WorldWideScience

Sample records for swath 13x24 km

  1. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  2. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMMYDCLD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  3. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed Aura OMI Version 003 Level 2 Cloud Data Product OMCLDRR is made available (in April 2012) to the public from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  4. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 (Version 003) is made available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omto3_v003.shtml) from the NASA...

  5. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) DOAS Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second release of Version 003 OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMDOAO3 is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3_v003.shtml )...

  6. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3 Near Real Time data is made available from the OMI SIPS NASA for the public access. The Ozone Monitoring...

  7. OMI/Aura Global Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura/OMI Pixel Corner Product, OMPIXCOR, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC)for the...

  8. OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched aboard the EOS-Aura satellite on July 15, 2004 (1:38 pm equator crossing time, ascending mode). OMI with its 2600...

  9. OMI/Aura Formaldehyde (HCHO) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Formaldehyde Product OMHCHO from the Aura-OMI is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omhcho_v003.shtml) from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  10. OMI/Aura Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second release of collection 3 OMI/Aura Level-2 NO2 data product OMNO2 is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omno2_v003.shtml ) to public and...

  11. OMI/Aura Multi-wavelength Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The improved Level-2 OMI Aerosol Product 'OMAERO' is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omaero_v003.shtml ) from NASA GSFC Earth Sciences (GES) Data...

  12. OMI/Aura DOAS Total Column Ozone 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMDOAO3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The second release of Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Version 003 OMI/Aura Level-2 Total Column Ozone Data Product OMDOAO3 is now available from the NASA...

  13. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24km V003 (OMCLDO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 cloud data product OMCLDO2 is now available from the NASA GoddardEarth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) for...

  14. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura level-2 near UV Aerosol data product 'OMAERUV', recently re-processed using an enhanced algorithm, is now released (April 2012) to the public. The data...

  15. OMI/Aura Multi-wavelength Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMAERO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-2 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Aerosol Product (OMAERO) is now available from NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center...

  16. OMI/Aura Effective Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMCLDRR) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Version 003 Level 2 Cloud Data Product OMCLDRR is available to the public from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences...

  17. OMI/Aura Global Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24km V003 (OMPIXCOR) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Pixel Corner Product, OMPIXCOR, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information...

  18. OMI/Aura Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMBRO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) collection-3 Bromine Monoxide Product OMBRO from the Aura-OMI, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data...

  19. OMI/Aura Chlorine Dioxide (OClO) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The collection-3 Chlorine Dioxide Product OMOCLO from the Aura-OMI, is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omoclo_v003.shtml) from the NASA Goddard...

  20. OMI/Aura Bromine Monoxide (BrO) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Collection-3 Bromine Monoxide Product OMBRO from the Aura-OMI, is now available http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/ombro_v003.shtml) from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  1. OMI/Aura Formaldehyde (HCHO) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMHCHO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Version-3 Formaldehyde Product OMHCHO is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services...

  2. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 cloud data product OMCLDO2 is now available from the NASA GoddardEarth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) for...

  3. OMI/Aura Chlorine Dioxide (OClO) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMOCLO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) collection-3 Chlorine Dioxide Product OMOCLO is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information...

  4. OMI/Aura Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Total Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was launched aboard the EOS-Aura satellite on July 15, 2004 (1:38 pm equator crossing time, ascending mode). OMI with its 2600...

  5. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed Aura OMI Version 003 Level 2 Cloud Data Product OMCLDRR is made available (in April 2012) to the public from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  6. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura level-2 near UV Aerosol data product 'OMAERUV', recently re-processed using an enhanced algorithm, is now released (April 2012) to the public. The data...

  7. OMI/Aura Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMNO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Standard Product (OMNO2) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  8. OMI/Aura Level 1B VIS Global Geolocated Earth Shine Radiances 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-1B (L1B) Radiance Product OML1BRVG (Version-3) from the Aura-OMI is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/oml1brvg_v003.shtml) to public from...

  9. OMI/Aura Level 1B UV Global Geolocated Earthshine Radiances 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-1B (L1B) Radiance Product OML1BRUG (Version-3) from the Aura-OMI is now available to public (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/oml1brug_v003.shtml) from...

  10. OMI/Aura Level 1B UV Global Geolocated Earthshine Radiances 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OML1BRUG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level-1B (L1B) Geo-located Earth View UV Radiance, Global-Mode (OML1BRUG) Version-3 product is now available to public...

  11. OMI/Aura Near UV Aerosol Optical Depth and Single Scattering Albedo 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMAERUV) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument level-2 near UV Aerosol data product 'OMAERUV', recently re-processed using an enhanced algorithm, is now released (April 2012)...

  12. OMI/Aura Level 2 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Trace Gas Column Data 1-Orbit subset Swath along CloudSat track 1-Orbit Swath 13x24 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a CloudSat-collocated subset of the original product OMNO2, for the purposes of the A-Train mission. The goal of the subset is to select and return OMI data...

  13. OMI/Aura Level 2 Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit Subset and Collocated Swath along CloudSat track 200-km wide at 13x24 km2 resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a CloudSat-collocated subset of the original product OMTO3, for the purposes of the A-Train mission. The goal of the subset is to select and return OMI data...

  14. OMI/Aura Level 1B VIS Global Geolocated Earth Shine Radiances 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OML1BRVG) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level-1B (L1B) Geo-located Earth View VIS Radiance, Global-Mode (OML1BRVG) Version-3 product is now available to public...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is data set "MODIS/AQUA Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min 2 Swath 10 km" See the MODIS Science Team homepage for more dataset...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km subsetted V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a 5km X 5km sub-sampling of the data from the MYD021KM file, along with the associated metadata. Except for the different sizes of the arrays, it has the...

  17. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km Subsetted V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data type (MOD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MOD021KM product and written out to MOD02SSH. The...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km subsetted V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data type (MYD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MYD021KM product and written out to MYD02SSH. The...

  19. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km Subsetted V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data type (MOD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MOD021KM product and written out to MOD02SSH. The...

  20. MODIS/Terra Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The geolocation fields are calculated for each 1 km MODIS Instantaneous Field of Views (IFOV) for all orbits daily. The locations and ancillary information...

  1. OMPS/NPP PCA SO2 Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50km NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  2. MODIS/Terra Aerosol, Cloud and Water Vapor Subset 5-Min L2 Swath 5km and 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODATML2 contains a selection of the most useful atmosphere Level 2 aerosol, cloud and water vapor parameters at 5 and 10km spatial resolution. Native 1km cloud,...

  3. MODIS/Terra Cloud Mask and Spectral Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath 250m and 1km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 cloud mask product is a global product generated for both daytime and nighttime conditions at 1-km spatial resolution (at nadir) and for daytime at...

  4. MODIS/Aqua Cloud Mask and Spectral Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath 250m and 1km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 cloud mask product is a global product generated for both daytime and nighttime conditions at 1-km spatial resolution (at nadir) and for daytime at...

  5. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) level-2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) data (Shortname: MOD11_L2) incorporate 1 km pixels, which are produced...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) level-2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) data (Shortname: MYD11_L2) incorporate 1 km pixels, which are produced...

  7. OMI/Aura DOAS Total Column Ozone Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Ozone data product OMDOAO3Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3z_v003.shtml )...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC06S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Total Precip Water Vapor 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC05S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Total Precip Water Vapor 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC05S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  11. OMI/Aura Aerosol product Multi-wavelength Algorithm Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 Zoomed Aerosol data product OMAEROZ at 13x12 km resolution has been made available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  12. OMI/Aura DOAS Total Column Ozone Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMDOAO3Z) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level-2 Zoomed Ozone data product OMDOAO3Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  13. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed OMI/Aura Level-2 zoomed cloud data product OMCLDO2Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omcldo2z_v003.shtml...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Total Precip Water Vapor 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Swath Subset along MLS V002 (MAM05S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  15. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Narrow Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the narrow-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the narrow-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  16. MODIS/Aqua CLD Mask Spect. Results 250m and 1km 5-Min L2 Wide Swath Subset along CloudSat V002 (MAC35S1) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the wide-swath MODIS/Aqua subset along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the wide-swath subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  17. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) Zoomed 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMCLDO2Z) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The reprocessed Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Level-2 zoomed cloud data product OMCLDO2Z at 13x12 km resolution is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth...

  18. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  19. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS cloud product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely sensed infrared, visible and near...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  3. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS cloud product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely sensed infrared, visible and near...

  4. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS cloud product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely sensed infrared, visible and near...

  5. Multibeam swath bathymetry signal processing techniques

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ranade, G.; Sudhakar, T.

    Mathematical advances and the advances in the real time signal processing techniques in the recent times, have considerably improved the state of art in the bathymetry systems. These improvements have helped in developing high resolution swath...

  6. HYDRODYNAMIC PERFORMANCES OF SMALL SIZE SWATH CRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermina Begovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The good seakeeping characteristics of SWATH hull form are very interesting for small working craft and pleasure boats. Intrinsic limitations as the low values of weight per inch of immersion and transversal and longitudinal instability, can be acceptable and successfully managed when the mission profile does not ask for significant load variation and shift. The exploitation of SWATH concept is limited by the craft size, but if main dimensions allow enough static stability, this configuration appears very promising. SWATH behaviour in rough sea at zero and low speed have led to consider this hull form within the small craft design research program in progress at University of Naples Federico II. The design of small size SWATH working/pleasure craft has to begin from the consideration of strut waterplane areas that are the key factor to get acceptable static and dynamic stability. Displacement has to be reduced as most as possible to increase static stability, as shown by last design trends. The results of CFD analysis concerning SWATH resistance and propulsion, aspects are presented. A numerical evaluation of the hull-propeller interactions is performed, through simulations of self-propulsion tests with a simplified method (Actuator Disk model to discretize the propeller effect. The effective wake coefficient, the thrust deduction fraction and hull efficiency are provided. To validate CFD resistance results a comparison with experimental tests performed by Authors is reported. The presented work highlights different hydrodynamic aspects, comments advantages and critical issues of SWATH concept and reports detailed CFD modelling procedure with the aim to provide a reference for SWATH small craft design.

  7. Landsat-Swath Imaging Spectrometer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design of a high-throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution. The design is based on a 3200 x 480 element x 18 µm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  8. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2 is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities. Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2. We use this data (1997-2001 to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information. The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories. The small spatial extent of NO2 'hot spots' allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale. The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT, OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA or GOME II (to be launched 2005 with an improved spatial resolution.

  9. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  10. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  11. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  12. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 daily global Cloud particle phase, effective particle radius, and cloud optical thickness derived from VNIR radiances. Cloud top temp, ht., effective...

  14. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS cloud product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely sensed infrared, visible and near...

  15. MODIS/Terra Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS cloud product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely sensed infrared, visible and near...

  19. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  1. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V005 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  2. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) is currently generating an improved Collection 6.1 (061) for all MODIS Level-1 (L1) and higher-level Level-2 (L2) &...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) is currently generating an improved Collection 6.1 (061) for all MODIS Level-1 (L1) and higher-level Level-2 (L2) and...

  4. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MYD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MYD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  8. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  9. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new Collection 6.1 (C61) MYD04_L2 product is an improved version based on algorithm changes in Dark Target (DT) Aerosol retrieval over urban areas and...

  12. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new Collection 6.1 (C61) MOD04_3K product is an improved version based on algorithm changes in Dark Target (DT) Aerosol retrieval over urban areas and...

  13. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new Collection 6.1 (C61) MOD04_L2 product is an improved version based on algorithm changes in Dark Target (DT) Aerosol retrieval over urban areas and...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath - 3km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  15. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of...

  18. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of the...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of...

  20. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product provides retrieved ambient aerosol optical properties (e.g., optical thickness and size distribution), mass...

  1. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of the...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new Collection 6.1 (C61) MYD04_3K product is an improved version based on algorithm changes in Dark Target (DT) Aerosol retrieval over urban areas and...

  3. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MOD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  4. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MYD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  5. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron...

  6. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric aerosol product (MOD04_L2) continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB)...

  7. MODIS/Terra Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 3km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The new Collection 6.1 (C61) MOD04_3K product is an improved version based on algorithm changes in Dark Target (DT) Aerosol retrieval over urban areas and...

  8. Miniature Ka-band Automated Swath Mapper (KASM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discusses the development and demonstration of a swath-based airborne instrument suite intended as a calibration and validation with relevance to the...

  9. Swath mapping system processing: Bathymetry and cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourillet, J. F.; Edy, C.; Rambert, F.; Satra, C.; Loubrieu, B.

    1996-06-01

    During swath mapping cruises various geophysical data were collected. Bathymetry, imagery and other geophysical information require specialised post-processing. Dedicated software enables post-processing and visualisation of each type of data. A graphic interface collects the files and exports them to a CAD system for cleaning and for adding extra information. The huge amount of soundings from multibeam echo sounder systems and the very particular sampling along and across the ship's track demand powerful software such as TRISMUS provides. Major steps in the processing are the merging of raw soundings with navigation corrected if necessary, the cleaning of soundings with a band-pass filter and the gridding of the data to obtain a Digital Terrain Model. Despite care and real time filtering during the acquisition phase, some errors persist and appear as abnormal patterns on contoured maps. It is often difficult to distinguish the origins of the errors and consequently to correct them in a deterministic way. But the analysis and description of typical patterns allows errors to be classified into five groups — sounding, profile, overlap area, surveyed area or gridding artefact — and in some cases to adopt specific processing techniques to reduce or cancel undesirable effects. Merging bathymetric maps and sonar mosaics can be achieved with IMAGEM or with the high level graphic interface MFEDIT. Since dedicated software splits the information up into different layers, the operator can manage the layers according to the information he wants on the final document. Additional information such as seismic reflection data and interpretation, geological logs and legends, can be imported or created as extra layers.

  10. Pulley Ridge Swath Bathymetry Grid - filtered

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  11. SWATH2stats: An R/Bioconductor Package to Process and Convert Quantitative SWATH-MS Proteomics Data for Downstream Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattmann, Peter; Heusel, Moritz; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2016-01-01

    SWATH-MS is an acquisition and analysis technique of targeted proteomics that enables measuring several thousand proteins with high reproducibility and accuracy across many samples. OpenSWATH is popular open-source software for peptide identification and quantification from SWATH-MS data. For downstream statistical and quantitative analysis there exist different tools such as MSstats, mapDIA and aLFQ. However, the transfer of data from OpenSWATH to the downstream statistical tools is currently technically challenging. Here we introduce the R/Bioconductor package SWATH2stats, which allows convenient processing of the data into a format directly readable by the downstream analysis tools. In addition, SWATH2stats allows annotation, analyzing the variation and the reproducibility of the measurements, FDR estimation, and advanced filtering before submitting the processed data to downstream tools. These functionalities are important to quickly analyze the quality of the SWATH-MS data. Hence, SWATH2stats is a new open-source tool that summarizes several practical functionalities for analyzing, processing, and converting SWATH-MS data and thus facilitates the efficient analysis of large-scale SWATH/DIA datasets.

  12. Study of Wide Swath Synthetic Aperture Ladar Imaging Techology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keshu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Combining synthetic-aperture imaging and coherent-light detection technology, the weak signal identification capacity of Synthetic Aperture Ladar (SAL reaches the photo level, and the image resolution exceeds the diffraction limit of the telescope to obtain high-resolution images irrespective to ranges. This paper introduces SAL, including the development path, technology characteristics, and the restriction of imaging swath. On the basis of this, we propose to integrate the SAL technology for extending its swath. By analyzing the scanning-operation mode and the signal model, the paper explicitly proposes that the former mode will be the developmental trend of the SAL technology. This paper also introduces the flight demonstrations of the SAL and the imaging results of remote targets, showing the potential of the SAL in long-range, high-resolution, and scanning-imaging applications. The technology and the theory of the scanning mode of SAL compensates for the defects related to the swath and operation efficiency of the current SAL. It provides scientific foundation for the SAL system applied in wide swath, high resolution earth observation, and the ISAL system applied in space-targets imaging.

  13. Application of SWAT-HS, a lumped hillslope model to simulate hydrology in the Cannonsville Reservoir watershed, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Linh; Schneiderman, Elliot; Mukundan, Rajith; Moore, Karen; Owens, Emmet; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2017-04-01

    Surface runoff is the primary mechanism transporting substances such as sediments, agricultural chemicals, and pathogens to receiving waters. In order to predict runoff and pollutant fluxes, and to evaluate management practices, it is essential to accurately predict the areas generating surface runoff, which depend on the type of runoff: infiltration-excess runoff and saturation-excess runoff. The watershed of Cannonsville reservoir is part of the New York City water supply system that provides high quality drinking water to nine million people in New York City (NYC) and nearby communities. Previous research identified saturation-excess runoff as the dominant runoff mechanism in this region. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a promising tool to simulate the NYC watershed given its broad application and good performance in many watersheds with different scales worldwide, for its ability to model water quality responses, and to evaluate the effect of management practices on water quality at the watershed scale. However, SWAT predicts runoff based mainly on soil and land use characteristics, and implicitly considers only infiltration-excess runoff. Therefore, we developed a modified version of SWAT, referred to as SWAT-Hillslope (SWAT-HS), which explicitly simulates saturation-excess runoff by redefining Hydrological Response Units (HRUs) based on wetness classes with varying soil water storage capacities, and by introducing a surface aquifer with the ability to route interflow from "drier" to "wetter" wetness classes. SWAT-HS was first tested at Town Brook, a 37 km2 headwater watershed draining to the Cannonsville reservoir using a single sub-basin for the whole watershed. SWAT-HS performed well, and predicted streamflow yielded Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.68 and 0.87 at the daily and monthly time steps, respectively. More importantly, it predicted the spatial distribution of saturated areas accurately. Based on the good performance in the Town Brook

  14. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  15. Mapping Land, Vegetation, and Ice with Wide-swath, Full-waveform Laser Altimetry from High-altitude UAV Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, B.; Rabine, D. L.; Wake, S.; Hofton, M. A.; Mitchell, S.

    2011-12-01

    While the majority of airborne lidar sensors are restricted to low-altitude operations due to sensor limitations, the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS - formerly the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor) has transitioned to the Global Hawk aircraft for operations at 20 km altitude. NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) has assisted in procuring funding to transition the LVIS sensor into the Global Hawk aircraft and the sensor is readying for integration onto the aircraft based at NASA Dryden. The current LVIS sensor has operated with sub-decimeter accuracy from as high as 13 km altitude while fully mapping a > 2 km wide swath and the new instrument will maintain that level of accuracy while extending the swath coverage to 4 km. Both the transmitted waveform and the return echo waveform are sampled and recorded for post-processing for a wide range of Earth science applications, including ice sheet elevation and change mapping, sea ice coverage, natural hazards such as volcanoes, and forest mapping for biomass and habitat assessment. The LVIS data are distributed in a unique waveform vector format that is an accurate representation of the entire interaction of the laser pulse with the surface roughness, texture, slope, and any complex structure such as forest canopies or crevassed ice surfaces. End-user scientists can reinterpret the waveform using their own algorithms and still capture the full accuracy of the sensor data. Once LVIS is fully operational on the Global Hawk aircraft, it will collect data at a rate of 2,500 km^2 per hour and the Global Hawk has a flight duration of over 30 hours. The extraordinary range of the Global Hawk opens up the possibility of mapping remote areas such as Antarctica and Greenland. Performance expectations and examples of existing data will be shown as well as potential future flight plans.

  16. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS level-2 atmospheric precipitable water product consists of total atmospheric column water vapor amounts (and ancillary parameters) over clear land areas of...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol, Cloud and Water Vapor Subset 5-Min L2 Swath 5km and 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYDATML2 contains a combination of key high interest science parameters The ATML2 product provides a subset of datasets from the suite of atmosphere team products on...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol, Cloud and Water Vapor Subset 5-Min L2 Swath 5km and 10km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MYDATML2 contains a combination of key high interest science parameters obtained from the complete set of standard at-launch Level-2 Source Products: Aerosol...

  20. MODIS/Terra Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 2 data collection contains derived precipitable column water vapor amounts, during daytime using a near-infrared over clear land areas and above clouds...

  1. MODIS/Terra Aerosol, Cloud and Water Vapor Subset 5-Min L2 Swath 5km and 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODATML2 contains a combination of key high interest science parameters The ATML2 product provides a subset of datasets from the suite of atmosphere team products on...

  2. MODIS/Terra Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 2 Clear Sky Radiance product (MODCSR_G) provides a variety of, statistical measures that characterize observed top-of-atmosphere clear sky radiances...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 2 Clear Sky Radiance product (MYDCSR_G) provides a variety of, statistical measures that characterize observed top-of-atmosphere clear sky, radiances...

  4. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOD11_L2.041 dataset was decommissioned as of October 30, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Coarse Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  7. MODIS/Terra Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS...

  8. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Profile 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x48km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2 Ozone Profile data product OMO3PR (Version 003) is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omo3pr_v003.shtml ) from the NASA Goddard...

  9. OMI/Aura Zoom-in Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura/OMI Zoom-in Pixel Corner Coordinates and Pixel Size Product, OMPIXCORZ, is available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/ompixcorz_v003.shtml)...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua version-041 (V41) products use a modified version-4 (V4) LST algorithm and version-5 (V5) data inputs. The V41 products primarily address...

  11. TOMS/Earth-Probe Ozone (O3) Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50 km V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)instruments have been successfully flown in orbit aboard the Nimbus-7(Nov. 1978 - May 1993), Meteor-3 (Aug. 1991 - Dec. 1994),...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  13. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MOD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The level-2 MODIS Temperature and Water Vapor Profile Product MYD07_L2 consists of 30 gridded parameters related to atmospheric stability, atmospheric temperature...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 granule clear-sky radiance (thermal bands) and reflectance (visible bands) statistics are indexed to a global grid map. Separate statistics for day and night...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 Daily global Total Ozone Burden, Atmospheric Stability, Temperature and Moisture Profiles at 20 vertical levels for temperature and 15 levels for moisture,...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005 NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Level 2 Daily global Total Ozone Burden, Atmospheric Stability, Temperature and Moisture Profiles at 20 vertical levels for temperature and 15 levels for moisture,...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron...

  20. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron...

  1. Multi-laboratory assessment of reproducibility, qualitative and quantitative performance of SWATH-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ben C; Hunter, Christie L; Liu, Yansheng; Schilling, Birgit; Rosenberger, George; Bader, Samuel L; Chan, Daniel W; Gibson, Bradford W; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Held, Jason M; Hirayama-Kurogi, Mio; Hou, Guixue; Krisp, Christoph; Larsen, Brett; Lin, Liang; Liu, Siqi; Molloy, Mark P; Moritz, Robert L; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Schlapbach, Ralph; Selevsek, Nathalie; Thomas, Stefani N; Tzeng, Shin-Cheng; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2017-08-21

    Quantitative proteomics employing mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool in life science research. Targeted proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach for reproducible quantification but is limited in the number of proteins quantified. SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics (accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity) of targeted proteomics at large scale. While previous SWATH-mass spectrometry studies have shown high intra-lab reproducibility, this has not been evaluated between labs. In this multi-laboratory evaluation study including 11 sites worldwide, we demonstrate that using SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition we can consistently detect and reproducibly quantify >4000 proteins from HEK293 cells. Using synthetic peptide dilution series, we show that the sensitivity, dynamic range and reproducibility established with SWATH-mass spectrometry are uniformly achieved. This study demonstrates that the acquisition of reproducible quantitative proteomics data by multiple labs is achievable, and broadly serves to increase confidence in SWATH-mass spectrometry data acquisition as a reproducible method for large-scale protein quantification.SWATH-mass spectrometry consists of a data-independent acquisition and a targeted data analysis strategy that aims to maintain the favorable quantitative characteristics on the scale of thousands of proteins. Here, using data generated by eleven groups worldwide, the authors show that SWATH-MS is capable of generating highly reproducible data across different laboratories.

  2. Mapping of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea using KOMPSAT-5 wide swath SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used for mapping sea ice because it can observe Earth's surface regardless of sun altitudes and weather conditions. Korea Multi-Purpose SATellte-5 (KOMPSAT-5) is South Korea's first satellite equipped with X-band SAR system that provides high-resolution images in various observation modes. In this study, sea ice mapping model based on Random Forest (RF), a rule-based machine learning approach, was developed for KOMPSAT-5 Enhanced Wide (EW) swath SAR data obtained from August to September 2015 in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. All SAR images were acquired in HH-polarization at incidence angle ranging from 17 to 50°. Each SAR image covers the area of 100 km × 100 km. A total of 12 texture features derived from backscattering intensity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were used as input variables for sea ice mapping model. The sea ice mapping model based on the RF produced sea ice map with a grid size of 125 m, with the overall accuracy of 99.2% and the kappa coefficient of 98.5% in the classification of sea ice and open water. Sea ice concentration (SIC) was computed from the RF-derived sea ice maps and compared with that from the observations of two passive microwave sensors— the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). SSMIS and AMSR2 estimates SIC using the NASA Team (NT) and Turbulence Interaction STudy (ARTIST) Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm, respectively. The SSMIS NT SIC was underestimated in marginal ice zone and compact ice zone, while they were overestimated in sea ice edge. Meanwhile, the AMSR2 ASI SIC was underestimated in compact ice zone and overestimated in other regions. This research was funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) under the project titled `SaTellite remote sensing on west Antarctic ocean Research (STAR) (PE16040)'.

  3. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Satellite Mission - An Assessment of Swath Altimetry Measurements of River Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Matthew D.; Durand, Michael; Alsdorf, Douglas; Chul-Jung, Hahn; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Lee, Hyongki

    2012-01-01

    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission, scheduled for launch in 2020 with development commencing in 2015, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations, which will allow for the estimation of river and floodplain flows via the water surface slope. In this paper, we characterize the measurements which may be obtained from SWOT and illustrate how they may be used to derive estimates of river discharge. In particular, we show (i) the spatia-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT, (ii) the errors which maybe expected in swath altimetry measurements of the terrestrial surface water, and (iii) the impacts such errors may have on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge, We illustrate this through a "virtual mission" study for a approximately 300 km reach of the central Amazon river, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to the SWOT spatia-temporal sampling scheme (orbit with 78 degree inclination, 22 day repeat and 140 km swath width) to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. Water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT were thereby obtained. Using these measurements, estimates of river slope and discharge were derived and compared to those which may be obtained without error, and those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. It was found that discharge can be reproduced highly accurately from the water height, without knowledge of the detailed channel bathymetry using a modified Manning's equation, if friction, depth, width and slope are known. Increasing reach length was found to be an effective method to reduce systematic height error in SWOT measurements.

  4. All Road Density (18km)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Density (km / km^2) of all roads in the western United States. Dataset was developed to generalize the 2000 US Census TIGER/Line Roads layer to a density within 18km...

  5. SEAKEEPING PERFORMANCE OF SEMI-SWATH IN FOLLOWING SEA USING CONTROLLED FINS STABILIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    Semi-SWATH ship design is a result of combining the good features of SWATH and Catamaran designs. However, the disadvantage of semi-SWATH is that she has low restoring force at bow that causes a tendency to bow-dive when running in following seas. In some critical conditions, the foredeck was found to be immersed underwater. One of the efforts to improve the ship???s performance is to install fin stabilizers at bow and stern. The fin stabilizers are used to compensate for the low restoring fo...

  6. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  7. Coseismic slip in the 2010 Yushu earthquake (China, constrained by wide-swath and strip-map InSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On 14 April 2010, an Mw = 6.9 earthquake occurred in the Yushu county of China, which caused ~3000 people to lose their lives. Integrated with the information from the observed surface ruptures and aftershock locations, the faulting pattern of this earthquake is derived from the descending wide-swath and ascending strip mode PALSAR data collected by ALOS satellite. We used a layered crustal model and stress drop smoothing constraint to infer the coseismic slip distribution. Our model suggests that the earthquake fault can be divided into four segments and the slip mainly occurs within the upper 12 km with a maximum slip of 2.0 m at depth of 3 km on the Jiegu segment. The rupture of the upper 12 km is dominated by left-lateral strike-slip motion. The relatively small slip along the SE region of Yushu segment suggests a slip deficit there. The inverted geodetic moment is approximately Mw = 6.9, consistent with the seismological results. The average stress drop caused by the earthquake is about 2 MPa with a maximum stress drop of 8.3 MPa. Furthermore, the calculated static Coulomb stress changes in surrounding regions show increased Coulomb stress occurred in the SE region along the Yushu segment but with less aftershock, indicating an increased seismic hazard in this region after the earthquake.

  8. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  9. VIIRS/NPP Imagery Resolution 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 375m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  10. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  11. VIIRS/NPP Thermal Anomalies/Fire 6-Min L2 Swath 750m V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Thermal Anomalies (VNP14) Version 1 product is produced in 6-minute temporal satellite increments (swaths) at...

  12. OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Vertical Profile swath orbital NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NP Ozone (O3) Total Column swath orbital product provides ozone profile retrievals from the Ozone Mapping and Profiling Suite (OMPS) Nadir-Profiler...

  13. Quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS reveals sophisticated metabolic reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yanyan; Wang, Xinzheng; Sang, Zhihong; Li, Zongcheng; Liu, Feng; Mao, Jie; Yan, Dan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Wang, Hongli; Li, Ping; Ying, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xuemin; He, Kun; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and understanding its molecular pathogenesis is pivotal to managing this disease. Sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH-MS) is an optimal proteomic strategy to seek crucial proteins involved in HCC development and progression. In this study, a quantitative proteomic study of tumour and adjacent non-tumour liver tissues was performed using a SWATH-MS strategy. In total, 4,216 proteins wer...

  14. Constraining calving front processes on W Greenland outlet glaciers using inertial-corrected laser scanning & swath-bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Hubbard, A.; Neale, M.; Woodward, J.; Box, J. E.; Nick, F.

