuis, M.; Huynen, M.A.; Hackstein, J.H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen(1), and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates(2). Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  8. Strategic Marketing Decisions for Organic Agricultural Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    A group of organic agricultural producers facing a strategic decision is featured. If they decide to form an organization to market their produce jointly, they will have to select a distribution channel. This case presents the demand conditions, requirements, advantages, and disadvantages of different distribution channels for organic vegetables, both on a general level and as they relate to this particular group. The following channels are addressed: roadside stands, farmers' markets, distri...

  9. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  10. Produced water treatment methods for SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Produced water treatment methods for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes were presented. Lime softening is used to remove sludge before weak acid cation processes. However, the process is not reliable in cold climates, and disposal of the sludge is now posing environmental problems in Alberta. High pH MVC evaporation processes use sodium hydroxide (NaOH) additions to prevent silica scaling. However the process produces silica wastes that are difficult to dispose of. The sorption slurry process was designed to reduce the use of caustic soda and develop a cost-effective method of disposing evaporator concentrates. The method produces 98 per cent steam quality for SAGD injection. Silica is sorbed onto crystals in order to prevent silica scaling. The evaporator concentrate from the process is suitable for on- and off-site deep well disposal. The ceramic membrane process was designed to reduce the consumption of chemicals and improve the reliability of water treatment processes. The ion exchange desilication process uses 80 per cent less power and produces 80 per cent fewer CO{sub 2} emissions than MVC evaporators. A comparative operating cost evaluation of various electric supply configurations and produced water treatment processes was also included, as well as an analysis of produced water chemistry. tabs., figs.

  11. SHELF SPACE ALLOCATION IN THE PRODUCE DEPARTMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING SPECIALTY PRODUCE

    OpenAIRE

    Beamer, Bobby G.; Preston, Warren P.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, fresh fruits and vegetables have attracted attention as potential alternative agricultural enterprises. The produce section also has grown in importance in the supermarket industry. Yet, there is little known about the produce shelf space allocation process within supermarket chains. This research describes the organization of fresh produce marketing within retail supermarket chains. Implications are derived for market penetration by new produce suppliers, particularly grower...

  12. Protecting the rights of producers original medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Kotvitska, Alla; Noha, Petro

    the article analyzes the state of protection of intellectual property rights of original medicine producers, its accordance with international standards. Attention is focused on the importance of exclusivity of medicine market. the analysis of protection of intellectual property rights of medicine producers in Ukraine and determination of its conformity or non-conformity to the international standards. the experience of certain countries is analyzed in the research. Additionally, we used statistical data of international organizations, conclusions of experts. there are numerous cases of state registration of generic medicinal products using the registration information of original medicinal products and delict of the rights of patent holders. an effective mechanism of judicial protection of the original medicine producers` intellectual property rights from disorders that affect the profit was elaborated in Ukraine.

  13. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  14. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  15. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  16. Article and process for producing an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Jacala, Ariel Caesar Prepena; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Schick, David Edward

    2017-10-24

    An article and a process of producing an article are provided. The article includes a base material, a cooling feature arrangement positioned on the base material, the cooling feature arrangement including an additive-structured material, and a cover material. The cooling feature arrangement is between the base material and the cover material. The process of producing the article includes manufacturing a cooling feature arrangement by an additive manufacturing technique, and then positioning the cooling feature arrangement between a base material and a cover material.

  17. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Gearhart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  18. Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Patricia J; Castiblanco, Diana P; Russell Knode, Lisa M

    2015-12-01

    Antibodies stand between us and pathogens. Viruses mutate quickly to avoid detection, and antibodies mutate at similar rates to hunt them down. This death spiral is fueled by specialized proteins and error-prone polymerases that change DNA sequences. Here, we explore how B lymphocytes stay in the race by expressing activation-induced deaminase, which unleashes a tsunami of mutations in the immunoglobulin loci. This produces random DNA substitutions, followed by selection for the highest affinity antibodies. We may be able to manipulate the process to produce better antibodies by expanding the repertoire of specific B cells through successive vaccinations.

  19. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  20. Carbon nanotubes produced from natural cellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Barry; Xie, Xinfeng; Qian, Yuhui; Daniel, Geoffrey; Peterson, Michael; Jellison, Jody

    2008-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced from wood fiber using a low temperature process, which included continuous oxidization at 240 degrees C and cyclic oxidation at 400 degrees C. The inside diameter of the CNTs was approximately 4-5 nm and the outside diameter ranged from 10 nm to 20 nm. No CNTs were produced when pure lignin and cellulose were tested indicating that the molecular and spatial arrangement of cell wall plays an important role in CNT formation. The research suggests that the chemical components in the secondary plant cell wall and their differential ablation properties are critical for the formation of CNTs at these comparatively low temperatures.

  1. Polyamic Acid Nanofibers Produced by Needleless Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldrich Jirsak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The polyimide precursor (polyamic acid produced of 4,4′-oxydiphthalic anhydride and 4,4′-oxydianiline was electrospun using needleless electrospinning method. Nonwoven layers consisting of submicron fibers with diameters in the range about 143–470 nm on the polypropylene spunbond supporting web were produced. Filtration properties of these nanofiber layers on the highly permeable polypropylene support—namely filtration effectivity and pressure drop—were evaluated. Consequently, these polyamic acid fibers were heated to receive polyimide nanofibers. The imidization process has been studied using IR spectroscopy. Some comparisons with the chemically identical polyimide prepared as the film were made.

  2. Biosynthetic studies on terpenoids produced by Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuyama, Tomohisa

    2017-07-01

    Terpenoids are a large and highly diverse group of natural products. All terpenoids are biosynthesized from isoprenyl diphosphate formed by the consecutive condensation of the five-carbon monomer isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Two distinct biosynthetic pathways produce the essential primary metabolites IPP and DMAPP: the 2-C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway and the mevalonate pathway. The isoprenyl substrates can be cyclized by terpene cyclase into single-ring or multi-ring products, which can be further diversified by subsequent modification reactions, such as hydroxylation and glycosylation. This review article describes the biosynthetic pathways of terpenoids produced by Streptomyces and their related novel enzymes.

