WorldWideScience

Sample records for swap approach reveals

  1. 75 FR 76573 - Swap Data Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... affected index transactions. \\29\\ For currency swaps involving foreign exchange (sometimes called FX swaps... for interest rate swaps, commodity swaps, and currency swaps. Illustration of the Life Cycle Approach... Trading Commission 17 CFR Part 45 Swap Data Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  2. Swaps in protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliess, Amit; Motro, Benny; Unger, Ron

    2002-08-01

    An important question in protein evolution is to what extent proteins may have undergone swaps (switches of domain or fragment order) during evolution. Such events might have occurred in several forms: Swaps of short fragments, swaps of structural and functional motifs, or recombination of domains in multidomain proteins. This question is important for the theoretical understanding of the evolution of proteins, and has practical implications for using swaps as a design tool in protein engineering. In order to analyze the question systematically, we conducted a large scale survey of possible swaps and permutations among all pairs of protein from the Swissport database. A swap is defined as a specific kind of sequence mutation between two proteins in which two fragments that appear in both sequences have different relative order in the two sequences. For example, aXbYc and dYeXf are defined as a swap, where X and Y represent sequence fragments that switched their order. Identifying such swaps is difficult using standard sequence comparison packages. One of the main problems in the analysis stems from the fact that many sequences contain repeats, which may be identified as false-positive swaps. We have used two different approaches to detect pairs of proteins with swaps. The first approach is based on the predefined list of domains in Pfam. We identified all the proteins that share at least two domains and analyzed their relative order, looking for pairs in which the order of these domains was switched. We designed an algorithm to distinguish between real swaps and duplications. In the second approach, we used Blast to detect pairs of proteins that share several fragments. Then, we used an automatic procedure to select pairs that are likely to contain swaps. Those pairs were analyzed visually, using a graphical tool, to eliminate duplications. Combining these approaches, about 140 different cases of swaps in the Swissprot database were found (after eliminating

  3. A Mobile Battery Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles Based on a Battery Swapping Van

    OpenAIRE

    Sujie Shao; Shaoyong Guo; Xuesong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for providing a mobile battery swapping service for electric vehicles (EVs) that is provided by a mobile battery swapping van. This battery swapping van can carry many fully charged batteries and drive up to an EV to swap a battery within a few minutes. First, a reasonable EV battery swapping architecture based on a battery swapping van is established in this paper. The function and role of each participant and the relationships between each participant ar...

  4. Theoretical analysis of the domain-swapped dimerization of cytochrome c: An MD and 3D-RISM approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Norio; Higashi, Masahiro; Motoki, Hideyoshi; Hirota, Shun

    2018-01-14

    The structural stability of a cytochrome c domain-swapped dimer compared with that of the monomer was investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and by three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. The structural fluctuation and structural energy of cytochrome c were treated by MD simulations, and the solvation thermodynamics was treated by 3D-RISM theory. The domain-swapped dimer state is slightly less stable than the monomer state, which is consistent with experimental observations; the total free energy difference is calculated as 25 kcal mol-1. The conformational change and translational/rotational entropy change contribute to the destabilization of the dimer, whereas the hydration and vibrational entropy contribute to the stabilization. Further analyses on the residues located at the hinge loop for swapping were conducted, and the results reveal details at the molecular level of the structural and interaction changes upon dimerization.

  5. Theoretical analysis of the domain-swapped dimerization of cytochrome c: An MD and 3D-RISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Norio; Higashi, Masahiro; Motoki, Hideyoshi; Hirota, Shun

    2018-01-01

    The structural stability of a cytochrome c domain-swapped dimer compared with that of the monomer was investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and by three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory. The structural fluctuation and structural energy of cytochrome c were treated by MD simulations, and the solvation thermodynamics was treated by 3D-RISM theory. The domain-swapped dimer state is slightly less stable than the monomer state, which is consistent with experimental observations; the total free energy difference is calculated as 25 kcal mol-1. The conformational change and translational/rotational entropy change contribute to the destabilization of the dimer, whereas the hydration and vibrational entropy contribute to the stabilization. Further analyses on the residues located at the hinge loop for swapping were conducted, and the results reveal details at the molecular level of the structural and interaction changes upon dimerization.

  6. Crystal structure of the UBR-box from UBR6/FBXO11 reveals domain swapping mediated by zinc binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Escobar, Juliana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Gehring, Kalle

    2017-10-01

    The UBR-box is a 70-residue zinc finger domain present in the UBR family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that directly binds N-terminal degradation signals in substrate proteins. UBR6, also called FBXO11, is an UBR-box containing E3 ubiquitin ligase that does not bind N-terminal signals. Here, we present the crystal structure of the UBR-box domain from human UBR6. The dimeric crystal structure reveals a unique form of domain swapping mediated by zinc coordination, where three independent protein chains come together to regenerate the topology of the monomeric UBR-box fold. Analysis of the structure suggests that the absence of N-terminal residue binding arises from the lack of an amino acid binding pocket. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  7. Arginine-lysine positional swap of the LL-37 peptides reveals evolutional advantages of the native sequence and leads to bacterial probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuqing; Junior, José Carlos Bozelli; Mishra, Biswajit; Lushnikova, Tamara; Epand, Richard M; Wang, Guangshun

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are essential components of the innate immune system of multicellular organisms. Although cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are known determinants of these amphipathic molecules for bacterial killing, it is not clear how lysine-arginine (K-R) positional swaps influence peptide structure and activity. This study addresses this question by investigating two groups of peptides (GF-17 and 17BIPHE2) derived from human cathelicidin LL-37. K-R positional swap showed little effect on minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peptides. However, there are clear differences in bacterial killing kinetics. The membrane permeation patterns vary with peptide and bacterial types, but not changes in fluorescent dyes, salts or pH. In general, the original peptide is more efficient in bacterial killing, but less toxic to human cells, than the K-R swapped peptides, revealing the evolutionary significance of the native sequence for host defense. The characteristic membrane permeation patterns for different bacteria suggest a possible application of these K-R positional-swapped peptides as molecular probes for the type of bacteria. Such differences are related to bacterial membrane compositions: minimal for Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus with essentially all anionic lipids (cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol), but evident for Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli with a mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. Biophysical characterization found similar structures and binding affinities for these peptides in vesicle systems mimicking E. coli and S. aureus. It seems that interfacial arginines of GF-17 are preferred over lysines in bacterial membrane permeation. Our study sheds new light on the design of cationic amphipathic peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 6715 - Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers... for swap trading relationship documentation for swap dealers and major swap participants. DATES... 3038-AC96 and Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

  9. A Mobile Battery Swapping Service for Electric Vehicles Based on a Battery Swapping Van

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujie Shao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach for providing a mobile battery swapping service for electric vehicles (EVs that is provided by a mobile battery swapping van. This battery swapping van can carry many fully charged batteries and drive up to an EV to swap a battery within a few minutes. First, a reasonable EV battery swapping architecture based on a battery swapping van is established in this paper. The function and role of each participant and the relationships between each participant are determined, especially their changes compared with the battery charging service. Second, the battery swapping service is described, including the service request priority and service request queuing model. To provide the battery swapping service efficiently and effectively, the battery swapping service request scheduling is analyzed well, and a minimum waiting time based on priority and satisfaction scheduling strategy (MWT-PS is proposed. Finally, the battery swapping service is simulated, and the performance of MWT-PS is evaluated in simulation scenarios. The simulation results show that this novel approach can be used as a reference for a future system that provides reasonable and satisfying battery swapping service for EVs.

  10. Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis CarD, an essential RNA polymerase binding protein, reveals a quasidomain-swapped dimeric structural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gundeep; Dutta, Dipak; Thakur, Krishan Gopal

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) CarD is an essential transcriptional regulator that binds RNA polymerase and plays an important role in reprogramming transcription machinery under diverse stress conditions. Here, we report the crystal structure of CarD at 2.3 Å resolution, that represents the first structural description of CarD/CdnL-Like family of proteins. CarD adopts an overall bi-lobed structural architecture where N-terminal domain resembles 'tudor-like' domain and C-terminal domain adopts a novel five helical fold that lacks the predicted leucine zipper structural motif. The structure reveals dimeric state of CarD resulting from β-strand swapping between the N-terminal domains of each individual subunits. The structure provides crucial insights into the possible mode(s) of CarD/RNAP interactions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cross currency swap valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Boenkost, Wolfram; Schmidt, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    Cross currency swaps are powerful instruments to transfer assets or liabilities from one currency into another. The market charges for this a liquidity premium, the cross currency basis spread, which should be taken into account by the valuation methodology. We describe and compare two valuation methods for cross currency swaps which are based upon using two different discounting curves. The first method is very popular in practice but inconsistent with single currency swap valuation methods....

  12. 76 FR 27621 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC97 Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major... margin requirements for swap dealers (SDs) and major swap participants (MSPs). Elsewhere today in the... period for the proposed margin regulations so that the comment period will run concurrently with the...

  13. An Asymmetric Runaway Domain Swap Antithrombin Dimer as a Key Intermediate for Polymerization Revealed by Hydrogen/Deuterium-Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trelle, Morten Beck; Pedersen, Shona; Østerlund, Eva Christina

    2017-01-01

    Antithrombin deficiency is associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis. In certain families, this condition is caused by pathogenic polymerization of mutated antithrombin in the blood. To facilitate future development of pharmaceuticals against antithrombin polymerization, an improved und...... strongly supports a β4A-β5A β-hairpin runaway domain swap mechanism for antithrombin polymerization. HDX-MS thus holds exceptional promise as an enabling analytical technique in the efforts toward future pharmacological intervention with protein polymerization and associated diseases....

  14. China's Bilateral Currency Swap Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao, Lin; Wenjie, Zhan; Cheung, Yin-Wong

    2016-01-01

    We study the determinants of China’s bilateral local currency swap lines that were established since the recent global finance crisis. It is found that economic factors, political considerations, and institutional characteristics including trade intensity, economic size, strategic partnership, free trade agreement, corruption, and stability affect the decision of signing a swap line agreement. Once a swap line agreement decision is made, the size of the swap line is then mainly affected by tr...

  15. 77 FR 41109 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking that would establish initial and variation margin... Securities Commissions (``IOSCO'') established a Working Group on Margin Requirements (``WGMR'') to develop...

  16. 75 FR 55575 - Joint Public Roundtable To Discuss Data for Swaps and Security-Based Swaps, Swap Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Joint Public Roundtable To Discuss Data for Swaps and Security- Based Swaps, Swap Data Repositories, Security-Based Swap Data Repositories, and Real-Time Public..., security-based swap data repositories, and real-time public reporting that would help inform the discussion...

  17. Unraveling the rat blood genome-wide transcriptome after oral administration of lavender oil by a two-color dye-swap DNA microarray approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lavender oil (LO is a commonly used essential oil in aromatherapy as non-traditional medicine. With an aim to demonstrate LO effects on the body, we have recently established an animal model investigating the influence of orally administered LO in rat tissues, genome-wide. In this brief, we investigate the effect of LO ingestion in the blood of rat. Rats were administered LO at usual therapeutic dose (5 mg/kg in humans, and following collection of the venous blood from the heart and extraction of total RNA, the differentially expressed genes were screened using a 4 × 44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a two-color dye-swap approach. A total of 834 differentially expressed genes in the blood were identified: 362 up-regulated and 472 down-regulated. These genes were functionally categorized using bioinformatics tools. The gene expression inventory of rat blood transcriptome under LO, a first report, has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE67499. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  18. Two-color Dye-swap DNA Microarray approach toward confident gene expression profiling in PMCAO mouse model for ischemia-related and PACAP38-influenced genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38. Two sets of tissues were prepared, whole hemispheres (ischemic and non-ischemic and infract core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h. In this study, we have detailed the experimental design and protocol used therein and explained the quality controls for the use of total RNA in the downstream DNA microarray experiment utilizing a two-color dye-swap approach for stringent and confident gene identification published in a series of papers by Hori and coworkers (Hori et al., 2012–2015.

  19. Two-color Dye-swap DNA Microarray approach toward confident gene expression profiling in PMCAO mouse model for ischemia-related and PACAP38-influenced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Motohide; Shibato, Junko; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Rakwal, Randeep; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38. Two sets of tissues were prepared, whole hemispheres (ischemic and non-ischemic) and infract core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h. In this study, we have detailed the experimental design and protocol used therein and explained the quality controls for the use of total RNA in the downstream DNA microarray experiment utilizing a two-color dye-swap approach for stringent and confident gene identification published in a series of papers by Hori and coworkers (Hori et al., 2012-2015).

  20. Federal Reserve Swap Lines – International Lender of the Last Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Titze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available After 2007, financial market turmoil began and shortage of dollar funding liquidity disrupted not only the US dollar funding market but also overseas. To address the shortage of dollar liquidity, the FED introduced swap lines with systematic important central banks, including emerging markets. The paper discusses the main feature of the FED’s swap lines in the context of the funding pressures on the FX swap market. The main objective of the paper is to reveal technical aspects and effectiveness of the swap lines. The paper explains connectivity between un/secured money markets and the FX swap market during the financial and debt crises. The FX swap market was hit significantly. During the liquidity crisis of 2007–2010, the main driver of the deviation from covered interest parity was a shortage of dollar liquidity jointly with counterparty risk. During the debt crisis, the main driver was counterparty risk of the euro zone banks and sovereigns. The FED swap lines were used as a liquidity backstop. The paper concludes that the swap lines were an effective tool of cooperation between central banks and significantly alleviated the pressure on the FX swap market. In addition, the swap lines were flexible, supported financial stability, no losses were recorded, the problem of adverse selection was avoided and exit was successful. Finally, the swap lines have become a permanent tool for solving temporary shortages of foreign currency liquidity in national banking systems.

  1. 76 FR 57684 - Swap Exclusion for Section 1256 Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... interest rate swap, currency swap, basis swap, interest rate cap, interest rate floor, commodity swap... rule for credit default swaps. (B) Special rule for nonfunctional currency notional principal contracts... ] referred to as interest rate swaps, currency swaps, basis swaps, interest rate caps, interest rate floors...

  2. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  3. Swapping the N- and C-terminal domains of human apolipoprotein E3 and AI reveals insights into their structure/activity relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T Lek

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein (apo E3 and apoAI are exchangeable apolipoproteins that play a dominant role in regulating plasma lipoprotein metabolism. ApoE3 (299 residues is composed of an N-terminal (NT domain bearing a 4-helix bundle and a C-terminal (CT domain bearing a series of amphipathic α-helices. ApoAI (243 residues also comprises a highly helical NT domain and a less structured CT tail. The objective of this study was to understand their structural and functional role by generating domain swapped chimeras: apoE3-NT/apoAI-CT and apoAI-NT/apoE-CT. The bacterially overexpressed chimeras were purified by affinity chromatography and their identity confirmed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Their α-helical content was comparable to that of the parent proteins. ApoE3-NT/apoAI-CT retained the denaturation profile of apoE3 NT domain, with apoAI CT tail eliciting a relatively unstructured state; its lipid binding ability improved dramatically compared to apoE3 indicative of a significant role of apoAI CT tail in lipid binding interaction. The LDL receptor interaction and ability to promote ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux of apoE3-NT/apoAI-CT was comparable to that of apoE3. In contrast, apoAI-NT/apoE-CT elicited an unfolding pattern and lipid binding ability that were similar to that of apoAI. As expected, DMPC/apoAI-NT/apoE-CT discoidal particles did not elicit LDLr binding ability, and promoted SR-B1 mediated cellular uptake of lipids to a limited extent. However, apoAI-NT/apoE-CT displayed an enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux compared to apoAI, indicative of a significant role for apoE CT domain in mediating this function. Together, these results indicate that the functional attributes of apoAI and apoE3 can be conferred on each other and that NT-CT domain interactions significantly modulate their structure and function.

  4. 78 FR 21045 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, Portfolio Compression, and Swap Trading Relationship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Swap Trading Relationship Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants... relationship documentation for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants. Those rules, in 17 CFR part 23...

  5. ORIGIN CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS, AND IDIOSYNCRATIC THEIR FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharipov Marsel Albertovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit-default swaps as well as all derivatives have appeared as a result of policy of a decontrol the American government of bank sector of economy. In article attempt to open motives of unfair use swaps is lead by some states, and modern anti-recessionary decisions concerning derivatives are considered. The objective of research consist it is revealing history and the reasons by occurrence the credit-default swaps, also the history of development the institutional infrastructures for stable and not causing suspicions functioning of the market of credit-default swaps by national regulators. The research of the given problem in modern aspect of its progress has outstanding of novelty character. The reaction of regulators for the crisis are remarkable which events caused by shadow use of derivative financial tools including and credit-default swaps. In research the authors come to following conclusions. First, credit-default swaps are compatible to qualitative variations in corporate economy and answers to modern calls of more globalized financial system. The second, the functioning of the market of derivatives is really idiosyncratic that predetermines a final adage of that sort that arising problems with derivatives occurs not in their essence, but in purposefulness of their use.

  6. ORIGIN CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS, AND IDIOSYNCRATIC THEIR FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марсель Альбертович Шарипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Credit-default swaps as well as all derivatives have appeared as a result of policy of a decontrol the American government of bank sector of economy.In article attempt to open motives of unfair use swaps is lead by some states, and modern anti-recessionary decisions concerning derivatives are considered. The objective of research consist it is revealing history and the reasons by occurrence the credit-default swaps, also the history of development the institutional infrastructures for stable and not causing suspicions functioning of the market of credit-default swaps by national regulators.  The research of the given problem in modern aspect of its progress has outstanding of novelty character. The reaction of regulators for the crisis are remarkable which events caused by shadow use of derivative financial tools including and credit-default swaps. In research the authors come to following conclusions. First, credit-default swaps are compatible to qualitative variations in corporate economy and answers to modern calls of more globalized financial system. The second, the functioning of the market of derivatives is really idiosyncratic that predetermines a final adage of that sort that arising problems with derivatives occurs not in their essence, but in purposefulness of their use.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-40

  7. Infinite swapping in curved spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curotto, E; Mella, Massimo

    2014-01-07

    We develop an extension of the infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping techniques [N. Plattner, J. D. Doll, P. Dupuis, H. Wang, Y. Liu, and J. E. Gubernatis, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134111 (2011)] to curved spaces. Furthermore, we test the performance of infinite swapping and partial infinite swapping in a series of flat spaces characterized by the same potential energy surface model. We develop a second order variational algorithm for general curved spaces without the extended Lagrangian formalism to include holonomic constraints. We test the new methods by carrying out NVT classical ensemble simulations on a set of multidimensional toroids mapped by stereographic projections and characterized by a potential energy surface built from a linear combination of decoupled double wells shaped purposely to create rare events over a range of temperatures.

  8. 76 FR 29817 - Further Definition of “Swap,” “Security-Based Swap,” and “Security-Based Swap Agreement”; Mixed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Exchange Products Not Subject to the Secretary's Swap Determination (i) Foreign Currency Options (ii) Non-Deliverable Forward Contracts Involving Foreign Exchange (iii) Currency Swaps and Cross-Currency Swaps 3... Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Further Definition of ``Swap,'' ``Security-Based Swap,'' and ``Security-Based Swap...

  9. Price Discovery from Cross-Currency and FX Swaps: A Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuaki Amatatsu; Naohiko Baba

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relative role of price discovery between two long-term swap contracts that exchange between the U.S. dollar and the Japanese yen: cross-currency basis swap and FX (foreign exchange) swap. First, we show that these two swaps should be in a no-arbitrage relationship by allowing for differential risk premiums. Second, we empirically investigate the relative role of price discovery using the structural-form approach based on the state space models. Main finding are as ...

  10. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kubo

    Full Text Available The use of lavender oil (LO--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham, a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules, to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  11. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  12. 76 FR 49291 - Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... integrity within the financial system by, among other things: (1) Providing for the registration and.../ k/a ``Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps Working Group''), which is comprised of financial...., comments from The Financial Services Roundtable, which represents 100 of the largest integrated financial...

  13. Design of low SWaP optical terminals for free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, P.; Cline, A.; McNally, J.; Pierson, R.

    2017-02-01

    Along with advantages in higher data rates, spectrum contention, and security, free space optical communications can provide size, weight, and power (SWaP) advantages over radio frequency (RF) systems. SWaP is always an issue in space systems and can be critical in applying free space optical communications to small satellite platforms. The system design of small space-based free space optical terminals with Gbps data rates is addressed. System architectures and requirements are defined to ensure the terminals are capable of acquisition, establishment and maintenance of a free space optical communications link. Design trades, identification of blocking technologies, and performance analyses are used to evaluate the practical limitations to terminal SWaP. Small terminal design concepts are developed to establish their practicality and feasibility. Techniques, such as modulation formats and capacity approaching encoding, are considered to mitigate the disadvantages brought by SWaP limitations, and performance as a function of SWaP is evaluated.

  14. On performance measures for infinite swapping Monte Carlo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, J D; Dupuis, Paul

    2015-01-14

    We introduce and illustrate a number of performance measures for rare-event sampling methods. These measures are designed to be of use in a variety of expanded ensemble techniques including parallel tempering as well as infinite and partial infinite swapping approaches. Using a variety of selected applications, we address questions concerning the variation of sampling performance with respect to key computational ensemble parameters.

  15. 76 FR 23732 - Margin Requirements for Uncleared Swaps for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ...) imposing clearing and trade execution requirements on standardized derivative products; (3) creating... Finance Agency. The definition also specifies the entities for which these agencies act as prudential... all swaps that are not cleared by a registered derivatives clearing organization. Section 4s(e)(3)(A...

  16. 75 FR 64643 - Reporting of Security-Based Swap Transaction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... interest rate swap; (II) a rate floor; (III) a rate cap; (IV) a rate collar; (V) a cross-currency rate swap; (VI) a basis swap; (VII) a currency swap; (VIII) a foreign exchange swap; (IX) a total return swap; (X... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AK73 Reporting of Security-Based Swap Transaction Data AGENCY: Securities...

  17. Variance swap payoffs, risk premia and extreme market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars; Violante, Francesco

    This paper estimates the Variance Risk Premium (VRP) directly from synthetic variance swap payoffs. Since variance swap payoffs are highly volatile, we extract the VRP by using signal extraction techniques based on a state-space representation of our model in combination with a simple economic...... constraint. Our approach, only requiring option implied volatilities and daily returns for the underlying, provides measurement error free estimates of the part of the VRP related to normal market conditions, and allows constructing variables indicating agents' expectations under extreme market conditions....... The latter variables and the VRP generate different return predictability on the major US indices. A factor model is proposed to extract a market VRP which turns out to be priced when considering Fama and French portfolios....

  18. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.

    2017-12-08

    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  19. The spillover of money market turbulence to FX swap and cross-currency swap markets

    OpenAIRE

    Naohiko Baba; Frank Packer; Teppei Nagano

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the spillover of the turmoil in money markets in the second half of 2007 to FX swap and long-term cross-currency basis swap markets. We find that the use of swap markets to overcome US dollar funding shortages by non-US financial institutions resulted in marked deviations from covered interest parity conditions and the impairment of liquidity in these markets.

  20. Stability engineering of anti-EGFR scFv antibodies by rational design of a lambda-to-kappa swap of the VL framework using a structure-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Andreas; Wixted, Josephine H F; Shapovalov, Maxim V; Roder, Heinrich; Dunbrack, Roland L; Robinson, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Phage-display technology facilitates rapid selection of antigen-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies from large recombinant libraries. ScFv antibodies, composed of a VH and VL domain, are readily engineered into multimeric formats for the development of diagnostics and targeted therapies. However, the recombinant nature of the selection strategy can result in VH and VL domains with sub-optimal biophysical properties, such as reduced thermodynamic stability and enhanced aggregation propensity, which lead to poor production and limited application. We found that the C10 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) scFv, and its affinity mutant, P2224, exhibit weak production from E. coli. Interestingly, these scFv contain a fusion of lambda3 and lambda1 V-region (LV3 and LV1) genes, most likely the result of a PCR aberration during library construction. To enhance the biophysical properties of these scFvs, we utilized a structure-based approach to replace and redesign the pre-existing framework of the VL domain to one that best pairs with the existing VH. We describe a method to exchange lambda sequences with a more stable kappa3 framework (KV3) within the VL domain that incorporates the original lambda DE-loop. The resulting scFvs, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE, are more thermodynamically stable and easier to produce from bacterial culture. Additionally, C10KV3_LV1DE and P2224KV3_LV1DE retain binding affinity to EGFR, suggesting that such a dramatic framework swap does not significantly affect scFv binding. We provide here a novel strategy for redesigning the light chain of problematic scFvs to enhance their stability and therapeutic applicability.

  1. Couplers for Non-Locality Swapping

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Studying generalized non-local theories brings insight to the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here we focus on non-locality swapping, the analogue of quantum entanglement swapping. In order to implement such a protocol, one needs a coupler that performs the equivalent of quantum joint measurements on generalized `box-like' states. Establishing a connection to Bell inequalities, we define consistent couplers for theories containing an arbitrary amount of non-locality, which leads us to intro...

  2. Automatic Battery Swap System for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of an automatic battery swap system for the prolonged activities of home robots. A battery swap station is proposed to implement battery off-line recharging and on-line exchanging functions. It consists of a loading and unloading mechanism, a shifting mechanism, a locking device and a shell. The home robot is a palm-sized wheeled robot with an onboard camera and a removable battery case in the front. It communicates with the battery swap station wirelessly through ZigBee. The influences of battery case deflection and robot docking deflection on the battery swap operations have been investigated. The experimental results show that it takes an average time of 84.2s to complete the battery swap operations. The home robot does not have to wait several hours for the batteries to be fully charged. The proposed battery swap system is proved to be efficient in home robot applications that need the robots to work continuously over a long period.

  3. TINJAUAN ASPEK PAJAK PENGHASILAN ATAS TRANSAKSI INSTRUMEN KEUANGAN DERIVATIF SWAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Mangoting

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of foreign currency is sensitive enough to the exchange rate fluctuation. To protect assets and liabilities that vulnerable to exchange rate fluctuation interest rate, taxpayers may use swap derivative financial instrument. Through this instrument, the risk which is caused by the changing of exchange rate can be avoded or minimized. Moreover with hedging, taxpayers will be able create gain from shifting the risk. Therefore hedging through the use of derivative instrument specially swap is an interesting phenomena to determine tax imposition. Taxpayers may apply kinds of such as swap, interest rate swap or currency swap. An interest rate is an exchange transaction which one party agree to pay the other on a notional principal amount. Whereas a currency swaps provide for the exchange (actual or notional between the two parties of a fixed amount of one currency for fixed amount of another one. Income characterization is an important problem in swap transaction. There is tendency from taxpayer to classify the income from swap transaction as an interest income, whereas in fact swap transaction is not borrowing-lending transaction. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Pengunaan mata uang asing memang cukup rentan terhadap risiko fluktuasi nilai tukar mata uang dan tingkat suku bunga. Untuk melindungi aktiva atau pasiva yang rentan terhadap perubahan nilai tukar mata uang dan tingkat suku bunga, Wajib Pajak dapat menggunakan instrumen keuangan derivatif Swap. Melalui instrumen keuangan derivatif Swap, risiko kerugian akibat perubahan-perubahan tersebut dapat dihindari atau diperkecil. Bahkan dengan lindung nilai (hedging, Wajib Pajak dapat menciptakan keuntungan melalui pergeseran risiko. Oleh karena itu, perlindungan nilai melalui penggunaan istrumen derivatif, khususnya Swap, merupakan fenomena menarik untuk menentukan pengenaan pajaknya. Wajib Pajak dapat menggunakan Swap jenis interest rate swap atau currency swap. Interest rate swap merupakan

  4. Pricing Survivor Forwards and Swaps in Incomplete Markets Using Simulation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, M. Martin; Favaro, Amélie; Stentoft, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article considers how to manage longevity risk using longevity derivatives products. We review the potential counterparties that naturally have exposure to this type of risk and we provide details on two very simple products, the survivor forward and the survivor swap, that can be used...... to trade this type of risk. We then discuss how such products can be priced using a simulation-based approach that has been shown to be successful in pricing financial derivatives. To illustrate the flexibility of the approach we price survivor forwards and swaps using the simple dynamics of the Lee...

  5. 75 FR 55574 - Joint Public Roundtable on Swap Execution Facilities and Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... COMMISSION SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Joint Public Roundtable on Swap Execution Facilities and Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'') and Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'') (each, an ``Agency,'' and collectively, the ``Agencies...

  6. 76 FR 40605 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Comptroller of the Currency, 99.9% of credit default swap positions by U.S. Commercial Banks and Trusts are... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 230, 240 and 260 RIN 3235-AL17 Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps AGENCY: Securities... 1934, and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 for those security-based swaps that under current law are...

  7. Couplers for non-locality swapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: paul.skrzypczyk@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: n.brunner@bristol.ac.uk

    2009-07-15

    Studying generalized non-signaling theories brings insight into the foundations of quantum mechanics. Here we focus on a dynamical process in such general theories, namely non-locality swapping, the analogue of quantum entanglement swapping. In order to implement such a protocol, one needs to define a coupler, which performs the equivalent of quantum joint measurements on generalized 'box-like' states. Establishing a connection to Bell inequalities, we define consistent couplers for theories containing an arbitrary amount of non-locality, which leads us to introduce the concepts of perfect and minimal couplers. Remarkably, Tsirelson's bound for quantum non-locality naturally appears in our study.

  8. Simultaneous entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingwen; Agnew, Megan; Roger, Thomas; Roux, Filippus S; Konrad, Thomas; Faccio, Daniele; Leach, Jonathan; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-09-21

    High-bit-rate long-distance quantum communication is a proposed technology for future communication networks and relies on high-dimensional quantum entanglement as a core resource. While it is known that spatial modes of light provide an avenue for high-dimensional entanglement, the ability to transport such quantum states robustly over long distances remains challenging. To overcome this, entanglement swapping may be used to generate remote quantum correlations between particles that have not interacted; this is the core ingredient of a quantum repeater, akin to repeaters in optical fibre networks. Here we demonstrate entanglement swapping of multiple orbital angular momentum states of light. Our approach does not distinguish between different anti-symmetric states, and thus entanglement swapping occurs for several thousand pairs of spatial light modes simultaneously. This work represents the first step towards a quantum network for high-dimensional entangled states and provides a test bed for fundamental tests of quantum science.Entanglement swapping in high dimensions requires large numbers of entangled photons and consequently suffers from low photon flux. Here the authors demonstrate entanglement swapping of multiple spatial modes of light simultaneously, without the need for increasing the photon numbers with dimension.

  9. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-05-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) could significantly reduce the nation's gasoline consumption and greenhouse gas emissions rates. However, both the upfront cost and the limited range of the vehicle are perceived to be deterrents to the widespread adoption of BEVs. A service provider approach to marketing BEVs, coupled with a battery swapping infrastructure deployment could address both issues and accelerate BEV adoption. This presentation examines customer selection, service usage statistics, service plan fees and driver economics. Our results show it is unlikely that a battery swapping service plan will be more cost-effective than ownership of a conventional vehicle. A battery swapping service plan may be a more cost-effective solution than a directly owned BEV for some single-vehicle, high-mileage consumers. However, other factors not considered in this analysis could decrease the viability of such a service.

  10. Analysis of swaps in Radix selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Mahmoud, Hosam

    2011-01-01

    Radix Sort is a sorting algorithm based on analyzing digital data. We study the number of swaps made by Radix Select (a one-sided version of Radix Sort) to find an element with a randomly selected rank. This kind of grand average provides a smoothing over all individual distributions for specific...

  11. Patient SWAP-200 Personality Dimensions and FFM Traits: Do They Predict Therapist Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzilli, Annalisa; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Hilsenroth, Mark

    2017-08-24

    The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapists' emotional responses and patients' personality evaluated by 3 dimensional diagnostic approaches empirically derived from the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b): Two of these rely on the 5-factor model (FFM) domains, that were assessed with different SWAP-200 FFM versions developed by Shedler and Westen (SW-FFM scales; 2004) and McCrae, Löckenhoff, and Costa (MLC-FFM scales; 2005); the third approach is based on a multifaceted model of personality syndromes (SWAP personality dimension scales; see Shedler & Westen, 2004). A national sample of psychiatrists and psychologists (N = 166) of various theoretical orientations completed the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Zittel Conklin & Westen, 2003) to identify patterns of therapist response, and the SWAP-200 to assess personality regarding a patient currently in their care. The findings showed good levels of construct validity between the SW-FFM and MLC-FFM scales, with the exception of the Openness trait. Moreover, specific SW-FFM and MLC-FFM scales were significantly associated with distinct SWAP personality dimension scales according in a conceptually meaningful nomological network. Although there were significant, theoretically coherent, and systematic relationships between therapists' responses and patients' personality features, overall the contribution of the SW-FFM and MLC-FFM traits in predicting therapists' responses was less sizable than the SWAP personality dimensions. These results seem to confirm the diagnostic and therapeutic value of countertransference as an essential tool in understanding psychological traits/dimensions that underlie the patients' psychopathology, both from within and outside of the FFM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. 76 FR 44508 - Acceptance of Public Submissions for a Study on International Swap Regulation Mandated by Section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ..., currency swaps, interest rate swaps (IRS),\\22\\ and commodity swaps; \\21\\ For CDS, include: corporate single... contracts, such as CDS, equity swaps, currency swaps, IRS, and commodity swaps; b. For classes and... Submissions for a Study on International Swap Regulation Mandated by Section 719(c) of the Dodd-Frank Wall...

  13. Genome-Wide Prediction and Analysis of 3D-Domain Swapped Proteins in the Human Genome from Sequence Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Atul Kumar; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    3D-domain swapping is one of the mechanisms of protein oligomerization and the proteins exhibiting this phenomenon have many biological functions. These proteins, which undergo domain swapping, have acquired much attention owing to their involvement in human diseases, such as conformational diseases, amyloidosis, serpinopathies, proteionopathies etc. Early realisation of proteins in the whole human genome that retain tendency to domain swap will enable many aspects of disease control management. Predictive models were developed by using machine learning approaches with an average accuracy of 78% (85.6% of sensitivity, 87.5% of specificity and an MCC value of 0.72) to predict putative domain swapping in protein sequences. These models were applied to many complete genomes with special emphasis on the human genome. Nearly 44% of the protein sequences in the human genome were predicted positive for domain swapping. Enrichment analysis was performed on the positively predicted sequences from human genome for their domain distribution, disease association and functional importance based on Gene Ontology (GO). Enrichment analysis was also performed to infer a better understanding of the functional importance of these sequences. Finally, we developed hinge region prediction, in the given putative domain swapped sequence, by using important physicochemical properties of amino acids.

  14. A systems biology approach reveals common metastatic pathways in osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Ricardo J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The survival rate of patients with metastatic disease remains very dismal. Nevertheless, metastasis is a complex process and a single-level analysis is not likely to identify its key biological determinants. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to identify common metastatic pathways that are jointly supported by both mRNA and protein expression data in two distinct human metastatic OS models. Results mRNA expression microarray and N-linked glycoproteomic analyses were performed on two commonly used isogenic pairs of human metastatic OS cell lines, namely HOS/143B and SaOS-2/LM7. Pathway analysis of the differentially regulated genes and glycoproteins separately revealed pathways associated to metastasis including cell cycle regulation, immune response, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition. However, no common significant pathway was found at both genomic and proteomic levels between the two metastatic models, suggesting a very different biological nature of the cell lines. To address this issue, we used a topological significance analysis based on a “shortest-path” algorithm to identify topological nodes, which uncovered additional biological information with respect to the genomic and glycoproteomic profiles but remained hidden from the direct analyses. Pathway analysis of the significant topological nodes revealed a striking concordance between the models and identified significant common pathways, including “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT”, “Cytoskeleton remodeling/Cytoskeleton remodeling”, and “Cell adhesion/Chemokines and adhesion”. Of these, the “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT” was the top ranked common pathway from the topological analysis of the genomic and proteomic profiles in the two metastatic models. The up-regulation of proteins in the “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT” pathway in the Sa

  15. 76 FR 1213 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Swap Execution Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... greater pre-trade price transparency to swap transactions; and (2) bringing more swaps trading onto... multiple participants; (b) promote pre-trade price transparency; (c) ensure that the trading of swaps on... promotion of ``the trading of swaps on swap execution facilities'' and ``pre-trade price transparency in the...

  16. 75 FR 68560 - Prohibition Against Fraud, Manipulation, and Deception in Connection With Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... rate cap; (IV) a rate collar; (V) a cross-currency rate swap; (VI) a basis swap; (VII) a currency swap... With Security-Based Swaps Agency: Securities and Exchange Commission. Action: Proposed rule. Summary... deception in connection with the offer, purchase or sale of any security-based swap, the exercise of any...

  17. SWAP-70 contributes to spontaneous transformation of mouse embryo fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Tzu; Shu, Chung-Li; Lai, Jing-Yang; Lin, Ching-Yu; Chuu, Chih-Pin [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine National Health Research Institute, Zhunan Town 35053, Miaoli County, Taiwan, ROC (China); Morishita, Kazuhiro; Ichikawa, Tomonaga [Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry Department of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-shi, Miyazaki 889-1692 Japan (Japan); Jessberger, Rolf [Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden (Germany); Fukui, Yasuhisa, E-mail: 990412@nhri.org.tw [Institute of Cellular and System Medicine National Health Research Institute, Zhunan Town 35053, Miaoli County, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-07-15

    Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) grow slowly after cultivation from animals, however, after an extended period of cultivation, their growth accelerates. We found that SWAP-70 deficient MEFs failed to increase growth rates. They maintain normal growth rates and proliferation cycles for at least 5 years. Complementing SWAP-70 deficiency in one of these MEF clones, MEF1F2, by expressing human SWAP-70 resulted in fast growth of the cells after further cultivation for a long period. The resulting cells show a transformation phenotype, since they grow on top of each other and do not show contact inhibition. This phenotype was reverted when sanguinarine, a putative SWAP-70 inhibitor, was added. Two SWAP-70 expressing clones were examined in detail. Even after cell density became very high their cdc2 and NFκB were still activated suggesting that they do not stop growing. One of the clones formed colonies in soft agar and formed tumors in nude mice. Lately, one more clone became transformed being able to make colonies in soft agar. We maintain 4 human SWAP-70 expressing MEF1F2 cell lines. Three out of 4 clones exhibited transforming phenotypes. The mouse SWAP-70 gene also promoted transformation of MEFs. Taken together our data suggest that SWAP-70 is not a typical oncogene, but is required for spontaneous transformation of MEFs. - Highlights: • Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking SWAP-70 do not cause spontaneous transform. • Adding back of SWAP-70 to SWAP-70-deficient MEFs induces spontaneous transformation. • SWAP-70 is required for spontaneous transformation of MEFs.

  18. Mechanism and accounting treatment of interest rate swap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest rate swap is a derivative which is today routinely used in the financial sector worldwide. As opposed to that, the swap market in Serbia is reduced to basic versions of interest rate swaps only, and is limited to the major users and providers of services in the financial market. Banks in Serbia have been introducing and promoting interest rate swaps as one of their services rather slowly, which can be deduced from various information on interest rate swaps and non-innovative offers of these instruments. On the other hand, companies are unable to recognize interest rate swaps as instruments of hedge against the negative effects of interest rate fluctuations, and a way to gain competitive edge in relation to other market participants. One of the obstacles for using interest rate swaps is unwillingness of companies to get informed and educated, and to enter new transactions. The volume of conducted swap transactions depends on the level of understanding on the part of their participants. Expansion of knowledge helps bridge the gap between theory and practice, thereby encouraging a more intensive implementation of interest rate swaps in the future.

  19. 76 FR 44464 - Process for Review of Swaps for Mandatory Clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... the Commission to find a DCO ineligible to clear a swap if the DCO is unable to clear the entire... de- couple the determination that a DCO may clear a swap from the determination that a swap should be...

  20. Quantum secure direct communication by EPR pairs and entanglement swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, T; Yan, F L; 10.1393/ncb/i2004-10090-1

    2004-01-01

    We present, a quantum secure direct communication scheme achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. In this scheme a set of ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (HPIl) pairs is used as a quantum information channel for sending secret messages directly. After insuring the safety of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret messages directly by applying a series local operations on her particle sequences according to their stipulation. Using three EPR pairs, three bits of secret classical information can be faithfully transmitted from Alice to remote Bob without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. By both Alice and Bob's GHZ state measurement results, Bob is able to read out the encoded secret messages directly. The protocol is completely secure if perfect quantum channel is used, because there is not a transmission of the qubits carrying the secret message between Alice and Bob in the public channel.

  1. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  2. 77 FR 35199 - Swap Data Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements: Pre-Enactment and Transition Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... response to each of the IFRs and considered them all. Comments generally fell into one or more of several broad categories and in a number of instances were common to both IFRs. Some commenters observed that issuance of IFRs in advance of regulations further defining the term ``swap'' (or defining other key terms...

  3. 77 FR 9733 - Business Conduct Standards for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants With Counterparties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... indirect, with respect to any moneys or other property of such plan, or has any authority or responsibility.... The definition includes financial advisors, third-party marketers, and swap advisors that engage in...-principal market and plays a different role than that of a typical CTA that provides advice to ``retail...

  4. 75 FR 71379 - Registration of Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... submitted in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. Comments will be posted as received... swap dealer. The Commission also recognizes the role that considerations of international comity play...); 1 Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law of the United States Sec. Sec. 402-403 (1987). The...

  5. 78 FR 20848 - Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants; Clerical or Ministerial Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... conjunction with CEA Section 4s(b)(6), the National Futures ] Association (NFA) \\6\\ has recommended that the... Vice President and General Counsel, NFA, to Gary Barnett, Director of the Division of Swap Dealer and Intermediary Oversight, dated November 12, 2012. NFA is a registered futures association (and the sole...

  6. 78 FR 64173 - Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants; Clerical or Ministerial Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...)(6), in November 2012 the National Futures Association (NFA) \\6\\ recommended that the Commission... Vice President and General Counsel, NFA, to Gary Barnett, Director of the Division of Swap Dealer and Intermediary Oversight, dated November 12, 2012. NFA is a registered futures association (and the sole...

  7. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference, volati...

  8. 75 FR 67258 - Position Reports for Physical Commodity Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ..., competitiveness, and financial integrity of futures markets; (3) price discovery; (4) sound risk management... linked to the price of one or more 20.2 listed futures contract. Second, paired swaps are defined as swaps that are based on the price of the same commodity for delivery at the same location(s) as that of...

  9. 75 FR 66426 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Forwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... classes of swaps; (3) The extent to which bank regulators of participants in the foreign exchange market... or other risks in the foreign exchange swaps and forwards markets? What considerations are relevant... data repository, what is the current standard or practice in the foreign exchange market for reporting...

  10. Book Swap Now Open to All Employees | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not only did the year 2000 mark the start of a new millennium, the beginning of the Human Genome Project, and the opening of the International Space Station, but it was also the first year that the Scientific Library held its annual Book & Media Swap. Starting Nov. 12, the 15th annual Book Swap is open to all NCI at Frederick employees.

  11. SWAPS version 1.0; technical reference manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashby, M.; Dolman, A.J.; Kabat, P.; Moors, E.J.; Ogink-Hendriks, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    SWAPS is a one-dimensional soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer model (SVAT) developed at SC-DLO. A description of the theory behind SWAPS and the processes which it is intended to simulate is given. These processes are interception, vegetation transpiration, soil evaporation, soil moisture

  12. Quantum Entanglement Swapping between Two Multipartite Entangled States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Deng, Xiaowei; Li, Qiang; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-12-09

    Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results. After entanglement swapping the two independent multipartite entangled states are merged into a large entangled state in which all unmeasured quantum modes are entangled. The entanglement swapping between a tripartite GHZ state and an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state is also demonstrated and the dependence of the resultant entanglement on transmission loss is investigated. The presented experiment provides a feasible technical reference for constructing more complicated quantum networks.

  13. Three-Dimensional Domain Swapping Changes the Folding Mechanism of the Forkhead Domain of FoxP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Exequiel; Córdova, Cristóbal; Villalobos, Pablo; Reyes, Javiera; Komives, Elizabeth A; Ramírez-Sarmiento, César A; Babul, Jorge

    2016-06-07

    The forkhead family of transcription factors (Fox) controls gene transcription during key processes such as regulation of metabolism, embryogenesis, and immunity. Structurally, Fox proteins feature a conserved DNA-binding domain known as forkhead. Interestingly, solved forkhead structures of members from the P subfamily (FoxP) show that they can oligomerize by three-dimensional domain swapping, whereby structural elements are exchanged between adjacent subunits, leading to an intertwined dimer. Recent evidence has largely stressed the biological relevance of domain swapping in FoxP, as several disease-causing mutations have been related to impairment of this process. Here, we explore the equilibrium folding and binding mechanism of the forkhead domain of wild-type FoxP1, and of two mutants that hinder DNA-binding (R53H) and domain swapping (A39P), using size-exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. Our results show that domain swapping of FoxP1 occurs at micromolar protein concentrations within hours of incubation and is energetically favored, in contrast to classical domain-swapping proteins. Also, DNA-binding mutations do not significantly affect domain swapping. Remarkably, equilibrium unfolding of dimeric FoxP1 follows a three-state N2 ↔ 2I ↔ 2U folding mechanism in which dimer dissociation into a monomeric intermediate precedes protein unfolding, in contrast to the typical two-state model described for most domain-swapping proteins, whereas the A39P mutant follows a two-state N ↔ U folding mechanism consistent with the second transition observed for dimeric FoxP1. Also, the free-energy change of the N ↔ U in A39P FoxP1 is ∼2 kcal⋅mol(-1) larger than the I ↔ U transition of both wild-type and R53H FoxP1. Finally, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry reveals that the intermediate strongly resembles the native state. Our results suggest that domain swapping in FoxP1 is at least

  14. 75 FR 71391 - Implementation of Conflicts of Interest Policies and Procedures by Swap Dealers and Major Swap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... potential conflicts of interest in the preparation and release of research reports by SDs and MSPs; the... research report, or to identify any potential conflicts of interest, provided that: (A) Any written... Conflicts of Interest. A swap dealer or major swap participant must disclose in research reports and a...

  15. 77 FR 1181 - Real-Time Public Reporting of Swap Transaction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... swap data repository (``SDR'') or to the Commission pursuant to CEA section 2(h)(6); and (iv) swaps... of data fields which an SDR must publicly disseminate regarding swap transactions, and pricing data... facilitates the identification of a party to a swap. This section further provided that an SDR may not report...

  16. 75 FR 75207 - Regulation SBSR-Reporting and Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... SBSR--Reporting and Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... proposing Regulation SBSR--Reporting and Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information (``Regulation SBSR... for the reporting of security- based swap information to registered security-based swap data...

  17. 77 FR 69694 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Foreign Exchange Forwards Under the Commodity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... foreign exchange options, currency swaps, or non-deliverable forwards (``NDFs''). Among other measures... currency from that counterparty. The payment obligations on currency swaps, interest rate swaps, credit... derivatives. Foreign exchange options, currency swaps, and NDFs (as discussed below) may not be exempted from...

  18. 78 FR 7654 - Extension of Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Comptroller of the Currency, 100.0% of credit default swap positions held by U.S. commercial banks and trust... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 230, 240 and 260 RIN 3235-AL17 Extension of Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps... security-based swaps that prior to July 16, 2011 were security-based swap agreements and are defined as...

  19. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-03-20

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  20. Social Investment for Sustainability of Groundwater: A Revealed Preference Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Tusak Loehman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a form of natural capital that is valued for the goods it provides, including ecosystem health, water quality, and water consumption. Degradation of groundwater could be alleviated through social investment such as for water reuse and desalination to reduce the need for withdrawals from groundwater. This paper develops a participatory planning process—based on combining revealed preference with economic optimization—to choose a desired future for sustaining groundwater. Generation of potential groundwater futures is based on an optimal control model with investment and withdrawal from groundwater as control variables. In this model, groundwater stock and aquatic health are included as inter-temporal public goods. The social discount rate expressing time preference—an important parameter that drives optimization—is revealed through the participatory planning process. To implement the chosen future, a new method of inter-temporal pricing is presented to finance investment and supply costs. Furthermore, it is shown that the desired social outcome could be achieved by a form of privatization in which the pricing method, the appropriate discount rate, and the planning period are contractually specified.

  1. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  2. A 'select and swap' strategy for the isolation of clones with tightly regulated transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M J; Carpenter, A J; Porter, A C

    2001-03-01

    Increasing numbers of biological problems are being addressed by genetic approaches that rely on inducible expression of transgenes. It is desirable that expression of such a transgene is tightly regulated, from close to zero expression in the 'off' state, to appreciable (at least physiological) expression in the 'on' state. Although there are many examples where tight regulation has been achieved, certain factors, including chromosomal position effects due to random integration of the transgene, often cause suboptimal inducibility and make the isolation of tightly regulated clones difficult and/or laborious. Here we describe a 'select and swap' strategy for the isolation, from a population of stable transfectants, of clones with tightly regulated transgenes. In this approach, a positively and negatively selectable, inducible marker gene is used to select for clones with optimal transgene regulation. After isolation of such clones, the marker gene is swapped with a linked gene of interest by the use of site-specific recombination. To test this strategy we introduced into human cells a plasmid with a tetracycline-inducible bacterial gpt gene linked to a promoterless luciferase gene, isolated clones with tight gpt expression and used the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system to swap the gpt gene with the luciferase gene. We discuss ways for refining and developing the system and widening its applicability.

  3. Antecedents and Consequences of Gender Swapping in Online Games

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, Haeyeop; Jung, Jaemin

    2015-01-01

    .... An online survey was conducted with 318 male players of MMORPGs in Korea. Players swapped gender in games to gain benefits from other players under the condition of anonymity rather than to represent their own gender identity...

  4. Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2015-07-16

    We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.

  5. 76 FR 71625 - Position Limits for Futures and Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... manipulative intent, can cause ``disturbances'' and ``wild and erratic'' price fluctuations. To address such... Group supra note 21 at 7-8 (arguing that ``virtual tolling swaps'' that utilize a Referenced Contract...

  6. Los swap deuda/naturaleza: estado del arte

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez Fernandez, Sara; Mascarenas Perez-Inigo, Juan

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se aborda el analisis de los swaps deuda/naturaleza como una forma de financiar la conservacion del medioambiente y desde aqui apoyar al desarrollo sostenible de un pais en vias de desarrollo...

  7. Genetic and Modeling Approaches Reveal Distinct Components of Impulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Katherine M; Wall, Melanie M; Wang, Shuai; Magalong, Valerie M; Ahmari, Susanne E; Balsam, Peter D; Blanco, Carlos; Hen, René

    2017-05-01

    Impulsivity is an endophenotype found in many psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, pathological gambling, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two behavioral features often considered in impulsive behavior are behavioral inhibition (impulsive action) and delayed gratification (impulsive choice). However, the extent to which these behavioral constructs represent distinct facets of behavior with discrete biological bases is unclear. To test the hypothesis that impulsive action and impulsive choice represent statistically independent behavioral constructs in mice, we collected behavioral measures of impulsivity in a single cohort of mice using well-validated operant behavioral paradigms. Mice with manipulation of serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) expression were included as a model of disordered impulsivity. A factor analysis was used to characterize correlations between the measures of impulsivity and to identify covariates. Using two approaches, we dissociated impulsive action from impulsive choice. First, the absence of 5-HT1BRs caused increased impulsive action, but not impulsive choice. Second, based on an exploratory factor analysis, a two-factor model described the data well, with measures of impulsive action and choice separating into two independent factors. A multiple-indicator multiple-causes analysis showed that 5-HT1BR expression and sex were significant covariates of impulsivity. Males displayed increased impulsivity in both dimensions, whereas 5-HT1BR expression was a predictor of increased impulsive action only. These data support the conclusion that impulsive action and impulsive choice are distinct behavioral phenotypes with dissociable biological influences that can be modeled in mice. Our work may help inform better classification, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders, which present with disordered impulsivity.

  8. [beta subsccript 2]-microglobulin forms three-dimensional domain-swapped amyloid fibrils with disulfide linkages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2011-08-09

    {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-m) is the light chain of the type I major histocompatibility complex. It deposits as amyloid fibrils within joints during long-term hemodialysis treatment. Despite the devastating effects of dialysis-related amyloidosis, full understanding of how fibrils form from soluble {beta}{sub 2}-m remains elusive. Here we show that {beta}{sub 2}-m can oligomerize and fibrillize via three-dimensional domain swapping. Isolating a covalently bound, domain-swapped dimer from {beta}{sub 2}-m oligomers on the pathway to fibrils, we were able to determine its crystal structure. The hinge loop that connects the swapped domain to the core domain includes the fibrillizing segment LSFSKD, whose atomic structure we also determined. The LSFSKD structure reveals a class 5 steric zipper, akin to other amyloid spines. The structures of the dimer and the zipper spine fit well into an atomic model for this fibrillar form of {beta}{sub 2}-m, which assembles slowly under physiological conditions.