    2010-12-01

    Calving and submarine melt account for the majority of loss from the Antarctic and over 50% of that from the Greenland Ice Sheet. These ice-ocean processes are highly efficient mass-loss mechanisms, providing a rapid link between terrestrial ice (storage) and the oceanic sink (sea level/freshwater flux) which renders the ocean-outlet-ice sheet system potentially highly non-linear. Despite this, the controls on tidewater processes are poorly understood and a process based description of them is lacking from the present generation of coupled ice sheet models. We present details from an innovative study where two survey techniques are integrated to enable the construction of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the aerial and submarine ice front of calving outlet glaciers. A 2km range terrestrial laser scanner was combined with a 416KHz swath-interferometric system and corrected via an inertial motion unit stabilized by RTK GPS and gyro-compass data. The system was mounted aboard a heavy displacement (20,000kg) yacht in addition to a light displacement (100kg) semi-autonomous boat and used to image the aerial and submarine calving fronts of two large outlet glaciers in W Greenland. Six daily surveys, each 2.5km long were repeated across Lille Glacier during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were observed and captured from on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse sequences. A curtain of CTD and velocity casts were also conducted to constrain the fresh and oceanic mass and energy fluxes within the fjord. The residual of successive DTMs yield the spatial pattern of frontal change enabling the processes of aerial and submarine calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. These observed frontal changes are tentatively related to local dynamic, atmospheric and oceanographic processes that drive them. A partial survey of Store Glacier (~7km calving front & W Greenland 2nd largest outlet after Jakobshavn Isbrae

  15. The Use of Variable Q1 Isolation Windows Improves Selectivity in LC-SWATH-MS Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Bilbao, Aivett; Bruderer, Tobias; Luban, Jeremy; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Lisacek, Frédérique; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel

    2015-10-02

    As tryptic peptides and metabolites are not equally distributed along the mass range, the probability of cross fragment ion interference is higher in certain windows when fixed Q1 SWATH windows are applied. We evaluated the benefits of utilizing variable Q1 SWATH windows with regards to selectivity improvement. Variable windows based on equalizing the distribution of either the precursor ion population (PIP) or the total ion current (TIC) within each window were generated by an in-house software, swathTUNER. These two variable Q1 SWATH window strategies outperformed, with respect to quantification and identification, the basic approach using a fixed window width (FIX) for proteomic profiling of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Thus, 13.8 and 8.4% additional peptide precursors, which resulted in 13.1 and 10.0% more proteins, were confidently identified by SWATH using the strategy PIP and TIC, respectively, in the MDDC proteomic sample. On the basis of the spectral library purity score, some improvement warranted by variable Q1 windows was also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the metabolomic profiling of human urine. We show that the novel concept of "scheduled SWATH" proposed here, which incorporates (i) variable isolation windows and (ii) precursor retention time segmentation further improves both peptide and metabolite identifications.

  16. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  17. KM Education in LIS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sajjad ur; Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the perceptions of the heads of 12 Library and Information Science (LIS) schools on Knowledge Management (KM) education. These heads from North America, Europe and the Pacific region had either been offering KM courses or had an apparent interest in such programs. Data about perceptions were gathered on the nature of their…

  18. KM3NeT

    CERN Multimedia

    KM3NeT is a large scale next-generation neutrino telescope located in the deep waters of the Mediterranean Sea, optimized for the discovery of galactic neutrino sources emitting in the TeV energy region.

  19. Imaging trench-line disruptions: Swath mapping of subduction zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    positioning system (GPS) to document even minor crustal mov e ments 2 . The distribution of after shocks suggests progressive rot a- tion of the strike of the fault plane towards right as the rupture progressed towards north 3 , implying i n crease... in strike slip component towards north. Again, as recorded by seismometers in Russia and Australia, in the begi n ning the crust broke 100 km patch slowly, then ra p idly to 3 km/s for the next 4 min, and thereafter mai n tained an average speed...

  20. Forage intake and wastage by ewes in pea/hay barley swath grazing and bale feeding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of s...

  1. Geophysical Surveys of the San Andreas and Crystal Springs Reservoir System Including Seismic-Reflection Profiles and Swath Bathymetry, San Mateo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, David P.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Hart, Patrick E.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes geophysical data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in San Andreas Reservoir and Upper and Lower Crystal Springs Reservoirs, San Mateo County, California, as part of an effort to refine knowledge of the location of traces of the San Andreas Fault within the reservoir system and to provide improved reservoir bathymetry for estimates of reservoir water volume. The surveys were conducted by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the USGS for the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC). The data were acquired in three separate surveys: (1) in June 2007, personnel from WCMG completed a three-day survey of San Andreas Reservoir, collecting approximately 50 km of high-resolution Chirp subbottom seismic-reflection data; (2) in November 2007, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of San Andreas reservoir; and finally (3) in April 2008, WCMG conducted a swath-bathymetry survey of both the upper and lower Crystal Springs Reservoir system. Top of PageFor more information, contact David Finlayson.

  2. Kadının ve Kaderin “Tırpan”ı Swath Of Woman And Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim DURUKOĞLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The novel Tırpan (Swath would be the most prominent outcome of a historical and literary brainstorming about the World Women’s Day in particular and the unfortunate faith of women in general. The novel Tırpan, which first merges and then separates the concepts of woman and faith, is one or probably the only work with a thesis that comes to the mind first in that it was written with the naïve belief that the faith will show up not before but after it is lived and generally all people particularly the women can write their faith; it questions the faith or the unfortunate faith of people, especially the that of women within the boundaries of the genre of novel, expanding to cover class clashes, the breaths of Marxist ideologies, and feminist viewpoints. Inherited from an image of old tool in our mind, accompanied with the motive of Azrael claiming lives with the swath in its hands, swath gains a function beyond that of an agricultural tool in this novel. Swath changes hand from Azrael to women and the woman punishes the man who disrespects her field of existence and freedom, thus reclaims and rewrites her faith with her own hands using the swath. Swath would preserve its function as a goal and an instrument in the writer’s hand, however, in terms of its consequences it will transform into a symbol of woman’s revolution as the hammer and sickle of the Bolshevist revolution. The author, who wants to create a resisting, active and activist women spirit and mentality instead of an understanding which takes it as an escape to commit suicide by hanging themselves when they are forced to get married as a passive reaction, tries to impose the fatalist Turkish society and Turkish women with the idea that they can reclaim their faiths and direct their own lives, offering and inspiring a shift of awareness through this novel. Özelde Dünya Kadınlar Günü ve genelde kadının makus talihi ve tarihi ekseninde ve edebiyat düzleminde yapaca

  3. Demonstration of centimeter-level precision, swath mapping, full-waveform laser altimetry from high altitude on the Global Hawk UAV for future application to cryospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. B.; Wake, S.; Rabine, D.; Hofton, M. A.; Mitchell, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Land Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS) is a high-altitude, wide-swath laser altimeter that has, for over 15 years, demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in surface altimetry, including many aspects of remote sensing of the cryosphere such as precise topography of ice sheets and sea ice. NASA Goddard, in cooperation with NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), has developed a new, more capable sensor that can operate autonomously from a high-altitude UAV aircraft to further enhance the LVIS capability and extend its reach and coverage. In June 2012, this latest sensor, known as LVIS-GH, was integrated onto NASA's Global Hawk aircraft and completed a successful high-altitude demonstration flight over Death Valley, Owens Valley, and the Sierra Nevada region of California. Data were collected over a wide variety of terrain types from 58,000' (> 17 km) altitude during the 6 hour long test flight. The full-waveform laser altimetry technique employed by LVIS and LVIS-GH provides precise surface topography measurements for solid earth and cryospheric applications and captures the vertical structure of forests in support of territorial ecology studies. LVIS-GH fully illuminates and maps a 4 km swath and provides cm-level range precision, as demonstrated in laboratory and horizontal range testing, as well as during this test flight. The cm range precision is notable as it applies to accurate measurements of sea ice freeboard and change detection of subtle surface deformation such as heaving in permafrost areas. In recent years, LVIS has primarily supported Operation IceBridge activities, including deployments to the Arctic and Antarctic on manned aircraft such as the NASA DC-8 and P-3. The LVIS-GH sensor provides an major upgrade of coverage capability and remote access; LVIS-GH operating on the long-duration Global Hawk aircraft can map up to 50,000 km^2 in a single flight and can provide access to remote regions such as the entirety of Antarctica. Future

  4. SWOT: The Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission. Wide- Swath Altimetric Elevation on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng (Editor); Alsdorf, Douglas (Editor); Morrow, Rosemary; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Mognard, Nelly

    2012-01-01

    The elevation of the surface of the ocean and freshwater bodies on land holds key information on many important processes of the Earth System. The elevation of the ocean surface, called ocean surface topography, has been measured by conventional nadirlooking radar altimeter for the past two decades. The data collected have been used for the study of large-scale circulation and sea level change. However, the spatial resolution of the observations has limited the study to scales larger than about 200 km, leaving the smaller scales containing substantial kinetic energy of ocean circulation that is responsible for the flux of heat, dissolved gas and nutrients between the upper and the deep ocean. This flux is important to the understanding of the ocean's role in regulatingfuture climate change.The elevation of the water bodies on land is a key parameter required for the computation of storage and discharge of freshwater in rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Globally, the spatial and temporal variability of water storage and discharge is poorly known due to the lack of well-sampled observations. In situ networks measuring river flows are declining worldwide due to economic and political reasons. Conventional altimeter observations suffers from the complexity of multiple peaks caused by the reflections from water, vegetation canopy and rough topography, resulting in much less valid data over land than over the ocean. Another major limitation is the large inter track distance preventing good coverage of rivers and other water bodies.This document provides descriptions of a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurement of water elevation at high resolution over both the ocean and land. Making this type of measurement, which addresses the shortcomings of conventional altimetry in both oceanographic and hydrologic applications, is the objective of a mission concept called Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT), which was recommended by

  5. SwathProfiler and NProfiler: Two new ArcGIS Add-ins for the automatic extraction of swath and normalized river profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peña, J. V.; Al-Awabdeh, M.; Azañón, J. M.; Galve, J. P.; Booth-Rea, G.; Notti, D.

    2017-07-01

    The present-day great availability of high-resolution Digital Elevation Models has improved tectonic geomorphology analyses in their methodological aspects and geological meaning. Analyses based on topographic profiles are valuable to explore the short and long-term landscape response to tectonic activity and climate changes. Swath and river longitudinal profiles are two of the most used analysis to explore the long and short-term landscape responses. Most of these morphometric analyses are conducted in GIS software, which have become standard tools for analyzing drainage network metrics. In this work we present two ArcGIS Add-Ins to automatically delineate swath and normalized river profiles. Both tools are programmed in Visual Basic . NET and use ArcObjects library-architecture to access directly to vector and raster data. The SwathProfiler Add-In allows analyzing the topography within a swath or band by representing maximum-minimum-mean elevations, first and third quartile, local relief and hypsometry. We have defined a new transverse hypsometric integral index (THi) that analyzes hypsometry along the swath and offer valuable information in these kind of graphics. The NProfiler Add-In allows representing longitudinal normalized river profiles and their related morphometric indexes as normalized concavity (CT), maximum concavity (Cmax) and length of maximum concavity (Lmax). Both tools facilitate the spatial analysis of topography and drainage networks directly in a GIS environment as ArcMap and provide graphical outputs. To illustrate how these tools work, we analyzed two study areas, the Sierra Alhamilla mountain range (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain) and the Eastern margin of the Dead Sea (Jordan). The first study area has been recently studied from a morphotectonic perspective and these new tools can show an added value to the previous studies. The second study area has not been analyzed by quantitative tectonic geomorphology and the results suggest a landscape

  6. Technical Evaluation of the 60 Foot Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH) Ship HALCYON

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Microwave Oven) Head (Sink, Shower, Water Closet) 37 ft2 Berthing (2 bunks) 63 ft2 Payload/Berthing (unfinished) 200 ft2 Anchor 90 lb. Danforth 400 ft. 1... kelp pad. 27 - COMPARISON OF SWATH HALCYON AND PT KNOLL SIGNIFICANT MOTIONS IN 5 FT SEAS, USING RAO CALCULATIONS. SPEED 17 KNOTS HALCYON PT KNOLL

  7. The effect of wide swathing on wilting times and nutritive value of alfalfa haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M

    2010-04-01

    On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. NPP/VIIRS Moderate-Resolution Dual Gain Bands Calibrated Radiance 6-Min L1B Swath 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level-1 and Level-2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the NPP satellite overpass. The VIIRS...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m, Version 006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m (MYD10_L2) data set contains snow cover and Quality Assessment (QA) data, latitudes and longitudes...

  10. VIIRS/NPP Day/Night Band 6-Min L1B Swath SDR 750m NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The VIIRS Level 1 and Level 2 swath products are generated from the processing of 6 minutes of VIIRS data acquired during the S-NPP satellite overpass. The Day/Night...

  11. Estimation of Effective Swath Width for Dual-Head Multibeam Echosounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grządziel Artur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many surveying companies and maritime institutions are now using multibeam systems for their operations, either offshore or in coastal and inland waters. Since the time the first multibeam echosounder appeared (late 1970s the technology has advanced enormously. Modern systems now boast far greater angular coverage (typically 120°-150° and form hundreds of beams. Dual-head multibeam systems can potentially cover the entire sector (180° underneath the ship. However surveyors must be aware that the outer beams of these acoustic systems return the most errors causing that the effective swath width is shorter than what the manufacturers declare. The paper presents the methods of estimating of effective (usable swath width of dual-head multibeam echosounder EM 3002D. Results of the hydrographic survey performed by the polish navy survey ship ORP ‘Arctowski’ have been showed in the article.

  12. Identifying high frequency signals in the daily swath mascon solutions from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission has provided us with unique information about the total water column in the Earth system over the past 14 years. The GRACE project provides a monthly mean time-variable gravity solution. There has been significant progress in the community over the years to develop shorter time-window gravity solutions. The daily swath mascon solutions, which are under development at the Center for Space Research (CSR), are computed using daily GRACE observation data. This paper discusses the development and the progress of this product. This paper summarizes the analysis of these solutions with special emphasis on identifying the higher frequency natural processes observed by GRACE using these daily swath mascon solutions.

  13. Improving Protein Detection Confidence Using SWATH-Mass Spectrometry with Large Peptide Reference Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jemma X; Pascovici, Dana; Ignjatovic, Vera; Song, Xiaomin; Krisp, Christoph; Molloy, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    Protein quantification using data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH-MS most commonly relies on spectral matching to a reference MS/MS assay library. To enable deep proteome coverage and efficient use of existing data, in silico approaches have been described to use archived or publicly available large reference spectral libraries for spectral matching. Since implicit in the use of larger libraries is the increasing likelihood of false-discoveries, new workflows are needed to ensure high confidence in protein matching under these conditions. We present a workflow which introduces a range of filters and thresholds aimed at increasing confidence that the resulting proteins are reliably detected and their quantitation is consistent and reproducible. We demonstrated the workflow using extended libraries with SWATH data from human plasma samples and yeast-spiked human K562 cell lysate digest. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Combined Inkjet Printing and Infrared Sintering of Silver Nanoparticles using a Swathe-by-Swathe and Layer-by-Layer Approach for 3-Dimensional Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Simonelli, Marco; Saleh, Ehab; Senin, Nicola; Wildman, Ricky D; Hague, Richard J M; Leach, Richard K; Tuck, Christopher J

    2017-02-22

    Despite the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM)/3-dimensional (3D) printing, single-step fabrication of multifunctional parts using AM is limited. With the view of enabling multifunctional AM (MFAM), in this study, sintering of metal nanoparticles was performed to obtain conductivity for continuous line inkjet printing of electronics. This was achieved using a bespoke three-dimensional (3D) inkjet-printing machine, JETx, capable of printing a range of materials and utilizing different post processing procedures to print multilayered 3D structures in a single manufacturing step. Multiple layers of silver were printed from an ink containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and infrared sintered using a swathe-by-swathe (SS) and layer-by-layer sintering (LS) regime. The differences in the heat profile for the SS and LS was observed to influence the coalescence of the AgNPs. Void percentage of both SS and LS samples was higher toward the top layer than the bottom layer due to relatively less IR exposure in the top than the bottom. The results depicted a homogeneous microstructure for LS of AgNPs and showed less deformation compared to the SS. Electrical resistivity of the LS tracks (13.6 ± 1 μΩ cm) was lower than the SS tracks (22.5 ± 1 μΩ cm). This study recommends the use of LS method to sinter the AgNPs to obtain a conductive track in 25% less time than SS method for MFAM.

  15. Definition of a RACK1 Interaction Network in Drosophila melanogaster Using SWATH-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauriane Kuhn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Receptor for Activated protein C kinase 1 (RACK1 is a scaffold protein that has been found in association with several signaling complexes, and with the 40S subunit of the ribosome. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we recently showed that RACK1 is required at the ribosome for internal ribosome entry site (IRES-mediated translation of viruses. Here, we report a proteomic characterization of the interactome of RACK1 in Drosophila S2 cells. We carried out Label-Free quantitation using both Data-Dependent and Data-Independent Acquisition (DDA and DIA, respectively and observed a significant advantage for the Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH method, both in terms of identification of interactants and quantification of low abundance proteins. These data represent the first SWATH spectral library available for Drosophila and will be a useful resource for the community. A total of 52 interacting proteins were identified, including several molecules involved in translation such as structural components of the ribosome, factors regulating translation initiation or elongation, and RNA binding proteins. Among these 52 proteins, 15 were identified as partners by the SWATH strategy only. Interestingly, these 15 proteins are significantly enriched for the functions translation and nucleic acid binding. This enrichment reflects the engagement of RACK1 at the ribosome and highlights the added value of SWATH analysis. A functional screen did not reveal any protein sharing the interesting properties of RACK1, which is required for IRES-dependent translation and not essential for cell viability. Intriguingly however, 10 of the RACK1 partners identified restrict replication of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV, an IRES-containing virus.

  16. Means to achieve wide swath widths in synthetic aperture satellite borne radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The radar range equation including processing gains for pulse compression and synthetic aperture generation was the starting point. System geometry considerations were introduced. For simplicity, flat earth geometry was used, although it was realized that this was not a good model for satellite-borne radars. Next, the constraints were introduced. These included those needed to avoid ambiguities in both range and azimuth, those needed to acheive the desired resolution, and those needed to achieve the desired swath width.

  17. Space-based Swath-imaging Laser Altimeter for Cryospheric Topography and Surface Property Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D. J.; Abshire, J. B.; Sun, X.; Dabney, P. W.; Shuman, C. A.; Seas, A. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past decade airborne laser swath mapping has provided unprecedented measurements of ice and land topography, and vegetation canopy three-dimensional structure. These data have enabled new approaches to studies of the Earth's cryosphere, biosphere, and land surface processes, including those related to natural hazards and water resources. Achieving laser altimeter swath mapping in Earth orbit would provide timely global access that enables greatly expanded utilization of this rapidly advancing remote sensing capability. First year activities of an ESTO-funded project directed toward this goal, Push-broom Laser Altimeter Demonstration for Space-based Cryospheric Topographic and Surface Property Mapping, provide a foundation for development of a prototype Swath-imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL). A high net electrical efficiency is key to achieving a swath mapping capability on orbit. An analysis of measurement efficiencies, considering three pulse modulation schemes, three wavelengths, and three receiver approaches, indicates that the combination of a micropulse transmitter and single photon detection offers the highest efficiency. Assessment of component readiness indicates that in the near-term fiber lasers, frequency doubled to 532 nm, and solid state Si APD detectors offer the best development path. Light penetration at visible wavelengths poses potential uncertainty in 532 nm laser ranging to snow and ice surfaces. However, new laboratory retro-reflection measurements of natural snow and ice samples with nanosecond precision documents that there is no appreciable range delay due to penetration, likely because volume scattering causes the retro-return from beneath the surface to be negligible compared to the direct surface backscatter. Depolarization measurements, using parallel and perpendicular receiver channels, will differentiate surface types, such as liquid and frozen water, based on the proportion of diffuse to specular

  18. Comparative Lipidomics of Caenorhabditis elegans Metabolic Disease Models by SWATH Non-Targeted Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan K. Prasain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical (SWATH mass spectra generates a comprehensive archive of lipid species within an extract for retrospective, quantitative MS/MS analysis. Here we apply this new technology in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans to identify potential lipid mediators and pathways. The DAF-1 type I TGF-β and DAF-2 insulin receptors transmit endocrine signals that couple metabolic status to fertility and lifespan. Mutations in daf-1 and daf-2 reduce prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (i.e., Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis, increase triacylglyceride storage, and alter transcription of numerous lipid metabolism genes. However, the extent to which DAF-1 and DAF-2 signaling modulate lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. MS/MSALL with SWATH analysis across the groups identified significant changes in numerous lipids, including specific triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, and phosphatidylinositols. Examples are provided, using retrospective neutral loss and precursor ion scans as well as MS/MS spectra, to help identify annotated lipids and search libraries for lipids of interest. As proof of principle, we used comparative lipidomics to investigate the prostaglandin metabolism pathway. SWATH data support an unanticipated model: Cox-independent prostaglandin synthesis may involve lysophosphatidylcholine and other lyso glycerophospholipids. This study showcases the power of comprehensive, retrospectively searchable lipid archives as a systems approach for biological discovery in genetic animal models.

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL BIO-NONWOVEN FABRICS FOR EYES'S SWATH AND DIAPERS FOR INFANT'S INCUBATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElSayed A. ElNashar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An infant incubator is a piece of equipment common to pediatric hospitals, birthing centers and neonatal intensive care units. While the unit may serve several specific functions, it is generally used to provide a safe and stable environment for newborn infants, often those who were born prematurely or with an illness or disability that makes them especially vulnerable for the first several months of life. The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of New Approach for a Bio-Nonwoven fabrics and infant's incubator in terms of the specific materials as MaterBi/PCL® as Bioplastic and the elements of comfort, drivers associated with it and its waste biodegradation by different methods. Shortly after birth, the beginning in first hours of life babies with neonatal, a byproduct of the red blood cells decomposition. Many convenient features to consider with tow basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers on infant’s incubator options: cloth of basic disposable eyes` swathe and diapers, with their end use properties. The form design of eyes` swathe® and diapers® shapes, for infant’s incubator stage then consider convenience, cost, and environmental waste.

  20. Development of a Near-Real Time Hail Damage Swath Identification Algorithm for Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jordan R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Schultz, Lori A.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Burks, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The Midwest is home to one of the world's largest agricultural growing regions. Between the time period of late May through early September, and with irrigation and seasonal rainfall these crops are able to reach their full maturity. Using moderate to high resolution remote sensors, the monitoring of the vegetation can be achieved using the red and near-infrared wavelengths. These wavelengths allow for the calculation of vegetation indices, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The vegetation growth and greenness, in this region, grows and evolves uniformly as the growing season progresses. However one of the biggest threats to Midwest vegetation during the time period is thunderstorms that bring large hail and damaging winds. Hail and wind damage to crops can be very expensive to crop growers and, damage can be spread over long swaths associated with the tracks of the damaging storms. Damage to the vegetation can be apparent in remotely sensed imagery and is visible from space after storms slightly damage the crops, allowing for changes to occur slowly over time as the crops wilt or more readily apparent if the storms strip material from the crops or destroy them completely. Previous work on identifying these hail damage swaths used manual interpretation by the way of moderate and higher resolution satellite imagery. With the development of an automated and near-real time hail swath damage identification algorithm, detection can be improved, and more damage indicators be created in a faster and more efficient way. The automated detection of hail damage swaths will examine short-term, large changes in the vegetation by differencing near-real time eight day NDVI composites and comparing them to post storm imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard Suomi NPP. In addition land surface temperatures from these instruments will be examined as

  1. MODIS/Aqua Cloud Mask and Spectral Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath 250m and 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 4, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  2. OMI/Aura Zoom-in Ground Pixel Corners 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x12km V003 (OMPIXCORZ) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version-3 Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Pixel Corner Product in zoom-in mode, OMPIXCORZ, is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and...

  3. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) 200-km swath subset along CloudSat track V003 (OMCLDRR_CPR) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (Raman Scattering) subset along CloudSat tracks, for the purposes of the A-Train mission. The original data product...

  4. OMI/Aura Level 1B UV Zoom-in Geolocated Earthshine Radiances 1-orbit L2 Swath 13x12 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-1B (L1B) Radiance Product OML1BRUZ (Version-3) from the Aura-OMI is now available (http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/oml1bruz_v003.shtml) to public from...

  5. Evaluatie en advies filevorming 80 km zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmink, I.R.; Arem, B. van; Jong, R. de; Martens, M.H.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Gense, N.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aanleiding evaluatie en advies filevorming 80 km zones Op 1 november 2005 is op vier trajecten de maatregel ’80 km/u met strenge handhaving’ (in dit rapport aangeduid met 80 km SH) ingevoerd. Deze maatregel is bedoeld om de luchtkwaliteit langs de autosnelweg te verbeteren. Na de invoering blijkt

  6. The SWATH Concept: Designing Superior Operability into a Surface Displacement Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    assistance from the Naval Underseas Center (NUC) as well as industrial and academic institutions. The Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) has...17. The SWATH ship speed degradation band also shown in Figure 17 is based on engineering judgment as to the combined effects of additional wave...in unpublished form). 56 ■ ■■■-■I’^W*« WMW *«Wlil^^ r U « < H T y p e of W a v e s CO i a: eg . an d rr eg . eg . an d rr eg . eg

  7. Coastal interferometric swath bathymetry data collected in 2015 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Jake J.; Buster, Noreen A.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Miselis, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (USGS SPCMSC), collected swath bathymetry data at the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana in September 2015. This USGS Data Release includes the resulting processed elevation point data (xyz) and an interpolated digital elevation model (DEM). For further information regarding data collection and/or processing please see the metadata associated with this data release and previous data series published by the USGS SPCMSC http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds847 and http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds848.

  8. Swath bathymetric survey of Englebright Lake, Yuba-Nevada Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Stevenson, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    In March, 2004, the USGS conducted a swath bathymetric survey of Englebright Lake, a 9-mile long reservoir located in the Sierra Nevada foothills of northern California on the Yuba River. This survey was follow-on to an earlier bathymetric survey and sediment thickness analysis done by the USGS in 2001 (Childs and others, 2003). The primary purpose of these studies is to assess the quantity and nature of the sediment that has accumulated since the dam was completed in 1940. The specific purpose of the swath bathymetry was to map in high detail the prograding delta that is being formed as the lake fills in with sediment. In the event of another large flood such as occurred on January 1, 1997, the survey could be repeated to determine the effect of such an event on the sediment volume and distribution. This study was conducted under the auspices of the Upper Yuba River Studies Program (UYRSP) . The UYRSP is funded by the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, whose mission is to "develop and implement a long-term comprehensive plan that will restore ecological health and improve water management for beneficial uses of the San Francisco Bay-Delta System".

  9. Spectral Libraries for SWATH-MS Assays for Drosophila melanogaster and Solanum lycopersicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Bertrand; Korona, Dagmara; Mata, Clara I; Parsons, Harriet T; Deery, Michael J; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Nicolaï, Bart M; Russell, Steven; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-11-01

    Quantitative proteomics methods have emerged as powerful tools for measuring protein expression changes at the proteome level. Using MS-based approaches, it is now possible to routinely quantify thousands of proteins. However, prefractionation of the samples at the protein or peptide level is usually necessary to go deep into the proteome, increasing both MS analysis time and technical variability. Recently, a new MS acquisition method named SWATH is introduced with the potential to provide good coverage of the proteome as well as a good measurement precision without prior sample fractionation. In contrast to shotgun-based MS however, a library containing experimental acquired spectra is necessary for the bioinformatics analysis of SWATH data. In this study, spectral libraries for two widely used models are built to study crop ripening or animal embryogenesis, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The spectral libraries comprise fragments for 5197 and 6040 proteins for S. lycopersicum and D. melanogaster, respectively, and allow reproducible quantification for thousands of peptides per MS analysis. The spectral libraries and all MS data are available in the MassIVE repository with the dataset identifiers MSV000081074 and MSV000081075 and the PRIDE repository with the dataset identifiers PXD006493 and PXD006495. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Small ships don't shine: classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, Rory GV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the Understanding of Our Living Planet, 10-15 July 2016, Beijing, China Small ships don't shine: Classification of ocean vessels from low resolution, large swath area SAR acquisitions R. G. V. Meyer ; W. Kleynhans ; C. P. Schwegmann Abstract: Monitoring...

  11. The KM3NeT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, U.F., E-mail: katz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure in the deep Mediterranean Sea will host a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and provide connectivity for continuous, long-term measurements of earth and sea sciences, such as geology, marine biology and oceanography. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will complement the IceCube telescope currently being installed at the South Pole in its field of view and surpass its sensitivity by a substantial factor. In this document the major aspects of the KM3NeT technical design are described and the expected physics sensitivity is discussed. Finally, the expected time line towards construction is presented.

  12. Precise Temporal Profiling of Signaling Complexes in Primary Cells Using SWATH Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Caron

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal organization of protein interactions in cell signaling is a fundamental process that drives cellular functions. Given differential protein expression across tissues and developmental stages, the architecture and dynamics of signaling interaction proteomes is, likely, highly context dependent. However, current interaction information has been almost exclusively obtained from transformed cells. In this study, we applied an advanced and robust workflow combining mouse genetics and affinity purification (AP-SWATH mass spectrometry to profile the dynamics of 53 high-confidence protein interactions in primary T cells, using the scaffold protein GRB2 as a model. The workflow also provided a sufficient level of robustness to pinpoint differential interaction dynamics between two similar, but functionally distinct, primary T cell populations. Altogether, we demonstrated that precise and reproducible quantitative measurements of protein interaction dynamics can be achieved in primary cells isolated from mammalian tissues, allowing resolution of the tissue-specific context of cell-signaling events.

  13. Sea Surface Temperature (14 KM North America)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product shows local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST Observations. It is generated every 48...

  14. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  15. G1SST, 1km blended SST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System)...

  16. Status of KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccobene G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  17. Rollers Versus Trainers: 10-Km Time Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseh, Wayland; Devlin, Tate B; Milleson, Taylor W; Barreira, Tiago V

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine which cycling training device, Rollers or Trainers, was most effective in improving 10-km time trial. Eight male and 6 female volunteers (N = 14; age = 23.6 ± 4.6 yrs; height = 172.7 ± 9.9 cm; body mass = 68.4 ± 10.4 kg; % body fat = 16.9 ± 7.7; VO2max = 61.0 ± 9.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) provided informed consent prior to participation. Participants performed a10-km time trial at baseline and were then randomly assigned into one of three groups: Rollers (R), Trainers (T), or Control (C). Participants assigned to the R or T groups attended 24 supervised workout sessions throughout an 8-wk period (F: 3 days/week; I: 65-80% HRmax; D: 40 min; M: R or T). There were no significant differences in baseline 10-km time trial between R, T, and C groups [F(2,12) = 0.34, p = .72]. There was a significant difference in 10-km time trial improvement between groups post-assessment when controlling for baseline values (F = 17.04, p time with respect to the 10-km time trial. However, R had a greater improvement in 10-km time trial when compared to T.