  3. Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 3. Metabolic Engineering: Biological Art of Producing Useful Chemicals. Ram Kulkarni. General Article Volume 21 Issue 3 March 2016 pp 233-237. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. Quality of Quarg produced by probiotics application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarg is a soft fresh cheese which is characterised by nutritive and energy value. Presence of essential milk components and usage of various starter cultures, most important of which are probiotics, contribute to the increase of the consumers, interest because of great health effects. In addition to their nutritive and economic importance, probiotics are important from technological point of view, as well. Therefore, the possibilities of probiotic Quarg manufacture, the effect of probiotics, traditional starter culture and their combination, on Quarg quality have been investigated in this study. Quarg was produced of milk with 2.5% and 4.2% fat content. The obtained results showed significant differences in chemical composition physical and sensory properties and shelf-life of the produced cheese samples. From 10 samples produced, 2 samples were of excellent sensory properties and have been evaluated with maximum score. All samples were shelf-stable 5 weeks, while decrease of pH value was insignificant during 30 days of storage at below 4°C. Different kinds of Quarg, produced by use of probiotics, could be used by all consumers categories having beneficial effect on intestinal function and promoting good health because of probiotic bacteria presence.

  5. Hexamethonium produces both twitch and tetanic depression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hexamethonium, however does not produce tetanic fade at the same concentration. We hypothesized that the cholinoceptors of the neuromuscular junction of the common African toad (Bufo regularis) resemble the developing synapse of African clawed toad (Xenopus laevis) and may contain muscarinic M1 autoreceptors ...

  6. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  7. Urban Stories : Producing news for urban youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Joke Hermes; Christa de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    This paper will query whether a dedicated news platform can attune to young people’s civic needs? That is to ask: can this be a space that follows a social media logic of conversation and ‘give and take’ – with producers and consumers changing roles or even losing the distinction? How could and

  8. Biologically produced sulfur particles and polysulfide ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effects of particles of biologically produced sulfur (or 'biosulfur') on a biotechnological process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from gas streams. Particular emphasis is given to the role of polysulfide ions in such a process. These

  9. New Systems Produced by Systemic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Wendy; Clem, Jo; Caine, Renate N.; Reigeluth, Charles M.; Chapman, Carrie; Flinders, David J.; Malopinsky, Larissa V.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents new systems produced by systemic change. First is Systemic Changes in the Chugach School District by Wendy Battino and Jo Clem. Second is Systemic Changes in Public Schools through Brain-Based Learning by Renate N. Caine. Third is A Vision of an Information-Age Educational System by Charles M. Reigeluth. Fourth is Systemic…

  10. 7 CFR 983.24 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 983.24 Section 983.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... production area in a proprietary capacity in the production of pistachios for sale. ...

  11. 7 CFR 955.9 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 955.9 Section 955.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... capacity in the production of Vidalia onions for market. ...

  12. 7 CFR 932.17 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 932.17 Section 932.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... capacity in the production of olives for market as packaged olives. ...

  13. 7 CFR 993.16 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 993.16 Section 993.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... proprietary capacity, in growing plums for drying or dehydrating into prunes. ...

  14. 7 CFR 947.8 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 947.8 Section 947.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... capacity in the production of potatoes for market. ...

  15. Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-06

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Carbapenemase-producing Organism in Food.  Created: 8/6/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/13/2014.

  16. Process for producing a fried foodstuff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van P.C.M.; Waele, de E.T.

    1997-01-01

    A process for producing fried starch-containing foodstuffs is described, comprising a thermal treatment resulting in gelatinisation of starch, partial frying, cooling, optional freezing and optional finishing, wherein the foodstuff is subjected to a mechanical surface treatment between said thermal

  17. Emulsifying behavior of an exopolysaccharide produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Iyer A, Mody K, Jha B (2005). Characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by a marine Entrobacter cloaceae. Ind. J. Exp. Biol., 43: 467–471. Matsuda M, Worawattanamateekul W, Okutani K (1992). Simultaneous production of muco- and sulfated polysaccharides by marine. Pseudomonas. Nippon.

  18. Emulsifying behavior of an exopolysaccharide produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganism produced different amount of exopolysaccharide in different ratios of distilled water and seawater but there was no any production in the nutrient broth. The best result was obtained in the sea water broth without addition of distilled water. Stability of emulsions formed with corn oil and toluene was studied ...

  19. Apes produce tools for future use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    There is now growing evidence that some animal species are able to plan for the future. For example great apes save and exchange tools for future use. Here we raise the question whether chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos would produce tools for future use. Subjects only had access to a baited apparatus for a limited duration and therefore should use the time preceding this access to create the appropriate tools in order to get the rewards. The apes were tested in three conditions depending on the need for pre-prepared tools. Either eight tools, one tool or no tools were needed to retrieve the reward. The apes prepared tools in advance for future use and they produced them mainly in conditions when they were really needed. The fact that apes were able to solve this new task indicates that their planning skills are flexible. However, for the condition in which eight tools were needed, apes produced less than two tools per trial in advance. However, they used their chance to produce additional tools in the tool use phase-thus often obtaining most of the reward from the apparatus. Increased pressure to prepare more tools in advance did not have an effect on their performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 7 CFR 1219.20 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 1219.20 Section 1219.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  1. Building Businesses with Small Producers: Successful Business ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Three services were given particular attention in the case studies: marketing, access to technology, and business and management skills acquisition. Each case study – from Bolivia, Bangladesh, El Salvador, Ghana, Sri Lanka, and Zimbabwe – shows how small producers were introduced to new production and marketing ...