  9. Virtual Reality Body Swapping: A Tool for Modifying the Allocentric Memory of the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Silvia; Pedroli, Elisa; Keizer, Anouk; Triberti, Stefano; Dakanalis, Antonios; Pallavicini, Federica; Chirico, Alice; Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that embodiment of a virtual body via visuo-tactile stimulation can lead to an altered perception of body and object size. The current study aimed to investigate whether virtual reality (VR) body swapping can be an effective tool for modifying the enduring memory of the body. The experimental sample included 21 female participants who were asked to estimate the width and circumference of different body parts before any kind of stimulation and after two types of body swapping illusions ("synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation" and "asynchronous visuo-tactile stimulation"). Findings revealed that after participants embodied a virtual body with a skinny belly (independently of the type of visuo-tactile stimulation), there was an update of the stored representation of the body: participants reported a decrease in the ratio between estimated and actual body measures for most of the body parts considered. Based on the Allocentric Lock Theory, these findings provide first evidence that VR body swapping is able to induce a change in the memory of the body. This knowledge may be potentially useful for patients suffering from eating and weight disorders.

  10. Emergence of Quantum Correlations from Non-Locality Swapping

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu

    2008-01-01

    By studying generalized non-signalling theories, the hope is to find out what makes quantum mechanics so special. In the present paper, we revisit the paradigmatic model of non-signalling boxes and introduce the concept of a genuine box. This will allow us to present the first generalized non-signalling model featuring quantum-like dynamics. In particular, we present the coupler, a device enabling non-locality swapping, the analogue of quantum entanglement swapping, as well as teleportation. ...

  11. HotSwap for bioinformatics: A STRAP tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Peter N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics applications are now routinely used to analyze large amounts of data. Application development often requires many cycles of optimization, compiling, and testing. Repeatedly loading large datasets can significantly slow down the development process. We have incorporated HotSwap functionality into the protein workbench STRAP, allowing developers to create plugins using the Java HotSwap technique. Results Users can load multiple protein sequences or structures into the main STRAP user interface, and simultaneously develop plugins using an editor of their choice such as Emacs. Saving changes to the Java file causes STRAP to recompile the plugin and automatically update its user interface without requiring recompilation of STRAP or reloading of protein data. This article presents a tutorial on how to develop HotSwap plugins. STRAP is available at http://strapjava.de and http://www.charite.de/bioinf/strap. Conclusion HotSwap is a useful and time-saving technique for bioinformatics developers. HotSwap can be used to efficiently develop bioinformatics applications that require loading large amounts of data into memory.

  12. Multiscale implementation of infinite-swap replica exchange molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tang-Qing; Lu, Jianfeng; Abrams, Cameron F.; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) is a popular method to accelerate conformational sampling of complex molecular systems. The idea is to run several replicas of the system in parallel at different temperatures that are swapped periodically. These swaps are typically attempted every few MD steps and accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis–Hastings criterion. This guarantees that the joint distribution of the composite system of replicas is the normalized sum of the symmetrized product of the canonical distributions of these replicas at the different temperatures. Here we propose a different implementation of REMD in which (i) the swaps obey a continuous-time Markov jump process implemented via Gillespie’s stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), which also samples exactly the aforementioned joint distribution and has the advantage of being rejection free, and (ii) this REMD-SSA is combined with the heterogeneous multiscale method to accelerate the rate of the swaps and reach the so-called infinite-swap limit that is known to optimize sampling efficiency. The method is easy to implement and can be trivially parallelized. Here we illustrate its accuracy and efficiency on the examples of alanine dipeptide in vacuum and C-terminal β-hairpin of protein G in explicit solvent. In this latter example, our results indicate that the landscape of the protein is a triple funnel with two folded structures and one misfolded structure that are stabilized by H-bonds. PMID:27698148

  13. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2016-07-12

    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  14. 75 FR 80747 - End-User Exception to Mandatory Clearing of Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... clearing applies; (2) swaps be reported to a registered swap data repository (``SDR'') or the Commission... delivering specified information to an SDR in the manner required by proposed rules for swaps data recordkeeping and reporting.\\8\\ The specified information would be ] delivered to the SDR by the reporting...

  15. 75 FR 76139 - Real-Time Public Reporting of Swap Transaction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... determined by fixed and floating rates. The currency asset class would encompass the underlying of any swap... commodity asset class would encompass the underlying of any swap not included in the credit, currency... allocating swaps among asset class categories? If not, why? Should the Commission classify cross-currency...

  16. 76 FR 25774 - Determination of Foreign Exchange Swaps and Foreign Exchange Forwards Under the Commodity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... exchange derivatives, such as foreign exchange options, currency swaps, or non-deliverable forwards (``NDFs... markets for derivative instruments. In general, the payment obligations on currency swaps, interest rate... derivatives. Foreign exchange options, currency swaps, and NDFs may not be exempted from the CEA's definition...

  17. 76 FR 33817 - Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... another customer by making certain that the value of the cleared swaps collateral that the DCO holds... value of FCM or DCO investments of cleared swaps customer collateral. Section 4d(f) of the CEA permits... Swaps Customer Contracts and Collateral; Conforming Amendments to the Commodity Broker Bankruptcy...

  18. 75 FR 78892 - Reporting Certain Post-Enactment Swap Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... (``SDR'') or to the Commission. Each category of data is subject to a reporting timetable specified in... registered SDR \\5\\ or to the Commission if there is no registered SDR that would accept the swap. Section 723... reported to a registered SDR or the Commission according to specified timetables. As described below...

  19. New architecture for the sensor web: the SWAP framework.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available and extract and use appropriate information from multiple sensor sources over the Internet. This paper proposes an architectural framework, the Sensor Web Agent Platform (SWAP) that makes use of two of the most promising distributed architectural paradigms i...

  20. Credit risk exposure with interest and currency swaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, R.C.; Stokking, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    The increased use of financial derivatives like interest rate and currency swap contracts has drawn much attention, as it exposes banks to non-performance by their counterparts. This credit risk exposure is of great concern to monetary authorities, e.g. the Bank for International Settlements. Ln

  1. Application of decision analysis in debt-for-environment swaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Taleb, M.F. [Department of Civil Engineering, Applied Science University, PO Box 40, 11831, Amman (Jordan)

    2003-03-01

    Through a mandate by the Government of Jordan, a debt-for-environment swap initiative was designed to mobilize resources for programs that improve the Jordanian environment within a broad spectrum of conservation, water supply, sanitation, resource management, ecological protection, environmental education, and pollution abatement technology. As a debtor country, Jordan faces a severe debt burden (with debt-per-capita levels among the highest in the world), and is facing difficulty obtaining further credit to fill the gaps in hard currency requirements for imports. Debt swap converts outstanding debt obligations into local currency for approved national environmental programs and projects. With creditor countries favoring debt swap over debt forgiveness in general, and debt swap for environmental technology projects in particular, the initiative was launched to ensure both fiscal and environmental quality benefits. With donors requiring that project development and selection procedures be fair, unbiased, and transparent, a mechanism for ultimate selection was developed by the author solely for the initiative based on multiple objective optimization techniques. This paper formulates the necessary decision-analytic principles for the initiative and presents a discrete, defensible, and transparent model for selection of projects. The model ranks the projects in terms of environment and economic objectives and can be used for other generalized applications. (orig.)

  2. 76 FR 6095 - Commodity Options and Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ..., ``agricultural commodity'' (See: 75 FR 65586, Oct. 26, 2010, and plans to publish a final definition in the near... Dairy Farmers of America (``DFA''); the National Council of Farmer Cooperatives (``NCFC''); the Gavilon... cooperatives that enter into swaps with their own members or third parties in the course of marketing their...

  3. Nonlinear Min-Cost-Pursued Route-Swapping Dynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a nonlinear min-cost-pursued swapping dynamic (NMSD system to model the evolution of selfish routing games on traffic network where travelers only swap from previous costly routes to the least costly ones. NMSD is a rational behavior adjustment process with stationary link flow pattern being the Wardrop user equilibrium. NMSD is able to prevent two behavioral deficiencies suffered by the existing min-cost-oriented models and keep solution invariance. NMSD relaxes the homogeneous user assumption, and the continuous-time NMSD (CNMSD and discrete-time NMSD (DNMSD share the same revision protocol. Moreover, CNMSD is Lyapunov-stable. Two numerical examples are conducted. The first one is designed to characterize the NMSD-conducted network traffic evolution and test the stability of day-to-day NMSD. The second one aims to explore the impacts of network scale on the stability of route-swaps conducted by pairwise and min-cost-pursed swapping behaviors.

  4. Actual factors to determine cross-currency basis swaps: An empirical study on US dollar/Japanese yen basis swap rates from the late 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Shinada, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Cross-currency basis swap rates that exchange US-dollar (USD) and Japanese-yen (JPY) LIBORs have fluctuated since the late 1990s. It is increasingly important for market participants to figure out such swap rates, but there have not been many empirical studies about actual markets. This study addresses factors of USD/JPY swap rates from the late 1990s to the present, and demonstrates that differences in credit risk premiums, forward exchange rates and assets swaps of foreign investors from JP...

  5. 76 FR 42395 - Business Conduct Standards for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... fund managers, labor unions, pension fund managers, self-regulatory organizations (``SROs''), state and..., Secretary, CFTC (Feb. 18, 2011) (the ``Public Pension Funds Letter''): To fulfill obligations to our members... for dealers and for the pension plans that may rely on security-based swaps to manage risk and reduce...

  6. 76 FR 77728 - Process for a Designated Contract Market or Swap Execution Facility To Make a Swap Available To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...; Letter from Lee Olesky and Douglas Friedman, Tradeweb Markets LLC, dated Mar. 8, 2011 at 8-9; Letter from... Olesky and Douglas Friedman, Tradeweb Markets LLC, dated Mar. 8, 2011 at 8-9; Letter from Coalition for... commenters recommended a stringent fungibility test to determine whether a particular swap is economically...

  7. Novel Frequency Swapping Technique for Conducted Electromagnetic Interference Suppression in Power Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quasi-resonant flyback (QRF converters have been widely applied as the main circuit topology in power converters because of their low cost and high efficiency. Conventional QRF converters tend to generate higher average conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI in the low-frequency domain due to the switching noise generated by power switches, resulting in the fact they can exceed the EMI standards of the European Standard 55022 Class-B emission requirements. The presented paper develops a novel frequency swapping control method that spreads spectral energy to reduce the amplitude of sub-harmonics, thereby lowering average conducted EMI in the low-frequency domain. The proposed method is implemented in a control chip, which requires no extra circuit components and adds zero cost. The proposed control method is verified using a 24 W QRF converter. Experimental results reveals that conducted EMI has been reduced by approximately 13.24 dBμV at 498 kHz compared with a control method without the novel frequency swapping technique. Thus, the proposed method can effectively improve the flyback system to easily meet the CISPR 22/EN55022 standards.

  8. The buried diversity of bovine seminal ribonuclease: shape and cytotoxicity of the swapped non-covalent form of the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Antonello; Ercole, Carmine; Picone, Delia; Pizzo, Elio; Mazzarella, Lelio; Sica, Filomena

    2008-02-15

    Bovine seminal ribonuclease exists in the native state as an equilibrium mixture of a swapped and an unswapped dimer. The molecular envelope and the exposed surface of the two isomers are practically indistinguishable and their diversity is almost completely buried in the interior of the protein. Surprisingly, the cytotoxic and antitumor activity of the enzyme is a peculiar property of the swapped dimer. This buried diversity comes into light in the reducing environment of the cytosol, where the unswapped dimer dissociates into monomers, whereas the swapped one generates a metastable dimeric form (NCD-BS) with a quaternary assembly that allows the molecule to escape the protein inhibitor of ribonucleases. The stability of this quaternary shape was mainly attributed to the combined presence of Pro19 and Leu28. We have prepared and fully characterized by X-ray diffraction the double mutant P19A/L28Q (PALQ) of the seminal enzyme. While the swapped and unswapped forms of the mutant have structures very similar to that of the corresponding wild-type forms, the non-covalent form (NCD-PALQ) adopts an opened quaternary structure, different from that of NCD-BS. Moreover, model building clearly indicates that NCD-PALQ can be easily sequestered by the protein inhibitor. In agreement with these results, cytotoxic assays have revealed that PALQ has limited activity, whereas the single mutants P19A and L28Q display cytotoxic activity against malignant cells almost as large as the wild-type enzyme. The significant increase in the antitumor activity, brought about by the substitution of just two residues in going from the double mutant to the wild-type enzyme, suggests a new strategy to improve this important biological property by strengthening the interface that stabilizes the quaternary structure of NCD-BS.

  9. Quantum coordinated multi-point communication based on entanglement swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gang; Shang, Tao; Liu, Jian-wei

    2017-05-01

    In a quantum network, adjacent nodes can communicate with each other point to point by using pre-shared Einsten-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, and furthermore remote nodes can establish entanglement channels by using quantum routing among intermediate nodes. However, with the rapid development of quantum networks, the demand of various message transmission among nodes inevitably emerges. In order to realize this goal and extend quantum networks, we propose a quantum coordinated multi-point communication scheme based on entanglement swapping. The scheme takes full advantage of EPR pairs between adjacent nodes and performs multi-party entanglement swapping to transmit messages. Considering various demands of communication, all nodes work cooperatively to realize different message transmission modes, including one to many, many to one and one to some. Scheme analysis shows that the proposed scheme can flexibly organize a coordinated group and efficiently use EPR resources, while it meets basic security requirement under the condition of coordinated communication.

  10. Methane Production and Carbon Capture by Hydrate Swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Liang; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    gas molecules in the structural lattice. In this work, we quantitatively investigate the swapping behavior from injection of pure carbon dioxide and the (CO2 + N2) binary gas mixture through artificial hydrate-bearing sandstone samples by use of a core-flooding experimental apparatus. A total of 13...... of pure carbon dioxide in swapping methane from its hydrate phase; the methane recovery efficiency in brine water systems is enhanced relative to pure water systems. The replenishment of a fresh (CO2 + N2) gas mixture into the vapor phase can be considered as an efficient extraction method because 46...... in small hydrate cages, as long as the equilibrium formation pressure of (CO2 + N2) binary gas hydrate is below that of methane hydrate, even though adding nitrogen to carbon dioxide reduces the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of a new hydrate. When other conditions are similar, the methane...

  11. Single-PPLN-assisted wavelength-/time-selective switching/dropping/swapping for 100-GHz-spaced WDM signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Fu, Hongyan; Geng, Dongyu; Willner, Alan E

    2013-02-11

    We propose an approach to implementing wavelength- and time-selective optical switching, dropping and swapping based on the sum-frequency generation (SFG) or cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation (cSFG/DFG) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Analytical solutions are derived, showing the parametric depletion effect for optical switching and the narrow-band operation due to quasi-phase matching (QPM) condition of PPLN. Using parametric depletion effect of SFG process, we demonstrate wavelength- and time-selective optical switching for ITU-grid compatible 40-Gbit/s wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) signals with a channel spacing of 100 GHz. Less than 1-dB power penalty at a bit-error rate (BER) of 10(-9) is measured for the wavelength- and time-selective switching channel. Negligible impacts are observed on other channels of WDM signals. Using combined effects of parametric depletion and wavelength conversion of cSFG/DFG processes, we demonstrate wavelength- and time-selective optical dropping for ITU-grid compatible 100-GHz-spaced 40-Gbit/s WDM signals. Moreover, we demonstrate optical swapping between two 100-GHz-spaced 40-Gbit/s signals. The obtained theoretical and experimental results confirm single-PPLN-assisted wavelength- and time-selective optical switching, dropping and swapping for 100-GHz-spaced WDM signals, which might potentially be extended to WDM signals with narrower channel spacing.

  12. Tinjauan Aspek Pajak Penghasilan Atas Transaksi Instrumen Keuangan Derivatif Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Mangoting, Yenni

    2003-01-01

    The use of foreign currency is sensitive enough to the exchange rate fluctuation. To protect assets and liabilities that vulnerable to exchange rate fluctuation interest rate, taxpayers may use swap derivative financial instrument. Through this instrument, the risk which is caused by the changing of exchange rate can be avoded or minimized. Moreover with hedging, taxpayers will be able create gain from shifting the risk. Therefore hedging through the use of derivative instrument specially swa...

  13. Revealing functionally coherent subsets using a spectral clustering and an information integration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Adam J; Schwacke, John H; Rohrer, Bärbel; Cowart, L Ashley; Lu, Xinghua

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary high-throughput analyses often produce lengthy lists of genes or proteins. It is desirable to divide the genes into functionally coherent subsets for further investigation, by integrating heterogeneous information regarding the genes. Here we report a principled approach for managing and integrating multiple data sources within the framework of graph-spectrum analysis in order to identify coherent gene subsets. We investigated several approaches to integrate information derived from different sources that reflect distinct aspects of gene functional relationships including: functional annotations of genes in the form of the Gene Ontology, co-mentioning of genes in the literature, and shared transcription factor binding sites among genes. Given a list of genes, we construct a graph containing the genes in each information space; then the graphs were kernel transformed so they could be integrated; finally functionally coherent subsets were identified using a spectral clustering algorithm. In a series of simulation experiments, known functionally coherent gene sets were mixed and recovered using our approach. The results indicate that spectral clustering approaches are capable of recovering coherent gene modules even under noisy conditions, and that information integration serves to further enhance this capability. When applied to a real-world data set, our methods revealed biologically sensible modules, and highlighted the importance of information integration. The implementation of the statistical model is provided under the GNU general public license, as an installable Python module, at: http://code.google.com/p/spectralmix.

  14. Three-dimension visualization of transnasal approach for revealing the metasellar organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang XUE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To elevate the anatomical cognitive level by investigating the metasellar organization viatransnasal approach in a virtual-reality (VR setting. Methods Twenty-eight patients, with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage but without pathological changes of nasal cavity and sella turcica, underwent the lamellar imaging examination and CT angiogram with Discovery Ultra 16. The data were collected and entered in the Dextroscope in DICOM format. Visualization research was carried out viathe transnasal approach in a virtual-reality (VR setting. Results The anatomic structures of transnasal approach were allowed to be observed dynamically and spatially. When exposing the lateral border of cavernous carotid artery, it was important to excise the ethmoid cornu, open posterior ethmoid sinus and sphenopalatine foramen, control sphenopalatine artery, properly drill out pterygoid process and reveal pterygoid canal. Conclusion It is the key point to remove the ethmoid cornu, uncinate process and bone of the anterior region of sphenoidal sinus, and control sphenopalatine artery viatransnasal approach to expose the metasellar structure. The cavernous carotid arteries are the most important anatomic structure, should be adequately exposed and conserved.

  15. Co-expression Network Approach Reveals Functional Similarities among Diseases Affecting Human Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Mukund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases affecting skeletal muscle exhibit considerable heterogeneity in intensity, etiology, phenotypic manifestation and gene expression. Systems biology approaches using network theory, allows for a holistic understanding of functional similarities amongst diseases. Here we propose a co-expression based, network theoretic approach to extract functional similarities from 20 heterogeneous diseases comprising of dystrophinopathies, inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular, and muscle metabolic diseases. Utilizing this framework we identified seven closely associated disease clusters with 20 disease pairs exhibiting significant correlation (p < 0.05. Mapping the diseases onto a human protein-protein interaction network enabled the inference of a common program of regulation underlying more than half the muscle diseases considered here and referred to as the “protein signature.” Enrichment analysis of 17 protein modules identified as part of this signature revealed a statistically non-random dysregulation of muscle bioenergetic pathways and calcium homeostasis. Further, analysis of mechanistic similarities of less explored significant disease associations [such as between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and cerebral palsy (CP] using a proposed “functional module” framework revealed adaptation of the calcium signaling machinery. Integrating drug-gene information into the quantitative framework highlighted the presence of therapeutic opportunities through drug repurposing for diseases affecting the skeletal muscle.

  16. Entendiendo los mercados de swaps: Un enfoque de equilibrio general

    OpenAIRE

    Venegas-Martínez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Spanish Abstract: En esta investigación se describen los distintos mercados de swaps y se desarrollan varias fórmulas de valuación sobre los supuestos de equilibrio general y ausencia de riesgo crédito. La mayoría de estos contratos pueden analizarse como la diferencia entre dos bonos cuponados, uno de tasa cupón fija y el otro de tasa cupón flotante. Asimismo, se presenta el método de “bootstrapping” útil para estimar la curva de ceros asociada al bono cuponado de tasa cupón constante. Por ú...

  17. Entendiendo los mercados de swaps: Un enfoque de equilibrio general

    OpenAIRE

    Venegas-Martínez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Spanish Abstract: En esta investigación se describen los distintos mercados de swaps y se desarrollan varias fórmulas de valuación sobre los supuestos de equilibrio general y ausencia de riesgo crédito. La mayoría de estos contratos pueden analizarse como la diferencia entre dos bonos cuponados, uno de tasa cupón fija y el otro de tasa cupón flotante. Asimismo, se presenta el método de “bootstrapping” útil para estimar la curva de ceros asociada al bono cuponado de tasa cupón constante. P...

  18. 78 FR 45291 - Interpretive Guidance and Policy Statement Regarding Compliance With Certain Swap Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Recordkeeping Relating to Complaints and Marketing and Sales Materials iii. Physical Commodity Large Swaps.... Swap Data Recordkeeping Relating to Complaints and Marketing and Sales Materials 3. Physical Commodity... banking regulations (such as the Edge Act \\48\\) indicate that Congress wishes to promote such entities...

  19. 77 FR 44441 - Swap Transaction Compliance and Implementation Schedule: Clearing Requirement Under Section 2(h...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... cause pension funds to bear the costs of compliance because they will need to comply prior to their.... Active Fund 2. Third-Party Subaccount 3. Category 1 and Category 2 Entities G. Compliance Schedule for... swap participant; major security-based swap participant; or active fund (also defined by Sec. 50.25(a...

  20. 3DSwap: Curated knowledgebase of proteins involved in 3D domain swapping

    KAUST Repository

    Shameer, Khader

    2011-09-29

    Three-dimensional domain swapping is a unique protein structural phenomenon where two or more protein chains in a protein oligomer share a common structural segment between individual chains. This phenomenon is observed in an array of protein structures in oligomeric conformation. Protein structures in swapped conformations perform diverse functional roles and are also associated with deposition diseases in humans. We have performed in-depth literature curation and structural bioinformatics analyses to develop an integrated knowledgebase of proteins involved in 3D domain swapping. The hallmark of 3D domain swapping is the presence of distinct structural segments such as the hinge and swapped regions. We have curated the literature to delineate the boundaries of these regions. In addition, we have defined several new concepts like \\'secondary major interface\\' to represent the interface properties arising as a result of 3D domain swapping, and a new quantitative measure for the \\'extent of swapping\\' in structures. The catalog of proteins reported in 3DSwap knowledgebase has been generated using an integrated structural bioinformatics workflow of database searches, literature curation, by structure visualization and sequence-structure-function analyses. The current version of the 3DSwap knowledgebase reports 293 protein structures, the analysis of such a compendium of protein structures will further the understanding molecular factors driving 3D domain swapping. The Author(s) 2011.

  1. 77 FR 41940 - Clearing Exemption for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 39 RIN 3038-AD47 Clearing Exemption for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives... Section 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) allowing cooperatives meeting certain conditions to elect not to submit for clearing certain swaps that such cooperatives would otherwise be required to clear...

  2. 78 FR 52285 - Clearing Exemption for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives; Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 50 RIN 3038-AD47 Clearing Exemption for Certain Swaps Entered Into by Cooperatives... 4(c) of the Commodity Exchange Act (``CEA'') allowing cooperatives meeting certain conditions to...

  3. 76 FR 27563 - Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... Part 1221 Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... CFR Part 1221 RIN 2590-AA45 Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities AGENCY: Office..., and FHFA (collectively, the Agencies) are requesting comment on a proposal to establish minimum margin...

  4. Real-Time Congestion Management in Distribution Networks by Flexible Demand Swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2017-01-01

    pumps (HPs) for real time congestion management. The swap method can maintain the power balance of the system and avoid the imbalance cost of activating the flexibility service. An algorithm for forming swaps through optimal power flow (OPF) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) is proposed...

  5. 78 FR 47154 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Swap Execution Facilities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 37 RIN 3038-AD18 Core Principles and Other Requirements for Swap Execution Facilities... Acceptable Practices in, Compliance With Core Principles 2. On page 33600, in the second column, under the heading Core Principle 3 of Section 5h of the Act--Swaps Not Readily Susceptible to Manipulation, in...

  6. 77 FR 42559 - End-User Exception to the Clearing Requirement for Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... exposures for which the captive finance company is using derivatives to hedge the related underlying... framework for swaps. The CEA requires a swap: (1) To be cleared through a derivatives clearing organization... gamble in the derivatives markets. Doing so would allow systemically important companies to enter into...

  7. Scientific Library Will Hold 16th Annual Book and Media Swap | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library has begun collecting materials for the 16th Annual Book and Media Swap and will continue to do so through Tuesday, October 25. Opening day for the Swap is Wednesday, October 26, and the event will continue through Wednesday, November 30.

  8. 75 FR 81519 - Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and Portfolio Compression Requirements for Swap Dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 23 RIN 3038-AC96 Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and Portfolio Compression... requirements for swap confirmation, portfolio reconciliation, and portfolio compression for swap dealers and... submit comments, identified by RIN number 3038-AC96 and Confirmation, Portfolio Reconciliation, and...

  9. Dendritic cell podosome dynamics does not depend on the F-actin regulator SWAP-70.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Götz

    Full Text Available In addition to classical adhesion structures like filopodia or focal adhesions, dendritic cells similar to macrophages and osteoclasts assemble highly dynamic F-actin structures called podosomes. They are involved in cellular processes such as extracellular matrix degradation, bone resorption by osteoclasts, and trans-cellular diapedesis of lymphocytes. Besides adhesion and migration, podosomes enable dendritic cells to degrade connective tissue by matrix metalloproteinases. SWAP-70 interacts with RhoGTPases and F-actin and regulates migration of dendritic cells. SWAP-70 deficient osteoclasts are impaired in F-actin-ring formation and bone resorption. In the present study, we demonstrate that SWAP-70 is not required for podosome formation and F-actin turnover in dendritic cells. Furthermore, we found that toll-like receptor 4 ligand induced podosome disassembly and podosome-mediated matrix degradation is not affected by SWAP-70 in dendritic cells. Thus, podosome formation and function in dendritic cells is independent of SWAP-70.

  10. 77 FR 15459 - Procedures To Establish Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Reference Prices c. Physical Commodity Swaps d. Currency Conversion e. Successor Currencies E. Procedural... Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and Block Trades; Proposed Rule #0;#0... for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and Block Trades AGENCY: Commodity Futures Trading Commission...

  11. 78 FR 32865 - Procedures To Establish Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Swaps d. Currency Conversion e. Successor Currencies C. Procedural Provisions 1. Sec. 43.6(a) Commission... composite reference prices, physical commodity swaps, currency conversions, and successor currencies; (v... Appropriate Minimum Block Sizes for Large Notional Off-Facility Swaps and Block Trades; Final Rule #0;#0...

  12. Financing the clean development mechanism through debt-for-efficiency swaps? Case study evidence from a Uruguayan wind farm project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassimon, Danny; Prowse, Martin; Essers, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    of the mechanism by China and India, the complex project cycle, and the lack of convincing baselines, little attention has been paid to the financing of CDM projects. In this paper we assess the extent to which CDM projects with public bodies should utilise debt swaps as a form of finance. The paper does...... budget; whether it delivers more resources for climate purposes; whether it has a sizeable effect on overall debt burdens (thereby creating ‘indirect’ benefits); and whether it adheres to the principles of alignment with government policy and systems (key elements within the new aid approach)....

  13. Phylogenetic approach reveals that virus genotype largely determines HIV set-point viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Alizon

    Full Text Available HIV virulence, i.e. the time of progression to AIDS, varies greatly among patients. As for other rapidly evolving pathogens of humans, it is difficult to know if this variance is controlled by the genotype of the host or that of the virus because the transmission chain is usually unknown. We apply the phylogenetic comparative approach (PCA to estimate the heritability of a trait from one infection to the next, which indicates the control of the virus genotype over this trait. The idea is to use viral RNA sequences obtained from patients infected by HIV-1 subtype B to build a phylogeny, which approximately reflects the transmission chain. Heritability is measured statistically as the propensity for patients close in the phylogeny to exhibit similar infection trait values. The approach reveals that up to half of the variance in set-point viral load, a trait associated with virulence, can be heritable. Our estimate is significant and robust to noise in the phylogeny. We also check for the consistency of our approach by showing that a trait related to drug resistance is almost entirely heritable. Finally, we show the importance of taking into account the transmission chain when estimating correlations between infection traits. The fact that HIV virulence is, at least partially, heritable from one infection to the next has clinical and epidemiological implications. The difference between earlier studies and ours comes from the quality of our dataset and from the power of the PCA, which can be applied to large datasets and accounts for within-host evolution. The PCA opens new perspectives for approaches linking clinical data and evolutionary biology because it can be extended to study other traits or other infectious diseases.

  14. Denitrifying woodchip bioreactor and phosphorus filter pairing to minimize pollution swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Laura E.; Lepine, Christine; Sibrell, Philip; Penn, Chad J.; Summerfelt, Steven T.

    2017-01-01

    Pairing denitrifying woodchip bioreactors and phosphorus-sorbing filters provides a unique, engineered approach for dual nutrient removal from waters impaired with both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). This column study aimed to test placement of two P-filter media (acid mine drainage treatment residuals and steel slag) relative to a denitrifying system to maximize N and P removal and minimize pollution swapping under varying flow conditions (i.e., woodchip column hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 7.2, 18, and 51 h; P-filter HRTs of 7.6–59 min). Woodchip denitrification columns were placed either upstream or downstream of P-filters filled with either medium. The configuration with woodchip denitrifying systems placed upstream of the P-filters generally provided optimized dissolved P removal efficiencies and removal rates. The P-filters placed upstream of the woodchip columns exhibited better P removal than downstream-placed P-filters only under overly long (i.e., N-limited) retention times when highly reduced effluent exited the woodchip bioreactors. The paired configurations using mine drainage residuals provided significantly greater P removal than the steel slag P-filters (e.g., 25–133 versus 8.8–48 g P removed m−3 filter media d−1, respectively), but there were no significant differences in N removal between treatments (removal rates: 8.0–18 g N removed m−3 woodchips d−1; N removal efficiencies: 18–95% across all HRTs). The range of HRTs tested here resulted in various undesirable pollution swapping by-products from the denitrifying bioreactors: nitrite production when nitrate removal was not complete and sulfate reduction, chemical oxygen demand production and decreased pH during overly long retention times. The downstream P-filter placement provided a polishing step for removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrite.

  15. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissler, Patrick; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schrader, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control), and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages) improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  16. Educational games for brain health: revealing their unexplored potential through a neurocognitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eFissler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Educational games link the motivational nature of games with learning of knowledge and skills. Here, we go beyond effects on these learning outcomes. We review two lines of evidence which indicate the currently unexplored potential of educational games to promote brain health: First, gaming with specific neurocognitive demands (e.g., executive control, and second, educational learning experiences (e.g., studying foreign languages improve brain health markers. These markers include cognitive ability, brain function, and brain structure. As educational games allow the combination of specific neurocognitive demands with educational learning experiences, they seem to be optimally suited for promoting brain health. We propose a neurocognitive approach to reveal this unexplored potential of educational games in future research.

  17. The integrative taxonomic approach reveals host specific species in an encyrtid parasitoid species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Chesters

    Full Text Available Integrated taxonomy uses evidence from a number of different character types to delimit species and other natural groupings. While this approach has been advocated recently, and should be of particular utility in the case of diminutive insect parasitoids, there are relatively few examples of its application in these taxa. Here, we use an integrated framework to delimit independent lineages in Encyrtus sasakii (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae, a parasitoid morphospecies previously considered a host generalist. Sequence variation at the DNA barcode (cytochrome c oxidase I, COI and nuclear 28S rDNA loci were compared to morphometric recordings and mating compatibility tests, among samples of this species complex collected from its four scale insect hosts, covering a broad geographic range of northern and central China. Our results reveal that Encyrtus sasakii comprises three lineages that, while sharing a similar morphology, are highly divergent at the molecular level. At the barcode locus, the median K2P molecular distance between individuals from three primary populations was found to be 11.3%, well outside the divergence usually observed between Chalcidoidea conspecifics (0.5%. Corroborative evidence that the genetic lineages represent independent species was found from mating tests, where compatibility was observed only within populations, and morphometric analysis, which found that despite apparent morphological homogeneity, populations clustered according to forewing shape. The independent lineages defined by the integrated analysis correspond to the three scale insect hosts, suggesting the presence of host specific cryptic species. The finding of hidden host specificity in this species complex demonstrates the critical role that DNA barcoding will increasingly play in revealing hidden biodiversity in taxa that present difficulties for traditional taxonomic approaches.

  18. Optimization of rootkit revealing system resources – A game theoretic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Malicious rootkit is a collection of programs designed with the intent of infecting and monitoring the victim computer without the user’s permission. After the victim has been compromised, the remote attacker can easily cause further damage. In order to infect, compromise and monitor, rootkits adopt Native Application Programming Interface (API hooking technique. To reveal the hidden rootkits, current rootkit detection techniques check different data structures which hold reference to Native APIs. To verify these data structures, a large amount of system resources are required. This is because of the number of APIs in these data structures being quite large. Game theoretic approach is a useful mathematical tool to simulate network attacks. In this paper, a mathematical model is framed to optimize resource consumption using game-theory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to be proposed for optimizing resource consumption while revealing rootkit presence using game theory. Non-cooperative game model is taken to discuss the problem. Analysis and simulation results show that our game theoretic model can effectively reduce the resource consumption by selectively monitoring the number of APIs in windows platform.

  19. Do Energy Efficiency Standards Improve Quality? Evidence from a Revealed Preference Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houde, Sebastien [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Minimum energy efficiency standards have occupied a central role in U.S. energy policy for more than three decades, but little is known about their welfare effects. In this paper, we employ a revealed preference approach to quantify the impact of past revisions in energy efficiency standards on product quality. The micro-foundation of our approach is a discrete choice model that allows us to compute a price-adjusted index of vertical quality. Focusing on the appliance market, we show that several standard revisions during the period 2001-2011 have led to an increase in quality. We also show that these standards have had a modest effect on prices, and in some cases they even led to decreases in prices. For revision events where overall quality increases and prices decrease, the consumer welfare effect of tightening the standards is unambiguously positive. Finally, we show that after controlling for the effect of improvement in energy efficiency, standards have induced an expansion of quality in the non-energy dimension. We discuss how imperfect competition can rationalize these results.

  20. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Patricia; Perlina, Ally; Mumtaz, Moiz; Fowler, Bruce A

    2016-07-01

    A number of epidemiological studies have identified statistical associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metabolic diseases, but testable hypotheses regarding underlying molecular mechanisms to explain these linkages have not been published. We assessed the underlying mechanisms of POPs that have been associated with metabolic diseases; three well-known POPs [2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), 2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and 4,4´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE)] were studied. We used advanced database search tools to delineate testable hypotheses and to guide laboratory-based research studies into underlying mechanisms by which this POP mixture could produce or exacerbate metabolic diseases. For our searches, we used proprietary systems biology software (MetaCore™/MetaDrug™) to conduct advanced search queries for the underlying interactions database, followed by directional network construction to identify common mechanisms for these POPs within two or fewer interaction steps downstream of their primary targets. These common downstream pathways belong to various cytokine and chemokine families with experimentally well-documented causal associations with type 2 diabetes. Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common downstream targets. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of three common POPs using a systems biology approach, which may link POP exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of the effects of POPs, which could translate into disease prevention and effective clinical treatment strategies. Ruiz P, Perlina A, Mumtaz M, Fowler BA. 2016. A systems biology approach reveals converging molecular mechanisms that link different POPs to common metabolic diseases. Environ

  1. Debt-for-Nature Swaps in Action: Two Case Studies in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kilbane. Gockel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Debt-for-nature swaps are a major source of global funding for nature conservation and have been touted as a win-win solution to the problem of how to finance conservation. This paper examines how the United States' debt-for-nature-swap program, the Tropical Forest Conservation Act, works in the field. We provide an introduction to the technical aspects of the debt-for-nature swap mechanism, then describe how the program operates on the ground, using the United States-Peru swap as an example. We focus on two case studies that are largely representative of the Tropical Forest Conservation Act's work in Peru: 1 ProNaturaleza's project in the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve, and 2 five distinct projects centered around reducing illegal logging in and around Alto Purús National Park. We explore the range of programs financed through swaps, as well as whether debt-for-nature swap projects meet their goals of strengthening civil society and increasing local capacity. We also discuss the efficacy of debt-for-nature swap monitoring, which tends to privilege fiscal evaluations of area protected over direct conservation outcomes. Although Tropical Forest Conservation Act projects may well have conservation effects, the current methods of measuring success do not reflect the types of conservation impacts of Tropical Forest Conservation Act projects.

  2. The Long-Term Swap Rate and a General Analysis of Long-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Biagini; Alessandro Gnoatto; Maximilian H\\"artel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here for the first time the long-term swap rate, characterised as the fair rate of an overnight indexed swap with infinitely many exchanges. Furthermore we analyse the relationship between the long-term swap rate, the long-term yield, see [4], [5], and [25], and the long-term simple rate, considered in [8] as long-term discounting rate. We finally investigate the existence of these long-term rates in two term structure methodologies, the Flesaker-Hughston model and the linear-rat...

  3. ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN PENGGUNAAN HEDGINGANTARA FORWARD CONTRACT DENGAN CURRENCY SWAP UNTUK MEMINIMASI RISIKO FOREIGN EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Eka Mitariani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims is to identifying the differences between using forward contract hedging or currencyswap hedging. Paired Sample T-Test were used to answer the problems and to test the hypothesis. The findings showthat without paying attention to the time value of money, currency swap hedging generated higher income value than forward contract hedging, whereas by paying attention to the time value of money, forwardcontracthedging generated higher income value than currency swap hedging. Significant differences were foundas far as the use of forward contract hedging and currency swap hedging are concerned, both by paying or noattention to the time value of money.

  4. Scientific Library’s Book and Media Swap Coming April 16 | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer The 14th annual Book and Media Swap will be held on Wednesday, April 16, from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., in the lobby of the Conference Center in Building 549. The staff is holding the swap to coincide with National Library Week, an annual celebration of libraries that occurs in April. As of April 10, the library had collected nearly 2,000 books, DVDs, and CDs for the swap. Employees who donated these items received book cards indicating the number of items donated. 

  5. The multilevel four-stroke swap engine and its environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdin, Raam; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2014-09-01

    A multilevel four-stroke engine where the thermalization strokes are generated by unitary collisions with thermal bath particles is analyzed. Our model is solvable even when the engine operates far from thermal equilibrium and in the strong system-bath coupling. Necessary operation conditions for the heat machine to perform as an engine or a refrigerator are derived. We relate the work and efficiency of the device to local and non-local statistical properties of the baths (purity, index of coincidence, etc) and put upper bounds on these quantities. Finally, in the ultra-hot regime, we analytically optimize the work and find a striking similarity to results obtained for efficiency at maximal power of classical engines. The complete swap limit of our results holds for any four-stroke quantum Otto engine that is coupled to the baths for periods that are significantly longer than the thermal relaxation time.

  6. Entanglement Swapping between Photons that have Never Coexisted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megidish, E.; Halevy, A.; Shacham, T.; Dvir, T.; Dovrat, L.; Eisenberg, H. S.

    2013-05-01

    The role of the timing and order of quantum measurements is not just a fundamental question of quantum mechanics, but also a puzzling one. Any part of a quantum system that has finished evolving can be measured immediately or saved for later, without affecting the final results, regardless of the continued evolution of the rest of the system. In addition, the nonlocality of quantum mechanics, as manifested by entanglement, does not apply only to particles with spacelike separation, but also to particles with timelike separation. In order to demonstrate these principles, we generated and fully characterized an entangled pair of photons that have never coexisted. Using entanglement swapping between two temporally separated photon pairs, we entangle one photon from the first pair with another photon from the second pair. The first photon was detected even before the other was created. The observed two-photon state demonstrates that entanglement can be shared between timelike separated quantum systems.

  7. A greedy double swap heuristic for nurse scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Choy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges of nurse scheduling problem (NSP is the number of constraints placed on preparing the timetable, both from the regulatory requirements as well as the patients’ demand for the appropriate nursing care specialists. In addition, the preferences of the nursing staffs related to their work schedules add another dimension of complexity. Most solutions proposed for solving nurse scheduling involve the use of mathematical programming and generally considers only the hard constraints. However, the psychological needs of the nurses are ignored and this resulted in subsequent interventions by the nursing staffs to remedy any deficiency and often results in last minute changes to the schedule. In this paper, we present a staff preference optimization framework solved with a greedy double swap heuristic. The heuristic yields good performance in speed at solving the problem. The heuristic is simple and we will demonstrate its performance by implementing it on open source spreadsheet software.

  8. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS IN SPHAERODORIDAE AND ALLIES (ANNELIDA REVEALED BY AN INTEGRATIVE MICROSCOPICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad eHelm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphaerodoridae is a group of benthic marine worms (Annelida characterized by the presence of spherical tubercles covering their whole surface. They are commonly considered as belonging to Phyllodocida although sistergroup relationships are still far from being understood. Primary homology assessment of their morphological features are lacking, hindering the appraisal of evolutionary relationships between taxa. Therefore, our detailed morphological investigation focuses on different Sphaerodoridae as well as on other members of Phyllodocida using an integrative approach combining scanning electron microscopy (SEM as well as immunohistochemistry with standard neuronal (anti-5-HT and muscular (phalloidin-rhodamine markers and subsequent CLSM analysis of whole mounts and sections. Furthermore, we provide histological (HES and light microscopical data to shed light on the structures and hypothetical function of sphaerodorid key morphological features. We provide fundamental details into the sphaerodorid morphology supporting a Phyllodocida ancestry of these enigmatic worms. However, the muscular arrangement and the presence of an axial muscular pharynx is similar to conditions observed in other members of the Errantia too. Furthermore, nervous system and muscle staining as well as SEM and histological observations of different types of tubercles indicate a homology of the so called microtubercles, present in the long-bodied sphaerodorids, to the dorsal cirri of other Errantia. The macrotubercles seem to represent a sphaerodorid autapomorphy based on our investigations. Therefore, our results allow comparisons concerning morphological patterns between Sphaerodoridae and other Phyllodocida and constitute a starting point for further comparative investigations to reveal the evolution of the remarkable Sphaerodoridae.

  9. Chimeric cytochromes P450 engineered by domain swapping and random mutagenesis for producing human metabolites of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji-Yeon; Ryu, Sang Hoon; Park, Sun-Ha; Cha, Gun Su; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Keon-Hee; Hong, Austin W; Ahn, Taeho; Pan, Jae-Gu; Joung, Young Hee; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Yun, Chul-Ho

    2014-07-01

    Human drug metabolites produced by cytochrome P450 enzymes are critical for safety testing and may themselves act as drugs or leads in the drug discovery and development process. Here, highly active chimeric fusion proteins (chimeras) were obtained by reductase domain swapping of mutants at key catalytic residues of the heme domain with that of a natural variant (CYP102A1.2) of P450 BM3 (CYP102A1.1) from Bacillus megaterium. Random mutagenesis at the heme domain of the chimera was also used to generate chimeric mutants that were more active and diverse than the chimeras themselves. To determine whether the chimeras and several mutants of the highly active chimera displayed enhanced catalytic activity and, more importantly, whether they acquired activities of biotechnological importance, we measured the oxidation activities of the chimeras and chimeric mutants toward human P450 substrates, mainly drugs. Some of the chimeric mutants showed high activity toward typical human P450 substrates including drugs. Statin leads, especially chiral products, with inhibitory effects toward HMG-CoA reductase could be obtained from metabolites of statin drugs generated using these chimeric mutants. This study reveals the critical role of the reductase domain for the activity of P450 BM3 and shows that chimeras generated by domain swapping can be used to develop industrial enzymes for the synthesis of human metabolites from drugs and drug leads. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Offering within-category food swaps to reduce energy density of food purchases: a study using an experimental online supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwood, Suzanna E; Ahern, Amy L; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-06-25

    Swaps are often used to encourage healthier food choices, but there is little evidence of their effectiveness. The current study assessed the impact of offering swaps on groceries purchased within a bespoke online supermarket; specifically the objective was to measure the impact on energy density (ED) of food purchases following the offer of lower ED alternatives (a) at point of selection or at checkout, and (b) with or without explicit consent to receive swap prompts. Participants were asked to complete a 12-item shopping task within an online shopping platform, developed for studying food purchasing. 1610 adults were randomly assigned to a no swap control condition or to one of four interventions: consented swaps at selection; consented swaps at checkout; imposed swaps at selection; or imposed swaps at checkout. Each swap presented two lower ED options from the same category as the participant's chosen food. Swap acceptance rate and purchased food ED were the primary outcomes. Of the mean 12.36 (SD 1.26) foods purchased, intervention participants were offered a mean of 4.1 (SD 1.68) swaps, with the potential to reduce the ED of purchased food (effect (95% CI): -83 kJ/100 g (-110 - -56), p = <0.0001). A median of one swap (IQR 0 to 2) was accepted, not significantly reducing the purchased food ED (effect (95% CI): -24 kJ/100 g (4 - -52), p = 0.094). More swaps were accepted when offered at selection than at checkout (OR (95% CI) = 1.224 (1.11 - 1.35), p < 0.0001), but no differences were seen with consent. Purchased food ED was unaffected by point of swap or consent, but reduced with number of swaps accepted (effect per swap (95% CI) = -24 kJ/100 g (-35 - -14), p < 0.0001). Within category swaps did not reduce the ED of food purchases reflecting the observation that the use of swaps within an on-line shopping platform offered small potential gains in ED and a minority was accepted.

  11. 77 FR 65177 - Swap Data Repositories: Interpretative Statement Regarding the Confidentiality and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Swap Data Repositories: Interpretative Statement Regarding the Confidentiality and Indemnification... interpretative statement (``Statement'') to provide guidance regarding the applicability of the confidentiality... regulatory authority described in section 21(c)(7) shall agree in writing to abide by the confidentiality...

  12. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    In the pharmaceutical processes, solvents have a multipurpose role since different solvents can be used in different stages (such as chemical reactions, separations and purification) in the multistage active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) production process. The solvent swap and selection task...

  13. 78 FR 33475 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Swap Execution Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Mandatory Clearing 3. Subpart D--Core Principle 3 (Swaps Not Readily Susceptible to Manipulation) 4. Subpart... broader universe of market participants receive pricing and volume information by providing such...

  14. 78 FR 66621 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... 202-418-7622 or [email protected] ; Thomas Smith, Deputy Director, Division of Swap Dealer and... and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA), Edison Electric Institute (EEI), Federal Home Loan Banks...

  15. SWFSC/MMTD: Sperm Whale Abundance and Population Structure (SWAPS) 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1997 Sperm Whale Abundance and Population Structures (SWAPS) line-transect survey was designed to census sperm whales near the end of their breeding season in...

  16. More than 3,200 Books and DVDs Donated to Annual Book Swap | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Meckley, Contributing Writer The Scientific Library’s 14th Annual Book and Media Swap, held on April 16 in the lobby of Building 549, proved to be a popular event. When the swap was rescheduled from fall 2013 to spring 2014, the library staff was uncertain if the response would be equal to previous years, said Sue Wilson, principal manager of the Scientific Library. NCI at Frederick employees rose to the challenge, however, with 87 people donating more than 3,200 books and DVDs, according to Pam Noble, serials technician and book swap team leader. By the end of the first day of the swap, almost half of the materials had been claimed.

  17. Minimization of Construction Costs for an All Battery-Swapping Electric-Bus Transportation System: Comparison with an All Plug-In System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyang-Chyuan Fang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. Electric-bus (e-bus transportation systems help reduce pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO, a genetic algorithm (GA, and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was shown to be lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.

  18. The occurrence of Toxocara species in naturally infected broiler chickens revealed by molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaei, M; Sadjjadi, S M; Maraghi, S

    2017-09-01

    Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.

  19. Seeing the Invisible: Revealing Atrial Ablation Lesions Using Hyperspectral Imaging Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narine Muselimyan

    Full Text Available Currently, there are limited means for high-resolution monitoring of tissue injury during radiofrequency ablation procedures.To develop the next generation of visualization catheters that can reveal irreversible atrial muscle damage caused by ablation and identify viability gaps between the lesions.Radiofrequency lesions were placed on the endocardial surfaces of excised human and bovine atria and left ventricles of blood perfused rat hearts. Tissue was illuminated with 365nm light and a series of images were acquired from individual spectral bands within 420-720nm range. By extracting spectral profiles of individual pixels and spectral unmixing, the relative contribution of ablated and unablated spectra to each pixel was then displayed. Results of spectral unmixing were compared to lesion pathology.RF ablation caused significant changes in the tissue autofluorescence profile. The magnitude of these spectral changes in human left atrium was relatively small (< 10% of peak fluorescence value, yet highly significant. Spectral unmixing of hyperspectral datasets enabled high spatial resolution, in-situ delineation of radiofrequency lesion boundaries without the need for exogenous markers. Lesion dimensions derived from hyperspectral imaging approach strongly correlated with histological outcomes. Presence of blood within the myocardium decreased the amplitude of the autofluorescence spectra while having minimal effect on their overall shapes. As a result, the ability of hyperspectral imaging to delineate ablation lesions in vivo was not affected.Hyperspectral imaging greatly increases the contrast between ablated and unablated tissue enabling visualization of viability gaps at clinically relevant locations. Data supports the possibility for developing percutaneous hyperspectral catheters for high-resolution ablation guidance.

  20. Visualising the invisible: a network approach to reveal the informal social side of student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J; Rienties, B; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A

    2012-12-01

    World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop outside the classroom. Therefore we studied how informal social interaction influences student learning. Moreover, to explore what really matters in the students learning process, a model was tested how the generally known important constructs-prior performance, motivation and social integration-relate to informal social interaction and student learning. 301 undergraduate medical students participated in this cross-sectional quantitative study. Informal social interaction was assessed using self-reported surveys following the network approach. Students' individual motivation, social integration and prior performance were assessed by the Academic Motivation Scale, the College Adaption Questionnaire and students' GPA respectively. A factual knowledge test represented student' learning. All social networks were positively associated with student learning significantly: friendships (β = 0.11), providing information to other students (β = 0.16), receiving information from other students (β = 0.25). Structural equation modelling revealed a model in which social networks increased student learning (r = 0.43), followed by prior performance (r = 0.31). In contrast to prior literature, students' academic motivation and social integration were not associated with students' learning. Students' informal social interaction is strongly associated with students' learning. These findings underline the need to change our focus from the formal context (classroom) to the informal context to optimize student learning and deliver modern medics.

  1. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-03-01

    Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  2. 75 FR 63080 - Interim Final Rule for Reporting Pre-Enactment Swap Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...-Frank Act--July 16, 2011. Section 729 of the Dodd-Frank Act establishes, in new Section 4r of the CEA... rule or regulation. Section 4r(a)(1) of the CEA, as amended, provides generally that each swap that is... Commission. Section 4r(a)(2) specifies that each swap entered into before the date of enactment of the Dodd...

  3. CMOS-APS Detectors for Solar Physics: Lessons Learned during the SWAP Preflight Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan; Halain, Jean-Philippe; Defise, J. -M.; Thibert, Tanguy; Schühle, Udo

    2008-01-01

    CMOS-APS imaging detectors open new opportunities for remote sensing in solar physics beyond what classical CCDs can provide, offering far less power consumption, simpler electronics, better radiation hardness, and the possibility of avoiding a mechanical shutter. The SWAP telescope onboard the PROBA2 technology demonstration satellite of the European Space Agency will be the first actual implementation of a CMOS-APS detector for solar physics in orbit. One of the goals of the SWAP project is...

  4. SWAP-Assembler 2: Optimization of De Novo Genome Assembler at Large Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jintao; Seo, Sangmin; Balaji, Pavan; Wei, Yanjie; Wang, Bingqiang; Feng, Shengzhong

    2016-08-16

    In this paper, we analyze and optimize the most time-consuming steps of the SWAP-Assembler, a parallel genome assembler, so that it can scale to a large number of cores for huge genomes with the size of sequencing data ranging from terabyes to petabytes. According to the performance analysis results, the most time-consuming steps are input parallelization, k-mer graph construction, and graph simplification (edge merging). For the input parallelization, the input data is divided into virtual fragments with nearly equal size, and the start position and end position of each fragment are automatically separated at the beginning of the reads. In k-mer graph construction, in order to improve the communication efficiency, the message size is kept constant between any two processes by proportionally increasing the number of nucleotides to the number of processes in the input parallelization step for each round. The memory usage is also decreased because only a small part of the input data is processed in each round. With graph simplification, the communication protocol reduces the number of communication loops from four to two loops and decreases the idle communication time. The optimized assembler is denoted as SWAP-Assembler 2 (SWAP2). In our experiments using a 1000 Genomes project dataset of 4 terabytes (the largest dataset ever used for assembling) on the supercomputer Mira, the results show that SWAP2 scales to 131,072 cores with an efficiency of 40%. We also compared our work with both the HipMER assembler and the SWAP-Assembler. On the Yanhuang dataset of 300 gigabytes, SWAP2 shows a 3X speedup and 4X better scalability compared with the HipMer assembler and is 45 times faster than the SWAP-Assembler. The SWAP2 software is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/swapassembler.