  18. Experimental quantum digital signature over 102 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Liu, Hui; Tang, Qi-Jie; Wang, Jian; You, Li-Xing; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Chen, Si-Jing; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Teng-Yun; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Quantum digital signature (QDS) is an approach to guarantee the nonrepudiation, unforgeability, and transferability of a signature with information-theoretical security. Previous experimental realizations of QDS relied on an unrealistic assumption of secure channels and the longest distance is several kilometers. Here, we have experimentally demonstrated a recently proposed QDS protocol without assuming any secure channel. Exploiting the decoy state modulation, we have successfully signed a one-bit message through an up to 102-km optical fiber. Furthermore, we continuously run the system to sign the longer message "USTC" with 32 bits at the distance of 51 km. Our results pave the way towards the practical application of QDS.

  19. Rollers Versus Trainers: 10?Km Time Trial

    OpenAIRE

    TSEH, WAYLAND; DEVLIN, TATE B.; MILLESON, TAYLOR W.; Barreira, Tiago V.

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine which cycling training device, Rollers or Trainers, was most effective in improving 10-km time trial. Eight male and 6 female volunteers (N = 14; age = 23.6 ? 4.6 yrs; height = 172.7 ? 9.9 cm; body mass = 68.4 ? 10.4 kg; % body fat = 16.9 ? 7.7; VO2max = 61.0 ? 9.4 ml?kg?1?min?1) provided informed consent prior to participation. Participants performed a10-km time trial at baseline and were then randomly assigned into one of three groups: ...

  20. World record at over 574 km/h; TGV: Weltrekord mit ueber 574 km/h

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.

    2007-07-01

    On 3rd April a modified TGV unit established a new world record speed for railway vehicles of 574.8 km/h. At that speed, the train was not much slower than the Japanese maglev train, which reached 581 km/h. The previous record had been set on 18th May 1990 by the SNCF with the TGV Atlantique 325, which reached a speed of 515.3 km/h on the TGV Atlantique line near Vendome. (orig.)

  1. OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit V1 (OMPS_NPP_LP_L2_AER675_DAILY) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 LP Aerosol Extinction Vertical Profile swath daily 3slit collection contains the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficients at 675 nm (AER675)...

  2. Effects of cross-education on the muscle after a period of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charlene R. A. Magnus; Trevor S. Barss; Joel L. Lanovaz; Jonathan P. Farthing

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cross-education during 4 wk of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe to investigate the effects on muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle activation...

  3. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMSO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved sulfur dioxide (SO2)...

  4. OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital V2 (OMPS_NPP_NMNO2_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMPS-NPP L2 NM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Total and Tropospheric Column swath orbital collection 2 version 2.0 product contains the retrieved nitrogen dioxide (NO2)...

  5. ROI-ORIENTATED SENSOR CORRECTION BASED ON VIRTUAL STEADY REIMAGING MODEL FOR WIDE SWATH HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To meet the requirement of high accuracy and high speed processing for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery under emergency situation in both ground processing system and on-board processing system. This paper proposed a ROI-orientated sensor correction algorithm based on virtual steady reimaging model for wide swath high resolution optical satellite imagery. Firstly, the imaging time and spatial window of the ROI is determined by a dynamic search method. Then, the dynamic ROI sensor correction model based on virtual steady reimaging model is constructed. Finally, the corrected image corresponding to the ROI is generated based on the coordinates mapping relationship which is established by the dynamic sensor correction model for corrected image and rigours imaging model for original image. Two experimental results show that the image registration between panchromatic and multispectral images can be well achieved and the image distortion caused by satellite jitter can be also corrected efficiently.

  6. The use of LC predicted retention times to extend metabolites identification with SWATH data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Tobias; Varesio, Emmanuel; Hopfgartner, Gérard

    2017-12-15

    The application of predicted LC retention time to support metabolite identification was evaluated for a metabolomics MS/MS database containing 532 compounds representative for the major human metabolite classes. LC retention times could be measured for two C18 type columns using a mobile phase of pH=3.0 for positive ESI mode (n=337, 228) and pH=8.0 for negative ESI mode (n=410, 233). A QSRR modelling was applied with a small set of model compound selected based on the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The models were implemented in the R environment and can be applied to any library. The prediction model was built with two molecular descriptors, LogD2 and the molecular volume. A limited set of model compounds (LC CalMix, n=16) could be validated on two different C18 reversed phase LC columns and with comparable prediction accuracy. The CalMix can be used to compensate for different LC systems. In addition, LC retention prediction was found, in combination with SWATH-MS, to be attractive to eliminate false positive identification as well as for ranking purpose different metabolite isomeric forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SWATH-MS data of Drosophila melanogaster proteome dynamics during embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Fabre

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenesis is one of the most important processes in the life of an animal. During this dynamic process, progressive cell division and cellular differentiation are accompanied by significant changes in protein expression at the level of the proteome. However, very few studies to date have described the dynamics of the proteome during the early development of an embryo in any organism. In this dataset, we monitor changes in protein expression across a timecourse of more than 20 h of Drosophila melanogaster embryonic development. Mass-spectrometry data were produced using a SWATH acquisition mode on a Sciex Triple-TOF 6600. A spectral library built in-house was used to analyse these data and more than 1950 proteins were quantified at each embryonic timepoint. The files presented here are a permanent digital map and can be reanalysed to test against new hypotheses. The data have been deposited with the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD0031078.

  8. New Approach for Unambiguous High-Resolution Wide-Swath SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueguan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution wide-swath (HRWS SAR system uses a small antenna for transmitting waveform and multiple antennas both in elevation and azimuth for receiving echoes. It has the potential to achieve wide spatial coverage and fine azimuth resolution, while it suffers from elevation pattern loss caused by the presence of topographic height and impaired azimuth resolution caused by nonuniform sampling. A new approach for HRWS SAR imaging based on compressed sensing (CS is introduced. The data after range compression of multiple elevation apertures are used to estimate direction of arrival (DOA of targets via CS, and the adaptive digital beamforming in elevation is achieved accordingly, which avoids the pattern loss of scan-on-receive (SCORE algorithm when topographic height exists. The effective phase centers of the system are nonuniformly distributed when displaced phase center antenna (DPCA technology is adopted, which causes Doppler ambiguities under traditional SAR imaging algorithms. Azimuth reconstruction based on CS can resolve this problem via precisely modeling the nonuniform sampling. Validation with simulations and experiment in an anechoic chamber are presented.

  9. 5 km de autopista al mes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1972-02-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the most important civil engineering projects of its kind currently under construction in the country. It consists of 93 km of motor road, with four traffic lanes, and it includes many ancillary works, using prefabricated units, multilevel crossings and overpasses of varying lengths, some of them 600 m long. The large scale use of prefabricated elements and of very modern machinery will make it possible to complete the project several months ahead of schedule.Esta obra, que puede contarse entre las más importantes del país, comprende 93 km de autopista con cuatro circulaciones, numerosas obras de fábrica —prefabricadas—, intersecciones a distinto nivel y pasos elevados con longitudes varias, algunos de 600 metros. La prefabricación masiva y el empleo de una modernísima maquinaria permitió terminar la obra varios meses antes del plazo previsto.

  10. PERANCANGAN SISTEM PERPIPAAN KM. NUSANTARA (PIPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Windyandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sistem perpipaan merupakan sistem komplek yang didesain seefektif dan  seefisien mungkin untuk memenuhi kebutuhan dalam kapal ,crew ,muatan dan menjaga keamanan kapal baik saat berlayar ataupun berlabuh. Secara umum sistem pipa dapat diartikan sebagai  bagian utama suatu sistem yang menghubungkan titik dimana fluida di simpan ke titik pengeluaran semua pipa baik untuk memindahkan tenaga atau pemompaan harus dipertimbangkan secara teliti karena keamanan dari sebuah kapal akan tergantung pada susunan perpipaaan seperti halnya pada perlengkapan kapal lainnya Paper ini akan menguraikan tahap-tahap yang harus dilakukan serta pertimbangan-pertimbangan matematis yang diambil  oleh seorang ship engineer  dalam merancang suatu system perpipaan pada kapal KM. Nusantara. Hasil akhir dari paper ini adalah sebuah desain system perpipaan pada pada sebuah kapal,yaitu KM Nusantara, dengan mempertimbangkan system perpipaan yang paling efektif dalam pengoperasiannya.

  11. Solutions for 80 km DWDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    Currently discussed solutions for 80 km DWDM transmission targeting inter-data center connections at 100G and 400G line rates are reviewed. PDM-64QAM, PAM4, and discrete multi-tone transmission (DMT) are investigated, while the focus lies on directly detected solutions. For DMT, the vestigial...... sideband approach significantly increases the tolerance toward chromatic dispersion and bandwidth limitation and gives way to a flexible DWDM 400G transceiver using four to eight wavelengths....

  12. The use of Airborne Laser Swath Mapping Data in Watershed Analysis to Guide Restoration Priorities: the Napa River Watershed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Bellugi, D.; Real de Asua, R.; Iordache, I.; Allen, D.; Napolitano, M.; Trso, M.

    2004-12-01

    A necessary step in the management and restoration of ecosystem functions in a watershed is to quantify the linkages between landuse practices and channel habitat. With the advent of widely available digital elevation data, increasing numerical skills, and increasing insight about physical and ecological processes, models are being built that explore these linkages. Development and application of these models, however, strongly depends on the resolution of the toporgraphic data. Critical details of hillslope topography are not captured by the highest resolution USGS data (10 m), and, impotantly, channel banks are not a topographic feature in the digital elevation model. Instead the position of the main channels are delineated from hand mapped "blue lines" of USGS topographic quadrangle and then the smaller channels are typically estimated to occur at grid cells receiving drainage area exceeding some critical amount. High-resolution airborne laser swath mapping data (ALSM)) captures much of the finer scale topography, including that of channel banks, but introduces new challenges in both accuracy determination and GIS applications. As part of work to guide development of a Total Maximum Daily Load Analysis of the Napa Watershed, ALSM data were acquired for the entire 1100 km2 Napa River (California) watershed by the University of Florida. The filtered bare earth data set exceeded 1 billion points and gave an average data density of 1.5 m with areas in grasslands dropping below 1 m. Many GIS tools exist to analyze digital elevation data, but we have found many of them inadequate for the large, detailed data set. A central goal of the data acquisition was to create an accurate delineation of the channel network and to estimate channel morphology and grain size to help define the extent of available habitat for salmon. Over 400 on-channel dams and 4000 channel road crossings were identified, which create topographic barriers of significance to modeling and watershed

  13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A FAMILY OF LIGHTWEIGHT AND WIDE SWATH UAV CAMERA SYSTEMS AROUND AN INNOVATIVE DUAL-SENSOR ON-SINGLE-CHIP DETECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Delauré

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Together with a Belgian industrial consortium VITO has developed the lightweight camera system MEDUSA. It combines high spatial resolution with a wide swath to support missions for large scale mapping and disaster monitoring applications. MEDUSA has been designed to be operated on a solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle flying in the stratosphere. The camera system contains a custom designed CMOS imager with 2 sensors (each having 10000 × 1200 pixels on 1 chip. One sensor is panchromatic, one is equipped with colour filters. The MEDUSA flight model camera has passed an extensive test campaign and is ready to conduct its maiden flight. First airborne test flights with an engineering model version of the camera have been executed to validate the functionality and the performance of the camera. An image stitching work flow has been developed in order to generate an image composite in near real time of the acquired images. The unique properties of the dual-sensor-on-single-chip detector triggered the development of 2 new camera designs which are currently in preparation. MEDUSA-low is a modified camera system optimised for compatibility with more conventional UAV systems with a payload capacity of 5–10 kg flying at an altitude around 1 km. Its camera acquires both panchromatic and colour images. The MEDUSA geospectral camera is an innovative hyperspectral imager which is equipped with a spatially varying spectral filter installed in front of one of the two sensors. It acquires both hyperspectral and broad band high spatial resolution image data from one and the same camera.

  14. Analysis of road accidents on NH-1 between RD 98km to 148km

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Gourav; Sachdeva, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    The present study deals with the characteristics and trend of road accidents on a selected stretch of NH-1 between RD 98 km and 148 km. Four year road accident data from 2007 to 2010 of 50 km long stretch was collected which includes the period when construction of 6-laning project started on NH-1. The paper also brings forth the result of widening project on road accidents. The data was analyzed to identify cause of accidents, nature of accidents and type of injury, type of vehicles involved...

  15. Semiotics and Knowledge Management (KM) : A theoretical and empirical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarbaini, Larissa; Jorna, Rene J.

    Knowledge Management (KM) concerns the study of knowledge in organizations. Knowledge sharing, use, storage, support, and knowledge creation are components of KM. The (short) history of KM shows that the theoretical foundations of KM require completion. In this article, a perspective on KM is

  16. Global modeling with GEOS-5 from 50-km to 1-km with a single unified GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max; Molod, Andrea; Barahona, Donifan

    2015-04-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is uniquely designed to adapt to increasing resolution. This supports application of GEOS-5 for decadal scale climate simulation and reanalysis with a horizontal resolution of 50-kilometers (km), high-resolution numerical weather prediction at 25- to 14-km, and global mesoscale modeling at resolutions of 7- to 1.5-km. Resolution-aware parameterizations and dynamics support this diverse portfolio of applications within a single unified GEOS-5 GCM code-base. We will discuss the adaptation of physics parameterizations with increasing resolution. This includes the role of deep convective parameterization, the move to an improved two-moment microphysics scheme, the need for shallow convective parameterization, and the role of non-hydrostatic dynamics and implicit/explicit damping. Parameterization and dynamics evaluation are explored not only in global integrations with GEOS-5 but with radiative convective equilibrium tests that permit the rapid exploration of high-resolution simulations in a smaller doubly periodic Cartesian domain. Simulation results will highlight intercomparisons of model biases in cloud forcing and precipitation from the 30-year 50-km MERRA-2 reanalysis, 50- to 25-km free-running AMIP simulations, a 2-year 7-km global mesoscale simulation, and monthly global simulations at 3.5-km. A global 1.5-km simulation with GEOS-5 highlights our pursuit of truly convection permitting global simulations with GEOS-5. The tuning evaluation for this simulation using doubly periodic radiative convective equilibrium experiments will be discussed.

  17. netCDF Operators for Rapid Analysis of Measured and Modeled Swath-like Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Swath-like data (hereafter SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all Level 2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level 3 data, and model data on curvilinear grids. Researchers and data centers want user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. To meet these needs, large research-oriented agencies and modeling center such as NASA, DOE, and NOAA increasingly employ the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package applicable to netCDF and HDF data. NCO includes extensive, fast, parallelized regridding features to facilitate analysis and intercomparison of SLD and model data. Remote sensing, weather and climate modeling and analysis communities face similar problems in handling SLD including how to easily: 1. Specify and mask irregular regions such as ocean basins and political boundaries in SLD (and rectangular) grids. 2. Bin, interpolate, average, or re-map SLD to regular grids. 3. Derive secondary data from given quality levels of SLD. These common tasks require a data extraction and analysis toolkit that is SLD-friendly and, like NCO, familiar in all these communities. With NCO users can 1. Quickly project SLD onto the most useful regular grids for intercomparison. 2. Access sophisticated statistical and regridding functions that are robust to missing data and allow easy specification of quality control metrics. These capabilities improve interoperability, software-reuse, and, because they apply to SLD, minimize transmission, storage, and handling of unwanted data. While SLD analysis still poses many challenges compared to regularly gridded, rectangular data, the custom analyses scripts SLD once required are now shorter, more powerful, and user-friendly.

  18. 100 km CEPC parameters and lattice design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Gao, J.; Yu, C. H.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y. W.; Su, F.; Y Zhai, J.; Bai, S.; Geng, H. P.; Bian, T. J.; Wang, N.; Cui, X. H.; Zhang, C.; Qin, Q.

    2017-07-01

    The 100km double ring configuration with shared superconducting RF system has been defined as baseline by the circular electron positron collider (CEPC) steering committee. Based on this new scheme, we will get higher luminosity for Higgs (+170%) keeping the beam power in preliminary conceptual design report (Pre-CDR) or to reduce the beam power (19 MW) while keeping same luminosity. CEPC will be compatible with W and Z experiment. The luminosity for Z is designed at the level of 1035 cm-2s-1. The requirement for the energy acceptance of Higgs has been reduced to 1.5% by enlarging the ring to 100 km. The optics of arc and final focus system (FFS) with crab sextupoles has been designed, and also some primary dynamic aperture (DA) results were introduced. Work supported by the National Key Programme for S&T Research and Development (Grant NO. 2016YFA0400400) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11505198, 11575218, 11605210 and 11605211).

  19. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  20. Classification of building infrastructure and automatic building footprint delineation using airborne laser swath mapping data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Jhon

    Three-dimensional (3D) models of urban infrastructure comprise critical data for planners working on problems in wireless communications, environmental monitoring, civil engineering, and urban planning, among other tasks. Photogrammetric methods have been the most common approach to date to extract building models. However, Airborne Laser Swath Mapping (ALSM) observations offer a competitive alternative because they overcome some of the ambiguities that arise when trying to extract 3D information from 2D images. Regardless of the source data, the building extraction process requires segmentation and classification of the data and building identification. In this work, approaches for classifying ALSM data, separating building and tree points, and delineating ALSM footprints from the classified data are described. Digital aerial photographs are used in some cases to verify results, but the objective of this work is to develop methods that can work on ALSM data alone. A robust approach for separating tree and building points in ALSM data is presented. The method is based on supervised learning of the classes (tree vs. building) in a high dimensional feature space that yields good class separability. Features used for classification are based on the generation of local mappings, from three-dimensional space to two-dimensional space, known as "spin images" for each ALSM point to be classified. The method discriminates ALSM returns in compact spaces and even where the classes are very close together or overlapping spatially. A modified algorithm of the Hough Transform is used to orient the spin images, and the spin image parameters are specified such that the mutual information between the spin image pixel values and class labels is maximized. This new approach to ALSM classification allows us to fully exploit the 3D point information in the ALSM data while still achieving good class separability, which has been a difficult trade-off in the past. Supported by the spin

  1. Pulley Ridge Swath Bathymetry Image - TIFF format, UTM Zone 17 (ALLPR_FILCRPIMG.TIF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Pulley Ridge is a series of drowned barrier islands that extends almost 200 km in 60-100 m water depths. This drowned ridge is located on the Florida Platform in the...

  2. Swath bathymetric investigation of the seamounts located in the Laxmi Basin, eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Murty, G.P.S.; Srinivas, K.; Chaubey, A.K.; Sudhakar, T.; Nair, R.R.

    consists of three major edifices. These seamounts are elongated in plan and have heights and basal areas varying between 1068-2240 m and 300-1210 sq km, respectively. Steep lower flanks, flat plateaus, terraces, secondary peaks, and an extensive dendritic...

  3. EVALUATION OF SWATH-MS BASED QUANTIFICATION FOR ITS ACCURACY AND CONSISTENCY ACROSS CONCENTRATIONS OF SPIKED-IN PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bhat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry based proteomics have emerged as an important tool for studying different aspects of biological networks. However, the major challenges in this field are reproducibility, accuracy and sensitivity for detecting and quantifying low abundant proteins. We have previously reported that sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion spectra (SWATH–MS holds the ability to quantitate larger number of low abundant proteins as compared to isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ. Here we provide a detailed evaluation of the quantification performance of SWATH-MS for its precision and reproducibility in quantifying peptides of different abundance using β-galactosidase as a reference protein. This study demonstrates that SWATH-MS can reproducibly quantitate peptides as low as 2.5 fmoles. The coefficient of variation was below 13% at 2.5 fmoles while it was < 8% for concentrations above 25 fmoles clearly indicating good reproducibility between replicates. Thus, our analysis further supports the strength of this method to quantitate low abundant proteins.

  4. The beauty of being (label)-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowinckel, Jakob; Capuano, Floriana; Campbell, Kate; Deery, Michael J; Lilley, Kathryn S; Ralser, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA) and data independent (SWATH) acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  5. SWATH-MS Quantitative Proteomic Investigation Reveals a Role of Jasmonic Acid during Lead Response in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fu-Yuan; Chan, Wai-Lung; Chen, Mo-Xian; Kong, Ricky P W; Cai, Congxi; Wang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Lo, Clive

    2016-10-07

    Lead (Pb) pollution is a growing environment problem that continuously threatens the productivity of crops. To understand the molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to Pb toxicity, we examined proteome changes in Arabidopsis seedlings following Pb treatment by SWATH-MS, a label-free quantitative proteomic platform. We identified and quantified the expression of 1719 proteins in water- and Pb-treated plants. Among them, 231 proteins showed significant abundance changes (151 elevated and 80 reduced) upon Pb exposure. Functional categorization revealed that most of the Pb-responsive proteins are involved in different metabolic processes. For example, down-regulation of photosynthesis and biosynthesis of isoprenoids and tetrapyrroles in chloroplasts were observed. On the contrary, pathways leading to glutathione, jasmonic acid (JA), glucosinolate (GSL), and phenylpropanoid production are up-regulated. Experimental characterizations demonstrated a rapid elevation of endogenic JA production in Pb-treated Arabidopsis seedlings, while a JA-deficient mutant and a JA-insensitive mutant showed hypersensitivity to root inhibition by Pb, implicating an essential role of JA during Pb responses. Consistently, methyl jasmonate supplementation alleviated Pb toxicity in the wild-type and JA-deficient mutant. Furthermore, GSL levels were substantially enhanced following Pb treatment, while such induction was not detected in the JA mutant, suggesting that the Pb-induced GSL accumulation is JA-dependent. Overall, our work represents the first SWATH-MS analysis in Arabidopsis and highlights a potential mediating role of JA during Pb stress.

  6. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  7. Quantification of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Stoichiometry in Proteins Using Mass Spectrometric Data-Independent Acquisitions (SWATH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G; D'Souza, Alexandria K; Sorensen, Dylan J; Rardin, Matthew J; Wolfe, Alan J; Gibson, Bradford W; Schilling, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modification of lysine residues by N Ɛ -acylation is an important regulator of protein function. Many large-scale protein acylation studies have assessed relative changes of lysine acylation sites after antibody enrichment using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Although relative acylation fold-changes are important, this does not reveal site occupancy, or stoichiometry, of individual modification sites, which is critical to understand functional consequences. Recently, methods for determining lysine acetylation stoichiometry have been proposed based on ratiometric analysis of endogenous levels to those introduced after quantitative per-acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride. However, in our hands, we find that these methods can overestimate acetylation stoichiometries because of signal interferences when endogenous levels of acylation are very low, which is especially problematic when using MS1 scans for quantification. In this study, we sought to improve the accuracy of determining acylation stoichiometry using data-independent acquisition (DIA). Specifically, we use SWATH acquisition to comprehensively collect both precursor and fragment ion intensity data. The use of fragment ions for stoichiometry quantification not only reduces interferences but also allows for determination of site-level stoichiometry from peptides with multiple lysine residues. We also demonstrate the novel extension of this method to measurements of succinylation stoichiometry using deuterium-labeled succinic anhydride. Proof of principle SWATH acquisition studies were first performed using bovine serum albumin for both acetylation and succinylation occupancy measurements, followed by the analysis of more complex samples of E. coli cell lysates. Although overall site occupancy was low (<1%), some proteins contained lysines with relatively high acetylation occupancy. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Quantification of Lysine Acetylation and Succinylation Stoichiometry in Proteins Using Mass Spectrometric Data-Independent Acquisitions (SWATH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jesse G.; D'Souza, Alexandria K.; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Rardin, Matthew J.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    Post-translational modification of lysine residues by NƐ-acylation is an important regulator of protein function. Many large-scale protein acylation studies have assessed relative changes of lysine acylation sites after antibody enrichment using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Although relative acylation fold-changes are important, this does not reveal site occupancy, or stoichiometry, of individual modification sites, which is critical to understand functional consequences. Recently, methods for determining lysine acetylation stoichiometry have been proposed based on ratiometric analysis of endogenous levels to those introduced after quantitative per-acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride. However, in our hands, we find that these methods can overestimate acetylation stoichiometries because of signal interferences when endogenous levels of acylation are very low, which is especially problematic when using MS1 scans for quantification. In this study, we sought to improve the accuracy of determining acylation stoichiometry using data-independent acquisition (DIA). Specifically, we use SWATH acquisition to comprehensively collect both precursor and fragment ion intensity data. The use of fragment ions for stoichiometry quantification not only reduces interferences but also allows for determination of site-level stoichiometry from peptides with multiple lysine residues. We also demonstrate the novel extension of this method to measurements of succinylation stoichiometry using deuterium-labeled succinic anhydride. Proof of principle SWATH acquisition studies were first performed using bovine serum albumin for both acetylation and succinylation occupancy measurements, followed by the analysis of more complex samples of E. coli cell lysates. Although overall site occupancy was low (<1%), some proteins contained lysines with relatively high acetylation occupancy.

  9. Chernobyl and the 30-km zone; Tschernobyl und die 30-km-Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, Juergen; Zappe, Dietmar [TETRA ENERGIE GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The region contaminated as a consequence of the accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station is subdivided into 4 different zones based on the level of contamination and the additional radiation dose to be expected by the people living there. The 30-km zone, which had been evacuated completely, is currently inhabited by some 100 ''returnees'' on Ukrainian territory, with approximately 3,500 employees of the Chernobyl nuclear power station and some 13,000 persons working there who are involved in studies of scientific problems (approx. 120 projects, most of them international), plus service, maintenance and guard staff, firefighters, forest workers and gamekeepers, etc. Most of these people live in the newly built town of Slavutich. Some concrete measures have already been taken for future use of the 30-km zone (creation of a shallow land burial site for radioactive waste and decommissioning waste at the VECTOR site, construction of an interim store for the fuel elements of the nuclear power plant), but also more extensive concepts have been developed (construction of a central fuel element store for Ukrainian nuclear power plants, shallow land burial of waste with higher contents of longlived radionuclides, perhaps construction of an underground repository), which even consider touristic ambitions. (orig.)

  10. Automated global water mapping based on wide-swath orbital synthetic-aperture radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Westerhoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated technique which ingests orbital synthetic-aperture radar (SAR imagery and outputs surface water maps in near real time and on a global scale. The service anticipates future open data dissemination of water extent information using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 data. The classification methods used are innovative and practical and automatically calibrated to local conditions per 1 × 1° tile. For each tile, a probability distribution function in the range between being covered with water or being dry is established based on a long-term SAR training dataset. These probability distributions are conditional on the backscatter and the incidence angle. In classification mode, the probability of water coverage per pixel of 1 km × 1 km is calculated with the input of the current backscatter – incidence angle combination. The overlap between the probability distributions of a pixel being wet or dry is used as a proxy for the quality of our classification. The service has multiple uses, e.g. for water body dynamics in times of drought or for urgent inundation extent determination during floods. The service generates data systematically: it is not an on-demand service activated only for emergency response, but instead is always up-to-date and available. We validate its use in flood situations using Envisat ASAR information during the 2011 Thailand floods and the Pakistan 2010 floods and perform a first merge with a NASA near real time water product based on MODIS optical satellite imagery. This merge shows good agreement between these independent satellite-based water products.

  11. TOMS/N7 MS SO2 Vertical Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50 km V2.00 (TOMSN7SO2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this data set is to create and archive a Level 2 SO2 Earth Science Data Record (ESDR) from backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) measurements from Total Ozone...

  12. OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) 200-km swath subset along CloudSat track V003 (OMCLDO2_CPR) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This the OMI/Aura Cloud Pressure and Fraction (O2-O2 Absorption) subset along CloudSat track, for the purposes of the A-Train mission. The original product uses the...

  13. OMPS/NPP PCA SO2 Total Column 1-Orbit L2 Swath 50x50km V1 (OMPS_NPP_NMSO2_PCA_L2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this dataset is to create and archive a Level 2 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Earth Science Data Record (ESDR) from backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) measurements...

  14. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  15. Exploring the Benefits of KM Education for LIS Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeri, Afsaneh; Martin, Bill; Sarrafzadeh, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    It is to be expected that in a new and emerging discipline like knowledge management (KM) there still will be ambivalence among both LIS educational institutions and their students, as to the need to have KM courses. Investigating the benefits of engaging with these programs might help to clear up this ambiguity. The present paper seeks to shed…

  16. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together. (See...

  17. Generation of High-Quality SWATH(®) Acquisition Data for Label-free Quantitative Proteomics Studies Using TripleTOF(®) Mass Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W; Hunter, Christie L

    2017-01-01

    Data-independent acquisition is a powerful mass spectrometry technique that enables comprehensive MS and MS/MS analysis of all detectable species, providing an information rich data file that can be mined deeply. Here, we describe how to acquire high-quality SWATH(®) Acquisition data to be used for large quantitative proteomic studies. We specifically focus on using variable sized Q1 windows for acquisition of MS/MS data for generating higher specificity quantitative data.

  18. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  19. Effects of cross-education on the muscle after a period of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Barss, Trevor S; Lanovaz, Joel L; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply cross-education during 4 wk of unilateral limb immobilization using a shoulder sling and swathe to investigate the effects on muscle strength, muscle size, and muscle activation. Twenty-five right-handed participants were assigned to one of three groups as follows: the Immob + Train group wore a sling and swathe and strength trained (n = 8), the Immob group wore a sling and swathe and did not strength train (n = 8), and the Control group received no treatment (n = 9). Immobilization was applied to the nondominant (left) arm. Strength training consisted of maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension of the dominant (right) arm 3 days/wk. Torque (dynamometer), muscle thickness (ultrasound), maximal voluntary activation (interpolated twitch), and electromyography (EMG) were measured. The change in right biceps and triceps brachii muscle thickness [7.0 ± 1.9 and 7.1 ± 2.2% (SE), respectively] was greater for Immob + Train than Immob (0.4 ± 1.2 and -1.9 ± 1.7%) and Control (0.8 ± 0.5 and 0.0 ± 1.1%, P effect on maximal voluntary activation or EMG. The cross-education effect on the immobilized limb was greater after elbow extension training. This study suggests that strength training the nonimmobilized limb benefits the immobilized limb for muscle size and strength.