  2. Transforming business education to produce global managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kedia, Ben L.; Englis-Danskin, Paula

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, globalization of businesses has occurred faster than the internationalization of business schools—in terms of faculty, students, and curriculum. Indeed, there is now a disconnect between global economic realities and the ability of business schools to produce global managers. This

  3. Producing and Scrounging during Problem Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, William L.

    2013-01-01

    When problem based learning occurs in a social context it is open to a common social behaviour, scrounging. In the animal behaviour literature, scroungers do not attempt to find resources themselves but rather exploit resources found by other group members (referred to as producers). We know from studies of animal behaviour (including humans) that…

  4. Organic metabolites produced by Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and action of several antibacterial metabolites produced by a fish pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain An3 from marine ecosystem of Goa has been demonstrated. Antibacterial activity of the crude cell extract of the test bacterium has been evaluated against indicator pathogenic bacterial strains such as ...

  5. Producing Student Films: Shakespeare on Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franek, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Makes a case for asking students to produce their own film version of Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's Dream." Explains how to manage student filming projects logistically; how to teach students about filming techniques through the study of modern movies; and how filming becomes a lesson in the interpretation of Shakespeare. (TB)

  6. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  7. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  8. 7 CFR 1434.4 - Eligible producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... calendar year; (2) Be responsible for the risk of keeping the bees and producing honey; (3) Have a... containers that meet the requirements of § 1434.7 and § 1434.8, respectively; and (5) Adequately protect the... committee to be financially responsible; or (4) A surety, by furnishing a bond, guarantees to protect CCC...

  9. Producing alpha-olefins using polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Katz, Leonard; Steen, Eric J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-02

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an .alpha.-olefin, such as 1-hexene or butadiene. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the .alpha.-olefin.

  10. Isolation and morphological characterization of antibiotic producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate and characterize antibiotic producing actinomycetes from soil samples in Belgaum, Karnataka, India. Methods: Crowded plate technique was used for the isolation of actinomycetes in media such as soybean – casein digest medium and actinomycetes isolation agar. The morphological and cultural ...

  11. 7 CFR 989.11 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 989.11 Section 989.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... proprietary capacity in the production of grapes which are sun-dried or dehydrated by artificial means until...

  12. Method for producing nano-embedded microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to a rapid, high-throughput and continuous method for producing nano-embedded microparticles in powder form, thereby providing a cost- effective process which can be performed aseptically. The invention further relates to an apparatus for performing the method...

  13. Secondary Particles Produced by Hadron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkazem Ansarinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Use of hadron therapy as an advanced radiotherapy technique is increasing. In this method, secondary particles are produced through primary beam interactions with the beam-transport system and the patient’s body. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations were employed to determine the dose of produced secondary particles, particularly neutrons during treatment. Materials and Methods In this study, secondary particles, produced by proton and ion beams, were simulated for a cancer treatment plan. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of secondary neutrons, produced by a 400 MeV/u carbon beam on an electronic crate, which was exposed to radiation field under radioactive conditions. The level of major secondary particles, particularly neutrons, irradiating the target, was evaluated, using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. Results The fluences and radiation doses were applied to determine the shielding efficiency of devices and the probability of radiation damage to nearby electronic systems. According to the results, by using maximum-energy carbon ions (400 MeV/u, electronic devices are exposed to a dose rate of 0.05 µSv/s and an integrated dose of about 34 mSv, each year. Conclusion The simulation results could provide significant information about radiation assessment; they could also be a major help for clinical facilities to meet shielding requirements. Moreover, such simulations are essential for determining the radiation level, which is responsible for radiation-induced damages.

  14. Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics, total hydrocarbon concentration (THC) and some heavy metal levels of produced water from terminals of two oil industry facilities in Nigeria, using standard methods. Appropriate sample bottles were used in the collection of samples for analyses of BOD, other ...

  15. The Top American Indian Degree Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, "Diverse: Issues In Higher Education" publishes lists of the Top 100 producers of associate, bachelor's and graduate degrees awarded to minority students based on research conducted by Dr. Victor M.H. Borden, professor of educational leadership and policy studies at the Indiana University Bloomington. This year, Diverse staff…

  16. How to Produce a Small Newspaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward; And Others

    A how-to manual for people interested in the mechanics of newspaper production, this book was produced by the editors of a small town newspaper. Chapters about content, printing, typography, pasteup, design and layout, advertising, circulation and distribution, financial matters, and deadlines contain practical discussions of details such as what…

  17. How to Get the Most from Producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah Shaw

    1978-01-01

    Fruitful relationships between trainers and media specialists are collaborations from the beginning. Trainers must define the problem and establish project requirements for training aids. Trainers and producers should ask questions related to (1) the project purpose, (2) audience characteristics, (3) quantity needed, (4) material distribution, and…

  18. Earth's Most Important Producers: Meet the Phytoplankton!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Meghan E.; Stevens, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is home to some of Earth's most important producers. Single-celled organisms in the ocean are responsible for more than half of Earth's productivity, as well as most of its oxygen. Phytoplankton are single-celled, plantlike organisms. That is, they have chloroplasts and perform photosynthesis, but are not true plants, which are typically…

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE PSYCHOLOGICAL STATE PRODUCED BY LSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KATZ, MARTIN M.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPONENTS OF LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD) PRODUCED PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES ARE INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE PAID VOLUNTEERS FROM THE PATUXENT INSTITUTION, A TREATMENT CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY UNSTABLE CRIMINAL OFFENDERS. IN ONE STUDY, GROUPS OF 23 SUBJECTS RECEIVED LSD, AN AMPHETAMINE, OR A PLACEBO. IN THE SECOND STUDY, 11…

  20. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage repr...

  1. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficie...

  2. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Micha; Nielsen, Marc Trunjer Kusk; Möller, Sören

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhoeal disease, bloody diarrhoea and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of STEC and the clinical features of STEC patients from a well-defined Danish population in which all fecal...

  3. Prevalence and characterization of verotocytoxin producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an important agent of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in children less than five years old and elderly people. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of verotocytoxin producing E. coli 0157 (VTEC O157) among human patients with diarrhoea in ...