  5. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Yiming; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yinhai

    2017-01-01

    To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  6. Variations in EUV Irradiance: Comparison between LYRA, ESP, and SWAP Integrated Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sarp Yalim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Watcher Using Active Pixel System Detector and Image Processing (SWAP telescope and Large Yield Radiometer (LYRA are the two Sun observation instruments on-board PROBA2. SWAP extreme ultraviolet images, if presented in terms of the integrated flux over solar disk, in general, correlate well with LYRA channel 2–4 (zirconium filter and channels QD and 18 of EVE/ESP on-board SDO between 2010 and 2013. Hence, SWAP can be considered as an additional radiometric channel. We compare in detail LYRA channel 2–4 and SWAP integrated flux in July 2010 and in particular during the solar eclipse that occurred on July 11, 2010. During this eclipse, the discrepancy between the two data channels can be explained to be related to the occultation of active region 11087 by the Moon. In the second half of July 2010, LYRA channel 2–4 and SWAP integrated flux deviate from each other, but these differences can also be explained in terms of features appearing on the solar disk such as coronal holes and active regions. By additionally comparing with timeline of EVE/ESP, we can preliminarily interpret these differences in terms of the difference between the broad bandpass of LYRA channel 2–4 and the, relatively speaking, narrower bandpass of SWAP.

  7. Overcoming residual frustration in domain-swapping: the roles of disulfide bonds in dimerization and aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Samuel S; Levy, Yaakov; Onuchic, José N; Wolynes, Peter G

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of domain-swapping in nature is a manifestation of the principle of minimal frustration in that the interactions designed by evolution to stabilize the protein are also involved in this mode of binding. We previously demonstrated that the Symmetrized-Go potential accurately predicts the experimentally observed domain-swapped structure of Eps8 based solely on the structure of the monomer. There can be, however, multiple modes of domain-swapping, reflecting a higher level of frustration, which is a consequence of symmetry. The human prion and cyanovirin-N are too frustrated to form unique domain-swapped structures on the basis of the Symmetrized-Go potential. However, supplementing the completely symmetric model with intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide bonds in the prion and cyanovirin-N proteins, respectively, yielded unique domain-swapped structures with a remarkable similarity to the experimentally observed ones. These results suggest that the disulfide bonds may sometimes be critical in overcoming the intrinsic frustration of the symmetrized energy landscapes for domain-swapping. We also discuss the implications of intermolecular disulfide bonds in the formation of mammalian prion aggregates.

  8. Modelling Counterparty Credit Risk in Czech Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Křivánková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the Basel Committee’s estimate, three quarters of counterparty credit risk losses during the financial crisis in 2008 originate from credit valuation adjustment’s losses and not from actual defaults. Therefore, from 2015, the Third Basel Accord (EU, 2013a and (EU, 2013b instructed banks to calculate the capital requirement for the risk of credit valuation adjustment (CVA. Banks are trying to model CVA to hold the prescribed standards and also reach the lowest possible impact on their profit. In this paper, we try to model CVA using methods that are in compliance with the prescribed standards and also achieve the smallest possible impact on the bank’s earnings. To do so, a data set of interest rate swaps from 2015 is used. The interest rate term structure is simulated using the Hull-White one-factor model and Monte Carlo methods. Then, the probability of default for each counterparty is constructed. A safe level of CVA is reached in spite of the calculated the CVA achieving a lower level than CVA previously used by the bank. This allows a reduction of capital requirements for banks.

  9. Co-expression Network Approach Reveals Functional Similarities among Diseases Affecting Human Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha Mukund; Shankar Subramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Diseases affecting skeletal muscle exhibit considerable heterogeneity in intensity, etiology, phenotypic manifestation and gene expression. Systems biology approaches using network theory, allows for a holistic understanding of functional similarities amongst diseases. Here we propose a co-expression based, network theoretic approach to extract functional similarities from 20 heterogeneous diseases comprising of dystrophinopathies, inflammatory myopathies, neuromuscular, and muscle metabolic ...

  10. The use of interest rate swaps by nonprofit organizations: evidence from nonprofit health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John

    2006-01-01

    Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks

  11. ROMANIA’S SPECIALIZATION IN TRADE TOWARDS EU-27 - A REVEALED COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Angela Cristina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available "International competitiveness" is a complex topic which raised over time many questions and theories on key factors that underpin it and is still subject to wide debate. Such analysis proves to be necessary under the new requirements raised by the participation of Romanian organizations in the European and global competitive environment in which competiting for new markets can be a platform of economic recovery. As companies compete for markets and resources, national economies compete with each other to achieve performance in a specific activity: for example, we can say that Romania has become less competitive in clothing production, and competitive in cars production. But it makes sense to say that "Romania has become more or less competitive as the economy?". The answer is no."Competitiveness" is a meaningless word when referring to national economies. Deniying Romanian competitiveness in a particular industry does not mean that Romania's economy is less competitive. The decline in these industries may be a manifestation of their change in production factors endowment or necessary reallocation these factors from old activities with comparative advantage to new ones. This paper aims to examine the structural competitiveness of Romania vis-a-vis EU-27. Empirical analysis is based on Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, an indicator often used in international trade analysis. Section II reviews the empirical literature on the comparative advantage and the competitiveness of Romania, highlighting various theories and approaches, alternative measures of RCA indices are presented in the section III, section IV reports empirical results and the final section draws some conclusions based on the findings. In 2009, in terms of orientation of the foreign investors towards the economic sectors, according to NACE Rev. 2 Classification, the direct foreign investments were directed mainly to Manufactured goods (31,1% of total, within its best represented

  12. Scientific and methodic approaches to reveal stability essence at the industrial enterprises and its functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyulyov Oleksii Valentynovych

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with theoretical analysis of the scientific approaches concerning definition of the concept “stability”, which exist in the scientific literature. There are five different approaches to interpret the concept “enterprise stability”, as an open economic system. On this base, the author’s definition of the enterprise stability is formed. Due to the carried out analysis of the main tendencies in changes of the industry development factors for 2006-2015 and future expectations, the main functional constituents of the enterprise stability. The author suggests to use an approach of self-organizational artificial neural networks to evaluate stability degree at the industrial enterprises.

  13. Theoretical Triangulation as an Approach for Revealing the Complexity of a Classroom Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drie, Jannet; Dekker, Rijkje

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the value of theoretical triangulation as a methodological approach for the analysis of classroom interaction. We analyze an excerpt of a whole-class discussion in history from three theoretical perspectives: interactivity of the discourse, conceptual level raising and historical reasoning. We conclude that using…

  14. Entanglement swapping with independent sources over an optical-fiber network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi-Chao; Mao, Ya-Li; Jiang, Yang-Fan; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Si-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Teng-Yun; You, Li-Xing; Li, Li; Huang, Yi-Dong; Chen, Xian-Feng; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-01

    Establishing entanglement between two remote systems by the method of entanglement swapping is an essential step for a long-distance quantum network. Here we report a field-test entanglement swapping experiment with two independent telecommunication band entangled photon-pair sources over an optical fiber network in Hefei. The two sources are located at two nodes that are 12.5 km apart and the Bell-state measurement is performed at a third location which is connected to the two source nodes with 14.7-km and 10.6-km optical fibers, respectively. The observed average visibility is 79.9 ±4.8 % , which is sufficient for the violation of Bell inequalities. Furthermore, with the swapped entanglement, we demonstrate a source-independent quantum key distribution, which is also immune to any detection attacks at the measurement site.

  15. Challenges in assessing personality of individuals with Gender Dysphoria with the SWAP-200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, V; Giovanardi, G

    2017-07-01

    Personality assessment can be useful to better understand the complexity of transgender and transsexual people. In particular, the Shedler Westen Assessment Procedure-200 (SWAP-200) is a measure that provides an accurate dimensional evaluation of personality. When assessing gender non-conforming people, however, clinicians can encounter some difficulties in giving appropriate ratings to all the items. A brief guide to the use of SWAP-200 with transgender patients is provided, taking into account three areas of psychological functioning: identity, relationships and sexuality. The authors review, one by one, the SWAP-200 items related to these areas, and, relying on their clinical experience and on scientific literature on Gender Dysphoria, they propose recommendations for making personality diagnoses meaningful. This paper facilitates a better clinical understanding of transgender people, and help clinicians to be more knowledgeable in the assessment of this heterogeneous population.

  16. Cross-species transcriptomic approach reveals genes in hamster implantation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Herington, Jennifer; Galindo, Cristi L; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2014-12-01

    The mouse model has greatly contributed to understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of progesterone (P4) plus estrogen (E)-dependent blastocyst implantation process. However, little is known about contributory molecular mechanisms of the P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation process that occurs in species such as hamsters, guineapigs, rabbits, pigs, rhesus monkeys, and perhaps humans. We used the hamster as a model of P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation and carried out cross-species microarray (CSM) analyses to reveal differentially expressed genes at the blastocyst implantation site (BIS), in order to advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of implantation. Upregulation of 112 genes and downregulation of 77 genes at the BIS were identified using a mouse microarray platform, while use of the human microarray revealed 62 up- and 38 down-regulated genes at the BIS. Excitingly, a sizable number of genes (30 up- and 11 down-regulated genes) were identified as a shared pool by both CSMs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization validated the expression patterns of several up- and down-regulated genes identified by both CSMs at the hamster and mouse BIS to demonstrate the merit of CSM findings across species, in addition to revealing genes specific to hamsters. Functional annotation analysis found that genes involved in the spliceosome, proteasome, and ubiquination pathways are enriched at the hamster BIS, while genes associated with tight junction, SAPK/JNK signaling, and PPARα/RXRα signalings are repressed at the BIS. Overall, this study provides a pool of genes and evidence of their participation in up- and down-regulated cellular functions/pathways at the hamster BIS. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. An integrative systems genetics approach reveals potential causal genes and pathways related to obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Westra, Harm-Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a multi-factorial health problem in which genetic factors play an important role. Limited results have been obtained in single-gene studies using either genomic or transcriptomic data. RNA sequencing technology has shown its potential in gaining accurate knowledge about...... a porcine model to investigate the mechanisms involved in obesity using a systems genetics approach. METHODS: Using a selective gene expression profiling approach, we selected 36 animals based on a previously created genomic Obesity Index for RNA sequencing of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Differential...... expression analysis was performed using the Obesity Index as a continuous variable in a linear model. eQTL mapping was then performed to integrate 60 K porcine SNP chip data with the RNA sequencing data. Results were restricted based on genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms, detected...

  18. 77 FR 71369 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based Swap Participants and Capital Requirements for Broker-Dealers...

  19. 75 FR 82489 - Process for Submissions for Review of Security-Based Swaps for Mandatory Clearing and Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... regulate OTC derivatives following the recent financial crisis.\\7\\ The Dodd-Frank Act is intended to... correct it, but a major contributor to the financial crisis was the unregulated derivatives market.'') \\8... of the other counterparty.\\9\\ Clearing of swaps and security-based swaps was at the heart of...

  20. 77 FR 41601 - Process for Submissions for Review of Security-Based Swaps for Mandatory Clearing and Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ...- counter (``OTC'') derivatives in response to the recent financial crisis.\\3\\ The Dodd-Frank Act is... sector and the government intervention to correct it, but a major contributor to the financial crisis was...\\ Clearing of swaps and security-based swaps was at the heart of Congressional reform of the derivatives...

  1. Experimental Investigation of transmission properties of all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labeled signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2003-01-01

    Optically labeled IM/FSK signal saretran smitte dover 50km of SMF under different compensation schemes.All-opticallabel swapping based on MZ-SOA and EAM is presented. Transmission followed by label swapping shows a 2dB overall power penalty....

  2. A potential new, stable state of the E-cadherin strand-swapped dimer in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann-Gillett, Alexandra; Mark, Alan E; Deplazes, Evelyne; O'Mara, Megan L

    2018-01-01

    E-cadherin is a transmembrane glycoprotein that facilitates inter-cellular adhesion in the epithelium. The ectodomain of the native structure is comprised of five repeated immunoglobulin-like domains. All E-cadherin crystal structures show the protein in one of three alternative conformations: a monomer, a strand-swapped trans homodimer and the so-called X-dimer, which is proposed to be a kinetic intermediate to forming the strand-swapped trans homodimer. However, previous studies have indicated that even once the trans strand-swapped dimer is formed, the complex is highly dynamic and the E-cadherin monomers may reorient relative to each other. Here, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the stability and conformational flexibility of the human E-cadherin trans strand-swapped dimer. In four independent, 100 ns simulations, the dimer moved away from the starting structure and converged to a previously unreported structure, which we call the Y-dimer. The Y-dimer was present for over 90% of the combined simulation time, suggesting that it represents a stable conformation of the E-cadherin dimer in solution. The Y-dimer conformation is stabilised by interactions present in both the trans strand-swapped dimer and X-dimer crystal structures, as well as additional interactions not found in any E-cadherin dimer crystal structures. The Y-dimer represents a previously unreported, stable conformation of the human E-cadherin trans strand-swapped dimer and suggests that the available crystal structures do not fully capture the conformations that the human E-cadherin trans homodimer adopts in solution.

  3. Modelo de Inmunización de un Swap de Tanto de Interés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seijas Macías, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El término swap o permuta financiera puede considerarse como un acuerdo de cambio de tipos de interés. Se basa en un cambio típico de flujos que surgen de un tanto fijo por flujos de interés variable. Exponemos la duración de inmunización de un swap de tanto de interés, aportando las consideraciones de diversos autores. Una cartera inmunizada es aquélla cuyo comportamiento es el mismo que el de una cartera objetivo dada, bajo el conjunto de medidas y criterios de riesgo predefinidos para el futuro.

  4. SWAP9; stress-wave analysis in 1-dimensional strain. [CDC6600,7600; FORTRAN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, L.M.; Young, E.G.

    SWAP9 is a computer program for solving stress-wave problems in one-dimensional strain. It handles both hydrostatic and elastic-plastic materials, can incorporate such effects as work hardening, changes in elastic constants, and yield strength with pressure and internal energy, and spall at a given tensile stress. SWAP9 can also treat detonations, gases, and vaporization of solids resulting from radiant energy deposition.CDC6600,7600; FORTRAN IV; SCOPE; 110,000 (octal) words of memory are required on the CDC7600.

  5. Local random quantum circuits: Ensemble completely positive maps and swap algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484, USA and Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2014-08-15

    We define different classes of local random quantum circuits (L-RQC) and show that (a) statistical properties of L-RQC are encoded into an associated family of completely positive maps and (b) average purity dynamics can be described by the action of these maps on operator algebras of permutations (swap algebras). An exactly solvable one-dimensional case is analyzed to illustrate the power of the swap algebra formalism. More in general, we prove short time area-law bounds on average purity for uncorrelated L-RQC and infinite time results for both the uncorrelated and correlated cases.

  6. Local random quantum circuits: Ensemble completely positive maps and swap algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    We define different classes of local random quantum circuits (L-RQC) and show that (a) statistical properties of L-RQC are encoded into an associated family of completely positive maps and (b) average purity dynamics can be described by the action of these maps on operator algebras of permutations (swap algebras). An exactly solvable one-dimensional case is analyzed to illustrate the power of the swap algebra formalism. More in general, we prove short time area-law bounds on average purity for uncorrelated L-RQC and infinite time results for both the uncorrelated and correlated cases.

  7. Biodiversity in marine invertebrate responses to acute warming revealed by a comparative multi-omics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melody S; Sommer, Ulf; Sihra, Jaspreet K; Thorne, Michael A S; Morley, Simon A; King, Michelle; Viant, Mark R; Peck, Lloyd S

    2017-01-01

    Understanding species' responses to environmental change underpins our abilities to make predictions on future biodiversity under any range of scenarios. In spite of the huge biodiversity in most ecosystems, a model species approach is often taken in environmental studies. To date, we still do not know how many species we need to study to input into models and inform on ecosystem-level responses to change. In this study, we tested current paradigms on factors setting thermal limits by investigating the acute warming response of six Antarctic marine invertebrates: a crustacean Paraceradocus miersi, a brachiopod Liothyrella uva, two bivalve molluscs, Laternula elliptica, Aequiyoldia eightsii, a gastropod mollusc Marseniopsis mollis and an echinoderm Cucumaria georgiana. Each species was warmed at the rate of 1 °C h(-1) and taken to the same physiological end point (just prior to heat coma). Their molecular responses were evaluated using complementary metabolomics and transcriptomics approaches with the aim of discovering the underlying mechanisms of their resilience or sensitivity to warming. The responses were species-specific; only two showed accumulation of anaerobic end products and three exhibited the classical heat shock response with expression of HSP70 transcripts. These diverse cellular measures did not directly correlate with resilience to heat stress and suggested that each species may have a different critical point of failure. Thus, one unifying molecular mechanism underpinning response to warming could not be assigned, and no overarching paradigm was supported. This biodiversity in response makes future ecosystems predictions extremely challenging, as we clearly need to develop a macrophysiology-type approach to cellular evaluations of the environmental stress response, studying a range of well-rationalized members from different community levels and of different phylogenetic origins rather than extrapolating from one or two arbitrary model species

  8. Contabilización de Contratos de Futuros, Opciones, Forwards y Swaps (Accounting treatment for future, options, forwards and swap contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernor Mesén Figueroa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Un entorno cada vez más dinámico y evolutivo ha dado paso al surgimiento y, por ende, al uso cada vez más frecuente de instrumentos financieros cuya flexibilidad y capacidad de ajuste a las condiciones de mercado permitan a las personas y empresas lograr sus objetivos de operación, inversión y financiamiento. En el contexto antes descrito, los contratos de futuros, opciones, forwards y swaps representan mecanismos cuyas características operativas permiten a sus tenedores el logro de objetivos alternativos tales como la cobertura eficaz de diferentes tipos de riesgos o la obtención de ganancias o pérdidas derivadas de la especulación. El presente artículo pretende reseñar, en forma breve, los mecanismos de operación de los contratos de futuros, opciones, forwards y swaps, para luego enfatizar en los criterios de contabilización que toda entidad o intermediario financiero debe seguir para reconocer los efectos que dichos tipos de contratos tienen sobre su posición financiera, resultados de operación y flujos de efectivo.   ABSTRACT A rapidly changing and evolving environment has given rise and increased the use of financial tools whose flexibility and adjusting capabilities to variable market conditions allow individuals and companies to achieve their operating, investment and financial goals. Within this framework, contracts for futures, options, forwards and swaps provide mechanisms with operating characteristics that allow their tenants to achieve alternative objectives such as the effective coverage of different risks or the attaining of profits or losses as a result of speculation. This article attempts to resume the operating mechanisms of futures, options, forwards and swap contracts and then concentrates into the accounting criteria that must be followed by financial intermediaries or entities to recognize the effects such contracts have on their financial position, operational results and cash flow.

  9. Metagenomic Approach Reveals Variation of Microbes with Arsenic and Antimony Metabolism Genes from Highly Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Bai, Yaohui; Liang, Jinsong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have great potential for arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) bioremediation in heavily contaminated soil because they have the ability to biotransform As and Sb to species that have less toxicity or are more easily removed. In this study, we integrated a metagenomic method with physicochemical characterization to elucidate the composition of microbial community and functional genes (related to As and Sb) in a high As (range from 34.11 to 821.23 mg kg−1) and Sb (range from 226.67 to 3923.07 mg kg−1) contaminated mine field. Metagenomic analysis revealed that microbes from 18 phyla were present in the 5 samples of soil contaminated with high As and Sb. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) of the relationship between the 18 phyla and the concentration of As and Sb demonstrated that 5 phyla of microbes, i.e. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Tenericutes and Gemmatimonadetes were positively correlated with As and Sb concentration. The distribution, diversity and abundance of functional genes (including arsC, arrA, aioA, arsB and ACR3) were much higher for the samples containing higher As and Sb concentrations. Based on correlation analysis, the results showed a positive relationship between arsC-like (R2 = 0.871) and aioA-like (R2 = 0.675) gene abundance and As concentration, and indicated that intracellular As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation could be the dominant As detoxification mechanism enabling the microbes to survive in the environment. This study provides a direct and reliable reference on the diversity of microbial community and functional genes in an extremely high concentration As- and Sb-contaminated environment. PMID:25299175

  10. Structured teleconnections reveal the South American monsoon onset: A network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemer, Catrin; Ekhtiari, Nikoo; Barbosa, Henrique; Boers, Niklas; Donner, Reik; Kurths, Jürgen; Rammig, Anja; Winkelmann, Ricarda

    2017-04-01

    The regional onset dates of the global monsoon systems are, to first order, determined by the seasonal shift of the intertropical convergence zone. However, precise onset dates vary substantially from year to year due to the complexity of the involved mechanisms. In this study, we investigate processes determining the onset of the South American monsoon system (SAMS). In recent years, a trend towards later onset dates of the SAMS has been observed. A later onset of the monsoon can have severe impacts on agriculture and infrastructure such as farming, water transport routes, and the stability of the Amazon rainforest in the long term. Possible reasons for this shift involve a multitude of climatic phenomena and variables relevant for the SAMS. To account for the highly interactive nature of the SAMS, we here investigate it with the help of complex networks. By studying the temporal changes of the correlation structure in spatial rainfall networks, we are able to determine coherent areas of similar precipitation patterns, spot teleconnections in terms of strongly correlated areas, detect key regions for precipitation correlations, and finally reveal the monsoon onset by an abrupt shift from an unordered to an ordered correlation structure of the network. To further evaluate the shift in the monsoon onset, we couple our rainfall network to a network of climate networks using sea surface temperature as a second variable. We are thereby able to emphasize oceanic regions that are particularly important for the SAMS and anticipate the influence of future changes of sea-surface temperature on the SAMS.

  11. University Students’ Reflections on Representations in Genetics and Stereochemistry Revealed by a Focus Group Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Edfors

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetics and organic chemistry are areas of science that students regard as difficult to learn. Part of this difficulty is derived from the disciplines having representations as part of their discourses. In order to optimally support students’ meaning-making, teachers need to use representations to structure the meaning-making experience in thoughtful ways that consider the variation in students’ prior knowledge. Using a focus group setting, we explored 43 university students’ reasoning on representations in introductory chemistry and genetics courses. Our analysis of eight focus group discussions revealed how students can construct somewhat bewildered relations with disciplinary-specific representations. The students stated that they preferred familiar representations, but without asserting the meaning-making affordances of those representations. Also, the students were highly aware of the affordances of certain representations, but nonetheless chose not to use those representations in their problem solving. We suggest that an effective representation is one that, to some degree, is familiar to the students, but at the same time is challenging and not too closely related to “the usual one”. The focus group discussions led the students to become more aware of their own and others ways of interpreting different representations. Furthermore, feedback from the students’ focus group discussions enhanced the teachers’ awareness of the students’ prior knowledge and limitations in students’ representational literacy. Consequently, we posit that a focus group setting can be used in a university context to promote both student meaning-making and teacher professional development in a fruitful way.

  12. Recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners: a marketing approach reveals new possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Elizabeth; Dunn, Steve; Barich, Hayley; Infante, Rebecca

    2007-12-01

    This paper repositions the challenge of attracting and retaining rural GPs in a marketing context as a new focus for future research and policy development. Case study with mixed design of surveys of GPs and medical students and depth interviews with GPs, medical students, regional-division administrators and GP recruitment agents. GP recruitment and retention in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia. Twenty-seven Limestone Coast (LC) GPs; random sample of medical students from Adelaide University, Adelaide University Rural Health Society and Flinders University; snowball sampling two adjacent rural regions (20 GPs); and administrators from LC and adjacent regions and GP recruitment agencies in Adelaide. Drawing from marketing theory, creative suggestion of 'promotion of the practice and not the region' offers a means of GP recruitment and retention for structured succession planning for rural general practices. Structural attempts to broaden the GP market with overseas recruitment have done little for improving full-time equivalent GP levels. Market segmentation and market orientation offer a new emphasis on value exchange between the corporation (the practice), customer (GPs) and competition (all practices) to influence future mobility. A marketing orientation to the GP challenge emphasises individual's perceptions of value, GP expectations and practice offerings. Failure to acknowledge benefits of this marketing approach means that solutions such as those developed in the Limestone Coast region are unlikely. Research is now required to define GP satisfaction and value for long-term viability of general practices.

  13. Fate of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage treatment plant revealed by metagenomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Li, Bing; Zou, Shichun; Fang, Herbert H P; Zhang, Tong

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a serious threat to human health. Sewage treatment plant (STP) is one of the major sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in natural environment. High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic approach was applied to investigate the broad-spectrum profiles and fate of ARGs in a full scale STP. Totally, 271 ARGs subtypes belonging to 18 ARGs types were identified by the broad scanning of metagenomic analysis. Influent had the highest ARGs abundance, followed by effluent, anaerobic digestion sludge and activated sludge. 78 ARGs subtypes persisted through the biological wastewater and sludge treatment process. The high removal efficiency of 99.82% for total ARGs in wastewater suggested that sewage treatment process is effective in reducing ARGs. But the removal efficiency of ARGs in sludge treatment was not as good as that in sewage treatment. Furthermore, the composition of microbial communities was examined and the correlation between microbial community and ARGs was investigated using redundancy analysis. Significant correlation between 6 genera and the distribution of ARGs were found and 5 of the 6 genera included potential pathogens. This is the first study on the fate of ARGs in STP using metagenomic analysis with high-throughput sequencing and hopefully would enhance our knowledge on fate of ARGs in STP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated Systems Approach Reveals Sphingolipid Metabolism Pathway Dysregulation in Association with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stephen Malamon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD and age are significantly correlated such that one-third of Americans beyond 85 years of age are afflicted. We have designed and implemented a pilot study that combines systems biology approaches with traditional next-generation sequencing (NGS analysis techniques to identify relevant regulatory pathways, infer functional relationships and confirm the dysregulation of these biological pathways in LOAD. Our study design is a most comprehensive systems approach combining co-expression network modeling derived from RNA-seq data, rigorous quality control (QC standards, functional ontology, and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL derived from whole exome (WES single nucleotide variant (SNV genotype data. Our initial results reveal several statistically significant, biologically relevant genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. To validate these findings, we performed a gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA. The GSEA revealed the sphingolipid metabolism pathway and regulation of autophagy in association with LOAD cases. In the execution of this study, we have successfully tested an integrative approach to identify both novel and known LOAD drivers in order to develop a broader and more detailed picture of the highly complex transcriptional and regulatory landscape of age-related dementia.

  15. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    Full Text Available This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N, vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production, and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%, Planctomycetes (12.3%, Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%, Alphaproteobacteria (12.0% and Betaproteobacteria (11.1% were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  16. Multi-Analytical Approach Reveals Potential Microbial Indicators in Soil for Sugarcane Model Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio Aparecido; Diniz, Tatiana Rosa; Braga, Lucas Palma Perez; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Zacarias; Franchini, Julio Cezar; Rossetto, Raffaella; Edwards, Robert Alan; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of organic and inorganic amendments and straw retention on the microbial biomass (MB) and taxonomic groups of bacteria in sugarcane-cultivated soils in a greenhouse mesocosm experiment monitored for gas emissions and chemical factors. The experiment consisted of combinations of synthetic nitrogen (N), vinasse (V; a liquid waste from ethanol production), and sugarcane-straw blankets. Increases in CO2-C and N2O-N emissions were identified shortly after the addition of both N and V to the soils, thus increasing MB nitrogen (MB-N) and decreasing MB carbon (MB-C) in the N+V-amended soils and altering soil chemical factors that were correlated with the MB. Across 57 soil metagenomic datasets, Actinobacteria (31.5%), Planctomycetes (12.3%), Deltaproteobacteria (12.3%), Alphaproteobacteria (12.0%) and Betaproteobacteria (11.1%) were the most dominant bacterial groups during the experiment. Differences in relative abundance of metagenomic sequences were mainly revealed for Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia with regard to N+V fertilization and straw retention. Differential abundances in bacterial groups were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-targeted phylum-specific primers for real-time PCR analysis in all soil samples, whose results were in accordance with sequence data, except for Gammaproteobacteria. Actinobacteria were more responsive to straw retention with Rubrobacterales, Bifidobacteriales and Actinomycetales related to the chemical factors of N+V-amended soils. Acidobacteria subgroup 7 and Opitutae, a verrucomicrobial class, were related to the chemical factors of soils without straw retention as a surface blanket. Taken together, the results showed that MB-C and MB-N responded to changes in soil chemical factors and CO2-C and N2O-N emissions, especially for N+V-amended soils. The results also indicated that several taxonomic groups of bacteria, such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and

  17. Revealing the biotechnological potential of Delftia sp. JD2 by a genomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Morel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Delftia sp. JD2 is a chromium-resistant bacterium that reduces Cr(VI to Cr(III, accumulates Pb(II, produces the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid and siderophores, and increases the plant growth performance of rhizobia in co-inoculation experiments. We aimed to analyze the biotechnological potential of JD2 using a genomic approach. JD2 has a genome of 6.76Mb, with 6,051 predicted protein coding sequences and 93 RNA genes (tRNA and rRNA. The indole-acetamide pathway was identified as responsible for the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid. The genetic information involved in chromium resistance (the gene cluster, chrBACF, was found. At least 40 putative genes encoding for TonB-dependent receptors, probably involved in the utilization of siderophores and biopolymers, and genes for the synthesis, maturation, exportation and uptake of pyoverdine, and acquisition of Fe-pyochelin and Fe-enterobactin were also identified. The information also suggests that JD2 produce polyhydroxybutyrate, a carbon reserve polymer commonly used for manufacturing petrochemical free bioplastics. In addition, JD2 may degrade lignin-derived aromatic compounds to 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylate, a molecule used in the bio-based polymer industry. Finally, a comparative genomic analysis of JD2, Delftia sp. Cs1-4 and Delftia acidovorans SPH-1 is also discussed. The present work provides insights into the physiology and genetics of a microorganism with many potential uses in biotechnology.

  18. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Nina; Franks, Becca; Lim, Sean; Curley, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David’s Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg’s Hub Centrality and Bonacich’s Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing and intensive

  19. 5D imaging approaches reveal the formation of distinct intracellular cAMP spatial gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Trinh, Kenny; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel A.; Griswold, John R.; Deal, Joshua; Hoffman, Chase; West, Savannah; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2017-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions. Several lines of evidence suggest that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform. However, to date, no studies have measured the kinetics of 3D cAMP distributions within cells. This is largely due to the low signal-tonoise ratio of FRET-based probes. We previously reported that hyperspectral imaging improves the signal-to-noise ratio of FRET measurements. Here we utilized hyperspectral imaging approaches to measure FRET signals in five dimensions (5D) - three spatial (x, y, z), wavelength (λ), and time (t) - allowing us to visualize cAMP gradients in pulmonary endothelial cells. cAMP levels were measured using a FRET-based sensor (H188) comprised of a cAMP binding domain sandwiched between FRET donor and acceptor - Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. We observed cAMP gradients in response to 0.1 or 1 μM isoproterenol, 0.1 or 1 μM PGE1, or 50 μM forskolin. Forskolin- and isoproterenol-induced cAMP gradients formed from the apical (high cAMP) to basolateral (low cAMP) face of cells. In contrast, PGE1-induced cAMP gradients originated from both the basolateral and apical faces of cells. Data suggest that 2D (x,y) studies of cAMP compartmentalization may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D (x,y,z) studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity. Results demonstrate that 5D imaging technologies are powerful tools for measuring biochemical processes in discrete subcellular domains.

  20. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Nina; Franks, Becca; Lim, Sean; Curley, James P

    2015-01-01

    Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David's Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg's Hub Centrality and Bonacich's Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing and intensive

  1. A Social Network Approach Reveals Associations between Mouse Social Dominance and Brain Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina So

    Full Text Available Modelling complex social behavior in the laboratory is challenging and requires analyses of dyadic interactions occurring over time in a physically and socially complex environment. In the current study, we approached the analyses of complex social interactions in group-housed male CD1 mice living in a large vivarium. Intensive observations of social interactions during a 3-week period indicated that male mice form a highly linear and steep dominance hierarchy that is maintained by fighting and chasing behaviors. Individual animals were classified as dominant, sub-dominant or subordinate according to their David's Scores and I& SI ranking. Using a novel dynamic temporal Glicko rating method, we ascertained that the dominance hierarchy was stable across time. Using social network analyses, we characterized the behavior of individuals within 66 unique relationships in the social group. We identified two individual network metrics, Kleinberg's Hub Centrality and Bonacich's Power Centrality, as accurate predictors of individual dominance and power. Comparing across behaviors, we establish that agonistic, grooming and sniffing social networks possess their own distinctive characteristics in terms of density, average path length, reciprocity out-degree centralization and out-closeness centralization. Though grooming ties between individuals were largely independent of other social networks, sniffing relationships were highly predictive of the directionality of agonistic relationships. Individual variation in dominance status was associated with brain gene expression, with more dominant individuals having higher levels of corticotropin releasing factor mRNA in the medial and central nuclei of the amygdala and the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus, as well as higher levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. This study demonstrates the potential and significance of combining complex social housing

  2. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  3. Computational Approaches Reveal New Insights into Regulation and Function of Non; coding RNAs and their Targets

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2016-11-28

    previously known to harbor LD motifs and we experimentally confirmed some of our predicted motifs. This novel discovery will expand our knowledge of cancer metastasis and will facilitate therapeutic targeting linking specific ncRNAs via paxillin proteins to diseases. Finally, through bioinformatics approaches, we identified lncRNAs as markers that distinguish classical from alternative activation of macrophage. This result may have good use in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

  4. On the nature of rainfall intermittency as revealed by different metrics and sampling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mascaro

    2013-01-01

    island and, thus, can be associated with the corresponding synoptic circulation patterns. Last but not least, we demonstrate how the methodology adopted to sample the rainfall signal from the records of the tipping instants can significantly affect the intermittency analysis, especially at smaller scales. The multifractal scale invariance analysis is the only tool that is insensitive to the sampling approach. Results of this work may be useful to improve the calibration of stochastic algorithms used to downscale coarse rainfall predictions of climate and weather forecasting models, as well as the parameterization of intensity-duration-frequency curves, adopted for land planning and design of civil infrastructures.

  5. Benchmarking of de novo assembly algorithms for Nanopore data reveals optimal performance of OLC approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuri, Yesesri; Janga, Sarath Chandra

    2016-08-22

    Improved DNA sequencing methods have transformed the field of genomics over the last decade. This has become possible due to the development of inexpensive short read sequencing technologies which have now resulted in three generations of sequencing platforms. More recently, a new fourth generation of Nanopore based single molecule sequencing technology, was developed based on MinION(®) sequencer which is portable, inexpensive and fast. It is capable of generating reads of length greater than 100 kb. Though it has many specific advantages, the two major limitations of the MinION reads are high error rates and the need for the development of downstream pipelines. The algorithms for error correction have already emerged, while development of pipelines is still at nascent stage. In this study, we benchmarked available assembler algorithms to find an appropriate framework that can efficiently assemble Nanopore sequenced reads. To address this, we employed genome-scale Nanopore sequenced datasets available for E. coli and yeast genomes respectively. In order to comprehensively evaluate multiple algorithmic frameworks, we included assemblers based on de Bruijn graphs (Velvet and ABySS), Overlap Layout Consensus (OLC) (Celera) and Greedy extension (SSAKE) approaches. We analyzed the quality, accuracy of the assemblies as well as the computational performance of each of the assemblers included in our benchmark. Our analysis unveiled that OLC-based algorithm, Celera, could generate a high quality assembly with ten times higher N50 & mean contig values as well as one-fifth the number of total number of contigs compared to other tools. Celera was also found to exhibit an average genome coverage of 12 % in E. coli dataset and 70 % in Yeast dataset as well as relatively lesser run times. In contrast, de Bruijn graph based assemblers Velvet and ABySS generated the assemblies of moderate quality, in less time when there is no limitation on the memory allocation, while greedy

  6. 75 FR 65881 - Ownership Limitations and Governance Requirements for Security-Based Swap Clearing Agencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... structures relating to ownership, voting, and governance of security- based swap clearing agencies, SB SEFs... Internet comment form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/proposed.shtml ); or Send an e-mail to [email protected] the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/proposed.shtml ). Comments are also...

  7. 76 FR 10947 - Registration and Regulation of Security-Based Swap Execution Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... rules and procedures to ensure the financial integrity of SB swaps entered on or though the SB SEF...-Frank Act into law.\\1\\ The Dodd-Frank Act was enacted, among other things, to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency of the nation's financial system...

  8. 75 FR 75432 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ..., increase transparency, and promote market integrity within the financial system by, among other things: (i... public; (2) efficiency, competitiveness, and financial integrity of futures markets; (3) price discovery... participants and the financial integrity of the futures and swap markets. The proposed regulatons would ensure...

  9. 78 FR 21045 - Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps-Records of Transactions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 1 RIN 3038-AD53 Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps--Records of... published in the Federal Register of December 21, 2012 (77 FR 75523), regarding Adaptation of Regulations to...

  10. Analytical approximations for prices of swap rate dependent embedded options in insurance products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, R.; Pelsser, A.

    2009-01-01

    Life insurance products have profit sharing features in combination with guarantees. These so-called embedded options are often dependent on or approximated by forward swap rates. In practice, these kinds of options are mostly valued by Monte Carlo simulations. However, for risk management

  11. 76 FR 58186 - Swap Transaction Compliance and Implementation Schedule: Clearing and Trade Execution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... pension fund Y, and does so in a separate account that requires the approval of pension fund Y to execute... hand, if pension fund Y manages its own assets, it would fall within Category 2 and be afforded 180...) voluntarily clearing swaps through eligible DCOs at any time. \\31\\ Letter from Richard H. Baker, Managed Funds...

  12. 76 FR 2287 - Security-Based Swap Data Repository Registration, Duties, and Core Principles; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 240 and 249 RIN 3235-AK79 Security-Based Swap Data Repository Registration, Duties, and Core Principles; Correction Correction In proposed rule document C1-2010-29719 beginning on page...

  13. 75 FR 79320 - Security-Based Swap Data Repository Registration, Duties, and Core Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 240 and 249 RIN 3235-AK79 Security-Based Swap Data Repository Registration, Duties, and Core Principles Correction In proposed rule document 2010-29719 beginning on page 77306 in the...

  14. Two-Hierarchy Entanglement Swapping for a Linear Optical Quantum Repeater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Tong; Yao, Xing-Can; Lu, He; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-10-27

    Quantum repeaters play a significant role in achieving long-distance quantum communication. In the past decades, tremendous effort has been devoted towards constructing a quantum repeater. As one of the crucial elements, entanglement has been created in different memory systems via entanglement swapping. The realization of j-hierarchy entanglement swapping, i.e., connecting quantum memory and further extending the communication distance, is important for implementing a practical quantum repeater. Here, we report the first demonstration of a fault-tolerant two-hierarchy entanglement swapping with linear optics using parametric down-conversion sources. In the experiment, the dominant or most probable noise terms in the one-hierarchy entanglement swapping, which is on the same order of magnitude as the desired state and prevents further entanglement connections, are automatically washed out by a proper design of the detection setting, and the communication distance can be extended. Given suitable quantum memory, our techniques can be directly applied to implementing an atomic ensemble based quantum repeater, and are of significant importance in the scalable quantum information processing.

  15. 76 FR 37029 - Margin and Capital Requirements For Covered Swap Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... CFR Part 1221 RIN 2590-AA45 Margin and Capital Requirements For Covered Swap Entities AGENCY: Office... Register a joint notice of proposed rulemaking for public comment to establish minimum margin and capital... comment period for similar margin and capital requirements proposed by the Commodity Futures Trading...

  16. 77 FR 20536 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps Issued by Certain Clearing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... recent financial crisis. \\4\\ The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public Law... participant,'' ``eligible contract participant,'' and ``security-based swap agreement.'' These terms are defined in Sections 721 and 761 of the Dodd-Frank Act and, with respect to the term ``eligible contract...

  17. 76 FR 34920 - Exemptions for Security-Based Swaps Issued by Certain Clearing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... regulate over-the-counter (``OTC'') derivatives in light of the recent financial crisis. \\4\\ The Dodd-Frank... participant,'' ``major security-based swap participant,'' ``eligible contract participant,'' and ``security... respect to the term ``eligible contract participant,'' in Section 1a(18) of the Commodity Exchange Act...

  18. Dude Looks like a Lady: Gender Swapping in an Online Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Searle; Williams, Dmitri

    After reviewing the literature on online identity construction and developing a set of theory-based hypotheses, this chapter employs a novel combination of survey data and game-generated behavioral logs to examine gender swapping in EverQuest II. Gender swapping is defined as a difference between the gender reported by the player in the survey from the gender of the player's main character in the game. Motivations for play were measured using Yee's condensed MMO motivations scale, and behavioral logs supplied four main measures of gender-stereotypical in-game behaviors. Contrary to expectations, gender swapping was less common among female players, and swapping was rather rare in general. Homosexual players were more likely to change their online gender than straight players. Performance and socialization motivations for play did not differ significantly between swappers and nonswappers. Men who play female characters were not more likely to engage in stereotypically female acts than men who play male characters; however, women who played male characters did display a degree of hyper-masculine behavior. Some of these findings suggest that there may be less of the identity exploration or challenging of gender norms than some had expected, but the female population of players may be bimodal, composed of stereotypically female and male-leaning subgroups.

  19. Two-Hierarchy Entanglement Swapping for a Linear Optical Quantum Repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Yong, Hai-Lin; Chen, Luo-Kan; Liu, Chang; Xiang, Tong; Yao, Xing-Can; Lu, He; Li, Zheng-Da; Liu, Nai-Le; Li, Li; Yang, Tao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-10-01

    Quantum repeaters play a significant role in achieving long-distance quantum communication. In the past decades, tremendous effort has been devoted towards constructing a quantum repeater. As one of the crucial elements, entanglement has been created in different memory systems via entanglement swapping. The realization of j -hierarchy entanglement swapping, i.e., connecting quantum memory and further extending the communication distance, is important for implementing a practical quantum repeater. Here, we report the first demonstration of a fault-tolerant two-hierarchy entanglement swapping with linear optics using parametric down-conversion sources. In the experiment, the dominant or most probable noise terms in the one-hierarchy entanglement swapping, which is on the same order of magnitude as the desired state and prevents further entanglement connections, are automatically washed out by a proper design of the detection setting, and the communication distance can be extended. Given suitable quantum memory, our techniques can be directly applied to implementing an atomic ensemble based quantum repeater, and are of significant importance in the scalable quantum information processing.

  20. The impact of stimulus complexity and frequency swapping on stabilization of binocular rivalry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, B; Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    high-level perceptual content. We conclude that overlaps at low visual stages are the most likely cause of the eye-specific stabilization for both stimulus types. Additionally, we examined the impact of swapping the flicker frequency of the images and found a general impact on stabilization...

  1. The borderline personality organization in a dimensional perspective: the TCI and SWAP-200 in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, F; Laguzzi, S; Sobrero, C; Marzola, E; Abbate Daga, G; Fassino, S

    2012-12-01

    The categorical assessment of personality disorders, in particular of the borderline personality disorder is being debated by most authors. This study focuses on the structural organization of personality, namely on Kernberg's borderline personality organization (BPO). It aims to explore the dimensional personality assessment and to test the convergence on this construct of two dimensional instruments: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). BPO was assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). Thirty-four BPO subjects were recruited in the study. TCI profiles of BPO subjects were compared with 34 non-BPO matched controls. TCI and SWAP-200 profiles were correlated with each other and with clinical data. BPO subjects showed higher harm avoidance and lower self-directedness (TCI). The SWAP-200 evidenced a schizotypal configuration (categorical classification) and histrionic and schizoid traits (Q-sort classification). The instruments displayed limited correlation. Instead they both extensively correlated with clinical history of BPO subjects. Implications for BPO assessment and its relationship with mental disorders are discussed. The knowledge of the BPO dimensional characteristics will improve clinical management and therapeutic strategies for BPO patients. Moreover the comparison of two dimensional instruments on the construct of BPO may shed a light on their strengths and weaknesses.

  2. 76 FR 80233 - Amendment to July 14, 2011 Order for Swap Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... to extend the potential latest expiry dates. With respect to provisions covered in the first part of... effective. The Commission also proposed to amend the July 14 Order to extend the expiry date of the second... amendment to agricultural swaps; and, (3) the expiry date applicable to exempt commercial markets (``ECMs...

  3. Libor and Swap Market Models for the Pricing of Interest Rate Derivatives : An Empirical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Pelsser, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze and compare the Libor and Swap Market Models, developed by Brace, Gatarek, and Musiela (1997) and Jamshidian (1997), using paneldata on prices of US caplets and swaptions.A Libor Market Model can directly be calibrated to observed prices of caplets, whereas a

  4. Derivative pricing with liquidity risk: Theory and evidence from the credit default swap market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; de Jong, F.; Driessen, J.

    2008-01-01

    We derive a theoretical asset-pricing model for derivative contracts that allows for expected liquidity and liquidity risk, and estimate this model for the market of credit default swaps (CDS). Our model extends the LCAPM of Acharya and Pedersen (2005) to a setting with derivative instruments and

  5. 77 FR 60057 - Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap Entities; Reopening of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1221 RIN 2590-AA45 Margin and Capital Requirements for Covered Swap...); Farm Credit Administration (FCA); and the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA). ACTION: Reopening of... document on margin requirements for non-centrally-cleared derivatives recently published for comment by the...

  6. 77 FR 41213 - Cross-Border Application of Certain Swaps Provisions of the Commodity Exchange Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... financial institutions as a whole, and the interconnectedness of the global swap business.\\5\\ \\4\\ On October... Brothers International (Europe) (``LBIE''). The Lehman global business and operations relied on ``highly..., most of which were guaranteed by LBHI.\\8\\ \\7\\ ``The global nature of the Lehman business with highly...

  7. A general lock-free algorithm using compare-and-swap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Hesselink, W.H.

    The compare-and-swap register (CAS) is a synchronization primitive for lock-free algorithms. Most uses of it, however, Stiffer from the so-called ABA problem. The simplest and most efficient solution to the ABA problem is to include a tag with the memory location Such that the tag is incremented

  8. A Systematic Protein Refolding Screen Method using the DGR Approach Reveals that Time and Secondary TSA are Essential Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanze; van Oosterwijk, Niels; Ali, Ameena M; Adawy, Alaa; Anindya, Atsarina L; Dömling, Alexander S S; Groves, Matthew R

    2017-08-24

    Refolding of proteins derived from inclusion bodies is very promising as it can provide a reliable source of target proteins of high purity. However, inclusion body-based protein production is often limited by the lack of techniques for the detection of correctly refolded protein. Thus, the selection of the refolding conditions is mostly achieved using trial and error approaches and is thus a time-consuming process. In this study, we use the latest developments in the differential scanning fluorimetry guided refolding approach as an analytical method to detect correctly refolded protein. We describe a systematic buffer screen that contains a 96-well primary pH-refolding screen in conjunction with a secondary additive screen. Our research demonstrates that this approach could be applied for determining refolding conditions for several proteins. In addition, it revealed which "helper" molecules, such as arginine and additives are essential. Four different proteins: HA-RBD, MDM2, IL-17A and PD-L1 were used to validate our refolding approach. Our systematic protocol evaluates the impact of the "helper" molecules, the pH, buffer system and time on the protein refolding process in a high-throughput fashion. Finally, we demonstrate that refolding time and a secondary thermal shift assay buffer screen are critical factors for improving refolding efficiency.

  9. Short wave–automated perimetry (SWAP versus optical coherence tomography in early detection of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaky AG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adel Galal Zaky,1 Ahmed Tarek Yassin,2 Saber Hamed El Sayid1 1Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom, Menoufia, Egypt; 2Ophthalmology Department, Banha Educational Hospital, Banha, El Kalyobia, Egypt Objective: To assess the role and diagnostic effectiveness of optical coherence tomography (OCT and short wave–automated perimetry (SWAP to distinguish between normal, glaucoma suspects, and surely diagnosed glaucomatous eye.Background: Changes in the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL often precede the appearance of visual field defect with standard automated perimetry. Unfortunately, RNFL defect can be difficult to identify during clinical examination. Early detection of glaucoma is still controversial, whether by OCT, SWAP, or frequency-doubling technology perimetry.Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled, consecutive, prospective study, a total 70 subjects (140 eyes were included in the study, divided into three groups: Group A, 10 healthy volunteers (20 eyes; Group B, 30 patients (60 eyes with glaucoma suspect; and Group C, 30 patients (60 eyes with already diagnosed glaucomatous eyes.Results: Average RNFL thickness was 75±9.0 in the glaucoma group, 99±15.5 in the control group, and 94±12 in glaucoma suspect. The inferior quadrant was the early parameter affected. There was significant correlation between visual field parameters and RNFL thickness in both glaucoma and glaucoma suspect groups.Conclusion: Both RNFL thickness measured by OCT and SWAP indices are good discrimination tools between glaucomatous, glaucoma suspect, and normal eyes. OCT parameters tend to be more sensitive than SWAP parameters. Keywords: OCT, SWAP, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, RNFL

  10. Effect of methionine80 heme coordination on domain swapping of cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Shun; Yamashiro, Nobuhiro; Wang, Zhonghua; Nagao, Satoshi

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome c (cyt c) forms oligomers by domain swapping. It exchanges the C-terminal α-helical region between protomers, and the Met80‒heme iron bond is perturbed significantly in domain-swapped oligomers. The peroxidase activity of cyt c increases by Met80 dissociation from the heme iron, which may trigger apoptosis. This study elucidates the effect of the Met80 heme coordination on cyt c domain swapping by obtaining oligomers for both wild-type (WT) and M80A human cyt c by an addition of ethanol to their monomers, followed by lyophilization and dissolution to buffer, and investigating their dimer properties. The absorption and circular dichroism spectra of WT and M80A cyt c exhibited similar changes upon dimerization, indicating that Met80 does not affect the oligomerization process significantly. According to differential scanning calorimetric measurements, Met80 coordination to the heme iron had an effect on the stabilization of the monomer (ΔH = 16 kcal/mol), whereas no large difference was observed between the dimer-to-monomer dissociation temperatures of WT and M80A cyt c (61.0 °C). The activation enthalpy values were similar and relatively large for the dissociation of both WT and M80A cyt c dimers (WT, 120 ± 10 kcal/mol; M80A, 110 ± 10 kcal/mol), indicating that the dimers suffered large structural changes upon dissociation to monomers independent of the Met80 coordination to the heme iron. These results indicate that cyt c domain swapping may occur regardless of the Met80 coordination, whereas the monomer is stabilized by Met80 but the domain-swapped dimer structure and stability are less affected by the Met80 coordination.

  11. Modelling of the disulphide-swapped isomer of human insulin-like growth factor-1: implications for receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R; Verma, C; Wallach, B; Ursø, B; Pitts, J; Wollmer, A; De Meyts, P; Wood, S

    1999-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a serum protein which unexpectedly folds to yield two stable tertiary structures with different disulphide connectivities; native IGF-1 [18-61,6-48,47-52] and IGF-1 swap [18-61,6-47, 48-52]. Here we demonstrate in detail the biological properties of recombinant human native IGF-1 and IGF-1 swap secreted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. IGF-1 swap had a approximately 30 fold loss in affinity for the IGF-1 receptor overexpressed on BHK cells compared with native IGF-1. The parallel increase in dose required to induce negative cooperativity together with the parallel loss in mitogenicity in NIH 3T3 cells implies that disruption of the IGF-1 receptor binding interaction rather than restriction of a post-binding conformational change is responsible for the reduction in biological activity of IGF-1 swap. Interestingly, the affinity of IGF-1 swap for the insulin receptor was approximately 200 fold lower than that of native IGF-1 indicating that the binding surface complementary to the insulin receptor (or the ability to attain it) is disturbed to a greater extent than that to the IGF-1 receptor. A 1.0 ns high-temperature molecular dynamics study of the local energy landscape of IGF-1 swap resulted in uncoiling of the first A-region alpha-helix and a rearrangement in the relative orientation of the A- and B-regions. The model of IGF-1 swap is structurally homologous to the NMR structure of insulin swap and CD spectra consistent with the model are presented. However, in the model of IGF-1 swap the C-region has filled the space where the first A-region alpha-helix has uncoiled and this may be hindering interaction of Val44 with the second insulin receptor binding pocket.

  12. A new approach combining LC-MS and multivariate statistical analysis for revealing changes in histone modification levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgraer, Raphaël; Gillet, Sylvie; Gil, Sophie; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Laprévote, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    While acting upon chromatin compaction, histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are involved in modulating gene expression through histone-DNA affinity and protein-protein interactions. These dynamic and environment-sensitive modifications are constitutive of the histone code that reflects the transient transcriptional state of the chromatin. Here we describe a global screening approach for revealing epigenetic disruption at the histone level. This original approach enables fast and reliable relative abundance comparison of histone PTMs and variants in human cells within a single LC-MS experiment. As a proof of concept, we exposed BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells to sodium butyrate (SB), a universal histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Histone acid-extracts (n = 45) equally representing 3 distinct classes, Control, 1 mM and 2.5 mM SB, were analysed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS). Multivariate statistics allowed us to discriminate control from treated samples based on differences in their mass spectral profiles. Several acetylated and methylated forms of core histones emerged as markers of sodium butyrate treatment. Indeed, this untargeted histonomic approach could be a useful exploratory tool in many cases of xenobiotic exposure when histone code disruption is suspected.