  20. Quality Assessment of the CCI ECV Soil Moisture Product Using ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Data over Spain, Ireland and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pratola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, great progress has been made by the scientific community in generating satellite-derived global surface soil moisture products, as a valuable source of information to be used in a variety of applications, such as hydrology, meteorology and climatic modeling. Through the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI, the most complete and consistent global soil moisture (SM data record based on active and passive microwaves sensors is being developed. However, the coarse spatial resolution characterizing such data may be not sufficient to accurately represent the moisture conditions. The objective of this work is to assess the quality of the CCI Essential Climate Variable (ECV SM product by using finer spatial resolution Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR Wide Swath and in situ soil moisture data taken over three regions in Europe. Ireland, Spain, and Finland have been selected with the aim of assessing the spatial and temporal representativeness of the ECV SM product over areas that differ in climate, topography, land cover and soil type. This approach facilitated an understanding of the extent to which geophysical factors, such as soil texture, terrain composition and altitude, affect the retrieved ECV SM product values. A good temporal and spatial agreement has been observed between the three soil moisture datasets for the Irish and Spanish sites, while poorer results have been found at the Finnish sites. Overall, the two different satellite derived products capture the soil moisture temporal variations well and are in good agreement with each other.

  1. Mass Spectral Enhanced Detection of Ubls Using SWATH Acquisition: MEDUSA—Simultaneous Quantification of SUMO and Ubiquitin-Derived Isopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, John R.; Chicooree, Navin; Connolly, Yvonne; Neffling, Milla; Lane, Catherine S.; Knapman, Thomas; Smith, Duncan L.

    2014-05-01

    Protein modification by ubiquitination and SUMOylation occur throughout the cell and are responsible for numerous cellular functions such as apoptosis, DNA replication and repair, and gene transcription. Current methods for the identification of such modifications using mass spectrometry predominantly rely upon tryptic isopeptide tag generation followed by database searching with in vitro genetic mutation of SUMO routinely required. We have recently described a novel approach to ubiquitin and SUMO modification detection based upon the diagnostic a' and b' ions released from the isopeptide tags upon collision-induced dissociation of reductively methylated Ubl isopeptides (RUbI) using formaldehyde. Here, we significantly extend those studies by combining data-independent acquisition (DIA) with alternative labeling reagents to improve diagnostic ion coverage and enable relative quantification of modified peptides from both MS and MS/MS signals. Model synthetic ubiquitin and SUMO-derived isopeptides were labeled with mTRAQ reagents (Δ0, Δ4, and Δ8) and subjected to LC-MS/MS with SWATH acquisition. Novel diagnostic ions were generated upon CID, which facilitated the selective detection of these modified peptides. Simultaneous MS-based and MS/MS-based relative quantification was demonstrated for both Ub and SUMO-derived isopeptides across three channels in a background of mTRAQ-labeled Escherichia coli digest.

  2. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giedt, Joel

    2000-07-05

    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  3. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  4. Antarctic 5-km Digital Elevation Model from ERS-1 Altimetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a digital elevation model (DEM) for Antarctica to 81.5 degrees south latitude, at a resolution of 5 km. Approximately twenty million data...

  5. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal 1-km AVHRR land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional...

  6. BOREAS AFM-12 1-km AVHRR Seasonal Land Cover Classification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This regional land cover data set was developed as part of a multitemporal 1-km AVHRR land cover analysis approach that was used as the basis for regional land cover...

  7. NESTOR participation in the KM3NeT

    CERN Document Server

    Anassontzis, E

    2008-01-01

    The NESTOR Collaboration is a leading participant in the Design Study of the KM3NeT, the European Deep Sea Neutrino Telescope. In this report we describe briefly the KM3NeT and the NESTOR experience and contribution towards this objective; the 4500m deep NESTOR site, the star-like detector, the deployment and recovery of telescope modules and the "DELTA-BERENIKE", the specially constructed deployment ship.

  8. Convergence theorems for inertial KM-type algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingé, Paul-Emile

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with the convergence analysis of a general fixed point method which unifies KM-type (Krasnoselskii-Mann) iteration and inertial type extrapolation. This strategy is intended to speed up the convergence of algorithms in signal processing and image reconstruction that can be formulated as KM iterations. The convergence theorems established in this new setting improve known ones and some applications are given regarding convex feasibility problems, subgradient methods, fixed point problems and monotone inclusions.

  9. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running.

  10. Rollers Versus Trainers: 10–Km Time Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSEH, WAYLAND; DEVLIN, TATE B.; MILLESON, TAYLOR W.; BARREIRA, TIAGO V.

    2017-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to determine which cycling training device, Rollers or Trainers, was most effective in improving 10-km time trial. Eight male and 6 female volunteers (N = 14; age = 23.6 ± 4.6 yrs; height = 172.7 ± 9.9 cm; body mass = 68.4 ± 10.4 kg; % body fat = 16.9 ± 7.7; VO2max = 61.0 ± 9.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) provided informed consent prior to participation. Participants performed a10-km time trial at baseline and were then randomly assigned into one of three groups: Rollers (R), Trainers (T), or Control (C). Participants assigned to the R or T groups attended 24 supervised workout sessions throughout an 8-wk period (F: 3 days/week; I: 65–80% HRmax; D: 40 min; M: R or T). There were no significant differences in baseline 10-km time trial between R, T, and C groups [F(2,12) = 0.34, p = .72]. There was a significant difference in 10-km time trial improvement between groups post-assessment when controlling for baseline values (F = 17.04, p time with respect to the 10-km time trial. However, R had a greater improvement in 10-km time trial when compared to T. PMID:28674595

  11. CryoTop - CryoSat-2 swath elevation and derived Digital Elevation Models and rates of elevation change products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Hogg, A.; Escorihuela, M. J.; Wuite, J.; Nagler, T.; Roca, M.; Shepherd, A.; Drinkwater, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Reference and repeat-observations of ice sheet margin topography is critical to identify changes in ice thickness, provide estimates of mass gain or loss and thus quantify the contribution of the cryosphere to sea level change. The ESA Altimetry mission CryoSat-2 aims at gaining better insight into the evolution of the cryosphere, in particular over the steep slopes typically found along ice sheet margins where the majority of the mass loss is taking place. CryoSat's revolutionary design features a Synthetic Interferometric Radar Altimeter (SIRAL), with two antennas for interferometry, the corresponding SAR Interferometer (SARIn) mode of operation increases spatial resolution while resolving the angular origin of off-nadir echoes occurring over sloping terrain. The SARIn mode is activated over ice sheet margins and the elevation for the Point Of Closest Approach (POCA), or level-2, is a standard product of the CryoSat-2 mission. CryoSat-2 SARIn mode allows a new approach for more comprehensively exploiting the CryoSat-2 record and produce ice elevation and elevation change with enhanced spatial resolution compared to standard CryoSat-2 level-2 products. In this so-called CryoSat-2 Swath SARIn (CSSARIn) approach, the entire waveform is analysed providing elevation beyond the POCA, leading to between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude more elevation measurements than conventional level-2 product. As part of the European Space Agency project CryoTop Evolution we are generating CSSARIn elevation, Digital Elevation Models and maps of rates of surface elevation change over the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets. These products will be generated and distributed to the community. Here we will present the methods and quality assessment of the products as well as showcase examples of the added value of the products.

  12. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  13. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  14. Simulation of atmospherics in KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heid, Thomas [ECAP, FAU Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    With the installation of the first KM3NeT line, a new facility for neutrino astronomy started operation at the end of 2015. KM3NeT detectors are built of several thousands of digital optical modules(DOM) deployed in a three-dimensional grid. The DOMs receive light from particles passing the detector or created in neutrino interactions in the vicinity of the detector. A primary physics goal is to detect point-like neutrino sources. An important step in understanding the signal of astrophysical sources, is to understand the background to the measurement originating in the atmosphere. It consists of muons and neutrinos. Dedicated simulations optimized for KM3NeT have been performed. This contribution describes the simulation chain, starting with an atmospheric air shower simulation and propagating particles from the sea surface to the detector at a depth of 2.5 to 3.5 km. The nature of the background expected to most strongly affect KM3NeT's sensitivity to astrophysical neutrino fluxes is presented, as are methods for dealing with it. Besides their role as background, studying atmospheric particles can improve the understanding of particle creation in the atmosphere, especially the charm production mechanism.

  15. Seasonality and intermittency of the ocean dynamics at scales smaller than 100 km in the world ocean: A scientific challenge for SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Su, Z.; Klein, P.; Thompson, A. F.; Menemenlis, D.; Fu, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The major observational advance expected from the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) altimeter, compared with existing altimeters, is that it will provide wide-swath (120 km) along-track data that permit the sampling of oceanic scales between 15 and 150km. The potential of this satellite mission is to understand the dynamical impact of these small scales on ocean dynamics. Such impact is known to affect the vertical velocity field (and therefore the vertical fluxes of ocean properties) and significantly affect both the inverse and direct kinetic energy cascades. The need to monitor these scales on a global scale is illustrated by the results of a realistic global ocean simulation. This model has 1/48-degree horizontal grid spacing, 90 vertical levels, and the inclusion of tidal forcing. This simulation reveals a strong seasonality of ocean dynamics at scales less than 100 km, not only in the previously documented regions, such as the Kuroshio extension, Gulf Stream, and subtropical gyres; but also in most other regions, such as most of the Southern Hemisphere and the North-East Atlantic. This strong seasonality, with a maximum amplitude consistently in winter, is associated with deep winter mixed-layer and energetic mesoscale eddies, pointing to mixed-layer instability as a major driver of the seasonality of dynamics at small scales. In addition to seasonal variations, strong intermittencies of ocean dynamics with a period of one to two weeks are also observed occasionally with the same amplitude as the seasonal variability. In this presentation, we discuss the consequences and the challenges posed by the strong spatial and temporal variability to SWOT data analysis.

  16. Reliability of 5-km Running Performance in a Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Philip; Board, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of a 5-km time-trial during a competitive outdoor running event. Fifteen endurance runners (age = 29.5 ± 4.3 years, height = 1.75 ± 0.08 m, body mass = 71.0 ± 7.1 kg, 5-km lifetime personal best = 19:13 ± 1:13 minutes) completed two competitive 5-km time-trials over 2 weeks. No systematic…

  17. KM_GrabCut: a fast interactive image segmentation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Yao, Yiping; Tang, Wenjie

    2015-03-01

    Image segmentation is critical for image processing. Among several algorithms, GrabCut is well known by its little user interaction and desirable segmentation result. However, it needs to take a lot of time to adjust the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and to cut the weighted graph with Max-Flow/Min-Cut Algorithm iteratively. To solve this problem, we first build a common algorithmic framework which can be shared by the class of GrabCut-like segmentation algorithms, and then propose KM_GrabCut algorithm based on this framework. The KM_GrabCut first uses K-means clustering algorithm to cluster pixels in foreground and background respectively, and then constructs a GMM based on each clustering result and cuts the corresponding weighted graph only once. Experimental results demonstrate that KM_GrabCut outperforms GrabCut with higher performance, comparable segmentation result and user interaction.

  18. Archive of side scan sonar and swath bathymetry data collected during USGS cruise 10CCT01 offshore of Cat Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Flocks, James G.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2010-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys east of Cat Island, Mississippi (fig. 1). The efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geological stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorpholocial changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and provide protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts. For more information refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, surface images, and x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten FACS logs and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report or hold the cursor over an acronym for a pop-up explanation. The USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 10CCT01 tells us the data were collected in 2010 for the Coastal Change and Transport (CCT) study and the data were collected during the first field

  19. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusco Luigi Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  20. Knowledge management (KM) processes in organizations theoretical foundations and practice

    CERN Document Server

    McInerney, Claire R

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is an effort to increase useful knowledge in the organization. It is a natural outgrowth of late twentieth century movements to make organizational management and operations more effective, of higher quality, and more responsive to constituents in a rapidly changing global environment. This document traces the evolution of KM in organizations, summarizing the most influential research and literature in the field. It also presents an overview of selected common and current practices in knowledge management, including the relationship between knowledge management and de

  1. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-11

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of {sup 40}K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Development of km23-Based Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    to Task 1 in the Statement of Work ( SOW ), we have completed sub-tasks a-f and h, and are working on sub-task g. We are also currently addressing some...brain, kidney, and placenta tissues. Western blots have indicated km23 is an 11 -kDa cytoplasmic protein. The human and rat km23 amino acid sequences...Denver, PA). Each company also provided pre- immune serum. Cell culture--MvlLu (CCL-64), 293 (CRL-1 573), and COS-1 (CRL-1650) cells were purchased from

  3. mzDB: a file format using multiple indexing strategies for the efficient analysis of large LC-MS/MS and SWATH-MS data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyssié, David; Dubois, Marc; Nasso, Sara; Gonzalez de Peredo, Anne; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Aebersold, Ruedi; Monsarrat, Bernard

    2015-03-01

    The analysis and management of MS data, especially those generated by data independent MS acquisition, exemplified by SWATH-MS, pose significant challenges for proteomics bioinformatics. The large size and vast amount of information inherent to these data sets need to be properly structured to enable an efficient and straightforward extraction of the signals used to identify specific target peptides. Standard XML based formats are not well suited to large MS data files, for example, those generated by SWATH-MS, and compromise high-throughput data processing and storing. We developed mzDB, an efficient file format for large MS data sets. It relies on the SQLite software library and consists of a standardized and portable server-less single-file database. An optimized 3D indexing approach is adopted, where the LC-MS coordinates (retention time and m/z), along with the precursor m/z for SWATH-MS data, are used to query the database for data extraction. In comparison with XML formats, mzDB saves ∼25% of storage space and improves access times by a factor of twofold up to even 2000-fold, depending on the particular data access. Similarly, mzDB shows also slightly to significantly lower access times in comparison with other formats like mz5. Both C++ and Java implementations, converting raw or XML formats to mzDB and providing access methods, will be released under permissive license. mzDB can be easily accessed by the SQLite C library and its drivers for all major languages, and browsed with existing dedicated GUIs. The mzDB described here can boost existing mass spectrometry data analysis pipelines, offering unprecedented performance in terms of efficiency, portability, compactness, and flexibility. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. The Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network of the U.S. Geological Survey—Past and future implementation of storm-response monitoring, data collection, and data delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Richard J.; Lotspeich, R. Russell; Robbins, Jeanne C.; Busciolano, Ronald J.; Mullaney, John R.; Massey, Andrew J.; Banks, William S.; Roland, Mark A.; Jenter, Harry L.; Peppler, Marie C.; Suro, Thomas P.; Schubert, Christopher E.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-06-20

    After Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the northeastern Atlantic coast of the United States on October 29, 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) carried out scientific investigations to assist with protecting coastal communities and resources from future flooding. The work included development and implementation of the Surge, Wave, and Tide Hydrodynamics (SWaTH) network consisting of more than 900 monitoring stations. The SWaTH network was designed to greatly improve the collection and timely dissemination of information related to storm surge and coastal flooding. The network provides a significant enhancement to USGS data-collection capabilities in the region impacted by Hurricane Sandy and represents a new strategy for observing and monitoring coastal storms, which should result in improved understanding, prediction, and warning of storm-surge impacts and lead to more resilient coastal communities.As innovative as it is, SWaTH evolved from previous USGS efforts to collect storm-surge data needed by others to improve storm-surge modeling, warning, and mitigation. This report discusses the development and implementation of the SWaTH network, and some of the regional stories associated with the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, as well as some previous events that informed the SWaTH development effort. Additional discussions on the mechanics of inundation and how the USGS is working with partners to help protect coastal communities from future storm impacts are also included.

  5. Event identification for KM3NeT/ARCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Thomas; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure consisting of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. KM3NeT/ARCA will be the instrument detecting high-energy neutrinos with energies above 100 TeV. This instrument gives a new opportunity to observe the neutrino sky with very high angular resolution to be able to detect neutrino point sources. Furthermore it will be possible to probe the flavour composition of neutrino fluxes, and hence production mechanisms, with so-far unreached precision. Neutrinos produce different event topologies in the detector according to their flavour, interaction channel and deposited energy. Machine-learning algorithms are able to learn features of topologies to discriminate them. In previous analyses only two event types were regarded, namely the shower and track topology. With good timing resolution and precise reconstruction algorithms it is possible to separate into more event types, for example the double bang topology produced by tau neutrinos. The final goal is to distinguish all three neutrino flavors as much as possible. To resolve this issue the KM3NeT collaboration uses deep neural networks trained with Monte Carlo events of all neutrino types. This contribution shows the ability of KM3NeT/ARCA to classify events in more than two neutrino event topologies. Furthermore, the borders between detectable classes are shown, such as the minimum distance the tau has to travel before decaying into a tau neutrino to be detected as double bang event.

  6. The 27-km circular path of the LHC tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    AC-DI-MM

    1994-01-01

    This aerial view of the CERN site shows the path of the 27-km circumference tunnel that housed the LEP accelerator and now contains the accelerator for CERN's new flagship project, the LHC. The ring stretches from Geneva airport, which can be seen on the lower left, to the French countryside.

  7. Effect of maturity at harvest on yield, chemical composition, and in situ degradability for annual cereals used for swath grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, C L; Górka, P; Beattie, A D; Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Lardner, H A; Penner, G B

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how harvest maturity of whole-crop cereals commonly used in swath grazing systems in western Canada affects yield, chemical composition, and in situ digestibility. We hypothesized that the increase in yield with advancing maturity would not offset the decline in digestibility and, thus, the yield of effectively degradable DM (EDDM) would decline with advanced stages of maturity. Four replicate plots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.; cv. CDC Cowboy), millet (Panicum milliaceum; cv. Red Proso), oat (Avena sativa L., spp.; CDC Weaver), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.; cv. 07FOR21) were grown, with a subsection in each replicate harvested at 4 different maturities: head elongation, late milk, hard dough, and fully mature. At each stage of maturity, the wet and DM yields, and chemical composition (DM, OM, NDF, crude fat, and nonfiber carbohydrates; NFC) were determined. Whole-crop samples were ground (2-mm screen) and weighed into nylon bags (pore size of 53 ± 10 µm), and duplicate incubation runs were conducted by crop type. For each incubation run, nylon bags were randomly allocated (randomized by field replication, stage of maturity, and incubation time) to 1 of 7 heifers (32 bags/heifer during each run). Degradation rates were determined using a first-order kinetic model and data were analyzed with stage of maturity as a fixed effect and plot as a random effect. The DM, OM, and NFC yields increased linearly for barley and oat (P oat, and wheat (P = 0.044). There were no changes in CP yield observed for barley, millet, or oat with advancing maturity, but there was a linear increase observed for wheat (P = 0.002). The NFC concentration increased linearly for barley, millet, and oat (P oat, and wheat (P = 0.003). The degradation rate of NDF decreased linearly with advancing maturity (P ≤ 0.014) for millet, oat, and wheat, but was not affected for barley (P = 0.13). The yield EDDM increased linearly for barley and oat (P < 0

  8. Identifying Urinary and Serum Exosome Biomarkers for Radiation Exposure Using a Data Dependent Acquisition and SWATH-MS Combined Workflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, Shilpa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Koller, Antonius [Proteomics Center, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mani, Kartik M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wen, Ruofeng [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Alfieri, Alan; Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Wang, Jian [Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Patel, Purvi [Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Bandeira, Nuno [Center for Computational Mass Spectrometry, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); and others

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Early and accurate assessment of radiation injury by radiation-responsive biomarkers is critical for triage and early intervention. Biofluids such as urine and serum are convenient for such analysis. Recent research has also suggested that exosomes are a reliable source of biomarkers in disease progression. In the present study, we analyzed total urine proteome and exosomes isolated from urine or serum for potential biomarkers of acute and persistent radiation injury in mice exposed to lethal whole body irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: For feasibility studies, the mice were irradiated at 10.4 Gy WBI, and urine and serum samples were collected 24 and 72 hours after irradiation. Exosomes were isolated and analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-based workflow for radiation exposure signatures. A data dependent acquisition and SWATH-MS combined workflow approach was used to identify significantly exosome biomarkers indicative of acute or persistent radiation-induced responses. For the validation studies, mice were exposed to 3, 6, 8, or 10 Gy WBI, and samples were analyzed for comparison. Results: A comparison between total urine proteomics and urine exosome proteomics demonstrated that exosome proteomic analysis was superior in identifying radiation signatures. Feasibility studies identified 23 biomarkers from urine and 24 biomarkers from serum exosomes after WBI. Urinary exosome signatures identified different physiological parameters than the ones obtained in serum exosomes. Exosome signatures from urine indicated injury to the liver, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. In contrast, serum showed vascular injuries and acute inflammation in response to radiation. Selected urinary exosomal biomarkers also showed changes at lower radiation doses in validation studies. Conclusions: Exosome proteomics revealed radiation- and time-dependent protein signatures after WBI. A total of 47 differentially secreted

  9. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivolo Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2, weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  10. A Broad Depressed 410-km Discontinuity beneath Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Guo, G.; WANG, X.

    2016-12-01

    The topography of the upper mantle discontinuities is important for good understanding of the thermal structure, composition of the mantle, and scales of mantle circulation as well. We applied both receiver function analysis and multiple-ScS reverberations to seismic waveforms recorded by stations beneath land and ocean, respectively. We obtained a complete image of the upper mantle discontinuities beneath northeast Asia, covering from the Okhotsk Sea, far east Russia, Japan Sea and northeast China. Results with different resolutions from different methods are compared in detail, and the comparison shows that long-period ScS reverberation signals is effective in extracting the robust features of the upper mantle discontinuities. Through the integrated depth undulation map covering both sea and land, we detected an obvious depression of the 410-km discontinuity with value 8-25 km, anticorrelated with a wide range of depressed 660-km discontinuity. The depression of the 660 can be explained by the temperature anomaly associated to the subducting Pacific slab. The landward extension of the depressed 410, however, is of large scale with a lateral range of at least 800-1000 km. Mechanism invoking chemical heterogeneity in the mantle transition zone was explored to explain the observation. We speculate that the broadly depressed 410 beneath west Japan Sea, part of Okhotsk Sea, and northeast China might be caused by high water content at the top of the mantle transition zone. The significant trench rollback motion of the subducting Pacific slab from the Miocene might explain the widespread distribution of the depression of the 410. The west edge of observed depressed 410-km discontinuity might pin the initial location where the Pacific subducting slab had been furthest before the occurrence of trench retreating.

  11. Índices fisiológicos associados com a performance aeróbia de corredores nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km Physiological indices associated with aerobic performance in the distances of 1,5 km, 3 km and 5 km

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo; Rubens José Babel Junior; Francimara Budal Arins; Naiandra Dittrich

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a associação entre os índices fisiológicos de potência aeróbia e capacidade aeróbia performance nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km. Nove corredores de endurance realizaram os seguintes protocolos: a) teste para determinação do VO2max, vVO2max e OBLA; b) 2-5 testes em dias alternados de 30 min com velocidade constante para determinar a vMLSS e c) determinação da performances. Foram empregadas correlação linear de Pearson ou Spearman e regressão múltipla par...

  12. Minder slachtoffers in 60 km-gebieden : eerste evaluatiegegevens 60 km-maatregel bieden basis voor verdere implementatie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, M.G. de

    2005-01-01

    In het kader van het Startprogramma Duurzaam Veilig hebben waterschappen en gemeenten duizenden kilometers weg ingericht als sober 60 km-gebied. Tot op heden ontbrak een Nederlandse praktijktoets naar de effecten van deze maatregel. In opdracht van de Unie van Waterschappen wordt in de periode

  13. FPGA shore station demonstrator for KM3NeT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anassontzis, E.G. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); Belias, A.; Koutsoukos, S.; Koutsoumpos, V. [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Manolopoulos, K., E-mail: kmanolo@phys.uoa.gr [NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece); Resvanis, L.K. [Physics Department, University of Athens (Greece); NESTOR Institute for Astroparticle Physics, National Observatory of Athens, 24001 Pylos (Greece)

    2013-10-11

    The KM3NeT readout concept is based on a point-to-point optical network connecting the 10,000 optical modules in the deep-sea neutrino telescope with the shore station. The numerous fiber optic channels arriving at the shore station will be concentrated on the shore electronics systems, which will receive, merge and time order the data, and send them to the DAQ system. Although the network functionality is bi-directional, the physical channel allocation is asymmetric; most channels are assigned to the data reception and only a few channels are used for control with data transport from shore to the telescope. We will discuss the FPGA based platform systems for the shore station and the appropriate firmware implementation for the data gathering and broadcast demands of a neutrino telescope. We will present our experiences based on FPGA evaluation platforms suitable to build a demonstrator of the KM3NeT shore station.

  14. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Iliev, Metodi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  15. Remote (250 km Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system.

  16. An empirical study on KM default in product lifecycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Salehi Sadagheieni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concerning organizations’ needs as well as emphasis from academia, an increasing endeavor from organizations to design and implement knowledge management projects is evident. However, implementation of any project, particularly in preliminary phases, could render some degree of risk and threat. Thus, it is obvious that failure in recognizing and managing those risks could bring about unsuccessfulness within an organization. In this paper, we have presented an empirical study to find the most important factors influencing knowledge management (KM implementation in one of industries in Iran. The proposed study designed a questionnaire, distributed among most of the workers, and analyzed the results. The study divided KM implementation in four stages of planning, execution, development and institutional. We have also considered four important factors within each stage. The results indicate that culture was the most important barrier during all four stages. In addition, technology was an important issue during the execution stage while content was important during the development stage.

  17. DWDM Reach Extension of a GPON to 135 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Russell P.; Healey, Peter; Hope, Ian; Watkinson, Phil; Payne, Dave B.; Marmur, Oren; Ruhmann, Jörg; Zuiderveld, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    We report the operation of a gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON, 2.488 Gb/s downstream and 1.244 Gb/s upstream) over 135 km giving performance that is consistent with the standards of International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications Standardization Sector (ITU-T). Advanced dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) equipment is used to extend the physical reach and to provide fiber gain.

  18. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  19. Regulation of pacing strategies during successive 4-km time trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ansley, Les; Lambert, Mike I; Scharbort, Elske; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Noakes, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Athletes adopt a pacing strategy to delay fatigue and optimize athletic performance. However, many current theories of the regulation of muscle function during exercise do not adequately explain all observed features of such pacing strategies. We studied power output, oxygen consumption, and muscle recruitment strategies during successive 4-km cycling time trials to determine whether alterations in muscle recruitment by the central nervous system could explain the observed pacing str...

  20. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  1. Three-dimensional spatial structures of solar wind turbulence from 10 000-km to 100-km scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Using the four Cluster spacecraft, we have determined the three-dimensional wave-vector spectra of fluctuating magnetic fields in the solar wind. Three different solar wind intervals of Cluster data are investigated for this purpose, representing three different spatial scales: 10 000 km, 1000 km, and 100 km. The spectra are determined using the wave telescope technique (k-filtering technique without assuming the validity of Taylor's frozen-in-flow hypothesis nor are any assumptions made as to the symmetry properties of the fluctuations. We find that the spectra are anisotropic on all the three scales and the power is extended primarily in the directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, as might be expected of two-dimensional turbulence, however, the analyzed fluctuations are not axisymmetric. The lack of axisymmetry invalidates some earlier techniques using single spacecraft observations that were used to estimate the percentage of magnetic energy residing in quasi-two-dimensional power. However, the dominance of two-dimensional turbulence is consistent with the relatively long mean free paths of cosmic rays in observed in the heliosphere. On the other hand, the spectra also exhibit secondary extended structures oblique from the mean magnetic field direction. We discuss possible origins of anisotropy and asymmetry of solar wind turbulence spectra.

  2. Will women outrun men in ultra-marathon road races from 50 km to 1,000 km?

    OpenAIRE

    Zingg, Matthias,; Karner-Rezek, Klaus; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat; Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph,

    2014-01-01

    International audience; It has been assumed that women would be able to outrun men in ultra-marathon running. The present study investigated the sex differences in running speed in ultra-marathons held worldwide from 50 km to 1,000 km. Changes in running speeds and the sex differences in running speeds in the annual fastest finishers in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km events held worldwide from 1969-2012 were analysed using linear, non-linear and multi-level regression analyses. For the an...

  3. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,Prace walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue.

  4. Sentiment of Search: KM and IT for User Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann; Meza, David

    2014-01-01

    User perceived value is the number one indicator of a successful implementation of KM and IT collaborations. The system known as "Search" requires more strategy and workflow that a mere data dump or ungoverned infrastructure can provide. Monitoring of user sentiment can be a driver for providing objective measures of success and justifying changes to the user interface. The dynamic nature of information technology makes traditional usability metrics difficult to identify, yet easy to argue against. There is little disagreement, however, on the criticality of adapting to user needs and expectations. The Systems Usability Scale (SUS), developed by John Brook in 1986 has become an industry standard for usability engineering. The first phase of a modified SUS, polls the sentiment of representative users of the JSC Search system. This information can be used to correlate user determined value with types of information sought and how the system is (or is not) meeting expectations. Sentiment analysis by way of the SUS assists an organization in identification and prioritization of the KM and IT variables impacting user perceived value. A secondary, user group focused analysis is the topic of additional work that demonstrates the impact of specific changes dictated by user sentiment.

  5. A very high-resolution (1 km?1 km) global fossil fuel CO2 emission inventory derived using a point source database and satellite observations of nighttime lights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T. Oda; S. Maksyutov

    2011-01-01

    .... We developed a global 1 km×1 km annual fossil fuel CO 2 emission inventory for the years 1980-2007 by combining a worldwide point source database and satellite observations of the global nightlight distribution...

  6. TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 (LPRM_TMI_DY_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km daytime V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land...

  7. TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 (LPRM_TMI_NT_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TMI/TRMM surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km nighttime V001 is Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land...