  4. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  5. 7 CFR 1207.305 - Producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Producer. 1207.305 Section 1207.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN...

  6. Epoxy resins produce improved plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. W.

    1967-01-01

    Plastic scintillator produced by the substitution of epoxy resins for the commonly used polystyrene is easy to cast, stable at room temperature, and has the desirable properties of a thermoset or cross-linked system. Such scintillators can be immersed directly in strong solvents, an advantage in many chemical and biological experiments.

  7. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the physicochemical and sensory acceptability of yoghurt produced from ewe, goat and a mixture of ewe milk and goat milk in Nigeria in order for the populace to harness the nutritional and therapeutic benefits of the milks. Methods: Samples of whole cow milk (WCM) as standard, goat milk (GM), ewe ...

  8. Postgraduates Producing Knowledge | Chidester | Journal for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introducing this special issue, “Postgraduates Producing Knowledge”, the editor provides background. The articles in this issue arose out of an ongoing experiment in knowledge production in a postgraduate course on theory and method in the study of religion in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Cape ...

  9. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  10. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  11. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Kaskatepe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Surfactants are chemical products widely used in our daily life in toothpaste and other personal hygiene and cosmetic products, and in several industries. Biosurfactants are surfactants of biological origin that can be produced by microorganisms and have many advantages, such as low toxicity and high biodegradability, compared to synthetic counterparts. Unfortunately, high production costs limit the use of biosurfactants. Low-cost production is the most important factor for biosurfactants to be able to compete in the global market place. This review presents general information on rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas species, as well as on their production and applications. In addition, industrial products and their wastes used for rhamnolipid production are reviewed in detail based on recent studies.

  13. Coal Producer's Rubber Waste Processing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarevich, Evgeniya; Papin, Andrey; Nevedrov, Alexander; Cherkasova, Tatyana; Ignatova, Alla

    2017-11-01

    A large amount of rubber-containing waste, the bulk of which are worn automobile tires and conveyor belts, is produced at coal mining and coal processing enterprises using automobile tires, conveyor belts, etc. The volume of waste generated increases every year and reaches enormous proportions. The methods for processing rubber waste can be divided into three categories: grinding, pyrolysis (high and low temperature), and decomposition by means of chemical solvents. One of the known techniques of processing the worn-out tires is their regeneration, aimed at producing the new rubber substitute used in the production of rubber goods. However, the number of worn tires used for the production of regenerate does not exceed 20% of their total quantity. The new method for processing rubber waste through the pyrolysis process is considered in this article. Experimental data on the upgrading of the carbon residue of pyrolysis by the methods of heavy media separation, magnetic and vibroseparation, and thermal processing are presented.

  14. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  15. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-12-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  16. Antibacterial Titanium Produced Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Andrew; Li, Xiaopeng; McCormick, Paul; Ren, Ling; Yang, Ke; Sercombe, Timothy B.

    2017-09-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys used in current medical and dental applications do not possess antibacterial properties, and therefore, postoperative infection remains a significant risk. Recently, the addition of silver and copper to conventional biomaterials has been shown to produce a material with good antibacterial properties. In this article, we investigate selective laser melting as a method of producing antibacterial Ti-6Al-4V containing elemental additions of Cu or Ag. The addition of Ag had no effect on the microstructure or strength, but it did result in a 300% increase in the ductility of the alloy. In contrast, the addition of Cu resulted in an increase in strength but in a decrease in ductility, along with a change in the structure of the material. The Cu-containing alloy also showed moderate antibacterial properties and was superior to the Ag-containing alloy.

  17. Investigate Nasal Colonize Staphylococcus Species Biofilm Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: 127 S.aureus and 65 CoNS strains were isolated from patients noses%u2019. To produce a biofilm ability was investigated using three different methods. Slime-positive and negative staphylococcies%u2019 resistance were evaluated against different antibiotics. Material and Method: Swap samples puted 7% blood agar. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS isolates biofilm produced ability were investigated using Congo Red Agar (CRA, microplates (MP and Standard Tube (ST methods. In addition to that, presence of antibiotic resistance of the staphylococcal isolates are determined agar disc diffusion method. Results: The rate of biofilm producing Staphylococcus spp strains was found to be 72.4%, 67.7%, and 62.9%, respectively with CRA, MP, and ST tests. There was no significant relationship among the tests (p>0.05. In addition, antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus spp. against various antibiotics was also determined by the agar disk diffusion method. Resistance rates of biofilm positive (BP Staphylococcus spp for penicilin G, ampicilin, amocycilin/clavulanic acid, tetracyclin, eritromycin, gentamycin, and enrofloxacin 71.7%, 69.7%, 6.2%, 20.7%, 21.4%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Resistance rates of biofilm negative (BN spp for 42.6%, 23.4%, 4.3%, 14.9%, 19.1%, 0.0%, 0.0% respectively. All Staphylococcus isolates were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and teicaplonin. Although BP strains antibiotic resistance rates were observed higher than BN strains. But resistance rates were not found statistically significant (p>0.05. Discussion: CRA is the reliablity and specifity method to determine Staphylococcus spp. biofilm produce ability.

  18. Electron acceleration using laser produced plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Landua, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    Low density plasmas have long been of interest as a potential medium for particle acceleration since relativistic plasma waves are capable of supporting electric fields greater than 100 GeV/m. The physics of particle acceleration using plasmas will be reviewed, and new results will be discussed which have demonstrated that relatively narrow energy spread (<3%) beams having energies greater than 100 MeV can be produced from femtosecond laser plasma interactions. Future experiments and potential applications will also be discussed.

  19. Producing a solid fuel from agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khigasikuni, T.; Fudziki, A.; Koisi, K.

    1982-08-21

    Agricultural wastes, in particular, the peels and seeds of mandarine oranges, used for canning, were ground, dried, mixed with a binder, molded in cylindrical or pyramidal forms of a piece of the desired size, heated and impregnated with a water repellant substance, for instance, paraffin. A material is produced with a d = 1. PVA was used as the binder. The wastes were partially gasified and the obtained gas was used as a heat source in drying the wastes.

  20. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    2006-01-13

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  1. Laser produced plasmas in liquid environments

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Nichola

    2016-01-01

    During the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a solid metal target, a high temperature, high density plasma is formed. Pulsed laser ablation has attracted much interest over the past fifty years with experimental and theoretical work largely focussed on the study of laser produced plasmas in vacuum. The study of pulsed laser ablation has been largely motivated from a materials processing perspective, with the characterisation of thin films using pulsed laser deposition of particular i...

  2. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  3. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  4. Producing affordable high-quality biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draak, H. D.

    2004-12-31

    A novel process to produce biodiesel fuel, used to power an automobile and heat a single-family home, including a domestic hot water heater, is discussed. Although currently used on a very small scale, the process is said to be capable of producing biodiesel on a commercial scale and marketed at the same wholesale price as petro-diesel, with enough price flexibility to adjust up or down to keep pace with fluctuations in oil prices. The basic materials used are canola oil and used fryer oil from restaurants. The crucial points are to pre-treat the used fryer oil to remove impurities, and to wash the newly-produced biodiesel afterwards. Using these materials, production cost is 19 cents per liter (before overhead). Public apathy and the lack of an infrastructure for distribution are major obstacles to commercial-scale production, but the inventor of the process is confident that with a dwindling oil supply and ever-rising oil prices, the opportunities for change to alternative sources of energy are constantly improving. photos.

  5. Bioethanol produced from Moringa oleifera seeds husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, E. N.; Kemat, S. Z.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents the potential of bioethanol production from Moringa oleifera seeds husk which contains lignocellulosic through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) process by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper investigates the parameters which produce optimum bioethanol yield. The husk was hydrolyzed using NaOH and fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. Batch fermentation was performed with different yeast dosage of 1, 3, and 5 g/L, pH value was 4.5, 5.0 and 5.5, and fermentation time of 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. The temperature of fermentation process in incubator shaker is kept constant at 32ºC. The samples are then filtered using a 0.20 μm nylon filter syringe. The yield of bioethanol produced was analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the highest yield of 29.69 g/L was obtained at 3 hours of fermentation time at pH of 4.5 and using 1g/L yeast. This research work showed that Moringa oleifera seeds husk can be considered to produce bioethanol.

  6. LSD produces place preference and flavor avoidance but does not produce flavor aversion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L A

    1996-06-01

    The hedonic properties of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) were assessed using the place conditioning, taste reactivity, and taste avoidance tests. LSD produced a conditioned place preference, but only at the highest dose tested (0.2 mg/kg). A single preexposure to the conditioning chamber (latent inhibition) prevented the establishment of a place preference. When paired with sucrose, doses of 0.05 to 0.2 mg/kg of LSD produced taste avoidance, but no dose of LSD produced an aversion to the taste as assessed by the taste reactivity test. These results suggest that LSD, like other rewarding drugs, produces taste avoidance by a mechanism other than that produced by emetic drugs.

  7. Radioactivity monitoring of Irish dairy produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, K. (Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland. Radiation Monitoring, Dublin (Ireland))

    2010-03-15

    Full text: The RPII has been carrying out monitoring of milk and dairy produce since 1986. Milk samples are routinely analysed for radiocaesium and strontium-90 as part of the RPII's environmental monitoring programme to determine the doses received to the Irish population from milk consumption. The method the RPII utilises for determining the Sr-90 activity in milk is by measuring the Cerenkov radiation produced by its daughter 90Y isolated from interfering nuclides such as uranium, thorium, radium and their decay products as well as isotopes of caesium, potassium and strontium by extraction with 10% di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (HDEHP) in toluene. The chemical yield of 90Y is determined by the acidmetric titration of yttrium nitrate carrier with titriplex III. The levels of Sr-90 and dose to the Irish population from milk consumption have been negligible when compared to other radioactive sources in the Irish environment. Other dairy products are analysed for radiocaesium on a routine basis for commercial customers to ensure the levels of radioactivity in the dairy products fall within EC regulations governing the export/import of dairy produce. The export of milk and milk produce from Ireland is a very important industry, 80% of dairy products produced in Ireland are exported and these exports are worth Euro 2.2 billion annually to the Irish economy. The dairy products are analysed by gamma spectroscopy and include full and skim milk powders, butter, casein, cheese, cream, whey and lactose. The levels of radiocaesium in these products are typically below 5 Bk/kg and fall well within the limit of 370 Bq/kg laid down by the European Community in Council Regulation 737/90. Although the levels of these radionuclides are relatively low the RPII recognises the importance of analysing these samples for radioactivity to inform the public, ensure consumer confidence and, more importantly, to maintain a level of expertise in the RPII in these analytical techniques so

  8. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominately water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  9. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-10-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  10. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-09-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  11. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  12. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-08-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  13. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-07-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  14. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray W. Sheldon, P.E.

    2001-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  15. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-04-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  16. Detection of NDM-2-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and VIM-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölander, Isabella; Hansen, Frank; Elmanama, Abdelraouf; Khayyat, Rasha; Abu-Zant, Alaeddin; Hussein, Ayman; Taha, Adham Abu; Hammerum, Anette M; Ciofu, Oana