  13. DNA binding by FOXP3 domain-swapped dimer suggests mechanisms of long-range chromosomal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yongheng; Chen, Chunxia; Zhang, Zhe; Liu, Chun-Chi; Johnson, Matthew E.; Espinoza, Celso A.; Edsall, Lee E.; Ren, Bing; Zhou, Xianghong Jasmine; Grant, Struan F.A.; Wells, Andrew D.; Chen, Lin (LICR); (UPENN); (USC)

    2015-01-07

    FOXP3 is a lineage-specific transcription factor that is required for regulatory T cell development and function. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the FOXP3 forkhead domain bound to DNA. The structure reveals that FOXP3 can form a stable domain-swapped dimer to bridge DNA in the absence of cofactors, suggesting that FOXP3 may play a role in long-range gene interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used circular chromosome conformation capture coupled with high throughput sequencing (4C-seq) to analyze FOXP3-dependent genomic contacts around a known FOXP3-bound locus, Ptpn22. Our studies reveal that FOXP3 induces significant changes in the chromatin contacts between the Ptpn22 locus and other Foxp3-regulated genes, reflecting a mechanism by which FOXP3 reorganizes the genome architecture to coordinate the expression of its target genes. Our results suggest that FOXP3 mediates long-range chromatin interactions as part of its mechanisms to regulate specific gene expression in regulatory T cells.

  14. 77 FR 71568 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...; ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 240 RIN 3235-AL12 Capital, Margin, and Segregation... proposed capital and margin requirements for security-based swap dealers (``SBSDs'') and major security...

  15. Contabilización de Contratos de Futuros, Opciones, Forwards y Swaps (Accounting treatment for future, options, forwards and swap contracts)

    OpenAIRE

    Vernor Mesén Figueroa

    2012-01-01

    Un entorno cada vez más dinámico y evolutivo ha dado paso al surgimiento y, por ende, al uso cada vez más frecuente de instrumentos financieros cuya flexibilidad y capacidad de ajuste a las condiciones de mercado permitan a las personas y empresas lograr sus objetivos de operación, inversión y financiamiento. En el contexto antes descrito, los contratos de futuros, opciones, forwards y swaps representan mecanismos cuyas características operativas permiten a sus tenedores el logro de objet...

  16. A novel proteomic approach reveals a role for Mg-protoporphyrin IX in response to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindgren, Peter; Eriksson, Mats-Jerry; Benedict, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    of the tetrapyrrole pathway trigger large changes in nuclear gene expression. In order to investigate whether the tetrapyrrole Mg-ProtoIX itself is an important part of plastid-to-nucleus communication, we used an affinity column containing Mg-ProtoIX covalently linked to an Affi-Gel matrix. The proteins that bound......-ProtoIX and a large number of proteins associated with oxidative stress responses. Our approach revealed an interaction between Mg-ProtoIX and the heat shock protein 90-type protein, HSP81-2 suggesting that a regulatory complex including HSP90 proteins and tetrapyrroles controlling gene expression is evolutionarily...... conserved between yeast and plants. In addition, our list of putative Mg-ProtoIX-binding proteins demonstrated that binding of tetrapyrroles does not depend on a specific amino acid motif but possibly on a specific fold of the protein....

  17. Proteomics Analysis with a Nano Random Forest Approach Reveals Novel Functional Interactions Regulated by SMC Complexes on Mitotic Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinya; Montaño-Gutierrez, Luis F; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ogawa, Hiromi; Toramoto, Iyo; Sato, Nobuko; Morrison, Ciaran G; Takeda, Shunichi; Hudson, Damien F; Rappsilber, Juri; Earnshaw, William C

    2016-08-01

    Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Optical label swapping and packet transmission based on ASK/DPSK orthogonal modulation format in IP-over-WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Xu, Lin; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate all-optical label swapping based on SOA, EAM and HNLF for a two-level optically labeled packet using orthogonal ASK/DPSK modulation format. The ASK/DPSK packet is successfully transmitted over 80 km NZDSF.......We demonstrate all-optical label swapping based on SOA, EAM and HNLF for a two-level optically labeled packet using orthogonal ASK/DPSK modulation format. The ASK/DPSK packet is successfully transmitted over 80 km NZDSF....

  19. The cultural adaptation and validation of a Swedish version of the satisfaction with appearance scale (SWAP-Swe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Oili; Wickman, Marie; Wengström, Yvonne

    2014-06-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a source of stress after burns and it is important to attempt to objectively measure this aspect. Unfortunately, there are no Swedish questionnaires to assess satisfaction of appearance after burns. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Satisfaction With Appearance Scale (SWAP) into Swedish from American English to be used in the context of burn care. The SWAP was translated and cross-cultural adapted inspired by the guidelines by Guillemin. Pre-testing with 13 burn patients was conducted and 90 patients tested the questionnaire in order to determine its psychometric properties. Cronbach's alpha was 0.89 indicating a high level of internal consistency of Swedish SWAP. Test for construct validity showed that length of hospital stay, more severe burns and female gender generated significantly higher scores in SWAP-Swe. The principal-components analysis found similar subscales according to the original SWAP that together accounted for 68% of the total variance. SWAP-Swe is a reliable and valid instrument for use in a Swedish speaking population. The questionnaire was perceived to be relevant for usage in the context of burn care and is well understood by the patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimizing Cofactor Specificity of Oxidoreductase Enzymes for the Generation of Microbial Production Strains—OptSwap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; Feist, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Central oxidoreductase enzymes (eg, dehydrogenases, reductases) in microbial metabolism often have preferential binding specificity for one of the two major currency metabolites NAD(H) and NADP(H). These enzyme specificities result in a division of the metabolic functionality of the currency...... metabolites: enzymes reducing NAD+ to NADH drive oxidative phosphorylation, and enzymes reducing NADP+ to NADPH drive anabolic reactions. In this work, we introduce the computational method OptSwap, which predicts bioprocessing strain designs by identifying optimal modifications of the cofactor binding...... specificities of oxidoreductase enzyme and complementary reaction knockouts. Using the Escherichia coli genome-scale metabolic model iJO1366, OptSwap predicted eight growth-coupled production designs with significantly greater product yields or substrate-specific productivities than designs predicted with gene...

  1. Assessing personality change in psychotherapy with the SWAP-200: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Shedler, Jonathan; Gazzillo, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    Many studies document the efficacy of psychotherapy for acute syndromes such as depression, but less is known about personality change in patients treated for personality pathology. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200; Westen & Shedler, 1999a, 1999b) is an assessment tool that measures a broad spectrum of personality constructs and is designed to bridge the gap between the clinical and empirical traditions in personality assessment. In this article, we demonstrate the use of the SWAP-200 as a measure of change in a case study of a patient diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. We collected assessment data at the start of treatment and after 2 years of psychotherapy. The findings illustrate the personality processes targeted in intensive psychotherapy for borderline personality.

  2. Towards an Understanding of the Effects of IFRS Adoption on Credit Default Swap Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam Raouf; Mahmoud Abd El Hai; Mohamed Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This essay evaluates the impact of the International Financial Reporting Standards on the pricing of the credit default swap (CDS) market. The purpose extended to application of the evaluation synthesized into a best-fit strategy for participants of the CDS market as designated the buyers, and sellers. The impact of IFRS 9 on the pricing of the CDS market, using an event study method, integrates into an accounting strategy allowing the seller of protection to reduce asset value instead of cr...

  3. Optimal Policies for the Management of a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Swap Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    research on the topic in both industry and academia . Herein, relevant literature pertaining to the PHEV swap station application and proposed solution...scenarios on China’s power system using data from Shanghai’s daily load profile and Monte Carlo simulation. Results from 7 their study indicate that...sufficient number of batteries at each station once uncertain parameters such as de- mand are observed. Realistic test data is set based on the San

  4. Culture Swapping: Consumption and the Ethnogenesis of Middle-Class Haitian Immigrants.

    OpenAIRE

    Oswald, Laura R

    1999-01-01

    By means of an ethnographic study of a Haitian family in the midwestern United States, this article demonstrates how ethnic consumers "culture swap," using goods to move between one cultural identity and another as they negotiate relations between home and host cultures. This interpretation of consumer behavior is grounded in a semiotics of performance, emphasizing the dynamic and mutable nature of self, social identity, and cultural identification in global consumer culture. Copyright 1999 b...

  5. SWAP Modeling Results of Monitored Soil Water Moisture Data of Irrigation Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiliger, A.; Garsia-Orenes, F.; van den Elsen, E.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Semenov, V.

    2009-04-01

    In arid and semiarid zones of the Mediterranean regions a shortage of fresh water resources constitutes some time dramatic problem. In these regions with growing population and the scarce of rainfall irregularity in time during growing season an efficient use of water irrigation became a main challenge for future extensive agriculture development. In the frame of FP6 Water-Reuse project 516731 project a special field experimentation has been carried out in Alicante Region of Spain (Location UTM X: 693.809, Y: 4.279.922, Z: 626) on a Sandy Typic Xerofkuvent (Soil Survey Staff, 1999), Calcaric Fluvisol (WRB, FAO, 1989). with aim to investigate water regime in water repellent soils under irrigation of vine Vitus Labrusca. During field experimentation from 2006 till 2008 on 9 plots, there the same regime of irrigation water application was maintained, a monitoring of weather parameters was done by automatic meteorological station as well as a monitoring of soil water moisture was done by set of data-loggers and TDR-soil moisture sensors ECO-2 installed at different depts. SWAP model was used to simulate water regime of irrigated plots. Empirical coefficients of van Genuchten-Mualem's equations were calculated by pedotransfer functions derived from HYPRES data base using measured values of bulk density, organic matter content and soil texture. Testing of validity of the use of estimated curves was done by comparison with unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters of water retention and hydraulic conductivity measured in vitro by Wind's method on soil samples. Calibration of SWAP model for each plot was done on measured soil moisture data of irrigation events by adjusting a value of saturated hydraulic coefficient. Verification of the SWAP model was done by full range of experimental data. Similarity and non-similarity of the water regime at experimental plots as well as results of verification of SWAP model were analyzed

  6. The enigma of the near-symmetry of proteins: Domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjack-Shterengartz, Maayan; Avnir, David

    2017-01-01

    The majority of proteins form oligomers which have rotational symmetry. Literature has suggested many functional advantages that the symmetric packing offers. Yet, despite these advantages, the vast majority of protein oligomers are only nearly symmetric. A key question in the field of proteins structure is therefore, if symmetry is so advantageous, why do oligomers settle for aggregates that do not maximize that structural property? The answer to that question is apparently multi-parametric, and involves distortions at the interaction zones of the monomer units of the oligomer in order to minimize the free energy, the dynamics of the protein, the effects of surroundings parameters, and the mechanism of oligomerization. The study of this problem is in its infancy: Only the first parameter has been explored so far. Here we focus on the last parameter-the mechanism of formation. To test this effect we have selected to focus on the domain swapping mechanism of oligomerization, by which oligomers form in a mechanism that swaps identical portions of monomeric units, resulting in an interwoven oligomer. We are using continuous symmetry measures to analyze in detail the oligomer formed by this mechanism, and found, that without exception, in all analyzed cases, perfect symmetry is given away, and we are able to identify that the main burden of distortion lies in the hinge regions that connect the swapped portions. We show that the continuous symmetry analysis method clearly identifies the hinge region of swapped domain proteins-considered to be a non-trivial task. We corroborate our conclusion about the central role of the hinge region in affecting the symmetry of the oligomers, by a special probability analysis developed particularly for that purpose.

  7. Relationship Between Patient SWAP-200 Personality Characteristics and Therapist-Rated Therapeutic Alliance Early in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott W; Levy, Saryn R; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Fiori, Katherine; Bornstein, Robert F

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we assess the extent to which patient personality features and prototypes are associated with early treatment therapist-rated alliance. The study sample consisted of 94 patients receiving psychodynamic psychotherapy at an outpatient clinic. Clinicians completed the Working Alliance Inventory (J Couns Psychol 36:223-233; Psychother Res 9:405-423) to assess their views of early alliance and the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure 200 (SWAP-200; Assessment 5:333-353, Am J Psychiatry 161:1350-1365, 1743-1754; Am J Psychiatry 156:258-272, 273-285) to assess patient personality. The SWAP-200 Narcissistic Clinical Prototype, Dysphoric Q-Factor, and Dysphoric/High-Functioning Neurotic Q-Subfactor significantly correlated with early therapist-rated alliance. Correlations that trended toward significance were also found. Also identified were specific SWAP-200 items that were found to relate to high early therapist-rated alliance scores. These results demonstrate some relationship, albeit small, between patient personality characteristics and therapists' views of the alliance that may serve to further a conceptual understanding of the alliance, specific personality syndromes, and the associated impact on the therapeutic interaction.

  8. Simulating Replica Exchange: Markov State Models, Proposal Schemes, and the Infinite Swapping Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin W; Dai, Wei; Gallicchio, Emilio; He, Peng; Xia, Junchao; Tan, Zhiqiang; Levy, Ronald M

    2016-08-25

    Replica exchange molecular dynamics is a multicanonical simulation technique commonly used to enhance the sampling of solvated biomolecules on rugged free energy landscapes. While replica exchange is relatively easy to implement, there are many unanswered questions about how to use this technique most efficiently, especially because it is frequently the case in practice that replica exchange simulations are not fully converged. A replica exchange cycle consists of a series of molecular dynamics steps of a set of replicas moving under different Hamiltonians or at different thermodynamic states followed by one or more replica exchange attempts to swap replicas among the different states. How the replica exchange cycle is constructed affects how rapidly the system equilibrates. We have constructed a Markov state model of replica exchange (MSMRE) using long molecular dynamics simulations of a host-guest binding system as an example, in order to study how different implementations of the replica exchange cycle can affect the sampling efficiency. We analyze how the number of replica exchange attempts per cycle, the number of MD steps per cycle, and the interaction between the two parameters affects the largest implied time scale of the MSMRE simulation. The infinite swapping limit is an important concept in replica exchange. We show how to estimate the infinite swapping limit from the diagonal elements of the exchange transition matrix constructed from MSMRE "simulations of simulations" as well as from relatively short runs of the actual replica exchange simulations.

  9. Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the effect known as "spin current swapping" (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jia (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current Jai if i ≠a , or Jjj, with j ≠i , if i =a . Contrary to naive expectation, the homogeneous spin current associated with the uniform drift of the spin polarization in the electron gas does not generate a swapped spin current by the SCS mechanism. Nevertheless, a swapped spin current will be generated, if a magnetic field is present, by a completely different mechanism, namely, the precession of the spin Hall spin current in the magnetic field. We refer to this second mechanism as Hanle spin Hall effect, and we notice that it can be observed in an experiment in which a homogeneous drift current is passed through a uniformly magnetized electron gas. In contrast to this, we show that an unambiguous observation of SCS requires inhomogeneous spin currents, such as those that are associated with spin diffusion in a metal, and no magnetic field. An experimental setup for the observation of the SCS is therefore proposed.

  10. Fungal diversity in adult date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chobba, Ines; Elleuch, Amine; Ayadi, Imen; Khannous, Lamia; Namsi, Ahmed; Cerqueira, Frederique; Drira, Noureddine; Gharsallah, Néji; Vallaeys, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic flora plays a vital role in the colonization and survival of host plants, especially in harsh environments, such as arid regions. This flora may, however, contain pathogenic species responsible for various troublesome host diseases. The present study is aimed at investigating the diversity of both cultivable and non-cultivable endophytic fungal floras in the internal tissues (roots and leaves) of Tunisian date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera). Accordingly, 13 isolates from both root and leaf samples, exhibiting distinct colony morphology, were selected from potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and identified by a sequence match search wherein their 18S–28S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were compared to those available in public databases. These findings revealed that the cultivable root and leaf isolates fell into two groups, namely Nectriaceae and Pleosporaceae. Additionally, total DNA from palm roots and leaves was further extracted and ITS fragments were amplified. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ITS from 200 fungal clones (leaves: 100; roots: 100) using HaeIII restriction enzyme revealed 13 distinct patterns that were further sequenced and led to the identification of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Davidiella (Cladosporium teleomorph), Pythium, Curvularia, and uncharacterized fungal endophytes. Both approaches confirmed that while the roots were predominantly colonized by Fusaria (members of the Nectriaceae family), the leaves were essentially colonized by Alternaria (members of the Pleosporaceae family). Overall, the findings of the present study constitute, to the authors’ knowledge, the first extensive report on the diversity of endophytic fungal flora associated with date palm trees (P. dactylifera). PMID:24302709

  11. Novel and Unexpected Microbial Diversity in Acid Mine Drainage in Svalbard (78° N, Revealed by Culture-Independent Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Moyano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard, situated in the high Arctic, is an important past and present coal mining area. Dozens of abandoned waste rock piles can be found in the proximity of Longyearbyen. This environment offers a unique opportunity for studying the biological control over the weathering of sulphide rocks at low temperatures. Although the extension and impact of acid mine drainage (AMD in this area is known, the native microbial communities involved in this process are still scarcely studied and uncharacterized. Several abandoned mining areas were explored in the search for active AMD and a culture-independent approach was applied with samples from two different runoffs for the identification and quantification of the native microbial communities. The results obtained revealed two distinct microbial communities. One of the runoffs was more extreme with regards to pH and higher concentration of soluble iron and heavy metals. These conditions favored the development of algal-dominated microbial mats. Typical AMD microorganisms related to known iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated the bacterial community although some unexpected populations related to Chloroflexi were also significant. No microbial mats were found in the second area. The geochemistry here showed less extreme drainage, most likely in direct contact with the ore under the waste pile. Large deposits of secondary minerals were found and the presence of iron stalks was revealed by microscopy analysis. Although typical AMD microorganisms were also detected here, the microbial community was dominated by other populations, some of them new to this type of system (Saccharibacteria, Gallionellaceae. These were absent or lowered in numbers the farther from the spring source and they could represent native populations involved in the oxidation of sulphide rocks within the waste rock pile. This environment appears thus as a highly interesting

  12. Revealing the control of migratory fueling: An integrated approach combining laboratory and field studies in northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz BAIRLEIN,Volker DIERSCHKE, Julia DELINGAT, Cas EIKENAAR, Ivan MAGGINI, Marc BULTE, Heiko SCHMALJOHANN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Migratory birds rely on fueling prior to migratory flights. Fueling in migrants is controlled by intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors. From captive studies we have started understanding the internal mechanisms controlling bird migration. Field studies have demonstrated the effects of external factors, such as food availability, weather, competitors, parasites or diseases, on the stopover behavior of migrants. However, an integrated approach is still missing to study coherently how the innate migration program interacts with the varying environmental cues and to estimate the contribution of the innate migration program and the environment to realized migration. The northern wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe offers a unique opportunity for integrated studies. It breeds across almost the whole Holarctic with just a “gap” between eastern Canada and Alaska. All breeding populations overwinter in sub-Saharan Africa which makes the northern wheatear one of the most long-distant migratory songbirds with extraordinary long non-stop flights across oceans. It is a nocturnal migrant which travels without parental or social aid/guidance. Thus, young birds rely entirely on endogenous mechanisms of timing, route selection and fueling on their first outbound migration. By establishing indoor housing under controlled conditions the endogenous control mechanisms of northern wheatear migration could be revealed. At the same time, environmental factors controlling fueling could be investigated in the field. On migration wheatears occur in a variety of habitats with sparse vegetation where their stopover behavior could be quantitatively studied in the light of “optimal migration” theory by the use of remote balances, radio-tagging and even experimentally manipulated food availability. The present paper summarizes our approach to understand the control of migration in northern wheatears by combining field and laboratory studies at various spatial and temporal

  13. Translational recoding as a feedback controller: systems approaches reveal polyamine-specific effects on the antizyme ribosomal frameshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Claudia; Amirova, Svetlana R.; Bates, Declan G.; Stansfield, Ian; Wallace, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    The antizyme protein, Oaz1, regulates synthesis of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine by controlling stability of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme mRNA translation depends upon a polyamine-stimulated +1 ribosomal frameshift, forming a complex negative feedback system in which the translational frameshifting event may be viewed in engineering terms as a feedback controller for intracellular polyamine concentrations. In this article, we present the first systems level study of the characteristics of this feedback controller, using an integrated experimental and modeling approach. Quantitative analysis of mutant yeast strains in which polyamine synthesis and interconversion were blocked revealed marked variations in frameshift responses to the different polyamines. Putrescine and spermine, but not spermidine, showed evidence of co-operative stimulation of frameshifting and the existence of multiple ribosome binding sites. Combinatorial polyamine treatments showed polyamines compete for binding to common ribosome sites. Using concepts from enzyme kinetics and control engineering, a mathematical model of the translational controller was developed to describe these complex ribosomal responses to combinatorial polyamine effects. Each one of a range of model predictions was successfully validated against experimental frameshift frequencies measured in S-adenosylmethionine-decarboxylase and antizyme mutants, as well as in the wild-type genetic background. PMID:21303766

  14. A holistic approach to dissecting SPARC family protein complexity reveals FSTL-1 as an inhibitor of pancreatic cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viloria, Katrina; Munasinghe, Amanda; Asher, Sharan; Bogyere, Roberto; Jones, Lucy; Hill, Natasha J

    2016-11-25

    SPARC is a matricellular protein that is involved in both pancreatic cancer and diabetes. It belongs to a wider family of proteins that share structural and functional similarities. Relatively little is known about this extended family, but evidence of regulatory interactions suggests the importance of a holistic approach to their study. We show that Hevin, SPOCKs, and SMOCs are strongly expressed within islets, ducts, and blood vessels, suggesting important roles for these proteins in the normal pancreas, while FSTL-1 expression is localised to the stromal compartment reminiscent of SPARC. In direct contrast to SPARC, however, FSTL-1 expression is reduced in pancreatic cancer. Consistent with this, FSTL-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. The complexity of SPARC family proteins is further revealed by the detection of multiple cell-type specific isoforms that arise due to a combination of post-translational modification and alternative splicing. Identification of splice variants lacking a signal peptide suggests the existence of novel intracellular isoforms. This study underlines the importance of addressing the complexity of the SPARC family and provides a new framework to explain their controversial and contradictory effects. We also demonstrate for the first time that FSTL-1 suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth.

  15. Structure of the EMMPRIN N-terminal domain 1: Dimerization via [beta]-strand swapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Jinquan; Teplyakov, Alexey; Obmolova, Galina; Malia, Thomas; Wu, Sheng-Jiun; Beil, Eric; Baker, Audrey; Swencki-Underwood, Bethany; Zhao, Yonghong; Sprenkle, Justin; Dixon, Ken; Sweet, Raymond; Gilliland, Gary L.; (Centocor)

    2010-09-27

    ECD. Quite unexpectedly, ND1 forms a dimer mediated through the exchange of its last {beta}-strand (strand G). {beta}-strand swapping, which is a subset of 3D domain swapping, has been found to mediate cell-cell adhesion by cadherins. 3D domain swapping has been proposed to be a mechanism of protein oligomerization, aggregation, evolution of oligomeric proteins from single domains and amyloidogenesis. In domain swapped proteins, the same structural elements are involved in the final 3D structure, and so there is little overall energetic difference between the monomer and the swapped oligomers. However, there is often a high energy barrier for the conversion as it often goes through an unfolded state. It is also possible that strand-swapping occurs during folding of nascent polypeptide chains. Frequently, the exchange hinges contain proline-rich motifs which are often in high strain conformations. Domain swapping appears to be a strategy to resolve such local structural strain. The exchange hinge of ND1 contains a Pro-Glu-Pro tripeptide motif. Both of the proline residues adopt extended trans conformations, when compared with cis in the full-length ECD structure. Proline cis-trans isomerization may be the driving force for this exchange. Strand-exchanged dimerization may be a mechanism for the oligomerization of EMMPRIN ECD and its cis-dependent homophilic interactions in cell-cell adhesion.

  16. Swap transactions as a financial tool, their recognition as international accounting standard 39 and display in financial statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kablan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Developments in international financial markets concern both developed countries and developing countries closely. The transactions of institutions arising from of commercial activities display a more complex and more risky state in line with international economic developments. The globalization trend in the world economy, the extreme fluctuations in currencies, interests and product prices have rendered closely following up the developments in financial tools mandatory. Taking advantage of derivative financial tools which increase the revenue of assets by taking future risks into consideration, impact a decrease in debt costs and has the purpose of transferring risks are of vital importance with respect to the successful management of companies. At the present time in which international commerce, free market economy and globalization has gained in importance, one of the derivative products used in risk management and have a wide implementation area is swap transactions. Swap transactions can be expressed as a financial transaction including the exchange of interest, foreign currency or both between two or more parties. Swap transactions in particular are used for purposes such as protection against risks due to interest rates and exchange rates, ensuring low cost financing, changing the debt structure and entering different markets. In this study, the generally defined characteristics of swap transactions, which have an important standing within financial risk management and have been rapidly developing in the world in recent years and their recognition according to the International Accounting Standard 39 concerning the recognition of swap transactions, which has in particular termed the study have been focused on. In the framework of the standard, interest swap and foreign currency swap implementation study were included with respect to the matter.

  17. Multiproxy approach revealing climate and cultural changes during the last 26kyrs in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzua, Ana M.; Jarpa, Leonora; Martel, Alejandra; Vega, Rodrigo; Pino, Mario

    2010-05-01

    Multiproxy approach from Purén Lumaco Valley (38°S) describes the paleonvironmental history during the Last Maximum Glacial (LGM) in south-central Chile. Three sediment cores and severals AMS 14C dates were used to perform a complete pollen, diatoms, chironomids, and sedimentological records demonstrating the existence of a large and non profundal paleolake, between 25 and 20kyr BP. Some of these evidence are laminated silty-clay sediments (lacustrine rhythmites), associated with the presence of siderite mineral (FeCO3), besides biological proxies like Fragilaria construens and Stauroforma inermes (planctonic diatoms), and Dicrotendipes sp. and Tanytarsini tribe (littoral chironomids). The pollen ensemble reveals the first glacial refuge of Araucaria araucana forests in the low lands during the LGM. The lake was drained abruptly into a swamp/bog at 12kyr BP and colonized by Myrtaceae wet forest. This evidence suggest the dry/warm climate period of early Holocene in south-central Chile. Later, the sediments indicate variable lacustrine levels, and increase of charcoal particles, associated to current climatic conditions. The pollen spectrum dominated by Myrtaceae and Nothofagus contrasts with a strongly disturb current landscape. Actually, Purén-Lumaco valley constitutes a complex peat-bog system dominated by exotic grasses and forest species (Tritricum aestivum, Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus spp.). Some archaeological antecedents in the area document the human development at ca. 7yrs BP. The greatest archaeological characteristic present in the valley is the kuel, a Mapuche earth accumulation. The presence and extension of almost 300 kuel in the valley reflect the social/economic development, and partly explains why the region was the major resistance area for Spanish colonizer during XVI-XVII centuries. Also the archaeological findings reveal the presence of maize pollen (Zea mays) within their food consumption. The influence of climate and human impact in

  18. Structure and stability of the non-covalent swapped dimer of bovine seminal ribonuclease: an enzyme tailored to evade ribonuclease protein inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Filomena; Di Fiore, Anna; Merlino, Antonello; Mazzarella, Lelio

    2004-08-27

    A growing number of pancreatic-type ribonucleases (RNases) present cytotoxic activity against malignant cells. The cytoxicity of these enzymes is related to their resistance to the ribonuclease protein inhibitor (RI). In particular, bovine seminal ribonuclease (BS-RNase) is toxic to tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. BS-RNase is a covalent dimer with two intersubunit disulfide bridges between Cys(31) of one chain and Cys(32) of the second and vice versa. The native enzyme is an equilibrium mixture of two isomers, MxM and M=M. In the former the two subunits swap their N-terminal helices. The cytotoxic action is a peculiar property of MxM. In the reducing environment of cytosol, M=M dissociates into monomers, which are strongly inhibited by RI, whereas MxM remains as a non-covalent dimer (NCD), which evades RI. We have solved the crystal structure of NCD, carboxyamidomethylated at residues Cys(31) and Cys(32) (NCD-CAM), in a complex with 2'-deoxycitidylyl(3'-5')-2'-deoxyadenosine. The molecule reveals a quaternary structural organization much closer to MxM than to other N-terminal-swapped non-covalent dimeric forms of RNases. Model building of the complexes between these non-covalent dimers and RI reveals that NCD-CAM is the only dimer equipped with a quaternary organization capable of interfering seriously with the binding of the inhibitor. Moreover, a detailed comparative structural analysis of the dimers has highlighted the residues, which are mostly important in driving the quaternary structure toward that found in NCD-CAM.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of secondary dental root canal infections: a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches reveals new insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Carola Anderson

    Full Text Available Persistence of microorganisms or reinfections are the main reasons for failure of root canal therapy. Very few studies to date have included culture-independent methods to assess the microbiota, including non-cultivable microorganisms. The aim of this study was to combine culture methods with culture-independent cloning methods to analyze the microbial flora of root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Twenty-one samples from previously root-filled teeth were collected from patients with periradicular lesions. Microorganisms were cultivated, isolated and biochemically identified. In addition, ribosomal DNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea derived from the same samples was amplified and the PCR products were used to construct clone libraries. DNA of selected clones was sequenced and microbial species were identified, comparing the sequences with public databases. Microorganisms were found in 12 samples with culture-dependent and -independent methods combined. The number of bacterial species ranged from 1 to 12 in one sample. The majority of the 26 taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (14 taxa, followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. One sample was positive for fungi, and archaea could not be detected. The results obtained with both methods differed. The cloning technique detected several as-yet-uncultivated taxa. Using a combination of both methods 13 taxa were detected that had not been found in root-filled teeth so far. Enterococcus faecalis was only detected in two samples using culture methods. Combining the culture-dependent and -independent approaches revealed new candidate endodontic pathogens and a high diversity of the microbial flora in root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Both methods yielded differing results, emphasizing the benefit of combined methods for the detection of the actual microbial diversity in apical periodontitis.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of secondary dental root canal infections: a combination of culture and culture-independent approaches reveals new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annette Carola; Hellwig, Elmar; Vespermann, Robin; Wittmer, Annette; Schmid, Michael; Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Persistence of microorganisms or reinfections are the main reasons for failure of root canal therapy. Very few studies to date have included culture-independent methods to assess the microbiota, including non-cultivable microorganisms. The aim of this study was to combine culture methods with culture-independent cloning methods to analyze the microbial flora of root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Twenty-one samples from previously root-filled teeth were collected from patients with periradicular lesions. Microorganisms were cultivated, isolated and biochemically identified. In addition, ribosomal DNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea derived from the same samples was amplified and the PCR products were used to construct clone libraries. DNA of selected clones was sequenced and microbial species were identified, comparing the sequences with public databases. Microorganisms were found in 12 samples with culture-dependent and -independent methods combined. The number of bacterial species ranged from 1 to 12 in one sample. The majority of the 26 taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (14 taxa), followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. One sample was positive for fungi, and archaea could not be detected. The results obtained with both methods differed. The cloning technique detected several as-yet-uncultivated taxa. Using a combination of both methods 13 taxa were detected that had not been found in root-filled teeth so far. Enterococcus faecalis was only detected in two samples using culture methods. Combining the culture-dependent and -independent approaches revealed new candidate endodontic pathogens and a high diversity of the microbial flora in root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Both methods yielded differing results, emphasizing the benefit of combined methods for the detection of the actual microbial diversity in apical periodontitis.

  1. Systems Approach Reveals Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2/Protein Kinase R Crosstalk in Human Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarini, Áislan de Carvalho; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos; Boaventura, Viviane Sampaio; França-Costa, Jaqueline; Khouri, Ricardo; Dierckx, Tim; Dias-Teixeira, Karina Luiza; Fasel, Nicolas; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Borges, Valéria Matos; Van Weyenbergh, Johan; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania parasites infect macrophages, causing a wide spectrum of human diseases, from cutaneous to visceral forms. In search of novel therapeutic targets, we performed comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo mapping of the signaling pathways upstream and downstream of antioxidant transcription factor [nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)] in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), by combining functional assays in human and murine macrophages with a systems biology analysis of in situ (skin biopsies) CL patient samples. First, we show the PKR pathway controls the expression and activation of Nrf2 in Leishmania amazonensis infection in vitro. Nrf2 activation also required PI3K/Akt signaling and autophagy mechanisms. Nrf2- or PKR/Akt-deficient macrophages exhibited increased levels of ROS/RNS and reduced expression of Sod1 Nrf2-dependent gene and reduced parasite load. L. amazonensis counteracted the Nrf2 inhibitor Keap1 through the upregulation of p62 via PKR. This Nrf2/Keap1 observation was confirmed in situ in skin biopsies from Leishmania-infected patients. Next, we explored the ex vivo transcriptome in CL patients, as compared to healthy controls. We found the antioxidant response element/Nrf2 signaling pathway was significantly upregulated in CL, including downstream target p62. In silico enrichment analysis confirmed upstream signaling by interferon and PI3K/Akt, and validated our in vitro findings. Our integrated in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico approach establish Nrf2 as a central player in human cutaneous leishmaniasis and reveal Nrf2/PKR crosstalk and PI3K/Akt pathways as potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP Beads for Control of Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soltani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS and (SWAP for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions.Methods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments.Results: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%Conclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

  3. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-03-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and replacement costs for batteries with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options. Our evaluation process followed four steps: (1) identifying drive patterns best suited to battery swapping service plans, (2) modeling service usage statistics for the selected drive patterns, (3) calculating the cost-of-service plan options, and (4) evaluating the economics of individual drivers under realistically priced service plans. A service plan option can be more cost-effective than direct ownership for drivers who wish to operate a BEV as their primary vehicle where alternative options for travel beyond the single-charge range are expensive, and a full-coverage-yet-cost-effective regional infrastructure network can be deployed. However, when assumed cost of gasoline, tax structure, and absence of purchase incentives are factored in, our calculations show the service plan BEV is rarely more cost-effective than direct ownership of a conventional vehicle.

  4. Techno-Economic Analysis of BEV Service Providers Offering Battery Swapping Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. S.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-01-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but high upfront costs, battery-limited vehicle range, and concern over high battery replacement costs may discourage potential buyers. A subscription model in which a service provider owns the battery and supplies access to battery swapping infrastructure could reduce upfront and replacement costs for batteries with a predictable monthly fee, while expanding BEV range. Assessing the costs and benefits of such a proposal are complicated by many factors, including customer drive patterns, the amount of required infrastructure, battery life, etc. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has applied its Battery Ownership Model to compare the economics and utility of BEV battery swapping service plan options to more traditional direct ownership options. Our evaluation process followed four steps: (1) identifying drive patterns best suited to battery swapping service plans, (2) modeling service usage statistics for the selected drive patterns, (3) calculating the cost-of-service plan options, and (4) evaluating the economics of individual drivers under realistically priced service plans. A service plan option can be more cost-effective than direct ownership for drivers who wish to operate a BEV as their primary vehicle where alternative options for travel beyond the single-charge range are expensive, and a full-coverage-yet-cost-effective regional infrastructure network can be deployed. However, when assumed cost of gasoline, tax structure, and absence of purchase incentives are factored in, our calculations show the service plan BEV is rarely more cost-effective than direct ownership of a conventional vehicle.

  5. Information-representation methods and tools or the Smart Swap Building strategic project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Medici

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  Within the Smart Swap Building project for the housing renewal, the representative tool is an integrated part of the building design process and becomes an element to support complex decision-making processes, integrating different skills in different stages of the building life cycle. The use of Building Information Modeling (BIM tools not only allow a transparent design phase but covers the whole building process, relating technological and structural elements with construction scheduling (4D, cost estimation (5D, certification (6D and management of the life cycle (7D + CAFM, allowing more sustainable and aware choices.

  6. Private States, Quantum Data Hiding, and the Swapping of Perfect Secrecy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christandl, Matthias; Ferrara, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    on an intuition that the quantum mechanical phenomena of data hiding and privacy might be related. In this Letter we firmly connect these two phenomena and highlight three aspects of this result. First, we simplify the definition of the secret key rate. Second, we give a formula for the one-way distillable......An important contribution to the understanding of quantum key distribution has been the discovery of entangled states from which secret bits, but no maximally entangled states, can be extracted [Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 200501 (2005)]. The construction of those states was based...... quantum repeater protocol based on entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping....

  7. Los credit default swaps: estructura jurídica y operatividad financiera

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Borja, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo aunque de naturaleza técnica, pretende dos cosas fundamentales: familiarizar al lector con los denominados “instrumentos derivados” que tienen volúmenes gigantescos de negociación en su mercado propio (el OTC) ascendiendo “ … a finales de junio de 2009 a 605 billones de dólares (10 veces el PIB mundial)”1; y, revisar con más profundidad uno de aquellos, una innovación financiera derivada de los contratos de permuta financiera que toma el nombre de Credit Default Swap...

  8. Entanglement swapping via three-step quantum walk-like protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Man; Yang, Ming; Paunković, Nikola; Li, Da-Chuang; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2017-12-01

    We present an entanglement swapping process for unknown nonmaximally entangled photonic states, where the standard Bell-state measurement is replaced by a three-step quantum walk-like state discrimination process, i.e., the practically nontrivial coupling element of two photons is replaced by manipulating their trajectories, which will greatly enrich the dynamics of the coupling between photons in realizing quantum computation, and reduce the integration complexity of optical quantum processing. In addition, the output state can be maximally entangled, which allows for entanglement concentration as well.

  9. Crystal structure of the Ig1 domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 displays domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kim K; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Sigurskjold, Bent W; Kastrup, Jette S; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Walmod, Peter S; Gajhede, Michael

    2008-10-24

    The crystal structure of the first immunoglobulin (Ig1) domain of neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM) is presented at a resolution of 2.7 A. NCAM2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs). In the structure, two Ig domains interact by domain swapping, as the two N-terminal beta-strands are interchanged. beta-Strand swapping at the terminal domain is the accepted mechanism of homophilic interactions amongst the cadherins, another class of CAMs, but it has not been observed within the IgCAM superfamily. Gel-filtration chromatography demonstrated the ability of NCAM2 Ig1 to form dimers in solution. Taken together, these observations suggest that beta-strand swapping could have a role in the molecular mechanism of homophilic binding for NCAM2.

  10. 78 FR 30967 - Cross-Border Security-Based Swap Activities; Re-Proposal of Regulation SBSR and Certain Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ..., participants, and infrastructures for security-based swaps, and certain transaction-related requirements under... setting forth our view of the scope of our authority, with respect to enforcement proceedings, under... Requirement to Cross-Border Security-Based Swap Transactions); Rule 3Ch-1 (Application of the Mandatory Trade...

  11. Pattern analysis approach reveals restriction enzyme cutting abnormalities and other cDNA library construction artifacts using raw EST data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Sun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences are widely used in applications such as genome annotation, gene discovery and gene expression studies. However, some of GenBank dbEST sequences have proven to be “unclean”. Identification of cDNA termini/ends and their structures in raw ESTs not only facilitates data quality control and accurate delineation of transcription ends, but also furthers our understanding of the potential sources of data abnormalities/errors present in the wet-lab procedures for cDNA library construction. Results After analyzing a total of 309,976 raw Pinus taeda ESTs, we uncovered many distinct variations of cDNA termini, some of which prove to be good indicators of wet-lab artifacts, and characterized each raw EST by its cDNA terminus structure patterns. In contrast to the expected patterns, many ESTs displayed complex and/or abnormal patterns that represent potential wet-lab errors such as: a failure of one or both of the restriction enzymes to cut the plasmid vector; a failure of the restriction enzymes to cut the vector at the correct positions; the insertion of two cDNA inserts into a single vector; the insertion of multiple and/or concatenated adapters/linkers; the presence of 3′-end terminal structures in designated 5′-end sequences or vice versa; and so on. With a close examination of these artifacts, many problematic ESTs that have been deposited into public databases by conventional bioinformatics pipelines or tools could be cleaned or filtered by our methodology. We developed a software tool for Abnormality Filtering and Sequence Trimming for ESTs (AFST, http://code.google.com/p/afst/ using a pattern analysis approach. To compare AFST with other pipelines that submitted ESTs into dbEST, we reprocessed 230,783 Pinus taeda and 38,709 Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs. We found 7.4% of Pinus taeda and 29.2% of Arachis hypogaea GenBank ESTs are “unclean” or abnormal, all of which could be cleaned

  12. Hierarchical structure and modules in the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulatory network revealed by a new top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buer Jan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular functions are coordinately carried out by groups of genes forming functional modules. Identifying such modules in the transcriptional regulatory network (TRN of organisms is important for understanding the structure and function of these fundamental cellular networks and essential for the emerging modular biology. So far, the global connectivity structure of TRN has not been well studied and consequently not applied for the identification of functional modules. Moreover, network motifs such as feed forward loop are recently proposed to be basic building blocks of TRN. However, their relationship to functional modules is not clear. Results In this work we proposed a top-down approach to identify modules in the TRN of E. coli. By studying the global connectivity structure of the regulatory network, we first revealed a five-layer hierarchical structure in which all the regulatory relationships are downward. Based on this regulatory hierarchy, we developed a new method to decompose the regulatory network into functional modules and to identify global regulators governing multiple modules. As a result, 10 global regulators and 39 modules were identified and shown to have well defined functions. We then investigated the distribution and composition of the two basic network motifs (feed forward loop and bi-fan motif in the hierarchical structure of TRN. We found that most of these network motifs include global regulators, indicating that these motifs are not basic building blocks of modules since modules should not contain global regulators. Conclusion The transcriptional regulatory network of E. coli possesses a multi-layer hierarchical modular structure without feedback regulation at transcription level. This hierarchical structure builds the basis for a new and simple decomposition method which is suitable for the identification of functional modules and global regulators in the transcriptional regulatory network of E

  13. Los "swaps" de tipos de interés: características, funcionamiento del mercado y perspectivas de futuro

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Romero, Pilar

    2000-01-01

    Los swaps de tipos de interés son un producto financiero derivado relativamente novedoso que ha experimentado una rápida evolución en los últimos años. En este trabajo se describen las principales características de los swaps de tipos de interés y la utilidad de los mismos en la gestión de las carteras de los agentes de los mercados financieros. También se presta atención al funcionamiento del mercado no organizado en que cotizan y a la formación de los precios. Finalmente, se presentan evide...

  14. A Comparative Study between Migration and Pair-Swap on Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imabeppu, Takahiro; Ono, Satoshi; Morishige, Ryota; Kurose, Motoyoshi; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Quantum-inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QEA) has been proposed as one of stochastic algorithms of evolutionary computation instead of a quantum algorithm. The authors have proposed Quantum-inspired Evolutionary Algorithm based on Pair Swap (QEAPS), which uses pair swap operator and does not group individuals in order to simplify QEA and reduce parameters in QEA. QEA and QEAPS imitationally use quantum bits as genes and superposition states in quantum computation. QEAPS has shown better search performance than QEA on knapsack problem, while eliminating parameters about immigration intervals and number of groups. However, QEAPS still has a parameter in common with QEA, a rotation angle unit, which is uncommon among other evolutionary computation algorithms. The rotation angle unit deeply affects exploitation and exploration control in QEA, but it has been unclear how the parameter influences QEAPS to behave. This paper aims to show that QEAPS involves few parameters and even those parameters can be adjusted easily. Experimental results, in knapsack problem and number partitioning problem which have different characteristics, have shown that QEAPS is competitive with other metaheuristics in search performance, and that QEAPS is robust against the parameter configuration and problem characteristics.

  15. Hydrate thermal dissociation behavior and dissociation enthalpies in methane-carbon dioxide swapping process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Liang; von Solms, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The swapping of methane with carbon dioxide in hydrate has been proposed as a potential strategy for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide and production of methane from natural hydrate deposits. However, this strategy requires a better understanding of the thermodynamic characteristics of CH4...... and CO2 hydrate as well as (CH4 + CO2) or (CH4 + CO2 + N2) mixed hydrates (since (CO2 + N2) gas mixture is often used as the swapping gas), along with the thermal physics property changes during gas exchange. In this study, a high pressure micro-differential scanning calorimetry (HP μ-DSC) was performed...... on synthesized gas hydrates to investigate the dissociation behavior of various hydrates. The hydrate dissociation enthalpies were determined by both μ-DSC measurement and Clapeyron equation. For the single guest molecule hydrate system, the average dissociation enthalpies of CH4 hydrate and CO2 hydrate measured...

  16. Application of Genetic Algorithms to Sorting, Swapping and Shimming of the SOLEIL Undulator Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, O.; Rudenko, O.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Marcouille, O.; Filhol, J. M.; Couprie, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Undulators are typically composed of a large number of individual magnets, from tens to many hundreds, depending on undulator type and technology. Characteristics of real magnets often deviate from ideal values, resulting in degradation of the undulator performance. It is known that the imperfections of individual magnets can be mutually compensated, to certain extent, by appropriate sorting of the magnets and/or magnet modules, based on measurements of their individual characteristics, performed before the insertion device (ID) assembly. After the assembly, the quality of the ID magnetic field can be improved by magnet swapping and by shimming, consisting either in small displacements of some of the magnets or in adding small pieces of permanent magnet or soft iron material to appropriate locations of the structure. Mathematically, the magnet sorting, swapping and shimming can be considered as multi-objective constrained optimization problems with large numbers of variables. We show that each of these problems can be efficiently solved by means of Genetic Algorithms with 3D magnetostatics methods and magnetic measurements data used for the fitness calculation. First practical results obtained with three different undulators of the SOLEIL Synchrotron are presented.

  17. Flexible-rate optical packet generation/detection and label swapping for optical label switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongying; Li, Juhao; Tian, Yu; Ge, Dawei; Zhu, Paikun; Chen, Yuanxiang; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical label switching (OLS) gains lots of attentions due to its intrinsic advantages to implement protocol, bit-rate, granularity and data format transparency packet switching. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to realize flexible-rate optical packet switching for OLS networks. At the transmitter node, flexible-rate packet is generated by parallel modulating different combinations of optical carriers generated from the optical multi-carrier generator (OMCG), among which the low-speed optical label occupies one carrier. At the switching node, label is extracted and re-generated in label processing unit (LPU). The payloads are switched based on routing information and new label is added after switching. At the receiver node, another OMCG serves as local oscillators (LOs) for optical payloads coherent detection. The proposed scheme offers good flexibility for dynamic optical packet switching by adjusting the payload bandwidth and could also effectively reduce the number of lasers, modulators and receivers for packet generation/detection. We present proof-of-concept demonstrations of flexible-rate packet generation/detection and label swapping in 12.5 GHz grid. The influence of crosstalk for cascaded label swapping is also investigated.

  18. SoFAST: Automated Flare Detection with the PROBA2/SWAP EUV Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, K.; Berghmans, D.; De Groof, A.; Steed, K.; Poedts, S.

    2013-08-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV imager onboard PROBA2 provides a non-stop stream of coronal extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images at a cadence of typically 130 seconds. These images show the solar drivers of space-weather, such as flares and erupting filaments. We have developed a software tool that automatically processes the images and localises and identifies flares. On one hand, the output of this software tool is intended as a service to the Space Weather Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program. On the other hand, we consider the PROBA2/SWAP images as a model for the data from the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) instrument prepared for the future Solar Orbiter mission, where onboard intelligence is required for prioritising data within the challenging telemetry quota. In this article we present the concept of the software, the first statistics on its effectiveness and the online display in real time of its results. Our results indicate that it is not only possible to detect EUV flares automatically in an acquired dataset, but that quantifying a range of EUV dynamics is also possible. The method is based on thresholding of macropixelled image sequences. The robustness and simplicity of the algorithm is a clear advantage for future onboard use.

  19. Quantum dual signature scheme based on coherent states with entanglement swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Li; Shi, Rong-Hua; Shi, Jin-Jing; Lv, Ge-Li; Guo, Ying

    2016-08-01

    A novel quantum dual signature scheme, which combines two signed messages expected to be sent to two diverse receivers Bob and Charlie, is designed by applying entanglement swapping with coherent states. The signatory Alice signs two different messages with unitary operations (corresponding to the secret keys) and applies entanglement swapping to generate a quantum dual signature. The dual signature is firstly sent to the verifier Bob who extracts and verifies the signature of one message and transmits the rest of the dual signature to the verifier Charlie who verifies the signature of the other message. The transmission of the dual signature is realized with quantum teleportation of coherent states. The analysis shows that the security of secret keys and the security criteria of the signature protocol can be greatly guaranteed. An extensional multi-party quantum dual signature scheme which considers the case with more than three participants is also proposed in this paper and this scheme can remain secure. The proposed schemes are completely suited for the quantum communication network including multiple participants and can be applied to the e-commerce system which requires a secure payment among the customer, business and bank. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519) and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012).

  20. Prodomain-growth factor swapping in the structure of pro-TGF-β1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Xu, Shutong; Dong, Xianchi; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A

    2018-02-02

    TGF-β is synthesized as a proprotein that dimerizes in the endoplasmic reticulum. After processing in the Golgi to cleave the N-terminal prodomain from the C-terminal growth factor (GF) domain in each monomer, pro-TGF-β is secreted and stored in latent complexes. It is unclear which prodomain and GF monomer are linked before proprotein convertase cleavage and how much conformational change occurs following cleavage. We have determined a structure of pro-TGF-β1 with the proprotein convertase cleavage site mutated to mimic the structure of the TGF-β1 proprotein. Structure, mutation, and model building demonstrate that the prodomain arm domain in one monomer is linked to the GF that interacts with the arm domain in the other monomer in the dimeric structure (i.e. the prodomain arm domain and GF domain in each monomer are swapped). Swapping has important implications for the mechanism of biosynthesis in the TGF-β family and is relevant to the mechanism for preferential formation of heterodimers over homodimers for some members of the TGF-β family. Our structure, together with two previous ones, also provides insights into which regions of the prodomain-GF complex are highly structurally conserved and which are perturbed by crystal lattice contacts. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Estimation of ground water recharge using SWAP model for an alpine area in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rasha; Klik, Andreas; Kammerer, Gerhard; Fuchs, Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for drinking water in Austria and therefore quantity and quality need to be protected. Objective of this study was to assess ground water recharge rates for a forested site located in in the North Tyrolean limestone Alps in Achenkirch, Austria. In 1997 the Hydrographic Survey in Austria started a soil water monitoring station equipped with FDR-sensors to measure soil water content and with tensiometers for matric potential measurement in four depths (5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm and 50 cm). Data was collected in 4 hour intervals. Additionally runoff plots were installed to collect surface runoff during the study period. SWAP model was used to predict ground water recharge using climatic data (1997-2007) and measured data. The necessary soil input parameters were derived from field measured data using pedotransfer functions and additional investigations of soil hydraulic parameters in the field. The total ground water recharge during the study period ranged from 527 mm in year 2003 to 1126 mm in year 1999 with an annually average of 765 mm. SWAP model showed a good fit between the measured and the simulated soil water contents as well as interception data. Less fit was obtained for soil water tension results during some years. This study will continue to improve parameters to simulate soil tension and also to estimate the ground water recharge using other models.

  2. Performance of a SOA-MZI wavelength converter for label swapping using combined FSK/IM modulation format

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Verdurmen, E. J. M.; Sulur, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental assessment of the performance of a wavelength converter based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) in a MZI configuration for optical label swapping. The optical labeling of the signal is based on an FSK/IM combined modulation format...

  3. 77 FR 70213 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... November 23, 2012 Part II Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 240 Capital, Margin, and... Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security-Based...''), pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Exchange Act''), is proposing capital and margin...

  4. Assessment of English-French differential item functioning of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) in systemic sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jewett, L.R.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2017-01-01

    The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) has been used to assess body image distress among people with the rare and disfiguring disease systemic sclerosis (SSc); however, it has not been validated across different languages groups. The objective was to examine differential item functioning of

  5. Experimental demonstration of cascaded transmission and all-optical label swapping of orthogonal IM/FSK labelled signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Jianfeng; Holm-Nielsen, Pablo Villanueva

    2003-01-01

    A network node is demonstrated with two-hop transmission and all-optical label swapping. It is based on a Mach-Zehnder semiconductor optical amplifier interferometer and electroabsorption modulator of a two-level optically labelled signal using an orthogonal IM/FSK modulation format with an overall...

  6. A Dereplication and Bioguided Discovery Approach to Reveal New Compounds from a Marine-Derived Fungus Stilbella fimetaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildgaard, Sara; Subko, Karolina; Phillips, Emma

    2017-01-01

    towards various cancer cell lines. Further media optimization led to increased production followed by the purification and bioactivity screening of several new and known pimarane-type diterpenoids. A known broad-spectrum antifungal compound, ilicicolin H, was purified along with two new analogues......A marine-derived Stilbella fimetaria fungal strain was screened for new bioactive compounds based on two different approaches: (i) bio-guided approach using cytotoxicity and antimicrobial bioassays; and (ii) dereplication based approach using liquid chromatography with both diode array detection...... and high resolution mass spectrometry. This led to the discovery of several bioactive compound families with different biosynthetic origins, including pimarane-type diterpenoids and hybrid polyketide-non ribosomal peptide derived compounds. Prefractionation before bioassay screening proved to be a great...