  8. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  9. Analysis of ASAR Wide Swath Mode time series for the retrieval of soil moisture in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifeneder, Felix; Notarnicola, Claudia; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Spindler, Nadine; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Stamenkovic, Jelena; Wagner, Wolgang

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is a key element in the global cycles of water, energy, and carbon. Knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of the soil moisture content (SMC) is therefore essential for a number of hydrological applications as well as earth sciences like meteorology or climatology (Heathman et al., 2003). In the last few years there has been an increasing interest towards the estimation of SMC at local scales using active microwave sensors (Barret et al., 2009). Compared to passive microwave sensors, SAR offers the potential to provide data at high spatial resolution (modern sensors can acquire images with up to approximately 1 m), which is particularly important in mountainous areas. So far, these areas have been considered only marginally in research and only pioneer studies can be found in the literature (Brocca et al., 2012; Bertoldi et al. 2013). In this work we analyzed the temporal and spatial dynamics of the surface SMC (0 - 5 cm depth) on the basis of ground data collected by fixed meteorological stations located in the emerging Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site Mazia Valley (Province of Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy), SAR data from ENVISATs ASAR sensor, wide swath (WS) mode (acquired between 2005 and 2012), and SMC estimates from the hydrological model GEOtop (Endrizzi et al., 2013). The SMC retrieval process was based on the support vector regression (SVR) method introduced by Pasolli et al. (2011). The training of the algorithm was based on data acquired in 2010. Furthermore, the SAR backscatter and derived SMC have been compared with time-series derived from the distributed hydrological model GEOtop. The differences in terms of temporal and spatial dynamic have been analyzed. The main goal of this work is to evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of SAR derived SMC at field scale and to correlate them with ground information. This is a preparatory study to establish a methodology for the retrieval of SMC with high spatial and

  10. GPM SSMI on F14 Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures L1C 1.5 hours 13 km V05 (GPM_1CF14SSMI) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  11. GPM TMI on TRMM Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures L1C 1.5 hours 13 km V05 (GPM_1CTRMMTMI) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  12. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulikovskiy Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  13. Rainforest metropolis casts 1,000-km defaunation shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; Barlow, Jos; Pompeu, Paulo S; de Almeida Rocha, Mayana; Parry, Luke

    2017-08-08

    Tropical rainforest regions are urbanizing rapidly, yet the role of emerging metropolises in driving wildlife overharvesting in forests and inland waters is unknown. We present evidence of a large defaunation shadow around a rainforest metropolis. Using interviews with 392 rural fishers, we show that fishing has severely depleted a large-bodied keystone fish species, tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum), with an impact extending over 1,000 km from the rainforest city of Manaus (population 2.1 million). There was strong evidence of defaunation within this area, including a 50% reduction in body size and catch rate (catch per unit effort). Our findings link these declines to city-based boats that provide rural fishers with reliable access to fish buyers and ice and likely impact rural fisher livelihoods and flooded forest biodiversity. This empirical evidence that urban markets can defaunate deep into rainforest wilderness has implications for other urbanizing socioecological systems.

  14. Constraining density and velocity jumps across the 410 km discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Cobden, Laura; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the velocity and density structure of the olivine-to-wadsleyite transition using polarities of precursor arrivals to PP seismic waves that reflect off the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Northern Atlantic. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from Mw > 5.8 using array seismology methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. For each event the polarity of the PP phase is compared to polarity of the precursor signal and we find several events where the polarity of the precursors are opposite to that of PP. There does not seem to be any dependency of the observed polarities on the propagation direction of the seismic waves but interestingly there seems to be a dependency on the distance between source and receiver. The events with epicentral distances greater than 119 degrees mostly show opposite polarities, while for those with smaller epicentral distances the same polarity of the main phase and precursor signal is dominant. Using Zeoppritz equations, we analyzed more than 64 million combinations of density, compressional and shear wave velocities for both layers, above and below the 410 km discontinuity in order to find the best combination of those parameters that can explain the observations. The results are indicating combinations of density, P and S wave velocity exhibiting a smaller contrast compared to those from the pyrolite model (the density jump, however is still positive to provide physically meaningful results). The calculated reductions in both compressional and shear wave velocities go up to 13% but mostly fall within the range of less than 7- 8%. We interpret this reduction in elastic properties and seismic velocity of minerals as the effect of a higher than normal content of water of wadsleyite in this region, while we can exclude a reduction in iron.

  15. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; hide

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  16. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knechtle B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beat Knechtle,1,2 Sabrina Baumgartner,1 Patrizia Knechtle,2 Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Thomas Rosemann,1 Raúl Bescós31Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3National Institute of Physical Education, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon.Methods: Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods.Results: Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05 except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%, suprailiac (−1.8%, and calf (−0.8% sites decreased (P < 0.05. The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001, 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001, and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05. The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017 and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists.Keywords: endurance, athlete

  17. Global 60 km simulations with CCAM: evaluation over the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Kim C.; Katzfey, Jack J.; McGregor, John L. [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research (A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology), PB1 Aspendale, VIC (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    A six-member ensemble of 60 km resolution global atmospheric simulations has been performed for studying future climate scenarios of Pacific island nations. The simulations were performed using the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM), driven by bias-corrected sea surface temperatures (SSTs) provided by six Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 global climate models (GCMs) from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report for the period 1971-2100. This paper focuses on results for the representation of the current climate in the tropical region, a region where the ''cold tongue'' problem is apparent in all host GCMs. The SST bias-correction and the fine horizontal resolution employed in the CCAM simulations produce a significant improvement over the host GCMs in the rainfall patterns for the transient seasons March-April-May and September-October-November, and a moderate improvement for December-January-February and June-July-August. CCAM also simulates improved rainfall patterns over the South Pacific Convergence Zone. The performance of other tropical features, such as El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Walker circulation, is also evaluated. (orig.)

  18. Fluid balance of cyclists during a 387-km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Claire

    2014-01-01

    Current hydration guidelines are designed to address the fine balance between minimising dehydration while reducing the risk of hyponatremia. During prolonged cycling events small discrepancies between drinking behaviour and fluid requirements may be detrimental to health and performance. The present study aimed to investigate the hydration practices of competitors in a 387 km cycle race in order to evaluate the effect on fluid balance and monitor the prevalence of dysnatremia. Eighteen participants provided blood and urine samples pre- and post-race to measure sodium and fluid balance. Sweat samples were collected via patches for analysis of sodium concentration. Body weight was measured at the start and end of the race. On average participants consumed 0.58 L h(-1) of fluid. Upon completion of the race 7 of the 18 (39%) cyclists had blood sodium concentrations of 135 mmol L(-1) or lower with one cyclist recording a value of 132 mmol L(-1). Only two cyclists appeared to be moderately dehydrated. A post-race questionnaire indicated cyclists were most concerned with preventing dehydration. It appears that cyclists taking part in prolonged endurance events are at more risk of hyponatremia than dehydration and do not readily change their drinking behaviour to match their sweat losses.

  19. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  20. KmL: a package to cluster longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genolini, Christophe; Falissard, Bruno

    2011-12-01

    Cohort studies are becoming essential tools in epidemiological research. In these studies, measurements are not restricted to single variables but can be seen as trajectories. Thus, an important question concerns the existence of homogeneous patient trajectories. KmL is an R package providing an implementation of k-means designed to work specifically on longitudinal data. It provides several different techniques for dealing with missing values in trajectories (classical ones like linear interpolation or LOCF but also new ones like copyMean). It can run k-means with distances specifically designed for longitudinal data (like Frechet distance or any user-defined distance). Its graphical interface helps the user to choose the appropriate number of clusters when classic criteria are not efficient. It also provides an easy way to export graphical representations of the mean trajectories resulting from the clustering. Finally, it runs the algorithm several times, using various kinds of starting conditions and/or numbers of clusters to be sought, thus sparing the user a lot of manual re-sampling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  2. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Mississippi-Oxford, University, MS 38677 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  3. Characterizing the 300 km/s Stream Near Segue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wanying; Simon, Joshua D.; Bovy, Jo; ALLENDE PRIETO, CARLOS; Beers, Timothy; Harding, Paul; Ivans, Inese I.; Lane, Richard; APOGEE-2

    2018-01-01

    The characterization of stellar streams in the Milky Way halo can provide important observational constraints on the ΛCDM cosmological model, which posits that galaxies form via the accretion of smaller satellites. One such stream, the 300 km/s stellar stream near the dwarf galaxy Segue 1 (300S), was detected in narrow-field spectroscopic surveys, but its photometric counterpart has not been identified. In this study, we search for members of 300S in wide-field survey data to map out the stream’s extent and further characterize its progenitor. We add to the existing catalog of 300S members by finding new members of 300S in SEGUE-1, SEGUE-2, and APOGEE-2 surveys, and confirm the kinematic association of 300S with an elongated substructure found in both SDSS and PanSTARRS photometric data. The 300S stars display a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = ‑1.42 ± 0.26, and have chemical abundance patterns similar to that of Local Group dwarf galaxies, as well as that of the Milky Way halo. Using the open-source code galpy to model a preliminary orbit of the stream, we suggest that the progenitor of 300S experienced one major tidal disruption event on its most recent pericentric passing. We conclude that the progenitor of the stream is a dwarf galaxy that is probably similar to the satellites that were accreted to build the present-day Milky Way halo.

  4. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  5. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  6. Transmission over 5.6 km large effective area and low-loss (1.7 dB/km) photonic crystal fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsigri, Beata; Peucheret, Christophe; Nielsen, Martin Dybendal

    2003-01-01

    A 10 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero signal at 1550 ran over 5.6 km photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with 1.7 dB/km loss has been successfully transmitted, demonstrating the potential of PCF as transmission fibre.......A 10 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero signal at 1550 ran over 5.6 km photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with 1.7 dB/km loss has been successfully transmitted, demonstrating the potential of PCF as transmission fibre....

  7. An Automatic Target Detection Algorithm for Swath Sonar Backscatter Imagery, Using Image Texture and Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Fakiris

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a methodological scheme, bringing together common Acoustic Seabed Classification (ASC systems and a powerful data decomposition approach, called Independent Component Analysis (ICA, is demonstrated regarding its suitability for detecting small targets in Side Scan Sonar imagery. Traditional ASC systems extract numerous texture descriptors, leading to a large feature vector, the dimensionality of which is reduced by means of data decomposition techniques, usually Principal Component Analysis (PCA, prior to classification. However, in the target detection issue, data decomposition should point towards finding components that represent sub-ordinary image information (i.e., small targets rather than a dominant one. ICA has long been proved to be suitable for separating targets from a background, and this study represents a novel exhibition of its applicability to Side Scan Sonar (SSS images. The present study attempts to build a fully automated target detection approach that combines image based feature extraction, ICA, and unsupervised classification. The suitability of the proposed approach has been demonstrated using an SSS data-set containing more than 70 manmade targets, most of them metallic, validated through a marine magnetic survey or ground truthing inspection. The method exhibited very good performance as it was able to detect more than 77% of the targets and it produced less than seven false alarms per km2. Moreover, it was compared to cases where, in the exact same methodological scheme, no decomposition technique is used, or PCA is employed instead of ICA, achieving the highest detection rate, but, more importantly, producing more than six times less false alarms, thus proving that ICA successfully manages to maximize target to background separation.

  8. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Zingg, Matthias,; Rüst, Christoph,; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. METHODS: The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. RESULTS: For the annual fastest, swim...

  9. SWATH label-free proteomics analyses revealed the roles of oxidative stress and antioxidant defensing system in sclerotia formation of Polyporus umbellatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Tian, Xiaofang; Wang, Chunlan; Zeng, Xu; Xing, Yongmei; Ling, Hong; Yin, Wanqiang; Tian, Lixia; Meng, Zhixia; Zhang, Jihui; Guo, Shunxing

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the initiation and maturing mechanisms is important for rational manipulating sclerotia differentiation and growth from hypha of Polyporus umbellatus. Proteomes in P. umbellatus sclerotia and hyphae at initial, developmental and mature phases were studied. 1391 proteins were identified by nano-liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in Data Dependant Acquisition mode, and 1234 proteins were quantified successfully by Sequential Window Acquisition of all THeoretical fragment ion spectra-MS (SWATH-MS) technology. There were 347 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in sclerotia at initial phase compared with those in hypha, and the DEP profiles were dynamically changing with sclerotia growth. Oxidative stress (OS) in sclerotia at initial phase was indicated by the repressed proteins of respiratory chain, tricarboxylic acid cycle and the activation of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathways were determined based on DEPs. The impact of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis on sclerotium induction was further verified by glycerol addition assays, in which 5% glycerol significantly increased sclerotial differentiation rate and biomass. It can be speculated that OS played essential roles in triggering sclerotia differentiation from hypha of P. umbellatus, whereas antioxidant activity associated with glycolysis is critical for sclerotia growth. These findings reveal a mechanism for sclerotial differentiation in P. umbellatus, which may also be applicable for other fungi.

  10. An ML-Based Radial Velocity Estimation Algorithm for Moving Targets in Spaceborne High-Resolution and Wide-Swath SAR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Jin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel synthetic aperture radar (SAR is a significant breakthrough to the inherent limitation between high-resolution and wide-swath (HRWS compared with conventional SAR. Moving target indication (MTI is an important application of spaceborne HRWS SAR systems. In contrast to previous studies of SAR MTI, the HRWS SAR mainly faces the problem of under-sampled data of each channel, causing single-channel imaging and processing to be infeasible. In this study, the estimation of velocity is equivalent to the estimation of the cone angle according to their relationship. The maximum likelihood (ML based algorithm is proposed to estimate the radial velocity in the existence of Doppler ambiguities. After that, the signal reconstruction and compensation for the phase offset caused by radial velocity are processed for a moving target. Finally, the traditional imaging algorithm is applied to obtain a focused moving target image. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the accuracy and effectiveness of the estimator under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR. Furthermore, the performance is analyzed with respect to the motion ship that experiences interference due to different distributions of sea clutter. The results verify that the proposed algorithm is accurate and efficient with low computational complexity. This paper aims at providing a solution to the velocity estimation problem in the future HRWS SAR systems with multiple receive channels.

  11. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  12. ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY IN THE DANUBE RIVER (CĂLĂRAŞI BRĂILA SECTION, KM 375 - KM 175

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Ibănescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of water resources for the satisfaction of socio-economic needs depends on their quality. In the actual context of socio - economic development, the water resources of the planet are strongly affected so that their protection has become a major problem of humanity. The main purpose of this study is to assess the water quality of the Danube River, the Braila - Calarasi section (km 375 - km 175 in 2011, through physico - chemical parameters. In the same time, it was carried out and an analysis of similarities and differences in the composition of the physical - chemical river water between stations. The water samples were taken from three main points, the Bala arm and sandbar Caragheorghe (km 347 - km 343 (station 1 - S1, the Epuraşu Island (km 342- km 341 (station 2 - S2, Caleea arm (km 197 - 195 (station 3 - S3. The physico - chemical parameters used in this study are: the regime of temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, nutrients N-NO3, N-NO2, N-NH4, P-PO4 cations Ca2+, Mg2+, conductivity and turbidity. We conclude that in the Calarasi - Braila river waters fall into third quality class (moderate ecological status.

  13. An overview of knowledge management (KM) issues for implementation in consultant firms in Malaysian construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Azlan; Ismail, Syuhaida; Yahya, Khairulzan

    2017-12-01

    In the past few years, there has been a growing interest in treating knowledge as a significant organisational resource. Thus, effective development and implementation of KM requires a foundation in several rich literatures. As a preparation for the competitive industrial nation, KM is an important countenance that should be the point of convergence for the industry players. This paper wishes to draw the attention on the current situation of KM practice, focusing on consultant firms in Malaysian construction industry. Questionnaires were distributed to about 200 respondents working in the industry, with the objective of appraising the KM implementation amongst consultant firms working in construction industry in Malaysia. This paper also gives the overview on KM definition, process, understanding and challenges in construction industry, besides the critical success factor of KM implementation. The literature is restricted on the recent KM study of 17 years research from 2000 to 2017. Finally, this paper proposes the conceptual ideas of relationship between KM process, KM understanding and KM challenges with critical success factor of KM implementation.

  14. MODIS/Aqua Cld Mask Spect. Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath Subset along MLS V002 (MAM35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  15. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage.

  16. Índices fisiológicos associados com a performance aeróbia de corredores nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Babel Junior, Rubens José; Arins, Francimara Budal; Dittrich, Naiandra

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a associação entre os índices fisiológicos de potência aeróbia e capacidade aeróbia performance nas distâncias de 1,5 km, 3 km e 5 km. Nove corredores de endurance realizaram os seguintes protocolos: a) teste para determinação do VO2max, vVO2max e OBLA; b) 2-5 testes em dias alternados de 30 min com velocidade constante para determinar a vMLSS e c) determinação da performances. Foram empregadas correlação linear de Pearson ou Spearman e regressão múltipla par...

  17. Physiological and electromyographic responses during 40-km cycling time trial: relationship to muscle coordination and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Carpes, Felipe P; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Mota, Carlos B; Guimarães, Antônio Carlos S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the oxygen uptake (VO(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), cadence and muscle activity during cycling a 40-km time trial (TT), and to analyse the relationship between muscle activity and power output (PO). Eight triathletes cycled a 40-km TT on their own bicycles, which were mounted on a stationary cycle simulator. The VO(2), RER and muscle activity (electromyography, EMG) from tibialis anterior (TA), gastrocnemius medialis (GA), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of the lower limb were collected. The PO was recorded from the cycle simulator. The data were collected at the 3rd, 10th, 20th, 30th and 38th km. The root mean square envelope (RMS) of EMG was calculated. The VO(2) and PO presented a significant increase at the 38th km (45.23+/-8.35 ml kg min(-1) and 107+/-7.11% of mean PO of 40-km, respectively) compared to the 3rd km (38.12+/-5.98 ml kg min(-1) and 92+/-8.30% of mean PO of 40-km, respectively). There were no significant changes in cadence and RER throughout the TT. The VL was the only muscle that presented significant increases in the RMS at the 10th km (22.56+/-3.05% max), 20th km (23.64+/-2.52% max), 30th km (25.27+/-3.00% max), and 38th km (26.28+/-3.57%max) when compared to the 3rd km (21.03+/-1.88%max). The RMS of VL and RF presented a strong relationship to PO (r=0.89 and 0.86, respectively, pmuscles, probably in attempt to avoid premature muscle fatigue.

  18. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  19. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  20. Reprodutibilidade do desempenho em provas de corrida de 5 e 10 km em pista de atletismo

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Fabiana Andrade; Kravchychyn, Ana Claudia Pelissari; Peserico, Cecília Segabinazi; Silva, Danilo Fernandes da; Mezzaroba, Paulo Victor

    2015-01-01

    ResumoExaminou-se a reprodutibilidade do desempenho em provas de corrida de 5 e 10 km em pista de atletismo. Trinta e um corredores recreacionistas, do gênero masculino, fizeram duas provas de 5 e duas de 10 km em uma pista oficial de atletismo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os testes-retestes para ambas as provas com o uso do teste t pareado (p > 0,05). Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse e de variação foram de 0,94/3,44% (5 km) e de 0,97/2,43% (10 km), respectivamente. A rep...

  1. Experimental Demonstration of 32 Gbaud 4-PAM for Data Center Interconnections of up to 320 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Clausen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm.......This paper presents experimental results demonstrating a 64 Gbps 4-PAM transmission over a 320 km SSMF span employing standard 80 km fiber spans for metro links. The receiver consists of a LPF and a DFE utilizing the DD-LMS algorithm....

  2. Early changes of the anemia phenomenon in male 100-km ultramarathoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Chiu

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Running a 100-km ultramarathon will induce substantial sports anemia, and oxidative stress response, hemolysis, hematuria, and gastrointestinal bleeding are typical factors that contribute to its onset.

  3. 320 Gb/s Single polarization OTDM Transmission over 80 km Standard Transmission Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Seoane, Jorge; Clausen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is an attractive technique for increasing the capacity of optical transmission systems. 320 Gbit/s single-channel and single-polarization error-free transmission over continuous spans of either 80 km SMF or 77 km NZDSF are realized.......Optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is an attractive technique for increasing the capacity of optical transmission systems. 320 Gbit/s single-channel and single-polarization error-free transmission over continuous spans of either 80 km SMF or 77 km NZDSF are realized....

  4. Prediction of maximal lactate steady state velocity based on performance in a 5km cycling test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Assenço

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Stationary cycling tests were used to analyze the validity of methods for estimating the Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS and the velocity and heart rate (HR that are sustainable during a 40-km time trial. Methods: 11 cyclists (23.9±4.1 years; 178±6.8 cm tall; 68.8±5.4 kg performed the following tests on a cyclosimulator, using their own bicycles: 1 Determination of the mean velocity and HR achieved during a 5-km (5kmVel and HR5km and a 40-km time trial (40kmVel and HR40km. 2 2-3 endurance tests to determine MLSSV with blood lactate ([lac] measurements. The relationship between MLSSV and 5kmVel in data from Harnish et al. (2001 was also used to calculate predicted MLSSV (km•h-1: [MLSSVp = 0.8809 x 5kmVel + 1.6365]. The HR corresponding to MLSSV (MLSSHR was estimated by taking 88% of HR5km (maximal- HR (Swensen et al. 1999. Results: The 5kmVel, 40kmVel, MLSSV and MLSSVp were 50.07±2.03, 45.57±1.97, 45.64±2.0 and 45.77±1.77km•h-1 respectively. No differences were found between 40kmVel, MLSSV and MLSSVp. Neither did [lac] or HR corresponding to MLSSV/40kmVel exhibit differences 4.5±0.6/4.2±0.3mM and 175.1±3.0/176.8±3.1 bpm. The MLSSV was 90.9±0.5% of 5kmVel and MLSSHR was 93.6±0.5% of HR5km. Conclusion: The equation proposed is valid for estimating both MLSSV and 40kmVel on a stationary cyclosimulator. ABSTRACT A validade de se estimar a velocidade e a frequência cardíaca (FC correspondentes ao máximo estado estável de lactato sanguíneo (MEEL, bem como a velocidade e FC que poderiam ser mantidas durante uma prova simulada de 40-km foram estudados em ciclismo estacionário. Métodos: 11 ciclistas (23,9±4,1anos; 178±6,8cm altura; 68,8±5,4kg realizaram os seguintes testes em ciclo-simulador, utilizando suas próprias bicicletas: 1 Determinação da velocidade média e a FC correspondentes aos testes de 5-km (5kmVel e FC5km e 40-km (40kmVel e FC40km. 2 2-3 testes de longa duração com dosagem de lactato sanguíneo [lac] para

  5. Topography of the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities beneath the Japan Sea and adjacent regions by analysis of multiple-ScS waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Juan; Chen, Qi-Fu

    2017-02-01

    The northwest Pacific subduction region is an ideal location to study the interaction between the subducting slab and upper mantle discontinuities. Due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the sea, previous studies mostly focus on mantle transition zone (MTZ) structures beneath continents or island arcs, leaving the vast area of the Japan Sea and Okhotsk Sea untouched. In this study, we analyzed multiple-ScS reverberation waves, and a common-reflection-point stacking technique was applied to enhance consistent signals beneath reflection points. A topographic image of the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities is obtained beneath the Japan Sea and adjacent regions. One-dimensional and 3-D velocity models are adapted to obtain the "apparent" and "true" depth. We observe a systematic pattern of depression ( 10-20 km) and elevation ( 5-10 km) of the 660, with the topography being roughly consistent with the shift of the olivine-phase transition boundary caused by the subducting Pacific plate. The behavior of the 410 is more complex. It is generally 5-15 km shallower at the location where the slab penetrates and deepened by 5-10 km oceanward of the slab where a low-velocity anomaly is observed in tomography images. Moreover, we observe a wide distribution of depressed 410 beneath the southern Okhotsk Sea and western Japan Sea. The hydrous wadsleyite boundary caused by the high water content at the top of the MTZ could explain the depression. The long-history trench rollback motion of Pacific slab might be responsible for the widely distributed depression of the 410 ranging upward and landward from the slab.

  6. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  7. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkulo, M.A.R.; Bol, S.; Levels, K.; Lamberts, R.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Noakes, T.D.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and

  8. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  9. GHRSST Level 4 Australian Bureau of Meteorology GAMSSA_28km Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GAMSSA v1.0 system blends NAVOCEANO's GAC 9.9 km x 4.4 km resolution AVHRR L2P SST1m data (NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and METOP-A), European Space Agency's 0.17 AATSR skin...

  10. 10 km running performance predicted by a multiple linear regression model with allometrically adjusted variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Cesar C C; Barros, Ronaldo V; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Gagliardi, João F L; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Lambert, Mike I; Pires, Flavio O

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the power of VO 2max , peak treadmill running velocity (PTV), and running economy (RE), unadjusted or allometrically adjusted, in predicting 10 km running performance. Eighteen male endurance runners performed: 1) an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2max and PTV; 2) a constant submaximal run at 12 km·h -1 on an outdoor track for RE determination; and 3) a 10 km running race. Unadjusted (VO 2max , PTV and RE) and adjusted variables (VO 2max 0.72 , PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 ) were investigated through independent multiple regression models to predict 10 km running race time. There were no significant correlations between 10 km running time and either the adjusted or unadjusted VO 2max . Significant correlations (p 0.84 and power > 0.88. The allometrically adjusted predictive model was composed of PTV 0.72 and RE 0.60 and explained 83% of the variance in 10 km running time with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 1.5 min. The unadjusted model composed of a single PVT accounted for 72% of the variance in 10 km running time (SEE of 1.9 min). Both regression models provided powerful estimates of 10 km running time; however, the unadjusted PTV may provide an uncomplicated estimation.

  11. The Reliability of a 5km Run Test on a Motorized Treadmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew; Brophy-Williams, Ned; Walker, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the reliability of a 5km run test on a motorized treadmill. Over three consecutive weeks, 12 well-trained runners completed three 5km time trials on a treadmill following a standardized warm-up. Runners were partially-blinded to their running speed and distance covered. Total time to complete the…

  12. Frontal Structures and Eddy Variability in a 1 km Resolution Model of the Oregon Shelf Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, J. J.; Koch, A. O.; Kurapov, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    Using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a 1-km horizontal resolution ocean model of circulation on the Oregon shelf has been developed, nested in the 3-km resolution ROMS model of the coastal transitition zone (CTZ). The study period is May-August 2002, for when data from the GLOBEC field program are available for model verification. Small-scale eddy variability, resolved in the 1-km solution but not in the 3- km model, affects the upwelling front structure and near-surface cross-shelf heat and salinity transport. In particular, in the 1-km model, the temperature front is more diffused, and qualitatively more similar to the satellite SST. The energy of small-scale eddies apparently cascades to larger scales, with development of mesoscale eddies on the order of 20 km in an abundance not seen in the 3-km model. In August, in the area of a jet separated from Cape Blanco into CTZ, the 1-km solution predicts eddy kinetic energy of surface currents in a better qualitative agreement with long range high frequency (HF) radar observations (using data provided by P. M. Kosro, OSU). Analysis is underway to study the effect of small-scale processes, such as submesoscale eddies and internal tides, on cross-shore momentum and heat transport in the coastal ocean.

  13. Performance of photo-sensors for KM3NeT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Kavatsyuk, O.; Löhner, H.; Peek, H.; Steijger, J.

    2013-01-01

    The future deep-sea neutrino telescope of multi cubic-km size, KM3NeT, has been designed for an efficient search for high energy neutrinos originating from galactic and extragalactic sources. The detection principle relies on the measurement of Cherenkov light emitted from relativistic charged

  14. MODIS/Terra Level 1B Subsampled Calibrated Radiance 5Km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Near Real Time (NRT) data type (MOD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MOD021KM product and written out...

  15. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Subsampled Calibrated Radiance 5Km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Near Real Time (NRT) data type (MOD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MOD021KM product and written out...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Subsampled Calibrated Radiance 5Km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Near Real Time (NRT) data type (MYD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MYD021KM product and written out...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Level 1B Subsampled Calibrated Radiance 5Km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Near Real Time (NRT) data type (MYD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MYD021KM product and written out...

  18. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  19. Assessment of the 2,4 km run as a predictor of aerobic capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 2,4 km run time test is routinely used in military training programmes as an indicator of aerobic capacity and its possible improvement, an attempt was made to: (i) establish a regression equation of V02max V. 2,4 km run time in a group of 20 young military volunteers; and (ii) determine whether this equation could ...

  20. Maglev (603 km/h), Hyperloop (1102 km/h). Vers un "retour sur terre" de la très grande vitesse ?

    OpenAIRE

    Crozet, Yves

    2015-01-01

    International audience; La vitesse physique de 603 km/h, atteinte par le Maglev le 21 avril 2015 au Japon – ou celle de 1 102 km/h qu’affiche le projet Hyperloop aux Etats-Unis –, deviendra peut-être une réalité pour le transport public et ses usagers. Malgré son coût en technologie, en construction et en exploitation, certains en font le pari. Mais ils semblent écarter un peu vite la question pourtant essentielle des conditions permettant la fréquentation des transports, et favorisant la mob...

  1. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia, which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  2. A radiolabeled peptide ligand of the hERG channel, [125I]-BeKm-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelo, Kamilla; Korolkova, Yuliya V; Grunnet, Morten

    2003-01-01

    from transfected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). Under optimized conditions the equilibrium dissociation constant ( Kd) values from saturation and kinetic binding analysis were 13 and 14 pM, respectively. Both the association and dissociation of [(125)I]-BeKm-1 were fast (association rate...... constant, k(on)=3.6 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1); dissociation rate constant, k(off)=0.005 s(-1)). Wild-type BeKm-1 displaced binding of [125I]-BeKm-1 with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 44 pM. In contrast, competition experiments with a BeKm-1 mutant BeKm-1-K18A, in which the toxin interaction site...