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to screen for carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Palestine and subsequently to identify and investigate the mechanisms of resistance. For a period of 6 weeks, all Gram-negative isolates were collected from six Palestinian hospital laboratories and were tested for susceptibility using 10μg meropenem disks. Isolates showing resistance to meropenem were further investigated. The presence of carbapenemases was assessed by PCR. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, an efflux pump inhibitor assay and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Isolates producing carbapenemases were further investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). In total, 248 Gram-negative isolates were collected from the six laboratories. Among the 248 tested isolates, 15 Acinetobacter baumannii and 6 Pseudomonas aeruginosa were resistant to meropenem. One A. baumannii from Gaza produced NDM-2 and belonged to ST103. Thirteen of the carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates possessed the intrinsic upregulated blaOXA-66 gene and one isolate carried blaOXA-51. All but one of the OXA-66-producing A. baumannii belonged to ST2; the remaining isolate belonged to ST183. One of the carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa was classified as VIM-4-producing and three were VIM-2-producing isolates. The three VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to three new sequences types (ST1562, ST1563 and ST1564). All of the carbapenemase-producing isolates were multiresistant non-fermenters. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on NDM-producing A. baumannii and VIM-producing P. aeruginosa from Palestine. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  18. Isolation of moulds capable of producing mycotoxins from blue mouldy Tulum cheeses produced in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, A; Gurses, M; Sert, S

    2003-08-15

    A total of 16 moulds was isolated and identified from 12 blue mouldy Tulum cheeses collected from retailers in Erzurum, Turkey; 12 were Penicillium roqueforti and 4 were Geotrichum candidum. The P. roqueforti isolates were grown in yeast sucrose broth at 5, 12 and 25 degrees C for 10 days, then extracted with chloroform and acetone and the extracts were examined for the presence of patulin, penicillic acid, roquefortine and PR toxin using thin layer chromatography. All of the P. roqueforti strains had toxin-producing ability at 5, 12 and 25 degrees C, eight produced only at 5 and 12 degrees C and six could not produce toxin at 5 degrees C.

  19. Jets instabilities producing the slot-tone

    OpenAIRE

    Billon, Alexis; Valeau, Vincent; Sakout, Anas

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the instability governing the self-sustained tones produced by a low Mach number free plane jet impinging on a slotted plate, known as slot-tone, is identified experimentally. The experimental apparatus permits to control the Reynolds number and the distance from the jet outlet to the plate. For a Reynolds number, the shear-layer natural frequency and the jet column mode frequency of the free jet without the obstacle are estimated and compared to the minimal and maximal frequenc...

  20. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Santa Fe, NM; Mendoza, Daniel [Santa Fe, NM; Chen, Chun-Ku [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report.

  2. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM) of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM) was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions) were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber) content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to scale-up the fermentation

  3. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  4. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  5. Selection of phytase-producing moulds

    OpenAIRE

    Susana, I. W. R.; B Tangenjaya; S Hastiono

    2000-01-01

    Organic phosphorous in the form of phytate salts are found in feed component originated from cereals which can not be digested by chicken unless after the addition of an enzyme, i.e. phytase. A research to investigate phytase-producing moulds had been carried out. A total of 60 isolates from various collection units and isolation from samples had been collected then screened in Czapek’s medium with Ca-phytate as the source of phosphorous. From mould growth measurements and clearing zones form...

  6. Inversion produced and reversed by adiabatic passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedenbaum, C.; Stolte, S.; Reuss, J.

    1989-06-01

    This report deals with non-linear effects produced in molecules by strong laser fields. The molecules experience these laser fields during their passage through the laser waists. We present results on rapid adiabatic passage processes which move the molecules up and down the energy ladder, the latter due to stimulated emission. Experimentally, stimulated emission is observed by opto-thermal detection of a molecular beam where de-excitation by stimulated emission leads to negative signals as compared to straightforward excitation processes. Two-level, three-level and multi-level systems are covered by the following discussion.

  7. ‘Wind farm’ producing electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The nation's first ‘wind farm,’ featuring three of the largest advanced wind turbine systems, is nearing completion. The turbines are the seventh, eighth, and ninth wind turbines to be built under a portion of the federal wind energy program. The first of the three new machines began producing electricity for the Bonneville Power Administration at Goodnoe Hills, near Goldendale, Wash., late last year. The second machine will be fully assembled and begin to generate electricity in February. The third machine is expected to be fully assembled and running late this spring.

  8. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  9. Simon Fraser University Computer Produced Map Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Phillips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An IBM 360/50 computer and magnetic tape are used in a new univer- sity library to produce a map catalogue by area and up to six subiects for each map. Cataloguing is by non-professional staff using the Library of Congress "G, schedule. Author, title, and publisher are in variable length fields, and codes are seldom used for input or interpretation. Ma- chine searches by area, subjects, author, publisher, scale, pro-;ection, date and language can be carried out.

  10. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamoto Hiroko K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  12. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  13. ECOLOGICAL REGIONALIZATION METHODS OF OIL PRODUCING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Ivanovna Pivovarova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses territory zoning methods with varying degrees of anthropogenic pollution risk. The summarized results of spatial analysis of oil pollution of surface water in the most developed oil-producing region of Russia. An example of GIS-zoning according to the degree of environmental hazard is presented. All possible algorithms of cluster analysis are considered for isolation of homogeneous data structures. The conclusion is made on the benefits of using combined methods of analysis for assessing the homogeneity of specific environmental characteristics in selected territories.

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  15. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyung, Kenneth; Day, J. Paul; Holleran, Louis M.; Olszewski, Anthony R.

    1999-01-01

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  16. Method of producing {beta}-spodumene bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyung, K.; Day, J.P.; Holleran, L.M.; Olszewski, A.R.

    1999-10-05

    {beta}-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies are disclosed that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of {beta}-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of {minus}7/C (0--800 C), and a strength of {ge}4 Ksi.

  17. Use of swath data in realtime navigation by pattern recognition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    A new method is proposed with the aim of reducing dead reckoning error (DRE) during multibeam echosounding survey in deep ocean. Bathymetric data is used in this method to estimate DRE in position fixing. This method can be activated at any desired...

  18. Investigation of the Characteristics of Small SWATH Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    smuggling and drugs; boarding and inspection of fishing vessels, both foreign and domestic ; and enforcement I, of any laws pertaining to ocean...71- Z u U cm Oj /Va IIII 0 u U LUS L L.= Q C.) OEnIUDNVU 2 La W)~ Lijo C"U LLIA 4.X LUJ maLUS U -/L/ Cto / / 113114 V A I Is" AA I 1. Total gas turbine...THE 125 LTON CONCEPT 15 knots 20 knots 25 knots 30 knots - DOMESTIC DIESELS- Manufacture DDA DDA DDA DDA Model 8V92TI 8V92TI 12V149 16V149T Rating (BHP

  19. Imaging trench-line disruptions: Swath mapping of subduction zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    positioning system (GPS) to document even minor crustal mov e ments 2 . The distribution of after shocks suggests progressive rot a- tion of the strike of the fault plane towards right as the rupture progressed towards north 3 , implying i n crease... in strike slip component towards north. Again, as recorded by seismometers in Russia and Australia, in the begi n ning the crust broke 100 km patch slowly, then ra p idly to 3 km/s for the next 4 min, and thereafter mai n tained an average speed...

  20. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Pigeon Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Pigeon Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  1. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  2. Backscatter [Swath]-- Offshore of Monterey Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents 2-m-resolution SWATHPlus data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Monterey map area, California. These metadata describe...

  3. Backscatter C [Swath]--Offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Tomales Point map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  4. BackscatterA [SWATH]--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Aptos map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as two separate grids...

  5. Backscatter C [Swath]--Offshore of Fort Ross, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of the Offshore of Fort Ross map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate grids...

  6. NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Swath Image Data V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA SRTM data sets result from a collaborative effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Geospatial-Intelligence...

  7. Aquarius L2 Swath Single Orbit Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-2 global soil moisture estimates derived from the NASA Aquarius passive microwave radiometer on the Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas...

  8. CCT`s in a deregulated environment: A producer`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, R.F. Jr.; Fayssoux, J.O. [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The US electric industry will be deregulated (or substantially re-regulated) within 5 years. Several states, including California, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire, already have passed legislation to introduce competition into the electric markets before the year 2000. As this trend sweeps across the country, the resulting competitive market for generation will reward the lowest cost producers and force high cost producers out of the market. As a result, at least in the short run, it may be very difficult for new power plants employing Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) to compete. This paper discusses a producer`s perspective of the new competitive market, and suggests several short and long term strategies and niches for CCTs.

  9. CERN to start producing medical isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    A promising project that was hailed at the ICTR-PHE 2012 medical conference (see Bulletin issues 10-11/2012 and 12-13/2012) has seen the light of day at CERN. The project, known by the name of MEDICIS, will make it possible to produce a large variety of radioactive isotopes for medical research.   This image of a brain, superimposed on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci, was taken by a PET scanner after injecting a molecule containing a positron-emitting isotope. CERN-MEDICIS will produce new isotopes for imaging which will be able to show up cancerous tissues and destroy them by emitting local radiation as the isotopes decay. In the United States, a new radium-based drug which targets bone metastases is about to go on the market. Radium, which can be brought to bear at the cell level, is a potent weapon in the fight against certain types of cancer, and is opening the way to a new form of medicine. This is the direction that CERN has decided to follow through the CERN-MEDICIS* (Medical Isotopes...

  10. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  11. Mycotoxins: Producing Fungi and Mechanisms of Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Ismaiel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans, animals and plants. Among the hundreds of known mycotoxins, aflatoxins, citrinin, patulin, penicillic acid, tenuazonic acid, ochratoxin A, cytochalasins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, fusarin C, fusaric acid, and zearalenone are considered the types that most contaminate cereal grain. The majority of the mycotoxins in these groups are produced by three fungal genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. These metabolites primarily affect the seed quality, germination, viability, seedling vigour, growth of root and cleoptile. Additionally, since the fungi responsible for the production of these mycotoxins are often endophytes that infect and colonize living plant tissues, accumulation of mycotoxins in the plant tissues may at times be associated with development of plant disease symptoms. The presence of mycotoxins, even in the absence of disease symptoms, may still have subtle biological effects on the physiology of plants. Several studies highlight the toxic effects of mycotoxins on animals and cell lines but little is known about the mode of action of most of these metabolites on plant cells. The most important mycotoxins with phytotoxic effects and their producers in addition to their discovery are briefly outlined below and will be addressed in this article.

  12. Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche

    1998-08-01

    The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

  13. Cellulose pulp produced from bulrush fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Karine Dick Wille

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Brazil continues to use wood as the principal raw material source for the pulp industry; although, non-wood fibers have been revealed to be a competent substitute to produce paper with different and exceptional properties. Keeping this in focus, this study aimed to assess potential of Schoenoplectus californicus fibers (C. A. Mey. Soják, commonly identified as bulrush or reed, in cellulosic pulp generation, as an alternative fiber source for the pulp and paper industry. On analyzing the chemical composition of reed fibers, extractives of lignin, carbohydrates, uronic acids and minerals were reported. Physico-chemical characteristics of reed-based cellulosic pulp were estimated including viscosity, hexenuronic acids, etc., as well as anatomical features of length, width, etc. From the chemical analyses of the reed the presence of high concentrations of extractives and silica was clear, making them unfit as raw material for cellulosic pulp production. Pulp kraft pulping process produced brown pulps low in viscosity (34.5m Pa.s and hexenuronic acid content. Reed is thus classifiable as short-fiber source for pulp and paper industries.

  14. Selection of phytase-producing moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.W.R Susana

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic phosphorous in the form of phytate salts are found in feed component originated from cereals which can not be digested by chicken unless after the addition of an enzyme, i.e. phytase. A research to investigate phytase-producing moulds had been carried out. A total of 60 isolates from various collection units and isolation from samples had been collected then screened in Czapek’s medium with Ca-phytate as the source of phosphorous. From mould growth measurements and clearing zones formation there were 4 mould isolates, i.e. Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135 and NRRL 320, Aspergillus niger M94/18/D2 (Balitvet isolate, and Aspergillus niger no. 58 (IPB isolate, which were further observed. Enzyme was produced from medium containing 8% of corn’s starch, 3% of glucose, 0.0005% of KCl and MgSO4.7H2O, 0.0002% of K2HPO4, and 0.00018% of FeSO4.7H2O. The enzyme activity, protein and biomass contents were observed at 16, 24, 32, 48 and 72 hours incubations for Aspergillus niger and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days incubations for Aspergillus ficuum. The highest protein content was found at 5 days incubation for Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135 and NRRL 320, (165 and 169 μg/ml respectively, while for Aspergillus niger (Balitvet and IPB isolates at 16 hours incubation (102 and 112 μg/ml respectively. Meanwhile, the biomass contents were decreased in accordance with the duration of incubations. The maximum enzyme productions were reached at 24 hours incubation for Aspergillus niger and at 4 days incubation for Aspergillus ficuum. The highest phytase activities were reached at 2.808 U/ml for Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135, followed by 1.520 U/ml for Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 320. Aspergillus niger produced enzyme quicker than the other moulds, with lower activity level and decreases quicker at the following hours.

  15. Cytotoxicity of lapachol metabolites produced by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Silva, E; Cruz de Carvalho, T; Parshikov, I A; Alves dos Santos, R; Silva Emery, F; Jacometti Cardoso Furtado, N A

    2014-07-01

    Probiotics are currently added to a variety of functional foods to provide health benefits to the host and are commonly used by patients with gastrointestinal complaints or diseases. The therapeutic effects of lapachol continue to inspire studies to obtain derivatives with improved bioactivity and lower unwanted effects. Therefore, the general goal of this study was to show that probiotics are able to convert lapachol and are important to assess the effects of bacterial metabolism on drug performance and toxicity. The microbial transformations of lapachol were carried out by Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus acidophilus and different metabolites were produced in mixed and isolated cultures. The cytotoxic activities against breast cancer and normal fibroblast cell lines of the isolated metabolites (4α-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,4α,5,9β-hexahydroindeno[1,2-β]pyran-9β-carboxilic acid, a new metabolite produced by mixed culture and dehydro-α-lapachone produced by isolated cultures) were assessed and compared with those of lapachol. The new metabolite displayed a lower activity against a breast cancer cell line (IC50 = 532.7 μmol l(-1) ) than lapachol (IC50 = 72.3 μmol l(-1) ), while dehydro-α-lapachone (IC50 = 10.4 μmol l(-1) ) displayed a higher activity than lapachol. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. Probiotics have been used in dairy products to promote human health and have the ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics. Naphthoquinones, such as lapachol, are considered privileged scaffolds due to their high propensity to interact with biological targets. The present study is the first to demonstrate that probiotics are capable of converting lapachol into the most effective cytotoxic compound against a breast cancer cell line. The developed approach highlights the importance of probiotics to assess

  16. Methane Ions Produced by Titan's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.; Sarantos, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Ali, A.; Lipatov, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of CH4+ above Titan's exobase is from pickup ions produced by its CH4+ exosphere. Such ions are predicted from a CH4+ exosphere model describing density, temperature and wind at the exobase. Ionizing the CH4+ exosphere forms CH4+ ions that are picked up by the motional electric field of the magnetosphere. A range of exosphere models is considered relative to the Sun, accounting for the 360-degree ram direction produced by Saturn's magnetospheric rotation. Exospheric densities increase in the equatorial or polar regions when exobase winds are zonal or meridianal. Pickup ions entering the thermosphere produce heating as they slow down, raising the exobase temperature in these places. Hot spots also occur in different places of the exobase depending on where Saturn's magnetospheric current sheet is relative to Titan's orbit, being above, below or within; dipolar magnetospheric magnetic fields will cause equatorial heating on the Saturn side of Titan, while equatorially confined magnetospheric magnetic fields (current sheet geometry) heating will be at north polar region when Titan is below current sheet and on south polar region when Titan is above current sheet. When the methane exosphere is exposed to the magnetosphere's sheet, its temperature may be as high as 190 K. The corresponding CH4+ pickup ion density peaks at about 2×10-3 cm-3 in the up-flow direction of Titan, 2000 km above its ionopause. Alternatively, if the magnetosphere is in a lobe state, the exosphere's temperature may be reduced to 110 K, reducing the peak to 10-6 cm-3. This CH4+ pickup ion density difference can be used by the CAPS ion instruments to determine if the magnetosphere is in the sheet or lobe state at Titan's orbit. Furthermore, there are enough CH4+ pickup ions measured to be consistent with classical exosphere theories but may not be enough to support hydrodynamic expansion models [Sittler et al., 2009]. References: Sittler et al., (2009), Methane Group Ions in Saturn

  17. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  19. The crisis of the radio producing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raúl Garcés

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In a media world highly influenced by new technologies revolution and the increasing impact of television, speeches on radio are frequently polarized: in one side, some scholars argue radio belongs to the past and it is no longer able of attracting younger audiences. In the other, lay those who predict long life to radio as a source of alternative and communitarian communication experiences. The author reviews the arguments that sustain both perspectives and emphasizes the need of renovating radio producing with audacious and creative formulas. At the same time, he discusses some of the challenges Cuban radio has ahead to attract new audiences, when television and printed press are recovering from the economic crack the Island suffered after Eastern European socialism disappeared.

  20. Method of producing zeolite encapsulated nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    nanoparticles on the surface of the silica or alumina source; 3) Passing a gaseous hydrocarbon, alkyl alcohol or alkyl ether over the silica or alumina supported metal nanoparticles to form a carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition; 4a) Adding a structure directing agent......The invention therefore relates to a method for producing zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype encapsulated metal nanoparticles, the method comprises the steps of: 1) Adding one or more metal precursors to a silica or alumina source; 2) Reducing the one or more metal precursors to form metal...... to the carbon template coated zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype precursor composition thereby creating a zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition; 4b) Crystallising the zeolite, zeolite-like or zeotype gel composition by subjecting said composition to a hydrothermal treatment; 5) Removing the carbon...