  7. Optimal mask characterization by Surrogate Wafer Print (SWaP) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.; Hoellein, Ingo; Peters, Jan Hendrick; Ackmann, Paul; Connolly, Brid; West, Craig

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, definition of mask specifications is done completely by the mask user, while characterization of the mask relative to the specifications is done completely by the mask maker. As the challenges of low-k1 imaging continue to grow in scope of designs and in absolute complexity, the inevitable partnership between wafer lithographers and mask makers has strengthened as well. This is reflected in the jointly owned mask facilities and device manufacturers' continued maintenance of fully captive mask shops which foster the closer mask-litho relationships. However, while some device manufacturers have leveraged this to optimize mask specifications before the mask is built and, therefore, improve mask yield and cost, the opportunity for post-fabrication partnering on mask characterization is more apparent and compelling. The Advanced Mask Technology Center (AMTC) has been investigating the concept of assessing how a mask images, rather than the mask's physical attributes, as a technically superior and lower-cost method to characterize a mask. The idea of printing a mask under its intended imaging conditions, then characterizing the imaged wafer as a surrogate for traditional mask inspections and measurements represents the ultimate method to characterize a mask's performance, which is most meaningful to the user. Surrogate wafer print (SWaP) is already done as part of leading-edge wafer fab mask qualification to validate defect and dimensional performance. In the past, the prospect of executing this concept has generally been summarily discarded as technically untenable and logistically intractable. The AMTC published a paper at BACUS 2007 successfully demonstrating the performance of SWaP for the characterization of defects as an alternative to traditional mask inspection [1]. It showed that this concept is not only feasible, but, in some cases, desirable. This paper expands on last year's work at AMTC to assess the full implementation of SWaP as an

  8. Strong Plasmon-Phonon Splitting and Hybridization in 2D Materials Revealed through a Self-Energy Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Saavedra, J. R. M.; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2017-01-01

    splitting due to this coupling, resulting in a characteristic avoided crossing scheme. We base our results on a computationally efficient approach consisting in including many-body interactions through the electron self-energy. We specify this formalism for a description of plasmons based upon a tight...... to phonons, excitons, and other excitations in hybrid thin nanostructures....

  9. The influence of excitation number of photon-added coherent state field on the entanglement swapping process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Pakniat, R.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we outline a scheme for the entanglement swapping procedure based on cavity quantum electrodynamics using the Jaynes-Cummings model consisting of the coherent and photon-added coherent states. In particular, utilizing the photon-added coherent states (|α,m〉≃â†m|α〉, where |α〉 is the Glauber coherent state) in the scheme, enables us to investigate the effect of m, i.e., the number of excitations corresponding to the photon-added coherent field on the entanglement swapping process. In the scheme, two two-level atoms A1 and A2 are initially entangled together, and distinctly two exploited cavity fields F1 and F2 are prepared in an entangled state (a combination of coherent and photon-added coherent states). Interacting the atom A2 with field F1 (via the Jaynes-Cummings model) and then making detection on them, transfers the entanglement from the two atoms A1, A2 and the two fields F1, F2 to the atom-field “A1-F2”, i.e., entanglement swapping occurs. In the continuation, we pay our attention to the evaluation of the fidelity of the swapped entangled state relative to a suitable maximally entangled state, success probability of the performed detections and linear entropy as the degree of entanglement of the swapped entangled state. It is demonstrated that, an increase in the number of excitations, m, leads to the increment of fidelity as well as the amount of entanglement. According to our numerical results, the maximum values of fidelity (linear entropy) 0.98 (0.46) is obtained for m = 9, however, the maximum value of success probability does not significantly change by increasing m.

  10. A linearised pixel-swapping method for mapping rural linear land cover features from fine spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, M. W.; Atkinson, P. M.; Holland, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    Accurate maps of rural linear land cover features, such as paths and hedgerows, would be useful to ecologists, conservation managers and land planning agencies. Such information might be used in a variety of applications (e.g., ecological, conservation and land management applications). Based on the phenomenon of spatial dependence, sub-pixel mapping techniques can be used to increase the spatial resolution of land cover maps produced from satellite sensor imagery and map such features with increased accuracy. Aerial photography with a spatial resolution of 0.25 m was acquired of the Christchurch area of Dorset, UK. The imagery was hard classified using a simple Mahalanobis distance classifier and the classification degraded to simulate land cover proportion images with spatial resolutions of 2.5 and 5 m. A simple pixel-swapping algorithm was then applied to each of the proportion images. Sub-pixels within pixels were swapped iteratively until the spatial correlation between neighbouring sub-pixels for the entire image was maximised. Visual inspection of the super-resolved output showed that prediction of the position and dimensions of hedgerows was comparable with the original imagery. The maps displayed an accuracy of 87%. To enhance the prediction of linear features within the super-resolved output, an anisotropic modelling component was added. The direction of the largest sums of proportions was calculated within a moving window at the pixel level. The orthogonal sum of proportions was used in estimating the anisotropy ratio. The direction and anisotropy ratio were then used to modify the pixel-swapping algorithm so as to increase the likelihood of creating linear features in the output map. The new linear pixel-swapping method led to an increase in the accuracy of mapping fine linear features of approximately 5% compared with the conventional pixel-swapping method.

  11. Pricing credit default swaps under a multi-scale stochastic volatility model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; He, Xinjiang

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we consider the pricing of credit default swaps (CDSs) with the reference asset driven by a geometric Brownian motion with a multi-scale stochastic volatility (SV), which is a two-factor volatility process with one factor controlling the fast time scale and the other representing the slow time scale. A key feature of the current methodology is to establish an equivalence relationship between the CDS and the down-and-out binary option through the discussion of "no default" probability, while balancing the two SV processes with the perturbation method. An approximate but closed-form pricing formula for the CDS contract is finally obtained, whose accuracy is in the order of O(ɛ + δ +√{ ɛδ }) .

  12. Engineering Fungal Nonreducing Polyketide Synthase by Heterologous Expression and Domain Swapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsu-Hua; Chang, Shu-Lin; Chiang, Yi-Ming; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Wu, Tung-Kung; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2013-02-15

    Heterologous expression of the A. niger NR-PKS gene, e_gw1_19.204 and the adjacent stand-alone R domain gene, est_GWPlus_C_190476 in A. nidulans demonstrated that they belong to a single gene named dtbA. The DtbA protein produces two polyketides, 2,4-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde 1 and 2-ethyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde 2. Generation of DtbA+R-TE chimeric PKSs by swapping the DtbA R domain with the AusA (austinol biosynthesis) or ANID_06448 TE domain enabled the production of two metabolites with carboxylic acids replacing the corresponding aldehydes.

  13. Does Central Bank Quality Determine Sovereign Ratings and Credit Default Swap Spreads: Evidence from the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlall Indranarain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study innovates from prior research which focuses on the determinants of sovereign ratings and credit default swap spreads for a large sample of countries by incorporating the quality of central banks, let alone refined proxies. Findings show that the explanatory power of both sovereign ratings and CDS spreads model improve by a hefty 11 percent in case of sovereign ratings and 6 to 9 percent in the case of CDS spreads when central bank quality is incorporated. Such a finding bolters the notion that institutional quality does play a preponderant role when it comes to assessing country risk, making it a systematic component of institutional quality. The effect of labour participation implies that countries buffeted by stronger effects of an ageing population have greater propensity of increases in CDS spreads. Evidence is also found as to the driving dynamics of CDS spreads and sovereign ratings to be distinct. Our results hold robust post tackling for endogeneity problem.

  14. Implementation of a quantum controlled-SWAP gate with photonic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takafumi; Okamoto, Ryo; Tanida, Masato; Hofmann, Holger F; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2017-03-31

    Quantum information science addresses how the processing and transmission of information are affected by uniquely quantum mechanical phenomena. Combination of two-qubit gates has been used to realize quantum circuits, however, scalability is becoming a critical problem. The use of three-qubit gates may simplify the structure of quantum circuits dramatically. Among them, the controlled-SWAP (Fredkin) gates are essential since they can be directly applied to important protocols, e.g., error correction, fingerprinting, and optimal cloning. Here we report a realization of the Fredkin gate for photonic qubits. We achieve a fidelity of 0.85 in the computational basis and an output state fidelity of 0.81 for a 3-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. The estimated process fidelity of 0.77 indicates that our Fredkin gate can be applied to various quantum tasks.

  15. A Quantum Multi-Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, LiLi; Chang, Yan; Zhang, ShiBin; Han, GuiHua; Sheng, ZhiWei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a multi-proxy weak blind signature scheme based on quantum entanglement swapping of Bell states. In the scheme, proxy signers can finish the signature instead of original singer with his/her authority. It can be applied to the electronic voting system, electronic paying system, etc. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement delegation, signature and verification. It could guarantee not only the unconditionally security but also the anonymity of the message owner. The security analysis shows the scheme satisfies the security features of multi-proxy weak signature, singers cannot disavowal his/her signature while the signature cannot be forged by others, and the message owner can be traced.

  16. SWAP Observations of Post Flare Giant Arches and Evidence of Run-Away Reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M. J.; Seaton, D. B.; Savage, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    It was recently established that post-flare giant arches and regular post-flare loops are generated in the same way, with post-flare giant arches undergoing sustained magnetic reconnection allowing them to grow to heights of approximately 400000 km (>0.5 solar-radii). In this presentation we discuss how reconnection can be sustained to such great heights, and the role the background corona plays in maintaining this growth. We use observations from 14 October 2014, when the SWAP EUV solar telescope on-board the PROBA2 spacecraft observed an eruption that led to the formation of perhaps the largest post-flare loop system seen in the solar corona in solar cycle 24. We combine these observations with those of RHESSI and LASCO, as well as using a forward model to assess the reconnection and loop deposition rate in the post-eruptive loop system.

  17. A Dereplication and Bioguided Discovery Approach to Reveal New Compounds from a Marine-Derived Fungus Stilbella fimetaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildgaard, Sara; Subko, Karolina; Phillips, Emma; Goidts, Violaine; de la Cruz, Mercedes; Díaz, Caridad; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens C; Nielsen, Kristian F; Larsen, Thomas O

    2017-08-13

    A marine-derived Stilbella fimetaria fungal strain was screened for new bioactive compounds based on two different approaches: (i) bio-guided approach using cytotoxicity and antimicrobial bioassays; and (ii) dereplication based approach using liquid chromatography with both diode array detection and high resolution mass spectrometry. This led to the discovery of several bioactive compound families with different biosynthetic origins, including pimarane-type diterpenoids and hybrid polyketide-non ribosomal peptide derived compounds. Prefractionation before bioassay screening proved to be a great aid in the dereplication process, since separate fractions displaying different bioactivities allowed a quick tentative identification of known antimicrobial compounds and of potential new analogues. A new pimarane-type diterpene, myrocin F, was discovered in trace amounts and displayed cytotoxicity towards various cancer cell lines. Further media optimization led to increased production followed by the purification and bioactivity screening of several new and known pimarane-type diterpenoids. A known broad-spectrum antifungal compound, ilicicolin H, was purified along with two new analogues, hydroxyl-ilicicolin H and ilicicolin I, and their antifungal activity was evaluated.

  18. Domain-swapping of mesophilic xylanase with hyper-thermophilic glucanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liangwei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domain fusion is limited at enzyme one terminus. The issue was explored by swapping a mesophilic Aspergillus niger GH11 xylanase (Xyn with a hyper-thermophilic Thermotoga maritima glucanase (Glu to construct two chimeras, Xyn-Glu and Glu-Xyn, with an intention to create thermostable xylanase containing glucanase activity. Results When expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3, the two chimeras exhibited bi-functional activities of xylanase and glucanase. The Xyn-Glu Xyn moiety had optimal reaction temperature (Topt at 50 °C and thermal in-activation half-life (t1/2 at 50 °C for 47.6 min, compared to 47 °C and 17.6 min for the Xyn. The Glu-Xyn Xyn moiety had equivalent Topt to and shorter t1/2 (5.2 min than the Xyn. Both chimera Glu moieties were more thermostable than the Glu, and the three enzyme Topt values were higher than 96 °C. The Glu-Xyn Glu moiety optimal pH was 5.8, compared to 3.8 for the Xyn-Glu Glu moiety and the Glu. Both chimera two moieties cooperated with each other in degrading substrates. Conclusions Domain-swapping created different effects on each moiety properties. Fusing the Glu domain at C-terminus increased the xylanase thermostability, but fusing the Glu domain at N-terminus decreased the xylanase thermostability. Fusing the Xyn domain at either terminus increased the glucanase thermostability, and fusing the Xyn domain at C-terminus shifted the glucanase pH property 2 units higher towards alkaline environments. Fusing a domain at C-terminus contributes more to enzyme catalytic activity; whereas, fusing a bigger domain at N-terminus disturbs enzyme substrate binding affinity.

  19. Novel and unexpected bacterial diversity in an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by culture-dependent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Lett, Marie-Claire; Lièvremont, Didier

    2012-09-10

    Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs) are extreme environments characterized by very acid conditions and heavy metal contaminations. In these ecosystems, the bacterial diversity is considered to be low. Previous culture-independent approaches performed in the AMD of Carnoulès (France) confirmed this low species richness. However, very little is known about the cultured bacteria in this ecosystem. The aims of the study were firstly to apply novel culture methods in order to access to the largest cultured bacterial diversity, and secondly to better define the robustness of the community for 3 important functions: As(III) oxidation, cellulose degradation and cobalamine biosynthesis. Despite the oligotrophic and acidic conditions found in AMDs, the newly designed media covered a large range of nutrient concentrations and a pH range from 3.5 to 9.8, in order to target also non-acidophilic bacteria. These approaches generated 49 isolates representing 19 genera belonging to 4 different phyla. Importantly, overall diversity gained 16 extra genera never detected in Carnoulès. Among the 19 genera, 3 were previously uncultured, one of them being novel in databases. This strategy increased the overall diversity in the Carnoulès sediment by 70% when compared with previous culture-independent approaches, as specific phylogenetic groups (e.g. the subclass Actinobacteridae or the order Rhizobiales) were only detected by culture. Cobalamin auxotrophy, cellulose degradation and As(III)-oxidation are 3 crucial functions in this ecosystem, and a previous meta- and proteo-genomic work attributed each function to only one taxon. Here, we demonstrate that other members of this community can also assume these functions, thus increasing the overall community robustness. This work highlights that bacterial diversity in AMDs is much higher than previously envisaged, thus pointing out that the AMD system is functionally more robust than expected. The isolated bacteria may be part of the rare

  20. Novel and unexpected bacterial diversity in an arsenic-rich ecosystem revealed by culture-dependent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delavat François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid Mine Drainages (AMDs are extreme environments characterized by very acid conditions and heavy metal contaminations. In these ecosystems, the bacterial diversity is considered to be low. Previous culture-independent approaches performed in the AMD of Carnoulès (France confirmed this low species richness. However, very little is known about the cultured bacteria in this ecosystem. The aims of the study were firstly to apply novel culture methods in order to access to the largest cultured bacterial diversity, and secondly to better define the robustness of the community for 3 important functions: As(III oxidation, cellulose degradation and cobalamine biosynthesis. Results Despite the oligotrophic and acidic conditions found in AMDs, the newly designed media covered a large range of nutrient concentrations and a pH range from 3.5 to 9.8, in order to target also non-acidophilic bacteria. These approaches generated 49 isolates representing 19 genera belonging to 4 different phyla. Importantly, overall diversity gained 16 extra genera never detected in Carnoulès. Among the 19 genera, 3 were previously uncultured, one of them being novel in databases. This strategy increased the overall diversity in the Carnoulès sediment by 70% when compared with previous culture-independent approaches, as specific phylogenetic groups (e.g. the subclass Actinobacteridae or the order Rhizobiales were only detected by culture. Cobalamin auxotrophy, cellulose degradation and As(III-oxidation are 3 crucial functions in this ecosystem, and a previous meta- and proteo-genomic work attributed each function to only one taxon. Here, we demonstrate that other members of this community can also assume these functions, thus increasing the overall community robustness. Conclusions This work highlights that bacterial diversity in AMDs is much higher than previously envisaged, thus pointing out that the AMD system is functionally more robust than expected

  1. An Interactome-Centered Protein Discovery Approach Reveals Novel Components Involved in Mitosome Function and Homeostasis in Giardia lamblia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Rout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoan parasites of the genus Giardia are highly prevalent globally, and infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans, with proliferation and pathology restricted to the small intestine. This narrow ecological specialization entailed extensive structural and functional adaptations during host-parasite co-evolution. An example is the streamlined mitosomal proteome with iron-sulphur protein maturation as the only biochemical pathway clearly associated with this organelle. Here, we applied techniques in microscopy and protein biochemistry to investigate the mitosomal membrane proteome in association to mitosome homeostasis. Live cell imaging revealed a highly immobilized array of 30-40 physically distinct mitosome organelles in trophozoites. We provide direct evidence for the single giardial dynamin-related protein as a contributor to mitosomal morphogenesis and homeostasis. To overcome inherent limitations that have hitherto severely hampered the characterization of these unique organelles we applied a novel interaction-based proteome discovery strategy using forward and reverse protein co-immunoprecipitation. This allowed generation of organelle proteome data strictly in a protein-protein interaction context. We built an initial Tom40-centered outer membrane interactome by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, identifying small GTPases, factors with dual mitosome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER distribution, as well as novel matrix proteins. Through iterative expansion of this protein-protein interaction network, we were able to i significantly extend this interaction-based mitosomal proteome to include other membrane-associated proteins with possible roles in mitosome morphogenesis and connection to other subcellular compartments, and ii identify novel matrix proteins which may shed light on mitosome-associated metabolic functions other than Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Functional analysis also revealed conceptual conservation of protein

  2. A species delimitation approach in the Trochulus sericeus/hispidus complex reveals two cryptic species within a sharp contact zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfenninger Markus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA sequencing increasingly results in the recognition of genetically divergent, but morphologically cryptic lineages. Species delimitation approaches that rely on multiple lines of evidence in areas of co-occurrence are particularly powerful to infer their specific status. We investigated the species boundaries of two cryptic lineages of the land snail genus Trochulus in a contact zone, using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA marker as well as shell morphometrics. Results Both mitochondrial lineages have a distinct geographical distribution with a small zone of co-occurrence. In the same area, we detected two nuclear genotype clusters, each being highly significantly associated to one mitochondrial lineage. This association however had exceptions: a small number of individuals in the contact zone showed intermediate genotypes (4% or cytonuclear disequilibrium (12%. Both mitochondrial lineage and nuclear cluster were statistically significant predictors for the shell shape indicating morphological divergence. Nevertheless, the lineage morphospaces largely overlapped (low posterior classification success rate of 69% and 78%, respectively: the two lineages are truly cryptic. Conclusion The integrative approach using multiple lines of evidence supported the hypothesis that the investigated Trochulus lineages are reproductively isolated species. In the small contact area, however, the lineages hybridise to a limited extent. This detection of a hybrid zone adds an instance to the rare reported cases of hybridisation in land snails.

  3. Revealing ecological risks of priority endocrine disrupting chemicals in four marine protected areas in Hong Kong through an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Elvis Genbo; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Tse, Zero; Ho, Shu-Leong; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2016-08-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Hong Kong are situated in close proximity to urbanized areas, and inevitably influenced by wastewater discharges and antifouling biocides leached from vessels. Hence, marine organisms inhabiting these MPAs are probably at risk. Here an integrative approach was employed to comprehensively assess ecological risks of eight priority endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in four MPAs of Hong Kong. We quantified their concentrations in environmental and biota samples collected in different seasons during 2013-2014, while mussels (Septifer virgatus) and semi-permeable membrane devices were deployed to determine the extent of accumulation of the EDCs. Extracts from the environmental samples were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen and a novel human cell-based catechol-O-methyltransferase ELISA to evaluate their estrogenic activities. The results indicated ecological risks of EDCs in the Cape d'Aguilar Marine Reserve. This integrated approach can effectively evaluate ecological risks of EDCs through linking their concentrations to biological effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new approach for determining phase response curves reveals that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Phoka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar Purkinje cells display complex intrinsic dynamics. They fire spontaneously, exhibit bistability, and via mutual network interactions are involved in the generation of high frequency oscillations and travelling waves of activity. To probe the dynamical properties of Purkinje cells we measured their phase response curves (PRCs. PRCs quantify the change in spike phase caused by a stimulus as a function of its temporal position within the interspike interval, and are widely used to predict neuronal responses to more complex stimulus patterns. Significant variability in the interspike interval during spontaneous firing can lead to PRCs with a low signal-to-noise ratio, requiring averaging over thousands of trials. We show using electrophysiological experiments and simulations that the PRC calculated in the traditional way by sampling the interspike interval with brief current pulses is biased. We introduce a corrected approach for calculating PRCs which eliminates this bias. Using our new approach, we show that Purkinje cell PRCs change qualitatively depending on the firing frequency of the cell. At high firing rates, Purkinje cells exhibit single-peaked, or monophasic PRCs. Surprisingly, at low firing rates, Purkinje cell PRCs are largely independent of phase, resembling PRCs of ideal non-leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. These results indicate that Purkinje cells can act as perfect integrators at low firing rates, and that the integration mode of Purkinje cells depends on their firing rate.

  5. Systematic Chemical Analysis Approach Reveals Superior Antioxidant Capacity via the Synergistic Effect of Flavonoid Compounds in Red Vegetative Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxiao Qin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL and ever-green leaves (GL of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies.

  6. An eQTL mapping approach reveals that rare variants in the SEMA5A regulatory network impact autism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Quinn, Jeffrey Francis; Weiss, Lauren Anne

    2013-07-15

    To date, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variant (CNV) association studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have led to promising signals but not to easily interpretable or translatable results. Our own genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed significant association to an intergenic SNP near Semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) and provided evidence for reduced expression of the same gene. In a novel GWAS follow-up approach, we map an expression regulatory pathway for a GWAS candidate gene, SEMA5A, in silico by using population expression and genotype data sets. We find that the SEMA5A regulatory network significantly overlaps rare autism-specific CNVs. The SEMA5A regulatory network includes previous autism candidate genes and regions, including MACROD2, A2BP1, MCPH1, MAST4, CDH8, CADM1, FOXP1, AUTS2, MBD5, 7q21, 20p, USH2A, KIRREL3, DBF4B and RELN, among others. Our results provide: (i) a novel data-derived network implicated in autism, (ii) evidence that the same pathway seeded by an initial SNP association shows association with rare genetic variation in ASDs, (iii) a potential mechanism of action and interpretation for the previous autism candidate genes and genetic variants that fall in this network, and (iv) a novel approach that can be applied to other candidate genes for complex genetic disorders. We take a step towards better understanding of the significance of SEMA5A pathways in autism that can guide interpretation of many other genetic results in ASDs.

  7. Single-virus tracking approach to reveal the interaction of Dengue virus with autophagy during the early stage of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Wei; Huang, Yi-Lung; Lee, Jin-Hui; Huang, Long-Ying; Chen, Wei-Jun; Lin, Ya-Hsuan; Chen, Jyun-Yu; Xiang, Rui; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Ping, Yueh-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the major infectious pathogens worldwide. DENV infection is a highly dynamic process. Currently, no antiviral drug is available for treating DENV-induced diseases since little is known regarding how the virus interacts with host cells during infection. Advanced molecular imaging technologies are powerful tools to understand the dynamics of intracellular interactions and molecular trafficking. This study exploited a single-virus particle tracking technology to address whether DENV interacts with autophagy machinery during the early stage of infection. Using confocal microscopy and three-dimensional image analysis, we showed that DENV triggered the formation of green fluorescence protein-fused microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) puncta, and DENV-induced autophagosomes engulfed DENV particles within 15-min postinfection. Moreover, single-virus particle tracking revealed that both DENV particles and autophagosomes traveled together during the viral infection. Finally, in the presence of autophagy suppressor 3-methyladenine, the replication of DENV was inhibited and the location of DENV particles spread in cytoplasma. In contrast, the numbers of newly synthesized DENV were elevated and the co-localization of DENV particles and autophagosomes was detected while the cells were treated with autophagy inducer rapamycin. Taken together, we propose that DENV particles interact with autophagosomes at the early stage of viral infection, which promotes the replication of DENV.

  8. Molecular approaches identify known species, reveal cryptic species and verify host specificity of Chinese Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Jiao; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Li, Yan-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Wu, Wen-Shan; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-07-01

    Philotrypesis, a major component of the fig wasp community (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), is a model taxon for studying male fighting and mating behaviour. Its extreme sexual dimorphism and male polymorphism render species identification uncertain and in-depth research on its ecology, behaviour and other evolutionary topics challenging. The fig wasps' enclosed habitat within the syconia makes their mating behaviour inaccessible, to the extent of matching conspecific females and males. In this study, we combine morphological and molecular analyses to identify species of Philotrypesis sampled from south China and to associate their extraordinarily dimorphic genders and labile male morphologies. Morphological evaluations of females identify 22 species and 28 male morphs. The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 data detect 21 species using females, and 15 species among the males. Most of the males match the species as delimited by females. Both markers reveal cryptic species in P. quadrisetosa on Ficus vasculosa. Most species of wasps live on one species of fig but three species co-occur in two hosts (F. microcarpa and F. benjamina), which indicates host switching. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Effect of Pre-Stressing on the Acid-Stress Response in Bifidobacterium Revealed Using Proteomic and Physiological Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Qin, Qian; Guo, Huiyuan; Liu, Songling; Ge, Shaoyang; Zhang, Hongxing; Cui, Jianyun; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-01-01

    Weak acid resistance limits the application of Bifidobacteria as a probiotic in food. The acid tolerance response (ATR), caused by pre-stressing cells at a sublethal pH, could improve the acid resistance of Bifidobacteria to subsequent acid stress. In this study, we used Bifidobacterium longum sub. longum BBMN68 to investigate the effect of the ATR on the acid stress response (ASR), and compared the difference between the ATR and the ASR by analyzing the two-dimensional-PAGE protein profiles and performing physiological tests. The results revealed that a greater abundance of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism and protein protection was present after the ASR than after the ATR in Bifidobacterium. Pre-stressing cells increased the abundance of proteins involved in energy production, amino acid metabolism, and peptidoglycan synthesis during the ASR of Bifidobacterium. Moreover, after the ASR, the content of ATP, NH3, thiols, and peptidoglycan, the activity of H+-ATPase, and the maintenance of the intracellular pH in the pre-stressed Bifidobacterium cells was significantly higher than in the uninduced cells. These results provide the first explanation as to why the resistance of Bifidobacterium to acid stress improved after pre-stressing.

  10. Host and Non-Host roots in rice: cellular and molecular approaches reveal differential responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eFiorilli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oryza sativa, a model plant for Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis, has both host and non-host roots. Large lateral (LLR and fine lateral (FLR roots display opposite responses: LLR support AM colonization, but FLR do not. Our research aimed to study the molecular, morphological and physiological aspects related to the non-host behavior of FLR. RNA-seq analysis revealed that LLR and FLR displayed divergent expression profiles, including changes in many metabolic pathways. Compared with LLR, FLR showed down-regulation of genes instrumental for AM establishment and gibberellin signaling, and a higher expression of nutrient transporters. Consistent with the transcriptomic data, FLR had higher phosphorus content. Light and electron microscopy demonstrated that, surprisingly, in the Selenio cultivar, FLR have a two-layered cortex, which is theoretically compatible with AM colonization. According to RNA-seq, a gibberellin inhibitor treatment increased anticlinal divisions leading to a higher number of cortex cells in FLR.We propose that some of the differentially regulated genes that lead to the anatomical and physiological properties of the two root types also function as genetic factors regulating fungal colonization. The rice root apparatus offers a unique tool to study AM symbiosis, allowing direct comparisons of host and non-host roots in the same individual plant.

  11. Metabolic regulation of trisporic acid on Blakeslea trispora revealed by a GC-MS-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sun

    Full Text Available The zygomycete Blakeslea trispora is used commercially as natural source of â-carotene. Trisporic acid (TA is secreted from the mycelium of B. trispora during mating between heterothallic strains and is considered as a mediator of the regulation of mating processes and an enhancer of carotene biosynthesis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate TA-associated intracellular biochemical changes in B. trispora. By principal component analysis, the differential metabolites discriminating the control groups from the TA-treated groups were found, which were also confirmed by the subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis. The results indicate that TA is a global regulator and its main effects at the metabolic level are reflected on the content changes in several fatty acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. The carbon metabolism and fatty acids synthesis are sensitive to TA addition. Glycerol, glutamine, and ã-aminobutyrate might play important roles in the regulation of TA. Complemented by two-dimensional electrophoresis, the results indicate that the actions of TA at the metabolic level involve multiple metabolic processes, such as glycolysis and the bypass of the classical tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results reveal that the metabolomics strategy is a powerful tool to gain insight into the mechanism of a microorganism's cellular response to signal inducers at the metabolic level.

  12. A genetic approach of wine yeast fermentation capacity in nitrogen-starvation reveals the key role of nitrogen signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Claire; Sanchez, Isabelle; Bigey, Frédéric; Legras, Jean-Luc; Blondin, Bruno

    2014-06-19

    In conditions of nitrogen limitation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains differ in their fermentation capacities, due to differences in their nitrogen requirements. The mechanisms ensuring the maintenance of glycolytic flux in these conditions are unknown. We investigated the genetic basis of these differences, by studying quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a population of 133 individuals from the F2 segregant population generated from a cross between two strains with different nitrogen requirements for efficient fermentation. By comparing two bulks of segregants with low and high nitrogen requirements, we detected four regions making a quantitative contribution to these traits. We identified four polymorphic genes, in three of these four regions, for which involvement in the phenotype was validated by hemizygote comparison. The functions of the four validated genes, GCN1, MDS3, ARG81 and BIO3, relate to key roles in nitrogen metabolism and signaling, helping to maintain fermentation performance. This study reveals that differences in nitrogen requirement between yeast strains results from a complex allelic combination. The identification of three genes involved in sensing and signaling nitrogen and specially one from the TOR pathway as affecting nitrogen requirements suggests a role for this pathway in regulating the fermentation rate in starvation through unknown mechanisms linking nitrogen signaling to glycolytic flux.

  13. A combined cryo-EM and molecular dynamics approach reveals the mechanism of ErmBL-mediated translation arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Stefan; Bock, Lars V.; Graf, Michael; Innis, C. Axel; Beckmann, Roland; Grubmüller, Helmut; Vaiana, Andrea C.; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2016-07-01

    Nascent polypeptides can induce ribosome stalling, regulating downstream genes. Stalling of ErmBL peptide translation in the presence of the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin leads to resistance in Streptococcus sanguis. To reveal this stalling mechanism we obtained 3.6-Å-resolution cryo-EM structures of ErmBL-stalled ribosomes with erythromycin. The nascent peptide adopts an unusual conformation with the C-terminal Asp10 side chain in a previously unseen rotated position. Together with molecular dynamics simulations, the structures indicate that peptide-bond formation is inhibited by displacement of the peptidyl-tRNA A76 ribose from its canonical position, and by non-productive interactions of the A-tRNA Lys11 side chain with the A-site crevice. These two effects combine to perturb peptide-bond formation by increasing the distance between the attacking Lys11 amine and the Asp10 carbonyl carbon. The interplay between drug, peptide and ribosome uncovered here also provides insight into the fundamental mechanism of peptide-bond formation.

  14. Implementasi Swap Transmisi Ml-E Ke Ml-Tn dan Analisa Performa Jaringan Transmisi Pada Jaringan Ericsson Site Gelora Senayan – Gelora Sudirman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafida .

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Swap adalah suatu aktivitas dimana perangkat jaringan telekomunikasi digantikan dengan perangkat yang baru dari vendor yang berbeda ataupun perangkat dari ven-dor yang sama tetapi dengan kemampuan perangkat yang lebih baik. Paper ini akan membahas mengenai swap perangkat jaringan transmisi sebuah operator telekomu-nikasi dan menganalisa kinerja jaringan tersebut setelah dilakukan swap. Kinerja jaringan sebelum dan setelah swap akan dibandingkan dengan membandingkan parameter-parameter seperti efisiensi, ekspansi kapasitas dan ke-cepatan data, nilai investasi jaringan, dan kualitas jaringan. Hasil pengukuran diperoleh dengan menggunakan BER Test, pengukuran kecepatan upload dan download HSDPA, dan juga aplikasi monitoring performansi yang ada pada perangkat tersebut. Adapun hasil yang diharapkan dari paper ini adalah mampu memberikan informasi bagaimana ethernet dapat memberikan perbedaan yang sangat sig-nifikan terhadap kualitas layanan telekomunikasi, dan juga membuktikan bahwa penggunaan jaringan transmisi baru menggunakan ML-TN akan memberikan keuntungan yang sangat besar bagi vendor telekomunikasi.

  15. A multi-taxon approach reveals the effect of management intensity on biodiversity in Alpine larch grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Fontana, Veronika; Spitale, Daniel

    2014-07-15

    In the Alps, larch grasslands form one of the most pleasing aspects of the landscape. However, their effectiveness in contributing to biodiversity conservation may depend on the intensity of their management. We used a multi-taxon approach to evaluate the effects of the intensification of management practices and those of abandonment on the biodiversity of the main autotrophic organisms hosted in this habitat, including vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. The study was carried out in the eastern part of South Tyrol, in the Italian Alps, where the diversity patterns of these three organismal groups were compared among intensively managed, extensively managed, and abandoned stands. The management intensity was found to strongly influence the biodiversity of the organisms, with a general pattern indicating the best conditions in extensively managed stands. Both abandonment and management intensification were detrimental to biodiversity through different mechanisms that led to species loss or to major shifts in species composition. However, the most negative effects were related to management intensification, mainly due to the high nitrogen supply, providing evidence for the increasing impact of eutrophication on Alpine environments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A systems approach reveals regulatory circuitry for Arabidopsis trichome initiation by the GL3 and GL1 selectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Morohashi

    2009-02-01

    reveal the architecture of the top tiers of the hierarchical structure of the regulatory network involved in epidermal cell differentiation and trichome formation.

  17. Multiple analytical approaches reveal distinct gene-environment interactions in smokers and non smokers in lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Ihsan

    Full Text Available Complex disease such as cancer results from interactions of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studying these factors singularly cannot explain the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of the disease. Multi-analytical approach, including logistic regression (LR, classification and regression tree (CART and multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR, was applied in 188 lung cancer cases and 290 controls to explore high order interactions among xenobiotic metabolizing genes and environmental risk factors. Smoking was identified as the predominant risk factor by all three analytical approaches. Individually, CYP1A1*2A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.69;95%CI = 1.11-2.59,p = 0.01, whereas EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His conferred reduced risk (OR = 0.40;95%CI = 0.25-0.65,p<0.001 and OR = 0.51;95%CI = 0.33-0.78,p = 0.002 respectively. In smokers, EPHX1 Tyr113His and SULT1A1 Arg213His polymorphisms reduced the risk of lung cancer, whereas CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C and GSTP1 Ile105Val imparted increased risk in non-smokers only. While exploring non-linear interactions through CART analysis, smokers carrying the combination of EPHX1 113TC (Tyr/His, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg or AA (His/His and GSTM1 null genotypes showed the highest risk for lung cancer (OR = 3.73;95%CI = 1.33-10.55,p = 0.006, whereas combined effect of CYP1A1*2A 6235CC or TC, SULT1A1 213GG (Arg/Arg and betel quid chewing showed maximum risk in non-smokers (OR = 2.93;95%CI = 1.15-7.51,p = 0.01. MDR analysis identified two distinct predictor models for the risk of lung cancer in smokers (tobacco chewing, EPHX1 Tyr113His, and SULT1A1 Arg213His and non-smokers (CYP1A1*2A, GSTP1 Ile105Val and SULT1A1 Arg213His with testing balance accuracy (TBA of 0.6436 and 0.6677 respectively. Interaction entropy interpretations of MDR results showed non-additive interactions of tobacco chewing with

  18. Bioinformatics approach reveals evidence for impaired endometrial maturation before and during early pregnancy in women who developed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglino, Maria B; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Jeyabalan, Arun; Hogge, William A; Conrad, Kirk P

    2015-02-01

    Impaired uterine invasion by extravillous trophoblast in early gestation is implicated in the genesis of preeclampsia, a potentially lethal malady of human pregnancy. However, reasons for extravillous trophoblast dysfunction remain unclear because of virtual inaccessibility of early placental and uterine tissues from women who develop preeclampsia, and the absence of animal models in which the disease spontaneously occurs. Consequently, the possibility that deficient or defective maturation of the endometrium (decidualization) may compromise extravillous trophoblast invasion in preeclampsia remains unexplored. Using a bioinformatics approach, we tested this hypothesis identifying 396 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in chorionic villous samples from women at ≈11.5 gestational weeks who developed severe preeclampsia symptoms 6 months later compared with chorionic villous samples from normal pregnancies. A large number, 154 or 40%, overlapped with DEG associated with various stages of normal endometrial maturation before and after implantation as identified by other microarray data sets (P=4.7×10(-14)). One-hundred and sixteen of the 154 DEG or 75% overlapped with DEG associated with normal decidualization in the absence of extravillous trophoblast, ie, late-secretory endometrium (LSE) and endometrium from tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP; P=4.2×10(-9)). Finally, 112 of these 154 DEG or 73% changed in the opposite direction in microarray data sets related to normal endometrial maturation (P=0.01), including 16 DEG upregulated in decidual (relative to peripheral blood) natural killer cells that were downregulated in chorionic villous samples from women who developed preeclampsia (Ppreeclampsia. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Scaling properties and fractality in the distribution of coding segments in eukaryotic genomes revealed through a block entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Athanasopoulos, Stavros; Karamanos, Kostas; Almirantis, Yannis

    2010-11-01

    Statistical methods, including block entropy based approaches, have already been used in the study of long-range features of genomic sequences seen as symbol series, either considering the full alphabet of the four nucleotides or the binary purine or pyrimidine character set. Here we explore the alternation of short protein-coding segments with long noncoding spacers in entire chromosomes, focusing on the scaling properties of block entropy. In previous studies, it has been shown that the sizes of noncoding spacers follow power-law-like distributions in most chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms from distant taxa. We have developed a simple evolutionary model based on well-known molecular events (segmental duplications followed by elimination of most of the duplicated genes) which reproduces the observed linearity in log-log plots. The scaling properties of block entropy H(n) have been studied in several works. Their findings suggest that linearity in semilogarithmic scale characterizes symbol sequences which exhibit fractal properties and long-range order, while this linearity has been shown in the case of the logistic map at the Feigenbaum accumulation point. The present work starts with the observation that the block entropy of the Cantor-like binary symbol series scales in a similar way. Then, we perform the same analysis for the full set of human chromosomes and for several chromosomes of other eukaryotes. A similar but less extended linearity in semilogarithmic scale, indicating fractality, is observed, while randomly formed surrogate sequences clearly lack this type of scaling. Genomic sequences always present entropy values much lower than their random surrogates. Symbol sequences produced by the aforementioned evolutionary model follow the scaling found in genomic sequences, thus corroborating the conjecture that “segmental duplication-gene elimination” dynamics may have contributed to the observed long rangeness in the coding or noncoding alternation in

  20. A Systems Vaccinology Approach Reveals Temporal Transcriptomic Changes of Immune Responses to the Yellow Fever 17D Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Wang, Shuhui; Jia, Manxue; Li, Dan; Liu, Ying; Li, Zhengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Huifang; Sun, Meiping; Lu, Li; Zhou, Zhinan; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Qichen; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; Yao, Lena; Yu, Xuesong; Carpp, Lindsay N; Huang, Yunda; McElrath, Julie; Self, Steve; Shao, Yiming

    2017-08-15

    In this study, we used a systems vaccinology approach to identify temporal changes in immune response signatures to the yellow fever (YF)-17D vaccine, with the aim of comprehensively characterizing immune responses associated with protective immunity. We conducted a cohort study in which 21 healthy subjects in China were administered one dose of the YF-17D vaccine; PBMCs were collected at 0 h and then at 4 h and days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 28, 84, and 168 postvaccination, and analyzed by transcriptional profiling and immunological assays. At 4 h postvaccination, genes associated with innate cell differentiation and cytokine pathways were dramatically downregulated, whereas receptor genes were upregulated, compared with their baseline levels at 0 h. Immune response pathways were primarily upregulated on days 5 and 7, accompanied by the upregulation of the transcriptional factors JUP, STAT1, and EIF2AK2. We also observed robust activation of innate immunity within 2 d postvaccination and a durable adaptive response, as assessed by transcriptional profiling. Coexpression network analysis indicated that lysosome activity and lymphocyte proliferation were associated with dendritic cell (DC) and CD4(+) T cell responses; FGL2, NFAM1, CCR1, and TNFSF13B were involved in these associations. Moreover, individuals who were baseline-seropositive for Abs against another flavivirus exhibited significantly impaired DC, NK cell, and T cell function in response to YF-17D vaccination. Overall, our findings indicate that YF-17D vaccination induces a prompt innate immune response and DC activation, a robust Ag-specific T cell response, and a persistent B cell/memory B cell response. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. A multispecies approach reveals hot spots and cold spots of diversity and connectivity in invertebrate species with contrasting dispersal modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Abigail E; De Jode, Aurélien; Dubois, Sophie; Bouzaza, Zoheir; Aurelle, Didier; Boissin, Emilie; Chabrol, Olivier; David, Romain; Egea, Emilie; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Mérigot, Bastien; Weber, Alexandra Anh-Thu; Chenuil, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Genetic diversity is crucial for species' maintenance and persistence, yet is often overlooked in conservation studies. Species diversity is more often reported due to practical constraints, but it is unknown if these measures of diversity are correlated. In marine invertebrates, adults are often sessile or sedentary and populations exchange genes via dispersal of gametes and larvae. Species with a larval period are expected to have more connected populations than those without larval dispersal. We assessed the relationship between measures of species and genetic diversity, and between dispersal ability and connectivity. We compiled data on genetic patterns and life history traits in nine species across five phyla. Sampling sites spanned 600 km in the northwest Mediterranean Sea and focused on a 50-km area near Marseilles, France. Comparative population genetic approaches yielded three main results. (i) Species without larvae showed higher levels of genetic structure than species with free-living larvae, but the role of larval type (lecithotrophic or planktotrophic) was negligible. (ii) A narrow area around Marseilles, subject to offshore advection, limited genetic connectivity in most species. (iii) We identified sites with significant positive contributions to overall genetic diversity across all species, corresponding with areas near low human population densities. In contrast, high levels of human activity corresponded with a negative contribution to overall genetic diversity. Genetic diversity within species was positively and significantly linearly related to local species diversity. Our study suggests that local contribution to overall genetic diversity should be taken into account for future conservation strategies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Considerations for RTCA Phase 2 Low Size, Weight, and Power (SWAP) Surveillance Requirements. UAS Integration in the NAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Confesor

    2017-01-01

    RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics) Special Committee 228 has initiated a second phase for the development of minimum operational performance standards (MOPS) for UAS (Unmanned Aircraft Systems) detect and avoid (DAA) systems. Technologies to enable UAS with less available Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) will be considered. A white paper is in development for what topics and issues need to be addressed to develop DAA requirements for low SWAP surveillance systems. This briefing will document the issues to be investigated in SC-228. It will also serve as a review with the committee to get feedback so the white paper can be written and finalized. These topics and issues are not necessarily all the things that NASA will contribute to SC-228 during Phase 2, but what the overall committee needs to accomplish. A portion of the work will be in NASA's UAS in the NAS (National Airspace System) project plan.

  3. Periodically Swapping Modulation (PSM) Strategy for Three-Level (TL) DC/DC Converter with Balanced Switch Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The asymmetrical modulation strategy is widely used in various types of three-level (TL) DC/DC converters, while the current imbalance among the power switches is one of the important issues. In this paper, a novel periodically swapping modulation (PSM) strategy is proposed for balancing the power...... switches’ currents in various types of TL DC/DC converters. In the proposed PSM strategy, the driving signals of the switch pairs are swapped periodically, which guarantees that the currents through the power switches are kept balanced in every two switching periods. Therefore, the proposed PSM...... strategy can effectively improve the reliability of the converter by balancing the power losses and thermal stresses among the power switches. The operation principle and performances of the proposed PSM strategy are analyzed in detail. Finally, the simulation and experimental results are presented...

  4. Proteomic approach reveals that starch degradation contributes to anthocyanin accumulation in tuberous root of purple sweet potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqing; Pan, Dezhuo; Lv, Xiaojie; Song, Xiaomin; Qiu, Zhimin; Huang, Chunmei; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-30

    A comparative proteomic approach was carried out to investigate anthocyanin biosynthesis in the tuberous roots of yellow sweet potato (YSP) and purple sweet potato (PSP) cultivars. More than 800 proteins were reproducibly detected through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), of which 50 proteins with 39 more and 11 less accumulated in PSP were identified through matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). Most of the analyzed proteins are annotated to be involved in starch metabolism and glycolysis. The more abundant starch phosphorylase (SP) and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) in PSP promoted the synthesis of precursors for anthocyanin synthesis. The results implied that starch degradation provided abundant substrates for anthocyanin biosynthesis in tuberous roots of PSP. 24kDa vacuolar protein (VP24) is related to anthocyanin transport and accumulation in vacuoles. Vacuole-associated annexin protein, VCaB42, is correlated with tonoplast biogenesis. Synergistic action of the two proteins is probably involved in the microautophagy and the intravacuolar trapping of anthocyanins. Interestingly, both VCaB42 and VP24 were more accumulated in PSP, suggesting that anthocyanins generated in the cytosol were transported into and became stored in the vacuoles of PSP. The present study provides new insights into the mechanism of tuberous root-specific anthocyanin accumulation in PSP. Sweet potato ranks as the seventh most important crop worldwide. Purple sweet potato, a special sweet potato cultivar, has been extensively investigated because large amounts of anthocyanin accumulate in its tuberous roots. Anthocyanin is well known for its free radical-scavenging activity and beneficial effects on human health. Its biosynthetic pathway has been well characterized in model plants. Although large-scale systematic studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in sweet potato, information on the

  5. Creating a business toolbox for a start-up : a case study of SnapSwap International

    OpenAIRE

    Kovshikov, Iaroslav

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was implemented at SnapSwap International in spring and summer 2017. The case company is a fin-tech start-up established in 2015 and located in Luxembourg. The company aims to develop a new payment solution (money messenger) for the European market. The purpose of the thesis is to observe commonly used business techniques (SWOT, Business Model Canvas (BMC), Persona, and Empathy Map) and analyze current business activities of the company employing these tools. The theoretic...

  6. Research on ISFLA-Based Optimal Control Strategy for the Coordinated Charging of EV Battery Swap Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of the smart grid, electric vehicles (EVs could be a good measure against energy shortages and environmental pollution. A main way of energy supply to EVs is to swap battery from the swap station. Based on the characteristics of EV battery swap station, the coordinated charging optimal control strategy is investigated to smooth the load fluctuation. Shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA is an optimization method inspired by the memetic evolution of a group of frogs when seeking food. An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA with the reflecting method to deal with the boundary constraint is proposed to obtain the solution of the optimal control strategy for coordinated charging. Based on the daily load of a certain area, the numerical simulations including the comparison of PSO and ISFLA are carried out and the results show that the presented ISFLA can effectively lower the peak-valley difference and smooth the load profile with the faster convergence rate and higher convergence precision.

  7. Water Stress & Biomass Monitoring and SWAP Modeling of Irrigated Crops in Saratov Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2016-04-01

    results of analyzing water stress during growing season of 2012 and yielded biomass of crops three types of crops alfalfa, corn and soya irrigated by sprinkling machines at left bank of Volga River at Saratov Region of Russia are presented and analyzed. For that a combination of data received from satellite, local meteorological station and farmers as well as SWAP model was used. Analyze of data sets of monitored water deficit of each crop averaged for irrigation period was done by linear regression with yielded biomass values. Following analyze of effectiveness of irrigation water application was done by SWAP agrohydrological model.

  8. Personality psychology: lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts reveal only half of the story--why it is time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2013-03-01

    This article develops a comprehensive philosophy-of-science for personality psychology that goes far beyond the scope of the lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts that currently prevail. One of the field's most important guiding scientific assumptions, the lexical hypothesis, is analysed from meta-theoretical viewpoints to reveal that it explicitly describes two sets of phenomena that must be clearly differentiated: 1) lexical repertoires and the representations that they encode and 2) the kinds of phenomena that are represented. Thus far, personality psychologists largely explored only the former, but have seriously neglected studying the latter. Meta-theoretical analyses of these different kinds of phenomena and their distinct natures, commonalities, differences, and interrelations reveal that personality psychology's focus on lexical approaches, assessment methods, and trait concepts entails a) erroneous meta-theoretical assumptions about what the phenomena being studied actually are, and thus how they can be analysed and interpreted, b) that contemporary personality psychology is largely based on everyday psychological knowledge, and c) a fundamental circularity in the scientific explanations used in trait psychology. These findings seriously challenge the widespread assumptions about the causal and universal status of the phenomena described by prominent personality models. The current state of knowledge about the lexical hypothesis is reviewed, and implications for personality psychology are discussed. Ten desiderata for future research are outlined to overcome the current paradigmatic fixations that are substantially hampering intellectual innovation and progress in the field.

  9. The use of the SCEM-UA optimization algorithm in the calibration of the physically based hydrological model SWAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzner, Michele; Facchi, Arianna; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2010 and 2011, an intensive monitoring activity aimed at quantifying fluxes and storage of water in a maize agroecosystem of the Po Valley plain (Northern Italy) was carried out. In the experimental site, instruments for the measurement of water fluxes with the eddy covariance technique were installed. Additionally, in order to measure the terms of the H2O budget also investigating their variability at the field scale, six Intensive Monitoring Plots (IMPs in the following) were identified in the field and instrumentation for the continuous monitoring of water status of the soil (moisture, water potential, groundwater table depth) was installed in each of them. In the two seasons, also periodic campaigns for the determination of biometric parameters of the crop, hydrological parameters of the soil, fluxes of water from maize leaves and from soil were conducted. The experimental field was characterized by a shallow groundwater table depth (0.6 to 1.5 m). In 2010 it was watered by border irrigation, while in 2011 no irrigation events were applied. Monitored data were used to carry out simulations with the physically based hydrological model SWAP (Soil Water Atmosphere Plant model, Kroes and Van Dam, 2003), with the aim of assessing the relative contribution of the various water fluxes (rainfall, irrigation, capillary rise) to maize water requirements. In particular, the SWAP model was implemented using the basis of observational data collected for the two IMPs showing the main differences in terms of soil types, vegetation growth and, limited to 2010, irrigation supply. The two selected IMPs were located at the ends of a transect placed perpendicularly to the irrigation channel. While many parameters and water fluxes necessary for the SWAP implementation and validation were measured directly, it was impossible to detect with sufficient accuracy the saturated hydraulic conductivity at different depths for the two IMPs during the two years of

  10. Home swapping: A new international trend: Emotions lead to an authentic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Romana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyper-consumption society expands in the name of happiness and tourism attracts masses. However, despite the production and consumption, we are gradually sinking deeper into the crisis of material cultural happiness. Tourism provides an answer to this race for higher production and material pleasures by creating the new focal points (interest centers through new kinds of tourism: the special interest tourism and the trans-modern tourism. These new trends focus on responsible consumption as opposed to destructive consumption of mass tourism. In this paper we point to the process of trans­formation in tourism: products and services which make up the basic tourist product are no more sufficient. New paradigms in tourism appear under the wings of cultural globalization. In the economy of experience and gratitude, tourists have ceased buying a service. They buy experience which constitutes a memory and a sensation. By showing the example of a new global trend of home swapping (also: home exchange, we shall indicate the opportunity to involve the tourist in an individual way. It is a way of generating emotion and exchanging values, based on confidence between people, enabling a unique experience of atmosphere, travel, getting to know local culture and forging lasting friendship.

  11. Private States, Quantum Data Hiding, and the Swapping of Perfect Secrecy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christandl, Matthias; Ferrara, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    An important contribution to the understanding of quantum key distribution has been the discovery of entangled states from which secret bits, but no maximally entangled states, can be extracted [Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 200501 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.200501]. The construction of those states was based on an intuition that the quantum mechanical phenomena of data hiding and privacy might be related. In this Letter we firmly connect these two phenomena and highlight three aspects of this result. First, we simplify the definition of the secret key rate. Second, we give a formula for the one-way distillable entanglement of certain private states. Third, we consider the problem of extending the distance of quantum key distribution with help of intermediate stations, a setting called the quantum key repeater. We show that for protocols that first distill private states, it is essentially optimal to use the standard quantum repeater protocol based on entanglement distillation and entanglement swapping.