  3. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanda G

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,3 1Polytechnic School, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, 3Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Marathon (42 km and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods: Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results: A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat, the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion: Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. Keywords: running, performance, training indices, body fat, sports training

  4. GPM AMSR-E on AQUA Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures L1C 1.5 hours 10.5 km V05 (GPM_1CAQUAAMSRE) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  5. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  6. Allocating emissions to 4 km and 1 km horizontal spatial resolutions and its impact on simulated NOx and O3 in Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Jeon, Wonbae

    2017-09-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ air quality modeling system was used to investigate the impact of horizontal spatial resolution on simulated nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) in the Greater Houston area (a non-attainment area for O3). We employed an approach recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to allocate county-based emissions to model grid cells in 1 km and 4 km horizontal grid resolutions. The CMAQ Integrated Process Rate analyses showed a substantial difference in emissions contributions between 1 and 4 km grids but similar NOx and O3 concentrations over urban and industrial locations. For example, the peak NOx emissions at an industrial and urban site differed by a factor of 20 for the 1 km and 8 for the 4 km grid, but simulated NOx concentrations changed only by a factor of 1.2 in both cases. Hence, due to the interplay of the atmospheric processes, we cannot expect a similar level of reduction of the gas-phase air pollutants as the reduction of emissions. Both simulations reproduced the variability of NASA P-3B aircraft measurements of NOy and O3 in the lower atmosphere (from 90 m to 4.5 km). Both simulations provided similar reasonable predictions at surface, while 1 km case depicted more detailed features of emissions and concentrations in heavily polluted areas, such as highways, airports, and industrial regions, which are useful in understanding the major causes of O3 pollution in such regions, and to quantify transport of O3 to populated communities in urban areas. The Integrated Reaction Rate analyses indicated a distinctive difference of chemistry processes between the model surface layer and upper layers, implying that correcting the meteorological conditions at the surface may not help to enhance the O3 predictions. The model-observation O3 bias in our studies (e.g., large over-prediction during the nighttime or along Gulf of Mexico coastline), were due to uncertainties in meteorology, chemistry or other processes. Horizontal grid

  7. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  8. Knowledge Management ( KM A New Management Paradigm in M.I.N.T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hamijah binti Ab. Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM is one of the leading approaches used for organizationalimprovement in which a range of specific processes and practices for identifying, capturing,acquiring, organizing and preserving knowledge and for making it available for transfer, sharingand reuse across the organization are being used. KM can help research and development (R&Dorganization to intensify innovation by using information and communication technology (ICT tofacilitate the knowledge flow. Even though KM is a new management paradigm in MINT, the KMstructure, policy, objectives, strategies and initiatives has been established. However implementationrate is rather slow and the impact of KM initiatives is not readily felt. This paper has identified andcompared KM case studies. These are analysed and assessed based on their challenges, strategiesand lesson learnt from an ICT perspective. The analysis and assessment of the case studies is used todevelop action plans to improve MINT KM implementation. The result of this analysis andassessment will be proposed as MINT KM solution in the future.Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management process framework, knowledge creationspiral model, knowledge management life cycle, knowledge management processes cycle

  9. Reprodutibilidade do desempenho em provas de corrida de 5 e 10 km em pista de atletismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Andrade Machado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumoExaminou-se a reprodutibilidade do desempenho em provas de corrida de 5 e 10 km em pista de atletismo. Trinta e um corredores recreacionistas, do gênero masculino, fizeram duas provas de 5 e duas de 10 km em uma pista oficial de atletismo. Não houve diferença significativa entre os testes-retestes para ambas as provas com o uso do teste t pareado (p > 0,05. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse e de variação foram de 0,94/3,44% (5 km e de 0,97/2,43% (10 km, respectivamente. A reprodutibilidade de ambas as provas em pista de atletismo foi semelhante às reprodutibilidades reportadas na literatura para testes em laboratório. Além disso, a prova de 10 km se mostrou mais reprodutível do que a prova de 5 km para a amostra estudada e necessitou de aproximadamente metade da amostra necessária para se detectarem aumentos significativos durante teste-reteste em provas de 5 km.

  10. Effect of β-alanine supplementation on 20 km cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Margaret JAMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of β-alanine supplementation on high-intensity cycling performance and capacity have been evaluated, although the effects on longer duration cycling performance are unclear. Nineteen UK category 1 male cyclists completed four 20 km cycling time trials, two before and two after supplementation with either 6.4 g•d-1 β-alanine (n = 10; BA or a matched placebo (n = 9; P. Performance time for the 20 km time trial and 1 km split times were recorded. There was no significant effect of β-alanine supplementation on 20 km time trial performance (BA-pre 1943 ± 129 s; BA-post 1950 ± 147 s; P-pre 1989 ± 106 s; P-post 1986 ± 115 s or on the performance of each 1 km split. The effect of β-alanine on 20 km time trial performance was deemed unclear as determined by magnitude based inferences. Supplementation with 6.4 g•d-1 of β-alanine for 4 weeks did not affect 20 km cycling time trial performance in well trained male cyclists.

  11. The beauty of being (label-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/36i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Vowinckel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA and data independent (SWATH acquisition on a TripleTOF 5600 instrument. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  12. The beauty of being (label-free: sample preparation methods for SWATH-MS and next-generation targeted proteomics [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2ed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Vowinckel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of qualitative analysis with label-free quantification has greatly facilitated the throughput and flexibility of novel proteomic techniques. However, such methods rely heavily on robust and reproducible sample preparation procedures. Here, we benchmark a selection of in gel, on filter, and in solution digestion workflows for their application in label-free proteomics. Each procedure was associated with differing advantages and disadvantages. The in gel methods interrogated were cost effective, but were limited in throughput and digest efficiency. Filter-aided sample preparations facilitated reasonable processing times and yielded a balanced representation of membrane proteins, but led to a high signal variation in quantification experiments. Two in solution digest protocols, however, gave optimal performance for label-free proteomics. A protocol based on the detergent RapiGest led to the highest number of detected proteins at second-best signal stability, while a protocol based on acetonitrile-digestion, RapidACN, scored best in throughput and signal stability but came second in protein identification. In addition, we compared label-free data dependent (DDA and data independent (SWATH acquisition. While largely similar in protein detection, SWATH outperformed DDA in quantification, reducing signal variation and markedly increasing the number of precisely quantified peptides.

  13. Digital optical modules for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalekin, Oleg [Universitaet Erlangen, ECAP (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is multi-cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope under construction in the Mediterranean Sea. In the currently running Phase 1 of the project, almost 30 detection units - 700 m tall vertical structures holding 18 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) each - will be produced and deployed. A KM3NeT DOM consists of a pressure resistant glass sphere encapsulating 31 photomultiplier tubes of 80 mm diameter, readout electronics and additional instrumentation for calibration and monitoring. The Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics is one of the DOM integration sites of the project. This contribution describes the design, functionality and integration procedure of the KM3NeT DOM.

  14. KM3NeT/ARCA sensitivity and discovery potential for neutrino point-like sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovato A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure with a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. Of these, the KM3NeT/ARCA detector, installed in the KM3NeT-It node of the network, is optimised for studying high-energy neutrinos of cosmic origin. Sensitivities to galactic sources such as the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 and the pulsar wind nebula Vela X are presented as well as sensitivities to a generic point source with an E−2 spectrum which represents an approximation for the spectrum of extragalactic candidate neutrino sources.

  15. Small subsidence of the 660-km discontinuity beneath Japan probed by ScS reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mamoru; Misawa, Mika; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    We investigate layering structure in the mantle beneath Japan using ScS reverberation waveforms of two recent large deep events in the northwest Pacific. We estimate regional variation of the elastic and anelastic structure of the mantle as well as properties of the major velocity discontinuities by modeling broadband seismograms recorded at two dense networks, J-Array and FREESIA. The 660-km discontinuity is the deepest in the region where the stagnant subducting slab in the transition zone is tomographically imaged, but the subsidence is of ∼10 km, much smaller than previous estimates with SS precursors. No significant elevation is detected for the 410-km discontinuity.

  16. LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion in the Ocean on Scales of 10 m to 10 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-20

    m to 10 km 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-10-C-0080 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) M. -Pascale Lelong...ocean on scales of 0.1-10 km that can be implemented in larger-scale ocean models. These parameterizations will incorporate the effects of local...Distribution approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Final Report LES Modeling of Lateral Dispersion on Scales of 10 m to 10 km M.-Pascale

  17. Age and ultra-marathon performance - 50 to 1,000 km distances from 1969 – 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Tobias; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    We investigated age and performance in distance-limited ultra-marathons held from 50 km to 1,000 km. Age of peak running speed and running speed of the fastest competitors from 1969 to 2012 in 50 km, 100 km, 200 km and 1,000 km ultra-marathons were analyzed using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analyses. The ages of the ten fastest women ever were 40 ± 4 yrs (50 km), 34 ± 7 yrs (100 km), 42 ± 6 yrs (200 km), and 41 ± 5 yrs (1,000 km). The ages were significantly different betw...

  18. Gridded 5km GHCN-Daily Temperature and Precipitation Dataset, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gridded 5km GHCN-Daily Temperature and Precipitation Dataset (nClimGrid) consists of four climate variables derived from the GHCN-D dataset: maximum temperature,...

  19. LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Tower flux measurements of carbon dioxide,water vapor, heat, and meteorological variables were obtained at the Tapajos National Forest, km 83 site,...

  20. LBA-ECO CD-04 Meteorological and Flux Data, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tower flux measurements of carbon dioxide,water vapor, heat, and meteorological variables were obtained at the Tapajos National Forest, km 83 site, Santarem, Para,...

  1. LBA-ECO CD-04 LAI Estimated from Photos, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains summary data for monthly leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) at the km 83 Tower Site, in the Tapajos National Forest,...

  2. LBA-ECO CD-04 LAI Estimated from Photos, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains summary data for monthly leaf area index (LAI) and plant area index (PAI) at the km 83 Tower Site, in the Tapajos National Forest, Para,...

  3. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-04 Soil Respiration, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports on the flux of carbon dioxide from logged forest soils near the eddy flux tower at the km 83 site, Para, Brazil. The automated soil...

  5. LBA-ECO ND-02 Soil Gas Flux, Rainfall Exclusion, km 67, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of a rainfall exclusion experiment in the Tapajos National Forest (Flona-Tapajos) at km 67 along the Santarem-Cuiaba BR-163...

  6. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  7. Spetsialistid soovitavad kesklinnas piirata sõidukite kiirust 40 km/h-ni / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Liiklusspetsialistid soovitavad inimvigastustega õnnetuste vähendamiseks piirata Tallinna kesklinnas kiirust 40 km/h-ni. Linna liiklusteenistus ei pea seda põhjendatuks. Lisa: Helsingi positiivne kogemus

  8. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This...

  10. LBA-ECO CD-10 Temperature Profiles at km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports temperature measurements at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest Tower Site. This site is in...

  11. 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Jun-Fu; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Zheng; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2012-03-15

    We report a demonstration of quantum key distribution (QKD) over a standard telecom fiber exceeding 50 dB in loss and 250 km in length. The differential phase shift QKD protocol was chosen and implemented with a 2 GHz system clock rate. By careful optimization of the 1 bit delayed Faraday-Michelson interferometer and the use of the superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), we achieved a quantum bit error rate below 2% when the fiber length was no more than 205 km, and of 3.45% for a 260 km fiber with 52.9 dB loss. We also improved the quantum efficiency of SSPD to obtain a high key rate for 50 km length.

  12. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  13. CLPX NOAA FSL Rapid Update Cycle 20 km (RUC-20) Dataset, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle analysis/model system at a 20-km horizontal resolution (RUC20) provides short-range numerical weather guidance for general forecasting, as...

  14. CLPX-Model: Rapid Update Cycle 40km (RUC-40) Model Output Reduced Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle, version 2 at 40km (RUC-2, known to the Cold Land Processes community as RUC40) model is a Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS)...

  15. LBA-ECO ND-02 Soil Gas Flux, Rainfall Exclusion, km 67, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of a rainfall exclusion experiment in the Tapajos National Forest (Flona-Tapajos) at km 67 along the Santarem-Cuiaba...

  16. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

  17. LBA-ECO CD-10 Forest Litter Data for km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a single text file which reports litter type and mass in the old-growth upland forest at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67, Primary Forest...

  18. LBA-ECO CD-10 Forest Litter Data for km 67 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains a single text file which reports litter type and mass in the old-growth upland forest at the Para Western (Santarem) - km 67,...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-14 Root Biomass and Phenology, km 67 Site, Para, Brazil: 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains biomass estimates for coarse roots measured on the forest floor and measurements of fine root growth down to 2-m depth at the km 67 Rainfall...

  20. SMAP L2 Radiometer Half-Orbit 36 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Passive soil moisture estimates onto a 36-km global Earth-fixed grid, based on radiometer measurements acquired when the SMAP spacecraft is travelling from North to...

  1. CLPX NOAA FSL Rapid Update Cycle 20 km (RUC-20) Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle analysis/model system at a 20-km horizontal resolution (RUC20) provides short-range numerical weather guidance for general forecasting, as...

  2. USGS BOEM PaCSEA Seabird Density, 2011-2012, in 6.8-km bins

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — To ensure comparable spatial and temporal coverage with similar historic datasets, we flew 32 east-west-oriented uniform transects (spaced at 15' latitude [27.8-km]...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance Quality Daily L2G Global 1km SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) level-2G 1km surface reflectance data state QA product MYD09GST, is a restructured version of its primary input, the state QA data in...

  4. MODIS/Terra Surface Reflectance Quality Daily L2G Global 1km SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) level-2G 1km surface reflectance data state QA product MOD09GST, is a restructured version of its primary input, the state QA data in...

  5. USGS_PaCSEA_SeabirdDensity_2011_2012_3km

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — To ensure comparable spatial and temporal coverage with similar historic datasets, we flew 32 east-west-oriented uniform transects (spaced at 15' latitude [27.8-km]...

  6. LBA-ECO CD-04 CO2 Profiles, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Atmospheric carbon dioxide profiles were measured at 12 levels up to 64 m at the km 83 logged tower site in Tapajos National Forest, Santarem, Para,...

  7. LBA-ECO CD-04 Dendrometry, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: A dendrometry study was conducted at the logged forest tower site, km 83 site, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil over a period of 4 years following the...

  8. LBA-ECO CD-04 Biomass Survey, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the results of a biometric tree survey of a 19.25 ha area adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 logged forest tower site in...

  9. LBA-ECO CD-04 Biomass Survey, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of a biometric tree survey of a 19.25 ha area adjacent to the eddy flux tower at the km 83 logged forest tower site in Tapajos...

  10. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the eddy flux...

  11. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (Hansen et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of Hansen et al. (1999), "1 km Global Land Cover Data Set Derived from AVHRR," which was developed at the Laboratory for Global...

  12. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (Hansen et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of Hansen et al. (1999), "1 km Global Land Cover Data Set Derived from AVHRR," which was developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote...

  13. NACP North American 8-km Net Ecosystem Exchange and Component Fluxes, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides modeled carbon flux estimates at 8-km spatial resolution over North America for the year 2004 of (1) net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon...

  14. 14 km Sea Surface Temperature for North America, 1986 - present (NODC Accession 0099042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This product presents local sea surface temperatures (degrees C). It is a composite gridded-image derived from 8-km resolution SST observations collected by Advanced...

  15. CLPX-Model: Rapid Update Cycle 40km (RUC-40) Model Output Reduced Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Update Cycle, version 2 at 40km (RUC-2, known to the Cold Land Processes community as RUC40) model is a Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS)...

  16. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

    2014-10-01

    Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

  17. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    Recent seismic evidence suggests that subducted slabs experience resistance to further descent when they encounter the 660 km seismic discontinuity. Several possible causes of this resistance are evaluated. It is concluded that the chemical composition of the lower mantle is similar to that of the upper mantle, and that compositional change is therefore unlikely to be the cause of resistance to slab penetration. The proposal that a large increase of viscosity at the 660 km discontinuity impedes descending slabs is also rejected. However, three other factors are identified, each of which is capable of causing substantial resistance to descending slabs: (1) the negative slope of the transformation of silicate spinel to Mg-perovskite+magnesiowuestite; (2) differentiation of oceanic lithosphere into basaltic and depleted peridotitic layers, causing the slab to be buoyant compared with surrounding mantle pyrolite between depths of 660-800 km; (3) the accumulation of former oceanic crust to produce a gravitationally stable layer of garnetite (about 50 km thick) on top of the 660 km discontinuity. The combined effects of these sources of resistance provide a filter for subducted slabs. Those slabs with seismic zones extending below 600 km may possess sufficient negative buoyancy and strength to overcome the barriers and penetrate into the lower mantle. However, the resistance causes strong buckling and plastic thickening of these slabs, which accumulate to form huge blobs or 'megaliths' underneath the 660 km discontinuity. In contrast, slabs with seismic zones extending no deeper than 300 km possess much smaller degrees of negative buoyancy and strength and hence are unable to penetrate the 660 km discontinuity. Slabs of this type are recycled within the transition zone and upper mantle. Mixing and petrological homogenization processes are less efficient in the transition zone than in the upper mantle (above 400 km). The transition zone is composed mainly of ancient slabs

  18. Bi-directional 120 km long-reach PON link based on distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2006-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional PON link with 120 km reach and symmetric up and down stream data rate of 10 Gbit/s. Lossless transmission was achieved with >40 dB of received OSNR......We propose and demonstrate a bidirectional PON link with 120 km reach and symmetric up and down stream data rate of 10 Gbit/s. Lossless transmission was achieved with >40 dB of received OSNR...

  19. The effect of shoe type on gait in forefoot strike runners during a 50-km run

    OpenAIRE

    Kasmer, Mark E.; Ketchum, Nicholas C.; Liu, Xue-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the relative change in foot-strike pattern, pressure characteristics, surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings, and stride characteristics in forefoot strike runners wearing both minimalist and traditional shoes during a 50-km run. Methods: Four experienced minimalist runners were enrolled in this study. Each runner ran a 50-km simulated run in both minimalist shoes and traditional shoes. Pressure data, sEMG recordings, and limited 3D motion capture data were collecte...

  20. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tanda G; Knechtle B

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Tanda,1 Beat Knechtle2,3 1Polytechnic School, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, 3Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods: Training and anth...

  1. The effects of running a 308 km ultra-marathon on cardiac markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joo; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Al-Chan; Goh, Choong-Won; Kim, Chul; Oh, Jae-Keun; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cardiac strain and damage in 18 male marathoners with average age of 52.8 ± 5.0 years running at a 308 km ultra-marathon. Blood samples were collected at pre-race, 100 km, 200 km and 308 km check points for the analysis of cardiac muscle injury markers, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac muscle strain marker, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The CK levels increased 1127.2 ± 507.9 IU/L, 5133.8 ± 2492.7 IU/L and 4958.4 ± 2087.9 IU/L at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB levels increased 20.2 ± 11.2 ng/mL, 73.3 ± 35.6 ng/mL and 68.6 ± 42.6 ng/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB/CK ratio showed that the CK-MB mass index was within the normal range (marathon suggested that no myocardial injury despite an elevation in CK-MB. The increase in NT-proBNP levels probably resulted from continuous hemodynamic cardiac stress and represents a transient physiological myocardial protective response.

  2. THE ACUTE EFFECTS OF VARYING STRENGTH EXERCISES BOUTS ON 5KM RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira de Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if there were acute interference effects of strength exercises on subsequent continuous and intermittent 5Km aerobic exercises. Eleven physically active males (23.1 ± 3.1 yrs, 1.75 ± 0.07 m, 70.5 ± 8.8 kg, and 58.2 ± 8.3 VO2max performed the following experimental sessions: A 5 sets of 5 RM on the leg press followed by a 5km run performed continuously (average velocity of the first and second ventilatory thresholds, vΔ50, B 5 sets of 5 RM on the leg press followed by a 5km run performed intermittently (1 min run at the vVO2max : 1 min of rest; C 2 sets of 15 RM on the leg press followed by a 5km continuous run; and D 2 sets of 15 RM on the leg press followed by a 5km intermittent run. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rate of perceived exertion, and VO2 at the first and the fifth km were considered for statistical purposes. There were no significant effects of both strength bouts on any of the variables associated with endurance performance (p > 0.05. It seems that both maximum and strength endurance bouts do not acutely impair aerobic performance

  3. Neither internal nor external nasal dilation improves cycling 20-km time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catriona M; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2017-04-01

    Research is equivocal regarding endurance performance benefits of external nasal dilators, and currently research focusing on internal nasal dilators is non-existent. Both devices are used within competitive cycling. This study examined the influence of external and internal nasal dilation on cycling economy of motion and 20-km time trial performance. The study utilized a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design. Fifteen trained cyclists completed three exercise sessions consisting of a 15min standardized warm up and 20-km cycling time trial while wearing either a Breathe Right® external nasal dilator, Turbine® internal nasal dilator or no device (control). During the warm up, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and dyspnea and expired gases were collected. During the time trial, heart rate, perceived exertion, and dyspnea were collected at 4-km intervals and mean 20-km power output was recorded. No differences were observed for mean 20-km power output between the internal (270±45W) or external dilator (271±44W) and control (272±44W). No differences in the economy of motion were observed throughout the 15-min warm up between conditions. The Turbine® and Breathe Right® nasal dilators are ineffective at enhancing 20-km cycling time trial performance. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Listening to music in the first, but not the last 1.5 km of a 5-km running trial alters pacing strategy and improves performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Silva, A E; Silva-Cavalcante, M D; Pires, F O; Bertuzzi, R; Oliveira, R S F; Bishop, D

    2012-10-01

    We examined the effects of listening to music on attentional focus, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), pacing strategy and performance during a simulated 5-km running race. 15 participants performed 2 controlled trials to establish their best baseline time, followed by 2 counterbalanced experimental trials during which they listened to music during the first (M start) or the last (M finish) 1.5 km. The mean running velocity during the first 1.5 km was significantly higher in M start than in the fastest control condition (p0.05). The faster first 1.5 m in M start was accompanied by a reduction in associative thoughts compared with the fastest control condition. There were no significant differences in RPE between conditions (p>0.05). These results suggest that listening to music at the beginning of a trial may draw the attentional focus away from internal sensations of fatigue to thoughts about the external environment. However, along with the reduction in associative thoughts and the increase in running velocity while listening to music, the RPE increased linearly and similarly under all conditions, suggesting that the change in velocity throughout the race may be to maintain the same rate of RPE increase. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Statistics of 150-km echoes over Jicamarca based on low-power VHF observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we summarize the statistics of the so-called 150-km echoes obtained with a low-power VHF radar operation at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.97 S, 76.87 W, and 1.3 dip angle at 150-km altitude in Peru. Our results are based on almost four years of observations between August 2001 and July 2005 (approximately 150 days per year. The majority of the observations have been conducted between 08:00 and 17:00 LT. We present the statistics of occurrence of the echoes for each of the four seasons as a function of time of day and altitude. The occurrence frequency of the echoes is ~75% around noon and start decreasing after 15:00 LT and disappear after 17:00 LT in all seasons. As shown in previous campaign observations, the 150-echoes appear at a higher altitude (>150 km in narrow layers in the morning, reaching lower altitudes (~135 km around noon, and disappear at higher altitudes (>150 km after 17:00 LT. We show that although 150-km echoes are observed all year long, they exhibit a clear seasonal variability on altitudinal coverage and the percentage of occurrence around noon and early in the morning. We also show that there is a strong day-to-day variability, and no correlation with magnetic activity. Although our results do not solve the 150-km riddle, they should be taken into account when a reasonable theory is proposed.

  6. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

  7. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance.

  8. 0.87 Tbit/s 160 Gbaud dual-polarization D8PSK OTDM transmission over 110 km

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsuwannakul, E.; Galili, Michael; Bougioukos, M.

    2010-01-01

    feasibility of transmitting 0.87 Tbit/s dual polarization D8PSK-OTDM over 110 km is, for the first time, demonstrated along with 0.44 Tbit/s single polarization D8PSK-OTDM over 220 km in conventional 55-km span SMF+DCF link.......feasibility of transmitting 0.87 Tbit/s dual polarization D8PSK-OTDM over 110 km is, for the first time, demonstrated along with 0.44 Tbit/s single polarization D8PSK-OTDM over 220 km in conventional 55-km span SMF+DCF link....

  9. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending V002 (LPRM_AMSRE_D_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending V002 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  10. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 (LPRM_AMSRE_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  11. Acoustic neutrino detection investigations within ANTARES and prospects for KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahmann Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic neutrino detection technique is a promising approach for future large-scale detectors with the aim of measuring the small expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos at energies exceeding 1 EeV. It suggests itself to investigate this technique in the context of underwater Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, in particular KM3NeT, because acoustic sensors are present by design to allow for the calibration of the positions of the optical sensors. For the future, the KM3NeT detector in the Mediterranean Sea will provide an ideal infrastructure for a dedicated array of acoustic sensors. In this presentation results from the acoustic array AMADEUS of the ANTARES detector will be discussed with respect to the potential and implications for acoustic neutrino detection with KM3NeT and beyond.

  12. Experimental demonstration of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 15 km and 84 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF at 1525 nm using a 25G VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Record 28-GBd PAM-4 transmission over 15 km SSMF and 42-GBd PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF using a low-power 25G VCSEL are demonstrated at 1525 nm without optical dispersion compensation and only simple transceiver DSPs.......Record 28-GBd PAM-4 transmission over 15 km SSMF and 42-GBd PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF using a low-power 25G VCSEL are demonstrated at 1525 nm without optical dispersion compensation and only simple transceiver DSPs....

  13. Archive of Side Scan Sonar and Swath Bathymetry Data collected during USGS Cruise 10CCT02 Offshore of Petit Bois Island Including Petit Bois Pass, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi, March 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, William R.; Flocks, James G.; DeWitt, Nancy T.; Forde, Arnell S.; Kelso, Kyle; Thompson, Phillip R.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    In March of 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys offshore of Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, and Dauphin Island, Alabama (fig. 1). These efforts were part of the USGS Gulf of Mexico Science Coordination partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to assist the Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP) and the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) Ecosystem Change and Hazards Susceptibility Project by mapping the shallow geologic stratigraphic framework of the Mississippi Barrier Island Complex. These geophysical surveys will provide the data necessary for scientists to define, interpret, and provide baseline bathymetry and seafloor habitat for this area and to aid scientists in predicting future geomorphological changes of the islands with respect to climate change, storm impact, and sea-level rise. Furthermore, these data will provide information for barrier island restoration, particularly in Camille Cut, and protection for the historical Fort Massachusetts on Ship Island, Mississippi. For more information please refer to http://ngom.usgs.gov/gomsc/mscip/index.html. This report serves as an archive of the processed swath bathymetry and side scan sonar data (SSS). Data products herein include gridded and interpolated surfaces, seabed backscatter images, and ASCII x,y,z data products for both swath bathymetry and side scan sonar imagery. Additional files include trackline maps, navigation files, GIS files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Scanned images of the handwritten and digital FACS logs are also provided as PDF files. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  14. New Insight of Common Regulatory Pathways in Human Trabecular Meshwork Cells in Response to Dexamethasone and Prednisolone Using an Integrated Quantitative Proteomics: SWATH and MRM-HR Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Sze Wan; Do, Chi Wai; Lam, Thomas Chuen; Kong, Ricky Pak Wing; Li, King Kit; Chun, Ka Man; Stamer, William Daniel; To, Chi Ho

    2017-10-06

    The molecular pathophysiology of corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension (CIH) is not well understood. To determine the biological mechanisms of CIH, this study investigated protein expression profiles of human trabecular meshwork (hTM) cells in response to dexamethasone and prednisolone treatment. Both discovery-based sequential windowed data independent acquisition of the total high-resolution mass spectra (SWATH-MS) and targeted based high resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-HR) confirmation were applied using a hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer. A comprehensive list of 1759 proteins (1% FDR) was generated from the hTM. Quantitative proteomics revealed 20 differentially expressed proteins (p-value ≤ 0.05 and fold-change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.67) commonly induced by prednisolone and dexamethasone, both at 300 nM. These included connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), two proteins previously implicated in ocular hypertension, glaucoma, and the transforming growth factor-β pathway. Their gene expressions in response to corticosteroids were further confirmed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together with other novel proteins identified in the data sets, additional pathways implicated by these regulated proteins were the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, integrin cell surface interaction, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, and ECM-receptor interaction. Our results indicated that an integrated platform of SWATH-MS and MRM-HR allows high throughput identification and confirmation of novel and known corticosteroid-regulated proteins in trabecular meshwork cells, demonstrating the power of this technique in extending the current understanding of the pathogenesis of CIH.

  15. Influence of an Enforced Fast Start on 10-km-Running Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Everton C; Barroso, Renato; Renfree, Andrew; Gil, Saulo; Tricoli, Valmor

    2016-09-01

    The effects of an enforced fast start on long-distance performance are controversial and seem to depend on the athlete's capacity to delay and tolerate metabolic disruption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an enforced start on 10-km-running performance and the influence of the some physiological and performance variables on the ability to tolerate an enforced fast start during the running. Fifteen moderately trained runners performed two 10-km time trials (TTs): free pacing (FP-TT) and fast start (FS-TT). During FS-TT, speed during the first kilometer was 6% higher than in FP-TT. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak velocity (PV), velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), ventilatory threshold, and running economy at 10 and 12 km/h and FP-TT average velocity (AV-10 km) were individually determined. There were no differences between FP-TT and FS-TT performance (45:01 ± 4:08 vs 45:11 ± 4:46 min:s, respectively, P = .4). Eight participants improved (+2.2%) their performance and were classified as positive responders (PR) and 7 decreased (-3.3%) performance and were classified as negative responders (NR). Running speed was significantly higher for PR between 6 and 9.2 km (P < .05) during FS-TT. In addition, PR presented higher PV (P = .02) and vVO2max (P = .01) than NR, suggesting that PV and vVO2max might influence the ability to tolerate a fast-start strategy. In conclusion, there was an individual response to the enforced fast-start strategy during 10-km running, and those who improved performance also presented higher vVO2max and PV, suggesting a possible association between these variables and response to the strategy adopted.

  16. Naturally enhanced ion-line spectra around the equatorial 150-km region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available For many years strong radar echoes coming from 140–170 km altitudes at low latitudes have been associated to the existence of field-aligned irregularities (FAIs (the so called 150-km echoes. In this work, we present frequency spectra as well as angular distribution of 150-km echoes. When the 150-km region is observed with beams perpendicular to the magnetic field (B the observed radar spectra are very narrow with spectral widths between 3–12 m/s. On the other hand, when few-degrees off-perpendicular beams are used, the radar spectra are wide with spectral widths comparable to those expected from ion-acoustic waves at these altitudes (>1000 m/s. Moreover the off-perpendicular spectral width increases with increasing altitude. The strength of the received echoes is one to two orders of magnitude stronger than the expected level of waves in thermal equilibrium at these altitudes. Such enhancement is not due to an increase in electron density. Except for the enhancement in power, the spectra characteristics of off-perpendicular and perpendicular echoes are in reasonable agreement with expected incoherent scatter spectra at these angles and altitudes. 150-km echoes are usually observed in narrow layers (2 to 5. Bistatic common volume observations as well as observations made few kilometers apart show that, for most of the layers, there is very high correlation on power fluctuations without a noticeable time separation between simultaneous echoes observed with Off-perpendicular and Perpendicular beams. However, in one of the central layers, the echoes are the strongest in the perpendicular beam and absent or very weak in the off-perpendicular beams, suggesting that they are generated by a plasma instability. Our results indicate that most echoes around 150-km region are not as aspect sensitive as originally thought, and they come from waves that have been enhanced above waves in thermal equilibrium.

  17. Bent-shaped plumes and horizontal channel flow beneath the 660 km discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Nicola; Yuen, David A.