  12. 'Strategic approach' can reveal benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Speaking at last October's Healthcare Estates 2010 conference in Manchester, Peter Haggarty, assistant director, Health Facilities Scotland, outlined some of the key steps and priorities for large healthcare providers seeking to establish and implement an effective asset management strategy, focusing particularly on work ongoing in this area in the Scottish public health service. While any radical change to a large healthcare organisation's existing asset management practices could be "challenging", both for the organisation itself, and for its staff, with "sufficient planning, persistence, and support", such changes could, he told delegates, often result in "unanticipated benefits". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  13. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals that Tissue Tropism to West Nile Virus Is Regulated by Antiviral Genes and Innate Immune Cellular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Mehul S.; Brassil, Margaret M.; Blahnik, Gabriele; McMillan, Aimee; Ramos, Hilario J.; Proll, Sean C.; Belisle, Sarah E.; Katze, Michael G.; Gale, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The actions of the RIG-I like receptor (RLR) and type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathways are essential for a protective innate immune response against the emerging flavivirus West Nile virus (WNV). In mice lacking RLR or IFN signaling pathways, WNV exhibits enhanced tissue tropism, indicating that specific host factors of innate immune defense restrict WNV infection and dissemination in peripheral tissues. However, the immune mechanisms by which the RLR and IFN pathways coordinate and function to impart restriction of WNV infection are not well defined. Using a systems biology approach, we defined the host innate immune response signature and actions that restrict WNV tissue tropism. Transcriptional profiling and pathway modeling to compare WNV-infected permissive (spleen) and nonpermissive (liver) tissues showed high enrichment for inflammatory responses, including pattern recognition receptors and IFN signaling pathways, that define restriction of WNV replication in the liver. Assessment of infected livers from Mavs−/−×Ifnar−/− mice revealed the loss of expression of several key components within the natural killer (NK) cell signaling pathway, including genes associated with NK cell activation, inflammatory cytokine production, and NK cell receptor signaling. In vivo analysis of hepatic immune cell infiltrates from WT mice demonstrated that WNV infection leads to an increase in NK cell numbers with enhanced proliferation, maturation, and effector action. In contrast, livers from Mavs−/−×Ifnar−/− infected mice displayed reduced immune cell infiltration, including a significant reduction in NK cell numbers. Analysis of cocultures of dendritic and NK cells revealed both cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles for the RLR and IFN signaling pathways to regulate NK cell effector activity. Taken together, these observations reveal a complex innate immune signaling network, regulated by the RLR and IFN signaling pathways, that drives tissue

  14. Systems level approach reveals the correlation of endoderm differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells with specific microstructural cues of fibrin gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Task, Keith; D'Amore, Antonio; Singh, Satish; Candiello, Joe; Jaramillo, Maria; Wagner, William R.; Kumta, Prashant; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells receive numerous cues from their associated substrate that help to govern their behaviour. However, identification of influential substrate characteristics poses difficulties because of their complex nature. In this study, we developed an integrated experimental and systems level modelling approach to investigate and identify specific substrate features influencing differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) on a model fibrous substrate, fibrin. We synthesized a range of fibrin gels by varying fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations, which led to a range of substrate stiffness and microstructure. mESCs were cultured on each of these gels, and characterization of the differentiated cells revealed a strong influence of substrate modulation on gene expression patterning. To identify specific substrate features influencing differentiation, the substrate microstructure was quantified by image analysis and correlated with stem cell gene expression patterns using a statistical model. Significant correlations were observed between differentiation and microstructure features, specifically fibre alignment. Furthermore, this relationship occurred in a lineage-specific manner towards endoderm. This systems level approach allows for identification of specific substrate features from a complex material which are influential to cellular behaviour. Such analysis may be effective in guiding the design of scaffolds with specific properties for tissue engineering applications. PMID:24718448

  15. Ban on needle swaps blamed for 10,000 U.S. infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-26

    According to a study by two AIDS researchers, Dr. Peter Lurie of the University of California, San Francisco, and Ernest Drucker at the Montefiore Medical Center in the Bronx, nearly 10,000 new HIV infections could have been prevented over the last 8 years with the use of needle-exchange programs. At the Eleventh International Conference on AIDS, Lurie presented findings from studies showing that HIV infections among injection-drug users, their sexual partners, and their children could have been prevented between 1987 and 1995. The Federal government's reluctance to use the harm-reduction method is expensive, ranging between $244 million and $538 million for HIV treatments over the last 8 years. If needle-exchange programs are established now, an additional 5,150 to 11,329 infections could be prevented by the year 2000. Although six government-funded studies have found that needle-exchange programs reduce HIV transmission and do not increase drug use, Lurie does not expect the Federal government to change its policies soon. Contradictory evidence was also presented at the conference. Montreal's Saint-Luc Hospital found that people using syringes supplied by needle-exchange programs are more likely to contract HIV than those who do not. Also, research conducted by the Bureau of HIV/AIDS of Health Canada found that injection-drug users who swapped dirty needles for clean ones were more likely to be frequent drug users, to inject with used needles, and to engage in unprotected sex, often for money.

  16. Artificial Seed Production of Tylophora indica for Interim Storing and Swapping of Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Gantait

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research work demonstrates the single bead alginate-encapsulation, interim storing and conversion of Tylophora indica (Burm. Fil. Merrill. Most effective encapsulation of in vitro nodal segments [(4 ± 1 mm long], ensuing in sphere-shaped artificial seeds of similar morphology, was achieved through 75 mmol⋅L−1 calcium chloride (CaCl2 ⋅ 2H2O plus 3% (w/v Na-alginate with 93.3% conversion frequency. The earliest conversion (within 7 days of incubation of artificial seeds occurred in half-strength liquid Murashige and Skoog medium. Among the three different temperature regimes [(5 ± 1 °C, (15 ± 1 °C, and (25 ± 1 °C], storage of artificial seeds at (15 ± 1 °C executed the highest frequency of conversion (90% after 15 days of storage. Lengthier storage significantly reduced the conversion frequency of artificial seeds irrespective of storage temperature. Nevertheless, the conversion frequency after 30 days of storage at (15 ± 1 °C was recorded at 70% without further decline even following 45 days of storage, which evidently suggests that lower temperature (15 ± 1 °C is apt for storage and subsequent conversion of T. indica artificial seeds. The present protocol could be expedient for short-term storing and swapping of T. indica germplasms between national and international laboratories.

  17. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  18. THE NEW HORIZONS SOLAR WIND AROUND PLUTO (SWAP) OBSERVATIONS OF THE SOLAR WIND FROM 11–33 au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Livadiotis, G. [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Nicolaou, G., E-mail: helliott@swri.edu [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Box 812, SE-98128, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2016-04-15

    The Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument on National Aeronautics and Space Administration's New Horizons Pluto mission has collected solar wind observations en route from Earth to Pluto, and these observations continue beyond Pluto. Few missions have explored the solar wind in the outer heliosphere making this dataset a critical addition to the field. We created a forward model of SWAP count rates, which includes a comprehensive instrument response function based on laboratory and flight calibrations. By fitting the count rates with this model, the proton density (n), speed (V), and temperature (T) parameters are determined. Comparisons between SWAP parameters and both propagated 1 au observations and prior Voyager 2 observations indicate consistency in both the range and mean wind values. These comparisons as well as our additional findings confirm that small and midsized solar wind structures are worn down with increasing distance due to dynamic interaction of parcels of wind with different speed. For instance, the T–V relationship steepens, as the range in V is limited more than the range in T with distance. At times the T–V correlation clearly breaks down beyond 20 au, which may indicate wind currently expanding and cooling may have an elevated T reflecting prior heating and compression in the inner heliosphere. The power of wind parameters at shorter periodicities decreases with distance as the longer periodicities strengthen. The solar rotation periodicity is present in temperature beyond 20 au indicating the observed parcel temperature may reflect not only current heating or cooling, but also heating occurring closer to the Sun.

  19. Debt swapping as a tool for economic and social stabilization in Russia's closed nuclear cities (briefing paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JL Fuller; KM Leek

    2000-03-08

    The next great issue on the Russian landscape will be management of its foreign debt. In the near future the United States will be called upon to lead an international program of debt restructuring to assist Russia in overcoming the burden of its debt trap. With debt service obligations equal to 50{percent} of 1999 revenues, Russia has virtually no chance of sustaining a program of economic recovery without debt relief (Hardt, 1999). With some form of debt restructuring a foregone conclusion, Russia, the United States, and world community have a vital stake in searching for creative ways to transform the inevitability of debt restructuring into something of value and constructive to Russia and the problems it faces. This was the rationale behind debt-for-nature swaps which emerged in the early 1980s in Latin American and Eastern Europe as a means of relieving developing nations of their crippling foreign debt. Debt-for-nature swaps served both domestic and international needs by converting a portion of foreign debt, often at steep discounts, into local currency that was then used to fund programs to preserve the environment. The debt swap mechanism provides the prospect of getting something of real value where nothing is expected. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has proposed to use the same model to synergistically capitalize defense threat reduction activities and environmental remediation within Russia's closed nuclear cities. Preventing the emigration of nuclear technology, expertise, and hardware from these cities to subnational groups and countries of proliferation concern is one of the world's foremost pressing problems. It is in the best national security interest of the United states to assist Russia in overcoming the legacy of the Cold War by helping to address the catastrophic environmental and public health effects of nuclear production that negatively impact economic stabilization.

  20. Modeling and Pricing of Variance and Volatility Swaps for Local Semi-Markov Volatilities in Financial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Swishchuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a semi-Markov modulated security market consisting of a riskless asset or bond with constant interest rate and risky asset or stock, whose dynamics follow gemoetric Brownian motion with volatility that depends on semi-Markov process. Two cases for semi-Markov volatilities are studied: local current and local semi-Markov volatilities. Using the martingale characterization of semi-Markov processes, we find the minimal martingale measure for this incomplete market. Then we model and price variance and volatility swaps for local semi-Markov stochastic volatilities.

  1. IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, F.; Kehayas, E.; Martinez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Information Society Technologies - all-optical LAbel SwApping employing optical logic Gates in NEtwork nodes (IST-LASAGNE) project aims at designing and implementing the first, modular, scalable, and truly all-optical photonic router capable of operating at 40 Gb/s. The results of the first p...... project year are presented in this paper, with emphasis on the implementation of network node functionalities employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops, as well as the definition of the network architecture and migration scenarios. © 2005 IEEE....

  2. An alternative to Even Swaps for modeling decision in a multi attribute problem; the case of Labor Formality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tetaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two different alternatives to deal with the problem of multiple objectives in decision making. Even Swaps and Choice Based Conjoint are analyzed using an election between hypothetical jobs as a frame of decision. We show that not only Choice Based Conjoint Analysis can be used to value the different tradeoffs associated, but it can also be used to predict people choices even when they are not aware of the trades involved between objectives. Finally a tailored pilot survey is used to show the Choice Based Method in practice, allowing us to obtain important conclusions regarding people willingness to pay for several Labor Formality aspects. 

  3. Integrative proteomics, genomics, and translational immunology approaches reveal mutated forms of Proteolipid Protein 1 (PLP1) and mutant-specific immune response in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qendro, Veneta; Bugos, Grace A; Lundgren, Debbie H; Glynn, John; Han, May H; Han, David K

    2017-03-01

    In order to gain mechanistic insights into multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis, we utilized a multi-dimensional approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in myelin proteins lead to immune activation and central nervous system autoimmunity in MS. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human MS brain lesions revealed seven unique mutations of PLP1; a key myelin protein that is known to be destroyed in MS. Surprisingly, in-depth genomic analysis of two MS patients at the genomic DNA and mRNA confirmed mutated PLP1 in RNA, but not in the genomic DNA. Quantification of wild type and mutant PLP RNA levels by qPCR further validated the presence of mutant PLP RNA in the MS patients. To seek evidence linking mutations in abundant myelin proteins and immune-mediated destruction of myelin, specific immune response against mutant PLP1 in MS patients was examined. Thus, we have designed paired, wild type and mutant peptide microarrays, and examined antibody response to multiple mutated PLP1 in sera from MS patients. Consistent with the idea of different patients exhibiting unique mutation profiles, we found that 13 out of 20 MS patients showed antibody responses against specific but not against all the mutant-PLP1 peptides. Interestingly, we found mutant PLP-directed antibody response against specific mutant peptides in the sera of pre-MS controls. The results from integrative proteomic, genomic, and immune analyses reveal a possible mechanism of mutation-driven pathogenesis in human MS. The study also highlights the need for integrative genomic and proteomic analyses for uncovering pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A new approach for studying GPCR dimers: drug-induced inactivation and reactivation to reveal GPCR dimer function in vitro, in primary culture, and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Milt; Klein, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    GPCRs are a major family of homologous proteins and are key mediators of the effects of numerous endogenous neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, therapeutic drugs, and drugs-of-abuse. Despite the enormous amount of research on the pharmacological and biochemical properties of GPCRs, the question as to whether they exist as monomers, dimers, or higher order structures in the body is unanswered. The GPCR dimer field has been dominated by techniques involving recombinant cell lines expressing mutant receptors, often involving the solubilization of the receptors. These techniques cannot be applied in vivo or even to primary cell cultures. This review will focus on a novel approach to exploring the functional properties of homodimers. Studies of the 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors have revealed that binding of a pseudo-irreversible antagonist (“inactivator”) to one of the orthosteric sites of a homodimer abolishes all receptor activity, and subsequent binding of a competitive antagonist to the orthosteric site of the second protomer releases the inactivator, allowing the receptor to return to an active state. This approach demonstrates allosteric crosstalk between protomers of native GPCR homodimers, indicating that GPCRs do exist and function as homodimers in both recombinant cells and rat primary astrocytes. This technique can be applied universally using intact recombinant or primary cells in culture, membrane homogenate preparations and, potentially, in vivo. The data obtained using the 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A receptors are strongly supportive of a GPCR homodimer structure, with little evidence of monomer involvement in the function of these receptors. PMID:22119169

  5. SCB Quantum Computers Using iSWAP and 1-Qubit Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin; Echtemach, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Units of superconducting circuitry that exploit the concept of the single- Cooper-pair box (SCB) have been built and are undergoing testing as prototypes of logic gates that could, in principle, constitute building blocks of clocked quantum computers. These units utilize quantized charge states as the quantum information-bearing degrees of freedom. An SCB is an artificial two-level quantum system that comprises a nanoscale superconducting electrode connected to a reservoir of Cooper-pair charges via a Josephson junction. The logical quantum states of the device, .0. and .1., are implemented physically as a pair of charge-number states that differ by 2e (where e is the charge of an electron). Typically, some 109 Cooper pairs are involved. Transitions between the logical states are accomplished by tunneling of Cooper pairs through the Josephson junction. Although the two-level system contains a macroscopic number of charges, in the superconducting regime, they behave collectively, as a Bose-Einstein condensate, making possible a coherent superposition of the two logical states. This possibility makes the SCB a candidate for the physical implementation of a qubit. A set of quantum logic operations and the gates that implement them is characterized as universal if, in principle, one can form combinations of the operations in the set to implement any desired quantum computation. To be able to design a practical quantum computer, one must first specify how to decompose any valid quantum computation into a sequence of elementary 1- and 2-qubit quantum gates that are universal and that can be realized in hardware that is feasible to fabricate. Traditionally, the set of universal gates has been taken to be the set of all 1-qubit quantum gates in conjunction with the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate, which is a 2-qubit gate. Also, it has been known for some time that the SWAP gate, which implements square root of the simple 2-qubit exchange interaction, is as computationally

  6. Revealing Cross-Frequency Causal Interactions During a Mental Arithmetic Task Through Symbolic Transfer Entropy: A Novel Vector-Quantization Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Stavros; Sun, Yu; Laskaris, Nikolaos; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2016-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is a distributed cognitive process that employs communication between prefrontal cortex and posterior brain regions in the form of cross-frequency coupling between theta ( θ) and high-alpha ( α2) brain waves. A novel method for deriving causal interactions between brain waves of different frequencies is essential for a better understanding of the neural dynamics of such complex cognitive process. Here, we proposed a novel method to estimate transfer entropy ( TE) through a symbolization scheme, which is based on neural-gas algorithm (NG) and encodes a bivariate time series in the form of two symbolic sequences. Given the symbolic sequences, the delay symbolic transfer entropy ( dSTE NG ) is defined. Our approach is akin to standard symbolic transfer entropy ( STE) that incorporates the ordinal pattern (OP) symbolization technique. We assessed the proposed method in a WM-invoked paradigm that included a mental arithmetic task at various levels of difficulty. Effective interactions between Frontal θ ( F θ ) and [Formula: see text] ( PO α2 ) brain waves were detected in multichannel EEG recordings from 16 subjects. Compared with conventional methods, our technique was less sensitive to noise and demonstrated improved computational efficiency in quantifying the dominating direction of effective connectivity between brain waves of different spectral content. Moreover, we discovered an efferent F θ connectivity pattern and an afferent PO α2 one, in all the levels of the task. Further statistical analysis revealed an increasing dSTE NG strength following the task's difficulty.

  7. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A systems biology approach reveals major metabolic changes in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus in response to the carbon source L-fucose versus D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jacqueline; Stark, Helge; Fafenrot, Katharina; Albersmeier, Andreas; Pham, Trong K; Müller, Katrin B; Meyer, Benjamin H; Hoffmann, Lena; Shen, Lu; Albaum, Stefan P; Kouril, Theresa; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Neumann-Schaal, Meina; Bräsen, Christopher; Kalinowski, Jörn; Wright, Phillip C; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Schomburg, Dietmar; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-12-01

    Archaea are characterised by a complex metabolism with many unique enzymes that differ from their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. The thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus is known for its metabolic versatility and is able to utilize a great variety of different carbon sources. However, the underlying degradation pathways and their regulation are often unknown. In this work, the growth on different carbon sources was analysed, using an integrated systems biology approach. The comparison of growth on L-fucose and D-glucose allows first insights into the genome-wide changes in response to the two carbon sources and revealed a new pathway for L-fucose degradation in S. solfataricus. During growth on L-fucose major changes in the central carbon metabolic network, as well as an increased activity of the glyoxylate bypass and the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle were observed. Within the newly discovered pathway for L-fucose degradation the following key reactions were identified: (i) L-fucose oxidation to L-fuconate via a dehydrogenase, (ii) dehydration to 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate via dehydratase, (iii) 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate cleavage to pyruvate and L-lactaldehyde via aldolase and (iv) L-lactaldehyde conversion to L-lactate via aldehyde dehydrogenase. This pathway as well as L-fucose transport shows interesting overlaps to the D-arabinose pathway, representing another example for pathway promiscuity in Sulfolobus species. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Inequalities and Duality in Gene Coexpression Networks of HIV-1 Infection Revealed by the Combination of the Double-Connectivity Approach and the Gini's Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosis (Sym and pathogenesis (Pat is a duality problem of microbial infection, including HIV/AIDS. Statistical analysis of inequalities and duality in gene coexpression networks (GCNs of HIV-1 infection may gain novel insights into AIDS. In this study, we focused on analysis of GCNs of uninfected subjects and HIV-1-infected patients at three different stages of viral infection based on data deposited in the GEO database of NCBI. The inequalities and duality in these GCNs were analyzed by the combination of the double-connectivity (DC approach and the Gini's method. DC analysis reveals that there are significant differences between positive and negative connectivity in HIV-1 stage-specific GCNs. The inequality measures of negative connectivity and edge weight are changed more significantly than those of positive connectivity and edge weight in GCNs from the HIV-1 uninfected to the AIDS stages. With the permutation test method, we identified a set of genes with significant changes in the inequality and duality measure of edge weight. Functional analysis shows that these genes are highly enriched for the immune system, which plays an essential role in the Sym-Pat duality (SPD of microbial infections. Understanding of the SPD problems of HIV-1 infection may provide novel intervention strategies for AIDS.

  10. A Systems Approach Reveals MAVS Signaling in Myeloid Cells as Critical for Resistance to Ebola Virus in Murine Models of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Dutta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented 2013–2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV resulted in over 11,300 human deaths. Host resistance to RNA viruses requires RIG-I-like receptor (RLR signaling through the adaptor protein, mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, but the role of RLR-MAVS in orchestrating anti-EBOV responses in vivo is not known. Here we apply a systems approach to MAVS−/− mice infected with either wild-type or mouse-adapted EBOV. MAVS controlled EBOV replication through the expression of IFNα, regulation of inflammatory responses in the spleen, and prevention of cell death in the liver, with macrophages implicated as a major cell type influencing host resistance. A dominant role for RLR signaling in macrophages was confirmed following conditional MAVS deletion in LysM+ myeloid cells. These findings reveal tissue-specific MAVS-dependent transcriptional pathways associated with resistance to EBOV, and they demonstrate that EBOV adaptation to cause disease in mice involves changes in two distinct events, RLR-MAVS antagonism and suppression of RLR-independent IFN-I responses.

  11. Super-hydrophobic multilayer coatings with layer number tuned swapping in surface wettability and redox catalytic anti-corrosion application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Junaid Ali; Tang, Shaochun; Meng, Xiangkang

    2017-06-30

    The wetting characteristic of a metal surface can be controlled by employing different coating materials and external stimuli, however, layer number (n) modulated surface swapping between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity in a multilayer structure to achieve prolonged anti-corrosion ability was not taken into consideration. In this study, we proposed a layer-by-layer (LbL) spin assembled polyaniline-silica composite/tetramethylsilane functionalized silica nanoparticles (PSC/TMS-SiO2) coating with the combined effect of super-hydrophobicity and enhanced anti-corrosion ability. Interestingly, the hierarchical integration of two coating materials with inherently different surface roughness and energy in a multilayer structure allows the wetting feature to swap from hydrophobic to hydrophilic state by modulating n with decreasing hydrophilicity. The samples with odd n (TMS-SiO2 surface) are hydrophobic while the samples with even n (PSC surface) exhibits the hydrophilic character. The TMS-SiO2 content was optimized to achieve super-hydrophobic coating with significantly high water contact angle (CA) 153° ± 2° and small sliding angle (SA) 6° ± 2°. Beside its self-cleaning behavior, the electro-active PSC/TMS-SiO2 coating also exhibits remarkably enhanced corrosion resistance against aggressive media. The corrosion resistance of the coating was remained stable even after 240 h of exposure, this enhancement is attributed to super-hydrophobicity and anodic shift in corrosion potential.

  12. β-Glucan Synthase Gene Overexpression and β-Glucans Overproduction in Pleurotus ostreatus Using Promoter Swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongren; Qi, Yuancheng; Gao, Yuqian; Shen, Jinwen; Qiu, Liyou

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom β-glucans are potent immunological stimulators in medicine, but their productivities are very low. In this study, we successfully improved its production by promoter engineering in Pleurotus ostreatus. The promoter for β-1,3-glucan synthase gene (GLS) was replaced by the promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Aspergillus nidulans. The homologous recombination fragment for swapping GLS promoter comprised five segments, which were fused by two rounds of combined touchdown PCR and overlap extension PCR (TD-OE PCR), and was introduced into P. ostreatus through PEG/CaCl2-mediated protoplast transformation. The transformants exhibited one to three fold higher transcription of GLS gene and produced 32% to 131% higher yield of β-glucans than the wild type. The polysaccharide yields had a significant positive correlation to the GLS gene expression. The infrared spectra of the polysaccharides all displayed the typical absorption peaks of β-glucans. This is the first report of successful swapping of promoters in filamentous fungi. PMID:23637884

  13. β-Glucan synthase gene overexpression and β-glucans overproduction in Pleurotus ostreatus using promoter swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Chai

    Full Text Available Mushroom β-glucans are potent immunological stimulators in medicine, but their productivities are very low. In this study, we successfully improved its production by promoter engineering in Pleurotus ostreatus. The promoter for β-1,3-glucan synthase gene (GLS was replaced by the promoter of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of Aspergillus nidulans. The homologous recombination fragment for swapping GLS promoter comprised five segments, which were fused by two rounds of combined touchdown PCR and overlap extension PCR (TD-OE PCR, and was introduced into P. ostreatus through PEG/CaCl2-mediated protoplast transformation. The transformants exhibited one to three fold higher transcription of GLS gene and produced 32% to 131% higher yield of β-glucans than the wild type. The polysaccharide yields had a significant positive correlation to the GLS gene expression. The infrared spectra of the polysaccharides all displayed the typical absorption peaks of β-glucans. This is the first report of successful swapping of promoters in filamentous fungi.

  14. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeepkiran JA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran,1* Sri Bhashyam Sainath,2,3* Konidala Kranthi Kumar,1 Matcha Bhaskar1 1Division of Animal Biotechnology, Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, India; 2CIMAR/CIIMAR, Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental, Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas, Porto, Portugal, 3Department of Biotechnology, Vikrama Simhapuri University, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50% to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3. A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the

  15. Size at the onset of maturity (SOM) revealed in length-weight relationships of brackish amphipods and isopods: An information theory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Emanuela; Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    In amphipods and other small-sized crustaceans, allometric relationships are conventionally analysed by fitting the standard model Y = a·Xb (X and Y are, e.g., body length and weight, respectively) whose scaling exponent b is assumed to be constant. However, breakpoints in allometric relationships have long been documented in large-sized crustaceans, ultimately determined by ontogenetic, abrupt variations in the value of b. Here, the existence of breakpoints in length-weight relationships was investigated in four amphipod (i.e., Gammarus aequicauda, Gammarus insensibilis, Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, and Dexamine spinosa) and three isopod species (i.e., Lekanesphaera hookeri, Sphaeroma serratum, and Cymodoce truncata) from three Mediterranean lagoons. The power of two candidate linear models fitted to log10-transformed data - a simple model assuming a constant exponent b and a segmented model assuming b to vary after a breakpoint - was compared using a parsimonious selection strategy based on the Akaike information criterion. The segmented model with a breakpoint provided the most accurate fitting of length-weight data in the majority of the species analysed; non-conclusive results were obtained only for D. spinosa and C. truncata, of which a limited number of specimens was examined. Model parameters were consistent for amphipod and isopod species collected across the three different habitats; the generality of the results was further supported by a literature search confirming that the identified breakpoints corresponded with ontogenetic discontinuities related with sexual maturation in all the species investigated. In this study, segmented regression models were revealed to provide a statistically accurate and biologically meaningful description of length-weight relationships of common amphipod and isopod species. The methodological limitations of the approach are considered, while the practical implications for secondary production estimates are discussed.

  16. Complete genome-wide screening and subtractive genomic approach revealed new virulence factors, potential drug targets against bio-war pathogen Brucella melitensis 16M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkiran, Jangampalli Adi; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Kumar, Konidala Kranthi; Bhaskar, Matcha

    2015-01-01

    Brucella melitensis 16M is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that infects both animals and humans. It causes a disease known as brucellosis, which is characterized by acute febrile illness in humans and causes abortions in livestock. To prevent and control brucellosis, identification of putative drug targets is crucial. The present study aimed to identify drug targets in B. melitensis 16M by using a subtractive genomic approach. We used available database repositories (Database of Essential Genes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Automatic Annotation Server, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) to identify putative genes that are nonhomologous to humans and essential for pathogen B. melitensis 16M. The results revealed that among 3 Mb genome size of pathogen, 53 putative characterized and 13 uncharacterized hypothetical genes were identified; further, from Basic Local Alignment Search Tool protein analysis, one hypothetical protein showed a close resemblance (50%) to Silicibacter pomeroyi DUF1285 family protein (2RE3). A further homology model of the target was constructed using MODELLER 9.12 and optimized through variable target function method by molecular dynamics optimization with simulating annealing. The stereochemical quality of the restrained model was evaluated by PROCHECK, VERIFY-3D, ERRAT, and WHATIF servers. Furthermore, structure-based virtual screening was carried out against the predicted active site of the respective protein using the glycerol structural analogs from the PubChem database. We identified five best inhibitors with strong affinities, stable interactions, and also with reliable drug-like properties. Hence, these leads might be used as the most effective inhibitors of modeled protein. The outcome of the present work of virtual screening of putative gene targets might facilitate design of potential drugs for better treatment against brucellosis.

  17. Field-scale water flow and solute transport : SWAP model concepts, parameter estimation and case studies = [Waterstroming en transport van opgeloste stoffen op veldschaal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Water flow and solute transport in top soils are important elements in many environmental studies. The agro- and ecohydrological model SWAP (Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere) has been developed to simulate simultaneously water flow, solute transport, heat flow and crop growth at field scale

  18. The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP): Evaluating Psychometric Questions about Its Reliability, Validity, and Impact of Its Fixed Score Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, Pavel S.; Bi, Wu; Shedler, Jonathan; Westen, Drew

    2012-01-01

    The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP) is a personality assessment instrument designed for use by expert clinical assessors. Critics have raised questions about its psychometrics, most notably its validity across observers and situations, the impact of its fixed score distribution on research findings, and its test-retest reliability. We…

  19. Unjuk Kerja Jaringan Seluler 2G dan 3G PT. XL Axiata di Area Jawa Tengah Bagian Utara setelah Proyek Swap dan Modernisasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yovita Dwi Utami

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of customers and the need for reliable communication require the availability of coverage, sufficient capacity and good quality of mobile communications networks. New BTS implementation is required to cover a wider area with good network quality. However, it often requires high cost and long time to get permission from the government and local residents. Swap and Modernization Project is a project that swap the previous 3G equipment using BTS 3900 Huawei with Ericsson RBS 6000 and modernize the 2G RBS 2000 to RBS 6000 and then carry out parameter settings to optimize the network. In this paper, we report the results of mobile network performance after Swap and Modernization projects had been done in terms of the signal strength improvements, which are showed by Rx Level, RSCP and CDD Dump parameters. The study was conducted in PT XL Axiata Northern Areas of Central Java with D5 cluster as a sample. The results show improvement of Rx Level that increased by 89.93 %, and RSCP value increased by 58.36 %. The swap and modernization of the BTS and parameter settings are able to improve CDD Dump parameters. These improvements are able to expand the coverage area of cluster D5 sites.

  20. Distributed agro-hydrological modeling with SWAP to improve water and salt management of the Voshmgir Irrigaton and Drainage Network in Northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noory, H.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Liaghat, A.M.; Parsinejad, M.; Dam, van J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The agro-hydrological model SWAP was used in a distributed manner to quantify irrigation water management effects on the water and salt balances of the Voshmgir Network of North Iran during the agricultural year 2006–2007. Field experiments, satellite images and geographical data were processed into

  1. Development of a Low SWaP Laser Transmitter for lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, N.; Rosiewicz, A.; Coleman, S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is working on novel lidar schemes to measure carbon dioxide concentrations from space based platforms for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. The National Research Council of the U.S. National Academies in its Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, has recommended the ASCENDS mission to produce global atmospheric column CO2 measurements without seasonal, latitudinal, or diurnal bias using simultaneous laser remote sensing of CO2 and O2. The goal the ASCENDS mission is to enhance understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle that include quantification of global spatial distributions of terrestrial and oceanic sources and sinks of CO2 on 1° x 1° grids. Accurate measurements of atmospheric parameters with high-spatial resolution from ground, airborne, and space-based platforms require advances in the state-of-the-art LIDAR technology with emphasis on compactness, efficiency, reliability, lifetime, and high performance. LaRC has selected the 1.57 micron spectral band for CO2 and 1.26 micron spectral band for oxygen sensing. In this paper, we discuss recent progress made in the development of compact, single mode transmitter technologies for CO2 and O2 lidars. One of our efforts is to demonstrate compact, efficient DFB laser modules with integrated drive and temperature control circuitry that minimizes laser linewidth, allows for wavelength tunability, and is adaptable to space qualified electronic hardware. Since ASCENDS is in essence a spectroscopic mission, precise tunability of the laser diode wavelength over transition lines is of importance. The overall goal is to reduce the overall size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP) of the laser master oscillator. In this paper, the development of advanced DFB laser diode module efficiently coupled to integrated electronics and nano-cooling scheme in a

  2. In vivo approaches reveal a key role for DCs in CD4+ T cell activation and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental blood-stage malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are phagocytes that are highly specialized for antigen presentation. Heterogeneous populations of macrophages and DCs form a phagocyte network inside the red pulp (RP of the spleen, which is a major site for the control of blood-borne infections such as malaria. However, the dynamics of splenic DCs during Plasmodium infections are poorly understood, limiting our knowledge regarding their protective role in malaria. Here, we used in vivo experimental approaches that enabled us to deplete or visualize DCs in order to clarify these issues. To elucidate the roles of DCs and marginal zone macrophages in the protection against blood-stage malaria, we infected DTx (diphtheria toxin-treated C57BL/6.CD11c-DTR mice, as well as C57BL/6 mice treated with low doses of clodronate liposomes (ClLip, with Plasmodium chabaudi AS (Pc parasites. The first evidence suggesting that DCs could contribute directly to parasite clearance was an early effect of the DTx treatment, but not of the ClLip treatment, in parasitemia control. DCs were also required for CD4+ T cell responses during infection. The phagocytosis of infected red blood cells (iRBCs by splenic DCs was analyzed by confocal intravital microscopy, as well as by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence, at three distinct phases of Pc malaria: at the first encounter, at pre-crisis concomitant with parasitemia growth and at crisis when the parasitemia decline coincides with spleen closure. In vivo and ex vivo imaging of the spleen revealed that DCs actively phagocytize iRBCs and interact with CD4+ T cells both in T cell-rich areas and in the RP. Subcapsular RP DCs were highly efficient in the recognition and capture of iRBCs during pre-crisis, while complete DC maturation was only achieved during crisis. These findings indicate that, beyond their classical role in antigen presentation, DCs also contribute to the direct elimination of iRBCs during acute Plasmodium infection.

  3. When genome-based approach meets the ‘old but good’: revealing genes involved in the antibacterial activity of Pseudomonas sp. P482 against soft rot pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Magdalena Krzyżanowska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dickeya solani and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasili¬ense are recently established species of bacterial plant pathogens causing black leg and soft rot of many vegetables and ornamental plants. Pseudomonas sp. strain P482 inhibits the growth of these pathogens, a desired trait considering the limited measures to combat these diseases. In this study, we determined the genetic background of the antibacterial activity of P482, and established the phylogenetic position of this strain.Pseudomonas sp. P482 was classified as Pseudomonas donghuensis. Genome mining revealed that the P482 genome does not contain genes determining the synthesis of known antimicrobials. However, the ClusterFinder algorithm, designed to detect atypical or novel classes of secondary metabolite gene clusters, predicted 18 such clusters in the genome. Screening of a Tn5 mutant library yielded an antimicrobial negative transposon mutant. The transposon insertion was located in a gene encoding an HpcH/HpaI aldolase/citrate lyase family protein. This gene is located in a hypothetical cluster predicted by the ClusterFinder, together with the downstream homologues of four nfs genes, that confer production of a nonfluorescent siderophore by P. donghuensis HYST. Site-directed inactivation of the HpcH/HpaI aldolase gene, the adjacent short chain dehydrogenase gene, as well as a homologue of an essential nfs cluster gene, all abolished the antimicrobial activity of the P482, suggesting their involvement in a common biosynthesis pathway. However, none of the mutants showed a decreased siderophore yield, neither was the antimicrobial activity of the wild type P482 compromised by high iron bioavailability.A genomic region comprising the nfs cluster and three upstream genes is involved in the antibacterial activity of P. donghuensis P482 against D. solani and P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliense. The genes studied are unique to the two known P. donghuensis strains. This study

  4. Performance assessment and parameterization of the SWAP-WOFOST model for peat soil under agricultural use in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Sascha; Bechtold, Michel; Hendriks, Rob; Piayda, Arndt; Regina, Kristiina; Myllys, Merja; Tiemeyer, Bärbel

    2017-04-01

    Peat soils form a major share of soil suitable for agriculture in northern Europe. Successful agricultural production depends on hydrological and pedological conditions, local climate and agricultural management. Climate change impact assessment on food production and development of mitigation and adaptation strategies require reliable yield forecasts under given emission scenarios. Coupled soil hydrology - crop growth models, driven by regionalized future climate scenarios are a valuable tool and widely used for this purpose. Parameterization on local peat soil conditions and crop breed or grassland specie performance, however, remains a major challenge. The subject of this study is to evaluate the performance and sensitivity of the SWAP-WOFOST coupled soil hydrology and plant growth model with respect to the application on peat soils under different regional conditions across northern Europe. Further, the parameterization of region-specific crop and grass species is discussed. First results of the model application and parameterization at deep peat sites in southern Finland are presented. The model performed very well in reproducing two years of observed, daily ground water level data on four hydrologically contrasting sites. Naturally dry and wet sites could be modelled with the same performance as sites with active water table management by regulated drains in order to improve peat conservation. A simultaneous multi-site calibration scheme was used to estimate plant growth parameters of the local oat breed. Cross-site validation of the modelled yields against two years of observations proved the robustness of the chosen parameter set and gave no indication of possible overparameterization. This study proves the suitability of the coupled SWAP-WOFOST model for the prediction of crop yields and water table dynamics of peat soils in agricultural use under given climate conditions.

  5. The effect of virtual body swapping with mental rehearsal on pain intensity and body perception disturbance in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Haesol; Cho, Sungkun; Lee, Jang-Han

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of virtual body swapping with mental rehearsal on pain intensity and body perception disturbance (BPD) in patients with complex regional pain syndrome. Patients with complex regional pain syndrome were assigned randomly to three experimental groups: the 'virtual body swapping with mental rehearsal' (VBS) group (n=13), the 'watching movement only' group (n=13), and the 'mental rehearsal only' (n=13) group. Then, pretreatment pain intensity and BPD were compared with post-treatment perceptions. The results showed that pain intensity did not decrease significantly after treatment in all of the groups. However, BPD improved significantly after treatment in the VBS group, but not in the other groups. Therefore, this study is the first to show the effects of a single session of VBS on BPD. Further studies should apply an elevated degree of immersion and create a more realistic virtual body.

  6. The Shapes of Z-α1-Antitrypsin Polymers in Solution Support the C-Terminal Domain-Swap Mechanism of Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Manja Annette; Sendall, Timothy J.; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2014-01-01

    Emphysema and liver cirrhosis can be caused by the Z mutation (Glu342Lys) in the serine protease inhibitor α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), which is found in more than 4% of the Northern European population. Homozygotes experience deficiency in the lung concomitantly with a massive accumulation of polymers......-like structures in strong support of a common domain-swap polymerization mechanism that can lead to self-terminating polymers...

  7. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etchells J Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data.

  8. A simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for gene fusion, site-directed mutagenesis, short sequence insertion and domain deletions and swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Ivan I; Atanassov, Ilian I; Etchells, J Peter; Turner, Simon R

    2009-01-01

    Background The progress and completion of various plant genome sequencing projects has paved the way for diverse functional genomic studies that involve cloning, modification and subsequent expression of target genes. This requires flexible and efficient procedures for generating binary vectors containing: gene fusions, variants from site-directed mutagenesis, addition of protein tags together with domain swaps and deletions. Furthermore, efficient cloning procedures, ideally high throughput, are essential for pyramiding of multiple gene constructs. Results Here, we present a simple, flexible and efficient PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure for construction of binary vectors for a range of gene fusions or variants with single or multiple nucleotide substitutions, short sequence insertions, domain deletions and swaps. Results from selected applications of the procedure which include ORF fusion, introduction of Cys>Ser mutations, insertion of StrepII tag sequence and domain swaps for Arabidopsis secondary cell wall AtCesA genes are demonstrated. Conclusion The PCR-fusion/Gateway cloning procedure described provides an elegant, simple and efficient solution for a wide range of diverse and complicated cloning tasks. Through streamlined cloning of sets of gene fusions and modification variants into binary vectors for systematic functional studies of gene families, our method allows for efficient utilization of the growing sequence and expression data. PMID:19863796

  9. Design of beta-domain swapping, alpha/beta-protein, environmentally sensitive coiled coil and peptide functionalized titania materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, Radhika P.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to apply rational peptide design to fabricate nanomaterials via self-assembly. This has been demonstrated in structurally diverse systems with an aim of deciphering the underlying principles governing how sequence affects the peptide's ability to adopt a specific secondary structure and ultimate material properties that are realized from the association of these secondary structural elements. Several amyloidogenic proteins have been shown to self-assemble into fibrils using a mechanism known as domain swapping. Here, discreet units of secondary structure are exchanged among discreet proteins during self-assembly to form extended networks with precise three dimensional organization. The possibility of using these mechanisms to design peptides capable of controlled assembly and fibril formation leading to materials with targeted properties is explored. By altering the placement of a beta-turn sequence that varies the size and location of the exchanged strand, twisting, non-twisting and laminated fibrillar nanostructures are obtained. Hydrogels prepared from these strand swapping beta-hairpins have varied rheological properties due to differences in their fibrillar nanostructures. In a second distinct design, alpha/beta-proteins are used to prepare environmentally sensitive hydrogels. Here, multiple distinct motifs for structural integrity and dynamic response within a single self-assembling peptide allow the amyloid-like fibrils formed to controllably alter their nano-topography in response to an external stimulus such as temperature. The development of these self-assembling alpha/beta-protein motifs also necessitated the design of pH sensitive antiparallel coiled coils. Exploring the basic principles responsible for pH dependent conformational changes in coiled coils can lead to new insights in the control of protein structure and function. Lastly, this dissertation discusses the interface between biomolecules and inorganic

  10. Management Strategies to Sustain Irrigated Agriculture with Combination of Remote Sensing, Weather Monitoring & Forecasting and SWAP Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, Olga; Zeyliger, Anatoly

    2017-04-01

    Today world's water systems face formidable threats due to climate change and increasing water withdraw for agriculture, industry and domestic use. Projected in many parts of the earth increases in temperature, evaporation, and drought frequency shrunk water availability and magnify water scarcity. Declining irrigation water supplies threaten the sustainability of irrigated agricultural production which plays a critical role in meeting global food needs. In irrigated agriculture there is a strong call for deep efforts in order on the one hand to improve water efficiency use and on the other to maximize yields. The aim of this research is to provide tool to optimize water application with crop irrigation by sprinkling in order to sustain irrigated agriculture under limited water supply by increasing net returns per unit of water. For this aim some field experimental results of 2012 year growing season of alfalfa, corn and soya irrigated by sprinkling machines crops at left bank of Volga River at Saratov Region of Russia. Additionally a combination of data sets was used which includes MODIS images, local meteorological station and results of SWAP (Soil-Water-Atmosphere-Plant) modeling. This combination was used to estimate crop water stress defined as ratio between actual (ETa) and potential (ETc) evapotranspiration. By this way it was determined the effect of applied irrigation scheduling and water application depths on evapotranspiration, crop productivity and water stress coefficient. Aggregation of actual values of crop water stress and biomass data predicted by SWAP agrohydrological model with weather forecasting and irrigation scheduling was used to indicate of both rational timing and amount of irrigation water allocation. This type of analysis facilitating an efficient water management can be extended to irrigated areas by developing maps of water efficiency application serving as an irrigation advice system for farmers at his fields and as a decision support

  11. In-Depth Glyco-Peptidomics Approach Reveals Unexpected Diversity of Glycosylated Peptides and Atypical Post-Translational Modifications in Dendroaspis angusticeps Snake Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Degueldre

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms represent a valuable source of bioactive peptides that can be derived into useful pharmacological tools, or even innovative drugs. In this way, the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps (DA, the Eastern Green Mamba, has been intensively studied during recent years. It mainly contains hundreds of large toxins from 6 to 9 kDa, each displaying several disulfide bridges. These toxins are the main target of venom-based studies due to their valuable activities obtained by selectively targeting membrane receptors, such as ion channels or G-protein coupled receptors. This study aims to demonstrate that the knowledge of venom composition is still limited and that animal venoms contain unexpected diversity and surprises. A previous study has shown that Dendroaspis angusticeps venom contains not only a cocktail of classical toxins, but also small glycosylated peptides. Following this work, a deep exploration of DA glycopeptidome by a dual nano liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS analyses was initiated. This study reveals unsuspected structural diversity of compounds such as 221 glycopeptides, displaying different glycan structures. Sequence alignments underline structural similarities with natriuretic peptides already characterized in Elapidae venoms. Finally, the presence of an S-cysteinylation and hydroxylation of proline on four glycopeptides, never described to date in snake venoms, is also revealed by proteomics and affined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR experiments.

  12. The Stability Enhancement of Nitrile Hydratase from Bordetella petrii by Swapping the C-terminal Domain of β subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weifeng; Zhu, Longbao; Chen, Xianggui; Wu, Lunjie; Zhou, Zhemin; Liu, Yi

    2016-04-01

    The thermal stability of most nitrile hydratases (NHase) is poor, which has been enhanced to some extent by molecular modifications in several specific regions of the C-terminal domain (C-domain) of β subunit of NHase. Since the C-domain could be present as a naturally separate domain in a few NHases, the whole C-domain is proposed to be related to the NHase stability. The chimeric NHase (SBpNHase) from the thermal-sensitive BpNHase (NHase from Bordetella petrii) and the relatively thermal-stable PtNHase (NHase from Pseudonocardia thermophila) was constructed by swapping the corresponding C-domains. After 30 min incubation at 50 °C, the original BpNHase nearly lost its activity, while the SBpNHase retained 50 % residual activity, compared with the melting temperature (Tm) (50 °C) of the original BpNHase, that of the SBpNHase was 55 °C. The SBpNHase with higher thermal stability would be useful for the thermal stability enhancement of NHase and for the understanding of the relationship between the stability of NHase and its structure.

  13. Quantum private comparison protocol based on the entanglement swapping between χ ^+ state and W-Class state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-12-01

    Quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol, including Alice, Bob and the third party Charlie, aims at comparing Alice and Bob's secret inputs correctly without leaking them. Firstly, χ ^+ state and W-Class state are used to conduct the entanglement swapping in this protocol. Either the basis {|φ ^± > ,|ψ ^± >} or the basis {|χ ^± > ,|ω ^± > } is chosen by Alice and Bob based on the predetermined value to measure the particle pairs. And three bits of secret inputs can be compared in this protocol in every comparison time, while most of previous QPC protocols can only compare one or two bits. The qubit efficiency of this protocol is 60% more than others, which are 50% at most. Secondly, if the eavesdropper intends to obtain the secret inputs, it is important and primary to get the measurement results of particle pairs. In this protocol, even if the eavesdropper gets the accurate particle pairs, he cannot get the right measurement results without the right basis. Finally, this protocol is analyzed to be able to defend the secret inputs against various kinds of attack.

  14. 76 FR 31518 - Public Roundtable on the Protection of Cleared Swaps Customer Collateral

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... issues surrounding such approach, and the advantages and disadvantages of the models proposed in the NPRM... instructions for submitting comments through the CFTC's Web site. All comments must be in English or be accompanied by an English translation. All submissions provided to the CFTC in any electronic form or on paper...

  15. Denitrifying woodchip bioreactor and phosphorus filter pairing to minimize pollution swapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairing denitrifying woodchip bioreactors and phosphorus-sorbing filters provides a unique, engineered approach for dual nutrient removal from waters impaired with both nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). This column study aimed to test placement of two P-filter media (acid mine drainage treatment resi...

  16. Novel Approaches to Visualization and Data Mining Reveals Diagnostic Information in the Low Amplitude Region of Serum Mass Spectra from Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Johann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to identify patterns of diagnostic signatures in proteomic data generated by high throughput mass spectrometry (MS based serum analysis has recently generated much excitement and interest from the scientific community. These data sets can be very large, with high-resolution MS instrumentation producing 1–2 million data points per sample. Approaches to analyze mass spectral data using unsupervised and supervised data mining operations would greatly benefit from tools that effectively allow for data reduction without losing important diagnostic information. In the past, investigators have proposed approaches where data reduction is performed by a priori “peak picking” and alignment/warping/smoothing components using rule-based signal-to-noise measurements. Unfortunately, while this type of system has been employed for gene microarray analysis, it is unclear whether it will be effective in the analysis of mass spectral data, which unlike microarray data, is comprised of continuous measurement operations. Moreover, it is unclear where true signal begins and noise ends. Therefore, we have developed an approach to MS data analysis using new types of data visualization and mining operations in which data reduction is accomplished by culling via the intensity of the peaks themselves instead of by location. Applying this new analysis method on a large study set of high resolution mass spectra from healthy and ovarian cancer patients, shows that all of the diagnostic information is contained within the very lowest amplitude regions of the mass spectra. This region can then be selected and studied to identify the exact location and amplitude of the diagnostic biomarkers.

  17. Novel Approaches to Visualization and Data Mining Reveals Diagnostic Information in the Low Amplitude Region of Serum Mass Spectra from Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Donald J.; McGuigan, Michael D.; Tomov, Stanimire; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Ross, Sally; Conrads, Thomas P.; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Fishman, David A.; Whiteley, Gordon R.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Liotta, Lance A.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to identify patterns of diagnostic signatures in proteomic data generated by high throughput mass spectrometry (MS) based serum analysis has recently generated much excitement and interest from the scientific community. These data sets can be very large, with high-resolution MS instrumentation producing 1–2 million data points per sample. Approaches to analyze mass spectral data using unsupervised and supervised data mining operations would greatly benefit from tools that effectively allow for data reduction without losing important diagnostic information. In the past, investigators have proposed approaches where data reduction is performed by a priori “peak picking” and alignment/warping/smoothing components using rule-based signal-to-noise measurements. Unfortunately, while this type of system has been employed for gene microarray analysis, it is unclear whether it will be effective in the analysis of mass spectral data, which unlike microarray data, is comprised of continuous measurement operations. Moreover, it is unclear where true signal begins and noise ends. Therefore, we have developed an approach to MS data analysis using new types of data visualization and mining operations in which data reduction is accomplished by culling via the intensity of the peaks themselves instead of by location. Applying this new analysis method on a large study set of high resolution mass spectra from healthy and ovarian cancer patients, shows that all of the diagnostic information is contained within the very lowest amplitude regions of the mass spectra. This region can then be selected and studied to identify the exact location and amplitude of the diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:15258334

  18. Genomic and functional approaches reveal a case of adaptive introgression from Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) in P. trichocarpa (black cottonwood).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, Adriana; Hefer, Charles A; Christe, Camille; Corea, Oliver; Lexer, Christian; Cronk, Quentin C B; Douglas, Carl J

    2016-06-01

    Natural hybrid zones in forest trees provide systems to study the transfer of adaptive genetic variation by introgression. Previous landscape genomic studies in Populus trichocarpa, a keystone tree species, indicated genomic footprints of admixture with its sister species Populus balsamifera and identified candidate genes for local adaptation. Here, we explored the patterns of introgression and signals of local adaptation in P. trichocarpa and P. balsamifera, employing genome resequencing data from three chromosomes in pure species and admixed individuals from wild populations. Local ancestry analysis in admixed P. trichocarpa revealed a telomeric region in chromosome 15 with P. balsamifera ancestry, containing several candidate genes for local adaptation. Genomic analyses revealed signals of selection in certain genes in this region (e.g. PRR5, COMT1), and functional analyses based on gene expression variation and correlations with adaptive phenotypes suggest distinct functions of the introgressed alleles. In contrast, a block of genes in chromosome 12 paralogous to the introgressed region showed no signs of introgression or signatures of selection. We hypothesize that the introgressed region in chromosome 15 has introduced modular or cassette-like variation into P. trichocarpa. These linked adaptive mutations are associated with a block of genes in chromosome 15 that appear to have undergone neo- or subfunctionalization relative to paralogs in a duplicated region on chromosome 12 that show no signatures of adaptive variation. The association between P. balsamifera introgressed alleles with the expression of adaptive traits in P. trichocarpa supports the hypothesis that this is a case of adaptive introgression in an ecologically important foundation species. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An in silico approach reveals associations between genetic and epigenetic factors within regulatory elements in B cells from primary Sjögren’s syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsia D. Konsta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genetics have highlighted several regions and candidate genes associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS, a systemic autoimmune epithelitis that combines exocrine gland dysfunctions, and focal lymphocytic infiltrations. In addition to genetic factors, it is now clear that epigenetic deregulations are present during SS and restricted to specific cell type subsets such as lymphocytes and salivary gland epithelial cells. In this study, 72 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with 43 SS gene risk factors were selected from publicly available and peer reviewed literature for further in silico analysis. SS risk variant location was tested revealing a broad distribution in coding sequences (5.6%, intronic sequences (55.6%, upstream/downstream genic regions (30.5%, and intergenic regions (8.3%. Moreover, a significant enrichment of regulatory motifs (promoter, enhancer, insulator, DNAse peak and eQTL characterizes SS risk variants (94.4%. Next, screening SNPs in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.8 in Caucasians revealed 645 new variants including 5 SNPs with missense mutations, and indicated an enrichment of transcriptionally active motifs according to the cell type (B cells > monocytes > T cells >> A549. Finally, we looked at SS risk variants for histone markers in B cells (GM12878, monocytes (CD14+ and epithelial cells (A548. Active histone markers were associated with SS risk variants at both promoters and enhancers in B cells, and within enhancers in monocytes. In conclusion and based on the obtained in silico results, that need further confirmation, associations were observed between SS genetic risk factors and epigenetic factors and these associations predominate in B cells such as those observed at the FAM167A-BLK locus.

  20. Factor VIII/V C-domain swaps reveal discrete C-domain roles in factor VIII function and intracellular trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Ebberink, Eduard H T M; Bouwens, Eveline A. M.; Bloem, Esther; Boon-Spijker, Mariëtte; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Voorberg, Jan; Alexander B. Meijer; Mertens, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Factor VIII C-domains are believed to have specific functions in cofactor activity and in interactions with von Willebrand factor. We have previously shown that factor VIII is co-targeted with von Willebrand factor to the Weibel-Palade bodies in blood outgrowth endothelial cells, even when factor VIII carries mutations in the light chain that are associated with defective von Willebrand factor binding. In this study, we addressed the contribution of individual factor VIII C-domains in intrace...

  1. Intricacies of van der Waals Interactions in Systems with Elongated Bonds Revealed by Electron-Groups Embedding and High-Level Coupled-Cluster Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorczak, Ewa; Shen, Jun; Hapka, Michał; Piecuch, Piotr; Pernal, Katarzyna

    2017-11-14

    Noncovalent interactions between molecules with stretched intramonomer covalent bonds are a fascinating, yet little studied area. This shortage of information stems largely from the inability of most of the commonly used computational quantum chemistry methods to accurately describe weak long-range and strong nondynamic correlations at the same time. In this work, we propose a geminal-based approach, abbreviated as EERPA-GVB, capable of describing such systems in a robust manner using relatively inexpensive computational steps. By examining a few van der Waals complexes, we demonstrate that the elongation of one or more intramolecular covalent bonds leads to an enhanced attraction between the monomers. We show that this increase in attraction occurs as the electron density characterizing intramolecular covalent bonds depletes and migrates toward the region between the monomers. As the covalent intramonomer bonds continue to stretch, the intermolecular interaction potential passes through a minimum and eventually goes up. The findings resulting from our EERPA-GVB calculations are supported and further elucidated by the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory and coupled-cluster (CC) computations using methods that are as sophisticated as the CC approach with a full treatment of singly, doubly, and triply excited clusters.

  2. A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Morris, Zachary S; Sefton, Elizabeth M; Tok, Atalay; Tokita, Masayoshi; Namkoong, Bumjin; Camacho, Jasmin; Burnham, David A; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2015-07-01

    The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First, we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial WNT-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. To test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later WNT responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Use of a combined cryo-EM and X-ray crystallography approach to reveal molecular details of bacterial pilus assembly by the chaperone/usher pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.; Thanassi, D. G.

    2009-06-01

    Many bacteria assemble hair-like fibers termed pili or fimbriae on their cell surface. These fibers mediate adhesion to various surfaces, including host cells, and play crucial roles in pathogenesis. Pili are polymers composed of thousands of individual subunit proteins. Understanding how these subunit proteins cross the bacterial envelope and correctly assemble at the cell surface is important not only for basic biology but also for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. The chaperone/usher pilus biogenesis pathway is one of the best-understood protein secretion systems, thanks largely to innovative efforts in biophysical techniques such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. Such a combined approach holds promise for further elucidating remaining questions regarding the multi-step and highly dynamic pilus assembly process, as well as for studying other protein secretion and organelle biogenesis systems.

  4. Genetic, morphological, geographical and ecological approaches reveal phylogenetic relationships in complex groups, an example of recently diverged pinyon pine species (Subsection Cembroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rentería, Lluvia; Wegier, Ana; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Ortíz-Medrano, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel; Whipple, Amy V; Molina-Freaner, Francisco; Domínguez, César A

    2013-12-01

    Elucidating phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups is challenging for intrinsic and extrinsic (i.e., technical) reasons. Mexican pinyon pines are a complex group whose phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries have been widely studied but poorly resolved, partly due to intrinsic ecological and evolutionary features such as low morphological and genetic differentiation caused by recent divergence, hybridization and introgression. Extrinsic factors such as limited sampling and difficulty in selecting informative molecular markers have also impeded progress. Some of the Mexican pinyon pines are of conservation concern but others may remain unprotected because the species boundaries have not been established. In this study we combined approaches to resolve the phylogenetic relationships in this complex group and to establish species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa: P. discolor, P. johannis, P. culminicola and P. cembroides. We performed phylogenetic analyses using the chloroplast markers matK and psbA-trnH as well as complete and partial chloroplast genomes of species of Subsection Cembroides. Additionally, we performed a phylogeographic analysis combining genetic data (18 chloroplast markers), morphological data and geographical data to define species boundaries in four recently diverged taxa. Ecological divergence was supported by differences in climate among localities for distinct genetic lineages. Whereas the phylogenetic analysis inferred with matK and psbA-trnH was unable to resolve the relationships in this complex group, we obtained a resolved phylogeny with the use of the chloroplast genomes. The resolved phylogeny was concordant with a haplotype network obtained using chloroplast markers. In species with potential for recent divergence, hybridization or introgression, nonhierarchical network-based approaches are probably more appropriate to protect against misclassification due to incomplete

  5. Color Swapping to Enhance Breast Cancer Digital Images Qualities Using Stain Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Izzati; Puspasari Wijaya, Dhina; Indrayanti

    2017-03-01

    Histopathology is the disease diagnosis by means of the visual examination of tissues under the microscope. The virtually transparent tissue sections were prepared using a number of colored histochemical stains bound selectively to the cellular components. A variation of colors comes to be a problem in histopathology based upon the microscope lighting for the range of factors. This research aimed to investigate an image enhancement by applying a nonlinear mapping approach to stain normalization and histogram equalization for contrast enhancement. Validation was carried out in 59 datasets with 96.6% accordance and expert justification.

  6. Resonance assignment of disordered protein with repetitive and overlapping sequence using combinatorial approach reveals initial structural propensities and local restrictions in the denatured state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Nikita; Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: askutoshk@iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Bioscience and Bioengineering (India)

    2016-09-15

    NMR resonance assignment of intrinsically disordered proteins poses a challenge because of the limited dispersion of amide proton chemical shifts. This becomes even more complex with the increase in the size of the system. Residue specific selective labeling/unlabeling experiments have been used to resolve the overlap, but require multiple sample preparations. Here, we demonstrate an assignment strategy requiring only a single sample of uniformly labeled {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-protein. We have used a combinatorial approach, involving 3D-HNN, CC(CO)NH and 2D-MUSIC, which allowed us to assign a denatured centromeric protein Cse4 of 229 residues. Further, we show that even the less sensitive experiments, when used in an efficient manner can lead to the complete assignment of a complex system without the use of specialized probes in a relatively short time frame. The assignment of the amino acids discloses the presence of local structural propensities even in the denatured state accompanied by restricted motion in certain regions that provides insights into the early folding events of the protein.

  7. A Proteomic Approach of Bradyrhizobium/Aeschynomene Root and Stem Symbioses Reveals the Importance of the fixA Locus for Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Delmotte

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are soil bacteria that are able to form symbiosis with plant hosts of the legume family. These associations result in the formation of organs, called nodules in which bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen to the benefit of the plant. Most of our knowledge on the metabolism and the physiology of the bacteria during symbiosis derives from studying roots nodules of terrestrial plants. Here we used a proteomics approach to investigate the bacterial physiology of photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278 during the symbiotic process with the semi aquatical plant Aeschynomene indica that forms root and stem nodules. We analyzed the proteomes of bacteria extracted from each type of nodule. First, we analyzed the bacteroid proteome at two different time points and found only minor variation between the bacterial proteomes of 2-week- and 3-week-old nodules. High conservation of the bacteroid proteome was also found when comparing stem nodules and root nodules. Among the stem nodule specific proteins were those related to the phototrophic ability of Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278. Furthermore, we compared our data with those obtained during an extensive genetic screen previously published. The symbiotic role of four candidate genes which corresponding proteins were found massively produced in the nodules but not identified during this screening was examined. Mutant analysis suggested that in addition to the EtfAB system, the fixA locus is required for symbiotic efficiency.

  8. Hydrolytic Fate of 3/15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol in Humans: Specific Deacetylation by the Small Intestine and Liver Revealed Using in Vitro and ex Vivo Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hassan Ajandouz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to deoxynivalenol (DON, acetylated derivatives, i.e., 3-acetyl and 15-acetyldexynivalenol (or 3/15ADON, are present in cereals leading to exposure to these mycotoxins. Animal and human studies suggest that 3/15ADON are converted into DON after their ingestion through hydrolysis of the acetyl moiety, the site(s of such deacetylation being still uncharacterized. We used in vitro and ex vivo approaches to study the deacetylation of 3/15ADON by enzymes and cells/tissues present on their way from the food matrix to the blood in humans. We found that luminal deacetylation by digestive enzymes and bacteria is limited. Using human cells, tissues and S9 fractions, we were able to demonstrate that small intestine and liver possess strong deacetylation capacity compared to colon and kidneys. Interestingly, in most cases, deacetylation was more efficient for 3ADON than 15ADON. Although we initially thought that carboxylesterases (CES could be responsible for the deacetylation of 3/15ADON, the use of pure human CES1/2 and of CES inhibitor demonstrated that CES are not involved. Taken together, our original model system allowed us to identify the small intestine and the liver as the main site of deacetylation of ingested 3/15ADON in humans.

  9. Rice mitogen activated protein kinase kinase and mitogen activated protein kinase interaction network revealed by in-silico docking and yeast two-hybrid approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhammaprakash Pandhari Wankhede

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction is one of the crucial ways to decipher the functions of proteins and to understand their role in complex pathways at cellular level. Such a protein-protein interaction network in many crop plants remains poorly defined owing largely to the involvement of high costs, requirement for state of the art laboratory, time and labour intensive techniques. Here, we employed computational docking using ZDOCK and RDOCK programmes to identify interaction network between members of Oryza sativa mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. The 3-dimentional (3-D structures of five MAPKKs and eleven MAPKs were determined by homology modelling and were further used as input for docking studies. With the help of the results obtained from ZDOCK and RDOCK programmes, top six possible interacting MAPK proteins were predicted for each MAPKK. In order to assess the reliability of the computational prediction, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analyses were performed using rice MAPKKs and MAPKs. A direct comparison of Y2H assay and computational prediction of protein interaction was made. With the exception of one, all the other MAPKK-MAPK pairs identified by Y2H screens were among the top predictions by computational dockings. Although, not all the predicted interacting partners could show interaction in Y2H, yet, the harmony between the two approaches suggests that the computational predictions in the present work are reliable. Moreover, the present Y2H analyses per se provide interaction network among MAPKKs and MAPKs which would shed more light on MAPK signalling network in rice.

  10. A novel network analysis approach reveals DNA damage, oxidative stress and calcium/cAMP homeostasis-associated biomarkers in frontotemporal dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Palluzzi

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD is the form of neurodegenerative dementia with the highest prevalence after Alzheimer's disease, equally distributed in men and women. It includes several variants, generally characterized by behavioural instability and language impairments. Although few mendelian genes (MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72 have been associated to the FTD phenotype, in most cases there is only evidence of multiple risk loci with relatively small effect size. To date, there are no comprehensive studies describing FTD at molecular level, highlighting possible genetic interactions and signalling pathways at the origin FTD-associated neurodegeneration. In this study, we designed a broad FTD genetic interaction map of the Italian population, through a novel network-based approach modelled on the concepts of disease-relevance and interaction perturbation, combining Steiner tree search and Structural Equation Model (SEM analysis. Our results show a strong connection between Calcium/cAMP metabolism, oxidative stress-induced Serine/Threonine kinases activation, and postsynaptic membrane potentiation, suggesting a possible combination of neuronal damage and loss of neuroprotection, leading to cell death. In our model, Calcium/cAMP homeostasis and energetic metabolism impairments are primary causes of loss of neuroprotection and neural cell damage, respectively. Secondly, the altered postsynaptic membrane potentiation, due to the activation of stress-induced Serine/Threonine kinases, leads to neurodegeneration. Our study investigates the molecular underpinnings of these processes, evidencing key genes and gene interactions that may account for a significant fraction of unexplained FTD aetiology. We emphasized the key molecular actors in these processes, proposing them as novel FTD biomarkers that could be crucial for further epidemiological and molecular studies.

  11. Swapping metals in Fe- and Mn-dependent dioxygenases: evidence for oxygen activation without a change in metal redox state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Joseph P; Kovaleva, Elena G; Farquhar, Erik R; Lipscomb, John D; Que, Lawrence

    2008-05-27

    Biological O(2) activation often occurs after binding to a reduced metal [e.g., M(II)] in an enzyme active site. Subsequent M(II)-to-O(2) electron transfer results in a reactive M(III)-superoxo species. For the extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases, we have proposed a different model where an electron is transferred from substrate to O(2) via the M(II) center to which they are both bound, thereby obviating the need for an integral change in metal redox state. This model is tested by using homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenases from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) and Arthrobacter globiformis (Mn-MndD) that share high sequence identity and very similar structures. Despite these similarities, Fe-HPCD binds Fe(II) whereas Mn-MndD incorporates Mn(II). Methods are described to incorporate the nonphysiological metal into each enzyme (Mn-HPCD and Fe-MndD). The x-ray crystal structure of Mn-HPCD at 1.7 A is found to be indistinguishable from that of Fe-HPCD, while EPR studies show that the Mn(II) sites of Mn-MndD and Mn-HPCD, and the Fe(II) sites of the NO complexes of Fe-HPCD and Fe-MndD, are very similar. The uniform metal site structures of these enzymes suggest that extradiol dioxygenases cannot differentially compensate for the 0.7-V gap in the redox potentials of free iron and manganese. Nonetheless, all four enzymes exhibit nearly the same K(M) and V(max) values. These enzymes constitute an unusual pair of metallo-oxygenases that remain fully active after a metal swap, implicating a different way by which metals are used to promote oxygen activation without an integral change in metal redox state.

  12. C-Terminal Domain Swapping of SSB Changes the Size of the ssDNA Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB plays an important role in DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, repair, and recombination, and is therefore essential for cell survival. Bacterial SSB consists of an N-terminal ssDNA-binding/oligomerization domain and a flexible C-terminal protein-protein interaction domain. We characterized the ssDNA-binding properties of Klebsiella pneumoniae SSB (KpSSB, Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium LT2 SSB (StSSB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 SSB (PaSSB, and two chimeric KpSSB proteins, namely, KpSSBnStSSBc and KpSSBnPaSSBc. The C-terminal domain of StSSB or PaSSB was exchanged with that of KpSSB through protein chimeragenesis. By using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we characterized the stoichiometry of KpSSB, StSSB, PaSSB, KpSSBnStSSBc, and KpSSBnPaSSBc, complexed with a series of ssDNA homopolymers. The binding site sizes were determined to be 26±2, 21±2, 29±2, 21±2, and 29±2 nucleotides (nt, respectively. Comparison of the binding site sizes of KpSSB, KpSSBnStSSBc, and KpSSBnPaSSBc showed that the C-terminal domain swapping of SSB changes the size of the binding site. Our observations suggest that not only the conserved N-terminal domain but also the C-terminal domain of SSB is an important determinant for ssDNA binding.

  13. Swapping metals in Fe- and Mn-dependent dioxygenases: Evidence for oxygen activation without a change in metal redox state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Joseph P.; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Lipscomb, John D.; Que, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Biological O2 activation often occurs after binding to a reduced metal [e.g., M(II)] in an enzyme active site. Subsequent M(II)-to-O2 electron transfer results in a reactive M(III)-superoxo species. For the extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases, we have proposed a different model where an electron is transferred from substrate to O2 via the M(II) center to which they are both bound, thereby obviating the need for an integral change in metal redox state. This model is tested by using homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenases from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) and Arthrobacter globiformis (Mn-MndD) that share high sequence identity and very similar structures. Despite these similarities, Fe-HPCD binds Fe(II) whereas Mn-MndD incorporates Mn(II). Methods are described to incorporate the nonphysiological metal into each enzyme (Mn-HPCD and Fe-MndD). The x-ray crystal structure of Mn-HPCD at 1.7 Å is found to be indistinguishable from that of Fe-HPCD, while EPR studies show that the Mn(II) sites of Mn-MndD and Mn-HPCD, and the Fe(II) sites of the NO complexes of Fe-HPCD and Fe-MndD, are very similar. The uniform metal site structures of these enzymes suggest that extradiol dioxygenases cannot differentially compensate for the 0.7-V gap in the redox potentials of free iron and manganese. Nonetheless, all four enzymes exhibit nearly the same KM and Vmax values. These enzymes constitute an unusual pair of metallo-oxygenases that remain fully active after a metal swap, implicating a different way by which metals are used to promote oxygen activation without an integral change in metal redox state. PMID:18492808

  14. Swapping metals in Fe- and Mn-dependent dioxygenases: Evidence for oxygen activation without a change in metal redox state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Joseph P.; Kovaleva, Elena G.; Farquhar, Erik R.; Lipscomb, John D.; Oue, Jr., Lawrence (UMM)

    2008-07-21

    Biological O{sub 2} activation often occurs after binding to a reduced metal [e.g., M(II)] in an enzyme active site. Subsequent M(II)-to-O{sub 2} electron transfer results in a reactive M(III)-superoxo species. For the extradiol aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenases, we have proposed a different model where an electron is transferred from substrate to O{sub 2} via the M(II) center to which they are both bound, thereby obviating the need for an integral change in metal redox state. This model is tested by using homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenases from Brevibacterium fuscum (Fe-HPCD) and Arthrobacter globiformis (Mn-MndD) that share high sequence identity and very similar structures. Despite these similarities, Fe-HPCD binds Fe(II) whereas Mn-MndD incorporates Mn(II). Methods are described to incorporate the nonphysiological metal into each enzyme (Mn-HPCD and Fe-MndD). The x-ray crystal structure of Mn-HPCD at 1.7 {angstrom} is found to be indistinguishable from that of Fe-HPCD, while EPR studies show that the Mn(II) sites of Mn-MndD and Mn-HPCD, and the Fe(II) sites of the NO complexes of Fe-HPCD and Fe-MndD, are very similar. The uniform metal site structures of these enzymes suggest that extradiol dioxygenases cannot differentially compensate for the 0.7-V gap in the redox potentials of free iron and manganese. Nonetheless, all four enzymes exhibit nearly the same K{sub M} and V{sub max} values. These enzymes constitute an unusual pair of metallo-oxygenases that remain fully active after a metal swap, implicating a different way by which metals are used to promote oxygen activation without an integral change in metal redox state.

  15. Completing the specificity swap: Single-stranded DNA recognition by F and R100 TraI relaxase domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guja, Kip E; Schildbach, Joel F

    2015-07-01

    During conjugative plasmid transfer, one plasmid strand is cleaved and transported to the recipient bacterium. For F and related plasmids, TraI contains the relaxase or nickase activity that cleaves the plasmid DNA strand. F TraI36, the F TraI relaxase domain, binds a single-stranded origin of transfer (oriT) DNA sequence with high affinity and sequence specificity. The TraI36 domain from plasmid R100 shares 91% amino acid sequence identity with F TraI36, but its oriT DNA binding site differs by two of eleven bases. Both proteins readily distinguish between F and R100 binding sites. In earlier work, two amino acid substitutions in the DNA binding cleft were shown to be sufficient to change the R100 TraI36 DNA-binding specificity to that of F TraI36. In contrast, three substitutions could make F TraI36 more "R100-like", but failed to completely alter the specificity. Here we identify one additional amino acid substitution that completes the specificity swap from F to R100. To our surprise, adding further substitutions from R100 to the F background were detrimental to binding instead of being neutral, indicating that their effects were influenced by their structural context. These results underscore the complex and subtle nature of DNA recognition by relaxases and have implications for the evolution of relaxase binding sites and oriT sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A systems biology approach reveals a link between systemic cytokines and skeletal muscle energy metabolism in a rodent smoking model and human COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Peter K; Herbert, John M; Antczak, Philipp; Clarke, Kim; Ferrer, Elisabet; Peinado, Victor I; Gonzalez, Constancio; Roca, Josep; Egginton, Stuart; Barberá, Joan A; Falciani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large percentage of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) develop systemic co-morbidities that affect prognosis, among which muscle wasting is particularly debilitating. Despite significant research effort, the pathophysiology of this important extrapulmonary manifestation is still unclear. A key question that remains unanswered is to what extent systemic inflammatory mediators might play a role in this pathology. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the main risk factor for developing COPD and therefore animal models chronically exposed to CS have been proposed for mechanistic studies and biomarker discovery. Although mice have been successfully used as a pre-clinical in vivo model to study the pulmonary effects of acute and chronic CS exposure, data suggest that they may be inadequate models for studying the effects of CS on peripheral muscle function. In contrast, recent findings indicate that the guinea pig model (Cavia porcellus) may better mimic muscle wasting. We have used a systems biology approach to compare the transcriptional profile of hindlimb skeletal muscles from a Guinea pig rodent model exposed to CS and/or chronic hypoxia to COPD patients with muscle wasting. We show that guinea pigs exposed to long-term CS accurately reflect most of the transcriptional changes observed in dysfunctional limb muscle of severe COPD patients when compared to matched controls. Using network inference, we could then show that the expression profile in whole lung of genes encoding for soluble inflammatory mediators is informative of the molecular state of skeletal muscles in the guinea pig smoking model. Finally, we show that CXCL10 and CXCL9, two of the candidate systemic cytokines identified using this pre-clinical model, are indeed detected at significantly higher levels in serum of COPD patients, and that their serum protein level is inversely correlated with the expression of aerobic energy metabolism genes in skeletal muscle. We conclude that

  17. Soil- and crop-dependent variation in correlation lag between precipitation and agricultural drought indices as predicted by the SWAP model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Azin; Cloke, Hannah; Verhoef, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Droughts have a devastating impact on agriculture and economy. The risk of more frequent and more severe droughts is increasing due to global warming and certain anthropogenic activities. At the same time, the global population continues to rise and the need for sustainable food production is becoming more and more pressing. In light of this, drought prediction can be of great value; in the context of early warning, preparedness and mitigation of drought impacts. Prediction of meteorological drought is associated with uncertainties around precipitation variability. As meteorological drought propagates, it can transform into agricultural drought. Determination of the maximum correlation lag between precipitation and agricultural drought indices can be useful for prediction of agricultural drought. However, the influence of soil and crop type on the lag needs to be considered, which we explored using a 1-D Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model (SWAP (http://www.swap.alterra.nl/), with the following configurations, all forced with ERA-Interim weather data (1979 to 2014): i) different crop types in the UK; ii) three generic soil types (clay, loam and sand) were considered. A Sobol sensitivity analysis was carried out (perturbing the SWAP model van Genuchten soil hydraulic parameters) to study the effect of soil type uncertainty on the water balance variables. Based on the sensitivity analysis results, a few variations of each soil type were selected. Agricultural drought indices including Soil Moisture Deficit Index (SMDI) and Evapotranspiration Deficit Index (ETDI) were calculated. The maximum correlation lag between precipitation and these drought indices was calculated, and analysed in the context of crop and soil model parameters. The findings of this research can be useful to UK farming, by guiding government bodies such as the Environment Agency when issuing drought warnings and implementing drought measures.

  18. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayu Al-Saari

    Full Text Available Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20 showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity, respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V

  19. Verification of the formulation and efficacy of Danggui Buxue Tang (a decoction of Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae Sinensis: an exemplifying systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Winnie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article exemplifies a systematic approach to revealing the complexity of Chinese herbal medicine formulae through three levels of scientific research: standardization of herbs, verification of ancient formulae and mechanism studies. We use Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT as an example for this approach. Among thousands of traditional Chinese medicine herbal formulae, almost all of which consist of multiple herbs, DBT is one of the simplest. Containing only two herbs, namely Radix Astragali (RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS, DBT is traditionally used to treat ailments in women. The weight ratio of RA to RAS in DBT was prescribed to be 5:1 as early as in 1247 AD. In addition to advanced chemical analysis of herbal constituents, DNA genotyping techniques have been developed for reliable standardization of RA and RAS. Chemical evaluation shows that main active constituents in DBT, including astragaloside IV, calycosin, formononetin and ferulic acid, were most abundant after extraction at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1, whereas other tested RA to RAS ratios only gave sub-optimal levels of the active constituents. Biological evaluation indicates that bioactivities of DBT, e.g. immuno-modulatory, oesteotropic and estrogenic effects are also best exerted at the RA to RAS ratio of 5:1. Correlation analysis demonstrates statistically significant relationship between the tested chemical constituents and tested bioactivities. Up- and down-regulation of expression of some genes as potential biomarkers has been detected by using gene chip technology. This systematic approach on the basis of herbal standardization, chemical and biological verification and mechanism studies, as exemplified in this article, will be useful to reveal the complexity of not only DBT but also other Chinese medicine herbal formulae.

  20. Swap, futuro e opções: impacto do uso de instrumentos derivativos sobre o valor das firmas brasileiras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Júnior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisa o impacto do uso de derivativos e a direção e magnitude do prêmio de cobertura relacionado a cada tipo de instrumento derivativo no valor da firma para uma amostra de empresas brasileiras não financeiras de capital aberto no período de 2004 a 2007. Os resultados indicam que a utilização de derivativos está relacionada a um impacto positivo e significativo sobre o valor de mercado das empresas. As evidências mostram que o uso de derivativos está associado a um “prêmio de cobertura” (hedging premium. Dessa maneira, é possível afirmar que as firmas que fazem uso da gestão de risco com derivativos têm um valor de mercado superior, no mercado brasileiro, quando comparadas a firmas que não utilizam esses instrumentos financeiros (hedging premium. Os resultados também indicam que, quando a análise se concentra no tipo de instrumento utilizado, a gestão de risco com tipos distintos de derivativos gera impacto de magnitude heterogênea no valor da firma. Contratos de swap e futuro/termo apresentam um impacto positivo e estatisticamente significante. Já para as opções, o impacto, embora positivo, não é estatisticamente significativo. Portanto, os resultados obtidos não só confirmam as expectativas de que a utilização de instrumentos derivativos exerce um impacto positivo e estatisticamente significativo sobre o valor da firma, mas também mostram que existe uma diferença relevante no efeito associado a derivativos distintos. Em conjunto, os resultados corroboram o fato de que investidores estão dispostos a pagar um maior valor por firmas que fazem gestão ativa de risco financeiro em ambientes mais voláteis como o Brasil, e essa disposição varia de acordo com o instrumento utilizado e com a eventual combinação de derivativos financeiros. Em pesquisa futura, uma análise das causas do impacto heterogêneo dos distintos instrumentos derivativos deve ser realizada para um melhor entendimento dos

  1. Identifying determinants of cullin binding specificity among the three functionally different Drosophila melanogaster Roc proteins via domain swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Reynolds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cullin-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligases (CDL are key regulators of protein destruction that participate in a wide range of cell biological processes. The Roc subunit of CDL contains an evolutionarily conserved RING domain that binds ubiquitin charged E2 and is essential for ubiquitylation. Drosophila melanogaster contains three highly related Roc proteins: Roc1a and Roc2, which are conserved in vertebrates, and Roc1b, which is specific to Drosophila. Our previous genetic data analyzing Roc1a and Roc1b mutants suggested that Roc proteins are functionally distinct, but the molecular basis for this distinction is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using co-immunoprecipitation studies we show that Drosophila Roc proteins bind specific Cullins: Roc1a binds Cul1-4, Roc1b binds Cul3, and Roc2 binds Cul5. Through domain swapping experiments, we demonstrate that Cullin binding specificity is strongly influenced by the Roc NH(2-terminal domain, which forms an inter-molecular beta sheet with the Cullin. Substitution of the Roc1a RING domain with that of Roc1b results in a protein with similar Cullin binding properties to Roc1a that is active as an E3 ligase but cannot complement Roc1a mutant lethality, indicating that the identity of the RING domain can be an important determinant of CDL function. In contrast, the converse chimeric protein with a substitution of the Roc1b RING domain with that of Roc1a can rescue the male sterility of Roc1b mutants, but only when expressed from the endogenous Roc1b promoter. We also identified mutations of Roc2 and Cul5 and show that they cause no overt developmental phenotype, consistent with our finding that Roc2 and Cul5 proteins are exclusive binding partners, which others have observed in human cells as well. CONCLUSIONS: The Drosophila Roc proteins are highly similar, but have diverged during evolution to bind a distinct set of Cullins and to utilize RING domains that have overlapping, but not

  2. The Ku-Mar zinc finger: A segment-swapped zinc ribbon in MarR-like transcription regulators related to the Ku bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2015-09-01

    Two putative oxidative-stress sensor proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PA1607 and PA1374, belong to the MarR family of transcription regulators and possess a unique mode of dimerization. In these proteins, in addition to the α-helices involved in dimerization, inter-subunit contacts are strengthened by additional C-terminal β-strands. Using sequence and structure analysis we show that these β-strands constitute a novel segment-swapped zinc ribbon domain. We detect the presence of the zinc ribbon domain in MarR proteins from many bacterial homologs. While the metal-chelating residues of the zinc ribbons are absent in most members of this family, we could however identify several species of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes that possess intact zinc-chelating sites. Conservation pattern of metal-chelating residues together with the extensive structural resemblance to zinc ribbons, in particular to the bridge-region of the dsDNA break repair protein Ku, suggests that the C-terminal β-rich region of these proteins is a zinc ribbon. Sequence analysis also supports a distant evolutionary connection between the zinc ribbons of the MarR and Ku families. However, unlike Ku where the segment-swapped zinc ribbons play a role in DNA-binding and obligate dimerization, their primary role in MarR appears to be in dimerization and strengthening of inter-subunit contacts. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. One-step of tryptophan attenuator inactivation and promoter swapping to improve the production of L-tryptophan in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background L-tryptophan is an aromatic amino acid widely used in the food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. In Escherichia coli, L-tryptophan is synthesized from phosphoenolpyruvate and erythrose 4-phosphate by enzymes in the shikimate pathway and L-tryptophan branch pathway, while L-serine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate are also involved in L-tryptophan synthesis. In order to construct a microbial strain for efficient L-tryptophan production from glucose, we developed a one step tryptophan attenuator inactivation and promoter swapping strategy for metabolic flux optimization after a base strain was obtained by overexpressing the tktA, mutated trpE and aroG genes and inactivating a series of competitive steps. Results The engineered E. coli GPT1002 with tryptophan attenuator inactivation and tryptophan operon promoter substitution exhibited 1.67 ~ 9.29 times higher transcription of tryptophan operon genes than the control GPT1001. In addition, this strain accumulated 1.70 g l-1 L-tryptophan after 36 h batch cultivation in 300-mL shake flask. Bioreactor fermentation experiments showed that GPT1002 could produce 10.15 g l-1 L-tryptophan in 48 h. Conclusions The one step inactivating and promoter swapping is an efficient method for metabolic engineering. This method can also be applied in other bacteria. PMID:22380540

  4. Dandelion PPO-1/PPO-2 domain-swaps: the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum and the linker affects SDS-mediated activation and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufken, Christine M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E

    2015-02-01

    Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a conserved three-domain structure: (i) the N-terminal domain (containing the active site) is connected via (ii) a linker to (iii) the C-terminal domain. The latter covers the active site, thereby maintaining the enzyme in a latent state. Activation can be achieved with SDS but little is known about the mechanism. We prepared domain-swap variants of dandelion PPO-1 and PPO-2 to test the specific functions of individual domains and their impact on enzyme characteristics. Our experiments revealed that the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum curve and has a strong influence on the optimal pH value. The linker determines the SDS concentration required for full activation. It also influences the SDS concentration required for half maximal activation (kSDS) and the stability of the enzyme during prolonged incubation in buffers containing SDS, but the N-terminal domain has the strongest effect on these parameters. The N-terminal domain also determines the IC50 of SDS and the stability in buffers containing or lacking SDS. We propose that the linker and C-terminal domain fine-tune the activation of plant PPOs. The C-terminal domain adjusts the pH optimum and the linker probably contains an SDS-binding/interaction site that influences inactivation and determines the SDS concentration required for activation. For the first time, we have determined the influence of the three PPO domains on enzyme activation and stability providing insight into the regulation and activation mechanisms of type-3 copper proteins in general. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  6. Development of isothermal-isobaric replica-permutation method for molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations and its application to reveal temperature and pressure dependence of folded, misfolded, and unfolded states of chignolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masataka; Okumura, Hisashi

    2017-11-01

    We developed a two-dimensional replica-permutation molecular dynamics method in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. The replica-permutation method is a better alternative to the replica-exchange method. It was originally developed in the canonical ensemble. This method employs the Suwa-Todo algorithm, instead of the Metropolis algorithm, to perform permutations of temperatures and pressures among more than two replicas so that the rejection ratio can be minimized. We showed that the isothermal-isobaric replica-permutation method performs better sampling efficiency than the isothermal-isobaric replica-exchange method and infinite swapping method. We applied this method to a β-hairpin mini protein, chignolin. In this simulation, we observed not only the folded state but also the misfolded state. We calculated the temperature and pressure dependence of the fractions on the folded, misfolded, and unfolded states. Differences in partial molar enthalpy, internal energy, entropy, partial molar volume, and heat capacity were also determined and agreed well with experimental data. We observed a new phenomenon that misfolded chignolin becomes more stable under high-pressure conditions. We also revealed this mechanism of the stability as follows: TYR2 and TRP9 side chains cover the hydrogen bonds that form a β-hairpin structure. The hydrogen bonds are protected from the water molecules that approach the protein as the pressure increases.

  7. Rationale, design and methods of the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP): a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the addition of a vocational advice service to best current primary care for patients with musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 52269669).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Annette; Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Lawton, Sarah A; van der Windt, Danielle; Main, Chris; Sowden, Gail; Burton, A Kim; Lewis, Martyn; Jowett, Sue; Sanders, Tom; Hay, Elaine M; Foster, Nadine E

    2014-07-10

    Musculoskeletal pain is a major contributor to short and long term work absence. Patients seek care from their general practitioner (GP) and yet GPs often feel ill-equipped to deal with work issues. Providing a vocational case management service in primary care, to support patients with musculoskeletal problems to remain at or return to work, is one potential solution but requires robust evaluation to test clinical and cost-effectiveness. This protocol describes a cluster randomised controlled trial, with linked qualitative interviews, to investigate the effect of introducing a vocational advice service into general practice, to provide a structured approach to managing work related issues in primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain who are absent from work or struggling to remain in work. General practices (n = 6) will be randomised to offer best current care or best current care plus a vocational advice service. Adults of working age who are absent from or struggling to remain in work due to a musculoskeletal pain problem will be invited to participate and 330 participants will be recruited. Data collection will be through patient completed questionnaires at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported work absence at 4 months. Incremental cost-utility analysis will be undertaken to calculate the cost per additional QALY gained and incremental net benefits. A linked interview study will explore the experiences of the vocational advice service from the perspectives of GPs, nurse practitioners (NPs), patients and vocational advisors. This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Study of Work And Pain (SWAP) trial. The results of this trial will provide evidence to inform primary care practice and guide the development of services to provide support for musculoskeletal pain patients with work-related issues. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52269669.

  8. Telecom share swap approved

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Läti valitsus otsustas toetada Lattelecomi ja mobiilioperaatorfirma LMT aktsiate vahetamist telekomifirmaga TeliaSonera. Läti valitsus ei nõustu TeliaSonera nõudega jagada Lattelecom kaheks ettevõtteks

  9. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.; Schaap, H.; Bruijn, E. de

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  10. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.M.; Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  11. A loose domain swapping organization confers a remarkable stability to the dimeric structure of the arginine binding protein from Thermotoga maritima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Ruggiero

    Full Text Available The arginine binding protein from Thermatoga maritima (TmArgBP, a substrate binding protein (SBP involved in the ABC system of solute transport, presents a number of remarkable properties. These include an extraordinary stability to temperature and chemical denaturants and the tendency to form multimeric structures, an uncommon feature among SBPs involved in solute transport. Here we report a biophysical and structural characterization of the TmArgBP dimer. Our data indicate that the dimer of the protein is endowed with a remarkable stability since its full dissociation requires high temperature as well as SDS and urea at high concentrations. In order to elucidate the atomic level structural properties of this intriguing protein, we determined the crystallographic structures of the apo and the arginine-bound forms of TmArgBP using MAD and SAD methods, respectively. The comparison of the liganded and unliganded models demonstrates that TmArgBP tertiary structure undergoes a very large structural re-organization upon arginine binding. This transition follows the Venus Fly-trap mechanism, although the entity of the re-organization observed in TmArgBP is larger than that observed in homologous proteins. Intriguingly, TmArgBP dimerizes through the swapping of the C-terminal helix. This dimer is stabilized exclusively by the interactions established by the swapping helix. Therefore, the TmArgBP dimer combines a high level of stability and conformational freedom. The structure of the TmArgBP dimer represents an uncommon example of large tertiary structure variations amplified at quaternary structure level by domain swapping. Although the biological relevance of the dimer needs further assessments, molecular modelling suggests that the two TmArgBP subunits may simultaneously interact with two distinct ABC transporters. Moreover, the present protein structures provide some clues about the determinants of the extraordinary stability of the biomolecule

  12. Impact of swapping soils on the endophytic bacterial communities of pre-domesticated, ancient and modern maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston-Monje, David; Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Lazarovits, George; Raizada, Manish N

    2014-09-12

    Endophytes are microbes that live within plants such as maize (corn, Zea mays L.) without causing disease. It is generally assumed that most endophytes originate from soil. If this is true, then as humans collected, domesticated, bred and migrated maize globally from its native Mexico, they moved the species away from its native population of endophyte donors. The migration of maize persists today, as breeders collect wild and exotic seed (as sources of diverse alleles) from sites of high genetic diversity in Mexico for breeding programs on distant soils. When transported to new lands, it is unclear whether maize permits only selective colonization of microbes from the Mexican soils on which it co-evolved, tolerates shifts in soil-derived endophytes, or prevents colonization of soil-based microbes in favour of seed-transmitted microbes. To test these hypotheses, non-sterilized seeds of three types of maize (pre-domesticated-Mexican, ancient-Mexican, modern-temperate) were planted side-by-side on indigenous Mexican soil, Canadian temperate soil or sterilized sand. The impact of these soil swaps on founder bacterial endophyte communities was tested using 16S-rDNA profiling, culturing and microbial trait phenotyping. Multivariate analysis showed that bacterial 16S-rDNA TRFLP profiles from young, surface-sterilized maize plants were more similar when the same host genotype was grown on the different soils than when different maize genotypes were grown on the same soil. There appeared to be two reasons for this result. First, the largest fraction of bacterial 16S-signals from soil-grown plants was shared with parental seeds and/or plants grown on sterilized sand, suggesting significant inheritance of candidate endophytes. The in vitro activities of soil-derived candidate endophytes could be provided by bacteria that were isolated from sterile sand grown plants. Second, many non-inherited 16S-signals from sibling plants grown on geographically-distant soils were shared

  13. Comparison of WDM/Pulse-Position-Modulation (WDM/PPM) with Code/Pulse-Position-Swapping (C/PPS) Based on Wavelength/Time Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) signaling is favored in intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) systems that have average power limitations. Combining PPM with WDM over a fiber link (WDM/PPM) enables multiple accessing and increases the link's throughput. Electronic bandwidth and synchronization advantages are further gained by mapping the time slots of PPM onto a code space, or code/pulse-position-swapping (C/PPS). The property of multiple bits per symbol typical of PPM can be combined with multiple accessing by using wavelength/time [W/T] codes in C/PPS. This paper compares the performance of WDM/PPM and C/PPS for equal wavelengths and bandwidth.

  14. Secure Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on the Entanglement Swapping Between Three-Particle W-Class State and Bell State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new quantum private comparison protocol with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP), enabling two participants to compare the equality of their private inputs without exposing any information about their respective private inputs. Different from previous protocols, our protocol utilizes the properties of entanglement swapping between three-particle W-Class state and Bell state. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, fairness and security. Meanwhile, all the quantum particles undergo a one-way transmission, and all the participants including TP are just required having the ability to perform Bell-state measurement and exclusive-or operation which make our protocol more feasible and efficient. At last, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is analyzed in detail.

  15. Multi-party quantum private comparison based on the entanglement swapping of d-level cat states and d-level Bell states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Xu, Ji; Tian-Yu, Ye

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a novel multi-party quantum private comparison protocol with a semi-honest third party (TP) is proposed based on the entanglement swapping of d-level cat states and d-level Bell states. Here, TP is allowed to misbehave on his own, but will not conspire with any party. In our protocol, n parties employ unitary operations to encode their private secrets and can compare the equality of their private secrets within one time execution of the protocol. Our protocol can withstand both the outside attacks and the participant attacks on the condition that none of the QKD methods is adopted to generate keys for security. One party cannot obtain other parties' secrets except for the case that their secrets are identical. The semi-honest TP cannot learn any information about these parties' secrets except the end comparison result on whether all private secrets from n parties are equal.

  16. Integrated modelling of the soil-water-atmosphere-plant system using the model SWAP 2A~é·0 an overview of theory and an application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, J. G.; Wesseling, J. G.; van Dam, J. C.

    2000-07-01

    The vadose zone plays an essential role in all types of processes that occur in the soil. Modelling of the processes in the vadose zone helps to understand and quantify effects of, for example, land use, irrigation, salinity and climate changes. Version 2 of SWAP (soil-water-atmosphere-plant) is a numerical model that simulates the (interaction between) one-dimensional soil moisture, heat and solute transport in the topsoil layers. The influence of all these processes on crop growth may be simulated as well. This article describes briefly some of the options the program offers. The results of a sensitivity analysis are discussed, followed by a case study on variations in soil salinity in a coastal area.

  17. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Raymond B; Healy, Mark G; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  18. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond B Brennan

    Full Text Available Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called 'pollution swapping' potential and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application.

  19. Study of extreme-ultraviolet emission and properties of a coronal streamer from PROBA2/SWAP, HINODE/EIS and Mauna Loa Mk4 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryaev, F.; Slemzin, V.; Vainshtein, L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the RAS (LPI), Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Williams, David R., E-mail: goryaev_farid@mail.ru [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    Wide-field extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) telescopes imaging in spectral bands sensitive to 1 MK plasma on the Sun often observe extended, ray-like coronal structures stretching radially from active regions to distances of 1.5-2 R {sub ☉}, which represent the EUV counterparts of white-light streamers. To explain this phenomenon, we investigated the properties of a streamer observed on 2010 October 20 and 21, by the PROBA2/SWAP EUV telescope together with the Hinode/EIS (HOP 165) and the Mauna Loa Mk4 white-light coronagraph. In the SWAP 174 Å band comprising the Fe IX-Fe XI lines, the streamer was detected to a distance of 2 R {sub ☉}. We assume that the EUV emission is dominated by collisional excitation and resonant scattering of monochromatic radiation coming from the underlying corona. Below 1.2 R {sub ☉}, the plasma density and temperature were derived from the Hinode/EIS data by a line-ratio method. Plasma conditions in the streamer and in the background corona above 1.2 R {sub ☉} from the disk center were determined by forward-modeling the emission that best fit the observational data in both EUV and white light. It was found that the plasma in the streamer above 1.2 R {sub ☉} is nearly isothermal, with a temperature of T = 1.43 ± 0.08 MK. The hydrostatic scale-height temperature determined from the evaluated density distribution was significantly higher (1.72 ± 0.08 MK), which suggests the existence of outward plasma flow along the streamer. We conclude that, inside the streamer, collisional excitation provided more than 90% of the observed EUV emission, whereas, in the background corona, the contribution of resonance scattering became comparable with that of collisions at R ≳ 2 R {sub ☉}.

  20. Use of Domain-Swapping to Identify Candidate Amino Acids Involved in Differential Interactions between Two Allelic Variants of Type-1 S-Locus F-Box Protein and S3-RNase in Petunia inflata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lihua; Williams, Justin S; Wang, Ning; Khatri, Wasi A; San Román, Daniele; Kao, Teh-Hui

    2017-11-15

    Petunia inflata possesses a self-incompatibility (SI) mechanism, which involves S-RNase and multiple S-locus F-box (SLF) genes at the polymorphic S-locus. For a given S-haplotype, each SLF is thought to interact with some of its non-self S-RNases, but not with its self-S-RNase. In this work, we studied an allelic pair of SLF1, S2-SLF1 and S3-SLF1, which differ in 44 amino acids and show differential interactions with S3-RNase. We first used an in vivo transgenic assay to determine whether four chimeric proteins of S2-SLF1 and S3-SLF1, each with one of the three functional domains swapped, interact with S3-RNase. The results narrowed the candidate amino acids for specific interaction of S2-SLF1 with S3-RNase to the 16 in Domain FD3. We then examined seven additional chimeric proteins by dividing FD3 into two subdomains and four mini-domains (A, B, C, and D). The results further narrowed the candidate amino acids to four in mini-domain A and four in mini-domain D. Molecular modeling of interactions between S3-RNase and S2-SLF1 revealed that three of these eight are at the interaction surface, and all three are conserved in S1-SLF1 and S6a-SLF1, both of which interact with S3-RNase based on the in vivo transgenic assay. Three of the chimeric proteins were used for the in vivo transgenic assay to determine whether FD3 alone contains the amino acids required for S2-SLF1 to interact with S7-RNase and S13-RNase. The results revealed the diversity and complexity of interactions between SLF proteins and S-RNases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Three-phase succession of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to reach a stable ecosystem within 7 days of natural bamboo shoot fermentation as revealed by different molecular approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romi, Wahengbam; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-07-01

    Microbial community structure and population dynamics during spontaneous bamboo shoot fermentation for production of 'soidon' (indigenous fermented food) in North-east India were studied using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Cultivation-dependent analyses (PCR-amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and rRNA gene sequencing) and cultivation-independent analyses (PCR-DGGE, qPCR and Illumina amplicon sequencing) were conducted on the time series samples collected from three independent indigenous soidon fermentation batches. The current findings revealed three-phase succession of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to attain a stable ecosystem within 7 days natural fermentation of bamboo shoots. Weissella spp. (Weissella cibaria, uncultured Weissella ghanensis) and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris predominated the early phase (1-2 days) which was joined by Leuconostoc citreum during the mid-phase (3 days), while Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum emerged and became dominant in the late phase (5-7 days) with concurrent disappearance of W. cibaria and L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and uncultured Lactobacillus acetotolerans were predominantly present throughout the fermentation with no visible dynamics. The above identified dominant bacterial species along with their dynamics can be effectively utilized for designing a starter culture for industrialization of soidon production. Our results showed that a more realistic view on the microbial ecology of soidon fermentation could be obtained by cultivation-dependent studies complemented with cultivation-independent molecular approaches. Moreover, the critical issues to be considered for reducing methodological biases while studying the microbial ecology of traditional food fermentation were also highlighted with this soidon fermentation model. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Novel Multivariate Approach to Phenotyping and Association Mapping of Multi-Locus Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Reveals S, Z, and Other Loci in a Perennial Ryegrass (Poaceae Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thorogood

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-incompatibility (SI is a mechanism that many flowering plants employ to prevent fertilisation by self- and self-like pollen ensuring heterozygosity and hybrid vigour. Although a number of single locus mechanisms have been characterised in detail, no multi-locus systems have been fully elucidated. Historically, examples of the genetic analysis of multi-locus SI, to make analysis tractable, are either made on the progeny of bi-parental crosses, where the number of alleles at each locus is restricted, or on crosses prepared in such a way that only one of the SI loci segregates. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. possesses a well-documented two locus (S and Z gametophytic incompatibility system. A more universal, realistic proof of principle study was conducted in a perennial ryegrass population in which allelic and non-allelic diversity was not artificially restricted. A complex pattern of pollinations from a diallel cross was revealed which could not possibly be interpreted easily per se, even with an already established genetic model. Instead, pollination scores were distilled into principal component scores described as Compatibility Components (CC1-CC3. These were then subjected to a conventional genome-wide association analysis. CC1 associated with markers on linkage groups (LGs 1, 2, 3, and 6, CC2 exclusively with markers in a genomic region on LG 2, and CC3 with markers on LG 1. BLAST alignment with the Brachypodium physical map revealed highly significantly associated markers with peak associations with genes adjacent and four genes away from the chromosomal locations of candidate SI genes, S- and Z-DUF247, respectively. Further significant associations were found in a Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 3 region, having shared synteny with Lolium LG 1, suggesting further SI loci linked to S or extensive micro-re-arrangement of the genome between B. distachyon and L. perenne. Significant associations with gene sequences aligning with

  3. Structure of the voltage-gated K+ channel Eag1 reveals an alternative voltage sensing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicher, Jonathan R.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2017-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) are gated by the movement of the transmembrane voltage sensor, which is coupled, through the helical S4–S5 linker, to the potassium pore. We determined the single-particle cryo-EM structure of mammalian Kv10.1 or Eag1, bound to the channel inhibitor calmodulin, at 3.78Å resolution. Unlike previous Kv structures, the S4–S5 linker of Eag1 is a 5-residue loop and the transmembrane segments are not domain swapped, suggesting an alternative mechanism of voltage-dependent gating. Additionally, the structure and position of the S4–S5 linker allows calmodulin to bind to the intracellular domains and close the potassium pore independent of voltage sensor position. The structure reveals an alternative gating mechanism for Kv channels and provides a template to further understand the gating properties of Eag1 and related channels. PMID:27516594

  4. Análisis empírico de la relación entre las tasas de interés forward subyacentes al mercado Mexicano de swaps de TIIE

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Bravo Pliego

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the degree of relationship among the underlying forward interest rates to the Mexican TIIE-28-day swap interest rate curve is analyzed. It is empirically found that there are strong correlations between term-adjacent forward interest rates, but such correlations become weak when the "distance" (in the term structure) between them increases. This is in line with the preferred habitat theory of Modigliane and Stuch (1966), and it suggests that the models for adjusting, calibratin...

  5. Structure of the hDmc1-ssDNA filament reveals the principles of its architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei L Okorokov

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, meiotic recombination is a major source of genetic diversity, but its defects in humans lead to abnormalities such as Down's, Klinefelter's and other syndromes. Human Dmc1 (hDmc1, a RecA/Rad51 homologue, is a recombinase that plays a crucial role in faithful chromosome segregation during meiosis. The initial step of homologous recombination occurs when hDmc1 forms a filament on single-stranded (ss DNA. However the structure of this presynaptic complex filament for hDmc1 remains unknown. To compare hDmc1-ssDNA complexes to those known for the RecA/Rad51 family we have obtained electron microscopy (EM structures of hDmc1-ssDNA nucleoprotein filaments using single particle approach. The EM maps were analysed by docking crystal structures of Dmc1, Rad51, RadA, RecA and DNA. To fully characterise hDmc1-DNA complexes we have analysed their organisation in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, ATP, AMP-PNP, ssDNA and dsDNA. The 3D EM structures of the hDmc1-ssDNA filaments allowed us to elucidate the principles of their internal architecture. Similar to the RecA/Rad51 family, hDmc1 forms helical filaments on ssDNA in two states: extended (active and compressed (inactive. However, in contrast to the RecA/Rad51 family, and the recently reported structure of hDmc1-double stranded (ds DNA nucleoprotein filaments, the extended (active state of the hDmc1 filament formed on ssDNA has nine protomers per helical turn, instead of the conventional six, resulting in one protomer covering two nucleotides instead of three. The control reconstruction of the hDmc1-dsDNA filament revealed 6.4 protein subunits per helical turn indicating that the filament organisation varies depending on the DNA templates. Our structural analysis has also revealed that the N-terminal domain of hDmc1 accomplishes its important role in complex formation through domain swapping between adjacent protomers, thus providing a mechanistic basis for coordinated action of hDmc1 protomers

  6. Formulation space search approach for the teacher/class timetabling problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochetov Yuri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the well known NP-hard teacher/class timetabling problem. Variable neighborhood search and tabu search heuristics are developed based on idea of the Formulation Space Search approach. Two types of solution representation are used in the heuristics. For each representation we consider two families of neighborhoods. The first family uses swapping of time periods for teacher (class timetable. The second family bases on the idea of large Kernighan-Lin neighborhoods. Computation results for difficult random test instances show high efficiency of the proposed approach. .

  7. Crystal structure of a BCL-W domain-swapped dimer: implications for the function of BCL-2 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erinna F; Dewson, Grant; Smith, Brian J; Evangelista, Marco; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Dogovski, Con; Perugini, Matthew A; Colman, Peter M; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2011-10-12

    The prosurvival and proapoptotic proteins of the BCL-2 family share a similar three-dimensional fold despite their opposing functions. However, many biochemical studies highlight the requirement for conformational changes for the functioning of both types of proteins, although structural data to support such changes remain elusive. Here, we describe the X-ray structure of dimeric BCL-W that reveals a major conformational change involving helices α3 and α4 hinging away from the core of the protein. Biochemical and functional studies reveal that the α4-α5 hinge region is required for dimerization of BCL-W, and functioning of both pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. Hence, this structure reveals a conformational flexibility not seen in previous BCL-2 protein structures and provides insights into how these regulators of apoptosis can change conformation to exert their function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of swap disorder on the physical properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy PdMnTiAl: a first-principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Qin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Heusler alloys crystallize in a close-packed cubic structure, having a four-atom basis forming a face-centred cubic lattice. By selecting different composite elements, Heusler alloys provide a large family of members for frontier research of spintronics and magnetic materials and devices. In this paper, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of a novel quaternary Heusler alloy, PdMnTiAl, have been investigated using a first-principles computational materials calculation. It was found that the stable ordered structure is a non-magnetic Y-type1, in good agreement with the Slater–Pauling rule. From the band structure and the density of states, it is predicted that this Y-type1 configuration is a new gapless semi-metal material. Furthermore, it was discovered that the Pd–Mn swap-disordered structure is more stable than the Y-type1 structure. The present work provides a guide for experiments to synthesize and characterize this Heusler alloy.