    2011-12-01

    Recent high-resolution seismic imaging of the transition zone topography beneath the Hawaiian archipelago shows strong evidence for a 1000 to 2000 km wide hot thermal anomaly ponding beneath the 660 km boundary west of Hawaii islands [Q. Cao et al. Seismic imaging of transition zone discontinuities suggests hot mantle west of Hawaii. Science (2011), 332, 1068-1071]. This scenario suggests that Hawaiian volcanism may not be caused by a stationary narrow plume rising from the core-mantle boundary but by hot plume material first held back beneath the 660 km discontinuity and then entrained under the transition zone before coming up to the surface. Using a cylindrical model of iso-chemical mantle convection with multiple phase transitions, we investigate the dynamical conditions for obtaining this peculiar plume morphology. Focusing on the role exerted by pressure-dependent thermodynamic and transport parameters, we show that a strong reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the lower mantle and a viscosity hill at a depth of around 1800 km allow plumes to have enough focused buoyancy to reach and pass the 660 km depth interface. The lateral spreading of plumes near the top of the lower mantle manifests itself as a channel flow whose length is controlled by the viscosity contrast due to temperature variations ∆η T. For small values of ∆η T, broad and highly viscous plumes are generated that tend to pass through the transition zone relatively unperturbed. For higher values (10 2 ≤ ∆η T ≤ 10 3), we obtain horizontal channel flows beneath the 660 km boundary as long as 1500 km within a timescale that resembles that of Hawaiian hotspot activity. This finding could help to explain the origin of the broad hot anomaly observed west of Hawaii. For a normal thermal anomaly of 450 K associated with a lower mantle plume, we obtain activation energies of about 400 kJ/mol and 670 kJ/mol for ∆ ηT = 10 2 and 10 3, respectively, in good agreement with

  18. Study of data filtering algorithms for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, B., E-mail: Bjoern.Herold@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Seitz, T., E-mail: Thomas.Seitz@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shanidze, R., E-mail: shanidze@physik.uni-erlangen.d [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    The photomultiplier signals above a defined threshold (hits) are the main data collected from the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The neutrino and muon events will be reconstructed from these signals. However, in the deep sea the dominant source of hits are the decays of {sup 40}K isotope and marine fauna bioluminescence. The selection of neutrino and muon events requires the implementation of fast and efficient data filtering algorithms for the reduction of accidental background event rates. A possible data filtering scheme for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope is discussed in the paper.

  19. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  20. Coherent Detection for 1550 nm, 5 Gbit/s VCSEL Based 40 km Bidirectional PON Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Coherent detection of directly modulated 1550nm VCSELs in 5Gbit/s bidirectional 40km SSMF PON-links is presented. Receiver sensitivity of –37.3dBm after transmission is achieved with 30dB system margin, corresponding to 1:1024 passive powersplitting.......Coherent detection of directly modulated 1550nm VCSELs in 5Gbit/s bidirectional 40km SSMF PON-links is presented. Receiver sensitivity of –37.3dBm after transmission is achieved with 30dB system margin, corresponding to 1:1024 passive powersplitting....

  1. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 6.25 km 89 GHz Brightness Temperature (Tb) Polar Grids V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 6.25 km daily sea ice product includes 89.0 GHz brightness temperature averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 6.25 km polar...

  2. South Pole Fault Zone, 900 km long and almost through the pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D. U.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2010-12-01

    The most prominent feature of snow and ice topography of the East Antarctic Plateau is the 850 x 1100 km Pensacola Basin, named for the mountain range at its mouth. The basin's headwall is a remarkably linear 900 km-long, 100 -200 km-wide zone wherein snow surface slopes of 3 m/km contrast with values of 1 m/km on either side, a total relief of 200 to 400 meters. About 700 km of this slope lies along the 35th meridian, the remainder continuing through the pole for another 200 km. Satellite images show an easily mapped zebra-striped snow unit occurs throughout the basin and beyond. The stripes are well-known from other areas as megadunes, enigmatic, upwind climbing dunes of alternating snow and ice bands with 2 km wavelength and only 1-4 m amplitude. Superposition relationships show this unit is the bottom member of a four-unit snow stratigraphy, the basis for the first geologic map of the youngest snow units of the South Pole region. The megadune stripes are draped obliquely down over the headwall slope to disappear beneath younger snow fill of the Recovery Basin at its foot before cropping out again on the floor of the main basin. Nearer the pole, the slope forms the edge of a 15,000 km2 triangular plateau, the pole located half-way down the slope. Megadune stripes from higher elevations disappear beneath younger snows of the small basin and the pole to reappear on the floor of the main basin as ghosts of megadune stripes. Farther out on the floor they emerge from beneath this thin cover as fully exposed megadune stripes. An overlay of the snow- geologic map across the relatively low resolution maps of bedrock topography shows the surface slope separates two domains of contrasting bedrock topography, the lower elevation domain corresponding to the basin floor. The most likely explanation for this remarkably linear snow slope is flow of ice over a previously unrecognized 200-400 m-high, 900 km-long bedrock fault-line scarp. Along its distal end, the surface slope

  3. Veiligheidseisen aan het dwarsprofiel van gebiedsontsluitingswegen met limiet 80 km/uur : aanbevelingen voor de actualisatie van het Handboek Wegontwerp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. & Petegem, J.W.H. van

    2013-01-01

    Safety requirements for the cross sectional profile of distributor roads with an 80 km/h speed limit : recommendations for the update of the Handbook Road Design. Single carriageway distributor roads with an 80 km/h speed limit (80km/h roads) are among the least safe roads in the Netherlands. A

  4. Rijsnelheden op 80 km/uur-wegen in Nederland II : verslag van snelheidsmetingen in twaalf geografisch gespreide gebieden in Nederland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l. & Pol, W.H.M. van de

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of radar measurements of driving speeds on 80 km/h roads carried out in twelve areas in the Netherlands, in October 1990. The most important results of these measurements are as follows: : (1) The average speed on 80 km/h roads in the twelve regions appeared to be 77 km/h; (2)

  5. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 km Grid (Short name: MYD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels (4.63 km pixels for versions prior to V005), which are produced daily...

  6. New Monitoring Technologies for Overhead Contact Line at 400 km·h−1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Jin Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Various technologies have recently been developed for high-speed railways, in order to boost commercial speeds from 300 km·h−1 to 400 km·h−1. Among these technologies, this paper introduces the 400 km·h−1 class current collection performance evaluation methods that have been developed and demonstrated by Korea. Specifically, this paper reports details of the video-based monitoring techniques that have been adopted to inspect the stability of overhead contact line (OCL components at 400 km·h−1 without direct contact with any components of the power supply system. Unlike conventional OCL monitoring systems, which detect contact wire positions using either laser sensors or line cameras, the developed system measures parameters in the active state by video data. According to experimental results that were obtained at a field-test site established at a commercial line, it is claimed that the proposed measurement system is capable of effectively measuring OCL parameters.

  7. The Subaru Fauresmith 200km Challenge: Looking a Gift-Horse in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes an equestrian sport known as 'endurance riding.' It focuses on the Subaru Fauresmith 200km Challenge, which is held every year in the small southern Free State town of Fauresmith. Given the steadily growing profi le of the event, both locally and internationally, it is argued that the time is ripe for ...

  8. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondi, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariş, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the

  9. A method to stabilise the performance of negatively fed KM3NeT photomultipliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; Berg, A. van den; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Beveren, V. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.J.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; Van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; Haren, H. van; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Jong, M. de; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M.L.; Liolios, A.; Alvarez, C.D.L.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Mariš, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Paolucci, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pǎvǎlaš, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; Wolf, E. de; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-01-01

    The KM3NeT research infrastructure, currently under construction in the Mediterranean Sea, will host neutrino telescopes for the identification of neutrino sources in the Universe and for studies of the neutrino mass hierarchy. These telescopes will house hundreds of thousands of photomultiplier

  10. Letter of intent for KM3NeT 2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aharonian, F.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belhorma, B.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; Berg, A. van den; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Beveren, V. van; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.J.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; El Moursli, R.C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Capua, F.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz García, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Drury, L.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; Eijk, D. van; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fassi, F.; Favali, P.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Filippidis, C.; Frascadore, G.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; Haren, H. van; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Jong, M. de; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Leisos, A.; Leonora, E.; Clark, M.L.; Liolios, A.; Alvarez, C.D.L.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; MacCioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rapidis, P.; Razis, P.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; García, A.S.; Losa, A.S.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Siotis, I.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Thompson, L.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Elewyck, V. van; Vermeulen, J.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Voulgaris, G.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; De Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the KM3NeT Collaboration are (i) the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe and (ii) the determination of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. These objectives are strongly motivated by two recent important discoveries, namely: (1) the

  11. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope: Status and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández–Rey, Juan José, E-mail: juan.j.hernandez@ific.uv.es

    2014-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration intends to build and operate a deep-sea research infrastructure that will host as its main facility a neutrino telescope of several cubic kilometres. The infrastructure will be distributed in three sites located near Toulon, France (40 km offshore and seabed at 2500 m), Capo Passero (80 km offshore and seabed at 3500 m) and Pylos, Greece (20 km offshore and seabed between 2500 and 5000 m). In this contribution we describe the technological choices made for the basic components of the three-dimensional array of photo-sensitive devices in which the telescope will consist. The Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) will use a 17 in. pressure-resistant sphere to accommodate 31 photomultipliers (PMTs) with a 3 in. photocathode each. These DOMs will be installed in detector units (DUs) consisting of vertical strings anchored to the seabed and kept taut by the appropriate buoyancy. These DUs will be deployed by means of launching vehicles that will allow several of them to be deployed in the same campaign. The main features of the telescope and its technical components, the science it can do and the recent progress made towards its construction will be described here.

  12. Multi-PMT optical module for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavatsyuk, O.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Löhner, H.

    2012-01-01

    The future cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT will employ a novel type of a Digital Optical Module (DOM), developed during the recent FP6 Design Study. A pressure-resistant glass sphere hosts 31 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of 3-in, diameter, together with all the electronics for

  13. Retaining knowledge from ageing employees. A structured comparison of six KM interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaan Stam

    2010-01-01

    The coming decades, the baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) are going to retire. This retirement wave will cause a loss of knowledge for organizations and thus threatens the organization‟s ability to make knowledge productive and thus competitiveness. As knowledge management (KM) is the formal

  14. Modelling and mapping the suitability of European forest formations at 1-km resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    factors. Here, we used the bootstrap-aggregating machine-learning ensemble classifier Random Forest (RF) to derive a 1-km resolution European forest formation suitability map. The statistical model use as inputs more than 6,000 field data forest inventory plots and a large set of environmental variables...

  15. A vertical electro-optical data cable for KM3NeT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, G.; Berbee, E.M.; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Heine, E.; Hogenbirk, J.; Mos, S.; de Wolf, E.

    2013-01-01

    KM3NeT is a research facility which will be built at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The facility will host a neutrino telescope with several hundred detection units—vertical mechanical structures to which the optical sensors modules of the telescope are attached. A data cable will run the full

  16. The multi-PMT optical module for KM3NeT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Heine, E.; Gajanana, D.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Peek, H.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; de Wolf, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the future neutrino telescope KM3NeT a novel type of optical module (OM) will be employed to optimize the sensitivity to Cherenkov photons and maximize the environmental background suppression. The multiPMT OM, a pressure-resistant glass sphere containing 31 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of 3-in.

  17. The multi-PMT optical module for KM3NeT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Heine, E.; Gajanana, D.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Peek, H.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; de Wolf, E.

    2013-01-01

    In the future neutrino telescope KM3NeT a novel type of optical module (OM) will be employed to optimize the sensitivity to Cherenkov photons and maximize the environmental background suppression. The multi-PMT OM, a pressure-resistant glass sphere containing 31 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of 3-in.

  18. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Christos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that – located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea – will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  19. Samenwerking bij besluitvorming over de aanleg van 60 km/uur-gebieden : onderzoeksopzet.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bax, C.A. Pröpper, I.M.A.M. & Litjens, B.P.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a research design for a study of the relation between the cooperation of policy parties during the decision-making and the decisiveness of the policy determined. With this purpose, the study is aimed at the decision-making about the construction of 60 km/h areas in boroughs.

  20. Photonics-oriented data transmission network for the KM3NeT prototype detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoek, M.M.; Mos, S.; Schmelling, J.W.; Hogenbirk, J.; Heine, E.; Jansweijer, P.; Kieft, G.; Peek, H.; Timmer, P.; de Wolf, E.

    2013-01-01

    The design of the readout and data acquisition system of the future KM3NeT neutrino telescope employs 10 Gbps photonic technologies for data transmission to shore. The photonic architecture can handle standard transmission protocols. The generic scheme is based on DWDM technology using lasers on

  1. Making minor rural road networks safer : the effects of 60 km/h-zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F. Louwerse, W.J.R. Dijkstra, A. Vries, J.R. de & Spaas, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    For safety reasons a maximum speed limit of 60 km/h has been applied to minor rural roads in the Netherlands since 1998. To support this structurally, a part of these roads have also received additional physical measures in a so-called “low cost design” that is expected to reduce the number of

  2. Effect of cold water immersion on repeated 1-km cycling performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Watson, Greig; Nosaka, Kazunori; Laursen, Paul B

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a short cold water immersion (CWI) intervention on rectal and muscle temperature, isokinetic strength and 1-km cycling time trial performance in the heat. Ten male cyclists performed a 1-km time trial at 35.0+/-0.3 degrees C and 40.0+/-3.0% relative humidity, followed by 20 min recovery sitting in either cold water (14 degrees C) for 5 min or in 35 degrees C air (control); a second 1-km time trial immediately followed. Peak and mean cycling power output were recorded for both time trials. Rectal and muscle temperature, and maximal isokinetic concentric torque of the knee extensors were measured before and immediately after the first and second time trials. Rectal temperature was not different between cold water immersion and control conditions at any time points. After the second time trial, however, muscle temperature was significantly lower (-1.3+/-0.7 degrees C) in cold water immersion compared with the control trial. While peak and mean power decreased from the first to second time trial in both conditions (-86+/-54 W and -24+/-16 W, respectively), maximal isokinetic concentric torque was similar between conditions at all time points. The 5 min cold water immersion intervention lowered muscle temperature but did not affect isokinetic strength or 1-km cycling performance. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P economy and 5-km running performance.

  4. KM Critical Success Factors: A Comparison of Perceived Importance Versus Implementation in Malaysian ICT Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Siong Choy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…

  5. Confirmation of a change in the global shear velocity pattern at around 1000 km depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, S.; Debayle, E.; Ricard, Y.; Zaroli, C.; Lambotte, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we confirm the existence of a change in the shear velocity spectrum around 1000 km depth based on a new shear velocity tomographic model of the Earth's mantle, SEISGLOB2. This model is based on Rayleigh surface wave phase velocities, self- and cross-coupling structure coefficients of spheroidal normal modes and body wave traveltimes which are, for the first time, combined in a tomographic inversion. SEISGLOB2 is developed up to spherical harmonic degree 40 and in 21 radial spline functions. The spectrum of SEISGLOB2 is the flattest (i.e. richest in 'short' wavelengths corresponding to spherical harmonic degrees greater than 10) around 1000 km depth and this flattening occurs between 670 and 1500 km depth. We also confirm various changes in the continuity of slabs and mantle plumes all around 1000 km depth where we also observed the upper boundary of Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces. The existence of a flatter spectrum, richer in short-wavelength heterogeneities, in a region of the mid-mantle can have great impacts on our understanding of the mantle dynamics and should thus be better understood in the future. Although a viscosity increase, a phase change or a compositional change can all concur to induce this change of pattern, its precise origin is still very uncertain.

  6. LBA-ECO CD-04 Logging Damage, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the results of a survey of logging damage in a 18 ha plot (300 m N-S, 600 m E-W) east (upwind) of the eddy flux tower at km 83, Tapajos...

  7. Responding to the Challenges of KM Education in the LIS Sector: Some Academic and Professional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeri, Afsaneh; Martin, Bill

    2009-01-01

    As a newly emerging field of study, KM education is faced with significant challenges which continue to evolve. Informed by wider organisational perspectives, this paper presents the findings of recent research into this field. The first part of the research was in the form of an online survey canvassing the views of the wider LIS community on the…

  8. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  9. Gravity Spectra from the Density Distribution of Earth's Uppermost 435 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebera, Josef; Haagmans, Roger; Floberghagen, Rune; Ebbing, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    The Earth masses reside in a near-hydrostatic equilibrium, while the deviations are, for example, manifested in the geoid, which is nowadays well determined by satellite gravimetry. Recent progress in estimating the density distribution of the Earth allows us to examine individual Earth layers and to directly see how the sum approaches the observed anomalous gravitational field. This study evaluates contributions from the crust and the upper mantle taken from the LITHO1.0 model and quantifies the gravitational spectra of the density structure to the depth of 435 km. This is done without isostatic adjustments to see what can be revealed with models like LITHO1.0 alone. At the resolution of 290 km (spherical harmonic degree 70), the crustal contribution starts to dominate over the upper mantle and at about 150 km (degree 130) the upper mantle contribution is nearly negligible. At the spatial resolution warm and young areas (such as oceanic ridges). The misfit encountered comes from the mantle lid where a velocity-density relation helped to reduce the RMS error by 40%. Global residuals are also provided in terms of the gravitational gradients as they provide better spatial localization than gravity, and there is strong observational support from ESA's satellite gradiometry mission GOCE down to the spatial resolution of 80-90 km.

  10. Nightside temperature measurements at 95 km from OH nightglow in the Venus atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, A.; Snels, M.; Gérard, J.-C.; Soret, L.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.

    2017-09-01

    Temperature estimations at an altitude of about 95 km on the night side of Venus are provided. They are derived from hydroxyl nightglow emissions, observed in the infrared spectral range at 2.7-3.5 micron, using the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer on board Venus Express.

  11. MASAM2: Daily 4 km Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MASIE-AMSR2 (MASAM2) daily 4 km sea ice concentration is a prototype concentration product that is a blend of two other daily sea ice data products: ice coverage...

  12. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection system

  13. [Genomic characteristics of coxsackievirus B5 A210/KM/09 strain isolated in Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Shao, Congwen; Zhao, Weizhong; Zhang, Yunkun; Ji, Ma; Zhu, Yanju; Ma, Zhongfei; Ma, Shaohui

    2014-03-01

    To characterize the complete genome sequence of coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5)A210/KM/09 strain which was isolated from Yunnan, China, 2009. Eight overlapping clones covering the whole viral genome (excluding the poly-A tail)were obtained by RT-PCR and sequenced, with their nucleotide and amino acid sequences compared with other known CVB5 strains. The genome of the CVB5 A210/KM/09 strain had 7 372 nucleotides in length, and containing a 742-nt non-translated region (NTR) at the 5' end and a 98-nt NTR at the 3' end. The entire open reading frame contained 6 555 nt, encoding a 2 185-aa polyprotein. In the coding region, there appeared no nucleotide deletion or insertion, but some changes of amino acid seemed unique. Based on the complete genome sequence alignments, CVB5 isolate A210/KM/09 strain showed the highest nucleotide (92.5%) and amino acid (97.3%) identities to the CVB5/CC10/10. It also shared nucleotide (80.1%-92.5%) and amino acid (95.0%-97.3%) homology with other CVB5 strains: 17Y, 19CSF, 20CSF, 1954/85/US, 2000/CSF/KOR, 03001N, CoxB5/Henan/2010, VB5/SD/09 and Faulkner. Blast between genome fragments, A210/KM/09 showed similarity on nucleotide (80.1%-92.5%) and amino acid (95.0%-97.3%) identities with other CVB5 strains. The phylogenetic tree, constructed on the complete VP1 regions, indicated that CVB5 could be divided into genotype A, B, C and D. while Genotype C and D could be further divided into C1-C4 and D1-D4 subgenotypes. A210/KM/09 and other CVB5 predominant strains isolated in China belonged to CVB5 subgenotype C4.

  14. Foot strike pattern and gait changes during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Wren, Jeremy J; Hoffman, Martin D

    2014-05-01

    Foot strike pattern has not been examined during ultramarathons where fatigue or avoidance of impact might have greater effect on foot strike and other gait parameters than in shorter events. In this study, video analysis from 3 level sites at a 161-km ultramarathon was used to: (a) examine changes in foot strike pattern, stride rate, and stride length; (b) determine if foot strike pattern is related to performance; and (c) ascertain if post-race blood creatine phosphokinase (CK) concentrations differ by foot strike pattern. Rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence was 79.9, 89.0, and 83.9% at 16.5, 90.3, and 161.1 km, respectively. There was a significant distance effect observed between the 90.3 and 161.1-km site for stride rate (p foot strike pattern on performance. However, top 20 finishers had greater use (p = 0.02) of a non-RFS pattern at 161.1 km than the remaining finishers. There was a trend toward greater post-race blood CK values among non-RFS runners compared with RFS runners, reaching significance at the 90.3 km site (p race midpoint was likely because of greater muscular demands of non-RFS patterns as supported by the higher post-race blood CK concentrations among non-RFS runners. Faster runners maintained higher stride rates and lengths throughout the race and made greater use of a non-RFS pattern at the end of the race compared with the slower finishers.

  15. The soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase of rat kidney represents solubilized ecto-5'-nucleotidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piec, G; Le Hir, M

    1991-01-15

    A soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase has been described previously in several organs. It has been presumed to be of cytosolic origin and thus to play a role in the intracellular production of adenosine. Its catalytic properties are similar to those of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase of cell membranes. In the present study we compared molecular properties of the two enzymes in the kidney of the rat. The Mr of the main peak of soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase in gel-filtration chromatography was similar to that of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase solubilized by a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from renal brush-border membranes. In phase-partition experiments using Triton X-114, the soluble enzyme appeared to be hydrophobic. Its hydrophobicity was decreased on treatment with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, suggesting that the soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase contains the phosphatidylinositol anchor which is characteristic for the ecto-enzyme. An anti-ecto-5'-nucleotidase antiserum provoked an almost complete inhibition of the soluble enzyme. Immunoblotting using anti-ecto-5'-nucleotidase antiserum revealed in the high-speed supernatants a polypeptide with a similar Mr to the subunit of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase. The soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase, like the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, bound specifically to concanavalin A. We conclude that the soluble 'low-Km' 5'-nucleotidase is not a cytosolic enzyme, but that it most probably originates from the solubilization of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and that it therefore cannot participate in the intracellular production of adenosine.

  16. Extending MGS-TES Temperature Retrievals in the Martian Atmosphere up to 90 Km: Retrieval Approach and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for performing a temperature retrieval in the Martian atmosphere in the 50-90 km altitude range using spectrally integrated 15 micrometers C02 limb emissions measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the thermal infrared spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). We demonstrate that temperature retrievals from limb observations in the 75-90 km altitude range require accounting for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) populations of the C02(v2) vibrational levels. Using the methodology described in the paper, we have retrieved approximately 1200 individual temperature profiles from MGS TES limb observations in the altitude range between 60 and 90 km. 0ur dataset of retrieved temperature profiles is available for download in supplemental materials of this paper. The temperature retrieval uncertainties are mainly caused by radiance noise, and are estimated to be about 2 K at 60 km and below, 4 K at 70 km, 7 K at 80 km, 10 K at 85 km, and 20 K at 90 km. We compare the retrieved profiles to Mars Climate Database temperature profiles and find good qualitative agreement. Quantitatively, our retrieved profiles are in general warmer and demonstrate strong variability with the following values for bias and standard deviations (in brackets) compared to the Martian Year 24 dataset of the Mars Climate Database: 6 (+/-20) K at 60 km, 7.5 (+/-25) K at 65 km, 9 (+/-27) K at 70 km, 9.5 (+/-27) K at 75 km, 10 (+/-28) K at 80 km, 11 (+/-29) K at 85 km, and 11.5 (+/-31) K at 90 km. Possible reasons for the positive temperature bias are discussed. carbon dioxide molecular vibrations

  17. Marine oil dietary supplementation reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after a 30 km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baum K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Baum,1 Richard D Telford,2 Ross B Cunningham,3 1Trainingsinstitut Prof Baum, Köln, Germany; 2College of Medicine, Biology, and Environment, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia; 3The Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Objective: Runners are prone to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS during long distance training. This especially holds for unaccustomed training volumes at moderate to high intensities. We investigated the effects of a marine oil complex, PCSO-524®, derived from the New Zealand green-lipped mussel (formulated as Lyprinol® and Omega XL® on DOMS after a 30 km training run. Methods: Initially, peak oxygen uptake of 32 distance runners (4 female, 28 male; median age 45 years, range 28–53 was measured on a treadmill with a 1.5 km hour-1 increase every 4 minutes starting from 8.5 km hour-1. At least 1-week after this initial test, they participated in a 30 km road run at a speed corresponding to about 70% of their individual peak oxygen uptake on a flat terrain. Before and after (0, 24, and 48 hours the run, blood concentration of creatine kinase (CK were measured and pain sensation was determined (pain scale from 0 = no pain to 10 = extremely painful. Runners were then matched in pairs based on maximal CK and peak oxygen uptake, and allocated randomly into two different groups. One group was supplemented with 400 mg per day of PCSO-524® for 11 weeks, the other group with an olive oil placebo. After that period, CK and pain sensations were remeasured following a second 30 km run at the same speed and on the same terrain. Results: The general pattern of soreness in the PCSO-524® supplemented group was reduced by 1.1 units (standard error 0.41 compared to the placebo (P < 0.05, the effects being greater in lesser trained runners (P < 0.05. CK levels were positively associated with pain sensation (P < 0.05, but trends toward lower CK in the

  18. NEUTRINOS AS COSMIC MESSENGERS IN THE ERA OF ICECUBE, ANTARES AND KM3NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uli F. Katz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using neutrinos as cosmic messengers for observation of non-thermal processes in the Universe is a highly attractive and promising vision, which has been pursued in various neutrino telescope projects for more than two decades. Recent results from ground-based TeV gamma-ray observatories and refinements of model calculations of the expected neutrino fluxes indicate that Gigaton target volumes will be necessary to establish neutrino astronomy. A first neutrino telescope of that size, IceCube, is operational at the South Pole. Based on experience with the smaller first-generation ANTARES telescope in the Mediterranean Sea, the multi-Gigaton KM3NeT device is in preparation. These neutrino telescopes are presented, and some selected results and the expected KM3NeT performance are discussed.

  19. First results of the KM3NeT multi-PMT DOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael, Tino [Nikhef - National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The future KM3NeT neutrino telescope will consist of several thousand digital optical modules (DOMs), each of which will be equipped with 31 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). This design has various advantages over the use of one large PMT per optical module, e.g. concerning effective photocathode area per module, improved background suppression and directional reconstruction. Currently, the KM3NeT collaboration is testing a prototype DOM deployed on the instrumentation line of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The DOM has been operational since mid-April 2013. First data are presented and compared to simulation results. The results are very encouraging and indicate that muon identification and a coarse direction estimation are possible event with a single DOM.

  20. Fiber-Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar (registered trademark) KM2 Ballistic Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    fibers the most notable are: (a) poly- aramids (e.g., Kevlar, Twaron, Technora); (b) highly oriented poly-ethylene (e.g., Spectra, Dyneema); (c... Fiber -Level Modeling of Dynamic Strength of Kevlar KM2 Ballistic Fabric M. Grujicic, A. Hariharan, B. Pandurangan, C.-F. Yen, B.A. Cheeseman, Y...resistance and various fiber -level phenomena such as fiber - fiber friction, fiber twist, transverse properties of the fibers , and the stochastic nature of

  1. Intra-Subject Variability of 5 Km Time Trial Performance Completed by Competitive Trained Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher James

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-trials represent an ecologically valid approach to assessment of endurance performance. Such information is useful in the application of testing protocols and estimation of sample sizes required for research/magnitude based inference methods. The present study aimed to investigate the intra-subject variability of 5 km time-trial running performance in trained runners. Six competitive trained male runners (age = 33.8 ± 10.1 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.01 m; body mass = 69.0 ± 10.4 kg, V. $\\it V^{.}$ O2max = 62.6 ± 11.0 ml·kg·min-1 completed an incremental exercise test to volitional exhaustion followed by 5 x 5 km time-trials (including a familiarisation trial, individually spaced by 48 hours. The time taken to complete each trial, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and speed were all assessed. Intra-subject absolute standard error of measurement and the coefficient of variance were calculated for time-trial variables in addition to the intra-class correlation coefficient for time taken to complete the time-trial. For the primary measure time, results showed a coefficient of variation score across all participants of 1.5 ± 0.59% with an intra-class correlation coefficient score of 0.990. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion and speed data showed a variance range between 0.8 and 3.05%. It was concluded that when compared with related research, there was observed low intra-subject variability in trained runners over a 5 km distance. This supports the use of this protocol for 5 km time-trial performance for assessment of nutritional strategies, ergogenic aids or training interventions on endurance running performance.

  2. Preliminary measurement of Gamma(Ke2)/Gamma(Km2) at KLOE

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, A; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary measurement of RK = Gamma(Ke2)/Gamma(Km2) at the KLOE experiment is discussed. The result, RK = (2.55+-0.05+-0.05)x 10^-5, is based on 1.7 fb^-1 of luminosity integrated on the phi-meson peak at the Frascati e^+e^- collider DAFNE, corresponding to ~8000 observed Ke2 events. Perspectives on the methods planned to improve both the statistical and the systematic errors are briefly outlined.

  3. Stress state measured at ~7 km depth in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongsheng; Sone, Hiroki; Lin, Weiren; Cui, Junwen; He, Bizhu; Lv, Haitao; Cao, Zicheng

    2017-01-01

    The in-situ stress state in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China, down to 7?km depth is constrained using the anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method and wellbore failure analysis. Results are consistent between the two methods, and indicate that the maximum principal stresses (?1) are close to vertical and the intermediate and minimum principal stresses (?2 and ?3) are approximately horizontal. The states of stress at the studied wellbore is in the normal faulting stress regime within the Tarim B...

  4. Constraints on the anisotropic contributions to velocity discontinuities at ∼60 km depth beneath the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Catherine A; Harmon, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Strong, sharp, negative seismic discontinuities, velocity decreases with depth, are observed beneath the Pacific seafloor at ∼60 km depth. It has been suggested that these are caused by an increase in radial anisotropy with depth, which occurs in global surface wave models. Here we test this hypothesis in two ways. We evaluate whether an increase in surface wave radial anisotropy with depth is robust with synthetic resolution tests. We do this by fitting an example surface wave data set near the East Pacific Rise. We also estimate the apparent isotropic seismic velocity discontinuities that could be caused by changes in radial anisotropy in S-to-P and P-to-S receiver functions and SS precursors using synthetic seismograms. We test one model where radial anisotropy is caused by olivine alignment and one model where it is caused by compositional layering. The result of our surface wave inversion suggests strong shallow azimuthal anisotropy beneath 0-10 Ma seafloor, which would also have a radial anisotropy signature. An increase in radial anisotropy with depth at 60 km depth is not well-resolved in surface wave models, and could be artificially observed. Shallow isotropy underlain by strong radial anisotropy could explain moderate apparent velocity drops (<6%) in SS precursor imaging, but not receiver functions. The effect is diminished if strong anisotropy also exists at 0-60 km depth as suggested by surface waves. Overall, an increase in radial anisotropy with depth may not exist at 60 km beneath the oceans and does not explain the scattered wave observations.