  9. A Robust and Efficient Quantum Private Comparison of Equality Based on the Entangled Swapping of GHZ-like State and χ + State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Zhao, Zhiwen

    2017-08-01

    A new quantum protocol with the assistance of a semi-honest third party (TP) is proposed, which allows the participants comparing the equality of their private information without disclosing them. Different from previous protocols, this protocol utilizes quantum key distribution against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, which is more robust and abandons few samples, to transmit the classical information. In addition, this protocol utilizes the GHZ-like state and the χ + state to produce the entanglement swapping. And the Bell basis and the dual basis are used to measure the particle pair so that 3 bits of each participant's private information can be compared in each comparison time, which is more efficient and consumes fewer comparison times. Meanwhile, there is no need of unitary operation and hash function in this protocol. At the end, various kinds of outside attack and participant attack are discussed and analyzed to be invalid, so it can complete the comparison in security.

  10. Diode Pumped Alkaline Laser System: A High Powered, Low SWaP Directed Energy Option for Ballistic Missile Defense High-Level Summary - April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisoff, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system is an R&D effort funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MDA has described the characteristics needed for a Boost Phase directed energy (DE) weapon to work against ICBM-class threat missiles. In terms of the platform, the mission will require a high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly in the “quiet” stratosphere and display long endurance – i.e., days on station. In terms of the laser, MDA needs a high power, low size and weight laser that could be carried by such a platform and deliver lethal energy to an ICBM-class threat missile from hundreds of kilometers away. While both the military and industry are pursuing Directed Energy for tactical applications, MDA’s objectives pose a significantly greater challenge than other current efforts in terms of the power needed from the laser, the low size and weight required, and the range, speed, and size of the threat missiles. To that end, MDA is funding two R&D efforts to assess the feasibility of a high power (MWclass) and low SWaP (size, weight and power) laser: a fiber combining laser (FCL) project at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, and LLNL’s Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system.

  11. Biophysical investigation of type A PutAs reveals a conserved core oligomeric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korasick, David A. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Singh, Harkewal [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Pemberton, Travis A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Luo, Min [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Dhatwalia, Richa [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Tanner, John J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA; Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia MO USA

    2017-08-01

    Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules. Type A PutAs form domain-swapped dimers, and in one case (Bradyrhizobium japonicum PutA), two of the dimers assemble into a ring-shaped tetramer. Whereas the dimer has a clear role in substrate channeling, the functional significance of the tetramer is unknown. To address this question, we performed structural studies of four-type A PutAs from two clades of the PutA tree. The crystal structure of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus PutA covalently inactivated by N-propargylglycine revealed a fold and substrate-channeling tunnel similar to other PutAs. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and analytical ultracentrifugation indicated that Bdellovibrio PutA is dimeric in solution, in contrast to the prediction from crystal packing of a stable tetrameric assembly. SAXS studies of two other type A PutAs from separate clades also suggested that the dimer predominates in solution. To assess whether the tetramer of B. japonicum PutA is necessary for catalytic function, a hot spot disruption mutant that cleanly produces dimeric protein was generated. The dimeric variant exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the wild-type enzyme. These results implicate the domain-swapped dimer as the core structural and functional unit of type A PutAs.

  12. Assessing the use of an essential health package in a sector wide approach in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwase Takondwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sector wide approach (SWAp used in many developing countries is difficult to assess. One way is to consider the essential health package (EHP which is commonly the vehicle for a SWAp's policies and plans. It is not possible to measure the impact of an EHP by measuring health outcomes in countries such as Malawi. But it is possible to assess the choice of interventions and their delivery in terms of coverage. This paper describes an attempt to assess the Malawi SWAp through its EHP using these available measures of technical efficiency. Methods A burden of disease model was used to identify the priority diseases and their estimated incidence. Data from the health management information system (HMIS were used to measure the coverage of these interventions. A review of the cost-effectiveness of the chosen and potential interventions was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of each intervention used in the EHP. Expenditure data were used to assess the level of funding of the EHP. Results 33 of the 55 EHP interventions were found to be potentially cost-effective ($150/DALY and cost-effective estimates were not available for ten. 15 potential interventions, which were cost-effective and tackling one of the top 20 ranked diseases, were identified. Provision had increased in nearly all EHP services over the period of the SWAp. The rates of out patient attendances and inpatient days per 1000 population had both increased from 929 attendances in 2002/3 to 1135 in 2007/08 and from 124 inpatient days in 2002/03 to 179 in 2007/08. However, by 2007/08 the mean gap between what was required and what was provided was 0.68 of the estimated need. Two services involving the treatment of malaria were overprovided, but the majority were underprovided, with some such as maternity care providing less than half of what was required. The EHP was under-funded throughout the period covering on average 57% of necessary costs. By 2007/08 the

  13. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  14. Domain swapping in the low-similarity isomerase/hydratase superfamily: the crystal structure of rat mitochondrial Delta3, Delta2-enoyl-CoA isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Paul A; Yu, Wenfeng; Schulz, Horst; Kim, Jung-Ja P

    2005-06-01

    Two monofunctional Delta(3), Delta(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerases, one in mitochondria (mECI) and the other in both mitochondria and peroxisomes (pECI), belong to the low-similarity isomerase/hydratase superfamily. Both enzymes catalyze the movement of a double bond from C3 to C2 of an unsaturated acyl-CoA substrate for re-entry into the beta-oxidation pathway. Mutagenesis has shown that Glu165 of rat mECI is involved in catalysis; however, the putative catalytic residue in yeast pECI, Glu158, is not conserved in mECI. To elucidate whether Glu165 of mECI is correctly positioned for catalysis, the crystal structure of rat mECI has been solved. Crystal packing suggests the enzyme is trimeric, in contrast to other members of the superfamily, which appear crystallographically to be dimers of trimers. The polypeptide fold of mECI, like pECI, belongs to a subset of this superfamily in which the C-terminal domain of a given monomer interacts with its own N-terminal domain. This differs from that of crotonase and 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphtoyl-CoA synthase, whose C-terminal domains are involved in domain swapping with an adjacent monomer. The structure confirms Glu165 as the putative catalytic acid/base, positioned to abstract the pro-R proton from C2 and reprotonate at C4 of the acyl chain. The large tunnel-shaped active site cavity observed in the mECI structure explains the relative substrate promiscuity in acyl-chain length and stereochemistry. Comparison with the crystal structure of pECI suggests the catalytic residues from both enzymes are spatially conserved but not in their primary structures, providing a powerful reminder of how catalytic residues cannot be determined solely by sequence alignments.

  15. All-trans-configuration in Zanthoxylum alkylamides swaps the tingling with a numbing sensation and diminishes salivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Matthias; Stark, Timo D; Dawid, Corinna; Lösch, Sofie; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-03-26

    The methanol soluble prepared from a supercritical fluid extract of Szechuan pepper (Zanthoxylum piperitum) was screened for its key tingling and numbing chemosensates by application of taste dilution analysis. Further separation of fractions perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS, and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the structure determination of the known alkylamides hydroxy-γ-sanshool (1), hydroxy-α-sanshool (2), hydroxy-β-sanshool (3), bungeanool (4), isobungeanool (5), and hydroxy-γ-isosanshool (6), as well as hydroxy-ε-sanshool (7), the structure of which has not yet been confirmed by NMR, and hydroxy-ζ-sanshool (8), which has not been previously reported in the literature. Psychophysical half-tongue experiments using filter paper rectangles (1 × 2 cm) as the vehicle revealed amides 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8, showing at least one cis-configured double bond, elicited the well-known tingling and paresthetic orosensation above threshold levels of 3.5-8.3 nmol/cm(2). In contrast, the all-trans-configured amides 3 and 6 induced a numbing and anesthetic sensation above thresholds of 3.9 and 7.1 nmol/cm(2), respectively. Interestingly, the mono-cis-configured major amide 2 was found to induce massive salivation, whereas the all-trans-configuration of 3 did not.

  16. Revealing Non-Covalent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erin R.; Keinan, Shahar; Mori-Sánchez, Paula; Contreras-García, Julia; Cohen, Aron J.; Yang, Weitao

    2010-01-01

    Molecular structure does not easily identify the intricate non-covalent interactions that govern many areas of biology and chemistry, including design of new materials and drugs. We develop an approach to detect non-covalent interactions in real space, based on the electron density and its derivatives. Our approach reveals underlying chemistry that compliments the covalent structure. It provides a rich representation of van der Waals interactions, hydrogen bonds, and steric repulsion in small molecules, molecular complexes, and solids. Most importantly, the method, requiring only knowledge of the atomic coordinates, is efficient and applicable to large systems, such as proteins or DNA. Across these applications, a view of non-bonded interactions emerges as continuous surfaces rather than close contacts between atom pairs, offering rich insight into the design of new and improved ligands. PMID:20394428

  17. A Novel Three-Colour Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Approach for the Detection of t(7;12)(q36;p13) in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Reveals New Cryptic Three Way Translocation t(7;12;16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naiel, Abdulbasit [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Vetter, Michael [MetaSystems, Altlussheim 68804 (Germany); Plekhanova, Olga [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Fleischman, Elena; Sokova, Olga [N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Tsaur, Grigory [Regional Children’s Hospital N 1, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Cell Technologies, Ekaterinburg 620149 (Russian Federation); Harbott, Jochen [Oncogenetic Laboratory, Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen 35392 (Germany); Tosi, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.tosi@brunel.ac.uk [Leukaemia and Chromosome Research Laboratory, Division of Biosciences, Brunel University, London, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-11

    The t(7;12)(q36;p13) translocation is a recurrent chromosome abnormality that involves the ETV6 gene on chromosome 12 and has been identified in 20–30% of infant patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The detection of t(7;12) rearrangements relies on the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) because this translocation is hardly visible by chromosome banding methods. Furthermore, a fusion transcript HLXB9-ETV6 is found in approximately 50% of t(7;12) cases, making the reverse transcription PCR approach not an ideal screening method. Considering the report of few cases of variant translocations harbouring a cryptic t(7;12) rearrangement, we believe that the actual incidence of this abnormality is higher than reported to date. The clinical outcome of t(7;12) patients is believed to be poor, therefore an early and accurate diagnosis is important in the clinical management and treatment. In this study, we have designed and tested a novel three-colour FISH approach that enabled us not only to confirm the presence of the t(7;12) in a number of patients studied previously, but also to identify a cryptic t(7;12) as part of a complex rearrangement. This new approach has proven to be an efficient and reliable method to be used in the diagnostic setting.

  18. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  19. In-Depth Two-Year Study of Phenolic Profile Variability among Olive Oils from Autochthonous and Mediterranean Varieties in Morocco, as Revealed by a LC-MS Chemometric Profiling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Bajoub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil phenolic fraction considerably contributes to the sensory quality and nutritional value of this foodstuff. Herein, the phenolic fraction of 203 olive oil samples extracted from fruits of four autochthonous Moroccan cultivars (“Picholine Marocaine”, “Dahbia”, “Haouzia” and “Menara”, and nine Mediterranean varieties recently introduced in Morocco (“Arbequina”, “Arbosana”, “Cornicabra”, “Frantoio”, “Hojiblanca”, “Koroneiki”, “Manzanilla”, “Picholine de Languedoc” and “Picual”, were explored over two consecutive crop seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014 by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 32 phenolic compounds (and quinic acid, belonging to five chemical classes (secoiridoids, simple phenols, flavonoids, lignans and phenolic acids were identified and quantified. Phenolic profiling revealed that the determined phenolic compounds showed variety-dependent levels, being, at the same time, significantly affected by the crop season. Moreover, based on the obtained phenolic composition and chemometric linear discriminant analysis, statistical models were obtained allowing a very satisfactory classification and prediction of the varietal origin of the studied oils.

  20. Interference due to coherence swapping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In quantum interference (first order) the important requirement is the coherence of a quantum state, which usually we tend to associate with a particle if it has come from a single source and made to pass through a double slit or through a suit- able device such as a beam splitter (as in a Mach–Zehnder interferometer).

  1. Programs to Swap Diagonal Blocks,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Introduction bi adr 2. The Software c Dist Special 3. General Theory 4. Implementations details 4.1. Stadardized Real Schur Form 42. Solving AIX- XA2 = B 4.3... Software Economizer (EXCENG) Consider a submatrix of the form A 1B 1020 A2 where A1 and A2 are ZxZ diagonal blocks. Algorithm 0 (called EXC-NG in [Ste...s) in 4.4 we need only to compute Cj and C2 using the formulae above. We skip the details of algebric manipulations and give the results below. case

  2. Interference due to coherence swapping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum Optics and Information Groups, School of Informatics, Dean Street, University of Wales, Bangor LL 57 1UT, UK; Theoretical Physics Division, 5th Floor, Central Complex, Bhabha Atomic ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  3. An ace up their sleeve: a transcriptomic approach exposes the AceI efflux protein of Acinetobacter baumannii and reveals the drug efflux potential hidden in many microbial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl A Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The era of antibiotics as a cure-all for bacterial infections appears to be coming to an end. The emergence of multidrug resistance in many hospital-associated pathogens has resulted in superbugs that are effectively untreatable. Multidrug efflux pumps are well known mediators of bacterial drug resistance. Genome sequencing efforts have highlighted an abundance of putative efflux pump genes in bacteria. However, it is not clear how many of these pumps play a role in antimicrobial resistance. Several studies have demonstrated that efflux pump genes that participate in drug resistance are typically under tight regulatory control and expressed only in response to their substrates. Consequently, changes in gene expression following antimicrobial shock treatments may be used to identify efflux pumps that mediate antimicrobial resistance, informing targeted functional analyses of these proteins. Using this approach we have characterised novel efflux pumps in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Notably, we recently applied this strategy to characterise the AceI efflux pump from Acinetobacter. AceI is a prototype for a new family of multidrug efflux proteins that is conserved across many proteobacterial lineages. Different efflux pumps in this family have been shown to confer resistance to biocides including chlorhexidine, dequalinium, benzalkonium, proflavine and/or acriflavine. The discovery of this novel family of multidrug efflux proteins raises the possibility that additional undiscovered intrinsic resistance proteins may be encoded in the core genomes of pathogenic bacteria.

  4. Biogeochemical typing of paddy field by a data-driven approach revealing sub-systems within a complex environment--a pipeline to filtrate, organize and frame massive dataset from multi-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M O Ogawa

    Full Text Available We propose the technique of biogeochemical typing (BGC typing as a novel methodology to set forth the sub-systems of organismal communities associated to the correlated chemical profiles working within a larger complex environment. Given the intricate characteristic of both organismal and chemical consortia inherent to the nature, many environmental studies employ the holistic approach of multi-omics analyses undermining as much information as possible. Due to the massive amount of data produced applying multi-omics analyses, the results are hard to visualize and to process. The BGC typing analysis is a pipeline built using integrative statistical analysis that can treat such huge datasets filtering, organizing and framing the information based on the strength of the various mutual trends of the organismal and chemical fluctuations occurring simultaneously in the environment. To test our technique of BGC typing, we choose a rich environment abounding in chemical nutrients and organismal diversity: the surficial freshwater from Japanese paddy fields and surrounding waters. To identify the community consortia profile we employed metagenomics as high throughput sequencing (HTS for the fragments amplified from Archaea rRNA, universal 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA; to assess the elemental content we employed ionomics by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES; and for the organic chemical profile, metabolomics employing both Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR all these analyses comprised our multi-omics dataset. The similar trends between the community consortia against the chemical profiles were connected through correlation. The result was then filtered, organized and framed according to correlation strengths and peculiarities. The output gave us four BGC types displaying uniqueness in community and chemical distribution, diversity and richness. We conclude therefore that

  5. A systems toxicology approach reveals the Wnt-MAPK crosstalk pathway mediated reproductive failure in Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to graphene oxide (GO) but not to reduced graphene oxide (rGO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nivedita; Kim, Youngho; Yang, Jisu; Roca, Carlos P; Joo, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jinhee

    2017-02-01

    The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint). Comparative analysis of GO vs. rGO effects found that the wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnt) pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were evoked in GO- but not in rGO-exposed worms. We therefore hypothesized that crosstalk between the Wnt and MAPK pathways is responsible for C. elegans' reproductive sensitivity to GO exposure. By targeting the individual components of the Wnt-MAPK crosstalk pathway (with qPCR gene expression and mutant reproduction analysis), we found a signaling cascade of MOM-2 → MOM-5 → MOM-4 → LIT-1 → POP-1 → EGL-5. Specifically, the activation of POP-1 (the TCF protein homolog) and subsequent repression of the Wnt/β-catenin target gene (EGL-5), analyzed with target-gene-specific RNAi in POP-1 mutant [pop-1(q645)] worms, were the central mechanisms of reduced reproductive potential in the worms exposed to GO. Our results highlight the distinct biological and molecular mechanisms of GO and rGO exposure and the role of Wnt-MAPK pathway crosstalk in regulating GO-induced reproductive failure in in vivo systems, and they will contribute to the development of efficient and innocuous graphene applications as well to improvements in mechanism-based risk assessment.

  6. Told through the wine: A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry interplatform comparison reveals the influence of the global approach on the final annotated metabolites in non-targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ramon; Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Sancho, Juan V; Nuñez, Oscar; Zamora, Tatiana; Martins, Claudia P B; Hernández, Félix; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier; Checa, Antonio

    2016-02-12

    This work focuses on the influence of the selected LC-HRMS platform on the final annotated compounds in non-targeted metabolomics. Two platforms that differed in columns, mobile phases, gradients, chromatographs, mass spectrometers (Orbitrap [Platform#1] and Q-TOF [Platform#2]), data processing and marker selection protocols were compared. A total of 42 wines samples from three different protected denomination of origin (PDO) were analyzed. At the feature level, good (O)PLS-DA models were obtained for both platforms (Q(2)[Platform#1]=0.89, 0.83 and 0.72; Q(2)[Platform#2]=0.86, 0.86 and 0.77 for Penedes, Ribera del Duero and Rioja wines respectively) with 100% correctly classified samples in all cases. At the annotated metabolite level, platforms proposed 9 and 8 annotated metabolites respectively which were identified by matching standards or the MS/MS spectra of the compounds. At this stage, there was no coincidence among platforms regarding the suggested metabolites. When screened on the raw data, 6 and 5 of these compounds were detected on the other platform with a similar trend. Some of the detected metabolites showed complimentary information when integrated on biological pathways. Through the use of some examples at the annotated metabolite level, possible explanations of this initial divergence on the results are presented. This work shows the complications that may arise on the comparison of non-targeted metabolomics platforms even when metabolite focused approaches are used in the identification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  8. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red, figure 2) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow, figure 3). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images like the one shown in figure 2, reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together (figure 3). Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.

  9. Revealed preference analysis of noncooperative household consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2011-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyse non-unitary household consumption behaviour that is not cooperative (or Pareto efficient). We derive global necessary and sufficient conditions for data consistency with the model. We show that the conditions can be verified by means of relatively

  10. Aspectos a considerar en los calculos de efectividad de una cobertura de valor razonable en donde el swap de tasa de interes intercambia una tasa flotante por otra tasa flotante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Garcia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the hedge accounting of fair value hedge on a variable-tovariable swap. Following the effectiveness valuation procedure established in Bulletin C-10 “Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedge Activities” under Mexican GAAP will generate distorted effectiveness outcome even though the critical terms between the hedge item and the hedging instrument are the same in all aspects. To show this effect we present a hypothetic example for a fair value hedge relationship LIBOR-TIIE. Our conclusion is that this distortion is due to a valuation effect known as “pull to par” especially when the coupon reset dates of the hedge item and the hedging instrument does not match with the valuation date. Finally, it propones alternative ways to book this kind of transactions that eliminate the temporal distortion that this pull to par effect generates.

  11. Crystal structure of Mdm12 reveals the architecture and dynamic organization of the ERMES complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hanbin; Park, Jumi; Lee, Changwook

    2016-12-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) is a protein complex that plays a tethering role in physically connecting ER and mitochondria membranes. The ERMES complex is composed of Mdm12, Mmm1, and Mdm34, which have a SMP domain in common, and Mdm10. Here, we report the crystal structure of S. cerevisiae Mdm12. The Mdm12 forms a dimeric SMP structure through domain swapping of the β1-strand comprising residues 1-7. Biochemical experiments reveal a phospholipid-binding site located along a hydrophobic channel of the Mdm12 structure and that Mdm12 might have a binding preference for glycerophospholipids harboring a positively charged head group. Strikingly, both full-length Mdm12 and Mdm12 truncated to exclude the disordered region (residues 74-114) display the same organization in the asymmetric unit, although they crystallize as a tetramer and hexamer, respectively. Taken together, these studies provide a novel understanding of the overall organization of SMP domains in the ERMES complex, indicating that Mdm12 interacts with Mdm34 through head-to-head contact, and with Mmm1 through tail-to-tail contact of SMP domains. © 2016 The Authors.

  12. When bugs reveal biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, Kristine; Schnell, Ida B; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-02-01

    One of the fundamental challenges of conservation biology is gathering data on species distribution and abundance. And unless conservationists know where a species is found and in which numbers, it is very difficult to apply effective conservation efforts. In today's age of increasingly powerful monitoring tools, instant communication and online databases, one might be forgiven for thinking that such knowledge is easy to come by. However, of the approximately 5,400 terrestrial mammals on the IUCN Red List, no fewer than 789 (ca. 14%) are listed as 'Data Deficient' (IUCN 2012) – IUCN’s term for 'haven't got a clue'. Until recently, the only way to gather information of numbers and distribution of terrestrial mammals (and many other vertebrates) was through observational-based approaches such as visual records, the presence of tracks or spoor or even identification from bushmeat or hunters' trophies pinned to the walls in local villages. While recent technological developments have considerably improved the efficacy of such approaches, for example, using remote-sensing devices such as audio- or camera-traps or even remote drones (Koh & Wich 2012), there has been a growing realization of the power of molecular methods that identify mammals based on trace evidence. Suitable substrates include the obvious, such as faecal and hair samples (e.g. Vigilant et al. 2009), to the less obvious, including environmental DNA extracted from sediments, soil or water samples (e.g. Taberlet et al. 2012), and as recently demonstrated, the dietary content of blood-sucking invertebrates (Gariepy et al. 2012; Schnell et al. 2012). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Calvignac-Spencer et al. (2013) present a potentially powerful development in this regard; diet analysis of carrion flies. With their near global distribution, and as most field biologists know, irritatingly high frequency in most terrestrial areas of conservation concern (which directly translates into ease of sampling

  13. A mixed-method approach to reveal untapped customer needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Ir. Remko van der Lugt; Dr. Gerrita van der Veen

    2012-01-01

    How to provide health clubs the possibility of offering distinctive services in an increasingly stronger and rapidly changing competitive environment? This was the issue raised by the Dutch fitness industry, which in recent years has grown markedly. Our study represents an extension of the dynamic

  14. Comparative genomics reveals novel biochemical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, Jure; Schnackerz, Klaus D; Andersen, Gorm; Björnberg, Olof

    2007-08-01

    How well do we understand which enzymes are involved in the primary metabolism of the cell? A recent study using comparative genomics and postgenomics approaches revealed a novel pathway in the most studied organism, Escherichia coli. The analysis of a new operon consisting of seven previously uncharacterized genes thought to be involved in the degradation of nucleic acid precursors shows the impact of comparative genomics on the discovery of novel pathways and enzymes.

  15. Scheme for secure swapping two unknown states of a photonic qubit and an electron-spin qubit using simultaneous quantum transmission and teleportation via quantum dots inside single-sided optical cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jino [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Min-Sung [Center for Quantum Information, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Ho [National Security Research Institute, P.O.Box 1, Yuseong, Daejeon, 34188 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong-Gon [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jong-Phil, E-mail: jongph@cbnu.ac.kr [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-Gu, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We propose a scheme for swapping two unknown states of a photon and electron spin confined to a charged quantum dot (QD) between two users by transferring a single photon. This scheme simultaneously transfers and teleports an unknown state (electron spin) between two users. For this bidirectional quantum communication, we utilize the interactions between a photonic and an electron-spin qubits of a QD located inside a single-sided optical cavity. Thus, our proposal using QD-cavity systems can obtain a certain success probability with high fidelity. Furthermore, compared to a previous scheme using cross-Kerr nonlinearities and homodyne detections, our scheme (using QD-cavity systems) can improve the feasibility under the decoherence effect in practice. - Highlights: • Design of Simultaneous quantum transmission and teleportation scheme via quantum dots and cavities. • We have developed the experimental feasibility of this scheme compared with the existing scheme. • Analysis of some benefits when our scheme is experimentally implemented using quantum dots and single-sided cavities.

  16. A Simulated Annealing Approach for the Train Design Optimization Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Federico Alonso-Pecina; David Romero

    2017-01-01

    ..., the number of locomotives, and the crews’ return to their departure stations. The constraints include upper bounds for number of car blocks per locomotive, number of car block swaps, and number of locomotives passing through railroad segments...

  17. Epitope mapping for monoclonal antibody reveals the activation mechanism for αVβ3 integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Kamata

    Full Text Available Epitopes for a panel of anti-αVβ3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were investigated to explore the activation mechanism of αVβ3 integrin. Experiments utilizing αV/αIIb domain-swapping chimeras revealed that among the nine mAbs tested, five recognized the ligand-binding β-propeller domain and four recognized the thigh domain, which is the upper leg of the αV chain. Interestingly, the four mAbs included function-blocking as well as non-functional mAbs, although they bound at a distance from the ligand-binding site. The epitopes for these four mAbs were further determined using human-to-mouse αV chimeras. Among the four, P3G8 recognized an amino acid residue, Ser-528, located on the side of the thigh domain, while AMF-7, M9, and P2W7 all recognized a common epitope, Ser-462, that was located close to the α-genu, where integrin makes a sharp bend in the crystal structure. Fibrinogen binding studies for cells expressing wild-type αVβ3 confirmed that AMF-7, M9, and P2W7 were inhibitory, while P3G8 was non-functional. However, these mAbs were all unable to block binding when αVβ3 was constrained in its extended conformation. These results suggest that AMF-7, M9, and P2W7 block ligand binding allosterically by stabilizing the angle of the bend in the bent conformation. Thus, a switchblade-like movement of the integrin leg is indispensable for the affinity regulation of αVβ3 integrin.

  18. Crystal structure and mutational analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle regulatory protein Cks1: implications for domain swapping, anion binding and protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Y; Watson, M H; Arvai, A S; Bernstein, S L; Reed, S I; Tainer, J A

    2000-08-15

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cks1 (cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 1) is essential for cell-cycle progression. The biological function of Cks1 can be modulated by a switch between two distinct molecular assemblies: the single domain fold, which results from the closing of a beta-hinge motif, and the intersubunit beta-strand interchanged dimer, which arises from the opening of the beta-hinge motif. The crystal structure of a cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) in complex with the human Cks homolog CksHs1 single-domain fold revealed the importance of conserved hydrophobic residues and charged residues within the beta-hinge motif. The 3.0 A resolution Cks1 structure reveals the strict structural conservation of the Cks alpha/beta-core fold and the beta-hinge motif. The beta hinge identified in the Cks1 structure includes a novel pivot and exposes a cluster of conserved tyrosine residues that are involved in Cdk binding but are sequestered in the beta-interchanged Cks homolog suc1 dimer structure. This Cks1 structure confirms the conservation of the Cks anion-binding site, which interacts with sidechain residues from the C-terminal alpha helix of another subunit in the crystal. The Cks1 structure exemplifies the conservation of the beta-interchanged dimer and the anion-binding site in evolutionarily distant yeast and human Cks homologs. Mutational analyses including in vivo rescue of CKS1 disruption support the dual functional roles of the beta-hinge residue Glu94, which participates in Cdk binding, and of the anion-binding pocket that is located 22 A away and on an opposite face to Glu94. The Cks1 structure suggests a biological role for the beta-interchanged dimer and the anion-binding site in targeting Cdks to specific phosphoproteins during cell-cycle progression.

  19. [Vulvar oedema revealing systemic mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveza, E; Locatelli, F; Girardin, M; Valmary-Degano, S; Daguindau, E; Aubin, F; Humbert, P; Pelletier, F

    2015-11-01

    Systemic mastocytosis is characterised by abnormal proliferation of mast cells in various organs. We report an original case of systemic mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema. A 24-year-old patient was examined in the dermatology department for vulvar oedema appearing during sexual intercourse. She presented vasomotor dysfunction of the lower limbs, urticaria on the trunk on exertion, diarrhoea and bone pains. Laboratory tests showed serum tryptase of 29.7μg and plasma histamine at twice the normal value. Myelogram results showed infiltration by dysmorphic mast cells. Screening for c-kit D816V mutation was positive. Duodenal biopsies revealed mast-cell clusters with aggregation involving over 15 mast cells. CD2 staining was inconclusive and CD25 staining could not be done. Trabecular osteopenia was found, and we thus made a diagnosis of indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM variant Ia) as per the WHO 2008 criteria. Symptomatic treatment was initiated (antiH1, H2, antileukotrienes) and clinical and laboratory follow-up was instituted. The cutaneous signs leading to diagnosis in this patient of systemic mastocytosis involving several organs were seemingly minimal signs associated with mastocyte degranulation. This is the third recorded case of mastocytosis revealed by vulvar oedema and the first case revealing systemic involvement. The two previously reported cases of vulvar oedema revealed cutaneous mastocytosis alone. Mastocytosis, whether systemic or cutaneous, must be included among the differential diagnoses considered in the presence of vulvar oedema. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Revealing and Concealing in Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secrecy and the act of concealing and revealing knowledge effectually segregate the initiated and the uninitiated. The act of sharing or hiding knowledge plays a central role in all human relations private or public, political or religious. This volume explores the concept of secrecy and its impl...

  1. [Cervicofacial cellulitis revealing cutaneous lymphomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, M A; Bencheikh, R; Benhammou, A; El Edghiri, H; Boulaich, M; Essakali, L; Kzadri, M

    2007-06-01

    The cervicofacial localization of cutaneous lymphomas is rare. These lymphomas usually present as a long-lasting and treatment-refractory papule or nodule. Lymphomas can also be revealed by cervicofacial cellulitis. We report 2 cases of cervicofacial cellulitis revealing a cutaneous lymphoma. The diagnosis was proved by multiple biopsies, performed because there was no clinical improvement in spite of an aggressive and adequate antibiotherapy. Our 2 patients were treated by radio and chemotherapy. Cutaneous lymphomas are lymphocytic proliferations stemming from cutaneous lymphoid tissue, without nodal, medullary, or visceral localization. Their clinical presentation is quite polymorphic, and cellulitis is one of the modes of revelation, especially forehead and neck localization. They have no portal of entry and are resistant to treatment. The diagnosis relies on histology, and biopsies must be performed if there is a suspicion of lymphoma. The treatment is radio and chemotherapy, and the evolution depends on the tumoral stage.

  2. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis. ....... Given advances in evolutionary psychology and neuroscience, I propose one way to model those evolutionary pressures that will hopefully prove useful in expanding normative economics.......If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  3. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association.

  4. PMD patient mutations reveal a long-distance intronic interaction that regulates PLP1/DM20 alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Jennifer R; Sperle, Karen; Banser, Linda; Seeman, Pavel; Cavan, Barbra Charina V; Garbern, James Y; Hobson, Grace M

    2014-10-15

    Alternative splicing of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1) produces two forms, PLP1 and DM20, due to alternative use of 5' splice sites with the same acceptor site in intron 3. The PLP1 form predominates in central nervous system RNA. Mutations that reduce the ratio of PLP1 to DM20, whether mutant or normal protein is formed, result in the X-linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). We investigated the ability of sequences throughout PLP1 intron 3 to regulate alternative splicing using a splicing minigene construct transfected into the oligodendrocyte cell line, Oli-neu. Our data reveal that the alternative splice of PLP1 is regulated by a long-distance interaction between two highly conserved elements that are separated by 581 bases within the 1071-base intron 3. Further, our data suggest that a base-pairing secondary structure forms between these two elements, and we demonstrate that mutations of either element designed to destabilize the secondary structure decreased the PLP1/DM20 ratio, while swap mutations designed to restore the structure brought the PLP1/DM20 ratio to near normal levels. Sequence analysis of intron 3 in families with clinical symptoms of PMD who did not have coding-region mutations revealed mutations that segregated with disease in three families. We showed that these patient mutations, which potentially destabilize the secondary structure, also reduced the PLP1/DM20 ratio. This is the first report of patient mutations causing disease by disruption of a long-distance intronic interaction controlling alternative splicing. This finding has important implications for molecular diagnostics of PMD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  6. To Reveal Thy Heart Perchance to Reveal the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Faux

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Ronald PELIAS, a professor of speech communications, employs a variety of writing methods as examples of alternative ways to do research and to share with the reader a seldom seen and seldom considered aspect of academic life: Heart. In the early chapters of the book, PELIAS sets out to establish a way to place his Heart in the foreground; baring his emotional vulnerability, his humanness, his being in the world. Later chapters of the book encompass an autoethnographic study of academic life in which the previously revealed Heart is placed in context. In this review essay I discuss PELIAS' book in relation to the larger literature on autoethnography and subjectivist research; I follow this by discussing the need for and usefulness of such alternative methods using PELIAS' autoethnography of academic life as a context. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs050279

  7. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  8. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  9. A Mathematics Teacher’s Questioning Approaches for Revealing Students’ Thinking during Lesson Study [Bir Matematik Öğretmenin Ders İmecesi Boyunca Öğrencilerin Düşüncelerini Ortaya Çıkaracak Soru Sorma Yaklaşımları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytuğ Özaltun Çelik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the questioning approaches of a mathematics teacher participated in a lesson study model. The data of the study conducted through a qualitative case study were gathered from transcriptions of the mathematics teacher’s four-hour lessons about trigonometry and field notes of the researchers. Based on the data analysis realized by content analysis, it was seen that the teacher asked questions to reveal students’ prior knowlede, to understand their ideas and to ask them explain their corrrect responses. When examined the teacher’s questioning in terms of socio-mathematical norms, it was determined that they were insufficient for the students to have metacognitive abilities even if they were such as to encourage the students to think mathematically. It is thougt that the questions which the teacher used in the context of the lessons related to trigonometry and the evaluation of these questions will guide mathematics educators and researchers. [Bu çalışmanın amacı ders imecesine katılan bir matematik öğretmenin sorduğu soruları öğrenci düşüncesi bilgisi bağlamında incelemektir. Nitel durum çalışması desenine dayalı olarak gerçekleştirilen çalışmanın verileri bir matematik öğretmeninin ders imecesi kapsamındaki dört saatlik öğretiminin çözümlemelerinden ve araştırmacı alan notlarından derlenmiştir. İçerik analizi ile gerçekleştirilen veri analizi sonucunda öğretmenin; öğrencilerin ön bilgilerini ortaya çıkarmak, fikirlerini anlamak ve doğru yanıtlarını açıklamalarını istemek için sorular sorduğunu göstermiştir. Soruların öğrencileri matematiksel düşünmeye teşvik edecek nitelikte olmasının yanı sıra öğretmenin soru sorma yaklaşımlarının sosyomatematiksel normlar açısından değerlendirildiğinde, öğrencilere üst bilişsel becerileri kazandırmada yetersiz kaldığı belirlenmiştir. Trigonometriye giriş dersleri kapsam

  10. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  11. 75 FR 80897 - Swap Data Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... contravene regulations necessary to prevent evasion.\\17\\ \\17\\ Section 2(i) of the CEA, as amended by Section... Commission may prescribe or promulgate as are necessary or appropriate to prevent the evasion of any... or schedules, as of the most recent fiscal year. A balance sheet and an income and expense statement...

  12. The SWAP Upper Atmosphere Expansion Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Zesta, E.; Basu, S.; Black, C.; Emmert, J. T.; Sutton, E. K.; Thayer, J. P.; Codrescu, M.; Fedrizzi, M.; Tobiska, W. K.; Crowley, G.; Pilinski, M.; Bowman, B. R.; Woods, T. N.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric expansion during extreme events gives rise to increases in neutral density at low-Earth orbit altitudes, which poses two distinct risks to operational spacecraft. The first is the direct effect of enhanced drag on the spacecraft, changing its orbit, increasing the uncertainty of its position, and reducing the orbital lifetime. The second is the indirect effect of atmospheric expansion on the ability to monitor the trajectories of debris, including objects with high area-to-mass ratios, for collision avoidance at all times. The Benchmark for neutral density is defined relative to the empirical neutral density reference models, e.g., JB2008 or NRLMSIS-00. These models are used as a reference in order to extrapolate the response to a 100-year and theoretical maximum event. The Benchmark is also defined for neutral winds: in-track winds change apparent density along an orbit; cross-track winds influence orbit trajectory. The Benchmark is established at three altitudes: 250 km, 400 km, and 850 km, and quantifies the impact from solar ultraviolet radiation (EUV and FUV) at low, medium, and high solar activity on timescales greater than one day; EUV enhancement during impulsive events, such as solar flares; and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) driving geomagnetic storms. A 100-year and theoretical maximum estimate of the peak daily F10.7 proxy are 390 and 500 units, respectively, which would increase global mean density by 100% and 160% at 400 km altitude above the empirical model values at an F10.7 of 240 units. Estimates for a 100-year flare are X30 with a theoretical maximum of X40. The response to an X30 or X40 flare would produce a 75% and 135% density increase, respectively, on the dayside at 400 km altitude at a median solar flux level of 150 sfu. For a Carrington storm the thermospheric temperature is expected to exceed 4000 K, and neutral density is predicted to exceed empirical model estimates of the response to a Bastille or Halloween-like storm by a factor of 3 to 5. Neutral winds are expected to exceed 2000 m/s, modulating in-track apparent density by 50%. Significant uncertainty exists in the magnetospheric response to a Carrington storm and the estimates of energy dissipation in the upper atmosphere driving the expansion and density increase, requiring additional studies.

  13. Infrared SWAP detectors: pushing the limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibel, Yann; Taalat, R.; Brunner, A.; Rubaldo, L.; Augey, T.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Manissadjian, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.; Destéfanis, G.

    2015-06-01

    The growing demand for compact and low consumption infrared cooled detectors is driven by different products segments. Hand Held Thermal Imagers, UAV, small gimbals are some of them. End users are requiring devices easy to use with fast cool down time, excellent portability, low acoustic noise with no trade-offs in reliability and performance. These requirements are pushing the technology developments toward constant innovations on detectors, coolers, read out circuits and proximity electronic boards. In this paper we are discussing the different figures of merit and highlighting the challenges for the different components. An update on the developments of HOT technology for most advanced pixel pitch will be presented. Very compact products are driving the developments for innovative coolers and cryogenic solutions. A low power compact architecture is a must for electronic boards to optimize the overall system power consumption. Finally a look to the future requirements for further shrink will be addressed.

  14. Exercise and Depression: Swapping Sweat for Serenity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Terry

    1986-01-01

    Individuals who engage in regular exercise of varying intensity report significant reduction in anxiety and depression. While most evidence is anecdotal, research has provided support for exercise in depression therapy. (Author/MT)

  15. Physicist swaps protons for profit strategies

    CERN Multimedia

    Starck, Peter

    2006-01-01

    "A german particle physicist has decided to try his hand as a hedge fund manager and is confident that his award-winning algorithm will mean he hits his return target within weeks of launch." (1/2 page)

  16. Swap e prodotti derivati: rischi e rendimenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. MASERA

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Derivative financial products have experienced a huge expansion during recent years. New products are constantly appearing which seek to expand the scope of risk diversification. Because of their comparatively low transaction costs, the volumes of derivative transactions have often exceeded those of the underlying instruments that are traded in cash markets. Given the size of derivative markets, it is even more important now to understand the risk-return profiles of the different products.

  17. Swap e prodotti derivati: rischi e rendimenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. MASERA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Derivative financial products have experienced a huge expansion during recent years. New products are constantly appearing which seek to expand the scope of risk diversification. Because of their comparatively low transaction costs, the volumes of derivative transactions have often exceeded those of the underlying instruments that are traded in cash markets. Given the size of derivative markets, it is even more important now to understand the risk-return profiles of the different products. JEL Codes: G20 

  18. SWaP Optimized Space Transceivers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Size and weight of payloads on space platforms is limited by the launch vehicle capacity, and NASA platform designers must use every square inch and pound...

  19. Tadpole begging reveals high quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Strickler, S A; Stynoski, J L

    2017-05-01

    Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources nonrandomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses - Signal of Need, Signal of Quality and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly. We assessed the information content of intense tadpole begging with an experimental manipulation of tadpole condition (need/quality) and food deprivation (hunger). This experiment revealed patterns consistent with the Signal of Quality hypothesis and directly counter to predictions of Signal of Need and Signal of Hunger. Begging effort and performance were higher in more developed and higher condition tadpoles and declined with food deprivation. Free-living mothers were unlikely to feed tadpoles of a nonbegging species experimentally cross-fostered with their own, and allocated larger meals to more developed tadpoles and those that vibrated at higher speed. Mother O. pumilio favour their high-quality young, and because their concurrent offspring are reared in separate nurseries, must do so by making active allocation decisions. Our results suggest that these maternal choices are based at least in part on offspring signals, indicating that offspring solicitation can evolve to signal high quality. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  20. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Kevin M; Cannon, Johanna T; Todt, Christiane; Citarella, Mathew R; Kohn, Andrea B; Meyer, Achim; Santos, Scott R; Schander, Christoffer; Moroz, Leonid L; Lieb, Bernhard; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2011-09-04

    Evolutionary relationships among the eight major lineages of Mollusca have remained unresolved despite their diversity and importance. Previous investigations of molluscan phylogeny, based primarily on nuclear ribosomal gene sequences or morphological data, have been unsuccessful at elucidating these relationships. Recently, phylogenomic studies using dozens to hundreds of genes have greatly improved our understanding of deep animal relationships. However, limited genomic resources spanning molluscan diversity has prevented use of a phylogenomic approach. Here we use transcriptome and genome data from all major lineages (except Monoplacophora) and recover a well-supported topology for Mollusca. Our results strongly support the Aculifera hypothesis placing Polyplacophora (chitons) in a clade with a monophyletic Aplacophora (worm-like molluscs). Additionally, within Conchifera, a sister-taxon relationship between Gastropoda and Bivalvia is supported. This grouping has received little consideration and contains most (>95%) molluscan species. Thus we propose the node-based name Pleistomollusca. In light of these results, we examined the evolution of morphological characters and found support for advanced cephalization and shells as possibly having multiple origins within Mollusca. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  1. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  2. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  3. King Lear Reveals the Tragic Pattern of Shakespeare

    OpenAIRE

    Salim Eflih Al-Ibia

    2017-01-01

    Rather than focusing on the obvious traditions of evaluating Shakespearean tragic heroes, this paper presents a groundbreaking approach to unfold the pattern William Shakespeare follows as he designed his unique characters. This pattern applies to most, if not all, Shakespearean tragic heroes. I argue that Shakespeare himself reveals a great portion of this pattern on the tongue of Lear as the latter disowns Goneril and Regan promising to have “such revenges on [them] both” in King Lear. Lear...

  4. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Trumble, Stephen J.; Robinson, Eleanor M.; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W.; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Currently, obtaining lifetime chemical profiles (i.e., from birth to death) is extremely rare and difficult for most of Earth’s animals. We have developed a unique approach to quantify hormone and contaminant lifetime profiles for an individual blue whale with a 6-mo resolution using the wax earplug as a natural matrix capable of archiving and preserving these temporal profiles. Using a male blue whale earplug, chemical analysis reveals lifetime patterns of mercury and organic pollutant expos...

  5. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  6. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony-Based Approach for Zoning Protected Ecological Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shao

    Full Text Available China is facing ecological and environmental challenges as its urban growth rate continues to rise, and zoning protected ecological areas is recognized as an effective response measure. Zoning inherently involves both site attributes and aggregation attributes, and the combination of mathematical models and heuristic algorithms have proven advantageous. In this article, an improved artificial bee colony (IABC-based approach is proposed for zoning protected ecological areas at a regional scale. Three main improvements were made: the first is the use of multiple strategies to generate the initial bee population of a specific quality and diversity, the second is an exploitation search procedure to generate neighbor solutions combining "replace" and "alter" operations, and the third is a "swap" strategy to enable a local search for the iterative optimal solution. The IABC algorithm was verified using simulated data. Then it was applied to define an optimum scheme of protected ecological areas of Sanya (in the Hainan province of China, and a reasonable solution was obtained. Finally, a comparison experiment with other methods (agent-based land allocation model, ant colony optimization, and density slicing was conducted and demonstrated that the IABC algorithm was more effective and efficient than the other methods. Through this study, we aimed to provide a scientifically sound, practical approach for zoning procedures.

  7. Pedagogical approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/- teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address (cf. Knowles......This paper is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Data is collected at a Danish Adult Education Centre. The aim of the study is to understand teachers’ learning experiences. The research...... questions are: How (much) and what do teachers learn from experience? And how do teachers of adults develop their pedagogical approach? I examine the field of adult learners from the teachers’ perspective. Firstly, I identify some of the commonly described characteristics of adults as learners...

  8. International Approaches to Clinical Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data...

  9. Planning approaches for rurban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Hidding, Marjan; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard

    2009-01-01

    encroachment, and how resilient green landscapes are ensured. The results reveal significant differences in approaches, reflecting variations in the public involvement in rurban areas development, the role of different administrative levels and the use of zonation. Variation in the use of zonation encapsulates...

  10. synthetic approaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mdachi

    Avances en Quimica 8: 145-151. Chen J, Zhou L, Tan CK and Yeung Y-Y. 2012 An Enantioselective Approach toward 3,4-Dihydroisocoumarin through the Bromocyclization of Styrene-type. Carboxylic Acids. J. Org. Chem.77: 999-. 1009. Chen P-Y, Wang Y-F, Chen L-Y, Wang G-. L and Wang E-C 2013 Reaction of o-.

  11. Probing protein flexibility reveals a mechanism for selective promiscuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Nicolas A; Camacho, Carlos J

    2017-04-22

    Many eukaryotic regulatory proteins adopt distinct bound and unbound conformations, and use this structural flexibility to bind specifically to multiple partners. However, we lack an understanding of how an interface can select some ligands, but not others. Here, we present a molecular dynamics approach to identify and quantitatively evaluate the interactions responsible for this selective promiscuity. We apply this approach to the anticancer target PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2. We discover that while unbound PD-1 exhibits a hard-to-drug hydrophilic interface, conserved specific triggers encoded in the cognate ligands activate a promiscuous binding pathway that reveals a flexible hydrophobic binding cavity. Specificity is then established by additional contacts that stabilize the PD-1 cavity into distinct bound-like modes. Collectively, our studies provide insight into the structural basis and evolution of multiple binding partners, and also suggest a biophysical approach to exploit innate binding pathways to drug seemingly undruggable targets.

  12. A chimeric prokaryotic-eukaryotic pentameric ligand gated ion channel reveals interactions between the extracellular and transmembrane domains shape neurosteroid modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Borna; Tsao, Tzu-Wei; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2017-10-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are the targets of several clinical and endogenous allosteric modulators including anesthetics and neurosteroids. Molecular mechanisms underlying allosteric drug modulation are poorly understood. Here, we constructed a chimeric pLGIC by fusing the extracellular domain (ECD) of the proton-activated, cation-selective bacterial channel GLIC to the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the human ρ1 chloride-selective GABAAR, and tested the hypothesis that drug actions are regulated locally in the domain that houses its binding site. The chimeric channels were proton-gated and chloride-selective demonstrating the GLIC ECD was functionally coupled to the GABAρ TMD. Channels were blocked by picrotoxin and inhibited by pentobarbital, etomidate and propofol. The point mutation, ρ TMD W328M, conferred positive modulation and direct gating by pentobarbital. The data suggest that the structural machinery mediating general anesthetic modulation resides in the TMD. Proton-activation and neurosteroid modulation of the GLIC-ρ chimeric channels, however, did not simply mimic their respective actions on GLIC and GABAρ revealing that across domain interactions between the ECD and TMD play important roles in determining their actions. Proton-induced current responses were biphasic suggesting that the chimeric channels contain an additional proton sensor. Neurosteroid modulation of the GLIC-ρ chimeric channels by the stereoisomers, 5α-THDOC and 5β-THDOC, were swapped compared to their actions on GABAρ indicating that positive versus negative neurosteroid modulation is not encoded solely in the TMD nor by neurosteroid isomer structure but is dependent on specific interdomain connections between the ECD and TMD. Our data reveal a new mechanism for shaping neurosteroid modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Destination marketing approach ofenhancing the competitiveness of Bukhara tourist destination

    OpenAIRE

    IBRAGIMOV N.; KURBANOVA M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reveals theoretical bases of raising competitiveness of Bukhara touristic region through Destination marketing approach and elaborates practical recommendationsfor the establishment of Destination marketing organizations.

  14. Middle-Down and Chemical Proteomic Approaches to Reveal Histone H4 Modification Dynamics in Cell Cycle: Label-Free Semi-Quantification of Histone Tail Peptide Modifications Including Phosphorylation and Highly Sensitive Capture of Histone PTM Binding Proteins Using Photo-Reactive Crosslinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuki; Chikaoka, Yoko; Hayashi, Gosuke; Sakamoto, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Sugiyama, Akira; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Okamoto, Akimitsu; Kawamura, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometric proteomics is an effective approach for identifying and quantifying histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and their binding proteins, especially in the cases of methylation and acetylation. However, another vital PTM, phosphorylation, tends to be poorly quantified because it is easily lost and inefficiently ionized. In addition, PTM binding proteins for phosphorylation are sometimes resistant to identification because of their variable binding affinities. Here, we present our efforts to improve the sensitivity of detection of histone H4 tail peptide phosphorylated at serine 1 (H4S1ph) and our successful identification of an H4S1ph binder candidate by means of a chemical proteomics approach. Our nanoLC-MS/MS system permitted semi-quantitative label-free analysis of histone H4 PTM dynamics of cell cycle-synchronized HeLa S3 cells, including phosphorylation, methylation, and acetylation. We show that H4S1ph abundance on nascent histone H4 unmethylated at lysine 20 (H4K20me0) peaks from late S-phase to M-phase. We also attempted to characterize effects of phosphorylation at H4S1 on protein-protein interactions. Specially synthesized photoaffinity bait peptides specifically captured 14-3-3 proteins as novel H4S1ph binding partners, whose interaction was otherwise undetectable by conventional peptide pull-down experiments. This is the first report that analyzes dynamics of PTM pattern on the whole histone H4 tail during cell cycle and enables the identification of PTM binders with low affinities using high-resolution mass spectrometry and photo-affinity bait peptides.

  15. [Cholangitis revealing an intrahepatic Osler's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Kochlef; Dalila, Gargouri; Olfa, Bousnina; Malika, Romani; Afef, Kilani; Najet, BelHadg; Jamel, Kharrat; Abdeljabbar, Gorbel; Sarra, Shili; Chiraz, Jemli; Mohamed, Habib Daghfous; Slim, Khlifi; Anis, Ben Maamer; Abdelmajid, Letaïef

    2005-08-01

    Osler Weber Rendu Disease is an hereditary haemorrhagic télangectasia habitually revealed by reccurent bleeding (epistaxis). Hepatic involvement in Osler disease is found in 8 to 31%, manifested by cholestasis. We report an original observation of a cholangitis revealing Osler disease.

  16. Revealing Learner Interests through Topic Mining from Question-Answering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dun, Yijie; Wang, Na; Wang, Min; Hao, Tianyong

    2017-01-01

    In a question-answering system, learner generated content including asked and answered questions is a meaningful resource to capture learning interests. This paper proposes an approach based on question topic mining for revealing learners' concerned topics in real community question-answering systems. The authors' approach firstly preprocesses all…

  17. 76 FR 22833 - Swap Data Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements: Pre-Enactment and Transition Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    .... The Commission received a number of comments in response to each of the IFRs. Comments generally fell into one or more of several broad categories and in a number of instances were common to both IFRs. Some commenters observed that issuance of IFRs in advance of regulations further defining the term...

  18. 78 FR 17 - Business Conduct and Documentation Requirements for Swap Dealers and Major Swap Participants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ..., increase transparency, and promote market integrity within the financial system by, among other things: (1..., competitiveness, and financial integrity of futures markets; (3) price discovery; (4) sound risk management..., Competitiveness, and Financial Integrity of Markets The Commission believes that extending the compliance dates...

  19. 78 FR 20788 - Dual and Multiple Associations of Persons Associated With Swap Dealers, Major Swap Participants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... public; (2) efficiency, competitiveness and financial integrity of futures markets; (3) price discovery... public; (2) efficiency, competitiveness, and financial integrity of the futures markets; (3) price... efficiency, competitiveness and financial integrity of the futures market. (3) The Market's Price Discovery...

  20. 77 FR 35892 - Dual and Multiple Associations of Persons Associated With Swap Dealers, Major Swap Participants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., competitiveness, and financial integrity of the futures markets; (3) price discovery; (4) sound risk management... efficiency, competitiveness and financial integrity of the futures market. (3) The market's price discovery... latter regulation concern financial requirements which are not applicable to SDs and MSPs. B. Request for...