  5. Converged wireline and wireless access over a 78-km deployed fiber long-reach WDM PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate a 78.8-km wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network supporting converged transport of 21.4-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying, optical phase-modulated 5-GHz radio-over-fiber, fiber and air transmission of 3.125-Gb/s pulse...... ultrawideband, and 256-quadratic-amplitude modulation wireless interoperability for microwave access....

  6. QEC Values of the Superallowed β Emitters Cl34 and Km38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen, T.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Hakala, J.; Hardy, J. C.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, I. D.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Äystö, J.

    2009-12-01

    The superallowed β-decay QEC values of Cl34 and Km38 have been measured with an online Penning trap to be 5491.662(47) keV and 6044.223(41) keV, respectively. The new values are more precise than the previous high-precision reaction-based values but are consistent with them and establish that there are no significant systematic differences between the two types of measurements.

  7. Measurement of Radiative Non-Equilibrium for Air Shocks Between 7-9 Km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a recent characterization of non-equilibrium radiation for shock speeds between 7 and 9 km/s in the NASA Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) Facility. Data is spectrally resolved from 190- 1450 nm and spatially resolved behind the shock front. Comparisons are made to DPLR/NEQAIR simulations using different modeling options and recommendations for future study are made based on these comparisons.

  8. The prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Instituto de Investigacion para la Gestion Integrada de las Zonas Costeras, Gandia (Spain); Ageron, M.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Billault, M.; Brunner, J.; Caillat, L.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Destelle, J.J.; Dornic, D.; Henry, S.; Keller, P.; Lamare, P.; Tezier, D.; Theraube, S. [Aix Marseille Universite CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille (France); Aharonian, F.; Drury, L. [DIAS, Dublin (Ireland); Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE, Universite de Haute Alsace, IUT de Colmar, Colmar (France); Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; De Bonis, G.; Lonardo, A.; Nicolau, C.A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Anassontzis, E.G.; Resvanis, L. [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Deparment of Physics, Athens (Greece); Androulakis, G.C.; Balasi, K.; Belias, A.; Drakopoulou, E.; Kappos, E.; Manolopoulos, K.; Markou, C.; Pikounis, K.; Rapidis, P.A.; Stavropoulos, G.; Tzamariudaki, E. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' ' Demokritos' ' , Athens (Greece); Anghinolfi, M.; Cereseto, R.; Hugon, C.; Musico, P.; Orzelli, A. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Anton, G.; Classen, L.; Eberl, T.; Gal, T.; Graf, K.; Heid, T.; Herold, B.; Hofestaedt, J.; Hoessl, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Reubelt, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Stransky, D.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S.; Chateau, F.; Durand, D.; Le Provost, H.; Louis, F.; Moudden, Y.; Zonca, E. [CEA, Irfu/Sedi, Centre de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Baron, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Champion, C.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia Ruiz, R.; Kouchner, A.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Loucatos, S.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC,Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3 CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Band, H.; Berbee, E.; Berkien, A.; Beveren, V. van; Boer Rookhuizen, H.; Bouwhuis, M.; D' Amico, A.; Gajanana, D.; Gebyehu, M.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hoek, M. van der; Hogenbirk, J.; Jansweijer, P.; Jongen, M.; Kieft, G.; Kok, H.; Koopstra, J.; Korporaal, A.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Mos, S.; Peek, H.; Schmelling, J.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; Vermeulen, J.; Werneke, P.; Wiggers, L.; Zwart, A. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Barbarino, G.; Barbato, F.; De Rosa, G.; Di Capua, F.; Garufi, F.; Vivolo, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Universita ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Barbarito, E.; Ceres, A.; Circella, M.; Mongelli, M.; Sgura, I. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Barrios, J.; Calvo, D.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Real, D.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Berg, A.M. van den; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Hevinga, M.A.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Loehner, H.; Wooning, R.H.L. van [KVI-CART, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Beverini, N. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Bianucci, S.; Bouhadef, B.; Calamai, M.; Maccioni, E.; Morganti, M.; Raffaelli, F.; Terreni, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica, Pisa (Italy); Birbas, A.; Bourlis, G.; Christopoulou, B.; Gizani, N.; Leisos, A.; Lenis, D.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S. [Hellenic Open University, School of Science and Technology, Patras (Greece); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouche, V.; Capone, A.; Fermani, P.; Masullo, R.; Perrina, C. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Bozza, C.; Grella, G. [Universita ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica, Fisciano (Italy); Bruijn, R.; Koffeman, E.; Wolf, E. de [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Institute of Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cacopardo, G.; Caruso, F.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D' Amato, C.; Distefano, C.; Grasso, R.; Grmek, A.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismueller, K.P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Musumeci, M.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration; and others

    2016-02-15

    A prototype detection unit of the KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope has been installed at 3500m depth 80 km offshore the Italian coast. KM3NeT in its final configuration will contain several hundreds of detection units. Each detection unit is a mechanical structure anchored to the sea floor, held vertical by a submerged buoy and supporting optical modules for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by charged secondary particles emerging from neutrino interactions. This prototype string implements three optical modules with 31 photomultiplier tubes each. These optical modules were developed by the KM3NeT Collaboration to enhance the detection capability of neutrino interactions. The prototype detection unit was operated since its deployment in May 2014 until its decommissioning in July 2015. Reconstruction of the particle trajectories from the data requires a nanosecond accuracy in the time calibration. A procedure for relative time calibration of the photomultiplier tubes contained in each optical module is described. This procedure is based on the measured coincidences produced in the sea by the {sup 40}K background light and can easily be expanded to a detector with several thousands of optical modules. The time offsets between the different optical modules are obtained using LED nanobeacons mounted inside them. A set of data corresponding to 600 h of livetime was analysed. The results show good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the expected optical background and the signal from atmospheric muons. An almost background-free sample of muons was selected by filtering the time correlated signals on all the three optical modules. The zenith angle of the selected muons was reconstructed with a precision of about 3 {sup circle}. (orig.)

  9. Constraints on the anisotropic contributions to velocity discontinuities at ∼60 km depth beneath the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Strong, sharp, negative seismic discontinuities, velocity decreases with depth, are observed beneath the Pacific seafloor at ∼60 km depth. It has been suggested that these are caused by an increase in radial anisotropy with depth, which occurs in global surface wave models. Here we test this hypothesis in two ways. We evaluate whether an increase in surface wave radial anisotropy with depth is robust with synthetic resolution tests. We do this by fitting an example surface wave data set near the East Pacific Rise. We also estimate the apparent isotropic seismic velocity discontinuities that could be caused by changes in radial anisotropy in S‐to‐P and P‐to‐S receiver functions and SS precursors using synthetic seismograms. We test one model where radial anisotropy is caused by olivine alignment and one model where it is caused by compositional layering. The result of our surface wave inversion suggests strong shallow azimuthal anisotropy beneath 0–10 Ma seafloor, which would also have a radial anisotropy signature. An increase in radial anisotropy with depth at 60 km depth is not well‐resolved in surface wave models, and could be artificially observed. Shallow isotropy underlain by strong radial anisotropy could explain moderate apparent velocity drops (depth as suggested by surface waves. Overall, an increase in radial anisotropy with depth may not exist at 60 km beneath the oceans and does not explain the scattered wave observations.

  10. A global catalogue of Ceres impact craters ≥ 1 km and preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Sheng; Yue, Zongyu; Di, Kaichang; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2018-03-01

    The orbital data products of Ceres, including global LAMO image mosaic and global HAMO DTM with a resolution of 35 m/pixel and 135 m/pixel respectively, are utilized in this research to create a global catalogue of impact craters with diameter ≥ 1 km, and their morphometric parameters are calculated. Statistics shows: (1) There are 29,219 craters in the catalogue, and the craters have a various morphologies, e.g., polygonal crater, floor fractured crater, complex crater with central peak, etc.; (2) The identifiable smallest crater size is extended to 1 km and the crater numbers have been updated when compared with the crater catalogue (D ≥ 20 km) released by the Dawn Science Team; (3) The d/D ratios for fresh simple craters, obviously degraded simple crater and polygonal simple crater are 0.11 ± 0.04, 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02 respectively. (4) The d/D ratios for non-polygonal complex crater and polygonal complex crater are 0.08 ± 0.04 and 0.09 ± 0.03. The global crater catalogue created in this work can be further applied to many other scientific researches, such as comparing d/D with other bodies, inferring subsurface properties, determining surface age, and estimating average erosion rate.

  11. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italy neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarusi, T.; Favaro, M.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2017-10-01

    KM3NeT-Italy is an INFN project that will develop the central part of a submarine cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope in the Ionian Sea, at about 80 km from the Sicilian coast (Italy). It will use hundreds of distributed optical modules to measure the Cherenkov light emitted by high-energy muons, whose signal-to-noise ratio is quite disfavoured. In this contribution the Trigger and Data Acquisition System (TriDAS) developed for the KM3NeT-Italy detector is presented. The “all data to shore” approach is adopted to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector: at the shore station the TriDAS collects, processes and filters all the data coming from the detector, storing triggered events to a permanent storage for subsequent analysis. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the sea can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the performances of the TriDAS processes and the related network infrastructure.

  12. Tropical Waves and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation in a 7-km Global Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Laura A.; Alexander, M. Joan; Coy, Lawrence; Molod, Andrea; Putman, William; Pawson, Steven

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates tropical waves and their role in driving a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)-like signal in stratospheric winds in a global 7-km-horizontal-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. The Nature Run (NR) is a 2-year global mesoscale simulation of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5). In the tropics, there is evidence that the NR supports a broad range of convectively generated waves. The NR precipitation spectrum resembles the observed spectrum in many aspects, including the preference for westward-propagating waves. However, even with very high horizontal resolution and a healthy population of resolved waves, the zonal force provided by the resolved waves is still too low in the QBO region and parameterized gravity wave drag is the main driver of the NR QBO-like oscillation (NRQBO). The authors suggest that causes include coarse vertical resolution and excessive dissipation. Nevertheless, the very-high-resolution NR provides an opportunity to analyze the resolved wave forcing of the NR-QBO. In agreement with previous studies, large-scale Kelvin and small-scale waves contribute to the NRQBO driving in eastward shear zones and small-scale waves dominate the NR-QBO driving in westward shear zones. Waves with zonal wavelength,1000 km account for up to half of the small-scale (,3300 km) resolved wave forcing in eastward shear zones and up to 70% of the small-scale resolved wave forcing in westward shear zones of the NR-QBO.

  13. Characterization of cosmic rays and direction dependence in the Polar Region up to 88 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zábori Balázs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The sounding rocket experiment REM-RED was developed to operate on board the REXUS-17 rocket in order to measure the intensity of cosmic rays. The experiment was launched from the ESRANGE Space Center (68 °N, 21 °E on the 17th of March 2015 at the beginning of the most intense geomagnetic storm within the preceding 10 years. The experiment provided the opportunity to measure the intensity of cosmic rays in the Polar Region up to an altitude of 88 km above sea level. Methods: The experiment employed Geiger-Müller (GM counters oriented with their axes perpendicular to each other in order to measure the cosmic ray intensity during the flight of the rocket. This measurement setup allowed performing direction-sensitive measurements as well. During the ascent phase the rocket was spinning and hence stabilized along its longitudinal axis looking close to the zenith direction. This phase of the flight was used for studying the direction dependence of the charged particle component of the cosmic rays. Results: In comparison with earlier, similar rocket experiments performed with GM tubes at lower geomagnetic latitudes, significantly higher cosmic radiation flux was measured above 50 km. A non-isotropic behavior was found below 50 km and described in detail for the first time in the Polar Region. This behavior is in good agreement with the results of the TECHDOSE experiment that used the same type of GM tubes on board the BEXUS-14 stratospheric balloon.

  14. First observation of mesospheric wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-Fu; Widdel, H.-U.; Offermann, D.

    1995-09-01

    Mesospheric wind profiles with an altitude resolution of 25 m have been obtained by means of radar tracking of foil chaff clouds. Such experiments were performed during winter 1990 at Biscarrosse, France (44°N, 1°W). On one flight, a wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1 at 87.4 km and a region of dynamical instability between 86 and 88 km was measured. This wind shear is believed to be the largest value ever measured in the mesosphere. The region of dynamical instability results from a superposition of two wave motions, and is found to link well with enhanced turbulence and small-scale wave activity. Acknowledgements. I thank D. R. McDiarmid of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Canada, for important ideas and discussions during the development of this work. I thank the referees for useful comments which have improved the paper. I also thank E.M. Poulter of NIWA for helpful suggestions, and for reading the manuscript and making useful comments. The work was supported by contract CO1309 of the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Topical Editor C.-G. Fälthammar thanks K. Mursula and W. J. Hughes for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: W. Allan-->

  15. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  16. SoilGrids1km--global soil information based on automated mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present SoilGrids1km--a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution--containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths: soil organic carbon (g kg-1, soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%, bulk density (kg m-3, cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg, coarse fragments (%, soil organic carbon stock (t ha-1, depth to bedrock (cm, World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles, and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images, lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database. Prediction accuracies assessed using 5-fold cross-validation were between 23-51%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1 weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2 difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3 low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the SoilGrids system is

  17. Observations of atmospheric ozone - 38 to 76 deg north latitude at altitudes from 8 km to the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. L.; Beck, S. M.; Hudgins, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Ozone data were obtained from 8 km to the surface and at latitudes from 38 to 76 deg N during January and February 1983. Flight lines covered northeastern U.S., Canada, and Greenland. The results of the latitudinal survey at 5- to 8-km altitude showed O3 mixing ratios to be about 40 ppbv with little variation in latitude. One region of elevated O3 was observed and extended from 54 N to 57 deg N latitude. Ozone reached 150 ppbv at 6.4-km altitude. This sampling was stratospheric air as the tropopause height was 5.6-km altitude. Profiles at 76, 67, and 53 deg N showed O3 to be be well mixed from about 5 km to the surface. In some cases, profiles identified a layer of 1 km to 100 m vertical dimension at the surface, in which O3 destruction had occurred.

  18. Development of a mobile Doppler lidar system for wind and temperature measurements at 30-70 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhaoai; Hu, Xiong; Guo, Wenjie; Guo, Shangyong; Cheng, Yongqiang; Gong, Jiancun; Yue, Jia

    2017-02-01

    A mobile Doppler lidar system has been developed to simultaneously measure zonal and meridional winds and temperature from 30 to 70 km. Each of the two zonal and meridional wind subsystems employs a 15 W power, 532 nm laser and a 1 m diameter telescope. Iodine vapor filters are used to stabilize laser frequency and to detect the Doppler shift of backscattered signal. The integration method is used for temperature measurement. Experiments were carried out using the mobile Doppler lidar in August 2014 at Qinghai, China (91°E, 38°N). The zonal wind was measured from 20 to 70 km at a 3 km spatial resolution and 2 h temporal resolution. The measurement error is about 0.5 m/s at 30 km, and 10 m/s at 70 km. In addition, the temperature was measured from 30 to 70 km at 1 km spatial resolution and 1 h temporal resolution. The temperature measurement error is about 0.4 K at 30 km, and 8.0 K at 70 km. Comparison of the lidar results with the temperature of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER), the zonal wind of the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Re-search and Applications (MERRA), and radiosonde zonal wind shows good agreement, indicating that the Doppler lidar results are reliable.

  19. Liquid chromatography, in combination with a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument (LC QTOF), with sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH) acquisition: systematic studies on its use for screenings in clinical and forensic toxicology and comparison with information-dependent acquisition (IDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmelt, Andreas T; Steuer, Andrea E; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-12-02

    Forensic and clinical toxicological screening procedures are employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) techniques with information-dependent acquisition (IDA) approaches more and more often. It is known that the complexity of a sample and the IDA settings might prevent important compounds from being triggered. Therefore, data-independent acquisition (DIA) methods should be more suitable for systematic toxicological analysis (STA). The DIA method sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra (SWATH), which uses Q1 windows of 20-35 Da for data-independent fragmentation, was systematically investigated for its suitability for STA. Quality of SWATH-generated mass spectra were evaluated with regard to mass error, relative abundance of the fragments, and library hits. With the Q1 window set to 20-25 Da, several precursors pass Q1 at the same time and are fragmented, thus impairing the library search algorithms to a different extent: forward fit was less affected than reverse fit and purity fit. Mass error was not affected. The relative abundance of the fragments was concentration dependent for some analytes and was influenced by cofragmentation, especially of deuterated analogues. Also, the detection rate of IDA compared to SWATH was investigated in a forced coelution experiment (up to 20 analytes coeluting). Even using several different IDA settings, it was observed that IDA failed to trigger relevant compounds. Screening results of 382 authentic forensic cases revealed that SWATH's detection rate was superior to IDA, which failed to trigger ∼10% of the analytes.

  20. Reconstruction of the inhalation dose in the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mück, Konrad; Pröhl, Gerhard; Likhtarev, Ilya; Kovgan, Lina; Golikov, Vladislav; Zeger, Johann

    2002-02-01

    Due to lack of measurements of activity concentrations in air, the assessment of the inhalation dose of the population evacuated from the 30-km zone after the Chernobyl accident is not possible from continuous filter measurements. Since the evaluation of the inhalation dose in each settlement of the zone is of great interest for epidemiological purposes, an approach was chosen that utilizes the available data on ground deposition of 137Cs, a recently performed best estimate of the radionuclide vector and its spatial distribution as well as the radionuclide dependent deposition velocity. The derived inhalation dose values in the 30-km zone range between 3 mSv to 150 mSv effective dose for adults depending on the distance to the reactor site and the day of evacuation. For 1-y-old infants the values range between 10 to 700 mSv. In Chernobyl town, an effective inhalation dose of 25 mSv until evacuation day was assessed. Thyroid doses due to inhalation ranged from 0.02 to 1 Sv for adults, for 1-y-old infants from 0.02 to 6 Sv. The inhalation dose in each settlement of the 30-km zone is approximately 8-13 times higher than the external exposure in each settlement if evacuation of the settlement occurred at an early stage. For settlements with evacuation at a later stage (day 10 or later) the inhalation dose was about 50-70% higher than the external dose. The dominant contribution to the effective inhalation dose comes from 131I (about 40%) and tellurium and rubidium isotopes (about 20-30%). Despite high zirconium and cerium ground depositions, zirconium and cerium isotopes contribute rather little to the inhalation dose which is mainly due to the great particle sizes to which they are attached. The relative contribution of short-lived radionuclides is, despite higher activities than at greater distances, less than 5%.

  1. Measuring the seismic velocity in the top 15 km of Earth's inner core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Harriet; Waszek, Lauren; Deuss, Arwen

    2018-01-01

    We present seismic observations of the uppermost layer of the inner core. This was formed most recently, thus its seismic features are related to current solidification processes. Previous studies have only constrained the east-west hemispherical seismic velocity structure in the Earth's inner core at depths greater than 15 km below the inner core boundary. The properties of shallower structure have not yet been determined, because the seismic waves PKIKP and PKiKP used for differential travel time analysis arrive close together and start to interfere. Here, we present a method to make differential travel time measurements for waves that turn in the top 15 km of the inner core, and measure the corresponding seismic velocity anomalies. We achieve this by generating synthetic seismograms to model the overlapping signals of the inner core phase PKIKP and the inner core boundary phase PKiKP. We then use a waveform comparison to attribute different parts of the signal to each phase. By measuring the same parts of the signal in both observed and synthetic data, we are able to calculate differential travel time residuals. We apply our method to data with ray paths which traverse the Pacific hemisphere boundary. We generate a velocity model for this region, finding lower velocity for deeper, more easterly ray paths. Forward modelling suggests that this region contains either a high velocity upper layer, or variation in the location of the hemisphere boundary with depth and/or latitude. Our study presents the first direct seismic observation of the uppermost 15 km of the inner core, opening new possibilities for further investigating the inner core boundary region.

  2. Spatially Explicit Modelling of the Belgian Major Endurance Event 'The 100 km Dodentocht'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffie Van Nieuland

    Full Text Available 'The 100 km Dodentocht', which takes place annually and has its start in Bornem, Belgium, is a long distance march where participants have to cover a 100 km trail in at most 24 hours. The approximately 11 000 marchers per edition are tracked by making use of passive radio-frequency-identification (RFID. These tracking data were analyzed to build a spatially explicit marching model that gives insights into the dynamics of the event and allows to evaluate the effect of changes in the starting procedure of the event. For building the model, the empirical distribution functions (edf of the marching speeds at every section of the trail in between two consecutive checkpoints and of the checkpoints where marchers retire, are determined, taking into account age, gender, and marching speeds at previous sections. These distribution functions are then used to sample the consecutive speeds and retirement, and as such to simulate the times when individual marchers pass by the consecutive checkpoints. We concluded that the data-driven model simulates the event reliably. Furthermore, we tested three scenarios to reduce the crowdiness along the first part of the trail and in this way were able to conclude that either the start should be moved to a location outside the town center where the streets are at least 25% wider, or that the marchers should start in two groups at two different locations, and that these groups should ideally merge at about 20 km after the start. The crowdiness at the start might also be reduced by installing a bottleneck at the start in order to limit the number of marchers that can pass per unit of time. Consequently, the operating hours of the consecutive checkpoints would be longer. The developed framework can likewise be used to analyze and improve the operation of other endurance events if sufficient tracking data are available.

  3. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, T.R.; Reed, B.C.; Brown, J.F.; Ohlen, D.O.; Zhu, Z.; Yang, L.; Merchant, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Nebraska-Lincoln and the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy produced a 1 km resolution global land cover characteristics database for use in a wide range of continental-to global-scale environmental studies. This database provides a unique view of the broad patterns of the biogeographical and ecoclimatic diversity of the global land surface, and presents a detailed interpretation of the extent of human development. The project was carried out as an International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, Data and Information Systems (IGBP-DIS) initiative. The IGBP DISCover global land cover product is an integral component of the global land cover database. DISCover includes 17 general land cover classes defined to meet the needs of IGBP core science projects. A formal accuracy assessment of the DISCover data layer will be completed in 1998. The 1 km global land cover database was developed through a continent-by-continent unsupervised classification of 1 km monthly Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites covering 1992-1993. Extensive post-classification stratification was necessary to resolve spectral/temporal confusion between disparate land cover types. The complete global database consists of 961 seasonal land cover regions that capture patterns of land cover, seasonality and relative primary productivity. The seasonal land cover regions were aggregated to produce seven separate land cover data sets used for global environmental modelling and assessment. The data sets include IGBP DISCover, U.S. Geological Survey Anderson System, Simple Biosphere Model, Simple Biosphere Model 2, Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Olson Ecosystems and Running Global Remote Sensing Land Cover. The database also includes all digital sources that were used in the classification. The complete database can be sourced from the website: http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/landdaac/glcc/glcc.html.

  4. One-Hundred-km-Scale Basins on Enceladus: Evidence for an Active Ice Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William B.

    2009-01-01

    Stereo-derived topographic mapping of 50% of Enceladus reveals at least 6 large-scale, ovoid depressions (basins) 90-175 km across and 800-to-1500 m deep and uncorrelated with geologic boundaries. Their shape and scale are inconsistent with impact, geoid deflection, or with dynamically supported topography. Isostatic thinning of Enceladus ice shell associated with upwellings (and tidally-driven ice melting) can plausibly account for the basins. Thinning implies upwarping of the base of the shell of 10-20 km beneath the depressions, depending on total shell thickness; loss of near-surface porosity due to enhanced heat flow may also contribute to basin lows. Alternatively, the basins may overly cold, inactive, and hence denser ice, but thermal isostasy alone requires thermal expansion more consistent with clathrate hydrate than water ice. In contrast to the basins, the south polar depression (SPD) is larger (350 wide) and shallower (0.4-to-0.8 km deep) and correlates with the area of tectonic deformation and active resurfacing. The SPD also differs in that the floor is relatively flat (i.e., conforms roughly to the global triaxial shape, or geoid) with broad, gently sloping flanks. The relative flatness across the SPD suggests that it is in or near isostatic equilibrium, and underlain by denser material, supporting the polar sea hypothesis of Collins and Goodman. Near flatness is also predicted by a crustal spreading origin for the "tiger stripes (McKinnon and Barr 2007, Barr 2008); the extraordinary, high CIRS heat flows imply half-spreading rates in excess of 10 cm/yr, a very young surface age (250,000 yr), and a rather thin lithosphere (hence modest thermal topography). Topographic rises in places along the outer margin of the SPD correlate with parallel ridges and deformation along the edge of the resurfaced terrain, consistent with a compressional, imbricate thrust origin for these ridges, driven by the spreading.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  6. A Disk EMG System for Driving Impacting Liners to 20 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    current; 8. PU’s cylindrical Al liner of outer radius Rl, effective height Hl (for implosion) and "current” height Hpu > Hl (between Al liner contacts...0.15-0.12 90 Uol, kV L0l, nH Hpu (Z)cm Ml, g ~ 50 8 15(Al) 45 ~100 10 2(Cu) 1 30 4 6(Cu) 75 8 6 6.6(Cu) 75 v imp, km/s 12 ~50 23...inductance L0l ; Hpu (Z) is the PU height (return conductor material), Ml and v imp are liner mass and maximum velocity; Ufm and Ilm are peak FOS

  7. Frequency comb-based time transfer over a 159 km long installed fiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessing, M.; Margolis, H. S.; Brown, C. T. A.; Marra, G.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a frequency comb-based time transfer technique on a 159 km long installed fiber link. Timing information is superimposed onto the optical pulse train of an ITU-channel-filtered mode-locked laser using an intensity modulation scheme. The environmentally induced optical path length fluctuations are compensated using a round-trip phase noise cancellation technique. When the fiber link is stabilized, a time deviation of 300 fs at 5 s and an accuracy at the 100 ps level are achieved.

  8. The effect of shoe type on gait in forefoot strike runners during a 50-km run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Kasmer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: More runners adopted a more posterior initial contact area after the 50-km run in the traditional shoe type than in the minimalist shoe type. The runners who adopted a more posterior initial contact area were more closely associated with an increased median frequency of the medial gastrocnemius, which suggests there may be a change in motor unit recruitment pattern during long-distance, sustained velocity running. The increased peak pressures observed in the medial forefoot in the minimalist shoe type may predispose to metatarsal stress fractures in the setting of improper training.

  9. The digital optical module for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalekin, Oleg [ECAP, Uni Erlangen (Germany); Collaboration: ANTARES-KM3NeT-Erlangen-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future multi-cubic-kilometer neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. As a first step towards project implementation, a preproduction model of the telescope detection unit will be produced and deployed in the sea in March 2013. The detection unit is a flexible, vertical structure of a few 100 m length holding digital optical modules (DOMs). A facet-like DOM encapsulates 31 photomultiplier tubes of 80 mm diameter inside of 17-inch pressure resistant glass sphere. One of such DOMs will be produced at Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics. This contribution describes design, functionality and assembly of the DOM.

  10. Characterisation and testing of the KM3NeT acoustic positioning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In underwater neutrino telescopes, the search of point-like sources through the Cherenkov detection technique requires a precise knowledge of the positions of thousands of optical sensors, spread in a volume of a few cubic kilometres. In KM3NeT the optical sensors are hosted in 700 m high semi-rigid structures, called detection units, which move under the effects of underwater currents. These movements are continuously monitored through an underwater positioning system based on acoustic emitters and receivers. In this work, the tests performed on the key elements of the positioning system are presented.

  11. IGBP-DIS global 1 km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, T.R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product `DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  12. The IGBP-DIS global 1km land cover data set, DISCover: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Belward, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    The International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) is co-ordinating the development of global land data sets from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first is a 1 km spatial resolution land cover product 'DISCover', based on monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index composites from 1992 and 1993. DISCover is a 17 class land cover dataset based on the science requirements of IGBP elements. Mapping uses unsupervised classification with post-classification refinement using ancillary data. Draft Africa, North America and South America products are now available for peer review.

  13. The km sup 3 Mediterranean neutrino observatory - the NEMO.RD project

    CERN Document Server

    De Marzo, C N

    2001-01-01

    The NEMO.RD Project is a feasibility study of a km sup 3 underwater telescope for high energy astrophysical neutrinos to be located in the Mediterranean Sea. Results on various issues of this project are presented on: i) Monte Carlo simulation study of the capabilities of various arrays of phototubes in order to determine the detector geometry that can optimize performance and cost; ii) oceanographic survey of various sites in search of the optimal one; iii) feasibility study of mechanics, deployment, connections and maintenance of such a detector. Parameters of a site near Capo Passero, Sicily, where depth, transparency and other water parameters seem optimal are shown.

  14. BOCDA system enhanced by concurrent interrogation of multiple correlation peaks with a 10-km sensing range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Gukbeen; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Song, Kwang Yong; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil

    2017-04-01

    A Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (BOCDA) system using time-domain data processing for concurrently interrogating a plurality of sensing positions is proposed, where the time-domain data processing combined with differential measurement effectively enhances the measurement range and measurement time as much as the spatial resolution of the BOCDA system. In the experiment, the distribution of the Brillouin gain spectra (BGS) along a 10.15 km test fiber is successfully obtained with a spatial resolution less than 5 cm by concurrently interrogating 980 correlation peaks.

  15. Corneal Opacity in a Participant of a 161-km Mountain Bike Race at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaee, Morteza; Torres, David R

    2016-06-01

    Visual dysfunction is a relatively uncommon complaint among athletes during ultraendurance races. The pathophysiology of most of these cases is unknown. Corneal opacity has been speculated as the etiology for most of reported cases. We are presenting a case of a 56-year-old man with a partial unilateral corneal opacity and edema at kilometer 150 of a 161-km mountain bike race in high altitude. He was not able to finish the race (12-hour cutoff) because of his visual symptoms. He completely recovered in 3 days with no sequelae. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 (LPRM_AMSRE_D_RZSM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) root zone soil...

  17. AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V001 (LPRM_AMSR2_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  18. AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending V001 (LPRM_AMSR2_D_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil...

  19. AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km ascending V001 (LPRM_AMSR2_DS_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km ascending V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  20. AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km descending V001 (LPRM_AMSR2_DS_D_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km descending V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil...