WorldWideScience

Sample records for swanea southwest asia-northeast

  1. SWANEA (Southwest Asia-Northeast Africa): A Climatological Study. Volume 1. The Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    profilecs of’ (.hhia (39 Iectll2 metcers), The, diurnal oscillation cycle soun ~dling comnposites taken be-tween 23 June end I July is apparent. The...British and Italian Somaliland, AWS Directorate of Climatology, HQ Air Weather Service,.Scott AFBI, IL, December 1955. ’The Climate of Ethiopia, AWS

  2. SWANEA (Southwest Asia-Northeast Africa) A Climatological Study. Volume 3. The Near East Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    RELIEF LAKES AND RESERVOIRS. Numerous alkaline During high waler, it has several small ponds ; its marsh lakes and dry lakebeds dot the Central...Weather, Royal Book Co., Karachi, pp 313, 1988. Shenavar, A., and Hoyle , H.D., "Normal Temperatures at Tebran and Abadan. A Useful Diagramatic...Comparison," Meteorological Yearbook, pp 9-12, 1957. Shenavar, A., and Hoyle , H.D., "Surface Winds at Tehran and Abadan. Some Notes on Recent Frequency

  3. Southwest Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Gill rakers and filaments were analyzed for asymmetry in a small sample of Oreochromis niloticus (n = 33) and Clarias gariepinus (n = 3 7) from Asejire reservoir, SouthwestNigeria. 0. niloticus (9%) recorded ahigher incidence of asymmetry in gill filaments whilst C. gariepinus (6%) in gill takers. In both species, the ...

  4. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  5. South and Southwest HSRC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest is a competitively awarded, peer-reviewed research consortium led by Louisiana State University with the...

  6. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  7. Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166797.html Extreme Heat in Southwest a Deadly Threat Here's how to ... t take off in Phoenix on Tuesday, the heat wave scorching the Southwest for the next week ...

  8. SEMINATURAL SILVICULTURE IN SOUTHWEST GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spathelf

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief historical overview shows the mainstream development pattern in German silviculture and outlines the adjacent role of seminatural (naturally-oriented silviculture. The rationale for seminatural silviculture is discussed with reference to its ecological and economical aspects. Elements of seminatural silviculture of the Baden-Württemberg-concept are introduced. This concept is not purely a preservation strategy, but recognizes the importance of timber production. Some aspects of selection forest, which is a special case of uneven-aged forest with a long tradition in Southwest Germany, are discussed. As there are still a lot of even-aged (pure forests in Southwest Germany, transformation strategies towards uneven-aged mixed forests are shown with the aid of some examples. Criteria and indicators for seminatural silviculture which have to be developed on a regional or local scale, can be used as a basis for establishing a certification process for Southwest German forests. Seminatural silviculture is suited as a rational and  intergrating  silvicultural     system      to     fulfill     future     requirements     on     forests     in    a    dynamically changing world.

  9. Geology of the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, W. Scott

    2004-06-01

    Scott Baldridge presents a concise guide to the geology of the Southwestern U.S. Two billion years of Earth history are represented in the rocks and landscape of the Southwest U.S., creating natural wonders such as the Grand Canyon, Monument Valley, and Death Valley. This region is considered a geologist's "dream", attracting a large number of undergraduate field classes and amateur geologists. The volume will prove invaluable to students and will also appeal to anyone interested in the geology and landscape of the region's National Parks.

  10. Smoking rates low in southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Gallup survey confirms that smoking rates in the US are declining and that smoking rates are lower in the Southwest than the US as a whole (1. Nationally, the smoking rate fell to 19.7% in 2013 from 21.1% in 2008. Among the Southwest states California ranked second (15.0%, Colorado ninth (17.4%, and Arizona tenth (17.5%. Only New Mexico was above the Nation's average at 20.0%. Utah remains the state with the lowest percentage of smokers, 12.2 percent, and Kentucky the highest, 30.2 percent. Nine of the 10 states with the lowest smoking rates have outright bans on smoking in private worksites, restaurants, and bars, with California allowing for ventilated rooms. Bans are significantly less common in the 10 states with the highest smoking rates. Kentucky, West Virginia, and Mississippi -- the states with the three highest smoking rates -- do not have statewide smoking bans. In addition, these three ...

  11. Southwest, Frontier planes clip wings in Phoenix

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ben Mutzabaugh

    2017-01-01

    ... reports did not specify which one. Video from ABC 15 of Phoenix showed damage to the wing tip of the Southwest plane. A separate image tweeted by CBS 5 of Phoenix indicated that the wing of the Frontier aircraft also was damaged. The Frontier flight was bound for Denver, and the carrier put passengers on a replacement aircraft. Passengers on Southwest's ...

  12. Southwest Exotic Mapping Program (SWEMP) Database, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Program (SWEMP) is a collaborative effort between the United States Geological Survey and federal, tribal, state, county and...

  13. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  14. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  15. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Manatee District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  16. Southwest Energy Innovation Forum: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Arizona State University (ASU), and U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) co-convened a conference on Energy Innovation in the Southwest region of the United States that included participation by entrepreneurs, state government officials, representatives of academia,…

  17. Historical growth plots in the Pacific Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Rabin; William W. Oliver; Robert F. Powers; Martin W. Ritchie; Matt D. Busse; Eric E. Knapp

    2009-01-01

    In the past, researchers from the Pacific Southwest Research Station (PSW) undertook forest growth studies to evaluate how best to manage timber resources. However, historical and future data collected at PSW growth plots also have the potential to increase our understanding of the ecological processes occurring in our forests and shed light on national issues of...

  18. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners

  19. Southwest Exotic Mapping Program (SWEMP) Database, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The Southwest Exotic Plant Mapping Program (SWEMP) is a collaborative effort between the United States Geological Survey and federal, tribal, state, county and non-governmental organization (NGO) partners in the southwest. This project is an ongoing effort to compile and distribute regional data on the occurrence of non-native invasive plants in the southwestern United States. The database represents the known sites (represented by a point location, i.e. site) of non-native invasive plant infestations within Arizona and New Mexico, and adjacent portions of California, Colorado, Nevada and Utah. These data, collected from 1911 to 2006, represent the field observations of various state, federal, tribal and county agencies, along with some specimen data from Herbaria. The SWEMP database comprises a compilation of data submitted through 2006.

  20. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  1. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference in Southwest Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The radio signals received from astronomical objects are extremely weak. Because of this, radio sources are easily shrouded by interference from devices such as satellites and cell phone towers. Radio astronomy is very susceptible to this radio frequency interference (RFI). Possibly even worse than complete veiling, weaker interfering signals can contaminate the data collected by radio telescopes, possibly leading astronomers to mistaken interpretations. To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and RFI, an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project_the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO)_encourages students to collect and analyze RFI data and develop conclusions as a team. Because the project focuses on electromagnetic radiation, it is appropriate for physics, physical science, chemistry, or general science classes. My class-about 50 students from 15 southwest Virginia high schools-participated in the Quiet Skies Project and were pioneers in the use of the beta version of the Quiet Skies Detector (QSD), which is used to detect RFI. Students have been involved with the project since 2005 and have collected and shared data with NRAO. In analyzing the data they have noted some trends in RFI in Southwest Virginia.

  2. Southwest University's No-Fee Teacher-Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shijian; Yang, Shuhan; Li, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    The training model for Southwest University's no-fee teacher education program has taken shape over several years. Based on a review of the documentation and interviews with administrators and no-fee preservice students from different specialties, this article analyzes Southwest University's no-fee teacher-training model in terms of three main…

  3. The National Guard on the Southwest Border: Defining The Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    The National Guard On The Southwest Border: Defining The Role by Colonel Tim Lawson United States Army National Guard...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The National Guard On The Southwest Border: Defining The Role 5b. GRANT NUMBER...for Strategic Leadership of the U.S. Army War College Homeland Defense and Security Issues Group 9. SPONSORING

  4. Southwest Ecological Restoration Institutes (SWERI) Biophysical Monitoring Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Seidenberg; Judy Springer; Tessa Nicolet; Mike Battaglia; Christina Vothja

    2009-01-01

    On October 15-16, 2009, the Southwest Ecological Restoration Institutes (SWERI) hosted a workshop in which the participants would 1) build a common understanding of the types of monitoring that are occurring in forested ecosystems of the Southwest; 2) analyze and agree on an efficient, yet robust set of biophysical variables that can be used by land mangers and...

  5. 7 CFR 1126.2 - Southwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Southwest marketing area. 1126.2 Section 1126.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  6. USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection: Kanab Creek, southern Utah and northern Arizona, 1872-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection (‘Collection’), formerly named the Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection, is now housed by the Southwest...

  7. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  8. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian, T.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  9. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganachaud, A; Cravatte, S; Melet, A; Schiller, A; Holbrook, N. J; Sloyan, B. M; Widlansky, M. J; Bowen, M; Verron, J; Wiles, P; Ridgway, K; Sutton, P; Sprintall, J; Steinberg, C; Brassington, G; Cai, W; Davis, R; Gasparin, F; Gourdeau, L; Hasegawa, T; Kessler, W; Maes, C; Takahashi, K; Richards, K. J; Send, U

    2014-01-01

    ...) toward Australia and Papua‐New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes...

  10. 78 FR 49253 - Pacific Southwest Recreation Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... inspect comments received at the Pacific Southwest Regional Office (Region 5), 1323 Club Drive, Vallejo..., Vallejo, CA 94592, or by email to [email protected] , or via facsimile to 707-562-9047. A summary of...

  11. Alluvial basin statistics of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SWPA_alvbsn is a vector dataset of alluvial-fill basin statistics for the Southwest United States. Statistics for each basin include physical details such as area,...

  12. Technical Assistance for Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Brainard, James Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Security Applications; McIntyre, Annie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics; Akin, Lili A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural and Thermal Analysis; Nicol, Katherine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Surety Engineering and Analysis; Hayden, Herb [Southwest Solar Technologies, Inc., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Southwest Solar Technologies Inc. is constructing a Solar-Fuel Hybrid Turbine energy system. This innovative energy system combines solar thermal energy with compressed air energy storage and natural gas fuel backup capability to provide firm, non-intermittent power. In addition, the energy system will have very little impact on the environment since, unlike other Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies, it requires minimal water. In 2008 Southwest Solar Technologies received a Solar America Showcase award from the Department of Energy for Technical Assistance from Sandia National Laboratories. This report details the work performed as part of the Solar America Showcase award for Southwest Solar Technologies. After many meetings and visits between Sandia National Labs and Southwest Solar Technologies, several tasks were identified as part of the Technical Assistance and the analysis and results for these are included here.

  13. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  14. Bronchiolitis in Abha, Southwest Saudi Arabia: Viral etiology and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for hospital admission of children with bronchiolitis in Abha city, southwest Saudi Arabia. Methods ... the time of hospital admission. Results: Prematurity, chronic lung diseases, atopic dermatitis, pure formula feeding, passive smoking and age.

  15. Southwest Region Experiment Station - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A

    2011-08-19

    Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), an independent, university-based research institute, has been the operator of the Southwest Region Photovoltaic Experiment Station (SWRES) for almost 30 years. The overarching mission of SWTDI is to position PV systems and solar technologies to become cost-effective, major sources of energy for the United States. Embedded in SWTDI's general mission has been the more-focused mission of the SWRES: to provide value added technical support to the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP) to effectively and efficiently meet the R&D needs and targets specified in the SETP Multi-Year Technical Plan. : The DOE/SETP goals of growing U.S. PV manufacturing into giga-watt capacities and seeing tera-watt-hours of solar energy production in the U.S. require an infrastructure that is under development. The staff of the SWRES has supported DOE/SETP through a coherent, integrated program to address infrastructural needs inhibiting wide-scale PV deployment in three major technical categories: specialized engineering services, workforce development, and deployment facilitation. The SWRES contract underwent three major revisions during its five year period-of- performance, but all tasks and deliverables fell within the following task areas: Task 1: PV Systems Assistance Center 1. Develop a Comprehensive multi-year plan 2. Provide technical workforce development materials and workshops for PV stakeholder groups including university, professional installers, inspectors, state energy offices, Federal agencies 3. Serve on the NABCEP exam committee 4. Provide on-demand technical PV system design reviews for U.S. PV stakeholders 5. Provide PV system field testing and instrumentation, technical outreach (including extensive support for the DOE Market Transformation program) Task 2: Design-for-Manufacture PV Systems 1. Develop and install 18 kW parking carport (cost share) and PV-thermal carport (Albuquerque) deriving and publishing

  16. Southwest Pacific temperatures: Diurnal and seasonal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinger, M. James; Hay, John; McGann, Ron; Fitzharris, Blair

    1993-05-01

    Temperature trends are presented for a large part of the southwest Pacific. The trends differ from those documented for Northern Hemisphere land areas, where warming has occurred mainly through increases in minimum temperature. The New Zealand patterns are derived from recently completed analyses of monthly and annual mean maximum and minimum surface temperature records for a newly homogenised historical climate data series for New Zealand and outlying islands. They indicate that the warming in the New Zealand region over the past five decades can be attributed to increases in both mean maximum (mostly daytime) and mean minimum (mostly night time) temperature. All seasons show a temperature increase, with the largest occurring in summer (DJF).Northern Hemisphere evidence suggests that changes in cloud cover and the presence of sulfate aerosols plays a direct role. The present results imply that, while the observed warming in a large portion of the Northern Hemisphere landmass may be significantly affected by both these factors, sulfate aerosol effects may be less important in the Southern Hemisphere.

  17. UNAVCO-PBO Southwest Region Network Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, C. P.; Mann, D.; Basset, A.; Sklar, J.; Jarvis, C.; Pitcher, T.; Lawrence, S.; Greathouse, M.; Feaux, K.

    2012-12-01

    The UNAVCO Southwest region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 470 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas Fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. Communications range from CDMA modem (314), radio (100), Vsat (30), DSL/T1/other (25) to manual download (1). Thirty-four stations have WXT520 metpacks. Sixty-four stations stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with NOAA to stream real-time GPS and met data from PBO stations with WXT520 meteorological sensors and high rate data communications. These streams support watershed and flood analyses for regional early-warning systems related to NOAA's work with California Department of Water Resources. Network-wide NOAA receives a total of 54 streams including stations in Cascadia. In 2008 PBO became the steward of 209 existing network stations ("Nucleus stations") of which 140 are in the SW region that included SCIGN, BARD, BARGEN stations. Due to the mix of incompatible equipment used between PBO and existing network stations a project was undertaken to standardize existing network GPS stations to PBO specifications by upgrading antenna cabling, power systems and enclosures. In 2012 the Nucleus upgrade project was completed.

  18. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  19. Aerosol Production and Transport in Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, D. L.; Liu, M.; Reid, J. S.; Walker, A. L.; Lerner, J. A.; Zhang, J.; Eager, R. E.; Raman, S.

    2005-12-01

    Aerosol production from the Southwest Asia region is investigated using numerical forecast models for weather and aerosol particles. The Navy's Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPSTM) and the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) dynamical models and the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) aerosol model are utilized to estimate the interannual and seasonal budgets of aerosol production and transport into and out of the region. We compare dust production from this region with that from the other major dust source regions. The resolution-dependence of dust production is investigated with the dynamical and aerosol models at 9-km, 27-km, 81-km and 1-degree resolution. The resolution-dependence of the accuracy of modeled wind speed is calculated using surface reports for the spring season of 2003 (during Operation Iraqi Freedom), the summer of 2004 [during the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2)] and other periods over the past eight years. Both dynamical models show better skill at 12Z (about 1600 local time) than at 00Z (about 0400 local time; probably due to difficulties in modeling the stable nocturnal boundary layer) with the 00Z wind speeds having a positive bias. The resulting friction velocity and associated dust production are also compared between the models, though no direct observations are available for validation. Generally speaking, the models perform better in spring, when strong synoptic forcing is present, than in summer. The simulations are compared with the available sun photometer data and satellite retrievals. The results will be summarized and conclusions drawn for both the climate and operational modeling communities.

  20. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  1. Paragonimiasis in Children in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongrong; Miao, Ruixue; Shu, Min; Zhu, Yu; Wen, Yang; Guo, Qin; Liao, Qiong; Wan, Chaomin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Paragonimiasis infection has no specific symptoms or typical radiologic findings, leading to the possibility of misdiagnosis. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze clinical and radiological features, and treatment outcome of paragonimiasis in children in Southwest China to improve the awareness of this disease. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children diagnosed with paragonimiasis in West China Second University Hospital between 2005 and 2016. The confirmed diagnosis of paragonimiasis was based on epidemiology history and seropositivity for paragonimiasis and/or detection of paragonimus eggs. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of patients were examined in order to summarize risk factors, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes of these patients. Results: A total of 123 patients were included; of them 112 (91.1%) lived in villages and 72 (58.5%) had a history of consuming freshwater crabs. Patients with paragonimiasis most frequently showed respiratory symptoms, including cough (26.0%, 32/123) and tachypnea (16.3%, 20/123), and gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain (26.8%, 33/123), abdominal distention (22.8%, 28/123), and vomiting (13.0%, 16/123). Laboratory examination showed elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts in the peripheral blood in 89 (72.4%) patients and eosinophilia in 102 (82.9%) patients. Tuberculosis (TB) coinfection was found in 4 (3.3%) patients. Main imaging findings included: effusions (90.4%), lymphadenopathy (40.4%), pulmonary ground-glass opacities (36.2%), cystic lesions (18.1%), and pleural thickening (17.0%). Twenty-nine patients (23.6%) received more than 1 course of praziquantel (PZQ). Additionally, 4 (19.0%) of 21 patients who were discharged from the hospital without complete treatment required rehospitalization for residual serous effusions. Moreover, patients from pericardial effusion group showed longer hospital stays and less elevated WBC counts than

  2. Southwest Florida shelf ecosystems study, Volume 1: Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-01

    The 6-year Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Program began in 1980 as an interdisciplinary study. The study area extends seaward from the west coast of Florida to the 200-meter isobath and from 27/degree/N latitude southward to the Florida Keys and Dry Tortugas. The region includes Florida Bay but not other estuarine areas. This area contains numerous live-bottom habitats and associated communities in a complex, patchy matrix. Live-bottom areas are often separated by wide expanses of sand or mud bottom areas. This report concludes the 6-year Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Program's environmental study. The ultimate objective of the program was to determine the potential impact of OCS oil and gas offshore activities on live-bottom habitats and communities, which are integral components of the southwest Florida shelf ecosystems.

  3. E3 Success Story - E3 Southwest Virginia: Economy, Energy and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E3 Southwest Virginia supports sustainable manufacturing in 17 counties in southwest Virginia. The MTC provides manufacturers with assessments of production processes to reduce their energy consumption and drive innovation.

  4. 2004 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Lake Hancock District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  5. 2005/2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Peace River South (including Carter Creek)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  6. Does subterranean flow initiate mud banks off the southwest coast of India?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.

    Coastal waters off the southwest coast of India draw special attention because of the occurrence of mud banks at certain locations during southwest monsoon period. The present study puts forward a hypothesis of a subterranean flow, which could be a...

  7. 2005 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Little Manatee District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of select areas within Southwest Florida. These data were produced for the Southwest Florida Water...

  8. 78 FR 13657 - Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwest Gas Storage Company; Prior Notice of Activity Under Blanket Certificate On February 8, 2013, Southwest Gas Storage Company (Southwest) filed a prior notice request...

  9. 76 FR 41696 - Presumptive Service Connection for Diseases Associated With Service in the Southwest Asia Theater...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... the Southwest Asia Theater of Operations During the Persian Gulf War: Functional Gastrointestinal... service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations for which there is no record during service. This... Southwest Asia during certain periods and the subsequent development of functional gastrointestinal...

  10. 76 FR 28767 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Rate Order No. WAPA-152 AGENCY.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Darrick Moe, Regional Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service... [email protected] , or Mr. Jack Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western...

  11. Budgeting Systems in Universities in South-West Nigeria | Alabi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stratified random sampling was used to select seven universities from five states within the hinterland of Nigeria's South-West geopolitical zone. ... Also, out of the total sum of N80,115,006,285 as expenditure on six selected priority areas in the three academic years by the sampled universities, salaries and allowances had ...

  12. An evaluation of reclamation tree planting in southwest Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny R. Brown; Donald L. Branson

    1980-01-01

    Surface mining began in Southwest Virginia in the mid-1940's, however, few or no records were kept before 1950 and it was not until 1966 that the first Virginia reclamation law was passed. Two years later in 1968, the Division of Mined Land Reclamation was created and tree planting began on a uniform basis in Virginia surface mines.

  13. Fiscal Year 2013 Comprehensive Oversight Plan for Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    economical and social development. CHAIRPERSON’S MESSAGE TO THE SOUTHWEST ASIA JOINT PLANNING GROUP MEMBERS. For more than 3 years I have had the honor...vi MoDA Ministry of Defense Advisors MoI Ministry of Interior NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NAVAUDSVC Naval Audit Service O&M

  14. Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris off south-west Mauritius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinner dolphins Stenella longirostris longirostris off the south-west coast of Mauritius are subject to ongoing anthropogenic disturbance in the form of daily dolphin tourism, which has intensified since 1998. Abundance of this species was estimated using photo-identification data and mark-recapture analysis. Between April ...

  15. Rapid trachoma assessment in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was thus conducted to assess the prevalence estimate of trachoma and its risk factors in Kersa District, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A community based cross sectional Rapid Assessment of Trachoma was conducted using a WHO guideline. Six sub-districts were selected from Kersa District based on primary ...

  16. South by Southwest: The Mexican-American and His Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbel, John; Ruiz, Ramon Eduardo

    The heritage of the Mexican American people who settled in the Southwest is discussed in this book with regard to Mexico's history, its revolution with Spain, Mexico today, and its relations with the United States. The illustrated book is designed for use by or with young people. (NQ)

  17. Indian-Spanish Communication Networks: Continuity in the Greater Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Carroll L.; Manson, Joni L.

    Trade and communication networks established by Indian groups in the 15th century A.D. linked the Southwest to Mesoamerica, the Plains and the Pacific littoral; these routes were later used by the Spanish and Americans, and today major highways follow ancient Indian routes. The main east-west route had major termini at Cibola (near Zuni) in the…

  18. Mobile Phone Use for Agribusiness by Farmers in Southwest Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated how farmers in Southwest Nigeria use mobile phones for agribusiness, the benefits of the use of mobile phones, and the challenges farmers face using the device. Driven by theory of information and communication technology for development, this study adopted survey and focus group discussion ...

  19. Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Malchus B. Baker; Vicente L. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    Watershed management perspectives in the Southwest have been, are, and will be reflected by the nature of watershed management practices. Past perspectives evolved from considerations of increasing water yields and water quality concerns. Present perspectives are centered on minimizing adverse impacts to soil and water resources, sustaining high-quality water flows,...

  20. Bilingual Education in Southwest China: A Yingjiang Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Yingjiang is a frontier county in southwest Yunnan, China, with distinctive ethnic and cultural diversity. Bilingual education (BE) has been a prominent feature in Yingjiang since the 1950s due to supportive policies and measures at various levels. BE in Yingjiang developed so well in the 1980s that a bilingual school was awarded the title of…

  1. Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, M P

    2012-02-03

    SETTING: The Southwest of Ireland (Counties Cork and Kerry) 1987-2000, average population 549,500. OBJECTIVE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant morbidity worldwide and the study of epidemiology and characteristics helps in their prevention and treatment. This study was performed to determine the incidence of NTM disease in comparison to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in Southwest Ireland, over the above time period. DESIGN: A retrospective study was carried out in all human isolates of NTM, M. tuberculosis and M. bovis between 1987 and 2000, in the Southwest Region of Ireland. RESULTS: The mean incidence of NTM (0.4\\/100,000 population) has risen since 1995, principally of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium intracellulare complex (MAC). The annual incidence of M. tuberculosis in humans over 14 years in the same region was 971\\/100,000 population with a significant reduction since 1994 and M. bovis remained constant at 0.5\\/100,000 population. CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of disease causing NTM noted in Southwest Ireland reflects global data and is surmised to be due to an ageing population, increased incidence related to chronic fibrotic lung disease, and environmental mycobacterial factors.

  2. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight

    1990-01-01

    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  3. The road to maternal death in rural Southwest Ethiopia | Deribe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not ...

  4. Poverty Profile of Rural Farm Households in Southwest Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to empirically assess the extent and level of poverty among rural farm households in Southwest, Nigeria. The study drew a sample of 411 rural farm households through a multi-stage sampling technique and the data obtained were analyzed using the descriptive statistical measures, the poverty depth ...

  5. Demersal trawl surveys show ecological gradients in Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the richness, diversity and community structure of demersal fish and benthic invertebrates caught by trawl nets along the deep shelf and upper continental slope of the Southwest (SW) Indian Ocean. Four depth-stratified surveys were undertaken in 2011-2012, in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and ...

  6. Perception of physiotherapy educators in southwest Nigeria on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to seek opinions regarding the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the models of clinical education used in south-west, Nigeria. ... ratio, inadequate monitoring of students, unsynchronized teaching between lecturers and clinicians) on their perceived disadvantages of clinical education.

  7. Exploring maize-legume intercropping systems in Southwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Sanchez, D.; Pastor, A.V.; Lantinga, E.A.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Kropff, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Maize yields in continuous maize production systems of smallholders in the Costa Chica, a region in Southwest Mexico, are low despite consistent inputs of fertilizers and herbicides. This study was aimed at investigating the prospects of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) and maize-roselle (Hibiscus

  8. Assessing Crop Vulnerability to Climate Change: A Southwest Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Southwest Regional Climate Hub is one of ten Climate Hubs and Sub-hubs established in 2014. The Hub region includes Arizona, California (partnering with the California Sub-Hub), Nevada, New Mexico and Utah.  Beyond the mainland States, the SW hub also serves Hawaii and the US affiliated Pac...

  9. Statolith comparison of two south-west Atlantic Loliginid squid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The statoliths of two South-West Atlantic loliginid squid, Loligo gahi and Loligo sanpaulensis, were studied to determine if they could be a useful tool for species differentiation. Allometric equations were employed to examine differences in statolith shape and growth. Statolith dimensions were standardized by total length ...

  10. Bronchiolitis in Abha, Southwest Saudi Arabia: viral etiology and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the viral etiology and predictors for hospital admission of children with bronchiolitis in Abha city, southwest Saudi Arabia. Methods ... Results: Prematurity, chronic lung diseases, atopic dermatitis, pure formula feeding, passive smoking and age = one year were significant predictors of admission.

  11. Participatory assessment of the Toliara Bay reef fishery, southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-22

    Dec 22, 2011 ... the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and ... Perpignan cedex, France. II. Institut Halieutique et des Sciences Marines, BP 141 Route du Port, Toliara 601, Madagascar. ...... Current and future sustainability of island coral reef fisheries. Current. Biology 17, 7: ...

  12. Globalizing Higher Education Access in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olayiwola, Mohammed Mubashiru; Kolawole, Oladipupo Fatai; Moyosore, Onabanjo Florence

    2013-01-01

    Education is central to national interest and cannot be solely determined by market forces. Thus, the role of the state in making education policy and funding education to embrace access cannot be overemphasized. The influence of globalization on Higher Education access in Southwest Nigeria as it affects policy making was investigated through the…

  13. Reproductive Biology in luan de Nova Island (Southwest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive Biology in luan de Nova Island (Southwest. Indian Ocean). Nicole GRAVIER-BONNET and Chloé A-F BOURMAUD. Laboratoire d'Ecolngie Marine, Faculté des Sciences at Technologies, Universite' de La Reunion, 15 Av. Rene' Cassia, BP 715], 97715 Saint-Denis Messag Cedex 9, La Re'nm'on, France.

  14. Dramatic Demand Reduction In The Desert Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hsieh, Sean [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Lee, Joon [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Baghzouz, Yahia [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Cross, Andrew [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chatterjee, Sarah [NV Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-07-06

    This report summarizes a project that was funded to the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), with subcontractors Pulte Homes and NV Energy. The project was motivated by the fact that locations in the Desert Southwest portion of the US demonstrate very high peak electrical demands, typically in the late afternoons in the summer. These high demands often require high priced power to supply the needs, and the large loads can cause grid supply problems. An approach was proposed through this contact that would reduce the peak electrical demands to an anticipated 65% of what code-built houses of the similar size would have. It was proposed to achieve energy reduction through four approaches applied to a development of 185 homes in northwest part of Las Vegas named Villa Trieste. First, the homes would all be highly energy efficient. Secondly, each house would have a PV array installed on it. Third, an advanced demand response technique would be developed to allow the resident to have some control over the energy used. Finally, some type of battery storage would be used in the project. Pulte Homes designed the houses. The company considered initial cost vs. long-term savings and chose options that had relatively short paybacks. HERS (Home Energy Rating Service) ratings for the homes are approximately 43 on this scale. On this scale, code-built homes rate at 100, zero energy homes rate a 0, and Energy Star homes are 85. In addition a 1.764 Wp (peak Watt) rated PV array was used on each house. This was made up of solar shakes that were in visual harmony with the roofing material used. A demand response tool was developed to control the amount of electricity used during times of peak demand. While demand response techniques have been used in the utility industry for some time, this particular approach is designed to allow the customer to decide the degree of participation in the response activity. The temperature change in the residence can be decided by the residents by

  15. Echinococcus granulosus Prevalence in Dogs in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcosis is a public health parasitic disease that is cosmopolitan (Echinococcus granulosus in its distribution. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have been recognised as the definitive host of the parasite. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria using direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect sera antigen. Two hundred and seventy-three (273 canine sera were tested for the presence of Echinococcus antigen. Purpose of keeping (hunting or companion, age (young or adult, and sex of each dog were considered during sampling. Total prevalence recorded was 12.45% (34/273. There was significant difference (P0.05 between young and adult dogs. There was no association between sex and prevalence of canine echinococcosis. The result of this study established the presence of canine echinococcosis in Southwest Nigeria; thus there is the possibility of occurrence of zoonotic form of the disease (human cystic hydatid diseases in the region.

  16. Fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from South-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.; Roedder, E.

    1971-01-01

    Quartz crystals from calcite veins of unknown age in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks at Geiaus No. 6 and Aukam farms in South-West Africa contain both primary and secondary inclusions filled with one substance or a combination of substances. These substances include organic liquid, moderately saline aqueous liquid, dark-colored solid, and a vapor. Analysis of these materials by microscopy and by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry shows the presence of constituents of both low and high molecular weights.

  17. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer,S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the existing socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  18. Geothermal development in southwest Idaho: the socioeconomic data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F.

    1979-09-01

    This report inventories, analyzes, and appraises the exiting socioeconomic data base for the ten counties in southwest Idaho that would be impacted by any significant geothermal development. The inventory describes key sociological demographic, and economic characteristics, and presents spatial boundaries, housing data, and projections of population and economic activity for the counties. The inventory identifies the significant gaps in the existing data base and makes recommendations for future research.

  19. Butterflies and Dragon-Eagles: Processing Epics from Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the mountains of southwest China, epic narratives are part of the traditional performance-scapes of many ethnic minority cultures. In some cases locals participate in the preservation of oral or oral-connected epics from their respective areas. This article discusses the dynamics of acquiring and translating texts from two major ethnic minority groups in cooperation with local tradition-bearers, poets, and scholars.

  20. Southwest Mississippi Tributaries Study Area Environmental Inventory; Wildlife Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Conservation. Mapping and computerized land use data were developed by the Mississippi Automated Resource Information System (MARIS) of the Mississippi...damage to hives reported by beekeepers are fairly common in the Southwest Mississippi Tributaries Basin. Since 1977 at least 11 sightings and signs of...accompanying maps of soil associations have been provided by the Mississippi Automated Re- source Information System. To ensure contrast and clarity, similar

  1. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A.; Cravatte, S.; Melet, A.; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N. J.; Sloyan, B. M.; Widlansky, M. J.; Bowen, M.; Verron, J.; Wiles, P.; Ridgway, K.; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.; Cai, W.; Davis, R.; Gasparin, F.; Gourdeau, L.; Hasegawa, T.; Kessler, W.; Maes, C.; Takahashi, K.; Richards, K. J.; Send, U.

    2014-11-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes. The transit in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas is of great importance to the climate system because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, while the southward transports influence the climate and biodiversity in the Tasman Sea. After 7 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. This paper provides a review of recent advancements and discusses our current knowledge gaps and important emerging research directions.

  2. [Water and environment in the Southwest of Madagascar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamparany, L

    1993-04-01

    The dry and arid southwest region of Madagascar is not a desert but resembles the Sahel region of West Africa. The chronic water deficit is aggravated by the heat and constant winds that accelerate evapotranspiration on the permeable soils. The dryness occurs because the southwest region lies outside the main pluviogenic systems. Erosion occurs at all seasons. In the winter the sun and winds are the main causes, while the rare storms are more conducive to run-off and to erosion than to absorption. The acute water shortage in the southwest has prompted hydrogeologic research and well-drilling, but the high salt content of the water and other impurities will be a limiting factor for development of the area. The population of the southwest is extremely mobile. Human settlements are concentrated in the valleys and depressions and along major roads. Customary rights to land under the control of the traditional chiefs regulate tenure in most areas. But especially in the river bottoms, the coming of cash crops cultivated with modern equipment has resulted in significant erosion which has aggravated ecological problems. Accelerating soil degradation has led peasants to extend their lands under cultivation to the detriment of forest cover. Cattle herding remains the principal economic activity in the southwest. Herding has progressed from nomadism to pastoralism, but it remains a sign of power and wealth. Transhumance is the strategy of herders faced with shortages of water and pasturage, demographic pressure, and environmental degradation. Raising of sheep and goats constitutes a supplemental food source, medium of exchange, and form of savings. But angora goats graze on everything in their path, devastating their surrounds. Fear of cattle thefts militates against efforts to improve the quality of the stock. The various problems together have prompted a wasteful exploitation of the forest resources. Development strategies for the area explored by the government have all

  3. Volcanoes magnify Metro Manila's southwest monsoon rains and lethal floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Bagtasa, Gerry; Crisologo, Irene; Racoma, Bernard Alan; David, Carlos Primo

    Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterised by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18-21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million) and its suburbs paralyzing the nation’s capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6-9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila.

  4. Spice: Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Melet, A.; Maes, C.

    2010-12-01

    South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The south branch is associated with comparable impacts in the Tasman Sea area. The Southwest Pacific is a region of complex circulation, with the SEC splitting in strong zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos. Those jets partition on the Australian eastern boundary to feed the East Australian Current for the southern branch and the North Queensland Current and eventually the Equatorial Undercurrent for the northern branch. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) position and intensity. The circulation, and its influence on remote and regional climate, is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate measurements. Ocean and atmosphere scientists from Australia, France, New Zealand, the United States and Pacific Island countries initiated an international research project under the auspices of CLIVAR to comprehend the southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and its direct and indirect influence on the climate and environment. SPICE is a regionally-coordinated experiment to measure, study and monitor the ocean circulation and the SPCZ, to validate and improve numerical models, and to integrate with assimilating systems. This ongoing project reflects a strong sense that substantial progress can be made through collaboration among South Pacific national research groups, coordinated with broader South Pacific projects.

  5. Water, climate change, and sustainability in the southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The current Southwest drought is exceptional for its high temperatures and arguably the most severe in history. Coincidentally, there has been an increase in forest and woodland mortality due to fires and pathogenic outbreaks. Although the high temperatures and aridity are consistent with projected impacts of greenhouse warming, it is unclear whether the drought can be attributed to increased greenhouse gasses or is a product of natural climatic variability. Climate models indicate that the 21st century will be increasingly arid and droughts more severe and prolonged. Forest and woodland mortality due to fires and pathogens will increase. Demography and food security dictate that water demand in the Southwest will remain appreciable. If projected population growth is twinned with suburb-centered development, domestic demands will intensify. Meeting domestic demands through transference from agriculture presents concerns for rural sustainability and food security. Environmental concerns will limit additional transference from rivers. It is unlikely that traditional supply-side solutions such as more dams will securely meet demands at current per-capita levels. Significant savings in domestic usage can be realized through decreased applications of potable water to landscaping, but this is a small fraction of total regional water use, which is dominated by agriculture. Technical innovations, policy measures, and market-based solutions that increase supply and decrease water demand are all needed. Meeting 21st-century sustainability challenges in the Southwest will also require planning, cooperation, and integration that surpass 20th-century efforts in terms of geographic scope, jurisdictional breadth, multisectoral engagement, and the length of planning timelines. PMID:21149704

  6. Diet diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S; Wan, Rong; Zhao, Shiwen

    2017-01-01

    With rapid urbanization in the past decades, diet diversity continues to increase in China. The present cross-sectional study aims to explore the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status among adults in southwest China. This study used data from 2011-2012 National Nutritional Survey in Yunnan Province, southwest China (N = 1105).Data of three consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS) and nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR). Body mass index and waist circumference were used to determine nutritional status. Surveylogistic procedure of SAS 9.2 software was used to examine the association between DDS and obesity by estimating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The mean DDS was 5.2 (SD 1.1) out of nine points. Being female, younger age, belonging to Han ethnicity, having higher educational level and household income were positively associated with DDS (all P<0.05). As DDS increased, consumption also increased in most food groups except grains and vegetables. People with medium and high DDS (DDS = 5 and DDS ≥6, respectively) ingested more energy than the recommended quantity(NAR = 1.1 and 1.2, respectively). However, the intakes of Calcium and Vitamin A were seriously inadequate even for people with high DDS (NAR≤0.5). With potential confounders adjusted, people with medium and high DDS were at higher risk of general and central obesity than people with DDS ≤4 (OR = 1.4-1.9, P<0.01). Our data indicated that high DDS was associated with excessive energy intake and obesity among adults in southwest China. Although dietary diversity is widely recommended, public health messages should give less emphasis on dietary diversity.

  7. Phylogeographic study of Apodemus ilex (Rodentia: Muridae in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mountains of southwest China have complex river systems and a profoundly complex topography and are among the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, only a few studies have shed light on how the mountains and river valleys promote genetic diversity. Apodemus ilex is a fine model for investigating this subject. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns of Apodemus ilex, the complete cytochrome b gene sequences (1,140 bp were determined from 203 samples of A. draco/ilex that were collected from southwest China. The results obtained suggested that A. ilex and A. draco are sistergroups and diverged from each other approximately 2.25 million years ago. A. ilex could be divided into Eastern and Western phylogroups, each containing two sub-groups and being widespread in different geographical regions of the southern Hengduan Mountains and the western Yunnan - Guizhou Plateau. The population expansions of A. ilex were roughly from 0.089 Mya to 0.023 Mya. CONCLUSIONS: Our result suggested that A. ilex is a valid species rather than synonym of A. draco. As a middle-high elevation inhabitant, the phylogenetic pattern of A. ilex was strongly related to the complex geographical structures in southwest China, particularly the existence of deep river valley systems, such as the Mekong and Salween rivers. Also, it appears that the evolutionary history of A. ilex, such as lineage divergences and population expansions were strongly affected by climate fluctuation in the Late Pleistocene.

  8. Gill asymmetry in Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Ayoade

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry (FA, often used as indicator of environmental stress, was evaluated in gill rakers and filaments of Labeo ogunensis from Ogun river, Southwest Nigeria. Mean length and weight of 13.68+1.28 cm and 59.40+17.48 g were respectively recorded. The gill rakers (t = -0.919 and filaments (t = -1.150 from both sides were not significantly different. The gill filaments recorded (0.31+2.42 higher incidence of fluctuating asymmetry (FA compared with the gill rakers (0.21+1.58, signifying developmental interference in the population. Fish size and sex were observed to exert minimal influence on FA

  9. Millipedes (Diplopoda of twelve caves in Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angyal, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve caves of Western Mecsek, Southwest Hungary were examined between September 2010 and April 2013from the millipede (Diplopoda faunistical point of view. Ten species were found in eight caves, which consistedeutroglophile and troglobiont elements as well. The cave with the most diverse fauna was the Törökpince Sinkhole, while thetwo previously also investigated caves, the Abaligeti Cave and the Mánfai-kőlyuk Cave provided less species, which couldbe related to their advanced touristic and industrial utilization.

  10. Iron Age Hillforts and Defended Enclosures in Southwest Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murphy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron Age settlement in Wales is dominated by defended settlements, ranging in size from large multivallate hillforts to small farmsteads protected by a simple bank and ditch. There are a total of 787 defended settlements in southwest Wales (Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion and Pembrokeshire alone, which include 59 definite or possible hillforts, 166 definite or possible promontory forts and 562 definite or possible defended enclosures. This short article summarises the results of several years' survey, during which all those defended settlement sites that had no statutory protection as Scheduled Ancient Monuments were visited and recorded, and one in ten scheduled sites were visited. A list of all sites, including those that are Scheduled Ancient Monuments, is presented in an appendix. It is not possible in such a short article to provide a complete analysis and synthesis of Iron Age settlement in southwest Wales, but the results of the survey are presented in as concise a form as possible, using tables and distribution maps accompanied by a short commentary and some contextual information.

  11. Optical and biochemical properties of a southwest Florida whiting event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jacqueline S.; Hu, Chuanmin; Robbins, Lisa L.; Byrne, Robert H.; Paul, John H.; Wolny, Jennifer L.

    2017-09-01

    ;Whiting; in oceanography is a term used to describe a sharply defined patch of water that contains high levels of suspended, fine-grained calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Whitings have been reported in many oceanic and lake environments, and recently have been reported in southwest Florida coastal waters. Here, field and laboratory measurements were used to study optical, biological, and chemical properties of whiting waters off southwest Florida. No significant difference was found in chlorophyll a concentrations between whiting and outside waters (non-whiting water), but average particle backscattering coefficients in whiting waters were double those in outside waters, and remote sensing reflectance in whiting waters was higher at all wavelengths (400-700 nm). While other potential causes cannot be completely ruled out, particle composition and biochemical differences between sampled whiting water, contiguous water, and outside water indicate a biologically precipitated mode of whiting formation. Taxonomic examination of marine phytoplankton samples collected during a whiting event revealed a community dominated by autotrophic picoplankton and a small (carbonate parameters differed from whiting and contiguous to outside water, more sampling is needed to determine if these results are statistically significant.

  12. FORECASTING THE NUMBER OF SPORT TOURISM ARRIVALS IN SOUTHWEST BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preslav Mihaylov Dimitrov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of some forecasting methods concerning sport tourism arrivals in Southwest Bulgaria: linear trend forecasting, double exponential forecasting (Holt’s method, triple exponential forecasting (the Holt-Winters Method, and the ARIMA method. A specially designed model for estimating the weight coefficient needed for determining the size of the sport tourism’s sector in the time series of the available data and in the forecast values is presented. In order to test the forecasting methods and produce forecasts up to the year 2030, a time series and past period predictions have been constructed based on statistical records since 1964. Several major problems in the application of the exponential smoothing methods for the purpose of the long-run forecasting and the needs of the sport tourism subsector of Bulgaria tourism industry are addressed. These problems include (a finding a suitable general indicator, (b calculating short-term and long-term forecasts, (c comparing the results of the forecast techniques on the basis of the errors in the forecasts, (d estimating the size of the sport tourism in Southwest Bulgaria in certain terms so that the forecast(s of the above-mentioned general indicator could be particularized especially for examined sub-sector and region. The results from the different forecasting methods and techniques are presented and conclusions are drawn regarding the reliability of the forecasts.

  13. 77 FR 66600 - Southwestern Public Service Company v. Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwestern Public Service Company v. Southwest Power Pool, Inc...'s (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 206 (2012), Xcel Energy Services Inc. on behalf of Southwestern Public Service Company (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Southwest...

  14. Sudden aspen decline in southwest Colorado: Site and stand factors and a hypothesis on etiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Worrall; Leanne Egeland; Tom Eager; Roy Mask; Erik Johnson; Phil Kemp; Wayne Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    An initial assessment of rapid dieback and mortality of aspen in southwest Colorado suggests that it represents a decline disease incited by acute, warm drought. Predisposing factors include low elevation, south and southwest aspects, droughty soils, open stands, and physiological maturity. Contributing factors include Cytospora canker, two bark beetles, poplar borer,...

  15. 77 FR 34381 - Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project-Rate Order No. WAPA-157

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... period. ADDRESSES: The public information forum and public comment forum will be held at Western's Desert..., Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O. Box 6457, Phoenix, AZ... purchase power costs to recover. Since then, Western's Balancing Authority (BA) in the Desert Southwest...

  16. Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Rabbit Production in South-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines technical efficiency of rabbit rearing in South-west Nigeria. Data were collected from 150 rabbit farmsteads across states in the South-West Nigeria. The Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Production Frontier Functions were used to analyse the study data. Stochastic Production Frontier Function estimates ...

  17. Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in South-west Shoa zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in South-west Shoa zone of. Oromia Region, Ethiopia. 1. Adugna ... Tulu Bolo and Weliso abattoirs in southwest shoa zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of ..... (2008) who reported 44.2% live and 65.8% dead cysts in. Hawassa abattoir (South Ethiopia).

  18. 76 FR 15307 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Strategic Planning... attend the meeting of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Strategic Planning Committee (SPC), as noted...

  19. Vegetation resources inventory of southwest Alaska: development and application of an innovative, extensive sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the vegetation resources of southwest Alaska was made by using an inventory design developed by the Pacific Northwest Research Station. Satellite imagery (LANDSAT MSS), high-altitude aerial photography, and ground sampling were the major components of the design. Estimates of area for all land cover classes in the southwest region were produced....

  20. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  1. Chemical constituents in the essential oil of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea (Del.) from the southwest of Algeria简

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammed Djellouli Houcine Benmehdi Siham Mammeri Abdellah Moussaoui Laid Ziane Noureddine Hamidi

    2015-01-01

    ...) from southwest of Algeria.Methods: The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation, from the aerial parts of the endemic plant Cotula cinerea which was collected in the region of Sahara from southwest of Algeria, were analyzed by gas...

  2. 77 FR 29254 - Safety Zones, Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0; New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... transit the Lower Mississippi River between mile marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA and the Southwest Pass Sea...; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans...

  3. Turtle riders: remoras on marine turtles in Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sazima

    Full Text Available An overview is presented for a poorly documented relationship between reef vertebrates in Southwest Atlantic: remoras (Echeneidae associated with marine turtles. Two remora species (Echeneis naucrates and Remora remora and four turtle species (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Eretmochelys imbricata, and Dermochelys coriacea are here recorded in symbiotic associations in the SW Atlantic. Echeneis naucrates was recorded both on the coast and on oceanic islands, whereas R. remora was recorded only at oceanic islands and in the open sea. The remora-turtle association is usually regarded as an instance of phoresis (hitchhiking, albeit feeding by the fish is also involved in this symbiosis type. This association seems to be rare in SW Atlantic.

  4. Wolf predation in the Burwash caribou herd, southwest Yukon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Gauthier

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of wolf predation as a proximate mortality factor influencing caribou herd growth was assessed in the Burwash herd (400 animals in the southwest Yukon between 1980 - 1982. Ten to 14 wolves in two packs preyed primarily on caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou and moose (Alces alces with disproportionate consumption of caribou (relative to available biomass in the rut and winter periods. Wolf predation was responsible for 72% of total annual mortality in 1980 - 1981 and 46% in 1981 - 1982. Losses due to human harvest varied between 7 to 13%. Additional limited data on climatic factors and winter forage indicated forage-climate were not major proximate mortality factors in 1980 - 1981, but that early-calving climate may have been a factor in increased calf mortality in 1982.

  5. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  6. Light-induced bird strikes on vessels in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Light-induced bird strikes are known to occur when vessels navigate during darkness in icy waters using powerful searchlight. In Southwest Greenland, which is important internationally for wintering seabirds, we collected reports of incidents of bird strikes over 2–3 winters (2006–2009) from navy...... vessels, cargo vessels and trawlers (total n = 19). Forty-one incidents were reported: mainly close to land (birds were reported killed in a single incident. All occurred between 5 p.m. and 6 a.m. and significantly more birds were involved when...... visibility was poor (snow) rather than moderate or good. Among five seabird species reported, the common eider (Somateria mollissima) accounted for 95% of the bird casualties. Based on spatial analyses of data on vessel traffic intensity and common eider density we are able to predict areas with high risk...

  7. Monitoring Bioclimatic Indicators in Southwest Alaska National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, P. B.; Kimball, J. S.; Moghaddam, M.

    2016-12-01

    The high latitudes of the northern hemisphere are experiencing rapid regional climate warming resulting in changes to ecosystem processes. These changes are most profound in locations where small increases in temperature shift precipitation regimes from snow to rain, melt snow earlier and increase soil temperatures above freezing. The Southwest Alaska Network of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring program monitors long term trends and changes in ecosystem process supporting regional ecosystem research in some of the region's landscapes that are most vulnerable to increasing temperatures. We present satellite observations for 16 years of semi-polar snow phenology along with in-situ observations from climate station networks and vegetation monitoring plots over a 3° latitudinal gradient and discuss the application of the networks real-time and archived data for calibration and validation of the Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiments airborne science and permafrost research.

  8. A Typology for Charting Socioeconomic Mortality Gradients: "Go Southwest".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Tony; Disney, George; Atkinson, June; Teng, Andrea; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2017-07-01

    Holistic depiction of time-trends in average mortality rates, and absolute and relative inequalities, is challenging. We outline a typology for situations with falling average mortality rates (m↓; e.g., cardiovascular disease), rates stable over time (m-; e.g., some cancers), and increasing average mortality rates (m↑; e.g., suicide in some contexts). If we consider inequality trends on both the absolute (a) and relative (r) scales, there are 13 possible combination of m, a, and r trends over time. They can be mapped to graphs with relative inequality (log relative index of inequality [RII]; r) on the y axis, log average mortality rate on the x axis (m), and absolute inequality (slope index of inequality; SII; a) as contour lines. We illustrate this by plotting adult mortality trends: (1) by household income from 1981 to 2011 for New Zealand, and (2) by education for European countries. Types range from the "best" m↓a↓r↓ (average, absolute, and relative inequalities all decreasing; southwest movement in graphs) to the "worst" m↑a↑r↑ (northeast). Mortality typologies in New Zealand (all-cause, cardiovascular disease, nonlung cancer, and unintentional injury) were all m↓r↑ (northwest), but variable with respect to absolute inequality. Most European typologies were m↓r↑ types (northwest; e.g., Finland), but with notable exceptions of m-a↑r↑ (north; e.g., Hungary) and "best" or southwest m↓a↓r↓ for Spain (Barcelona) females. Our typology and corresponding graphs provide a convenient way to summarize and understand past trends in inequalities in mortality, and hold potential for projecting future trends and target setting.

  9. The footprints of relapsing malaria in southwest Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savargaonkar, Deepali; Nagpal, B N; Srivastava, Bina; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Valecha, Neena

    2015-12-01

    Control of vivax malaria is challenging due to persistence of hypnozoites causing relapses and safety concerns with primaquine in G6PD deficient individuals. We present the epidemiology of malaria with emphasis on recurrence of vivax malaria over a period of four years in southwest Delhi among patients reporting to malaria clinic. Microscopic examination of stained blood smears of fever patients attending malaria clinic was performed. Confirmed malaria cases were treated as per the national treatment guidelines. The epidemiological data of confirmed malaria cases including demographic characteristics, age, gender and past history of malaria were analysed. Patients were asked to report in case of occurence of fever. From January 2011 to December 2014, 429 Plasmodium vivax, 24 P. falciparum and three mixed infection cases were reported to the Malaria Clinic at National Institute of Malaria Research, New Delhi. Malaria cases peaked in the months of August and September during all the four years. Recurrent episodes of vivax malaria were observed in 14.72% patients to whom primaquine was not dispensed, while the prevalence was 4.02% among those who received primaquine. The relapsing patterns observed were of both short as well as long latency P. vivax phenotypes. The entomological survey of area from where malaria patients reported, showed prevalence of Anopheles stephensi. The study showed presence of persistent P. vivax malaria with strains causing both frequent and long latency recurrences (probable relapses) in southwest Delhi. This highlights the need to evaluate primaquine regimens against both these strains and formulate strategies to improve compliance to 14-days primaquine treatment.

  10. A lightning climatology of the South-West Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bovalo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN data have been used to perform a lightning climatology in the South-West Indian Ocean (SWIO region from 2005 to 2011. Maxima of lightning activity were found in the Maritime Continent and southwest of Sri Lanka (>50 fl km−2 yr−1 but also over Madagascar and above the Great Lakes of East Africa (>10–20 fl km−2 yr−1. Lightning flashes within tropical storms and tropical cyclones represent 50 % to 100 % of the total lightning activity in some oceanic areas of the SWIO (between 10° S and 20° S.

    The SWIO is characterized by a wet season (November to April and a dry season (May to October. As one could expect, lightning activity is more intense during the wet season as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ is present over all the basin. Flash density is higher over land in November–December–January with values reaching 3–4 fl km−2 yr−1 over Madagascar. During the dry season, lightning activity is quite rare between 10° S and 25° S. The Mascarene anticyclone has more influence on the SWIO resulting in shallower convection. Lightning activity is concentrated over ocean, east of South Africa and Madagascar.

    A statistical analysis has shown that El Niño–Southern Oscillation mainly modulates the lightning activity up to 56.8% in the SWIO. The Indian Ocean Dipole has a significant contribution since ~49% of the variability is explained by this forcing in some regions. The Madden–Julian Oscillation did not show significative impact on the lightning activity in our study.

  11. Southwest Center for Environmental Excellence and Opportunity Year End Report (Final Deliverable)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-11-09

    The Southwest Center for Environmental Excellence and Opportunity (Southwest CEEO) has been in existence since October 1996 at Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute's (TVI) South Valley Campus. The Special Project was comprised of three objectives: (1) Increasing the number of Hispanics in careers related to the environment by improving education and job training opportunities; (2) Strengthening the infrastructure of Hispanic businesses and building their capacity to participate in environmental clean-up activities and potential technology commercialization; and (3) Increasing the Hispanic community's understanding of and participation in environmental protection through improved access to information and outreach activities, paying attention to cultural and linguistic issues. The Southwest CEEO has been successful in each of the above objective areas and continues to provide valuable services to TVI and the community. The Southwest CEEO has developed a scholarship/mentorship program involving business and industry, community organizations, and TVI faculty that will be replicated by other student mentorship programs. The Southwest CEEO has awarded approximately $50,000 over the two-year program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Oakland Operations Office. The Southwest CEEO has also developed a K-12 partnership with Albuquerque Public Schools (APS) to enhance environmental education for students and professional development for teachers. Incorporated into these student activities are experimental learning opportunities and curriculum development and/or enhancement. The Southwest CEEO has worked closely with the TVI Small Business Development Center (SBDC) to support Hispanic businesses in technology partnership activities. The Southwest CEEO in partnership the TVI SBDC has provided a large business forum and business workshops. In addition, the Southwest CEEO has developed a Technology Transfer Model that will be expanded in the future to a

  12. Geochemical Characteristics of Granitoids in southwest Tianshan: Four Stages for Geodynamic Evolution of the Southwest Tianshan Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Paleozoic intrusive rocks widely exposed in the west Tianshan orogenic belt provides key to understand the geodynamic evolution of the central Asian orogenic belt. A synthesis involving the data for Chinese Yili-central Tianshan and southwest Tianshan and comparison of Kyrgyz Tianshan with a broader dataset including zircon U-Pb ages, zircon Hf isotopic composition, major and trace elements for Paleozoic intrusions are presented to classify the Paleozoic intrusive rocks in four categories which corresponding to subduction of the Terskey Ocean, initial subduction stage of South Tianshan Ocean (STO), major subduction stage of the STO, and collisional to post-collisional stages. The subduction of the Terskey Oceanic crust finally caused the closure of the Terskey Ocean and the opening of the South Tianshan back-arc basin. The development of the Southwest Tianshan back-arc basin formed the STO, which subducted under the Yili-central Tianshan during early Silurian to early Carboniferous, and consequently formed huge arc magmatic rocks. Both the Silurian and early Carboniferous intrusions showing arc geochemical characteristics were derived from partial melting of juvenile arc-derived rocks with involvement of old continental crust. The STO finally closed by the end of early Carboniferous. Afterwards, geodynamic setting changed from convergence to extensional during late Carboniferous to early Permian periods. There is a significant geodynamic change from convergence to extension during late Carboniferous to early Permian, which may be resulted from breakoff of the subducted slab (Fig. 1). Such processes caused upwelling of asthenosphere and triggered partial melting of continental crust, as evidenced by emplacement of voluminous granitic rocks. References: An F, et al, 2013. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 78: 100-113; Zhu YF, 2011. Ore Geology Reviews, 40: 108-121; Zhu YF, et al, 2009. Geological Society, London, 166: 1085-1099; Zhu YF et al, 2016. Journal of Earth

  13. Bird migration patterns in the arid southwest-Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Felix, Rodney K.; Dieh, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure full life-cycle conservation, we need to understand migrant behavior en route and how migrating species use stopover and migration aerohabitats. In the Southwest, birds traverse arid and mountainous landscapes in migration. Migrants are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrant density varies across the Southwest seasonally and annually, and how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Furthermore, we lack information about migrant flight altitudes, speeds, and directions of travel, and how these patterns vary seasonally and annually across the Southwest. Using weather surveillance radar data, we identified targets likely dominated by nocturnally migrating birds and determined their flight altitudes, speeds, directions over ground, and variations in abundance. Migrating or foraging bats likely are present across the region in some of these data, particularly in central Texas. We found that migrants flew at significantly lower altitudes and significantly higher speeds in spring than in fall. In all seasons migrants maintained seasonally appropriate directions of movement. We detected significant differences in vertical structure of migrant densities that varied both geographically within seasons and seasonally within sites. We also found that in fall there was a greater and more variable passage of migrants through the central part of the borderlands (New Mexico and west Texas); in spring there was some suggestion of greater and more variable passage of migrants in the eastern borderlands (central and south Texas). Such patterns are consistent with the existence of at least two migration systems through western North America and the use of different migration routes in spring and fall for at least some species. Using radar data and satellite land cover data, we determined the habitats with which migrants are associated during migration stopover. There were significant differences in bird densities among

  14. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Accuracy Assessment Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  15. Transport and potential vorticity in the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Murty, C.S.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.; Rao, G.R.L.

    In the Bay of Bengal, the water transport and potential vorticity (PV) during the southwest monsoon are examined through the prevailing thermohaline and wind-driven circulation. The Indian Monsoon Current (IMC) and the north flowing Eastern Boundary...

  16. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A; Lekshmi, S.

    The tidal regimes over the continental shelves are often less documented due to lack of coastal water level data. This is of concern since continental shelves rule the global dissipation of tidal energy. The tides along the Southwest Indian shelf...

  17. Mid- to late-Holocene coastal environmental changes in southwest Florida, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soelen, E.E. van; Brooks, G.R.; Larson, R.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Reichart, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Holocene, Florida experienced major changes in precipitation and runoff. To better understand these processes, shallow marine sediment cores from Charlotte Harbor (southwest Florida) were studied, covering approximately the past 9000 years. Whole core XRF scanning was applied to

  18. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_483895_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  19. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_1700252_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  20. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0100092_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  1. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0900172_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  2. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_0072610_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  3. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: GeoEye Image po_502736_PS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  4. Currents in the Cochin estuarine system [southwest coast of India] during March

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; Revichandran, C.; Thottam, T.J.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Murukesh, N.

    Analysis of current meter data collected in the Cochin estuarine system (southwest coast of India) has been made, to understand variations of currents in the estuary for spring and neap tidal phases during March 2000. The currents were strongest...

  5. Hydrographic characterization of southeast Arabian Sea during the wane of southwest monsoon and spring intermonsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VimalKumar, K.G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Smitha, B.R.; Rahman, H.H.; Jacob, J.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    Seasonal variation of the hydrography along the southeast Arabian Sea is described using data collected onboard FORV Sagar Sampada in September-October 2003 (later phase of Southwest monsoon, SWM) and March-April 2004 (Spring inter monsoon, SIM...

  6. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  7. Sabine National Wildlife Refuge: Southwest Louisiana National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Sabine NWR and Southwest Louisiana NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan...

  8. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - Southwest Puerto Rico Chemical Contaminant Assessment Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the project was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in southwest Puerto Rico, as part of a larger effort to link coral...

  9. Studies on the associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Associates and parasites of zooplankton from southwest and southeast coasts of India were studied. Among the epizoic forms two species of ciliates infesting copepods were new records from Indian waters. Eight species of suctorians were found epizoic...

  10. Atmospheric forcing on the seasonal variability of sea level at Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    The seasonal cycles of some atmospheric parameters at Cochin (southwest coast of India) have been studied with a specific emphasis on the role played by them in forcing the seasonal sea level. Equatorward along-shore wind stress as well...

  11. 78 FR 62657 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... November 15, 2013, in Dolores, Colorado. ADDRESSES: The Southwest Colorado RAC meeting will be held November 15, 2013, at the Dolores Public Lands Center, 29211 Highway 184, Dolores, CO 81323. The meeting...

  12. USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection: Kanab Creek, southern Utah and northern Arizona, 1872-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The USGS Southwest Repeat Photography Collection (‘Collection’), formerly named the Desert Laboratory Repeat Photography Collection, is now housed by the...

  13. Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of Southwest Puerto Rico: Ground Validation Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (<30m) benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of two areas in Southwest Puerto Rico (PR), including the Guanica Bay/La Parguera...

  14. 76 FR 81962 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ...; and October 26, 2012, in Dolores, Colorado. ADDRESSES: The Southwest Colorado RAC meetings will be...; and October 26, 2012, at the Anasazi Heritage Center at 27501 Highway 184, Dolores, CO, 81323.The...

  15. EPA Pacific Southwest Enforcement Division Inspected Tax Map Key Polygons, Hawaii, 2017, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This feature class contains the 64 tax map key polygons across the state of Hawaii that have been inspected by US EPA Pacific Southwest Enforcement Division as of...

  16. Precipitation Frequency for Semiarid Southwest, USA - NOAA Atlas 14 Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GIS grid atlas contains precipitation frequency estimates for the Semiarid Southwest based on precipitation data collected between 1893-2000. This atlas is an...

  17. Hydrography and circulation in the northwestern Bay of Bengal during the retreat of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Babu, M.T.; Rao, D.P.

    The distribution of temperature and salinity in the upper 500 m of the northwestern Bay of Bengal, adjoining the East Coast of India, during the retreat of southwest monsoon (September) of 1983 is presented. This study reveals coastal upwelling...

  18. Cladocera in the estuarine and coastal waters of south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.

    Occurrence and abundance of marine Cladocera in several estuaries along the south-west coast of India is presented and compared with their distribution in the coastal waters. One peculiar feature observed was their absence in the estuaries during...

  19. 2007 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) LiDAR: Hernando County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management Districts FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  20. Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xi; Wang, Ling; Li, Yiqiao; Sun, Lingxia; Cai, Shizhen; Huang, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    .... In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves...

  1. Aging in Place within Elderly People in the Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Fani Saberi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran and its aged society are facing some issues that significantly impact the current social structures in Iran. It will continue to do so on their growing as elderly with negative impacts on communal relations and unjust distribution of resources based on a gender basis that will affect the aging in place (AiP. The study aims to investigate the AiP within aged people and modifying role of the gender variables within it. Methods: This study describes the current AiP of the aged people in Ahwaz city in the southwest Iran from a gender perspective. The population available for the study was citizens 60 years of age and older (N=51594 in Ahwaz city. Sampling method was cluster-ratio based on municipal zones, ethnicity, and gender with sample size 382 (195 male and 187 female. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, F-test and geographical information system. Results: Economically poor situation of the aged samples especially aged women, and their health status was moderated by low quality of nutrition and high prevalence of chronic conditions. For example, Arabs, Persian and Lor received low mean scores of 59.41, (SD= 7.332, 58.09 (SD= 11.963, and 57.02, (SD= 7.963 respectively in the health status. AiP characteristics are poor and discrimination was especially significantly prominent among elderly females. Multiple regression were found to modify AiP at the first step. The GLM reported that gender-ethnic discrimination directly affected AiP and high prevalent amongst elderly minority females. Conclusion: The current urban environment, in the southwest Iran, seems is unable to meet healthy needs of aged people. It needs to adjust upon gender and other relevant characteristics to monitor equality of outcomes for aged and minorities. The future research needs to focus on effect of ethnicity and gender-related issues on AiP, especially in developing countries like Iran. sure activities and mental health, provides evidence for

  2. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, E.C.; Fournelle, J.H.; Miller, T.P.; Mickelson, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425 ± 350 and 9130 ± 140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300 ± 80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200 ± 75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070 ± 340 and 3600 ± 140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk

  3. The Southwest Configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin Kellermann, Kenneth; Carilli, Chris; Condon, James; Cotton, William; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Nyland, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the planned array configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). The configuration, termed the "Southwest Array," consists of 214 antennas each 18 m in diameter, distributed over the Southwest United States and Northern Mexico. The antenna locations have been set applying rough real-world constraints, such as road, fiber, and power access. The antenna locations will be fixed, with roughly 50% of the antennas in a "core" of 2 km diameter, located at the site of the JVLA. Another 30% of the antennas will be distributed over the Plains of San Augustin to a diameter of 30 km, possibly along, or near, the current JVLA arms. The remaining 20% of the antennas will be distributed in a rough two-arm spiral pattern to the South and East, out to a maximum distance of 500 km, into Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua. Years of experience with the VLA up to 50 GHz, plus intensive antenna testing up to 250 GHz for the ALMA prototype antennas, verify the VLA site as having very good observing conditions (opacity, phase stability), up to 115 GHz (ngVLA Memo No. 1). Using a suite of tools implemented in CASA, we have made extensive imaging simulations with this configuration. We find that good imaging performance can be obtained through appropriate weighting of the visibilities, for resolutions ranging from that of the core of the array (1" at 30 GHz), out to the longest baselines (10 mas at 30 GHz), with a loss of roughly a factor of two in sensitivity relative to natural weighting (ngVLA Memo No. 16). The off-set core, located on the northern edge of the long baseline configuration, provides excellent sensitivity even on the longest baselines. We are considering, in addition, a compact configuration of 16 close-packed 6 m antennas to obtain uv-coverage down to baselines ~ 10 m for imaging large scale structure, as well as a configuration including 9 stations distributed to continental scales.

  4. The Infrastructure of the Fur Trade in the American Southwest, 1821-1840

    OpenAIRE

    Call, Hadyn B.

    2014-01-01

    Careful study of the published history of the American Southwest reveals that historians have not provided a comprehensive analysis of the infrastructure that enabled the fur trade in the American Southwest to thrive. Analysis of that infrastructure unveils an amalgamation of blended characteristics derived from the French, British, and American systems along with characteristics derived from the Southwest’s own evolutionary development over time and space. This paper will detail and explain ...

  5. Nearshore Wave Predictions along the Oregon and Southwest Washington Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Medina, G.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.; Ruggiero, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest region of the United States of America is characterized as having one of the most severe wave climates in the northern hemisphere. In addition, an observed multi-decadal increase in wave heights and the potential of harvesting wave energy in the region is attracting local governments, the private sector and scientific communities to understand wave transformation across the shelf and expand the predictive capabilities. To satisfy these and other needs, a high-resolution wave forecasting model was recently implemented for the Oregon and Southwest Washington coasts. The modeling domain extends from Klamath, California (41.50o) to the south to Taholah, Washington (47.35o) to the north and to the shelf break at the offshore boundary. This implementation has been proven accurate with linear correlation coefficients in the excess of 0.83 and percent errors of ˜ 20% when comparing results from multiple hindcasts to ground truth data even at water depths as shallow as 13 m. This implementation is able to capture the alongshore variations in the wave field caused by the major bathymetric features in the region. The forecasting model is run daily producing 84 hour forecasts. The results are disseminated via the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing System webpage (http://www.nanoos.org). Spectral and bulk parameter forecasts are being made available at 233 locations along the 25 meter contour. In addition spatial plots of swell wave height, peak wave period and direction are made available for each forecast hour.

  6. NCLB: Local implementation and impact in southwest Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Mabry

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The research reported here is from the first two years of an ongoing and largely qualitative study to examine the impact of the No Child Left Behind federal education policy on educational practice and climate in elementary schools in two districts in southwest Washington. Based on systematic drop-in observations in classrooms and interviews with teachers and school and district administrators, data indicated that the policy had partially yielded the intended standards-based reforms but at considerable local cost. While most participating administrators described efforts to use NCLB to leverage needed change, most teachers described struggles to sustain best practice and to avoid some negative consequences to their students and schools. Administrators anticipated that resistant teachers would be nudged from the profession, and the greatest attrition among participating teachers was from the fourth-grade level at which the state’s standards-based test was administered. Fourth-grade teachers particularly expressed concern about test-related stress and test-driven curricula interfering with children’s individual needs and with their own ability to provide developmentally appropriate instruction adapted for their particular students. The validity and utility of test results was a local issue.

  7. Shifts in the synoptic systems influencing southwest Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Pandora K.; Drosdowsky, Wasyl; Nicholls, Neville [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    A self-organising map is used to classify the winter circulation affecting southwest Western Australia (SWWA) into 20 different synoptic types. The changes in the frequency of these types and their links to observed rainfall are analysed to further understand the significant, prolonged, rainfall drop observed in this region since 1975. The temporal variability of the different synoptic types link well with the observed rainfall changes. The frequency of the troughs associated with wet conditions across SWWA has declined markedly since 1975 while the frequency of the synoptic types with high pressure over the continent, associated with dry conditions, has increased. Combining the frequency of the synoptic systems with the amount of observed rainfall allows a quantitative analysis of the rainfall decline. The decreased frequency of the troughs associated with very wet conditions accounts for half of the decline. Reductions in the amount of rainfall precipitating from each system also contribute to the decline. Large-scale circulation changes, including increases in the mean sea-level pressure and a decrease in the general baroclinicity of the region have been associated with the rainfall decline. These changes are suggested to be linked to increasing levels of greenhouse gases. Due to the strong link between the number of trough types and the rainfall over SWWA, the shifts in the frequency of these synoptic types could be used as a tool to assess simulated rainfall changes, particularly into the future. (orig.)

  8. Election results of Southwest ballot measures affecting healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Earlier this week an article was posted listing Southwest ballot measures that affect healthcare. Below are the results obtained from various internet sources. States: Arizona: 1. Recreational marijuana. Proposition 205: Legalizes recreational marijuana use for people 21 and older. Opponents of the measure include the Arizona Health and Hospital Association and Insys Therapeutics, a company that makes a cannabis-based pain medication. Defeated: Yes 929,518 (48% No 1,011,836 (52%. California 1.Medi-Cal hospital fee program. Proposition 52: Requires the legislature to get voter approval to use fee revenue for purposes other than generating federal matching funds and funding enhanced Medicaid payments and grants for hospitals. The initiative, which was written by the California Hospital Association and is supported by most state lawmakers, would also make the program permanent, requiring a supermajority in the legislature to end it. Passed: Yes 5,950,642 (70% No 2,599,764 (30%. 2. Tobacco tax. Proposition 56: Increases the ...

  9. Creation of security engineering programs by the Southwest Surety Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Van D.; Rogers, Bradley; Winfree, Tim; Walsh, Dan; Garcia, Mary Lynn

    1998-12-01

    The Southwest Surety Institute includes Arizona State University (ASU), Louisiana State University (LSU), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), New Mexico State University (NMSU), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The universities currently offer a full spectrum of post-secondary programs in security system design and evaluation, including an undergraduate minor, a graduate program, and continuing education programs. The programs are based on the methodology developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the past 25 years to protect critical nuclear assets. The programs combine basic concepts and principles from business, criminal justice, and technology to create an integrated performance-based approach to security system design and analysis. Existing university capabilities in criminal justice (NMSU), explosives testing and technology (NM Tech and LSU), and engineering technology (ASU) are leveraged to provide unique science-based programs that will emphasize the use of performance measures and computer analysis tools to prove the effectiveness of proposed systems in the design phase. Facility managers may then balance increased protection against the cost of implementation and risk mitigation, thereby enabling effective business decisions. Applications expected to benefit from these programs include corrections, law enforcement, counter-terrorism, critical infrastructure protection, financial and medical care fraud, industrial security, and border security.

  10. Marine debris ingestion by albatrosses in the southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sebastián; Domingo, Andrés; Brazeiro, Alejandro; Defeo, Omar; Phillips, Richard A

    2015-07-15

    Plastics and other marine debris affect wildlife through entanglement and by ingestion. We assessed the ingestion of marine debris by seven albatross species in the southwest Atlantic by analyzing stomach contents of birds killed in fisheries. Of the 128 specimens examined, including four Diomedea species (n=78) and three Thalassarche species (n=50), 21 (16.4%) contained 1-4 debris items, mainly in the ventriculus. The most common type was plastic fragments. Debris was most frequent in Diomedea species (25.6%) and, particularly, Diomedea sanfordi (38.9%) and very rare in Thalassarche species (2.0%), presumably reflecting differences in foraging behavior or distribution. Frequency of occurrence was significantly higher in male than female Diomedea albatrosses (39.3% vs. 18.0%). Although levels of accumulated debris were relatively low overall, and unlikely to result in gut blockage, associated toxins might nevertheless represent a health risk for Diomedea albatrosses, compounding the negative impact of other human activities on these threatened species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internet-based Astronomy Education in the Rural Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, N.; Ryan, W.; Ryan, E.; Friedberg, R.; Semken, S.; Bryan, W.; Shultz, A.; Wood, D.; Pennypacker, C.; Gisler, G.

    2002-05-01

    A consortium consisting of Dine College, the University of New Mexico (UNM), New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU), the University of California-Berkeley(UCB), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Fort Lewis College, has been created in a collaborative effort to broaden the educational and research opportunities available to astronomy students in the rural Southwest. In particular, the shared hardware, curriculum, and personnel resources of the consortium members are made available through the effective utilization of the internet. At the introductory level, this effort has included online laboratories developed at UNM. The evaluation of the effectiveness of their remote delivery has been tested at Dine College and NMHU and is now being incorporated into their onsite coursework. Additionally, all universities in the consortium place great emphasis on incorporating hands-on laboratory and research experiences into their undergraduate curricula. Therefore, a network of remotely accessible, robotic telescopes is being developed as part of this effort. This will allow students at even the smallest institutions, in the consortium, access to research-grade facilities. Also, remote mentoring via the internet allows students to access the combined expertise of the consortium, which significantly broadens the range of research topics available to students. Future work includes the development of a fully self-contained distance learning introductory astronomy course, additional onsite curriculum development at each institution, and expanding the student participation in remotely mentored research.

  12. Oral health status of diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissong, Mea; Azodo, C C; Agbor, M A; Nkuo-Akenji, T; Fon, P Nde

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects virtually all tissues and organs the body including the hard and soft issues of the oral cavity, manifesting with several complications. To assess the prevalence of oral diseases in diabetics and non-diabetics and to correlate oral diseases with glycaemic control. This was an observational study involving 149 diabetic patients recruited from hospitals in Southwest Region of Cameroon and 102 non-diabetic controls drawn from the general population. The study participants were aged 18 years and above. Data were collected using questionnaires, oral examination and laboratory tests. Oral examination was conducted to assess dental plaque, calculus, dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis and candidiasis. Glycemic status was assessed by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels using standardized methods. Thirty five out of 149 (23.5%) diabetic patients had gingivitis; 37 (24.8%) had periodontitis; 29 (19.5%) had dental caries and 32 (21.5%) had oral candidiasis. Gingivitis, periodontitis and oral candidiasis was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (P diabetic patients presented with poor oral hygiene than non-diabetics. Poorly controlled diabetics presented more with gingivitis and candidiasis than well-controlled diabetics and this relationship was statistically significant. The prevalence of oral disease was significantly higher in diabetics than in non-diabetic controls and hyperglycaemia seemed to be a major contributor to oral health in diabetic patients in the study area. Proper management of blood sugar levels might improve on the oral health of diabetes mellitus patients.

  13. Radiation components of beech stands in southwest Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst, T.; Mayer, H. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Within the framework of an interdisciplinary project on the impact of climate and forest management on beech dominated deciduous forests, forest meteorological measurements are carried out within and above different beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on opposite slopes of a narrow valley located in the Swabian Jura mountain range (south-west Germany). Referring to test plots on both slopes, the following cycles of radiation components are discussed: (1) Monthly mean values of transmission and extinction of global solar irradiance, photosynthetically active radiation as well as UV-A and UV-B radiation through the canopy, (2) diurnal courses of surface albedo {alpha}, net short-wave radiation K{sup *}, net long-wave radiation L{sup *} and net all-wave radiation Q{sup *} for a cloudless day in March (leafless period) and a cloudless day in July (fully-leaved period) above and below the canopy of different beech stands, and (3) monthly mean values of {alpha}, K{sup *}, L{sup *} and Q{sup *} for the same stand conditions as for (2). The results point out the combined impact on the investigated radiation components emanating from seasonally variable canopy density (quantified by the plant area index), exposure and sun elevation. (orig.)

  14. Groundwater Study of Southwest Gwoza (Sheet 114 Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adamu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeological mapping and water chemistry of Gwoza South-West (topographical sheet 114 of the crystalline basement complex at the foot of Mandara Hills in North-Eastern Nigeria was carried out. Rainfall data was collected from the area for a period of 16 years. Water table configuration map and direction of groundwater flow was produced. Chemical analyses and physical parameters of the water was determined using spectrophotometer, flame photometer, ph meter, and electrical conductivity meter. Semi urban water consumption per family per capita per day was determined using 20 households. A total of nine major ions (Ca2+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Cl-, S042-, N02- and HC03- were analyzed. Results of the study indicate that the area experiences a moderately average rainfall of about 743mm per annum, depth to water table ranged between 2.6 – 18.8m and 0.1 – 18.2m at the peak of dry season and rainy season respectively and per capital daily water consumption per family, ranged from 9 litres to 76 litres. The values of major ions present in water indicate that it is fit for both human and animal consumption as they fall within WHO (1996 standard. Demand for water is highest in the dry season, when recharge is poorest.

  15. Chronic oil pollution harms Magellanic penguins in the Southwest Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Borboroglu, P. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CONICET), Chubut (Argentina); Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States); Boersma, P.D. [Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY (United States); University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ruoppolo, V. [International Fund for Animal Welfare, Emergency Relief Team - Oiled Wildlife Division, Sao Paolo (BR)] (and others)

    2006-02-15

    Petroleum pollution is a problem for seabirds along the Southwest Atlantic coast. Twenty-five groups from Salvador, Brazil (12{sup o}58'S) to San Antonio Oeste, Argentina (40{sup o}43'S) survey or rehabilitate sick or oiled seabirds. Four groups, one each in Brazil and Uruguay, and two in Argentina, kept counts of birds found alive and in need of rehabilitation. An average of 63.7% of the seabirds found were Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), with 3869 reported since 1987. Mainly adult penguins were found in Argentina (1605 of 2102 penguins of known age class) and Uruguay (158 of 197). Juveniles were most common in Brazil (234 of 325). Oil fouling was the most frequent cause of injury or sickness. The number of oiled penguins reported in their wintering range has greatly increased since the early 1990s and is strongly correlated with petroleum exports from Argentina. Our results show that chronic petroleum pollution is a problem for wildlife from Southern Brazil through Northern Argentina, and regulations and enforcement are failing to protect living resources. (author)

  16. The relict forests of Northwest Peru and Southwest Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Weigend

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The forest fragments or relict forests on the Western slopes of the Andes in northwest Peru and in south-west Ecuador are fragile ecosystems, which were largely continuous at some stage in the past. The importance and uniqueness of these forests as «refuges» and stable habitats roots partly in their complex diversity and their high levels of endemicity. These in turn are the outcome of a complex topography and ecology. In this introductory chapter 12 studies are analysed, which were presented at the Taller sobre Bosques Relictos de la Vertiente Occidental Andina del Norte del Perú y Sur del Ecuador in May 2004 at the X CONABOT, Trujillo-Perú. This helps to consolidate and update our knowledge on these over 20 forests fragments in northern Peru and two previously unknown fragments are presented for the first time: Bosque La Oscurana (Cajamarca and Kañaris (Lambayeque. Some ideas are exposed on the the relationships between the relict forests, how to analyse their dynamics, how to characterize their structure and how their conservation may be achieved. It is proposed that crucial elements in a conservation of these forests are a urgently inventorizing them to demonstrate their high diversity b emphasizing their economic potential with respect to the abundance of phytogenetic ressources c evaluating their role as catchment areas for the rivers which are the primary source of water for agriculture and urban life on the coast.

  17. AHP 40:THE MOUNTAIN CHANGERS: LIFESTYLE MIGRATION IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Sigley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early twenty-first century, the People's Republic of China (PRC continues its remarkable transformation that encompasses all facets of social life. One of the most significant, visible forms of such change is urbanization. Chinese cities are rapidly expanding and, according to some reports, will grow by a staggering 400 million people over the next several decades. In just under forty years China will have transformed from a predominantly rural to urban society, a pace of urbanization not matched in previous human experience. Yet while migration in China has in recent decades been overwhelmingly of people moving from the countryside to the city, and to a lesser extent (but also quite large given the size of China's population migration of more well educated urbanites and professionals between cities, there has been a small flow of people in the other direction, that is, of those leaving the metropolises of the eastern seaboard to seek out alternative lifestyles in the mountains of western China, and in particular to places like Yunnan in the southwest. These are akin to the "sea changers" and "tree changers" found in more affluent Western societies and can be included in the relatively new phenomenon of "lifestyle migration." This paper provides a preliminary overview of this phenomenon in the context of Dali, a prefectural city in Yunnan Province.

  18. Unlocking the Secrets of the Geodynamo: the Southwest Pacific Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. M.; Greve, A.; Kinger, R.; de Gelder, G.; Fitzsimons, S.; Howarth, J. D.; Hill, M. J.; Nilsson, A.; Sheppard, P.

    2014-12-01

    Three years ago we embarked on a project to boost the coverage of palaeosecular variation data from the Southwest Pacific region, and so to provide the means to enhance global and regional field models, dating tools derived from them, and understanding of features of the geodynamo, particularly beneath this region of the Earth's surface. Here we present our progress to date, including lake sediment records covering the entire Holocene, archaeomagnetic data from Maori cooking ("hangi") stones dating back to the earliest occupation of New Zealand, archaeointensities from Lapita pottery from the Pacific Islands (Fiji, Tonga and Papua New Guinea) dating back to ca 3000 BP, and palaeomagnetic directions and intensities from volcanic rocks and lava flows of the North Island of New Zealand. Central to the project is a composite lake sediment record, constrained by a high-resolution radiocarbon-based chronology, which provides a complete record of declination, inclination and relative palaeointensity for New Zealand through the Holocene. This is complemented by directions and absolute intensities from archaeological materials, most of which have associated radiocarbon age control, and lavas with 40Ar-39Ar age constraints, the rock magnetism and analytical details of which are discussed in accompanying posters. The overall picture reveals several large amplitude directional swings in the early Holocene magnetic field, followed by relatively low amplitude secular variation for several thousand years leading to the present trend to increasingly easterly declination and steep inclination as the south magnetic pole moves further off the Antarctic continent towards New Zealand.

  19. Sequence stratigraphic control on prolific HC reservoir development, Southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Kondroud, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    An important carbonate formation in the Persian Gulf and the onshore oil fields of Southwest Iran is the Lowermost Cretaceous Fahliyan formation. The formation in Darkhowain field consists of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences containing prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs of contrasting origin. Located in the high stand systems tract (HST) of the lower sequence encompassing over 200m of oil column are the most prolific reservoir. Another reservoir is over 80m thick consisting of shallowing-upward cycles that are best developed within the transgressive systems tract of the upper sequence. Vertical facies distribution and their paleobathymetry and geophysical log signatures of the Fahliyan formation in the Darkhowain platform reveal the presence of two unconformity-bounded depositional sequences in Vail et al., Van Wagoner et al., and Sarg. The Fahliyan formation mainly consists of platform carbonates composed of restricted bioclastic lime mudstone to packstone of the platform interior, Lithocodium boundstone or ooid-intraclast-bioclast grainstone of the high energy platform margin and the bioclast packstone to lime mudstone related to the off-platform setting.

  20. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  1. Detailed magnetic survey at Dahshour archeological sites Southwest Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Arafa-Hamed, Tarek; Abdellatif, Tareq

    2013-06-01

    Dahshour area has recently shown a great potential of archeological findings. This was remarkable from the latest discovery of the causeway and the mortuary temple of the Pyramid of Amenemhat III using geophysical data. The main objective of the present work is to locate the buried archeological remains in the area of Dahshour, Southwest Cairo using magnetic survey for shallow investigations. Land magnetic data is acquired using proton magnetometer (two sensors) with a sensor separation of 0.8 m; i.e. gradiometer survey. The study area is located nearby the two known pyramids of Dahshour. The field data is processed and analyzed using Oasis Montaj Geosoft™ software. The processed data is presented in order to delineate the hidden artifacts causing the magnetic anomalies. The results indicated a distribution of the buried archeological features within the study area. These archeological features are detected according to the magnetic contrast between the magnetic archeological sources (such as mud bricks, basalt and granite) and the surroundings; mainly sandy soil. The delineated archeological features at Dahshour are probably dated back to the old kingdom having a depth reach up to 3.0 m. Consequently it is highly recommended to carry out excavation to precisely classify them and high light their nature and value.

  2. Many southwest hosptials will receive decreased CMS reimbursement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. More hospitals are receiving penalties than bonuses in the second year of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ (CMS quality incentive program, and the average penalty is steeper than last year according to a report from Jordan Rau in Kaiser Health News (1. Southwest hospitals reflect that trend with New Mexico and Arizona exceeding the US average both in percentage of hospitals receiving penalties and the average size of the penalty (Table 1. Colorado approximated the national averages (Table 1. Most hospitals are gaining or losing <0.2% but in some instances the penalties are substantial. Gallup Indian Medical Center in New Mexico, a federal government hospital on the border of the Navajo Reservation, will be paid 1.14 percent less for each patient and New Mexico’s average of a -0.31% decline in reimbursement are the largest changes nationally. “This program is driving what we want in health care,” said Dr. …

  3. Mesoscale eddies in the Subantarctic Front-Southwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D. Glorioso

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite and ship observations in the southern southwest Atlantic (SSWA reveal an intense eddy field and highlight the potential for using continuous real-time satellite altimetry to detect and monitor mesoscale phenomena with a view to understanding the regional circulation. The examples presented suggest that mesoscale eddies are a dominant feature of the circulation and play a fundamental role in the transport of properties along and across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC. The main ocean current in the SSWA, the Falkland-Malvinas Current (FMC, exhibits numerous embedded eddies south of 50°S which may contribute to the patchiness, transport and mixing of passive scalars by this strong, turbulent current. Large eddies associated with meanders are observed in the ACC fronts, some of them remaining stationary for long periods. Two particular cases are examined using a satellite altimeter in combination with in situ observations, suggesting that cross-frontal eddy transport and strong meandering occur where the ACC flow intensifies along the sub-Antarctic Front (SAF and the Southern ACC Front (SACCF.

  4. Shale gas development and cancer incidence in southwest Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, M L

    2016-12-01

    To what extent does unconventional gas development lead to an increase in cancer incidence in heavily drilled Southwest Pennsylvania? Ecological study. Data for urinary bladder, thyroid and leukaemia were abstracted from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR). Cancer incidence among counties with high, moderate and minimal number of producing wells is compared before drilling activity and thereafter. Observed vs expected cases, standardized incidence ratio and 95% confidence intervals are presented. Data are presented by county, diagnosis and sex for the years 2000-2004, 2004-2008 and 2008-2012. The percent difference between the observed cases from 2000 to 2004 and 2008-2012 was calculated. The observed number of urinary bladder cases was higher than expected in both sexes in counties with shale gas activity. In counties with the fewest number of producing wells, the increase was essentially non-existent. The number of observed cases of thyroid cancer increased substantially among both sexes over the time period in all counties regardless of the number of wells drilled. The pattern for leukaemia was mixed among males and females and among the counties regardless of the extent of shale gas development activities. Potential risk factors other than shale gas development must be taken into account to explain the higher than expected cancer cases in counties with and without shale gas wells before and during unconventional shale gas activity. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subtype distribution of lymphomas in Southwest China: Analysis of 6,382 cases using WHO classification in a single institution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Xiao-Qing; Zuo Zhuo; Bi Cheng-Feng; Wang Wei-Ya; Xu Huan; Zhao Sha; Yu Jian-Bo; Zhang Wen-Yan; Yang Qun-Pei; Huang Juan; Dai Lin; Liu Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The subtype distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in Southwest China was analyzed according to WHO classifications. This study aims to analyze subtype distribution of lymphomas in southwest China. Methods Lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed within 9 years in a single institution in Southwest China were analyzed according to the WHO classification. Results From January 2000 to December 2008, a total number of 6,382 patients with lymphoma were established, of which mature B-cell neopl...

  6. Late Cenozoic Strain Partitioning in Southwest Tibet and Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M. A.; Yin, A.; Copeland, P.

    2001-12-01

    Southwest Tibet and western Nepal exhibits a complex deformation pattern characterized by interacting strike-slip, extensional faults, and thrust faults. We have used geologic mapping and analysis of Landsat and Corona images to characterize the geometry and kinematics of structures that occupy this region. From northwest to southeast, the structures analyzed include the Karakoram fault system, the Zada basin, the Gurla Mandhata detachment system, and a system of right-slip faults and normal faults in west Nepal. The southwest reach of the Karakoram fault is comprised of a system of NW-striking right-slip faults, N-striking normal faults, and minor NE-striking left-slip faults that accommodate dominantly right-lateral shear. Southwards along the Karakoram fault system the trend of the mean slip direction rotates to a more easterly direction (135\\deg~ in the north to 285\\deg~ in the south). The Zada basin lies due south of the Karakoram fault system and is represented by a >1km-thick sequence of relatively undeformed Pliocene through Pleistocene sandstones, siltstones, and conglomerates. Recent faulting is characterized by NNE-striking normal faults and NW-striking faults displaying right-lateral separations. However, no basin bounding faults have been recognized. In the Mt. Kailas area, structural data collected from the Gurla Mandhata detachment system indicates that the orientation of the mean slip direction is ~103\\deg . Detachment faults associated with the fault system are corrugated with axes oriented parallel to the slip direction. Deformation in the footwall is bulk-constrictional, as indicated by linear feldspar fabric within augen gneisses and tight to isoclinal, lineation parallel folds within layered gneisses. Landsat 7 color composite images and Corona photography were used to document recent faulting east of the Gurla Mandhata detachment system in western Nepal. Two sets of faults were recognized, WNW-striking faults and N-striking faults. WNW

  7. Physicochemical characteristics of commercial eucalyptus honeys from Southwest Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Andrés Ortega Bonilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few characterization studies of Colombian honeys in the literature. It is important to know different aspects of national honeys in order to verify the compliance with the existing Colombian requirements and International regulations, but also to increase its exploitation considering its quality and distinctive features. Physicochemical parameters are basic factors that determine the final quality of honey. The objective of this research was to assess commercial eucalyptus honeys developed with Apis mellifera in the region of Villanueva (Colombia. Water activity (0.54, pH (5.02, free acidity (14.58 meq kg-1, moisture (16.45 %, color (91.65 mm PFund, electrical conductivity (81.3 mS cm-1, minerals (ash, 0.81 %, reducing sugars (69.95 %, sucrose (1.48 %, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, 67.29 mg kg-1, diastase activity (3.21 °Gothe, phenolic content (76.57 mg Quercetin/100 g , flavonoids (5.96 mg Gallic acid/100 g and proline (180.68 mg kg-1 were determined in 24 honey samples following standard and usual procedures. The samples analyzed meet both national and international regulations for free acidity, moisture and HMF. No adulteration treatments were evidenced from proline content. However, the low diastase activity suggests that the honey went through some kind of overheating, probably during its storage under the high temperatures typical in the area of production. Usual estimations of phenolic and flavonoids content were detected. In conclusion, the tested samples fulfill some of the requirements for their commercialization. Hence, it would be convenient to develop a better control of the honey production process in the Southwest Casanare.

  8. Pemphigoid gestationis: a retrospective study in southwest Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rassai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigoid gestationis (PG is a rare autoimmune bullous dermatosis of pregnancy usually presents in the second or third trimester. It is characterized by pruritic, urticarial plaques with the development of tense vesicles and bullae within the lesions. Pathogenesis of PG is not fully established, however, most patients develop circulating autoantibodies targeting the bullous pemphigoid (BP 180 antigen. The aim of this work is to draw a profile of the epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment and evolution of the disease by studying hospital series. We retrospectively investigated the 13 patients who were diagnosed with PG based on hospital data at the Referral Center of Southwest Iran located in Ahvaz city between March 2002 and March 2011. The age of onset was 21 to 40 years (mean age: 27.5 years. The onset of the disease occurred in the second trimester of pregnancy in 6 patients and in the third trimester of pregnancy in 4 patients. One patient had a flare up of disease during the first trimester and two out of cases in puerperium period. In all cases, pruritus was the first symptom, followed by an erythematous vesiculobullous eruption.  The diagnosis of PG was confirmed by skin biopsy. Ten out of the patients treated with oral corticosteroids (0.5-1 mg/kg/day, one of the patients underwent oral corticosteroids plus topical glucocorticoid and the last patient treated with topical glucocorticoid. PG remains a rare dermatosis of pregnancy. Our series had two particularities compared to other studies: high frequency in primigravida and the frequent involvement of the face. Additionally our study demonstrated that improvement could occur faster and provide acceptable management if the treatment of the patients would be implemented sooner.

  9. Seasonal Variability in Atmospheric Methane Mixing Ratio and Coastal Methane Emission from the Southwest United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas; Hopkins, Frances; Nightingale, Phil

    2017-04-01

    We report 2+ year observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratio and water-to-air CH4 fluxes from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the southwest coast of the UK. About 6 km southwest of Plymouth, this coastal site is located at the mouth of the Plymouth Sound, 10 m above mean sea level, and 30 m from the water's edge. Air from the southwest encounters little terrestrial influence and appears to be largely representative of the background North Atlantic. The other wind sectors are affected to a varying degree by natural and anthropogenic terrestrial emissions as well as discharge from the nearby Tamar estuary/Plymouth Sound. Compared to the southwest wind sector, CH4 mixing ratios from terrestrially influenced wind sectors are greater in the mean and also show stronger seasonality (higher in winter than in summer). Novel application of the eddy covariance technique enables a direct and continuous quantification of the water-to-air CH4 fluxes. CH4 emissions from this region exceed predicted CH4 fluxes over the open ocean but are less than estimates from polar regions or freshwater systems. Within the water-facing wind sectors, CH4 emissions are a few times higher when winds are over the Plymouth Sound than when winds are from the southwest, suggesting a source from riverine outflow. Long-term measurements of CH4 fluxes allow us to examine the dependence on wind speed, tide, and water temperature.

  10. A physical model for extreme drought over southwest Asia: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris; Barlow, Mathew; Cannon, Forrest

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic difficulties of southwest Asia, defined as the area bound by the domain 25°N–40°N and 40°E–70°E, are exacerbated by extreme precipitation deficits during the November–April rainy season. The precipitation deficits during many southwest Asia droughts have been examined in terms of the forcing by climate variability originating over the Pacific Ocean as a result of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific decadal variability (PDV), and the long-term warming of Pacific (LT) sea surface temperatures (SST). Here we examine how the most extreme November–April southwest Asia droughts relate to global SSTs and the associated large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies and analyze the specific atmospheric forcing mechanisms responsible for changes in regional southwest Asian precipitation. The driest November–April seasons during 1948–2012 over southwest Asia are forced by subsidence and reductions of moisture fluxes as a result of the interaction of the mean flow with anomalous zonally symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The anomalous zonally symmetric high pressure throughout the Northern Hemisphere occurs simultaneously with cool central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies associated with La Niña and the negative phase of PDV and a warm west Pacific Ocean caused in part by the long-term warming of the west Pacific Ocean.

  11. Projected future changes in synoptic systems influencing southwest Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Pandora K. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, GPO Box 1289, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    Rainfall in the southwest of Western Australia (SWWA) is sensitive to shifts in the hemispheric scale circulation due to its location at the northward extent of the influence of mid-latitude fronts. A step-drop in the 1970s to a new winter rainfall regime has caused great concern for water users in the region. The synoptic systems at the height of winter in the latter half of the 20th century over this region have been described in Hope et al. (Clim Dyn, 2006) using a self-organising map, and in this study the projected future shifts in those systems has been examined. Bounds are placed on the possible responses by examining a number of different models and, into the future, two scenarios at the upper (SRES A2) and lower (SRES B1) limits of plausible human induced emissions. Rainfall taken directly from the models captures the rainfall decline in the 1970s, and, although it is not as large as observed in any one model, all the models express a decline, which is a very strong result. Into the future the rainfall decline is dramatic. The scenario at the upper bound of emissions, where atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases continue to rise strongly, shows a rainfall decline right through to the end of the century. The shift in synoptic systems for most models is to far fewer troughs and more high pressure systems across the region. One model exhibits a different signature, with a shift to more systems with a zonal structure. The fact that there is a rainfall decline shown by all models, yet the synoptic changes are different, highlights how sensitive SWWA rainfall is to the different responses of climate models to increasing greenhouse gases. In the B1 scenario, the concentrations rise only slowly in the second half of the century and the shift is still to drier conditions, but it is not as striking. These results show that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases lead to increasingly dry conditions in SWWA, and as the atmospheric concentrations rise

  12. Soils Diversity in the Southwest of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José; Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Loures, Luís

    2017-04-01

    Back in 1960 the Seventh International Congress of Soil Science has proposed to develop a World Soil Mapping at a scale of 1: 1000000, with a purpose of getting a systematic inventory of soils, and also to allow a transfer of experiences between different countries and institutions. The mapping process has been coordinated by the European Soil Bureau (ESBN) and the European Commission, along with the participation of the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), based on the classification proposed by the "World Reference Base for Soil Resource" (WRB, FAO, 1998). Throughout this mapping and helped by the European Soil Database (v2.0), a mapping of soils and their diversity, in the area under analysis on the present paper - EUROACE (Alentejo-Centro-Extremadura) in the Southwest of Iberian Peninsula - has been developed and assessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and algorithms of diversity. The obtained results have shown that in this particularly territory it is possible to identify 12 Reference Soil Groups (RSG) at first level, and 26 at second level, predominating Regosols and Dystrict Regosols respectively, whereas in the Mediterranean Region (Biogeographical Regions of Europe, BGRE) are 22 and 71 correspondingly with predominant for Cambisols and Calcaric Cambisols. By the analysis and assessment of soil diversity, the Shannon Index (H') is lower in EUROACE (1,67 vs 2,42 and 2,52 vs 3,35 to first and second levels); the evenness (E) shows a more equal distribution in RSG at first level in the Mediterranean Region (0,70 vs 0,67) and lower at the second level (0,67 vs 0,77 in EUROACE). These results will enable the development of a more complete pedodiversity inventory in several other regions, and also as tools to the study of soil susceptibility which will allow not only to protect a very important part of European natural heritage, but also to take specific measures to increase a better

  13. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  14. Technological choice and change in the Southwest Bath in the Athenian Agora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artz, James

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During its five architectural phases, the Southwest bath in the Athenian Agora changes from a Greek-style bath into a Roman-style bath. This article will focus on the first two phases, when Roman elements begin to be incorporated into the traditional forms of Greek bath architecture – particularly, a hypocaust floor system and a concrete vaulted ceiling built into a traditional Greek tholos bath. After describing these architectural features and analyzing the techniques used in their construction, I will examine possible sources of influence on the design and construction of the Southwest baths. The Roman army, citizenry, and workmen could all have potentially affected the incorporation of Roman bathing technologies and building techniques into the Southwest bath. The available evidence, however, indicates that the most likely source of influence is Roman workmen, who were employed in large numbers for the numerous building projects underway in Augustan Athens.

  15. The Navy’s Environmental Program and Opportunities in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    Achieve RIP for all High Priority IRP Sites FY14 •Achieve RC for 90% of IRP + MRP Sites FY18 •Achieve RC for 95% of IRP + MRP Sites FY21 9 NAVFAC Southwest...8/21/2013 ER,N IRP vs. MRP ($M) NAVFAC SW 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 FY 13 FY 14 FY 15 FY 16 FY 17 FY 18 FY 19 FY 20 FY 21 4 4 7 7 7 43 54 42 51...50 57 58 58 51 18 15 11 9 MRP IRP 10 NAVFAC Southwest Southwest ER,N Requirements Overall CTC: $766M ~54% IRP; ~46% MRP IRP , $411 MRP

  16. A new species of Ophryotrocha (Annelida, Eunicida, Dorvilleidae from hydrothermal vents on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dorvilleids were collected from hydrothermal vents on the Southwest Indian Ridge by manned submersible Jiaolong. These represent a new species of Ophryotrocha that is here described as Ophryotrocha jiaolongi sp. n. This is the first dorvilleid described from vents on the Southwest Indian Ridge. It most closely resembles another vent species, Ophryotrocha akessoni Blake, 1985 from the Galapagos Rift, but can be distinguished by its antennae, palps, jaw structure. The new species has particularly distinctive mandibles, which allow it to be easily identified.

  17. 77 FR 65816 - Safety Zone; Large Cruise Ships; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ..., Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0; New Orleans, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... the Lower Mississippi River between the Port of New Orleans Cruise Ship Terminal, mile marker 96.0... intending to transit the Lower Mississippi River between mile marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA and the Southwest...

  18. 33 CFR 162.80 - Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest passes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest passes. 162.80 Section 162.80 Navigation and Navigable Waters... NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.80 Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest...

  19. Effects of Familism and Family Cohesion on Problem Behaviors among Adolescents in Mexican Immigrant Families in the Southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Parsai, Monica; Kulis, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    This study used baseline data from the Southwest sample of the Latino Acculturation and Health Project to examine whether familism and cohesion are related to problem behaviors in a sample of Mexican and Mexican-American adolescents in the Southwest United States. This study is important to practitioners and prevention and intervention researchers…

  20. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.

  1. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K. R.; Pratihari, A. K.; Balachandran, K. K.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2017-08-01

    Coastal upwelling and mud banks are two oceanographic processes concurrently operating along certain stretches of the southwest (Kerala) coast of India during the Southwest Monsoon period (June-September), facilitating significant enhancement in plankton biomass. Mud banks have scientific and societal attention from time immemorial, predominantly due to the large fisheries associated with them. In this paper, for the first time, the specific biophysical roles of these oceanographic processes have been discriminated, based on a focused 18 weekly/fortnightly time-series study (April to September 2014) in a mud bank-upwelling area (off Alappuzha, southwest coast of India). In conjunction with standard hydrographical and satellite remote sensing data, we utilised a FlowCAM to track the biophysical linkage in terms of plankton composition abundance and size structure at three locations (M1, M2 and M3) in the study area. During the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April-May), the entire study area was warmer with low nitrate concentration in the surface waters, which caused lower biomass of autotrophs compared to the Southwest Monsoon (June-September). By the onset of the Southwest Monsoon (June), drastic hydrographical transformations took place in the study domain due to the Coastal upwelling, reflected as the surfacing of significantly cool, high nutrient and hypoxic waters. Concurrently, mud bank formed at location M2 due to the presence of relatively high-suspended sediments in the region, creating a localised calm environment conducive for fishing activities. In response to the hydrographical transformations in the entire study area during the Southwest Monsoon, the autotrophic plankton biomass and size structure experienced significant change. The micro-autotrophs biomass that was low during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 0.33 ± 0.2 mgC L- 1 at surface and av. 0.07 ± 0.04 mgC L- 1 at subsurface) noticeably increased during the Southwest Monsoon (av. 1.6 ± 0.4 mgC L- 1 at

  2. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the

  3. Soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles in karst ecosystems, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Chen, Hao; Xiao, Kongcao; Wang, Kelin

    2017-04-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) status are crucial for ecosystem development and carbon sequestration. Although most terrestrial ecosystems are proposed to be limited by N, some tropical low-land forests have been found to be N saturated. Nevertheless, soil N status in the karst ecosystems of southwest China have not been well assessed so far. In the present study, N status in the karst ecosystems were evaluated based on several lines of evidence. Bulk N content increased rapidly along a post-agricultural succession sequence including cropland, grassland, shrubland, secondary forest and primary forest. Across the sequence, soil N accumulated with an average rate of 12.4 g N m-2 yr-1. Soil N stock recovered to the primary forest level in about 67 years following agricultural abandonment. Nitrate concentrations increased while ammonium concentrations decreased with years following agricultural abandonment. N release from bedrock weathering was likely a potential N source in addition to atmospheric N deposition and biological N fixation. Both gross N mineralization and nitrification (GN) rates decreased initially and then increased greatly following agricultural abandonment. The rate of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) was highest in the shrubland while lowest in the cropland and forest. Across the vegetation types, DNRA was lowest among the gross rates. Gross ammonium immobilization (GAI) tended to decrease while there was no clear variation pattern for gross nitrate immobilization during the post-agricultural succession. DNRA and nitrate assimilation combined only accounted for 22% to 57% of gross nitrification across the vegetation types. Due to the high nitrate production while low nitrate consumption, net nitrate production was found to vary following the pattern of gross nitrification and explained 69% of soil nitrate variance. Comparison of gross N transformations between a secondary karst forest and an adjacent non-karst forest showed that the gross rates

  4. Yeasts from the sediment samples of the EEZ along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prabhakaran, N.; Gupta, R.

    Fiftyeight yeast isolates were obtained from the benthic sediment samples of 19 stations during R.V. Gaveshani Cruise No. 187 of the Exclusive Economic Zone along the southwest coast of India. The depths ranged from 20 to 1,055 m. Asporogenous yeast...

  5. Stand density guides for predicting growth of forest tress of southwest Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Basford; John Sloan; Joy Roberts

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating stand growth from stand density and average diameter in stands of pure and mixed species in Southwest Idaho. The methods are adapted from a model developed for Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and lodgepole pine on the Salmon National Forest. Growth data were derived from ponderosa pine increment cores taken from sample plots on...

  6. Data Envelopment Analysis for estimating Health Care Efficiency in the Southwest Teaching Hospitals in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilqis Bolanle Amole,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care services in Nigerian teaching hospitals have been considered as less desirable. In the same vein, studies on the proper application of model in explicating the factors that influence the efficiency of health care delivery are limited. This study therefore deployed Data Envelopment Analysis in estimating health care efficiency in six public teaching hospitals located in southwest Nigeria. To do this, the study gathered secondary data from annual statistical returns of six public teaching hospitals in southwest, Nigeria, spanned five years (2010 - 2014. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The Inferential statistical tools used included Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA with the aid of DEAP software version 2.1, Tobit model with the aid of STATA version 12.0. The results revealed that the teaching hospitals in Southwest Nigeria were not fully efficient. The average scale inefficiency was estimated to be approximately 18%. Result from the Tobit estimates showed that insufficient number of professional health workers, especially doctors, pharmacist and laboratory technicians engineers and beds space for patient use were responsible for the observed inefficiency in health care delivery, in southwest Nigeria. This study has implication for decisions on effective monitoring of the entire health system towards enhancing quality health care service delivery which would enhance health system efficiency.

  7. Foraging behavior of heritage versus recently introduced herbivores on desert landscapes of the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1800s managed grasslands and shrublands of the arid American Southwest have been grazed predominantly by cattle originally bred for temperate climates in northern Europe. A heritage breed, the criollo cattle, has survived in northern Mexico for more than 400 years under desert-like conditi...

  8. The punctuation in the evolution of orbitoides in the campanian of South-West France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drooger, C.W.; Klerk, J.C. de

    1985-01-01

    For the Orbitoides assemblages analyzed from a number of closely sampled sections of Campanian calcarenites in south-west France there is a sudden change in the means of several parameters of the internal embryonicnepionic stage. The direction of the change is in accordance with the

  9. Bovine cysticercosis and human taeniosis in South-west Shoa zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in cattle slaughtered at Sebeta, Tulu Bolo and Weliso abattoirs in southwest shoa zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia to estimate the prevalence of bovine cystiercosis using routine meat inspection method, and questionnaire surveys were undertaken to assess the status of taeniosis and ...

  10. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill...) all of the tract or parcel of land and rights-of- way referred to as the Bowest Yard lying and being...

  11. Riparian restoration in the Southwest: Species selection, propagation, planting methods, and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Dreesen; John Harrington; Tom Subirge; Pete Stewart; Greg Fenchel

    2002-01-01

    Riparian plant communities, though small in overall area, are among the most valuable natural areas in the Southwest. The causes of degradation of southwestern riparian zones range from excessive cattle and elk grazing in montane watersheds to invasive woody exotic species and lack of natural flooding in the cottonwood forests, "bosque," of low elevation...

  12. Bacterial growth efficiency in the tropical estuarine and coastal waters of Goa, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    the southwest coast of India. The BGE values for estuarine and coastal waters were 18 (plus or minus 7.84%) and 11 (plus or minus 4.19%), respectively. BGE in these waters were at the lower end of what is usually found in productive systems. This may be due...

  13. Timber resource statistics for non-Federal forest land in southwest Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; Patricia M. Bassett; Mary A. Mei

    1986-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1985 timber resource inventory of the non-Federal forest land in the five counties (Coos, Curry, Douglas, Jackson, and Josephine) in southwest Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  14. Enhancement and identification of dust events in the south-west ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    South-west Asia including the Middle East is one of the most prone regions to dust storm events. In recent years, there was an increase in the occurrence of these environmental and meteorological phenomena. Remote sensing could serve as an applicable method to detect and also characterise these events. In this study ...

  15. Modelling and economic evaluation of forest biome shifts under climate change in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Hanewinkel; Susan Hummel; Dominik. Cullmann

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the economic effects of a predicted shift from Norway spruce (Picea abies) to European beech (Fagus sylvatica) for a forest area of 1.3 million ha in southwest Germany. The shift was modelled with a generalized linear model (GLM) by using presence/absence data from the National Forest Inventory in Baden-Wurttemberg...

  16. 78 FR 1851 - Southwestern Public Service Company; Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southwestern Public Service Company; Southwest Power Pool, Inc... Act (FPA), 16 U.S.C. 824e (2000), Southwestern Public Service Company (Complainant) filed a formal... and is available for review in the Commission's Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an...

  17. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  18. Are subduction zones invading the atlantic? Evidence from the southwest iberia margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Rosas, Filipe M.; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter P.; Boutelier, David; Gutscher, Marc André; Ribeiro, António

    Subduction initiation at passive margins plays a central role in the plate tectonics theory. However, the process by which a passive margin becomes active is not well understood. In this paper we use the southwest Iberia margin (SIM) in the Atlantic Ocean to study the process of passive margin

  19. The Coping Strategies of Nontraditional Female Students in Southwest Michigan and Northern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Desiree

    2017-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of this research study was to examine the coping strategies of nontraditional female students in a private university in Southwest Michigan, and a public university in Northern Indiana. According to Carney-Compton & Tan (2002), nontraditional female students characterize the leading emergent set of students beginning…

  20. Characterization of the southwest United States for the production of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; Folger, A.G.

    1987-03-01

    The southwest United States, an area of diverse climate, topography, terrain, soils, and vegetation, is characterized to determine the feasibility of growing terrestrial energy crops there. The emphasis in the study is on delineating general zones of relative resource and environmental suitability, which are then evaluated to estimate the potential of the region for energy crop production. 100 refs., 25 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. Dental Caries Trend among Adolescents in Lagos, South-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents in Lagos, South-west of Nigeria. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for basic oral health surveys was employed. The study population was 11 to 16 year-old adolescents from primary and secondary.

  2. 76 FR 28226 - Southwest Health Alliances, Inc., Doing Business as BSA Provider Network; Analysis of Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... Southwest Health Alliances, Inc., Doing Business as BSA Provider Network; Analysis of Agreement Containing... or deceptive acts or practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis To Aid Public.... The following Analysis To Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  3. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  4. Stakeholders' Perception on the Investment in Higher Education in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, J. B.; Olaiya, Foluke M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the perceptions of stakeholders on investment in higher education and economic development in south-west Nigeria. The study was based on the argument that despite the fact that Nigeria celebrates her wealth of human capital and boasts of her educated labour force, there is still widespread ignorance and poverty with no…

  5. 78 FR 9449 - Noise Exposure Map Notice, Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort Myers, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice, Southwest Florida International Airport, Fort... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by the Lee County Port...-6331. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps...

  6. 77 FR 40846 - Santa Fe National Forest; New Mexico; Southwest Jemez Mountains Landscape Restoration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... products would be removed from sites where feasible, based on road access, slope, terrain, and economic...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Santa Fe National Forest; New Mexico; Southwest Jemez Mountains Landscape Restoration Project Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...

  7. Compatible taper and volume equations for young longleaf pine plantations in southwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichun Jiang; John R. Brooks; Alexander Clark

    2010-01-01

    Inside and outside bark taper equations as well as compatible cubic foot volume equations were developed from felled tree data selected from young longleaf pine plantations that are part of an existing growth and yield study located in the Flint River drainage of southwest Georgia. A Max-Burkhart taper model was selected as the basic model form due to the accuracy...

  8. Wind stress, curl and vertical velocity in the Bay of Bengal during southwest monsoon, 1984

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Heblekar, A.K.; Murty, C.S.

    Wind distribution observed during southwest monsoon of 1984 has used to derive the mean wind stress for the season at every 1 degree square grid and curl over the Bay of Bengal. Two regions of maximum wind stress are present over the Bay of Bengal...

  9. Risk in Daily Newspaper Coverage of Red Tide Blooms in Southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongchao; Garrison, Bruce; Ullmann, Steven G.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Fleming, Lora E.; Hoagland, Porter

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated newspaper coverage of Florida red tide blooms in four metropolitan areas of Southwest Florida during a 25-year period, 1987-2012. We focused on how journalists framed red tide stories with respect to environmental risk, health risk, and economic risk. We determined risk to be a key factor in this news coverage, being an…

  10. Lessons learned from the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, sudden oak death management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phil Cannon; Susan J. Frankel; Pete Angwin

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, State and Private Forestry (S&PF) has provided grants which have supported over 200 projects to address sudden oak death (SOD) in California. To date, over $10 million has been provided by US taxpayers, plus an additional $8 million of non-federal matching funds. These funds...

  11. Estimating Probable Maximum Precipitation by Considering Combined Effect of Typhoon and Southwesterly Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoon Morakot hit southern Taiwan in 2009, bringing 48-hr of heavy rainfall [close to the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP] to the Tsengwen Reservoir catchment. This extreme rainfall event resulted from the combined (co-movement effect of two climate systems (i.e., typhoon and southwesterly air flow. Based on the traditional PMP estimation method (i.e., the storm transposition method, STM, two PMP estimation approaches, i.e., Amplification Index (AI and Independent System (IS approaches, which consider the combined effect are proposed in this work. The AI approach assumes that the southwesterly air flow precipitation in a typhoon event could reach its maximum value. The IS approach assumes that the typhoon and southwesterly air flow are independent weather systems. Based on these assumptions, calculation procedures for the two approaches were constructed for a case study on the Tsengwen Reservoir catchment. The results show that the PMP estimates for 6- to 60-hr durations using the two approaches are approximately 30% larger than the PMP estimates using the traditional STM without considering the combined effect. This work is a pioneer PMP estimation method that considers the combined effect of a typhoon and southwesterly air flow. Further studies on this issue are essential and encouraged.

  12. Regional diversity on the timing for the origins of cereal cultivation and domestication in southwest Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otaegui, Amaia Arranz; Colledge, Sue; Zapata, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have broadened our knowledge regarding the origins of agriculture in southwest Asia by highlighting the multiregional and protracted nature of plant domestication. However, there have been few archaeobotanical data to examine whether the early adoption of wild cereal cultivation an...

  13. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in south-west of Iran: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Beiranvand

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Increasing concurrent of HIV infection and TB and decreasing patients mean age (39.3±18 and median (35±6.5 in southwest of Iran has high prevalence. Screening, training and preventive activities for controlling of disease is highly recommended for the whole country and in margin provinces in particular.

  14. 78 FR 66695 - Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Area Power Administration Loveland Area Projects, Colorado River Storage Project, Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie Project, Central Arizona Project, and Parker-Davis Project--Rate Order No. WAPA... Western Area Power Administration (Western) Transmission Projects to Enter into WestConnect's Point-to...

  15. Social Media Use by Librarians for Information Dissemination in Three Federal University Libraries in Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadri, Ganiyu Oluwaseyi; Adebayo Idowu, Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated social media use for information dissemination by librarians in federal university libraries in Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive survey method was adopted for the study, while the sample consisted of all 82 librarians in the selected universities. A questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection, while the data…

  16. Coping with drought risk: empirical analysis of farmers' drought adaption in the south-west Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change projections show that periods of droughts are likely to increase, causing decreasing water availability, salinization, and consequently farm income loss in the south-west Netherlands. Adaptation is the key to decrease a farmer's drought vulnerability and to secure the agricultural

  17. Quality of Antenatal Services at the Primary Care Level in Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 452 pregnant women accessing care at first level public health facilities in a local government area in southwest Nigeria was conducted to assess their perspectives on the quality of antenatal care received. Majority of the women expressed satisfaction with the level of expertise and basic technical competence of ...

  18. Buruli Ulcer: A Case Report from South-West, Nigeria Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case report of a 15 year-old girl with Buruli ulcer which was confirmed during assessment/advocacy visit to a secondary Health facility in south-west, Nigeria by Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative, a WHO initiative. This case underscores the need for more education of health care providers working in the endemic ...

  19. Success of Underrepresented Nursing Students at Selected Southwest Institutions: Impact of a Nursing Retention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This study examined retention initiatives and strategies provided to underserved students in the nursing programs at three community colleges in the Southwest region. This research addressed nursing student retention, as well as ways to increase retention among underrepresented populations in the three community colleges, representing a unique…

  20. The extreme 2013/2014 winter storms: Beach recovery along the southwest coast of England

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Tim; Masselink, Gerd; O'Hare, Tim; Saulter, Andrew; Poate, Tim; Russell, Paul; Davidson, Mark; Conley, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: The extreme 2013/2014 winter storms: Beach recovery along the southwest coast of England journaltitle: Marine Geology articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2016.10.011 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Discriminating the biophysical impacts of coastal upwelling and mud banks along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Balachandran, K.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    > at surface and av. 1.3 ± 0.2 mgC L-1 at subsurface). The seasonal mean bio-volume of micro-autotrophs followed the same pattern in all three locations with the dominance of smaller individuals during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 55 ± 4.4 × 10

  2. Phytoplankton distribution and nitrogen dynamics in the southwest indian subtropical gyre and Southern Ocean waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thomalla, J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1999 Marion Island Oceanographic Survey (MIOS 4) in late austral summer, a northbound and reciprocal southbound transect were taken along the Southwest Indian and Madagascar Ridge, between the Prince Edward Islands and 31° S. The sections...

  3. Roles of and threats to Yoruba traditional beliefs in wilderness conservation in southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fola D. Babaloa

    2011-01-01

    The Yoruba of southwest Nigeria are constantly conscious and acknowledging of God's divine lordship over the whole earth. This fact keeps them aware that they ought to be careful how this earth is treated. Yoruba religion and mythology is a major influence in West Africa, chiefly in Nigeria, and it has given origin to several New World religions. The Yorubas have...

  4. String of turquoise: The future of Sacred Mountain Peaks in the southwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2011-01-01

    The Southwest is the birthplace of wilderness policy in the United States, yet the unique ecological environments of its peaks, cordilleras, and ranges that dot the high desert remain only partially protected. Some areas are relatively secure, yet midcentury Federal policy responded to multiple development pressures, from ski basins to roads, that sliced these peaks...

  5. Arbuscule mycorrhizae: A linkage between erosion and plant processes in a southwest grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary O' Dea; D. Phillip Guertin; C. P. P. Reid

    2000-01-01

    Plant and soil processes within a natural ecosystem interact with surface hydrology through their influence on surface roughness, soil structure, and evaporation, and through their relation with soil biota. In the Southwest, decreases in perennial grass cover and erosion on uplands and stream channels can initiate a decline in watershed condition. Agronomic literature...

  6. A Core Collection of Print Material for Libraries Serving the Spanish-Speaking of the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    REFORMA, Tucson, AZ.

    This booklist prepared by the Arizona chapter of REFORMA, an organization established to promote better library services and programs for the Spanish speaking population of the southwest, presents a representative sample of printed materials dealing with literature and language, traditions and customs, history and heritage, the arts, and applied…

  7. ARSENIC-INDUCED SKIN CONDITIONS IDENTIFIED IN SOUTHWEST DERMATOLOGY PRACTICE: AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC TOOL?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations living in the Southwest United States are more likely to be exposed to elevated drinking water arsenic levels compared to other areas of the country. Skin changes, including hyperpigmentation and generalized hyperkeratosis, are the most common signs of chronic arsenic...

  8. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, X.; Hawk, S.T.; Winter, S.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward

  9. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward

  10. Tropical systems from the southwest Indian Ocean making landfall over the Limpopo River Basin, southern Africa: a historical perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malherbe, J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study provides perspective on the contribution of landfalling tropical systems (cyclones, depressions, storms and lows) from the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) towards rainfall over the eastern interior of southern Africa, over the period 1948...

  11. Multi‐scale topographic control of southwest vortex formation in Tibetan Plateau region in an idealized simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Qi‐Wei; Tan, Zhe‐Min

    2014-01-01

    The southwest vortex (SWV) is a lee vortex occurring on the leeside of the Tibetan Plateau in southwestern China, which is strongly affected by the different scale topography of the Tibetan Plateau, Hengduan Cordillera, and Sichuan Basin...

  12. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This product "Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale vector dataset...

  13. Ethnic Foods as Unprepared Materials and as Cuisines in a Culture-based Development Project in Southwest China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu Wu

    2016-01-01

    .... During a recent culture-based development project in southwest China, villagers in several ethnic minority villages proposed that local foods could act as cultural resources for rural development...

  14. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  15. Assessment of scaling formation during solar desalination using PHREEQC modeling in El Gebail and El Qaa plain areas: southwest Sinai

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohallel, S A; Metwally, Safie Elden; Gomaa, Esam A; Fathy, Marwa; Sayed Alahl, Amr Abdellatif

    2016-01-01

    .... So, the present study aims to studying individually the chemical characteristics affecting groundwater quality in inland and coastal regions of El Gebail and El Qaa plain areas southwest Sinai...

  16. Dietary energy density is positively associated with body composition of adults in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Xue, Hong-Mei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao; Quan, Li-Ming; Gong, Yun-Hui; Cheng, Guo

    2018-02-20

    Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults. We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). Southwest China. Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013. After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (Pcomposition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (Pcomposition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.

  17. Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Nonstationarity on Seasonal Streamflow Predictability in the U.S. Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Flavio; Wood, Andrew W.; Llewellyn, Dagmar; Blatchford, Douglas B.; Goodbody, Angus G.; Pappenberger, Florian

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal streamflow predictions provide a critical management tool for water managers in the American Southwest. In recent decades, persistent prediction errors for spring and summer runoff volumes have been observed in a number of watersheds in the American Southwest. While mostly driven by decadal precipitation trends, these errors also relate to the influence of increasing temperature on streamflow in these basins. Here we show that incorporating seasonal temperature forecasts from operational global climate prediction models into streamflow forecasting models adds prediction skill for watersheds in the headwaters of the Colorado and Rio Grande River basins. Current dynamical seasonal temperature forecasts now show sufficient skill to reduce streamflow forecast errors in snowmelt-driven regions. Such predictions can increase the resilience of streamflow forecasting and water management systems in the face of continuing warming as well as decadal-scale temperature variability and thus help to mitigate the impacts of climate nonstationarity on streamflow predictability.

  18. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dawes; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G; Mcfarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rai...

  19. Southwest Regional Climate Hub and California Subsidiary Hub assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Elias; Caiti Steele; Kris Havstad; Kerri Steenwerth; Jeanne Chambers; Helena Deswood; Amber Kerr; Albert Rango; Mark Schwartz; Peter Stine; Rachel Steele

    2015-01-01

    This report is a joint effort of the Southwest Regional Climate Hub and the California Subsidiary Hub (Sub Hub). The Southwest Regional Climate Hub covers Arizona, California, Hawai‘i and the U.S. affiliated Pacific Islands, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah and contains vast areas of western rangeland, forests, and high-value specialty crops (Figure 1). The California Sub...

  20. A STUDY ON AWARENESS OF PEOPLE ABOUT JELLYFISH ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COASTS OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Killi, Nurçin; Sağdıç, Ozan; Cengiz, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    This study is about a questionnary developed tocollect data related awareness of people about jellyfish and injury cases. Thequestionnary was distributed to 226 people in the touristic areas of the westand the southwest regions of Turkey, with the participants consisting ofholiday-makers, people working in the tourism sector, fishermen, divers as wellas local dwellers. Overall, 78% of the participants had previous awareness ofthe existence of jellyfish, whereas the remaining 22% had heard abo...

  1. The punctuation in the evolution of orbitoides in the campanian of South-West France

    OpenAIRE

    Drooger, C.W.; Klerk, J.C. de

    1985-01-01

    For the Orbitoides assemblages analyzed from a number of closely sampled sections of Campanian calcarenites in south-west France there is a sudden change in the means of several parameters of the internal embryonicnepionic stage. The direction of the change is in accordance with the nepionic acceleration principle, known to be valid for all lineages of orbitoidallarger foraminifera. Below and above the level of the morphological break we seem to be dealing with two longer periods without any ...

  2. Analysis of Proppant Hydraulic Fracturing in a Sand Oil Reservoir in Southwest of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Masoomi; Iniko Bassey; Dolgow Sergie Viktorovich; Hosein Dehghani

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is one way to increase the productivity of oil and gas wells. One of the most fundamental successes of hydraulic fracturing operation is selecting the proper size and type of proppants which are used during the process. The aim of this study is optimizing the type and size of used propant in hydraulic fracturing operation in a sand oil reservoir in southwest of Iran. In this study sand and ceramic (sintered bauxite) have been considered as proppant type. Also the various ...

  3. Microbial Sulfur Cycle in Two Hydrothermal Chimneys on the Southwest Indian Ridge

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Huiluo; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sulfur is an important element in sustaining microbial communities present in hydrothermal vents. Sulfur oxidation has been extensively studied due to its importance in chemosynthetic pathways in hydrothermal fields; however, less is known about sulfate reduction. Here, the metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys located on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were pyrosequenced to elucidate the associated microbial sulfur cycle. A taxonomic summary of known genes revea...

  4. Hierarchy and social inequality in the American Southwest, A.D. 800–1200

    OpenAIRE

    Plog, Stephen; Heitman, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico has been the focus of much recent archaeological research on Pueblo groups who lived during the 9th through 12th centuries in the American Southwest. Here, we examine variation in mortuary patterns in the canyon, focusing in particular on one mortuary crypt, to address questions of social differentiation and the chronology of important sociopolitical processes. Based on new radiocarbon dates as well as reanalysis of the stratigraphy and spatial distribu...

  5. Impact of cooperative membership on farmers' uptake of technological innovations in Southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Kolade, Oluwaseun; Harpham, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Routledge. The underutilization of agriculture in Nigeria with attendant low yield per hectare is generally attributed to lack of innovation to cope with the challenges of climate change and land degradation. In this study, using information from 326 farmers in Southwest Nigeria, we examined the relative impact of cooperative membership compared with the effects of other socioeconomic factors on farmers’ adoption of technological innovations. Cooperative mem...

  6. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  7. Reservoir Characterization of the Lower Green River Formation, Southwest Uinta Basin, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Craig D.; Chidsey, Jr., Thomas C.; McClure, Kevin P.; Bereskin, S. Robert; Deo, Milind D.

    2002-12-02

    The objectives of the study were to increase both primary and secondary hydrocarbon recovery through improved characterization (at the regional, unit, interwell, well, and microscopic scale) of fluvial-deltaic lacustrine reservoirs, thereby preventing premature abandonment of producing wells. The study will encourage exploration and establishment of additional water-flood units throughout the southwest region of the Uinta Basin, and other areas with production from fluvial-deltaic reservoirs.

  8. State-space prediction of spring discharge in a karst catchment in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian; Li, Xuezhang; Zhang, Rongfei; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Chaohao

    2017-06-01

    Southwest China represents one of the largest continuous karst regions in the world. It is estimated that around 1.7 million people are heavily dependent on water derived from karst springs in southwest China. However, there is a limited amount of water supply in this region. Moreover, there is not enough information on temporal patterns of spring discharge in the area. In this context, it is essential to accurately predict spring discharge, as well as understand karst hydrological processes in a thorough manner, so that water shortages in this area could be predicted and managed efficiently. The objectives of this study were to determine the primary factors that govern spring discharge patterns and to develop a state-space model to predict spring discharge. Spring discharge, precipitation (PT), relative humidity (RD), water temperature (WD), and electrical conductivity (EC) were the variables analyzed in the present work, and they were monitored at two different locations (referred to as karst springs A and B, respectively, in this paper) in a karst catchment area in southwest China from May to November 2015. Results showed that a state-space model using any combinations of variables outperformed a classical linear regression, a back-propagation artificial neural network model, and a least square support vector machine in modeling spring discharge time series for karst spring A. The best state-space model was obtained by using PT and RD, which accounted for 99.9% of the total variation in spring discharge. This model was then applied to an independent data set obtained from karst spring B, and it provided accurate spring discharge estimates. Therefore, state-space modeling was a useful tool for predicting spring discharge in karst regions in southwest China, and this modeling procedure may help researchers to obtain accurate results in other karst regions.

  9. Climate Change Adaptation for People and Nature: A Case Study from the U.S. Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Mccarthy, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In the U.S. Southwest, global climate change, acting in concert with extant stressors such as urbanization and over-allocation of water resources, is changing ecosystems in measureable and sometimes dramatic ways. Twenty-first century projections indicate accelerating climate change and cascading ecological consequences. Effects observed to date include large-scale forest dieback, large and severe wildfires, and changes in the flow regimes of rivers and streams with attendant changes to ripar...

  10. Internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness of gay/bisexual men from Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background Social attitudes toward male homosexuality in China so far are still not optimistic. Sexual minorities in China have reported high levels of internalized homophobia. Methods This Internet-based study examined the associations among internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness among 435 gay/bisexual men in Southwest China from 2014 to 2015. Latent profile analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, univariate logistic regression, and separate multivariate logist...

  11. Foodborne botulism in southwest Romania during the post-communism period 1990-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghina, Adriana Maria; Marincu, Iosif; Moldovan, Roxana; Iacobiciu, Ioan; Neghina, Raul

    2010-02-01

    This study was a retrospective investigation of botulism cases over a period of 18 years following major political and economic changes, addressing the question of whether this disease is still an important health concern in southwest Romania. The medical records of botulism cases were used as the source of data. Patients from five southwest Romanian counties were hospitalized at Victor Babes Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Timisoara during the period 1990-2007. The median annual incidence of botulism cases in southwest Romania decreased from 0.1 per 100 000 persons during 1990-1998, to 0.05 per 100 000 persons during 1999-2007. Most of the cases (18.6%) were diagnosed in 1990, immediately following the communism period. The median age of the patients was 38 years (range 16-73 years); 24 (55.8%) were male; the case fatality rate was 2.3%. A significantly higher incidence rate of 2.7 cases per 100 000 persons occurred in rural areas, even though most of the cases (53.5%) were inhabitants of urban areas. The clinical pattern included: difficulty swallowing (79.1%), double and/or blurred vision (69.8%), dry mouth (60.5%), drooping eyelids (51.2%), vomiting (39.5%), mydriasis (37.2%), constipation (27.9%), abdominal pain (23.3%), and slurred speech (18.6%). All cases were attributed to contaminated food sources, mainly home-prepared traditional pork products. Although the botulism cases decreased over the study period in southwest Romania, this life-threatening disease continues to be an important concern. A strategy addressing individual behaviors in the home is needed to improve food safety. Copyright 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. JIATF-SWB: Building an Operational Bridge for the Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    mexican_cartels_integr.htm. (accessed 20 March 2011). 4 Office of the President. “Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad...Obtener la base de datos de Fallecimientos ocurridos por presunta rivalidad delincuencial en el periodo diciembre 2006 a diciembre 2010... basing , technical, intelligence, and training support to JIATF-SWB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Mexico, Southwest Border, USNORTHCOM, Interagency, 16

  13. The Hammer and the Anvil: The Need for A Comprehensive Southwest Border Security Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    based approach when assessing its performance in the context of international trade and the economy . In doing so, the agency appears to recognize...the Southwest border is the Mérida Initiative. The Mérida Initiative, named after the Yucatan capital where President Bush and Mexican President...three reasons. First, Mexico is a huge country, with a population of more than 100 million. Second, it has a large economy – the 14th largest in

  14. Geochemistry of surficial sediments along the central southwest coast of India - Seasonal changes in regional distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Das, V.K.; Sheeba, P.

    :!: 15 204:!: 17 oceanographic and sedimentary processes to the metal geo chemistry. Such studies require increased density of sam pling covering seasonal signals, which play an important role when coastal regions are considered. The aim of the present... work is to characterize the geochemistry of Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in surficial sediments ofcentral southwest coastal region of India and relate their distribution in the context ofthe prevailing oceanographic and sedimentary pro cesses...

  15. Ethnobotany of wild plants used for starting fermented beverages in Shui communities of southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Liya; Zhuo, Jingxian; Lei, Qiyi; Zhou, Jiangju; Ahmed, Selena; Wang, Chaoying; Long, Yuxiao; Li, Feifei; Long, Chunlin

    2015-01-01

    Background Shui communities of southwest China have an extensive history of using wild plants as starters (Xiaoqu) to prepare fermented beverages that serve important roles in interpersonal relationships and cultural events. While the practice of using wild plants as starters for the preparation of fermented beverages was once prevalent throughout China, this tradition has seen a decline nationally since the 1930s. The traditional technique of preparing fermented beverages from wild plant sta...

  16. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions and rainfall decline in South-West Australia: coincidence or causality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly understood that the observed decline in precipitation in South-West Australia during the 20th century is caused by anthropogenic factors. Candidates therefore are changes to large-scale atmospheric circulations due to global warming, extensive deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions - all of which are effective on different spatial and temporal scales. This presentation focusses on the role of rapidly rising aerosol emissions from anthropogenic sources in South-West Australia around 1970. An analysis of historical longterm rainfall data of the Bureau of Meteorology shows that South-West Australia as a whole experienced a gradual decline in precipitation over the 20th century. However, on smaller scales and for the particular example of the Perth catchment area, a sudden drop in precipitation around 1970 is apparent. Modelling experiments at a convection-resolving resolution of 3.3km using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with the aerosol-aware Thompson-Eidhammer microphysics scheme are conducted for the period 1970-1974. A comparison of four runs with different prescribed aerosol emissions and without aerosol effects demonstrates that tripling the pre-1960s atmospheric CCN and IN concentrations can suppress precipitation by 2-9%, depending on the area and the season. This suggests that a combination of all three processes is required to account for the gradual decline in rainfall seen for greater South-West Australia and for the sudden drop observed in areas along the West Coast in the 1970s: changing atmospheric circulations, deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  17. Exploring the Etiologic Factors and Dynamics of Prescription Drug Abuse in Southwest Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry J Redican

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia is a serious problem affecting indi-viduals, families, and communities. The aim of this study was to characterize and understand the extent of the prescription drug abuse problem in Southwest, Virginia as well as the dynamics that surround that abuse. More specifically, the study focused on learning the extent of the problem along with which prescription drugs are typically used prior to entering treatment, reasons for prescription drug and methadone abuse, and the sources for prescription drug use, misuse and abuse.Methods: Mixed methodology was employed which included surveying methadone clinic con-sumers at two treatment clinics in Southwest, Virginia and seven focus field interviews of key community stakeholders.Results: The extent of prescription drug abuse is high and that the demographics of prescription drug users are getting younger and now involve more males than females. Oxycodone, hydroco-done, methadone, and morphine were the most commonly used drugs prior to enrollment in the clinics with over one-half of methadone-maintained consumers reporting that they had abused benzodiazepines along with opioids. Focus groups and clinic consumer data highlighted the key etiological factors in prescription drug abuse: use (due to workforce related injuries turning to abuse, wanting to get high, overprescribing and physician issues, lack of information, and cultural acceptance of drug taking as problem solving behavior. The two most common sources for the abused prescription drugs were physicians and street dealers.Conclusions: A constellation of conditions have led to the epidemic of prescription drug abuse in Southwest Virginia, including poverty, unemployment and work-related injuries, besides, public health education programs on the dangers of prescription opiate misuse and abuse are urgently needed.

  18. Chemical Composition of Four Wild Edible Mushroom Species Collected From Southwest Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent; Hasan YILDIZ; KALMIŞ, Erbil; SOLAK, Halil

    2010-01-01

    Four different species of wild edible mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Meripilus giganteus and Sparassis crispa) representing four different families (Physalacriaceae, Tricholomataceae, Meripilaceae and Sparassidaceae) growing in southwest regions of Anatolia were analyzed for their Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb contents and ash, dry matter, protein, and fat levels. All mineral concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis (d.w.). The mineral content of mushroom s...

  19. Circulation and Oceanographic Properties in the Somali Basin as Observed During the 1979 Southwest Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    40 DISCOVERY and AL DURIYAH Figure 17. Surface Salinity (0/oo), 10 June - 3 July 1979, 41 DISCOVERY and AL DURIYAH Figure 18. Surface Temperature ( 0C...southwest monsoon is explained by the thermohaline structure of the equatorial 9 Indian Ocean; wa m, fresh water on the eastern side of the Indian Ocean in...of the thermohaline structure in the area. Moreover, section 5 parallels rather than crosses the lines of constant dynamic height anomalies. Figure 43

  20. Distinct phases of eustatic and tectonic forcing for late Quaternary landscape evolution in southwest Crete, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    V. Mouslopoulou; J. Begg; A. Fülling; D. Moraetis; P. Partsinevelos; O. Oncken

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which climate, eustasy and tectonics interact to shape the late Quaternary landscape is poorly known. Alluvial fans often provide useful indexes that allow the decoding of information recorded on complex coastal landscapes, such as those of the eastern Mediterranean. In this paper we analyse and date (using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating) a double alluvial fan system on southwest Crete, an island straddling the forearc of the Hellenic subduction...

  1. The Southwest Pacific: U.S. Interests and China’s Growing Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-06

    trading countries and blocs.19 The EU’s new accord with African, Carribean , and Pacific (ACP) countries, the Cotonou Agreement, signed in 2000 and...Order Code RL34086 The Southwest Pacific: U.S. Interests and China’s Growing Influence July 6, 2007 Thomas Lum Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign...Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the

  2. Perceptions Regarding HIV/AIDS and Risky Behaviours Among Prison Inmates in Southwest Region of Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tarkang EE; Pietra V; Adam A; Fusheini A; Kweku M

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners are at exceptional risk of infection with HIV because of the association of injection drug use, tattooing, sex between men and unprotected sexual intercourse with incarceration. This study described the perceptions regarding HIV/ AIDS and risky behaviours among prison inmates in Kumba in the Southwest region of Cameroon.This was a cross sectional study, conducted among 232 male prison inmates in Kumba, in December 2015. Data were collected using a structured pretested questionnaire,...

  3. Construction and application research of Three-dimensional digital power grid in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Zhou, Hong; You, Chuan; Jiang, Li; Xin, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of Three-dimensional (3D) digital design technology in the field of power grid construction, the data foundation and technical means of 3D digital power grid construction approaches perfection. 3D digital power grid has gradually developed into an important part of power grid construction and management. In view of the complicated geological conditions in Southwest China and the difficulty in power grid construction and management, this paper is based on the data assets of Southwest power grid, and it aims at establishing a 3D digital power grid in Southwest China to provide effective support for power grid construction and operation management. This paper discusses the data architecture, technical architecture and system design and implementation process of the 3D digital power grid construction through teasing the key technology of 3D digital power grid. The application of power grid data assets management, transmission line corridor planning, geological hazards risk assessment, environmental impact assessment in 3D digital power grid are also discussed and analysed.

  4. Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Endemic Mussismilia Corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberberg, Carla; Peluso, Lívia; Marques, Jessica A; Cunha, Haydée

    2014-01-01

    In the Southwest Atlantic, coral reefs are unique due to their growth form, low species richness, and a high level of endemic coral species, which include the most important reef builders. Although these reefs are the only true biogenic reefs in the South Atlantic Ocean, population genetic studies are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop a suite of microsatellite loci to help gain insights into the population diversity and connectivity of the endemic scleractinian coral with the largest distributional range along the Southwest Atlantic coast, Mussismilia hispida Fourteen microsatellite loci were characterized, and their degree of polymorphism was analyzed in 33 individuals. The number of alleles varied between 4 and 17 per loci, and H o varied between 0.156 and 0.928, with 2 loci showing significant heterozygote deficiency. Cross-amplification tests on the other 2 species of the genus (Mussismilia braziliensis and Mussismilia harttii) demonstrated that these markers are suitable for studies of population diversity and structure of all 3 species of Mussismilia Because they are the most important reef builders in the Southwest Atlantic, the developed microsatellite loci may be important tools for connectivity and conservation studies of these endemic corals. © The American Genetic Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Relationship between Body Height and Craniofacial Lines Measured by CT in Southwest Han Males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meng; Luo, Ying-zhen; Fan, Fei; Yun, Li-bing; Deng, Zhen-hua

    2016-04-01

    To establish regression model between craniofacial lines and body height by measuring craniofacial lines in Southwest Han males using CT and to accumulate data for the study of forensic anthropology. Head CT data of 273 Han males in Southwest were collected and 7 craniofacial lines were determined. Multiplanar reconstruction and volume rendering were performed by image post-processing software and the selected lines were measured. The relationship between each measuring indicator and body height was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. The regression equation of body height estimation was established and 50 samples were selected again and put into the mathematics models to verify its accuracy. The linear regression equations of 7 lines were established (P estimate (SEE) were 4.597-5.023 cm. The correlation coefficients of the multiple linear regression equation were 0.494-0.524 and the SEE were 4.418-4.458 cm. The return tests showed that the highest ± 1SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 83.959+3.589 x6+2.573 x2, were 30%; and the highest ± 2SEE accuracy of the multiple regression equation: y = 72.646+3.316 x6+1.586 x2+1.553 x4+2.211 x3, were 92%. There is significant linear correlation between 7 selected lines and the stature in this study, and the plural linear regression equation established could be applied for estimating the stature of Southwest Han males.

  6. Current data on extremities chronic osteomyelitis in southwest China: epidemiology, microbiology and therapeutic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Yu, Shengpeng; Sun, Dong; Fu, Jingshu; Wang, Shulin; Huang, Ke; Xie, Zhao

    2017-11-24

    The current study was designed to explore the epidemiology of extremities chronic osteomyelitis, its prognosis and the complications of the treatment methods being used in southwest China. The data from osteomyelitis patients treated at the Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, China between May 2011 and September 2016 were collected and analysed. The study comprised 503 admitted patients, of which 416 males and 87 were females, with an average age of 40.15 ± 5.64 years. Approximately 356 cases were followed for more than 18 months; the average bone union time was 6.24 ± 0.76 months in 94.1% (335) patients, and infections were almost controlled in 93.8% patients. The rate of infection control with the induced membrane technique was higher than with the I-stage free bone graft. Iliac infection was the main complication of the induced membrane technique, and impaired joint activity was the main complication of I-stage free bone grafts. In southwest China, the incidence of haematogenous osteomyelitis, caused mainly by Staphylococcus aureus, remains very high. The speed of bone defect repair and the rate of infection control with the induced membrane technique were superior to those of I-stage free bone grafts. Internal fixation should be given priority because it offers reduced complications with no increase in the recurrence of infection.

  7. Carnivorous sponges (Porifera, Cladorhizidae) from the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestetun, Jon Thomassen; Rapp, Hans Tore; Xavier, Joana

    2017-03-01

    The family Cladorhizidae (Porifera) comprises a particularly interesting group of sponges that has developed a carnivorous feeding strategy unique within the phylum. Cladorhizids are typically considered deep-sea sponges, are frequently found at oceanic ridges and seamount systems, and new species are continuously discovered as new areas are explored. In this study we describe nine new cladorhizid sponges collected on three seamounts of the Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge (SWIOR) during the RRS ;James Cook; cruise JC066: Abyssocladia boletiphora, Ab. corniculiphora, Ab. hemiradiata, Asbestopluma (Asbestopluma) unguiferata, As. (A.) jamescooki, As. (A.) laminachela, As. (A.) pseudoisochela, As. (A.) ramuscula and Chondrocladia (Meliiderma) rogersi; and re-describe four species, viz. Ab. symmetrica, Ch. (M.) stipitata, Cladorhiza moruliformis and Cl. tridentata collected during the ;Challenger; expedition in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Barcodes and a phylogenetic analysis showing the systematic position of the new species are included as additional information. Our results show that the cladorhizid fauna of the Southwestern Indian Ocean is diverse and seems to be bathymetrically structured with no observed overlap between the newly reported upper bathyal species ( 1000 m) and previously described lower bathyal and abyssal species from the area. While the upper bathyal SWIOR species are unique and represent a regionally endemic cladorhizid fauna, similarities in morphology and spicule characters as well as molecular evidence suggests biogeographical affinities to species from the SW Pacific and SW Atlantic, but no similarities to previously reported Antarctic fauna were found. A table of cladorhizid species from the Southwest Indian Ocean and neighboring areas is provided.

  8. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  9. The Major Qualitative Characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivated in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zizhang; Zhan, Mingming; Yang, Zeshen; Zumstein, Kristina; Chen, Huaping; Huang, Qianming

    2017-01-01

    Olive trees, originated from Mediterranean, have been cultivated in China for decades and show great adaption to local environment. However, research on this topic is limited. In this study, the major qualitative characteristics and changes of olive grown in southwest China were investigated. The results showed that oil accumulated during fruit development and reached its maximum value when fruit had fully ripened. Phenolic and flavonoid contents increase rapidly in the early growth stage (0–90 DAFB) and then begin to decrease as fruit ripens. Compared with olive from the Mediterranean, olive from China has special characteristics: higher moisture content in the fruit combined with lower percentages of unsaturated fatty acids and oil content. This is due to southwest China's climate which is wetter and cooler compared to the Mediterranean. Our study suggests that southwest China's higher annual rainfall might contribute to higher fruit moisture content while its low temperatures would be conducive to higher unsaturated fatty acid levels in the fruit. PMID:28579990

  10. Magnitude and correlates of intimate partner violence against women and its outcome in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. RESULT: In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%-67.9%. The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%-53.4%] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8-44.5]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%-44.8%] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. CONCLUSION: Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time.

  11. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  12. Hydrogeologic factors that influence ground water movement in the desert southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Frank C.; McKee, Edwin H.; Howard, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    A project to study ground-water and surface-water interactions in the desert southwestern United States was initiated in 2001 by the Tucson, Arizona office of the Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). One of the goals of the Southwest Ground-water Resources Project was to develop a regional synthesis that includes the use of available digital geologic data, which is growing rapidly due to the increasing use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Included in this report are the digital maps and databases of geologic information that should have a direct impact on the studies of ground-water flow and surface-water interaction. Ground-water flow is governed by many geologic factors or elements including rock and soil permeability, stratigraphy and structural features. These elements directly influence ground-water flow, which is key to understanding the possible inter-connectivity of aquifer systems in desert basins of the southwestern United States. We derive these elements from the evaluation of regional geology and localized studies of hydrogeologic basins. These elements can then be applied to other unstudied areas throughout the desert southwest. This report presents a regional perspective of the geologic elements controlling ground-water systems in the desert southwest that may eventually lead to greater focus on smaller sub-regions and ultimately, to individual ground-water basins.

  13. Middle to Late Pleistocene ice extents, tephrochronology and paleoenvironments of the White River area, southwest Yukon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Derek G.; Ward, Brent C.; Bond, Jeffrey D.; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Froese, Duane G.; Telka, Alice M.; Zazula, Grant D.; Bigelow, Nancy H.

    2013-09-01

    Sedimentary deposits from two Middle to Late Pleistocene glaciations and intervening non-glacial intervals exposed along the White River in southwest Yukon, Canada, provide a record of environmental change for much of the past 200 000 years. The study sites are beyond the Marine Isotope stage (MIS) 2 glacial limit, near the maximum regional extent of Pleistocene glaciation. Non-glacial deposits include up to 25 m of loess, peat and gravel with paleosols, pollen, plant and insect macrofossils, large mammal fossils and tephra beds. Finite and non-finite radiocarbon dates, and twelve different tephra beds constrain the chronology of these deposits. Tills correlated to MIS 4 and 6 represent the penultimate and maximum Pleistocene glacial limits, respectively. The proximity of these glacial limits to each other, compared to limits in central Yukon, suggests precipitation conditions were more consistent in southwest Yukon than in central Yukon during the Pleistocene. Conditions in MIS 5e and 5a are recorded by two boreal forest beds, separated by a shrub birch tundra, that indicate environments as warm or warmer than present. A dry, treeless steppe-tundra, dominated by Artemisia frigida, upland grasses and forbs existed during the transition from late MIS 3 to early MIS 2. These glacial and non-glacial deposits constrain the glacial limits and paleoenvironments during the Middle to Late Pleistocene in southwest Yukon.

  14. Determining the sensitivity of New Mexico biomes to predicted climate change scenarios of the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, M. E.; Anderson-Teixeira, K.

    2009-12-01

    The southwestern U.S. stands to transition to a warmer, more arid climate in the coming decades, and it is critical for regional carbon balance to understand how these changes will affect Southwest ecosystems. In order to quantify how increased temperatures and prolonged drought are likely to affect regional carbon flux and storage, we have focused specifically on six dominant upland terrestrial biomes in the Southwest ranging from desert grassland and shrubland in low elevations, to juniper savanna and pinon-juniper woodland at mid-elevation and ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forest at the highest elevations. In all six biomes, we quantified aboveground carbon pools and used eddy-covariance to continuously measure net ecosystem exchange of carbon, water and energy from 2006-2009. Here we quantify how carbon storage, water use efficiency, and sensitivity to both precipitation variability and temperature vary across these six biomes. We use measured functional responses to variability in temperature and soil water content over the three year period to estimate how carbon storage in these biomes will likely respond to predicted climate change scenarios for the Southwest. Aboveground carbon storage increased dramatically with elevation, ranging from 371 g/m2 in the desert grassland to 53,382 g/m2 in the mixed conifer forest. Gross primary production increased more rapidly with elevation than did ecosystem respiration, such that net ecosystem productivity increased from a source of ~30 g C m-2 yr-1 in the desert grassland to a sink of approximately 350 g C m-2 yr-1 in the mixed conifer forest. Within sites, daily carbon uptake tended to peak at intermediate temperatures, often becoming negative on the hottest days, and this pattern strengthened with elevation. The fraction of gross primary productivity lost as respiration increased with temperature in all six biomes, but was most striking in both the pinon-juniper woodland and ponderosa pine forest. Carbon

  15. Numerical Simulation of Magma Effects on Hydrothermal Venting at Ultra-Slow Spreading Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Hong; Niu, Xiongwei; Ruan, Aiguo; Li, Jiabiao; Meng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Finite element method is used to numerically simulate oceanic crust thermal dynamics in order to understand the hydrothermal venting mechanism at ultra-slow spreading ridge, whether is the ancient magma chamber still living and supplying hot magma for vents or have surrounding hotspots been affecting on the ridge continually with melting and hot magma. Two models are simulated, one is a horizontal layered oceanic crust model and the other is a model derived from wide angle seismic experiment of OBS at the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (50°E, Zhao et al., 2013; Li et al., 2015; Niu et al., 2015). For the former two cases are simulated: without magma from upper mantel or with continuous magma supply, and for the latter supposing magma supply occurs only once in short period. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Without melt magma supply at the oceanic crust bottom, a magma chamber can live only thousands ten thousand years. According to the simulated results in this case, the magma chamber revealed by seismic data at the mid-east shallow section of the Southwest Indian Ridge could only last 0.8Ma, the present hydrothermal venting is impossible to be the caused by the magma activity occurred during 8-11Ma (Sauter et al., 2009). (2) The magma chamber can live long time with continuous hot magma supply beneath the oceanic crust due to the melting effects of surrounding ridge hotspots, and would result hydrothermal venting with some tectonic structures condition such as detachment faults. We suggest that the present hydrothermal activities at the mid-east shallow section of the Southwest Indian Ridge are the results of melting effects or magma supply from surrounding hotspots. This research was granted by the National Basic Research program of China (grant 2012CB417301) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 41176046, 91228205). References Zhao, M., Qiu, X., Li, J., et al., 2013. Three-dimensional seismic structure of the Dragon

  16. [Pollution Level and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particles PM₂.₅ in Southwest Suburb of Chengdu in Spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Yang, Huai-jin; Zhang, Ju; Yin, Wei-wen; Li, Xiao-fen

    2016-05-15

    In order to understand the characteristics of PM₂.₅ pollution in the atmosphere of Chengdu southwest suburb, PM₂.₅ particles in Chengdu southwest suburb were collected and analyzed from March 18 to March 31st, 2015. The results showed that the daily average concentration of PM₂.₅ in the southwest suburb of Chengdu reached 121.21 µg · m⁻³, and the average daily concentration of 24 samples in 31 PM₂.₅ samples was over 75 µg · m⁻³, the daily excessive rate was 77%, indicating the PM₂.₅ pollution in the study area was serious in March. When studying the relationship between atmospheric and meteorological factors, it was found that there was a significant index correlation between PM₂.₅ concentration and atmospheric visibility, and it had a positive correlation with temperature and humidity, but the correlation was not obvious. NH₄⁺ (16.24%), SO₄²- (12.58%) and NO₃⁻ (9.91%) were dominant in PM₂.₅ The ratio of NO₃⁻/SO₄²⁻ was 0.77, which indicated that the pollution of stationary sources in the southwest suburb was more severe than that of mobile sources. Organic carbon (OC)/elemental carbon (EC) ratios were higher than 2, which indicated the existence of second organic carbon (SOC). Using OC/EC ratio method to estimate the concentration of SOC, it was found that the average concentration of SOC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu in March was 3.49 µ · m⁻³, and the contribution rate of OC was 20.6%, which showed that the main source of OC in the southwest suburb of Chengdu was primary discharge. The correlation analysis of OC and EC showed that the correlation coefficient reached 0.95, indicating that the OC and EC sources were similar and relatively stable, and there was a great impact of local source emissions on Chengdu southwest suburb in spring, and primary discharge played a dominant role, while the contribution of SOC to OC was relatively small, which was consistent with the SOC characteristics obtained

  17. Evaluating the Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis with genetic variation exhibited by populations in the Southwest and Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Brian M; González-Oliver, Angélica; Malhi, Ripan S; Monroe, Cara; Schroeder, Kari Britt; McDonough, John; Rhett, Gillian; Resendéz, Andres; Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; Gorodesky, Clara; Smith, David Glenn

    2010-04-13

    The Farming/Language Dispersal Hypothesis posits that prehistoric population expansions, precipitated by the innovation or early adoption of agriculture, played an important role in the uneven distribution of language families recorded across the world. In this case, the most widely spread language families today came to be distributed at the expense of those that have more restricted distributions. In the Americas, Uto-Aztecan is one such language family that may have been spread across Mesoamerica and the American Southwest by ancient farmers. We evaluated this hypothesis with a large-scale study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosomal DNA variation in indigenous populations from these regions. Partial correlation coefficients, determined with Mantel tests, show that Y-chromosome variation in indigenous populations from the American Southwest and Mesoamerica correlates significantly with linguistic distances (r = 0.33-0.384; P Mesoamerica to the Southwest, this migration was possibly biased to males. However, a recent in situ population expansion within the American Southwest (2,105 years before present; 99.5% confidence interval = 1,273-3,773 YBP), one that probably followed the introduction and intensification of maize agriculture in the region, may have blurred ancient mtDNA patterns, which might otherwise have revealed a closer genetic relationship between females in the Southwest and Mesoamerica.

  18. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  19. Volcanoes magnify Metro Manila’s southwest monsoon rains and lethal floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mahar Amante Lagmay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many volcanoes worldwide are located near populated cities that experience monsoon seasons, characterised by shifting winds each year. Because of the severity of flood impact to large populations, it is worthy of investigation in the Philippines and elsewhere to better understand the phenomenon for possible hazard mitigating solutions, if any. During the monsoon season, the change in flow direction of winds brings moist warm air to cross the mountains and volcanoes in western Philippines and cause lift into the atmosphere, which normally leads to heavy rains and floods. Heavy southwest monsoon rains from 18-21 August 2013 flooded Metro Manila (population of 12 million and its suburbs paralyzing the nation’s capital for an entire week. Called the 2013 Habagat event, it was a repeat of the 2012 Habagat or extreme southwest monsoon weather from 6-9 August, which delivered record rains in the mega city. In both the 2012 and 2013 Habagat events, cyclones, the usual suspects for the delivery of heavy rains, were passing northeast of the Philippine archipelago, respectively, and enhanced the southwest monsoon. Analysis of Doppler data, rainfall measurements, and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model simulations show that two large stratovolcanoes, Natib and Mariveles, across from Manila Bay and approximately 70 km west of Metro Manila, played a substantial role in delivering extreme rains and consequent floods to Metro Manila. The study highlights how volcanoes, with their shape and height create an orographic effect and dispersive tail of rain clouds which constitutes a significant flood hazard to large communities like Metro Manila.

  20. Evapotranspiration from agricultural plant communities in the high rainfall zone of the southwest of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P. R.; Sudmeyer, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The clearing of native vegetation and its replacement with shallow rooted, annual crops and pastures has resulted in rising groundwater levels and concentration of salts in the surface soils of resulting groundwater discharge areas in the southwest of Western Australia. The potential to manipulate the recharge rates to groundwaters by using agronomic techniques to change catchment evapotranspiration ( Et), has been the subject of much discussion. From 1986 to 1989, annual Et was estimated from daytime measurements of Et from annual pasture (existing pasture, subterranean clover, Medicago murex), crops (lupins, oats, rape, barley and wheat) and two perennial pastures (lucerne and phalaris) at a site near Collie in the southwest of Western Australia. The ventilated chamber technique was used to measure Et rates, together with ancillary measurements of above ground biomass and rooting depth. Seasonal values of Et are presented and combined to allow a boundary analysis of annual Et for each species. Et was found to be influenced by the amount and timing of biomass production, and by the rooting depth. The median annual evapotranspiration of annual pasture was shown to be the least (339 mm), and lupins the most (471 mm). The site environment combined high rainfall and low evaporative demand in winter, and low moisture-holding capacity of duplex soils with preferred pathways through subsoil clays. In this context, the potential of deeper rooted, perennial species to use more water, was apparent. It is argued that the smaller the difference in annual evapotranspiration between alternative and current agricultural practice (annual pasture), the larger the proportion of a catchment likely to be required for treatment to affect groundwater levels. Recharge manipulation alone, using the species tested, may not be sufficient for catchment salinity control. A wide range of other strategies exist; a combination of these, to suit the practical and economic constraints of the

  1. Concentrating Solar Power and Water Issues in the U.S. Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, Nathan [Western States Water Council, Murray, UT (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tovar-Hastings, Angelica [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Komor, Paul [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gerritsen, Margot [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mehta, Shweta [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems utilize the sun's energy to create heat that is used to generate electrical power. CSP systems in the United States are installed primarily in the Southwest, with 92% of plants that are operational, under construction, or under development located in three western states--Arizona, California, and Nevada. This report provides an overview of CSP development in these states, or the 'Southwest' for the purposes of this discussion, with a particular focus on the water supply issues associated with CSP. The Western Governors' Association (WGA) commissioned staff from the Western States Water Council (WSWC) to collaborate with staff from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to prepare this report. The WGA has long supported the effective management of the West's water resources, as well as the development of a clean, diverse, reliable, and affordable energy supply consisting of traditional and renewable energy resources. This report is specifically intended to help inform these goals, especially as WGA continues to underwrite a Regional Transmission Expansion Planning project, undertaken by the WSWC and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), to better understand energy development within the existing and future water resource constraints of the West. This report builds upon earlier research conducted by NREL, the University of Colorado-Boulder, and Stanford University that was supported through the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and presents information gathered through extensive research and literature reviews, as well as interviews and outreach with state water administrators and energy regulators, WECC and other experts familiar with CSP development in the Southwest.

  2. A geochemical drainage survey of the Preseli Hills, south-west Dyfed, Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, D. G.; Cooper, D C; Allen, P.M.; Haslam, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A geochemical drainage survey at a density of 1 sample per km2 was carried out across the Preseli Hills, southwest Dyfed. Stream sediment, water and panned concentrate samples were collected from each of 358 sites, and Cu, Pb, Zn, Ba, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, V, Cr, B, Zr, As, MO and Sn were determined in sediment, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ba, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ni, Sn, As, Ca, Ce, Sr, Sb, Zr, U and MO in panned concentrate and Cu and Zn in water. From a study of regional variation patterns and ...

  3. Nutrient biogeochemistry of the eastern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon retreat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, R.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Martin, G.D.; Sabu, P.; Gerson, V.J.; Dineshkumar, P.K.; Nair, S.M.; Chandramohanakumar, N.; Nair, K.K.C.

    monsoon 2003. The shelf region off the southwest coast of India (10�N– 15�N) continued to exhibit upwelling of colder (\\28.5 �C), nutrient rich (nitrate[2.0 lM, phosphate[0.8 lM, silicate [4.0 lM) and relatively low oxygenated waters (*180 lM..., replenishing the nutrient concentrations (nitrate *2 to 4 lM) in the upper layers of the coastal waters (De Sousa et al. 1996). Vijayaraghavan and Krishnakumari (1989) reported that, in peak summer, an average surface primary production (PP) and chlorophyll a...

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Women Entrepreneurial Motivation in the South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D.Chinonye Okafor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurial motivation is a function of variables that are subject to authors and researchers’ opinions and views. These variables can be classified based on their impact on women entrepreneurial performance, behavior and challenges. This paper is therefore focused on examining the factors that affect women entrepreneurial motivation in the South-West Nigeria. The data used for the study was obtained through primary source. The data gathered was analyzed using the model of correlation analysis. Recommendations were made based on the result obtained from the testing of the hypothesis.

  5. Southwest regional geothermal operations research program. Summary report. First project year, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.T.; Davidson, R.

    1978-12-01

    A summary report is given of the information, data, and results presented by New Mexico Energy Institute and the five State Teams in their separate draft reports. The objective is to develop scenarios for the development of each identified geothermal resource area in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah. Included are an overview; an economic analysis; institutitional procedures, contraints, and incentives; location of geothermal resources in the southwest; geothermal development postulations, state by state; and recommended actions for promoting and accelerating geothermal development. (MHR)

  6. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  7. The pollen stratigraphy of late Quaternary lake sediments of South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Michael; Funder, Svend Visby

    1974-01-01

    Pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating of lake sediment cores from four localities in the Frederikshab district, South-West Greenland, provide a chronology of vegetation changes in the area since c. 10000 B.P. An initial pioneer phase with the early development of some heath communities is followed...... composition of the vegetation however is influenced by immigration phenomena, with the appearance of many species lagging behind the attainment of their climatic thresholds. Detailed consideration is given to the possibility of Alnus crispa being present as a scrub component during the climatic optimum....

  8. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Genetic characterization of uniparental lineages in populations from Southwest Iberia with past malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica; Amorim, António

    2010-01-01

    Malaria endemicity in Southwest Iberia afforded conditions for an increase of sickle cell disease (SCD), which in the region follows a clinal pattern toward the south, where foci of high prevalence were found. SCD distribution is associated with specific geographical areas, and therefore, its...... introduction into Iberia may be related to the migration of different populations. We have analyzed the variation of uniparental markers in Portuguese populations with high frequency of SCD--Coruche, Pias, and Alcacer do Sal--to evaluate if their present-day pattern of neutral diversity could provide evidence...

  10. This house believes the NHS should be privatised - 1st southwest medical debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguleswaran, K; Tribedi, T; Fenn, J; Patel, S B

    2015-09-22

    The inaugural southwest medical debate, between Exeter and Plymouth medical schools and respective health services, was held on the 3rd December 2014. Plymouth proposed the motion "This house believes the NHS should be privatised?" In an increasingly political climate, the National Health Service (NHS) has become a constant topic for discussion in the media. On this occasion, all those debating were involved in the medical profession with roles encompassing clinical medicine, education, ethics, economics and policy. By allowing those with knowledge of the NHS to speak, we hoped to spark novel discussions based on evidence and experience.

  11. Seasonality in autotrophic mesoplankton in a coastal upwelling-mud bank environment along the southwest coast of India and its ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnan, C.; Jyothibabu, R.; Manoj Kumar, T. M.; Balachandran, K. K.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.

    2017-08-01

    Mesoplankton refers to both autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton with a body size between 200 - 20,000 μm. Here, we applied a FlowCAM to identify the autotrophs present in the mesoplankton size class in a coastal environment along the southwest coast of India (off Alappuzha, Kerala), which is characterized by intense coastal upwelling and mud bank formation during the Southwest Monsoon. 18 time series sampling (weekly/biweekly) sessions were carried out spanning over the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (April) to the Late-Southwest Monsoon (September) period in 2014. The study showed that during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon when nitrate level was relatively low in the study area, the mesoplankton community was entirely contributed by zooplankton, mostly consisting of copepods. During this time, the only autotrophic mesoplankton found in the water column, that too inconsistently, was Trichodesmium erythraeum. However, the entire scenario changed with the onset of the Southwest Monsoon due to hydrographical transformation and nutrient enrichment caused by the coastal upwelling. Especially during the Peak (July) and Late-Southwest Monsoon (August), the mesoplankton composition changed with a significant dominance of larger diatoms such as Fragilaria and Coscinodiscus. The autotrophic mesoplankton abundance was noticeably low during the Pre-Southwest Monsoon (av. 3145 ± 2396 individual m-3 and av. 2045 ± 1907 individual m-3 in M1 and M2, respectively), as compared to the Southwest Monsoon (av. 30436 ± 5983 individual m-3 and av. 32346 ± 11664 individual m-3 in M1 and M2, respectively). Similar was the seasonal trend in the autotrophic mesoplankton biomass, which increased from a low Pre-Southwest Monsoon value (av. 8.45 ± 7.1 mgC m-3and av. 4 ± 3.7 mgC m-3 in M1 and M2, respectively) to a significantly high value during the Southwest Monsoon (av. 117.04 ± 40.2mgC m-3 and av. 136.9 ± 68.1 mgC m-3 in M1 and M2, respectively). The FlowCAM analysis results also showed that

  12. Prehistoric Warfare in the American Southwest, by Stephen A. LeBlanc. University of Utah Press, 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Woodbury

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of archaeology has often, not surprisingly, bene mainly concerned with sites, their excava­tors, and what they found. But of equal importance are the attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions that shape the interpretation of archaeological data. LeBlanc, in Prehistoric Warfare in American Southwest, argues that the long held belief in the essential peacefulness of the prehistoric Anasazi and other South­ western peoples can be shown to be wholly incorrect, and therefore much that has been written about the prehistoric Southwest needs extensive rethinking. Warfare was an important feature of the ancient Southwest, and he presents carefully marshalled evidence, in great details, to uphold his conclusions.

  13. Chemical characterization of ancient pottery from the southwest Amazonia using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Patricia R.; Munita, Casimiro S.; Neves, Eduardo G.; Zimpel, Carlos A., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br, E-mail: edgneves@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (MAE/USP), SP (Brazil). Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia

    2017-11-01

    The analyzes carried out in this work aims to contribute to the discussion about the ceramic objects founded in Monte Castelo's sambaqui located at Southwest Amazonia. The first study accomplished by Miller in 1980 suggests that this archaeological site is inserted in the old contexts of production of ceramics in the Amazon. Until today, there are not any physical and chemical analysis studies in this ceramics and this kind of studies may help archaeological studies performed at the sambaqui. With this purpose, this work presents a preliminary study of chemical characterization of eighty-seven ceramic samples using the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). The analyzed elements were: As, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Sm, U, Yb, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th. With the purpose to study the similarity/dissimilarity between the samples cluster and discriminant analysis were used. The results showed the existence of three different chemical groups that are in agreement with the archaeological studies made by Miller which found a sequence of cultural development, with three main occupational components whose dating ranging from 8.400 to 4.000 b.P. In this way, the results of this work are in agreement with miller's studies and suggest Bacabal's phase as the oldest ceramist culture in the Southwest of the Amazon. (author)

  14. Prevalence and Rate of Parasitemia of Haemoproteus columbae in Columba Iiviadomesticain Southwest of Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Dehghani Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites affect the health and productivity of birds. Haemoproteus columbae occurs in pigeons widely in tropical and subtropical regions. The present investigation was concentrated on the prevalence of H. columbae and rate of parasitemia in domestic pigeons in southwest of Iran.Pigeons regimented in three groups, less than six months old, between six and twenty four months old and more than twenty four months old.Then stained blood smears were studied for presence of H. columbae and finally rate of parasitemia in every group calculated.Mature and immature stages of H. columbae gametocytes were found in 24% of blood smears prepared from 100 healthy domestic pigeons. Mean of parasitemia in infected pigeons was 9.58%. Mean size of macrogametocytes was 4μm×15μm and mean size of microgametocytes was 3μm×12μm. Mean of parasitemia in infected females was more than males and pipers. Mean of parasitemia in infected old pigeons (pigeons with more than twenty four months old was more than pigeons with less than six months old and pigeons between six and twenty four months old.This study show the prevalence and rate of parasitemia in domestic pigeons in southwest of Iran. We should be care about this parasite in pigeons by knowing the prevalence and high risk groups.

  15. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nagai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS slopes of 213 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable, quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze–thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze–thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

  16. Monthly sediment discharge changes and estimates in a typical karst catchment of southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenwei; Xu, Xianli; Xu, Chaohao; Liu, Meixian; Wang, Kelin; Yi, Ruzhou

    2017-12-01

    As one of the largest karst regions in the world, southwest China is experiencing severe soil erosion due to its special geological conditions, inappropriate land use, and lower soil loss tolerance. Knowledge and accurate estimations of changes in sediment discharge rates is important for finding potential measures to effectively control sediment delivery. This study investigated temporal variation in monthly sediment discharge (SD), and developed sediment rating curves and state-space model to estimate SD. Monthly water discharge, SD, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and normalized differential vegetation index during 2003-2015 collected from a typical karst catchment of Yujiang River were analyzed in present study. A Mann-Kendal test and Morlet wavelet analysis were employed to detect the changes in SD. Results indicated that a decreasing trend was observed in sediment discharge at monthly and annual scale. The water and sediment discharge both had a significant 1-year period, implying that water discharge has substantial influence on SD. The best state-space model using water discharge was a simple but effective model, accounting for 99% of the variation in SD. The sediment rating curves, however, represented only 78% of the variation in SD. This study provides an insight into the possibility of accurate estimation of SD only using water discharge with state-space model approach. State-space model is recommended as an effective approach for quantifying the temporal relationships between SD and its driving factors in karst regions of southwest China.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of hypoxia and eutrophication in Manila Bay, Philippines during the northeast and southwest monsoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotto, Lara Patricia A; Jacinto, Gil S; Villanoy, Cesar L

    2014-08-30

    Hypoxia in Manila Bay, Philippines was previously reported during the northeast monsoon (dry season) in February 2010. In this study, four more field surveys of the same 31 stations were conducted in July 2010, August 2011 and 2012 (wet season, southwest monsoon), and February 2011 (dry season, northeast monsoon). During the wet season, bottom hypoxia spread northward towards the coast with dissolved oxygen (DO) ranging from 0.12 to 9.22 mg/L and the bay-wide average reaching 2.10 mg/L. Nutrient levels were elevated, especially near the bottom where dissolved inorganic nitrogen reached 22.3 μM (July 2010) and phosphorus reached 5.61 μM (August 2011). High nutrient concentrations often coincided with low near-bottom DO content. Our work builds on the preliminary assessment of hypoxia in Manila Bay, the importance of repeated temporal studies, and shows hypoxia to prevail significantly during the southwest monsoon (wet season) when increased freshwater discharge caused strong water column stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mangrove Carbon Stocks and Ecosystem Cover Dynamics in Southwest Madagascar and the Implications for Local Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Benson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Of the numerous ecosystem services mangroves provide, carbon storage is gaining particular attention for its potential role in climate change mitigation strategies. Madagascar contains 2% of the world’s mangroves, over 20% of which is estimated to have been deforested through charcoal production, timber extraction and agricultural development. This study presents a carbon stock assessment of the mangroves in Helodrano Fagnemotse in southwest Madagascar alongside an analysis of mangrove land-cover change from 2002 to 2014. Similar to other mangrove ecosystems in East Africa, higher stature, closed-canopy mangroves in southwest Madagascar were estimated to contain 454.92 (±26.58 Mg·C·ha−1. Although the mangrove extent in this area is relatively small (1500 ha, these mangroves are of critical importance to local communities and anthropogenic pressures on coastal resources in the area are increasing. This was evident in both field observations and remote sensing analysis, which indicated an overall net loss of 3.18% between 2002 and 2014. Further dynamics analysis highlighted widespread transitions of dense, higher stature mangroves to more sparse mangrove areas indicating extensive degradation. Harnessing the value that the carbon stored within these mangroves holds on the voluntary carbon market could generate revenue to support and incentivise locally-led sustainable mangrove management, improve livelihoods and alleviate anthropogenic pressures.

  19. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  20. Changes in wheat potential productivity and drought severity in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Wang, Jing; Pan, Zhihua; Dai, Tong; Wang, Enli; Zhang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Wheat production in Southwest China (SWC) plays a vital role in guaranteeing local grain security, but it is threatened by increasingly frequent seasonal drought in recent years. In spite of the importance, the impact of past climate change on wheat potential productivity and drought severity has not been properly addressed. In this study, we employed a relatively simple resource use efficiency model to analyze the spatiotemporal changes of the potential productivity (PP) and rainfed productivity (RP) of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) in Southwest China (SWC) from 1962 to 2010. A wheat drought severity index was defined as the relative difference between PP and RP, i.e., (PP-RP)/PP, to evaluate the changing frequency and severity of drought under warming SWC. Across the entire region from 1962 to 2010, the negative impact of decreasing sunshine hours (0.06 h day-1 per decade, p wheat growing season (0.22 °C per decade, p wheat yield under the warming climate in SWC.

  1. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Miao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients’ homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  2. Contributions of cretaceus quiet zone natural remanent magnetization to Magsat anomalies in the Southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Lawrence G.; Frey, Herbert V.; Roark, James H.; Thomas, Herman H.

    1994-01-01

    The Magsat magnetic anomalies over the Southwest Indian Ocean are modeled using a combination of induced plus viscous remanent magnetization (IM/VRM) and natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Two broad, roughly parallel, SW to NE trending triple-peaked positive anomalies dominate the region, one lying south of Africa and the other north of Antarctica. Although these anomaly peaks generally correspond with the Agulhas Plateau/Maud Rise, Mozambique Plateau/Astrid Ridge, and Madagascar Ridge/Conrad Rise conjugate pairs, the IM/VRM contribution from structural characteristics (i.e., crustal thickness) accounts for only about 20% of the anomaly amplitudes. A spatially variable but observationally constrained NRM contribution in Cretaceous Quiet Zone (KQZ) crust is required to account for the location, shape, and amplitude contrast of these anomalies. Many crustal features in the Southwest Indian Ocean near Antarctica have little geophysical data to constrain their structure but do hagve tectonic conjugates near Africa for which much more geophysical data are generally available. Using geophysical and geological constraints from one member to model the magnetization structure of its conjugate reproduces the observed Magsat reduced-to-pole anomalies over both structures very well. This suggests that no significant alteration in their magnetization structure has occurred since the features split. Models of these conjugate structures show that IM/VRM reproduces the Magsat anomalies associated with non-KQZ crust but that both IM/VRM and a dominant NRM component are required to explain the anomalies associated with KQZ crust.

  3. Coastal upwelling along the southwest coast of India – ENSO modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muni Krishna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An index of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO in the Pacific during pre monsoon season is shown to account for a significant part of the variability of coastal Sea Surface Temperature (SST anomalies measured a few months later within the wind driven southwest coast of India coastal upwelling region 7° N–14° N. This teleconnection is thought to result from an atmospheric bridge between the Pacific and north Indian Oceans, leading to warm (cold ENSO events being associated with relaxation (intensification of the Indian trade winds and of the wind-induced coastal upwelling. This ENSO related modulation of the wind-driven coastal upwelling appears to contribute to the connection observed at the basin-scale between ENSO and SST in the Arabian Sea. The ability to use this teleconnection to give warning of large changes in the southwest coast of India coastal upwelling few months in advance is successfully tested using data from 1998 and 1999 ENSO events.

  4. Heat wave probability in the changing climate of the Southwest US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirguis, Kristen; Gershunov, Alexander; Cayan, Daniel R.; Pierce, David W.

    2017-09-01

    Analyses of observed non-Gaussian daily minimum and maximum temperature probability distribution functions (PDFs) in the Southwest US highlight the importance of variance and warm tail length in determining future heat wave probability. Even if no PDF shape change occurs with climate change, locations with shorter warm tails and/or smaller variance will see a greater increase in heat wave probability, defined as exceedances above the historical 95th percentile threshold, than will long tailed/larger variance distributions. Projections from ten downscaled CMIP5 models show important geospatial differences in the amount of warming expected for a location. However, changes in heat wave probability do not directly follow changes in background warming. Projected changes in heat wave probability are largely explained by a rigid shift of the daily temperature distribution. In some locations where there is more warming, future heat wave probability is buffered somewhat by longer warm tails. In other parts of the Southwest where there is less warming, heat wave probability is relatively enhanced because of shorter tailed PDFs. Effects of PDF shape changes are generally small by comparison to those from a rigid shift, and fall within the range of uncertainty among models in the amount of warming expected by the end of the century.

  5. Southwest-facing slopes control the formation of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Nuimura, T.; Sakai, A.

    2013-08-01

    To understand the formation conditions of debris-covered glaciers, we examined the dimension and shape of debris-covered areas and potential debris-supply (PDS) slopes of 213 glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya. This was undertaken using satellite images with 2.5 m spatial resolution for manual delineation of debris-covered areas and PDS slopes. The most significant correlation exists between surface area of southwest-facing PDS slopes and debris-covered area. This result suggests that the southwest-facing PDS slopes supply the largest quantity of debris mantle. The shape of debris-covered areas is also an important variable, quantitatively defined using a geometric index. Elongate or stripe-like debris-covered areas on north-flowing glaciers are common throughout the Bhutan Himalaya. In contrast, south-flowing glaciers have large ablation zones, entirely covered by debris. Our findings suggest that this difference is caused by effective diurnal freeze-thaw cycles rather than seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, permafrost degradation, or snow avalanches. In terms of geographic setting, local topography also contributes to glacier debris supply and the proportion of debris cover on the studied glaciers is suppressed by the arid Tibetan climate, whereas the north-to-south asymmetric topography of the Bhutan Himalaya has less influence on the proportion of debris cover.

  6. Tectonic transport directions of the Lycian nappes in southwest Turkey constrained by kinematic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Arzu; Güngör, Talip; Erdoǧan, Burhan; Passchier, Cees W.

    2013-03-01

    The orientation, asymmetry and cross-cutting relationships of the structures along the contact zone between the Lycian nappes and the Menderes Massif suggest the presence of three deformation phases in the Milas region of southwest Turkey. The first deformation phase (D1) is characterized by a ductile deformation with top-to-the-NE sense of shear. Structural data of the first deformation measured along the uppermost part of the Menderes Massif and the base of the Lycian nappes suggest that the lowermost unit of the Lycian nappes was emplaced initially from southwest to northeast onto the Menderes Massif during the Early Eocene. The second deformation phase (D2) is also ductile in nature and is characterized by an E-W-trending stretching lineation with a bivergent sense of shear, which is probably related to the load of the overlying nappes. A third deformation phase (D3) is characterized by south-dipping normal faults with top-to-the-S sense of movement. This third deformation phase can be related to southward movement of the Lycian nappes along a low-angle décollement zone. The tectonic contact between the Menderes Massif and the Lycian nappes and their strongly-deformed rocks are unconformably covered by approximately flat-lying, coal-bearing Early-Middle Miocene sedimentary rocks, which constrains the upper time limit for all three deformation phases.

  7. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Traumatic events and depressive symptoms among youth in Southwest Nigeria: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omigbodun, Olayinka; Bakare, Kofoworola; Yusuf, Bidemi

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic experiences have dire consequences for the mental health of young persons. Despite high rates of traumatic experiences in some African cities, there are no reports for Nigerian youth. To investigate the pattern of traumatic events and their association with depressive symptoms among youth in Southwest Nigeria. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of randomly selected youth in urban and rural schools in Southwest Nigeria. They completed self-reports on traumatic events and depressive symptoms using the Street Children's Project Questionnaire and the Youth DISC Predictive Scale (DPS). Of the 1,768 responses (88.4% response rate) entered into the analysis, 34% reported experiencing a traumatic situation. Following interpretative phenomenological analysis, 13 themes emerged. Frequently occurring traumatic events were 'road traffic accidents' (33.0%), 'sickness' (17.1%), 'lost or trapped' (11.2%) and 'armed robbery attack' (9.7%). A bad dream was described by 3.7%. Traumatic experiences were commoner in males (36.2%) than in females (31.6%) (x2 = 4.2; p = .041). Experiencing a traumatic event was associated with depressive symptoms (X2 = 37.98; p people are essential.

  9. Hepatitis B Infection among high risk population: a seroepidemiological survey in Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravani Abdolmajid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major global health problem. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk behaviors for HBV infection among high risk groups in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province, in Southwest of Iran. Methods Blood samples were collected from 2009 subjects, between 2009 and 2010 in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province, in southwest of Iran. Recruited subjects were the high risk groups for HBV infection, including inmates, injecting drug users, health care workers, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, hemophilic patients and patients with a history of blood transfusion. Their serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (HBc IgM, IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seropositive specimens were tested for HBsAg. Demographic features of participants were recorded during sample collecting. Results HBsAg was detected in 24 of the 2009 subjects, giving an overall prevalence of 1.2%. All HBsAg positive cases were males. The prevalence of HBsAg among injection drug users was 3.2%. Significant correlation was found between HBV infection and drug abuse, level of education and place of residence (p Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, incarceration and drug abuse are the most important risk factors for acquiring HBV infection in this region. Modifying behavior, improving the individual education and expanding the HBV vaccination coverage may reduce the rate of infection in the region.

  10. Jet stream winds - Comparisons of analyses with independent aircraft data over Southwest Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, J.

    1991-01-01

    Cruise-level wind data from commercial aircraft are obtained, and these data are compared with operational jet stream analyses over southwest Asia, an area of limited conventional data. Results from an ensemble of 11 cases during January 1989 and individual cases during December 1988-March 1989 are presented. The key results are: (1) European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Meteorological Center, and United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses of the subtropical jet in southwest Asia are 11 percent, 17 percent, and 17 percent weaker, respectively, than aircraft observations; (2) analyzed poleward shears range up to 1 f (0.00007/s) compared with up to 3 f (0.00021/s) in the aircraft observations where f is the local Coriolis parameters; (3) the ECMWF errors are largest at the base of the jet; (4) the mean ECMWF core location is latitudinally correct but has an rms latitude variance of 1.5 deg; (5) isolated erroneous radiosondes produce unmeteorological structures in the analyzed subtropical jet stream; and (6) the increased utilization of automated aircraft reports is likely to produce a spurious secular increase in the apparent strength of the jets. The magnitude and spatial extent of the errors seen are near limits of current GCM resolution (100 km) but should be resolvable. The results imply that studies of GCM systematic jet stream wind errors in weather and climate forecasts must be interpreted with caution in this region.

  11. [Study of the prevalence and distribution of dental caries in a medieval population in Southwest France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Astie, F; Sevin, A; Donat, R; Lucas, S; Grimoud, A M

    2008-02-01

    Teeth are an interesting material for the study of ancient populations. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of caries in a medieval sample of paired maxillas in a rural population in Southwest France and to compare men and women. Our sample included 58 adults, 29 men and 29 women, with dentate maxillas in good state of conservation, for a total of 1,395 teeth out of a possible 1,846 (75%). The number of caries and their localization were noted. The frequency of antemortem missing teeth was 8.67%. The prevalence of caries was 17.46% and the most frequent caries were occlusal and proximal. Second and third molars were the most frequently affected maxillary and mandibular teeth. Caries on maxillary teeth were statistically more frequent than on mandibular teeth (p0.05). Our study showed that the frequency and the distribution of dental caries in this medieval population from southwest France were comparable to those of other European populations from the same period. The low level of caries was probably due to attrition and noncariogenic food. Differences between men and women were not significant, even though our results suggest that men were much more concerned by caries than women, especially for posterior teeth. A different diet may be the reason for this difference.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Kunming, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Gang; Tian, Yi-Ming; Li, Bi-Feng; Yang, Jian-Fa; Liu, Zi-Li; Yuan, Fei-Zhou; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-06-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. However, little is known of T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, southwest China. The objective of this investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area. A total of 611 serum samples were collected from 7 pet hospitals in Kunming, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination (IHA) using a commercially-marked kit. 132 (21.6%) pet dogs were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 17.3% to 34.7% among different sampling regions, the difference was statistically significant (P dogs were 20.8% and 22.4%, respectively, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence ranged from 17.5% to 23.6% among different age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), and there were no interactions in statistics (P > 0.05) between gender and age of pet dogs in the region. The findings of the present survey indicate high T. gondii seroprevalance in pet dogs in Kunming, southwest China, posing significant public health concern. It is necessary to enhance integrated strategies and measures to prevent and control T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area.

  13. 33 CFR 165.812 - Security Zones; Lower Mississippi River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. 165.812 Section 165.812 Navigation..., Southwest Pass Sea Buoy to Mile Marker 96.0, New Orleans, LA. (a) Location. Within the Lower Mississippi... Mississippi River mile marker 96.0 in New Orleans, Louisiana. These moving security zones encompass all waters...

  14. A Comparative Study of Students' Access to and Utilization of Learning Resources in Selected Public and Private Universities in Southwest, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, B. O.; Viatonu, Olumuyiwa

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated students' access to and utilization of some learning resources in selected public and private universities in southwest Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 585 (295 public and 290 private) students from 12 (six public and six private) universities in southwest Nigeria. Two instruments--Cost and…

  15. High Temperature Extremes - Will They Transform Structure of Avian Assemblages in the Desert Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutiibwa, D.; Albright, T. P.; Wolf, B. O.; Mckechnie, A. E.; Gerson, A. R.; Talbot, W. A.; Sadoti, G.; O'Neill, J.; Smith, E.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme weather events can alter ecosystem structure and function and have caused mass mortality events in animals. With climate change, high temperature extremes are increasing in frequency and magnitude. To better understand the consequences of climate change, scientists have frequently employed correlative models based on species occurrence records. However, these approaches may be of limited utility in the context of extremes, as these are often outside historical ranges and may involve strong non-linear responses. Here we describe work linking physiological response informed by experimental data to geospatial climate datasets in order to mechanistically model the dynamics of dehydration risk to dessert passerine birds. Specifically, we modeled and mapped the occurrence of current (1980-2013) high temperature extremes and evaporative water loss rates for eight species of passerine birds ranging in size from 6.5-75g in the US Southwest portion of their range. We then explored the implications of a 4° C warming scenario. Evaporative water loss (EWL) across a range of high temperatures was measured in heat-acclimated birds captured in the field. We used the North American Land Data Assimilation System 2 dataset to obtain hourly estimates of EWL with a 14-km spatial grain. Assuming lethal dehydration occurs when water loss reaches 15% of body weight, we then produced maps of total daily EWL and time to lethal dehydration based on both current data and future scenarios. We found that milder events capable of producing dehydration in passerine birds over four or more hours were not uncommon over the Southwest, but rapid dehydration conditions (<3 hours) were rare. Under the warming scenario, the frequency and extent of dehydration events expanded greatly, often affecting areas several times larger than in present-day climate. Dehydration risk was especially high among smaller bodied passerines due to their higher mass-specific rates of water loss. Even after

  16. Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) scientific advances and future west pacific coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; Lin, X.; Ando, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. It was designed to measure and monitor the ocean circulation, and to validate and improve numerical models. South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. Water transit through the Coral and Solomon Seas is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the SPCZ position and intensity. The circulation is complex, with the SEC splitting into zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos, before joining either the East Australian Current or the New Guinea Costal UnderCurrent towards the equator. SPICE included large, coordinated in situ measurement programs and high resolution numerical simulations of the area. After 8 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. We will review the recent advancements and discuss

  17. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  18. Crustal Structure across The Southwest Longmenshan Fault Zone from Seismic Wide Angle Reflection/Refraction Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuyun; Wang, Shuaijun; Duan, Yonghong

    2014-05-01

    The Lushan eathquake, which epicenter and focal depth were at 30.308° N, 102.888° E, and 14.0 km, is the latest intense earthquake occurring in the southwest section of the Longmenshan fault zone after the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. According to the emergency field observations, the slip distribution of the Lushan earthquake was concentrated at the hypocenter, and did not rupture to the surface(Chen et al, 2013). The rupture history constrained by inverting waveforms showed that the causative fault plane of the Lushan event is apparently not a simple extension of either the Pengguan fault or the Beichuan fault that ruptured during the 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. The focal mechanism using the Cut and Paste algorithm showed this event occurred on a high dip-angle fault, but its dip angle is not steep enough to rupture the surface. All these research is not independent on the heterogeneous crust structure of the Longmenshan fault zone. A 450 km-long wide-angle reflection/refraction profile executed during September and October 2013. This experiment have provided the best opportunities to obtain better knowledge of seismic structure and properties of crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Southwest Longmenshan fault zone. This seismic profile extends from the west Sichuan Plain, through the Longmenshan Fault zone, and into the west Sichuan Plateau. We observed clear Pg, refraction Phase from the upper crust, Pi1/Pi2/Pi3, reflection/refraction Phase from intra-crust, PmP, reflection from the Moho boundary, and the Pn phase, refraction Phase from uppermost mantle. We present a hybrid tomographic and layered velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile. The final velocity model reveals large variations both in structure and velocity, and is demonstrated that a particular model has minimum structure. The model shows the crustal thickness of the region is very variable. The Moho topography varies more than 10km in the southwest

  19. From the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to "Hopwood": The Educational Plight and Struggle of Mexican Americans in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Richard R.; San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Describes four eras in Mexican-American education: (1) schooling in the Southwest, 1848-1890; (2) expansion of Mexican-American education, 1890-1930; (3) changing nature of public education, 1930-1960; and (4) the contemporary period. Explores such themes as exclusion, segregated and inferior schooling, and nativism. (SK)

  20. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawes, W; Ali, R; Varma, S; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G; McFarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    .... There is expected to be a reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia...

  1. Legally White, Socially "Mexican": The Politics of De Jure and De Facto School Segregation in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Ruben; Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2012-01-01

    The history of Mexican American school segregation is complex, often misunderstood, and currently unresolved. The literature suggests that Mexican Americans experienced de facto segregation because it was local custom and never sanctioned at the state level in the American Southwest. However, the same literature suggests that Mexican Americans…

  2. The search for forest facts: a history of the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1926–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    In 1926, the California Forest Experiment Station, which later became the Pacific Southwest (PSW) Research Station, was established at the University of California, Berkeley. Today, the PSW Research Station represents the research and development branch of the USDA Forest Service in California and Hawaii and the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. The PSW Research Station...

  3. 77 FR 74658 - MET Southwest Trading LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MET Southwest Trading LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of MET...

  4. Agronomic and ecological studies on the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Southwest China : seed and crop management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, W.

    1997-01-01


    Potato is an important crop in sub-tropical Southwest China, where it is double-cropped in diverse ecological systems. Yields are higher at higher elevation. Spring crops show higher yields but lower light use efficiencies than autumn crops, especially at higher altitudes. The gaps

  5. Sexual and reproductive health information sources preferred by out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and

  6. Sexual and Reproductive Health Information Sources Preferred by Out-of-School Adolescents in Rural Southwest Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobelius, Ann-Maree; Kalina, Bessie; Pool, Robert; Whitworth, Jimmy; Chesters, Janice; Power, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines how out-of-school adolescents from Masaka District in rural southwest Uganda currently receive sexual and reproductive health information and how they would prefer to receive that information. Information adolescents feel they lack falls into three broad categories: sexual and reproductive health issues, the negotiation of sex…

  7. Magnetic rock properties of the gabbros from the ODP Drill Hole 1105A of the Atlantis Bank, southwest Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.

    Laboratory studies of 30 samples from 158m long drill core of the Hole 1105A (ODP Leg 179) of the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge have revealed magnetic properties of the gabbros, olivine gabbros, oxide gabbros and olivine oxide gabbros down...

  8. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  9. Diversity relationships among wild potato collections from seven “Sky Island” mountain ranges in the Southwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors collected samples of 97 populations of the wild potato S. stoloniferum (previously fendleri) in the following seven mountain ranges of the southwest USA over seven years, 2004-2010: Chiricahua (CHI), Huachuca (HUA), Rincon (RIN), Guadalupe (GUA), Pinaleno (PIN), Santa Catalina (CAT), an...

  10. Exchange of fluxes across the air-sea interface during the onset phase of the southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Rao, M.V.

    The fluxes of momentum, sensible and latent heat over the southwest coast of India for the period of 27th May-10th June, 1984 based on the surface meteorological data have been presented on the time scale. The latent heat transfer has been discussed...

  11. Fire social science research from the Pacific Southwest research station: studies supported by national fire plan funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    Fire events often have a large impact on recreation and tourism, yet these issues had not been addressed from a social science perspective. To address his, the Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Work Unit (RWU) of the Pacific Southwest Research Station acquired funding through the National Fire Plan within the community assistance topic area. The three...

  12. Free-floating Ulva in the southwest Netherlands: species or morphotypes? A morphological, molecular and ecological comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malta, E.J.; Draisma, S.G.A.; Kamermans, P.

    1999-01-01

    Free-floating Ulva L. biomass in the eutrophic brackish 'Veerse Meer' lagoon (southwest Netherlands) consists of four morphologically identified species: U. curvata (Kutzing) De Toni, U. lactuca L., U. rigida C. Agardh and U.scandinavica Bliding. U.curvata could be recognized easily because of the

  13. Free-floating Ulva in the southwest Netherlands : species or morphotypes? A morphological, molecular and ecological comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malta, EJ; Draisma, SGA; Kamermans, P

    1999-01-01

    Free-floating Ulva L. biomass in the eutrophic brackish 'Veerse Meer' lagoon (southwest Netherlands) consists of four morphologically identified species: U. curvata (Kutzing) De Toni, U. lactuca L., U. rigida C. Agardh and U.scandinavica Bliding. U.curvata could be recognized easily because of the

  14. The Role of Southwesterly Flow in MCS Formation During a Heavy Rain Event in Taiwan on 12 - 13 June 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Ching Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study of a heavy rain event that occurred in southern Taiwan in June 2005. From 11 - 13 June 2005, a weak Mei-yu front moved southeastward from China to Taiwan, while mesoscale convective systems (MCSs were developing and moving northward over the northern South China Sea (SCS. During the first day of the event the southwesterly flow intensified when a ridge associated with the Pacific high extended northwestward from the Philippines to the southern Taiwan Strait (TS. This pressure pattern produced a large northwestward pressure gradient force that created a southeasterly wind speed increase followed by intensification of the southwesterly flow through Coriolis acceleration. An low-level jet (LLJ formed consequently and transported moisture and unstable air toward the southwestern coast of Taiwan. MCSs were triggered in the southwesterly flow because the potentially unstable air was lifted in a low-level convergence and shearing vorticity environment. They intensified, became organized, and moved northeastward overland, resulting in heavy rainfall in southern Taiwan. On the second day, low pressure formed near the southern TS because of the combined effect of a travelling short-wave trough and a pressure reduction resulting from the latent heat release by the evolving MCSs. This pressure change produced down-gradient acceleration in the northeastward direction, resulting in southwesterly flow strengthening. The local wind acceleration was smaller than that of the first day because the dominant pressure system was local scale, while that of the first day was synoptic scale.

  15. Interannual variability in the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll in the Leeuwin Current off the southwest Western Australian coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, J.E.; Soetaert, K.E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of surface chlorophyll in the Leeuwin Current off the southwest Western Australian coast is characterized by low austral summer concentrations that increase during the austral autumn and winter. Results from a one-dimensional numerical model show that a combination of solar

  16. 75 FR 23262 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder... below. Their attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy...

  17. 75 FR 63168 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder... meetings noted below. Their attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT...

  18. 75 FR 41858 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder... ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July 21, 2010 (1 p.m.-5 p.m.), Sheraton...

  19. 33 CFR 207.200 - Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use, administration, and navigation. 207.200 Section... DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.200 Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and...

  20. Subtype distribution of lymphomas in Southwest China: Analysis of 6,382 cases using WHO classification in a single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Qing

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The subtype distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in Southwest China was analyzed according to WHO classifications. This study aims to analyze subtype distribution of lymphomas in southwest China. Methods Lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed within 9 years in a single institution in Southwest China were analyzed according to the WHO classification. Results From January 2000 to December 2008, a total number of 6,382 patients with lymphoma were established, of which mature B-cell neoplasms accounted for 56%, mature T- and NK-cell neoplasms occupied 26%, and precursor lymphoid neoplasms and Hodgkin lymphomas were 5% and 13%, respectively. Mixed cellularity (76% was the major subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma; and the bimodal age distribution was not observed. The top six subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were as follows: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, follicular lymphoma, precursor lymphoid neoplasms, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Extranodal lymphomas comprised about half of all cases, and most frequently involved Waldeyer's ring, gastrointestinal tract, sinonasal region and skin. Conclusions The lymphoid neoplasms of Southwest China displayed some epidemiologic features similar to those reported in literature from western and Asian countries, as well as other regions of China, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. The high frequency of mature T/NK cell neoplasms and extranodal lymphomas, especially for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is the most outstanding characteristic of this series.

  1. Conceptions of the Nature of Science Held by Undergraduate Pre-Service Biology Teachers in South-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A. O.; Bello, G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the conceptions of the nature of science held by pre-service undergraduate biology teachers in South-West, Nigeria. Specifically, the study examined the influence of their gender on their conceptions of the nature of science. The study was a descriptive research of the survey method. The population for the study comprised…

  2. Ethnic Tourism and the Big Song: Public Pedagogies and the Ambiguity of Environmental Discourse in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinting

    2017-01-01

    The article examines two forms of public pedagogies in a rural region of Southwest China-tourism and ethnic songs-to illustrate their contested roles in transforming local relations with natural and built environment. While tourism development daily alters the village landscape by spatial intervention, demolition, and construction, the…

  3. Subtype distribution of lymphomas in Southwest China: analysis of 6,382 cases using WHO classification in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qun-Pei; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Yu, Jian-Bo; Zhao, Sha; Xu, Huan; Wang, Wei-Ya; Bi, Cheng-Feng; Zuo, Zhuo; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Juan; Dai, Lin; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2011-08-22

    The subtype distribution of lymphoid neoplasms in Southwest China was analyzed according to WHO classifications. This study aims to analyze subtype distribution of lymphomas in southwest China. Lymphoid neoplasms diagnosed within 9 years in a single institution in Southwest China were analyzed according to the WHO classification. From January 2000 to December 2008, a total number of 6,382 patients with lymphoma were established, of which mature B-cell neoplasms accounted for 56%, mature T- and NK-cell neoplasms occupied 26%, and precursor lymphoid neoplasms and Hodgkin lymphomas were 5% and 13%, respectively. Mixed cellularity (76%) was the major subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma; and the bimodal age distribution was not observed. The top six subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma were as follows: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue, follicular lymphoma, precursor lymphoid neoplasms, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Extranodal lymphomas comprised about half of all cases, and most frequently involved Waldeyer's ring, gastrointestinal tract, sinonasal region and skin. The lymphoid neoplasms of Southwest China displayed some epidemiologic features similar to those reported in literature from western and Asian countries, as well as other regions of China, whereas some subtypes showed distinct features. The high frequency of mature T/NK cell neoplasms and extranodal lymphomas, especially for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is the most outstanding characteristic of this series.

  4. ADAPTIVITY EVALUATION OF PEA VARIETIES SUITABLE F OR FREEZING IN THE SOUTHWEST-ERN OF CENTRAL CHERNOZEM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shulpekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of adaptability of 24 pea varieties to justify the use of the assortment in the technology of conveyor cultivation of raw green peas for freezing in conditions of the south-west of the CCZ is presented.

  5. Probability mapping of iron pan presence in sandy podzols in South-West France, using digital soil mapping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richer-de-Forges, Anne C.; Saby, Nicolas P.A.; Mulder, V.L.; Larochea, B.; Arrouaysa, B.; Arrouaysa, D.

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated two different digital soil mapping methods for mapping the presence of iron pans in South-West France. The presence of iron pans limit rooting depth, thereby affecting available water content for plants and increasing vulnerability of trees to storms. In some cases, it may also

  6. "The young ones are the condom generation": condom use amongst out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobelius, A.M.; Kalina, B.; Pool, R.; Whitworth, J.; Chesters, J.; Power, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on factors influencing condom use among out-of-school adolescents in rural southwest Uganda. Despite an abundance of negative discourses and myths about condoms in the community, these adolescents believe condoms protect them from sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and

  7. Free-floating Ulva in the southwest Netherlands : species or morphotypes? A morphological, molecular and ecological comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malta, EJ; Draisma, SGA; Kamermans, P

    Free-floating Ulva L. biomass in the eutrophic brackish 'Veerse Meer' lagoon (southwest Netherlands) consists of four morphologically identified species: U. curvata (Kutzing) De Toni, U. lactuca L., U. rigida C. Agardh and U.scandinavica Bliding. U.curvata could be recognized easily because of the

  8. Molecular epidemiology of mumps virus strains circulating in south-west China from 2007 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haijing; Liu, Longding; Ma, Shaohui; Chen, Junying; Che, Yanchun; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Qihan

    2011-10-01

    The genetic characteristics of mumps virus (MuV) strains isolated from sporadic mumps cases between 2007 and 2009 in three provinces of south-west China were investigated. MuV detection was carried out by nested RT-PCR on 117 cases. The small hydrophobic gene of 33 isolated strains was identified, and sequence analysis revealed that all the isolates belonged to the lineage genotype F with slight nucleotide variation. Furthermore, the virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and nucleoprotein antigens exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid similarity (>99 %) within all isolates, whilst the fusion protein appeared to have certain geographical differences. This study on molecular surveillance will help to monitor the circulation of MuV in China.

  9. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  10. Patterns and structural positions of productive fractures in the Asmari Reservoirs, southwest Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    Patterns and structural positions of productive fractures in different reservoir structures of the Asmari formation (Oligo-Miocene) in the Khuzistan oilfields belt of southwest Iran were studied. The investigation entailed the study of production data, mud losses to identify open fracture portions and faulted well assemblages to find tectonically active portions. The investigation also studied the second derivative map to find portions of the maximum-rate-of-change-of-dip on top of the reservoir structures where maximum fracture density was expected. The results observed were then compared with surface fracture patterns and densities in the mountain front boundary in the area. The general conclusion was that productive fractures are associated mainly with the plunges and bends of the Asmari reservoir structures. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Microfacies and diagenesis of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma carbonates, southwest Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Galmed, Mahmoud A.; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2017-06-01

    In order to document the microfacies analysis and diagenetic alterations of the Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation at southwest Riyadh City of central Saudi Arabia, a stratigraphic section was studied in detail at Khashm adh Dhi'bi area. Mudstones, wackstones, packstones, grainstones and boundstones are the main microfacies types in the studied area. These microfacies types with field investigations and fossil content indicated an environment ranging from deep shelf to organic buildup on platform margins for the studied carbonates. Cementation and recrystallization, dissolution, fragmentation and compaction, silicification, dolomitization, and bioerosion were the main diagenetic alterations affected the carbonate rocks of the Dhruma Formation. Cementation and recrystallization are represented by equant calcite crystals, Dog-tooth fringes of thin isopachous calcites and blocky low Mg-calcites. Gastrochaenolites, Trypanites and Meandropolydora spp. were the most bioeroders in coral heads and large bivalves and hardgrounds. These bioeroders indicated a long post-mortem period during the early diagenetic stage.

  12. Assessing future vegetation trends and restoration prospects in the Karst regions of Southwest China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, Xiaowei; Wang, Kelin; Brandt, Martin Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate the severe rocky desertification and improve the ecological conditions in Southwest China, the national and local Chinese governments have implemented a series of Ecological Restoration Projects since the late 1990s. In this context, remote sensing can be a valuable tool...... for conservation management by monitoring vegetation dynamics, projecting the persistence of vegetation trends and identifying areas of interest for upcoming restoration measures. In this study, we use MODIS satellite time series (2001-2013) and the Hurst exponent to classify the study area (Guizhou and Guangxi...... Provinces) according to the persistence of future vegetation trends (positive, anti-persistent positive, negative, anti-persistent negative, stable or uncertain). The persistence of trends is interrelated with terrain conditions (elevation and slope angle) and results in an index providing information...

  13. K-Ar ages of basic rocks in the Patia Valley, southwest Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Hughes A. F.; Espinosa, Armando; Delaloye, Michel

    1984-08-01

    The Patia Valley situated between the Western and Central Cordilleras of the southwest Colombian Andes contains two areas in which Mesozoic basic and ultrabasic rocks crop out in abundance. Late Cretaceous Diabase Group pillow basalts which make up much of the Western Cordillera are at least 81 ± 5 Ma in the E1 Tambo-E1 Peñol area. 105-97 Ma hornblende and whole-rock dates from the ophiolitic Los Azules complex indicate an Albian age of formation, although many dates are lower (65-62 Ma) owing the low-grade ocean-floor metamorphism. The metamorphic age distribution here supports an end of Cretaceous emplacement for the complex rather than the Early-Mid Cretaceous emplacement suggested for North Colombian ophiolites similarly aligned along the Romeral fault system. Tertiary dacites intruding the Low Azules complex are 36-15 Ma.

  14. Geomorphologic Interpretation of Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars: Evidence of Regional, Long- Duration Fluvial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, M. R.; Allen, C. C.; Oehler, D. Z.; Wilkinson, J.

    2007-12-01

    Southwest Arabia Terra, Mars, is home to seven candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites and is immediately north of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity in Meridiani Planum. Some of the strongest evidence for the past presence of liquid water exists in this region: the strong hematite signals from Meridiani revealed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) as well as evidence of layering and analyses of rocks that must have formed in the presence of water by Opportunity. To better understand this region and the context for the potential MSL landing sites, a detailed geologic map was produced during the summer of 2007. The numerous exposed layers present in southwest Arabia Terra reveal a vast history of deposition and erosion. Of particular interest is the widespread geologic unit containing sinuous, inverted ridges of varying lengths, widths, and orientations. This ridge-forming unit appears to have once been dominant throughout much of the study region. Since its original formation, deposition and erosion have obscured or removed sections of this unit to produce the fragmented and discontinuous pattern that we see today. Analyses of these inverted ridges suggest that they are sedimentary in nature and are likely to be the cemented and hardened remains of ancient stream channels. One analog we are considering is that of a terrestrial megafan. Megafans, which are relatively new concepts in geology, are onshore sedimentary features laid down by rivers over extended periods of time. They are defined as major, regional geomorphic forms (similar to alluvial fans) that are greater than 100 kilometers in radius and typically have a slope of less than 1º. They differ from alluvial fans in main stream behavior; streams in alluvial fans will quickly split into numerous smaller streams while streams that form megafans remain as one continuous stream. The comparison of the ridged-unit to a terrestrial megafan is based on several features including the

  15. Streamflow characteristics and trends at selected streamgages in southwest and south-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2016-01-11

    Historical data for nine selected streamgages in southwest and south-central Kansas were used in an assessment of streamflow characteristics and trends. This information is required by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Kansas Department of Wildlife, Parks and Tourism to assist with the effective management of Etheostoma cragini (Arkansas darter) habitats and populations in the State. Changing streamflow conditions, such as a reduction or elimination of streamflow, may adversely affect the Arkansas darter. Priority basins for the Arkansas darter represented by the selected streamgages include the Cimarron River, Rattlesnake Creek, the North Fork Ninnescah River, the South Fork Ninnescah River, the Medicine Lodge River, and the Chikaskia River.

  16. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhussein Shakurnia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. Methods: A total number of 1 450 serum samples from blood donation were collected and were screened for the presence of brucella antibody. Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Agglutination Test (SAT, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were tested in the sample. SAT dilution ≥1/80 and 2ME agglutination ≥1/40 were considered positive. Results: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among the blood donors was 0.70%, 0.34%, and 0.20% by Rose Bengal Plate Test, SAT, and 2ME respectively. Conclusions: Considering the 1/80 titer of SAT as the criteria of contamination with brucella, routine screening of sero-prevalence of brucella in blood donors is not recommended in this area.

  17. Local Culture as a Resource in Regional Development in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Siivonen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In cultural and regional politics in the European Union, and in practice for instance in the Southwest-Finland Archipelago, local culture and cultural heritage are considered resources. Global boundlessness, heterogeneity and change are basic qualities of culture. However, in regional development, culture is seen and used as a number of different local cultures with their own essential cultural heritage. The culture of local everyday life is opposite to, and in tension with, the construct of cultures used in regional development. Accordingly, culture should primarily be safeguarded as a heterogenic, dynamic and interactive process of everyday life. This process is the most important resource of local culture. In addition, culture should be safeguarded as value-based cultural constructions, such as brands or common identities of certain cultures, with for instance cultural heritage as a part of it. In the latter case, a common, transparent definition of these brands, identities and cultural heritages with their different values, is needed.

  18. Analysis of non-rainy attenuation on earth-space path in Ota, Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotosho, T. V.; Akinwumi, S. A.; Usikalu, M. R.; Ometan, O. O.; Adewusi, M. O.; Abdullah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Propagation effects due to atmospheric gases and tropospheric scintillation requires accurate modelling in the design of satellite communication systems. The combination of the two attenuation phenomena was observed within the period of August 2014 to December 2015. The result of this paper presents the on-going observation and data analysis of non-rainy attenuation on earth-space path in Ota, Southwest Nigeria. Results of clear-sky attenuation vary between 0 dBm and 4.85 dBm in January and February 2015 respectively. While a value of 4.23 dBm and 4.75 dBm were observed in October 2014 and 2015 respectively. The results will be useful for satellite communication system design and will be submitted to ITU-R Study group 3 Databank.

  19. Rancher and farmer quality of life in the midst of energy development in southwest Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie; Soileau, Suzanna; Schuster, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) is usually defined as a person’s general well-being, and may include individual perceptions of a variety of factors such family, work, finances, local community services, community relationships, surrounding environment, and other important aspects of their life, ultimately leading to life satisfaction. Energy development can have an effect on QOL components for rural residents. Southwest Wyoming is a rural area with a history of ranching and farming which continues today. This area has also seen a “boom” of increasing wind, solar, oil and gas energy developments over the past decade. Wyoming Department of Agriculture, as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI), sponsored research to examine the effect of energy development on ranchers’ and farmers’ quality of life.

  20. Assessment of mesoscale convective systems using IR brightness temperature in the southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Somayeh; Karimi, Mostafa

    2017-07-01

    In this research, the spatial and temporal distribution of Mesoscale Convective Systems was assessed in the southwest of Iran using Global merged satellite IR brightness temperature (acquired from Meteosat, GOES, and GMS geostationary satellites) and synoptic station data. Event days were selected using a set of storm reports and precipitation criteria. The following criteria are used to determine the days with occurrence of convective systems: (1) at least one station reported 6-h precipitation exceeding 10 mm and (2) at least three stations reported phenomena related to convection (thunderstorm, lightning, and shower). MCSs were detected based on brightness temperature, maximum areal extent, and duration thresholds (228 K, 10,000 km2, and 3 h, respectively). An MCS occurrence classification system is developed based on mean sea level, 850 and 500 hPa pressure patterns.

  1. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  2. [Interspecific association of companion species in Artemisia annua community in southwest of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ye-Kuan; Liu, Xiang; Li, Long-Yun; Peng, Rui; Cui, Guang-Lin; Yuan, Ling

    2013-03-01

    The interspecific association of companion species in Artemisia annua community in 48 region of southwest China was analyzed by variance analysis, chi2-test and association indices. The total related variance ratio among species in A. annua community was 2.05. Among 45 species pairs of 10 main species in the community, only 4 pairs showed significant negative correlations. Chi2 test, PC, OI, DI and AC values indicated pairs 1-8 (A. annua- A. lactiflora), 1-9 (A. annua- Setaria viridis) and 1-10 (A. annua- Bidens pilosa) showed a high correlations, and common utilization to non-restrictive resources. The results indicated that there was a significant positive correlation among species,and the community was at a stable stage, showed strong ability to human interference.

  3. Ogun Oru: a traditional explanation for nocturnal neuropsychiatric disturbances among the Yoruba of Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, O F; Famuyiwa, O O

    2007-03-01

    This article describes three cases of ;ogun oru' (nocturnal warefare), a condition reported in southwest Nigeria involving an acute night-time disturbance that is culturally attributed to demonic infiltration of the body and psyche during dreaming. Ogun oru is characterized by its occurrence, a female preponderance, the perception of an underlying feud between the sufferer's earthly spouse and a ;spiritual' spouse, and the event of bewitchment through eating while dreaming. The condition is believed to be treatable through Christian prayers or elaborate traditional rituals designed to exorcise the imbibed demonic elements. Ogun oru may be a label applied to medical problems. The differential diagnosis includes mainly parasomnias, for example, sleep terror, sleepwalking and sleep paralysis and, to a lesser extent, nocturnal or sleep epilepsy.

  4. Tree growth response of Fokienia hodginsii to recent climate warming and drought in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiajia; Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Ruibo; Liu, Wenhuo; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Ming; Chen, Yao; Zheng, Wuji

    2017-12-01

    To date, few attempts have been made to assess the influence of climate change on forest ecosystems and on the relationship between tree growth and climate in humid areas of low latitudes. In this paper, we studied the response of tree growth and forest ecosystem to climate change by using Fokienia hodginsii tree-ring cores from the northern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest of China. Tree growth correlates the highest ( r = -0.64, p drought. In addition, a large proportion of mature F. hodginsii mortality occurred from 2007 to 2013, which corresponds with a drastic reduction of radial growth (narrowest in recent 100 years). The recent drought, induced by decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature, may have passed the threshold which F. hodginsii could tolerate, causing tree growth reduction, tree growth-climate relationship change, as well as catastrophic tree mortality. All these changes may lead to further responses of the local ecosystem to climate change which should be highly regarded.

  5. Retrieving and Validation Soil Moisture from SMOS Products in the Southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamei, Mozhdeh; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Amin; Irannejad, Parviz

    2016-08-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in the hydrological cycle. Since, direct soil moisture measurement are costly and time-consuming so these information are not practicable for wide-area. In recent years, indirect soil moisture measurements have become available from satellite-based microwave sensors. The southwest of Iran is the most important agricultural area in country, therefore simulation of soil moisture in this region is necessary to water resources management, weather forecasting and monitoring extreme events. The objective of this research was to retrieve and validate of soil moisture from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission. Validation of SMOS Level 1C (SCLF1C) products have done using ground based measurements and L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model, Level 2 (SMUDP2) products with ground based soil moisture measurement. The result of this research gives valuable information on the errors and uncertainties in SMOS Products in this region.

  6. Clinical features of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: a study of 64 cases in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong-mei; Wu, Xin-tong; Yan, Bo; Mu, Jie; Zhou, Dong

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the clinical features of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) in people in southwest China. Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of pure PNES by video/EEG monitoring were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 64 patients with PNES were included, 32 (50%) of whom were male. Twenty (31.3%) patients had previously been misdiagnosed and treated for epilepsy. Psychological trauma and head injuries were considered antecedent traumatic factors. A history of abuse was rare. The PNES cases were divided into three subtypes: psychogenic minor motor seizures, psychogenic major motor seizures, and unresponsive seizures. Age at onset was identified as a predictor of prognosis. The results of this study demonstrated a higher prevalence of PNES in males compared with previous studies. The semiology of PNES in China is similar to that in Western countries. Classification of semiology may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of PNES. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Book review: Turquoise, Water, Sky: Meaning and Beauty in Southwest Native Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eugene Witt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Turquoise, Water, Sky: Meaning and Beauty in Southwest Native Arts presents an accessible discussion of the importance and utilization of turquoise by Southwestern cultures throughout the past 1500 years, albeit heavily focused on the modern era. Primarily meant for a lay audience, this short volume is divided into six chapters and interspersed by approximately 160 images and illustrations. While beautiful, these images greatly limit the amount of text in the book. Turquoise, Water, Sky begins with a discussion of the prehistoric use of the material and its meaning in both past and contemporary contexts. However, the majority of the volume presents an evolution of contemporary form of both Puebloan and Navajo stonework. This portion will likely be the most appealing aspect of the book for the intended general audience, but it has limited utility for archaeologists and others interested in lithic studies.

  8. A New Species of Chigger Mite (Acari: Trombiculidae) from Rodents in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tian-Guang; Wu, Dian; Fletcher, Quinn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new species of chigger mite (Acari: Trombiculidae), Gahrliepia cangshanensis n. sp., from rodents in southwest China. The specimens were collected from Yunnan red-backed voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas, 1914), and a Chinese white-bellied rat, Niviventer confucianus (Milne-Edwards, 1871) in Yunnan Province. The new species is unique mainly in its number of dorsal setae (n=21), and it has the following features: fT (formula of palpotarsus)=4B (B=branched), fp (formula of palpal seta)=B/N/N/N/B (N=naked), a broad tongue-shaped scutum with an almost straight posterior margin, and 17 PPLs (posterior posterolateral seta) with a length of 36-43 µm. This chigger mite may also infect other rodent hosts and may be distributed in other localities. PMID:24623884

  9. Distribution of yeast species associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agwu, Ezera

    2012-04-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis remains a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected and AIDS patients in regions of Africa where anti-retroviral therapy isn\\'t readily available. In this study we identified the yeast populations associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda who were receiving treatment with nystatin and topical clotrimazole. Samples were taken from 605 patients and 316 (52%) of these yielded yeast growth following incubation on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Samples were subsequently re-plated on CHROMagar Candida medium to facilitate identification of the yeast species present. The majority (56%) of culture-positive samples yielded a mix of two or more species. Candida albicans was present in 87% (274\\/316) of patient samples and accounted for 87% (120\\/138) of single species samples. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida norvegensis were also found in cultures that yielded a single species. No Candida dubliniensis isolates were identified in this population.

  10. A new species of Scutellaria (Scutellarioideae, Lamiaceae from Sichuan Province in southwest China

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    Fei Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers. Additionally, we examine leaf epidermal and pollen grain micromorphology of the new species and putative relatives.

  11. External occupational exposures in some NORM industries located at the South-West of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    Detailed mappings of the external exposures which can be received by the workers in two NORM industrial factories located at the South-West of Spain have been performed: one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid, and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments. In most places of the analyzed factories, the external exposures are moderated, although in some specific points, and associated to the presence of scales, their values are clearly higher. Nevertheless, under normal running conditions, the contribution of the external exposures to the effective doses received by the workers is lower than 1 mSv/y because the worker occupancy factors values are very low in the places with the highest external exposures.

  12. Analysis of the Terraced Construction Effect on Ecological  Economic Coordinated Development in the Southwest China

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    Ping Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper through the correlation analysis and efficiency analysis, studied the differences between slope croplands and terraces on soil, water and fertilizer conservation in Southwest China. Meanwhile, it carried out a quantum chemical calculation of the ecological, economic and social benefits brought to the local Hani residents by terrace construction and concluded that terraced fields can promote the mutual coordination effect of water and fertilizer. Thus, it is beneficial for crop growth and development and increase grain output, to achieve the purpose of efficient water use and stable high yield. The results show that with the improvement of Hani ecological environment and the increase of land utilization, local ecological, economic and social benefits are significantly increased, which has laid a solid foundation for the agricultural industrialization development and implementation of sustainable agricultural development strategy in Hani. And also, it provides guarantee for the ecological, economic and social coordinated development of the county.

  13. Variability of the Somali Current and eddies during the southwest monsoon regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Corinne B.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu; Murty, V. S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The meso-scale eddies and currents in the Arabian Sea are analyzed using different satellite observations, Simple Oceanic Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis, and Ocean Reanalysis System 4 (ORAS4) from 1993 to 2016 to investigate the impacts of Southwest (SW) Monsoon strength on Somali Current (SC) mesoscale circulations such as the Great Whirl (GW), the Socotra Eddy (SE), the Southern Gyre (SG), and smaller eddies. Increased Ekman pumping during stronger SW monsoons strengthens coastal upwelling along the Somali coast. The Arabian Sea basin-wide anticyclonic circulation and presence of the GW form mesoscale circulation patterns favourable to advection of upwelled waters eastward into the central Arabian Sea. In September, after the SW monsoon winds reach peak strength in July and August, a higher number of discrete anticyclonic eddies with higher (> 20 cm) sea surface height anomalies develop in strong and normal intensity SW monsoon seasons than weaker SW monsoon seasons.

  14. Performance and productivity changes in microfinance banks in South-West Nigeria

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    Musa A. Olasupo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Microfinance sub-sector is yet to attain the desired level of global best practice. This paper thus investigated the performance and productivity changes of MFBs in South-West Nigeria, from 2006 to 2010, having had the Microfinance Policy launched in 200. From the use of relevant accounting ratios, the study revealed that only 16% of the sampled MFBs met the recommended maximum PAR value of 5% in 200. It was also revealed that 31% of the sampled MFBs reported a debt/equity ratio above the recommended value of 2 in 2006, while 32% had gearing of over 2 in 2010. The Malmquist productivity index revealed that the MFBs experienced fluctuating performances in their productivity changes, with pure technical efficiency improvements in 2007 and 2009. Overall, the performance and productivity changes experienced by the MFBs depicted a sub-sector with huge potentials and hence require nurturing to achieve its goals.

  15. Epidemiology of pediatric burns in southwest China from 2011 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisheng; Wang, Song; Tan, Jianglin; Zhou, Junyi; Wu, Jun; Luo, Gaoxing

    2017-09-01

    Burns are a major form of injury in children worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology, outcome, cost and risk factors of pediatric burns in southwest China. This retrospective study was performed at the Institute of Burn Research of the Third Military Medical University from 2011 to 2015. Data, including demographic, injury-related, and clinical data and patient outcome, were collected from medical records. A total of 2478 children with burns (58.03% boys), accounting for 39.2% of total burn patients, were included. The average age of the burn patients was 2.86±2.86years, and most patients (85.55%) were under five years old. The incidence of burns peaked in January, February and May. Scald burns were the most frequent (79.06%), followed by flame burns (14.0%) and electrical burns (3.35%). Limbs were the most common burn sites (69.73%), and the average total body surface area (TBSA) was 11.57±11.61%. The percentage of children who underwent operations and the number of operations were significantly increased in cases of electrical burns, the older-age group, a larger TBSA and full-thickness burns. Six deaths were recorded, yielding a mortality of 0.24%. The median length of stay and cost were 14days and 9541 CNY, respectively, and the major risk factors for length of stay and cost were the TBSA, number of operations, full-thickness burns and outcome. In southwest China, among children under five years old, scald and flame burns should become the key prevention target, and future prevention strategies should be based on related risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Anemia and iron deficiency among school adolescents: burden, severity, and determinant factors in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Melkam; Yemane, Tilahun; Adisu, Wondimagegn; Asres, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is the period of most rapid growth second to childhood. The physical and physiological changes that occur in adolescents place a great demand on their nutritional requirements and make them more vulnerable to anemia. Anemia in the adolescence causes reduced physical and mental capacity and diminished concentration in work and educational performance, and also poses a major threat to future safe motherhood in girls. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and its associated factors among school adolescents in Bonga Town, southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 408 school adolescents in Bonga Town, southwest Ethiopia, from March 15, 2014 to May 25, 2014. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic and other data. A total of 7 mL of venous blood and 4 g of stool samples were collected from each study participant. Blood and stool samples were analyzed for hematological and parasitological analyses, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20 software for Windows. The overall prevalence of anemia was 15.2% (62/408), of which 83.9% comprised mild anemia. The proportion of microcytic, hypochromic anemia was 53% (33/62). Being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.41-6.57), household size ≥5 (AOR =2.58, 95% CI =1.11-5.96), father's illiteracy (AOR =9.03, 95% CI =4.29-18.87), intestinal parasitic infection (AOR =5.37, 95% CI =2.65-10.87), and low body mass index (AOR =2.54, 95% CI =1.17-5.51) were identified as determinants of anemia among school adolescents. This study showed that anemia was a mild public health problem in this population. School-based interventions on identified associated factors are important to reduce the burden of anemia among school adolescents.

  17. Microbial sulfur cycle in two hydrothermal chimneys on the Southwest Indian Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiluo; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Zeng, Xiang; Shao, Zongze; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-28

    Sulfur is an important element in sustaining microbial communities present in hydrothermal vents. Sulfur oxidation has been extensively studied due to its importance in chemosynthetic pathways in hydrothermal fields; however, less is known about sulfate reduction. Here, the metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys located on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) were pyrosequenced to elucidate the associated microbial sulfur cycle. A taxonomic summary of known genes revealed a few dominant bacteria that participated in the microbial sulfur cycle, particularly sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The metagenomes studied contained highly abundant genes related to sulfur oxidation and reduction. Several carbon metabolic pathways, in particular the Calvin-Benson-Bassham pathway and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycles for CO2 fixation, were identified in sulfur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria. In contrast, highly abundant genes related to the oxidation of short-chain alkanes were grouped with sulfate-reducing bacteria, suggesting an important role for short-chain alkanes in the sulfur cycle. Furthermore, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were associated with enrichment for genes involved in the denitrification pathway, while sulfate-reducing bacteria displayed enrichment for genes responsible for hydrogen utilization. In conclusion, this study provides insights regarding major microbial metabolic activities that are driven by the sulfur cycle in low-temperature hydrothermal chimneys present on an ultraslow midocean ridge. There have been limited studies on chimney sulfides located at ultraslow-spreading ridges. The analysis of metagenomes of hydrothermal chimneys on the ultraslow-spreading Southwest Indian Ridge suggests the presence of a microbial sulfur cycle. The sulfur cycle should be centralized within a microbial community that displays enrichment for sulfur metabolism-related genes. The present study elucidated a significant role of the microbial sulfur

  18. Pliocene-Pleistocene evolution of sea surface and intermediate water temperatures from the southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymont, Erin L.; Elmore, Aurora C.; Kender, Sev; Leng, Melanie J.; Greaves, Mervyn; Elderfield, Henry

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 5 million years, the global climate system has evolved toward a colder mean state, marked by large-amplitude oscillations in continental ice volume. Equatorward expansion of polar waters and strengthening temperature gradients have been detected. However, the response of the mid latitudes and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is not well documented, despite the potential importance for climate feedbacks including sea ice distribution and low-high latitude heat transport. Here we reconstruct the Pliocene-Pleistocene history of both sea surface and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) temperatures on orbital time scales from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 593 in the Tasman Sea, southwest Pacific. We confirm overall Pliocene-Pleistocene cooling trends in both the surface ocean and AAIW, although the patterns are complex. The Pliocene is warmer than modern, but our data suggest an equatorward displacement of the subtropical front relative to present and a poleward displacement of the subantarctic front of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Two main intervals of cooling, from ~3 Ma and ~1.5 Ma, are coeval with cooling and ice sheet expansion noted elsewhere and suggest that equatorward expansion of polar water masses also characterized the southwest Pacific through the Pliocene-Pleistocene. However, the observed trends in sea surface temperature and AAIW temperature are not identical despite an underlying link to the ACC, and intervals of unusual surface ocean warmth (~2 Ma) and large-amplitude variability in AAIW temperatures (from ~1 Ma) highlight complex interactions between equatorward displacements of fronts associated with the ACC and/or varying poleward heat transport from the subtropics.

  19. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  20. Psychological services in five South-west Queensland communities--supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buikstra, Elizabeth; Fallon, Anthony B; Eley, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This research gathered information in 2004 about psychological services provided to five rural communities located in South-west Queensland, Australia. Specifically, the aims of the project were to: (i) undertake an audit of existing psychological services; and (ii) determine the need for psychological services as perceived by providers of current services. Potential providers of psychological services were contacted to confirm the nature and extent of their provision of psychological support to target communities. Thirty organisations met the definition of service providers offering assessment or intervention by qualified and/or experienced persons. Data were collected by semi-structured telephone interviews with 44 employees of the service providers. The one main publicly-funded provider of services to the region offered limited services to the communities. Although some counselling was provided by social workers attached to the allied health program, for patients to be supported by the mental health sector of this service, they must have had moderate to severe mental illness. Regular, reliable and accessible psychological support for other conditions was limited largely to services provided by non-government organisations (NGOs) which are often constrained by continuity of funds. Counselling for alcohol and drug misuse, women's issues, sexual abuse, and crisis support were the most commonly identified unmet needs across the target communities. Difficulties in attracting experienced personnel to work in rural communities were reported. This was exacerbated by lack of job security brought about by short term funding to the NGOs. In general, unqualified counsellors were recognised as providing valuable services. There are limited psychological support services provided to these South-west Queensland communities. For available services, there are strict criteria for entry, limited accessibility and availability or lack of continuity owing to short-term funding

  1. Prevalence and impacts of low back pain among peasant farmers in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Abidemi Tella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A relationship between low back pain (LBP and poor postures has been previously established with a high prevalence observed in many occupations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LBP, associated risk factors and impacts on farmers in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and four farmers completed a 36-item closed-ended questionnaire which was translated to Yoruba language with content validity and back translation done afterwards. The questionnaire sought information on demographic data, 12-month prevalence, severity, history, causes and management of LBP, and its impacts on farm activities and the activities of daily living. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of mean, range, frequency, standard deviation, percentage. Chi2 and Mann-Whitney-U test were used to find association between variables. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of LBP among the respondents was 74.4%. Low back pain was described as moderate in 53.4%. Prolonged bending (51.3% was the most related risk factor. A considerable proportion (65.9% of the respondents were unable to continue some of the previously enjoyed activities. Males had significantly higher (p < 0.05 prevalence, recurrence and duration of LBP than the females. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of LBP among farmers in South-West Nigeria. Age, sex and years of involvement in farming have a significant influence on the prevalence of LBP.

  2. Variability in tropical cyclone heat potential over the Southwest Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, N.; Reason, C. J. C.; Loveday, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical cyclone heat potential (TCHP) has been proposed as being important for hurricane and typhoon intensity. Here, a climatology of TCHP is developed for the Southwest Indian Ocean, a basin that experiences on average 11-12 tropical cyclones per year, many of which impact on Mauritius, Reunion and Madagascar, and Mozambique. SODA data and a regional ocean model forced with the GFDL-CORE v.2b reanalysis winds and heat fluxes are used to derive TCHP values during the 1948-2007 period. The results indicate that TCHP increases through the austral summer, peaking in March. Values of TCHP above 40 kJ cm-2, suggested as the minimum needed for tropical cyclone intensification, are still present in the northern Mozambique Channel in May. A time series of TCHP spatially averaged over the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (SCTR), an important area for tropical cyclones, is presented. The model time series, which agrees well with XBT-based observations (r = 0.82, p = 0.01), shows considerable interannual variability overlaying an upward tendency that matches with an observed increase in severe tropical cyclone days in the Southwest Indian Ocean. Although an increase in severe storms is seen during 1997-2007, the increasing TCHP tendency time series after 1997 coincides with a decrease in total cyclone numbers, a mismatch that is ascribed to increased atmospheric anticyclonicity over the basin. Seasons of increased (decreased) TCHP over the SCTR appear to be associated with dry (wet) conditions over certain areas of southern and East Africa and are linked with changes in zonal wind and vertical motion in the midtroposphere.

  3. Herpetofaunal community change in multiple habitats after fifteen years in a southwest Florida preserve, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Cassani

    Full Text Available Herpetofaunal declines have been documented globally, and southern Florida, USA, is an especially vulnerable region because of high impacts from hydrological perturbations and nonindigenous species. To assess the extent of recent change in herpetofauna community composition, we established a baseline inventory during 1995-97 at a managed preserve in a habitat rich area of southwest Florida, and repeated our sampling methods fifteen years later (2010-11. Nine drift fence arrays were placed in four habitat types: mesic flatwood, mesic hammock, depression marsh, and wet prairie. Trapping occurred daily for one week during 7-8 sampling runs in each period (57 and 49 total sampling days, respectively. Species richness was maintained in mesic hammock habitats but varied in the others. Catch rates of several native species (Anaxyrus terrestris, Lithobates grylio, Anolis carolinensis, Nerodia fasciata declined significantly. Other native species (Lithobates sphenocephalus, Siren lacertian, and Notophthalmus viridescens piaropicola that were abundant in 1995-97 declined by greater than 50%. Catch rate of only two species (the nonindigenous Anolis sagrei and the native Diadophis punctatus increased significantly. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated similarity within habitat types but significant dissimilarity between sampling periods, confirming shifts in community composition. Analysis of individual species' contributions to overall similarity across habitats shows a shift from dominance of native species in the 1990s to increased importance of nonindigenous species in 2010-11. Although natural population fluctuations may have influenced differences between the two sampling periods, our results suggest considerable recent change in the structure and composition of this southwest Florida herpetofaunal community. The causes are unknown, but hydrological shifts and ecological impacts of nonindigenous species may have contributed.

  4. Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Health of Military Personnel Before Southwest Asia Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skabelund, Andrew J; Rawlins, Frederic A; McCann, Edward T; Lospinoso, Joshua A; Burroughs, Lorraine; Gallup, Roger A; Morris, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Significant concern exists regarding the respiratory health of military personnel deployed to Southwest Asia, given their exposures to numerous environmental hazards. Although the deployed military force is generally assumed to be fit, the pre-deployment respiratory health of these individuals is largely unknown. Soldiers deploying to Southwest Asia were recruited from the pre-deployment processing center at Fort Hood, Texas. Participants completed a general and respiratory health questionnaire and performed baseline spirometry. One thousand six hundred ninety-three pre-deployment evaluations were completed. The average age of the participants was 32.2 y, and 83.1% were male. More than one third of surveyed solders had a smoking history, 73% were overweight or obese, and 6.2% reported a history of asthma. Abnormal spirometry was found in 22.3% of participants. Soldiers with abnormal spirometry reported more asthma (10.1% vs 5.1%, P military personnel that delineates factors potentially associated with the development of pulmonary symptoms and/or disease. This study suggests that deploying soldiers are older, heavier, frequently smoke, and may have undiagnosed pre-deployment lung disease. Abnormal spirometry is common but may not represent underlying disease. Self-reported asthma, wheezing, and slower 2-mile run times were predictive of abnormal spirometry. Pre-deployment evaluation of military personnel identified numerous soldiers with active pulmonary symptoms and abnormal spirometry. When combined with questions regarding asthma history, wheezing and exercise intolerance, spirometry may identify individuals at risk for deployment-related respiratory complaints. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Integrating Sacred Knowledge for Conservation: Cultures and Landscapes in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchu Xu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available China is undergoing economic growth and expansion to a free market economy at a scale and pace that are unprecedented in human history. This is placing great pressure on the country's environment and cultural diversity. This paper examines a number of case histories in China, focusing on the culturally varied and ecologically diverse southwest region of the country. We show how developments in recent Chinese history have devalued and in some cases eliminated indigenous knowledge and practices in the quest to strengthen the centralized state. Despite these changes, more than 30 ethnic minorities live in southwest China. For generations these peoples have maintained landscapes through traditional land use and cultural practices. This indigenous knowledge places a high value on protecting forests, landscapes, and water catchments while preserving biodiversity. These values are maintained through religious beliefs, hunting taboos, and the protection of sacred sites. We advocate a conservation policy for China that includes the indigenous knowledge and values needed to maintain the environment and the traditional cultures themselves. There are seminal signs that the government is beginning to support indigenous cultures in China. The Organic Law of 1998 granted villages the legal right to self-government and gave indigenous communities greater responsibility for land and resource use. Traditional and indigenous cultural products have also developed a market and an economic value within a growing tourism industry. In many cases, however, indigenous people remain isolated from major land-use and conservation decisions that are the result of centrally planned policy. Meanwhile, frequent oscillations in forest policy and land tenure insecurity since the 1950s have led to the erosion of many local institutions and the loss of indigenous knowledge. We suggest that the long-term viability of the environment requires an interactive approach that involves

  6. Reservoir-Driven Heterogeneous Distribution of Recorded Human Puumala virus Cases in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, S; Turni, H; Rosenfeld, U M; Obiegala, A; Straková, P; Imholt, C; Glatthaar, E; Dressel, K; Pfeffer, M; Jacob, J; Wagner-Wiening, C; Ulrich, R G

    2017-08-01

    Endemic regions for Puumala virus (PUUV) are located in the most affected federal state Baden-Wuerttemberg, South-West Germany, where high numbers of notified human hantavirus disease cases have been occurring for a long time. The distribution of human cases in Baden-Wuerttemberg is, however, heterogeneous, with a high number of cases recorded during 2012 in four districts (H districts) but a low number or even no cases recorded in four other districts (L districts). Bank vole monitoring during 2012, following a beech (Fagus sylvatica) mast year, resulted in the trapping of 499 bank voles, the host of PUUV. Analyses indicated PUUV prevalences of 7-50% (serological) and 1.8-27.5% (molecular) in seven of eight districts, but an absence of PUUV in one L district. The PUUV prevalence differed significantly between bank voles in H and L districts. In the following year 2013, 161 bank voles were trapped, with reduced bank vole abundance in almost all investigated districts except one. In 2013, no PUUV infections were detected in voles from seven of eight districts. In conclusion, the linear modelling approach indicated that the heterogeneous distribution of human PUUV cases in South-West Germany was caused by different factors including the abundance of PUUV RNA-positive bank voles, as well as by the interaction of beech mast and the proportional coverage of beech and oak (Quercus spec.) forest per district. These results can aid developing local public health risk management measures and early warning models. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Functional limitation and associated factors in outpatients with ankylosing spondylitis in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuqing; Wang, Chen; Chen, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Functional limitation is often complained by patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). With a rising number of patients suffering from AS, there are a limited number of reports focusing on functional limitation of AS in Chinese patients. This study was conducted to investigate the level of functional limitation and explore its associations with demographic, disease-related factors. A total of 303 AS outpatients were recruited in this cross-sectional study from a tertiary general hospital in Southwest China. Functional limitation was measured by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Other data were collected by the following questionnaires: the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score (BAS-G), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI). Finally, 295 outpatients with AS completed this survey. The median BASFI was 0.80. Worse function limitation was found in outpatients with extra-spinal manifestation, older age, lower household income, more back pain, higher disease activity and morning stiffness, poorer sleep, and worse patient's well-being (all P < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that patient's well-being (P < 0.001), disease activity (P < 0.001), and disease duration (P < 0.05) were the positive predictors of functional limitation. AS outpatients in Southwest China had a mild level of functional limitation. The factors associated with functional limitation included disease duration, disease activity, and patients' well-being, which should be taken into consideration when assessing functional limitation of AS outpatients. Besides, more comprehensive and targeted interventions should be conducted for AS patients as early as possible, which will be effective to improve functional outcome.

  8. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences some of the highest PM10 mass concentrations in the country. To augment previously reported results, 6-week aggregated organic speciation data that included ambient concentrations of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, and saccharides were used in chemical mass balance modeling (CMB. A set of re-suspended soil samples were analyzed for specific marker species to provide locally-appropriate source profiles for the CMB analysis. These profiles, as well as previously collected plant and fungal spore profiles from the region, were combined with published source profiles for other relevant sources and used in the CMB analysis. The six new region-specific source profiles included both organic and inorganic species for four crustal material sources, one plant detritus source, and one fungal spore source.Results indicate that up to half of the ambient PM2.5 was apportioned to motor vehicles with the highest regional contribution observed in the small urban center of Casa Grande. Daily levels of apportioned crustal material accounted for up to 50% of PM2.5 mass with the highest contributions observed at the sites closest to active agricultural areas. Apportioned secondary PM, biomass burning, and road dust typically contributed less than 35% as a group to the apportioned PM2.5 mass. Crustal material was the primary source apportioned to PM10 and accounted for between 50–90% of the apportioned mass. Of the other sources apportioned to PM10, motor vehicles and road dust were the largest contributors at the urban and one of the rural sites, whereas road dust and meat cooking operations were the largest contributors at the other rural site.

  9. Land subsidence in southwest Cyprus revealed from C-band radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Pantelis; Giourou, Anthi; Charalampopoulou, Betty; Li, Zhenhong; Li, Yongsheng

    2014-08-01

    Land subsidence is a major worldwide hazard, and causes many problems including: damage to public facilities such as bridges, roads, railways, electric power lines, underground pipes; damage to private and public buildings; and in some cases of low-lying land, can increase the risk of coastal flooding from storm surges and rising sea-levels. The island of Cyprus is famous for its complex geology, particularly in the southwest part of the island. Deposits of massive breccias (melange) are widely exposed in the Paphos District situated between the Troodos Mountains and the sea. These deposits are rich in clay minerals that are prone to landslide phenomena. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, Interferometric SAR (InSAR) is revolutionizing our ability to image the Earth's surface and the evolution of its shape over time. In this paper, an advanced InSAR time series technique, InSAR TS + AEM, has been employed to analysed C-band ERS and Envisat data collected over southwest Cyprus during the period from 1992 to 2010. Our InSAR time series results suggest that: (1) a total number of 274,619 coherent pixels with a density of 46 points per squared km were detected in the area of interest; and (2) clear surface displacements can be observed in several areas. The combination of archived ESA SAR datasets allows a long record (~18 years) of historic deformation to be measured over a large region. Ultimately this should help inform land managers in assessing land subsidence and planning appropriate remedial measures.

  10. Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 educational assessment of young adults in rural southwest Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Shantal S; Bertke, Andrea S

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the U.S. HSV-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. Abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in Virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing STI risks. College students in southwest Virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding HSV-1 and HSV-2 and to identify students' preferred methods for STI education. To obtain data on knowledge of HSV, comprehensiveness of sexual health education in high school, and preferred learning methods, 237 college students participated in an online questionnaire and 28 students were interviewed using structured interviews. Questionnaire and interview data indicated that Family Life Education classes need to include more comprehensive information on prevention, viral transmission, and differences between HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of total respondents (both the questionnaire and interview) (65%) reported non-comprehensive high school sexual health education. The majority of interview (79%) and questionnaire (55%) respondents wished they had learned more about herpes and other STIs in high school. Education preferences of both interviewed and surveyed respondents included interactive internet programs or games, more realistic lectures, and learning about STIs later in high school when students reported greater sexual activity. Our results indicate that more comprehensive sexual health education is needed and wanted by students in southwest Virginia. More relevant educational programs should be implemented for VA high school students utilizing technology and interactive methods to improve student engagement in sexual health education. These studies provide information on knowledge of herpes simplex viruses among college students, comprehensiveness of sexual health education

  11. Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 educational assessment of young adults in rural southwest Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantal S Hover

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the U.S. HSV-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. Abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in Virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing STI risks. College students in southwest Virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding HSV-1 and HSV-2 and to identify students' preferred methods for STI education.To obtain data on knowledge of HSV, comprehensiveness of sexual health education in high school, and preferred learning methods, 237 college students participated in an online questionnaire and 28 students were interviewed using structured interviews.Questionnaire and interview data indicated that Family Life Education classes need to include more comprehensive information on prevention, viral transmission, and differences between HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of total respondents (both the questionnaire and interview (65% reported non-comprehensive high school sexual health education. The majority of interview (79% and questionnaire (55% respondents wished they had learned more about herpes and other STIs in high school. Education preferences of both interviewed and surveyed respondents included interactive internet programs or games, more realistic lectures, and learning about STIs later in high school when students reported greater sexual activity.Our results indicate that more comprehensive sexual health education is needed and wanted by students in southwest Virginia. More relevant educational programs should be implemented for VA high school students utilizing technology and interactive methods to improve student engagement in sexual health education.These studies provide information on knowledge of herpes simplex viruses among college students, comprehensiveness of sexual health

  12. Investigating the Subduction History of the Southwest Pacific using Coupled Plate Tectonic-Mantle Convection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, K. J.; Flament, N. E.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.; Gurnis, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene (~85-45 Ma) evolution of the southwest Pacific has been the subject of starkly contrasting plate reconstruction models, reflecting sparse and ambiguous data. Disparate models of (1) west-dipping subduction and back-arc basin opening to the east of the Lord Howe Rise, (2) east-dipping subduction and back-arc basin closure to the east of the Lord Howe Rise, and (3) tectonic quiescence with no subduction have all been proposed for this time frame. To help resolve this long-standing problem we test a new southwest Pacific reconstruction using global mantle flow models with imposed plate motions. The kinematic model incorporates east to northeast directed rollback of a west-dipping subduction zone between 85 and 55 Ma, accommodating opening of the South Loyalty back-arc basin to the east of New Caledonia. At 55 Ma there is a plate boundary reorganization in the region. West-dipping subduction and back-arc basin spreading end, and there is initiation of northeast dipping subduction within the back-arc basin. Consumption of South Loyalty Basin seafloor continues until 45 Ma, when obduction onto New Caledonia begins. West-dipping Tonga-Kermadec subduction initiates at this time at the relict Late Cretaceous-earliest Eocene subduction boundary. We use the 3D spherical mantle convection code CitcomS coupled to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, with plate motions and evolving plate boundaries imposed since 230 Ma. The predicted present-day mantle structure is compared to S- and P-wave seismic tomography models, which can be used to infer the presence of slab material in the mantle at locations where fast velocity anomalies are imaged. This workflow enables us to assess the forward-modeled subduction history of the region.

  13. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  14. Strong altitudinal control on the response of local glaciers to Holocene climate change in southwest Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Strunk, Astrid; Levy, Laura B.; Olsen, Jesper; Bjørk, Anders; Lauridsen, Torben L.; Jeppesen, Erik; Davidson, Thomas A.

    2017-07-01

    Accelerating ice loss during recent years has made the Greenland Ice Sheet one of the largest single contributors to global sea level rise, accounting for 0.5 of the total 3.2 mm yr-1. This loss is predicted to continue and will most likely increase in the future as a consequence of global warming. However, the sensitivity of glaciers and ice caps (GICs) in Greenland to prolonged warm periods is less well constrained and geological records documenting the long-term glacial history are needed to put recent observations into a broader perspective. Here we report the results from three proglacial lakes where fluctuations in local glaciers located at different altitudes in Kobbefjord, southwest Greenland have been recorded. Our results show that the lakes received meltwater from the initial deglaciation of the area ∼9.2 cal. ka BP until ∼8.7-7.9 cal. ka BP when the meltwater input ceased as the glaciers most likely disappeared. Regrowth of glaciers began again at ∼5.5 cal. ka BP at ∼1370 m a.s.l., ∼3.6 cal. ka at ∼1170 m a.s.l., and ∼1.6 cal. ka BP at ∼1000 m a.s.l., clearly reflecting strong altitudinal control of the GIC response to Neoglacial cooling. Our results highlight that GICs in Kobbefjord, southwest Greenland are primarily influenced by changes in summer air temperatures and winter precipitation and that they are facing a rapid decay that most likely will result in their disappearance within the next centuries as a consequence of global warming. If current 21st Century retreat rates continue, the GICs in the study area will be completely gone in ∼30-90 years, with the smallest GICs disappearing first.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pet dogs in Kunming, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Gang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. However, little is known of T. gondii seroprevalence in pet dogs in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province, southwest China. The objective of this investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area. Methods A total of 611 serum samples were collected from 7 pet hospitals in Kunming, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination (IHA using a commercially-marked kit. Results 132 (21.6% pet dogs were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 17.3% to 34.7% among different sampling regions, the difference was statistically significant (P T. gondii seroprevalence in female and male dogs were 20.8% and 22.4%, respectively, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The seroprevalence ranged from 17.5% to 23.6% among different age groups, but the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, and there were no interactions in statistics (P > 0.05 between gender and age of pet dogs in the region. Conclusions The findings of the present survey indicate high T. gondii seroprevalance in pet dogs in Kunming, southwest China, posing significant public health concern. It is necessary to enhance integrated strategies and measures to prevent and control T. gondii infection in pet dogs in this area.

  16. Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: Key Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States, is a technical input to the National Climate Assessment. The 121-author report summarizes knowledge about climate change and its impacts across Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The report looks at links between climate and natural resources, vulnerabilities to climate variability and change across the region and along the U.S.-Mexico border, and adaptation and mitigation choices for addressing future changes. The period since 1950 has been warmer than any period of comparable length in the last 600 years. Droughts of the past 2,000 years have exceeded the most severe and sustained drought during 1901-2010. In the last decade, flows in the major river basins of the Southwest have been lower than their 20th century averages; many snowmelt-fed streams in the region exhibited earlier snowmelt and earlier center of mass of annual streamflows. Climate models project continued temperature increases, with longer and hotter summer heat waves. Average precipitation is projected to decrease in the southern part of the region. Reduced streamflows are projected for the Rio Grande, Colorado, and San Joaquin rivers. More frequent and intense winter flooding is projected for the western Sierra Nevada, whereas Colorado Front Range summer flooding is projected to increase. Observed ecosystems impacts include changes in phenology, widespread forest disturbance due to the confluence of drought, increased temperatures, and changes to insect life cycles. Area burned by wildfire is projected to increase in most of the Southwest. Plant and animal species' distributions will be affected by climate change, and studies show that observed climate changes are strongly associated with observed changes in species' distributions. California coastal ecosystems will be affected by a combination of ocean warming, reduced oxygen content, sea level rise and ocean acidification. When west coast sea levels are

  17. Digital shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters southwest Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the data release contains a shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters along southwest Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - SouthWest Shelf, St. Croix, USVI - Benthic Habitat Characterization - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - M-1907-NF-14 (2014), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution bathymetry of the reef shelf and the steep slopes of the Southwest Shelf (H12640) of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. The...

  19. Epizoic and ectoparasitic protozoans from planktonic copepods of the southwest and southeast coasts of India with the description of a new species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    The epizoic and the ectoparasitic protozoans were studied from the planktonic copepods of the southwest and southeast coasts of India. The species of protozoans viz. Trochilioides trivialis Fenchel, Zoothamnium adamsi Stokes; Ephelota gemmipara...

  20. Population, movements and seasonal distribution of the Kilbuck Caribou Herd, southwest Alaska: Progress report, Kilbuck Caribou study, September 1985-May 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This progress report covers work done on the Kilbuck Caribou herd in southwest Alaska from September of 1985 to May of 1988. The study area is described, as well as...

  1. Thermal Activity Monitoring of an Active Volcano Using Landsat 8/OLI-TIRS Sensor Images: A Case Study at the Aso Volcanic Area in Southwest Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md Bodruddoza Mia; Yasuhiro Fujimitsu; Jun Nishijima

    2017-01-01

    .... For the first time, Landsat 8 TIRS thermal data were used in this study area to evaluate and monitor the recent thermal status of this volcano, situated in Southwest Japan, from 2013 to 2016 using four sets of images...

  2. NOAA TIFF Image - SouthWest Shelf, St. Croix, USVI - Benthic Habitat Characterization - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - M-1907-NF-14 (2014), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Geotiff represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the reef shelf and the steep slopes of the Southwest Shelf (H12640) of St. Croix, US Virgin...

  3. Morphologic and thermophysical characteristics of lava flows southwest of Arsia Mons, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, David A.; Ramsey, Michael S.

    2017-08-01

    The morphologic and thermophysical characteristics of part of the extensive lava flow fields southwest of Arsia Mons (22.5-27.5°S, 120-130°W) have been examined using a combination of orbital VNIR and TIR datasets. THEMIS images provide context for the regional geology and record diurnal temperature variability that is diverse and unusual for flow surfaces in such close proximity. CTX images were used to distinguish dominant flow types and assess local age relationships between individual lava flows. CTX and HiRISE images provide detailed information on flow surface textures and document aeolian effects as they reveal fine-grained deposits in many low-lying areas of the flow surfaces as well as small patches of transverse aeolian ridges. Although this region is generally dust-covered and has a lower overall thermal inertia, the THEMIS data indicate subtle spectral variations within the population of lava flows studied. These variations could be due to compositional differences among the flows or related to mixing of flow and aeolian materials. Specific results regarding flow morphology include: a) Two main lava flow types (bright, rugged and dark, smooth as observed in CTX images) dominate the southwest Arsia Mons/NE Daedalia Planum region; b) the bright, rugged flows have knobby, ridged, and/or platy surface textures, commonly have medial channel/levee systems, and may have broad distal lobes; c) the dark, smooth flows extend from distributary systems that consist of combinations of lava channels, lava tubes, and/or sinuous ridges and plateaus; and d) steep-sided, terraced margins, digitate breakout lobes, and smooth-surfaced plateaus along lava channel/tube systems are interpreted as signatures of flow inflation within the dark, smooth flow type. These flows exhibit smoother upper surfaces, are thinner, and have more numerous, smaller lobes, which, along with their the channel-/tube-fed nature, indicate a lower viscosity lava than for the bright, rugged flows

  4. Supracrustal origin of plagiogranite from the Gallieni Fracture Zone, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jihao; Li, Zhenggang; Chu, Fengyou; Fu, Bin; Dong, Yanhui; Chen, Ling; Liu, Jiqiang

    2017-04-01

    Small amounts of felsic rocks such as tonalite, trondjhemite and diorite often called oceanic plagiogranites were found at all structure levels of the oceanic crust. They can be formed either by partial melting of hydrated gabbros and/or sheeted dikes, or by late-stage differentiation of parental mid-ocean ridge basalt melts. Here we report a granodiorite sampled in the Gallieni Fracture Zone, Southwest Indian Ridge, shows no ocean crust affinity but the nature of the continental crust. The granodiorite is extremely enriched in K2O (3.72%) and its rare-earth-element distribution pattern is incomparable to any type of oceanic plagiogranites from mid-ocean ridge and ophiolites, but similar to the Upper Continental Crust. Moreover, the in-situ zircon O isotopes (δ18O=5.9-7.5‰) are much higher than the plagiogranites from all the tectonic settings relevant to ocean crust generation, while Hf isotope compositions (ɛHf(0) =-4.0 to -7.9) are much lower than global oceanic basalts. In addition, the granodiorite suffered low-grade metamorphism as reflected by the penetration of late-stage felsic veins and the occurrence of metamorphic minerals such as epidote and chlorite. Secondary vein quartz has negative δ18O values as low as -3.9‰, suggesting the involvement of meteoric water. Zircon U-Pb age (183.7±1.2Ma) shows that the granodiorite was formed contemporarily with Karoo volcanism associating with the breakup of Gondwanaland. We suggest that it may be formed by the anataxis of continental crustal materials by underplated Karoo basaltic magma. Combining our unreported high-grade quartzite with zircon U-Pb ages of more than 500Ma and a Jurassic quartz diorite reported earlier which all sampled in or near the Gallieni Fracture Zone, we propose that a continental block probably from the South Madagascar was split during continental breakup but retained near the ridge segment as a result of repeated ridge jumping and transform migration. Keywords: zircon Hf-O isotopes

  5. Holocene tephrochronology of the Cold Bay area, southwest Alaska Peninsula*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Eric C.; Fournelle, John H.; Miller, Thomas P.; Mickelson, David M.

    2002-11-01

    The major-element glass geochemistry of 92 tephra samples from the southwest Alaska Peninsula provides the basis for establishing a Holocene tephrochronology for the region. Electron microprobe analysis has been combined with field descriptions of samples, stratigraphic relationships between tephra samples and sample localities, and glass shard micro-morphology to correlate these sampled distal tephra units throughout the area of Cold Bay and adjacent Morzhovoi Bay. Radiocarbon dating provides age constraints on correlated horizons. Previous research had clearly delineated only one horizon in the region, the so-called 'Funk/Fisher' ash, dating to between 8425±350 and 9130±140 14C yr BP. In addition to constraining the bimodal andesitic and dacitic glass chemistry of that horizon, this study has recognized six additional tephra layers in the area. Two horizons pre-date the Funk/Fisher ash and four are younger than it. A tephra containing dacitic and andesitic components was identified in the vicinity of Morzhovoi Bay, with a minimum age of 9300±80 14C yr BP and a maximum age of 10,200±75 14C yr BP. A rhyolitic horizon composed of cm-sized, rounded pumice clasts was identified in the vicinity of Cold Bay; it has been correlated to the ca 9500 BP eruption of Roundtop volcano on Unimak Island. The four younger tephra beds date to between 6070±340 and 3600±140 14C yr BP. The oldest of the four is rhyodacitic, followed by a mixed rhyodacitic-andesitic horizon, another rhyodacitic horizon, and finally an andesitic layer. Comparison of all the correlated horizons to proximal samples collected on Unimak Island provides conclusive geochemical evidence that the ca 9100 BP Caldera-forming eruption of Fisher volcano is the source of the Funk/Fisher ash. Correlation between the rhyodacitic tephra horizons and proximal samples from Fisher volcano suggests that Fisher Caldera is the source of one of the rhyodacitic tephra horizons that post-dates the Funk/Fisher ash

  6. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Tedstone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June–July–August, JJA, intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by

  7. Ethnobotany of wild plants used for starting fermented beverages in Shui communities of southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Zhuo, Jingxian; Lei, Qiyi; Zhou, Jiangju; Ahmed, Selena; Wang, Chaoying; Long, Yuxiao; Li, Feifei; Long, Chunlin

    2015-05-28

    Shui communities of southwest China have an extensive history of using wild plants as starters (Xiaoqu) to prepare fermented beverages that serve important roles in interpersonal relationships and cultural events. While the practice of using wild plants as starters for the preparation of fermented beverages was once prevalent throughout China, this tradition has seen a decline nationally since the 1930s. The traditional technique of preparing fermented beverages from wild plant starters remains well preserved in the Shui communities in southwest China and provides insight on local human-environment interactions and conservation of plant biodiversity for cultural purposes. The present study sought to examine the ethnobotany of wild plants used as starters for the preparation of fermented beverages including an inventory of plants used as a starter in liquor fermentation and associated knowledge and practices. Field surveys were carried out that consisted of semi-structured surveys and plant species inventories. One hundred forty-nine informants in twenty Shui villages were interviewed between July 2012 and October 2014 to document knowledge associated with wild plants used as a liquor fermentation starter. The inventories involved plant voucher specimens and taxonomic identification of plant collections. A total of 103 species in 57 botanical families of wild plants were inventoried and documented that are traditionally used as starters for preparing fermented beverages by Shui communities. The majority of the species (93.2%) have multiple uses in addition to being used as a starter with medicinal purposes being the most prevalent. Shui women are the major harvesters and users of wild plants used as starters for preparing fermented beverages and transfer knowledge orally from mother to daughter. Findings from this study can serve as a basis for future investigation on fermented beverages and foods and associated knowledge and cultural practices. However, with rapid

  8. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  9. Paleotethyan subduction process revealed from Triassic blueschists in the Lancang tectonic belt of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiming; Wang, Yuejun; Zhang, Yanhua; Zhang, Yuzhi; Jourdan, Fred; Zi, Jianwei; Liu, Huichuan

    2015-11-01

    The subduction of the Paleotethyan Ocean and subsequent continental collision along the Lancang tectonic belt of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt is a major tectonic event in Southwest China, but the event of the subduction preceding the final collision is still not well-constrained. The mafic blueschists exposed in the Lancang accretionary complex provide crucial records of the Paleotethyan subduction process. In this paper, we present a set of new petrologic, geochronological and geochemical data for the Suyi mafic blueschists in the Lancang metamorphic zone. The mineral assemblage of these blueschists consists of zoned sodic amphibole (25-30%), albite (15-20%), epidote (25-30%), phengite (5-10%), chlorite (~ 5-10%), and minor amounts of actinolite, apatite, sphene, zircon, ilmenite, quartz and secondary limonite. This suggests a prograde metamorphism from ~ 0.5 to ~ 0.9 GPa and retrograde metamorphic overprinting (back to ~ 0.6 GPa) within the temperature range of 300-450 °C. The Suyi blueschists give a zircon U-Pb age of 260 ± 4 Ma and glaucophane minerals formed during prograde metamorphism yield a 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 242 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 0.77; P = 0.54). The blueschists have geochemical compositions of subalkaline basalt and show typical OIB-type REE and multi-elemental patterns and εNd(t) values ranging from + 3.35 to + 4.85. Based on available data, it is inferred that the protolith formed at 260 Ma and originated from a basaltic seamount. The basaltic rocks subducted down to 30-35 km depths beneath the Lincang arc to form the epidote blueschists at ~ 242 Ma. The blueschists were subsequently transported to shallower crustal levels in response to the continuous underthrust of the subducted slab and the continent-continent collision in the middle-late Triassic. These results provide a systematic constraint on the tectonic evolution and temporal framework of the southeastern Paleotethyan belt in Southwest China.

  10. Brighter Than a Hundred Suns: Solar Power for the Southwest; Period of Performance: November 20, 2001 to October 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, A.; Owens, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although renewable energy development will be hindered by a persistent electric generating capacity surplus and lower power prices in the Southwest through the end of the decade, we believe that the attributes of renewable energy such as power at a guaranteed price and zero air emissions will continue to stimulate investment in new projects. With the assistance of policy initiatives that contain cost- and risk-reduction measures for investments in Concentrating Solar Power, the technology has the potential to reach cost competitiveness by the end of the decade. However, in the absence of such policy initiatives, new utility-scale solar power projects in the Southwest--or elsewhere in the country--are unlikely.

  11. Modeling and forecasting rainfall patterns of southwest monsoons in North-East India as a SARIMA process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.

    2018-02-01

    Weather forecasting is an important issue in the field of meteorology all over the world. The pattern and amount of rainfall are the essential factors that affect agricultural systems. India experiences the precious Southwest monsoon season for four months from June to September. The present paper describes an empirical study for modeling and forecasting the time series of Southwest monsoon rainfall patterns in the North-East India. The Box-Jenkins Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) methodology has been adopted for model identification, diagnostic checking and forecasting for this region. The study has shown that the SARIMA (0, 1, 1) (1, 0, 1)4 model is appropriate for analyzing and forecasting the future rainfall patterns. The Analysis of Means (ANOM) is a useful alternative to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for comparing the group of treatments to study the variations and critical comparisons of rainfall patterns in different months of the season.

  12. Presence of the telescope fish Mendosoma lineatum in Patagonian waters, a new species in the ichthyological fauna from the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovcon, N D; Cochia, P D; Ruibal Núñez, J; Vucica, M; Figueroa, D E

    2017-10-01

    The presence of the telescope fish Mendosoma lineatum in Patagonian waters of Argentina is reported. Mendosoma lineatum is the second species of the Latridae recorded in the south-west Atlantic Ocean and its presence in Patagonia is an addition to both the ichthyological fauna of the Argentinean Sea and the south-west Atlantic Ocean. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Two new free-living nematode species (Trefusiina: Trefusiidae from the Chatham Rise crest, Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leduc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the family Trefusiidae, viz., Trefusia piperata sp. nov. and Trefusialaimus idrisi sp. nov., are described from the crest of the Chatham Rise, Southwest Pacific Ocean (350 m water depth. The present study provides the first species records for this family in the region. Trefusia and Trefusialaimus comprise twenty and three valid species, respectively. A key to males of Trefusia is provided.

  14. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    W. Dawes; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; I. Emelyanova; Hodgson, G; Mcfarlane, D

    2012-01-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rai...

  15. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.

    2009-06-10

    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  16. History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention w...

  17. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  18. Prevalence of diabetes and unrecognized diabetes in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Ya; Hu, Rong; Ouyang, Ling-Yun; Liu, Jian-Xiong; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yi, Yan-Jing; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Zhao, Shui-Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of diabetes and unrecognized diabetes in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China. From September 2013 to March 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4021 hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years living in Chengdu and Chongqing, China. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2h plasma glucose (2-hPG) in an oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) were used for assessments. Whether the patients previously had diabetes (DM) was determined by their own reports. The survey was carried out by the same questionnaire for all respondents. DM prevalence was 32.0% in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China, with the rates of 29.6% and 33.5% in men and women, respectively (Page age and body-mass index. DM prevalence rates were 16.9%, 24.7%, 38.2% and 41.9% in hypertensive patients aged 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and over 70, respectively. DM prevalence were 30.6%, 27.9%, 37.1%, and 37.4%, for BMIaged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China. Using only fasting blood glucose testing without OGTT would have resulted in 65.0% of missed DM diagnosis in these newly diagnosed patients. The prevalence of DM and unrecognized DM were high in hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years in Southwest China.These findings indicate that hypertensive patients aged 40 to 79 years should regularly submit to community-based OGTT screening for timely DM diagnosis.

  19. Holocene semi-arid oak woodlands in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia: natural or anthropogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asouti, Eleni; Kabukcu, Ceren

    2014-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that, following the end of the Pleistocene, semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands did not spread in the Irano-Anatolian region of Southwest Asia as quickly as they did in the Levantine Mediterranean littoral, despite the fact that climatic improvement occurred broadly at the same time in both regions. Prehistoric impacts on woodland vegetation (such as woodcutting, burning and clearance for cultivation), the harsh continental climate of inland Southwest Asia and its distance from late Pleistocene arboreal refugia have all been discussed in the literature as likely causes of the delay. In this paper we argue that semi-arid deciduous oak woodlands should not be viewed as part of the “natural” vegetation of the Irano-Anatolian region that has been progressively destroyed by millennia of human activities since the Neolithic. They represent instead one of the earliest anthropogenic vegetation types in Southwest Asia, one that owes its very existence to prehistoric landscape practices other scholars commonly label as “destructive”. Drawing on anthracological, pollen and modern vegetation data from central Anatolia we describe how the post-Pleistocene species-rich and structurally diverse temperate semi-arid savanna grasslands were gradually substituted by low-diversity, even-aged Quercus-dominated parklands and wood pastures in the course of the early Holocene. Economic strategies that encouraged the establishment and spread of deciduous oaks included sheep herding that impacted on grass and forb vegetation, the controlling of competing arboreal vegetation through woodcutting, and woodland management practices such as coppicing, pollarding and shredding that enhanced Quercus vegetative propagation, crown and stem growth. Understanding the origin and evolution of the Irano-Anatolian semi-arid oak woodlands of Southwest Asia is of critical importance for reconstructing the changing ecologies and geographical distributions of the progenitors of

  20. Evolutionary Dynamics in the Southwest Indian Ocean Marine Biodiversity Hotspot: A Perspective from the Rocky Shore Gastropod Genus Nerita

    OpenAIRE

    Postaire, Bautisse; Bruggemann, Henrich J.; Magalon, Hélène; Faure, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) is a striking marine biodiversity hotspot. Coral reefs in this region host a high proportion of endemics compared to total species richness and they are particularly threatened by human activities. The island archipelagos with their diverse marine habitats constitute a natural laboratory for studying diversification processes. Rocky shores in the SWIO region have remained understudied. This habitat presents a high diversity of molluscs...

  1. Assessment of radiation exposure levels at Alaba e-waste dumpsite in comparison with municipal waste dumpsites in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. Jibiri; M.O. Isinkaye; H.A. Momoh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposures at the e-waste dumpsite around Alaba International Market, Lagos and three municipal waste dumpsites located in Ibadan and Ado Ekiti, southwest Nigeria were assessed by gamma ray spectroscopy using a highly shielded Canberra NaI (Tl) detector. Soil samples were collected for analysis at the municipal waste dumpsites for comparison with e-waste dumpsite. Samples were also collected at a location free from waste dumps to serve as control. The mean concentrations of 40K, 226R...

  2. Assessing Climate Change Impacts for DoD installations in the Southwest United States During the Warm Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    FINAL REPORT Assessing Climate Change Impacts for DoD Installations in the Southwest United States During the Warm Season SERDP Project RC...DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012 to March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessing climate change impacts for DoD installations in...select NARCCAP and UA-ATMO downscaled CMIP models. Figure 9: July-August precipitation during the period of historical climate versus climate change

  3. Upper Mantle Seismic Anisotropy in the Southwest Indian Ocean from SKS-splitting measurements: Plate, Plume and Ridges signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, J. R.; Barruol, G.; Fontaine, F. R.; Montagner, J. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Sigloch, K.; Mazzullo, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present results of upper mantle seismic anisotropy in the Southwest Indian Ocean, a region influenced by the effects of absolute plate motion of the African Plate, of mid-ocean ridge spreading of the Central and Southwest Indian Ridges, and of potential plume-lithosphere and plume-ridge interactions. Data analyzed in this study were recorded by 20 terrestrial and 57 ocean-bottom three-component seismometers installed in the frame of the RHUM-RUM project (Réunion Hotspot and Upper Mantle - Réunions Unterer Mantel, www.rhum-rum.net). Broadband land stations were installed at the Îles Eparses (5), Madagascar (5) and La Réunion Island (10), and recorded for about two years. Broadband and wideband ocean-bottom instruments were deployed around the La Réunion Island and along the Central and Southwest Indian Ridges (deployment: R/V Marion Dufresne, 2012, MD192 - recovery: R/V Meteor, 2013, M101), and recorded for 8 to 13 months. Measurements of upper mantle anisotropy measurements are based on the effect of SKS-splitting and performed using the `SplitLab' toolbox. To our results we integrate findings of former seismic anisotropy studies (SKS-splitting measurements and fundamental mode Rayleigh wave tomography). We interpret the overall picture in terms of the existence - or lack - of a mantle plume signature around the La Réunion hotspot, of a physical plume-ridge interaction and of the general upper mantle flow geometry in the Southwest Indian Ocean.

  4. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  5. Spatiotemporal variations of potential evapotranspiration and aridity index in relation to influencing factors over Southwest China during 1960-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Cao, Liguo; Yao, Yulong; Fu, Guanghe

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the spatial-temporal patterns and trends of potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and aridity index (AI) over Southwest China during 1960-2013 based on daily temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sunshine duration, total solar radiation, and relative humidity data from 108 meteorological stations. The Penman-Monteith model, Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, moving t test, and Morlet wavelet method were used. The results indicated that ET0 and AI across the region displayed decreasing trends, but the former was significant. After 2000, regionally average trends in ET0 and AI increased rapidly, indicating that droughts increased over Southwest China in recent years. Spatially, the changes of ET0 and AI were dissimilar and not clustered, either. Temporally, both ET0 and AI displayed obvious abrupt change points over different timescales and that of AI was during the winter monsoon period. Significant periodic variations with periods of 27, 13, and 5 years were found in ET0, but only of 13 and 5 years existed in AI. Correlation analysis revealed that the sunshine duration and wind speed were the dominant factors affecting ET0 and that AI showed strong negative correlation with precipitation. The findings of this study enhance the understanding of the relationship between climate change and drought in Southwest China, while the mechanism controlling the variation in drought requires further study.

  6. Factors associated with the caregiver burden among family caregivers of patients with heart failure in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Dolansky, Mary A; Hu, Xiuying; Zhang, Fengying; Qu, Moying

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the status of caregiver burden and identified the factors related to caregiver burden among family caregivers of patients with heart failure in southwest China. A cross-sectional descriptive design with a convenience sample was adopted. Patient and family caregiver dyads (n = 226) in four hospitals in Chengdu, China were recruited from June 2013 to July 2014. The instruments used in this study included the Social Support Rating Scale, the Zarit Burden Interview, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with caregiver burden. Forty-four percent of the variance of the caregiver burden was explained by the payment type for treatment, monthly family income, relationship to the patient, caregivers' self-efficacy, and social support. The caregiver burden in southwest China was higher than studies conducted in developed areas. Specific to southwest China, the financial burden and insufficient resources are the main factors associated with caregiver burden. The results suggest that self-efficacy and social support in underdeveloped areas are potential areas for future intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Recognizing the Role of Skunks in Human and Animal Rabies Exposures in the Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Taylor, Anissa; Garcia, Francisco; Krone, Tim; Brown, Heidi E

    2015-08-01

    Rabies is arguably the most important viral zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 55,000 human deaths each year. Globally, dogs are the primary animals affected. In the United States, especially on the East Coast, raccoons and bats are the primary reservoir. However, in the southwestern United States, skunk and bat rabies play a large role. We describe the epidemiology and environmental risk factors associated with rabies in the US Southwest using exposure data for 2004-2012 from one Arizona county as a case study. Unlike other parts of the country, here bats and skunks are the most commonly collected positive animals (62% and 32%, respectively). Even though most of the positive animals were bats, human and domestic animal exposures were primarily a result of skunk interactions (58% and 50%, respectively). Consequently, the majority of exposures occur early in the year, January and February, when the majority of skunk pickups also occur. Using public health surveillance data, our study highlights the importance of recognizing the role of skunks in human and animal exposures in the southwestern United States. Consistent with a "One Health" approach, our data show how wildlife and domestic animal and human exposures are associated and informative to one another.

  8. Mercury accumulation in sharks from the coastal waters of southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Darren; Wasno, Robert; Hammerschlag, Neil; Volety, Aswani

    2014-10-01

    As large long-lived predators, sharks are particularly vulnerable to exposure to methylmercury biomagnified through the marine food web. Accordingly, nonlethal means were used to collect tissues for determining mercury (Hg) concentrations and stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) from a total of 69 sharks, comprising 7 species, caught off Southwest Florida from May 2010 through June 2013. Species included blacknose (Carcharhinus acronotus), blacktip (C. limbatus), bull (C. leucas), great hammerhead (Sphyrna mokarran), lemon (Negaprion brevirostris), sharpnose (Rhizoprionodon terraenovae), and tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier). The sharks contained Hg concentrations in their muscle tissues ranging from 0.19 mg/kg (wet-weight basis) in a tiger shark to 4.52 mg/kg in a blacktip shark. Individual differences in total length and δ(13)C explained much of the intraspecific variation in Hg concentrations in blacknose, blacktip, and sharpnose sharks, but similar patterns were not evident for Hg and δ(15)N. Interspecific differences in Hg concentration were evident with greater concentrations in slower-growing, mature blacktip sharks and lower concentrations in faster-growing, young tiger sharks than other species. These results are consistent with previous studies reporting age-dependent growth rate can be an important determinant of intraspecific and interspecific patterns in Hg accumulation. The Hg concentrations observed in these sharks, in particular the blacktip shark, also suggested that Hg may pose a threat to shark health and fitness.

  9. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from secondary aluminum metallurgy industry in the southwest area, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Jian, Chuan; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises in the southwest area of China were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) were 0.015-0.16 ng x m(-3), and the average was 0.093 ng x m(-3) from secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises. Emission factors of PCDD/Fs (as TEQ) from the five secondary aluminum metallurgy enterprises varied between 0.041 and 4.68 microg x t(-1) aluminum, and the average was 2.01 microg x t(-1) aluminum; among them, PCDD/Fs emission factors from the crucible smelting furnace was the highest. Congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the five secondary aluminum metallurgies was very different from each other. Moreover, the R(PCDF/PCDD) was the lowest in the enterprise which was installed only with bag filters; the R(PCDF/PCDD) were 3.8-12.6 (the average, 7.7) in the others which were installed with water scrubbers. The results above indicated that the mechanism of PCDD/Fs formation was related to the types of exhaust gas treatment device. The results of this study can provide technical support for the formulation of PCDD/Fs emission standards and the best available techniques in the secondary aluminum metallurgy industry.

  10. Determining the spatial variability of crop yields of two different climatic regions in Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshonkulov, Ravshan; Poyda, Arne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Streck, Thilo

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the spatial variability of soil physical properties is crucial for agricultural land management. We determined the spatial variability within two agricultural fields in the regions of Kraichgau and Swabian Jura in Southwest Germany. We determined soil physical properties and recorded the temporal development of soil mineral nitrogen (N) and water content as well as that of plant variables (phenology, biomass, leaf area index (LAI), N content, green vegetation fraction (GVF). The work was conducted during the vegetation periods of 2015 and 2016 in winter wheat, and winter rapeseed in Kraichgau and winter barley and silage maize on Swabian Jura. Measurements were taken in three-weekly intervals. On each field, we identified three plots with reduced plant development using high-resolution (RapidEye) satellite images ("cold spots"). Measurements taken on these cold spots were compared to those from five established (long-term) reference plots representing the average field variability. The software EXPERT-N was used to simulate the soil crop system at both cold spots and reference plots. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify the most important parameters for the determination of spatial variability in crop growth dynamics.

  11. Internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness of gay/bisexual men from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-02-17

    Social attitudes toward male homosexuality in China so far are still not optimistic. Sexual minorities in China have reported high levels of internalized homophobia. This Internet-based study examined the associations among internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness among 435 gay/bisexual men in Southwest China from 2014 to 2015. Latent profile analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, univariate logistic regression, and separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. This descriptive study found the Internalized Homophobia Scale to be suitable for use in China. The sample demonstrated a high prevalence of internalized homophobia. Latent profile analysis suggested a 2-class solution as optimal, and a high level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (Wald = 6.49, AOR = 1.66), transactional sex during the previous 6 months (Wald = 5.23, AOR = 2.77), more sexual compulsions (Wald = 14.05, AOR = 2.12), and the concealment of sexual identity from others (Wald = 30.70, AOR = 0.30) and parents (Wald = 6.72, AOR = 0.49). These findings contribute to our understanding of internalized homophobia in China, and highlight the need to decrease gay-related psychological stress/distress and improve public health services.

  12. Community structure analysis of soil ammonia oxidizers during vegetation restoration in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yueming; He, Xunyang; Liang, Shichu; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Xiangbi; Feng, Shuzheng; Su, Yirong

    2014-03-01

    Soil ammonia oxidizers play a critical role in nitrogen cycling and ecological restoration. The composition and structure of soil ammonia oxidizers and their impacting factors were studied in four typical ecosystem soils, tussock (T), shrub (S), secondary forest (SF), and primary forest (PF), during vegetation restoration in the Karst region of Southwest China. The composition and structure of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) communities were characterized by sequencing the amoA and arch-amoA genes, respectively. The diversity of soil ammonia oxidizers (except in S) and plant Shannon diversity index gradually increased with vegetation restoration, and the ammonia oxidizer communities differed significantly (p soils. AOB Nitrosospira cluster 3b only appeared in PF and SF soils, while Nitrosospira cluster 3a species were found in all soils. Changes in AOB paralleled the changes in soil ammonium content that occurred with vegetation restoration. Redundancy analysis showed that the distribution of dominant AOB species was linked to pH, soil urease activity, and soil C/N ratio, whereas the distribution of dominant AOA species was mainly influenced by litter nitrogen content and C/N ratio. These results suggested that the composition and structure of the AOB community were more sensitive to changes in vegetation and soil ammonium content, and may be an important indicator of nitrogen availability in Karst ecosystem soils. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Entamoeba species infecting macaques in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Meng; Cai, Junlong; Min, Xiangyang; Fu, Yongfeng; Xu, Qing; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia

    2013-04-01

    Many colonies of macaques (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta) are maintained in China, especially in Guangxi and Guizhou. A total of 803 fresh stool samples infected with Entamoeba were obtained from three big colonies of macaques located in southwest China. The samples were examined for the presence of five Entamoeba species using PCR. Entamoeba nuttalli, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba chattoni infections were detected, but Entamoeba histolytica infection was not. This study is the first to report on the prevalence of E. nuttalli in wild macaques from China. Eighteen E. nuttalli isolates and five E. dispar isolates were obtained by culturing the samples in Tanabe-Chiba medium. The serine-rich protein (SRP), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), hexokinase (HXK), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI), and phosphoglucomutase (PGM) genes of E. nuttalli isolates were compared with other reported isolates. The results showed clear differences among the Chinese E. nuttalli isolates and other isolates based on the SRP gene sequences. However, HXK, GPI, and PGM genes of these strains were similar to those of other isolates. The rRNA genes of E. coli and E. chattoni were also amplified and analyzed from these samples. The results suggested that host species might be a more important factor than geographic location in amebic genetic diversity.

  14. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  15. Biozonation and biofacies analyses of Sarvak formation in the Southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolalipour, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Zagros basin is very considerable because of its reservoirs and special economical importance. Sarvak Formation is one of the significant carbonate reservoirs of Bangestan group in Zagros basin in Southwest of Iran which composed of shallow and deep-water carbonates that overlies transitionally Kazhdomi formation. Sarvak is the second reservoir after Asmari carbonate reservoir. The aims of this work are: (1) biozonation of studied section, Sarvak and Kazhdumi formations, which is very important during hydrocarbons production and (2) investigation of facieses and reconstruct the paleoenvironment. The identified biozones in studied sequence from base to top are as below: 1-Hemicyclammina- Orbitolina assemblage zone, belongs to Kazhdumi formation 2-Oligostegina facies & Globigerina washitensis occurrences, belongs to both Kazhdumi and Sarvak formations 3-Nezzazata- Alveolinid assemblage zone, belongs to Sarvak formation 4-Rudist debris, belongs to Sarvak formation 5-Nezzazata- Alveolinid assemblage zone, belongs to Sarvak formation These assemblages indicate the Albian-Cenomanian for the studied section. The study of deposits represents transitional boundary between Oligosteginid-bearing limestones from Kazhdumi formation into Sarvak sediments. Also there is disconformity at the top of the Sarvak formation which is overlaid by deposition of Gurpi shales with a disconformable boundary. According to facies analysis: Oligosteginid facies indicates deep marine environment with poor reservoir characteristics, Rudist facies as a good reservoir and benthonic foraminifera facies.

  16. Chronology of trap formation and migration of hydrocarbons in Zagros sector of southwest Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Sixty-three orogenically controlled oil and gas fields have been discovered in the Zagros sector of southwest Iran since teh turn of the present century. Most of the fields are giant, multi-reservoir accumulations producing from fractured carbonate pay zones ranging in age from permo-Triassic to Oligo-Miocene. The most prolific oil-producing zones are the Asmari formation (Oligo-Miocene( and the Bangestan Group (Upper Cretaceous). The available geochemical evidence indicates taht the major source of the oil is the underlying Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Kazhdumi Formation. It is argued that, in the main oil-producing area, the Kazhdumi source rock was not buried to the depth required for hydrocarbon generation until the Eocene, and that not significant oil explusion took place until the Miocene. entry of oil into the reservoirs is geologically a recent event; it postdates the late Miocene-Holocene Zagros orogeny that resulted in the formation of the present structural traps. It is suggested that the development of growth structures during the Late Cretaceous and Palogene could have contributed to some hydrocarbon localization prior to the formation of the late Tertiary traps.

  17. Structural geology of Amazonian-aged layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The structural geology of an outcropping of layered sedimentary deposits in southwest Candor Chasma is mapped using two adjacent high-resolution (1 m/pixel) HiRISE digital elevation models and orthoimagery. Analysis of these structural data yields new insight into the depositional and deformational history of these deposits. Bedding in non-deformed areas generally dips toward the center of west Candor Chasma, suggesting that these deposits are basin-filling sediments. Numerous kilometer-scale faults and folds characterize the deformation here. Normal faults of the requisite orientation and length for chasma-related faulting are not observed, indicating that the local sediments accumulated after chasma formation had largely ceased in this area. The cause of the observed deformation is attributed to landsliding within these sedimentary deposits. Observed crosscutting relationships indicate that a population of sub-vertical joints are the youngest deformational structures in the area. The distribution of strain amongst these joints, and an apparently youthful infill of sediment, suggests that these fractures have been active in the recent past. The source of the driving stress acting on these joints has yet to be fully constrained, but the joint orientations are consistent with minor subsidence within west Candor Chasma.

  18. Evaluation of Satellite and Reanalysis Soil Moisture Products over Southwest China Using Ground-Based Measurements

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    Jian Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term global satellite and reanalysis soil moisture products have been available for several years. In this study, in situ soil moisture measurements from 2008 to 2012 over Southwest China are used to evaluate the accuracy of four satellite-based products and one reanalysis soil moisture product. These products are the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth observing system (AMSR-E, the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, the European Space Agency’s Climate Change Initiative soil moisture (CCI SM, and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim. The evaluation of soil moisture absolute values and anomalies shows that all the products can capture the temporal dynamics of in situ soil moisture well. For AMSR-E and SMOS, larger errors occur, which are likely due to the severe effects of radio frequency interference (RFI over the test region. In general, the ERA-Interim (R = 0.782, ubRMSD = 0.035 m3/m3 and CCI SM (R = 0.723, ubRMSD = 0.046 m3/m3 perform the best compared to the other products. The accuracy levels obtained are comparable to validation results from other regions. Therefore, local hydrological applications and water resource management will benefit from the long-term ERA-Interim and CCI SM soil moisture products.

  19. Mineralization and geochemical studies in the Kalchouyeh occurrence, southwest of Naein

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    Hengameh Hosseini Dinani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kalchouyeh area in southwest of Naein is located in the Urumieh-Dokhtar volcano-plutonic belt. Mineralization occurred mainly as disseminations and veinlets hosted by trachy-andesite and pyroxene andesites. For mineralogy, alteration, fluid inclusion and geochemical studies, the two major mineralized zones: A (larger vein from the north-northwest and B (smaller vein from the east-southeast of the area were sampled. Alteration studies revealed that the main alteration assemblages are silicification and propylitic. The ore minerals are chalcopyrite, galena, pyrite, bornite, chalcocite, covellite, goethite, malachite, azurite, cerussite and cuprite with quartz, calcite and barite as the main gangues. Fluid inclusion studies demonstrated that salinity and homogenization temperatures were 0.38-4.23 and 0.166-9.188 wt% NaCl and 175-252°C and 250-324°C at the A and B veins, respectively. Rare Earth Element (REE plots show negative slopes that is one of the features for calc-alkaline magmas. La/Y is higher than 1 showing that mineralizing fluids were neutral to basic. According to the data, direction of ore-bearing fluids movement was determined to be from east-southeast toward north-northwest (from B to A veins(, approximate site of mineralization center is located adjacent to smaller vein and the mineralization is epithermal in type.

  20. Impacts of Resettlement Programs on Deforestation of Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests in Southwest Ethiopia

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    Kefelegn Getahun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe land degradation and the consequent series of drought and famine episodes have caused major waves of human migration in Ethiopia over the past 5 decades. The main objective of this study was to assess the impacts of consecutive resettlement programs (spontaneous and planned on the forests in southwest Ethiopia. The spatial distribution and extent of forest cover were mapped for the periods 1957, 1975, and 2007 based on visual interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images. The rate of deforestation was analyzed using overlay and buffer analysis techniques available in ArcGIS software. Focus group discussions and household surveys were conducted to collect information on landscape (forest change and the causes and consequences of deforestation. Results from the forest cover change analysis revealed that the study area lost large tracts (80% of its forest cover between 1957 and 2007. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural changes introduced by migrants were the leading drivers of deforestation in the study area. In addition, the rate of deforestation in the region has been exacerbated by a low level of education and awareness of the local people about the benefits of forests, lack of regulations to protect the forests, habitat destruction to deter crop-damaging wild pests, forest clearing for fuelwood and charcoal making, and wood extraction for construction and household furniture purposes.

  1. Water Relationships in the U.S. Southwest: Characterizing Water Management Networks Using Natural Language Processing

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    John T. Murphy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and named entity recognition (NER techniques are applied to collections of newspaper articles from four cities in the U.S. Southwest. The results are used to generate a network of water management institutions that reflect public perceptions of water management and the structure of water management in these areas. This structure can be highly centralized or fragmented; in the latter case, multiple peer institutions exist that may cooperate or be in conflict. This is reflected in the public discourse of the water consumers in these areas and can, we contend, impact the potential responses of management agencies to challenges of water supply and quality and, in some cases, limit their effectiveness. Flagstaff, AZ, Tucson, AZ, Las Vegas, NV, and the Grand Valley, CO, are examined, including more than 110,000 articles from 2004–2012. Documents are scored by association with water topics, and phrases likely to be institutions are extracted via custom NLP and NER algorithms; those institutions associated with water-related documents are used to form networks via document co-location. The Grand Valley is shown to have a markedly different structure, which we contend reflects the different historical trajectory of its development and its current state, which includes multiple institutions of roughly equal scope and size. These results demonstrate the utility of using NLP and NER methods to understanding the structure and variation of water management systems.

  2. Are we bridging the gap? Evaluating climate assessment and translational science efforts in the US Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Garfin, G.; McDonald, D.; Rice, J.; Stuart, M.

    2008-12-01

    Instituted in 1998 as part of NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments program, the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS) program has conducted 10 years of use-inspired science aimed at improving the ability of decision makers in the southwestern United States to respond to climate variability and change. Beginning in the Fall of 2007, we began a pilot evaluation project to understand better how the work done by CLIMAS is impacting the communities with whom we work. The evaluation approach combined qualitative and quantitative methods to understand stakeholder, partner, and collaborator perspectives on CLIMAS work. The primary goals of the project were to determine: (a) penetration of CLIMAS information to stakeholders, (b) the perceived salience, credibility, and legitimacy of CLIMAS research and outreach, and (c) changes in stakeholder attitudes, knowledge, and behavior as a result of partnerships and collaborative processes. This presentation will briefly focus on two aspects of this evaluation effort: 1) key results from the evaluation, with a particular emphasis on whom the program is reaching and examples of CLIMAS work successfully informing decision making processes; 2) insights and lessons learned from the evaluation process itself.

  3. Responses of rubber leaf phenology to climatic variations in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, De-Li; Yu, Haiying; Chen, Si-Chong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-11-01

    The phenology of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) could be influenced by meteorological factors and exhibits significant changes under different geoclimates. In the sub-optimal environment in Xishuangbanna, rubber trees undergo lengthy periods of defoliation and refoliation. The timing of refoliation from budburst to leaf aging could be affected by powdery mildew disease (Oidium heveae), which negatively impacts seed and latex production. Rubber trees are most susceptible to powdery mildew disease at the copper and leaf changing stages. Understanding and predicting leaf phenology of rubber trees are helpful to develop effective means of controlling the disease. This research investigated the effect of several meteorological factors on different leaf phenological stages in a sub-optimal environment for rubber cultivation in Jinghong, Yunnan in Southwest China. Partial least square regression was used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and recorded rubber phenologies from 2003 to 2011. Minimum temperature in December was found to be the critical factor for the leaf phenology development of rubber trees. Comparing the delayed effects of minimum temperature, the maximum temperature, diurnal temperature range, and sunshine hours were found to advancing leaf phenologies. A comparatively lower minimum temperature in December would facilitate the advancing of leaf phenologies of rubber trees. Higher levels of precipitation in February delayed the light green and the entire process of leaf aging. Delayed leaf phenology was found to be related to severe rubber powdery mildew disease. These results were used to build predictive models that could be applied to early warning systems of rubber powdery mildew disease.

  4. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

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    V Barati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad dis­trict in southwest of Iran.Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive.Results: Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7% and female (8.3% seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1% was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4% of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms.Conclusion: It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

  5. Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M; Kitterlin, Miranda; Jahangiry, Sheida; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Van Passel, Steven; Azadi, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled the use of this practice on a large scale in many areas, including Iran. It stands to reason that a greater understanding of this practice could be formed after a review of the existing expert opinions surrounding GM crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the predictors that influence agricultural experts' attitudes toward the development of and policies related to GM crops. Using a descriptive correlational research method, questionnaire data was collected from 65 experts from the Agricultural Organization in the Gotvand district in Southwest Iran. Results indicated that agricultural experts were aware of the environmental benefits and possible risks associated with GM crops. The majority of participants agreed that GM crops could improve food security and accelerate rural development, and were proponents of labeling practices for GM crops. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the perception of benefits and attitudes towards GM crops.

  6. Multi Stakeholders' Attitudes toward Bt rice in Southwest, Iran: Application of TPB and Multi Attribute Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Omid M; Ghanian, Mansour; Baradaran, Masoud; Azadi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice. It is assumed and the results confirm that "attitudes toward GM crops" can be used as a bridge in the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model in order to establish an integrated model. To this end, a case study was made of the Southwest part of Iran in order to verify this research model. This study also revealed that as a part of the integrated research framework in the Behavior Intention Model both constructs of attitude and the subjective norm of the respondents serve as the predicting factors of stakeholders' intentions of working with Bt rice. In addition, the Attitude Model, as the other part of the integrated research framework, showed that the stakeholders' attitudes toward Bt rice can only be determined by the perceived benefits (e.g. positive outcomes) of Bt rice.

  7. Terrace Agriculture of the Hani People – Cultural Heritage of the South-West China

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    Kladovshchikova Mariya Evgenyevna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the features of terrace agriculture of Hani and Yi indigenous minorities, living in the Yunnan province in the South-West China, just a step away from the Laos and Vietnam boundaries. The cultural landscape of the Hani rice terraces, included into the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2013 (Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, expresses the conservation of the minorities’ course of life during the last 1 300 years. The geological framework, climate patterns and conform type of vegetation predefine the specific character of natural conditions necessary for terrace agriculture and red rice growth – the most important crop within the region. At that, the landscape picture which fully reflects the season fluctuations of regional subtropical climate, also facilitates to aesthetic and romantic perception forming, symbolizing man-made environment integral and interlaced into natural landscape. The special focus is made on the description of terraced slopes unique morphology and ancient land cultivation technologies for the essential regional culture – red rice. Preservation of centuries-old traditions of efficient agriculture makes it possible to achieve integration of cultural and natural landscapes, that seamlessly comprises the ethnic minorities’ life, as well as to prevent development of erosion and landslide slope processes. The elements of the traditional Hani people way of life, including ritual customs associated with terrace agriculture, are particularly described.

  8. Variability in thyroid function test requests across general practices in south-west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Bijay; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Shuttleworth, Joanna; Bromley, Alan; Lewis, Aled; Hyde, Chris; Patterson, Anthea; Fleming, Simon; Tomlinson, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The number of thyroid function tests (TFTs) performed in the UK and other countries has increased considerably in recent years. Inconsistent clinical practice associated with inappropriate requests for tests is thought to be an important cause for this increase. To study the extent of variability in requests for TFTs from general practices. We analysed routine data on all TFTs on patients aged 16 years and over carried out by two hospitals in south-west England (Royal Cornwall Hospital and Royal Devon & Exeter Hospital) during 2010 at the request of 107 general practices. A total of 195 309 TFT requests were made for 148 412 patients (63% female). The total requests included 192 108 tests for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), 43 069 for free thyroxine (FT4) and 1972 for free tri-iodothyronine (FT3). The number of TSH tests per 1000 list size varied widely across the practices, ranging from 84 to 482. Most of the variation was due to heterogeneity across practices and only 24% of this was accounted for by prevalence of hypothyroidism and socio-economic deprivation. There is wide variation in TFT requests from general practice and scope to reduce both unnecessary TFTs and the variability in the clinical practice. Further studies are required to understand the causes for the variability in testing thyroid function.

  9. A framework for sea level rise vulnerability assessment for southwest U.S. military installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, B.; Flick, Reinhard; Helly, J.; Nishikawa, T.; Pei, Fang Wang; O'Reilly, W.; Guza, R.; Bromirski, Peter; Young, A.; Crampton, W.; Wild, B.; Canner, I.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an analysis framework to determine military installation vulnerabilities under increases in local mean sea level as projected over the next century. The effort is in response to an increasing recognition of potential climate change ramifications for national security and recommendations that DoD conduct assessments of the impact on U.S. military installations of climate change. Results of the effort described here focus on development of a conceptual framework for sea level rise vulnerability assessment at coastal military installations in the southwest U.S. We introduce the vulnerability assessment in the context of a risk assessment paradigm that incorporates sources in the form of future sea level conditions, pathways of impact including inundation, flooding, erosion and intrusion, and a range of military installation specific receptors such as critical infrastructure and training areas. A unique aspect of the methodology is the capability to develop wave climate projections from GCM outputs and transform these to future wave conditions at specific coastal sites. Future sea level scenarios are considered in the context of installation sensitivity curves which reveal response thresholds specific to each installation, pathway and receptor. In the end, our goal is to provide a military-relevant framework for assessment of accelerated SLR vulnerability, and develop the best scientifically-based scenarios of waves, tides and storms and their implications for DoD installations in the southwestern U.S. ?? 2011 MTS.

  10. A multi-case study of school gardens in Southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly Ann

    Many children today spend little time outdoors exploring the natural world and a great deal of time inside viewing the television or playing video games. This new condition of childhood has many negative ramifications, such as poor social development, childhood obesity, and a lack of feeling connected to the environment. One instructional tool being used by some schools to address these rising concerns is a school garden. School gardens can provide an opportunity for students to experience learning in a real-world application, outside of the classroom walls. This qualitative multi-case study explores three school gardens in Southwest Montana and tells each of their unique stories. Through the process of participant observation, interviews, and the collection of multiple data sources, a thorough description is given of the history behind the gardens, how they have impacted the teachers and students, what challenges they have faced, and the common characteristics found in a successful school garden program. During the data analysis process, themes for each case study site were revealed. The results of this study found that each school garden was unique in character and purpose and that a number of dedicated garden supporters are essential to the success of a garden program. In conclusion, suggestions and resources were provided for practitioners interested in pursuing a garden program.

  11. Bison and elk in the American Southwest: In search of the pristine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Joe

    1996-03-01

    Ecosystem managers often use the early historic condition of the fauna in an area as the model for restoration or management. West of the Pecos River in the American Southwest, present-day abundances and distributional ranges of bison and American elk exceed those reported in early historic times. I evaluate several potential causes for the historic scarcity of these animals—inadequate forage, insufficient water, nonhuman predation, disease, and hunting by late-prehistoric humans. Archaeological and ecological evidence suggest that restricted availability of water coupled with hunting by late-prehistoric peoples probably were the most important causes. Perennial water is more widely distributed now than previously, mainly because of water well and water catchment construction. Proliferation of agriculture-based human economies in the region from AD 0 1500 led to rapid population growth of aboriginal peoples, with resulting increased harvests of resources. The likelihood that late-prehistoric humans severely depleted the abundances of large mammals indicates a need to reevaluate the exclusive use of early-historic conditions as the basis for setting goals for ecosystem management. Implications of reintroducing large herbivores to ecosystems are discussed.

  12. Reproductive biology of the spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui in the south-west Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonello, J C; García, M L; Lasta, C A; Menni, R C

    2012-06-01

    This study provides information on the reproduction of spotback skate Atlantoraja castelnaui. A total of 232 individuals (119 females and 113 males) were obtained from surveys carried out between 2003 and 2006, from the south-west Atlantic Ocean, between 34 and 42° S and <50 m deep; another 514 specimens (241 females and 273 males) were obtained between 2005 and 2007 from commercial fishery operations carried out in the same area and landings in the port of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Males ranged from 185 to 1250 mm total length (L(T) ) and females from 243 to 1368 mm L(T) . Length at maturity was estimated to be 980 mm for males and 1089 mm L(T) for females. Lack of variation of testis mass together with the continuous production of mature spermatocyst and spermatozoa in deferent ducts suggested that males can reproduce throughout the year. Females reproduced year-round with peaks of reproductive activity an integral part of a continuous cycle. This conclusion is corroborated by the seasonal variation of ovaries, oviducal gland and the occurrence of females with eggs in the uterus throughout the year. Results from this study indicate that A. castelnaui is very susceptible to fishery pressure. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Temporal and Spatial Variability of Droughts in Southwest China from 1961 to 2012

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    Yaohuan Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Southwest China (SC has suffered a series of super extreme droughts in the last decade. This study analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of drought in SC from 1961 to 2012. Based on precipitation anomaly index (PAI that was derived from 1 km gridded precipitation data, three time scales (month, year and decade for the drought frequency (DF and drought area were applied to estimate the spatio-temporal structure of droughts. A time-series analysis showed that winter droughts and spring droughts occurred frequently for almost half of the year from November to March. Summer droughts occasionally occurred in severe drought decades: the 1960s, 1980s and 2000s. During the period of observation, the percent of drought area in SC increased from the 1960s (<5% to the 2000s (>25%. A total of 57% of the area was affected by drought in 2011, when the area experienced its most severe drought both in terms of area and severity. The spatial analysis, which benefitted from the gridded data, detailed that all of SC is at drought risk except for the central Sichuan Basin. The area at high risk for severe and extreme droughts was localized in the mountains of the junction of Sichuan and Yunnan. The temporal and spatial variability can be prerequisites for drought resistance planning and drought risk management of SC.

  14. Outstanding diversity of heritage features in large geological bodies: The Gachsaran Formation in southwest Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Tahereh; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-09-01

    The ideas of geological heritage and geological diversity have become very popular in the modern science. These are usually applied to geological domains or countries, provinces, districts, etc. Additionally, it appears to be sensible to assess heritage value of geological bodies. The review of the available knowledge and the field investigation of the Gachsaran Formation (lower Miocene) in southwest Iran permit to assign its features and the relevant phenomena to as much as 10 geological heritage types, namely stratigraphical, sedimentary, palaeontological, palaeogeographical, geomorphological, hydrogeological, engineering, structural, economical, and geohistorical types. The outstanding diversity of the features of this formation determines its high heritage value and the national rank. The geological heritage of the Gachsaran Formation is important to scientists, educators, and tourists. The Papoon and Abolhaiat sections of this formation are potential geological heritage sites, although these do not represent all above-mentioned types. The large territory, where the Gachsaran Formation outcrop, has a significant geoconservation and geotourism potential, and further inventory of geosites on this territory is necessary. Similar studies of geological bodies in North Africa and the Middle East can facilitate better understanding of the geological heritage of this vast territory.

  15. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon species in pigeons of southwest of Iran

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    Mehdi Tavalla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microsporidia species in pigeons of Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran by the staining and multiplex/nested PCR methods. Methods: Initially, 131 stool specimens were randomly collected from pigeons. The specimens were stained by the modified trichrome (Weber and were microscopically examined. The DNA was extracted by DNA stool extraction kit (Bioneer and was examined by the multiplex/nested PCR method. For differentiating the species of Encephalitozoon, the products of PCR were explored by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using the Mnl1 restriction enzyme. Results: Of 131 specimens, 22 and 18 cases were positive by the staining and the multiplex/ nested-PCR methods, respectively. Of 18, 7 and 11 samples were detected as Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp., respectively. In addition, 2 Encephalitozoon cuniculi and 9 Encephalitozoon intestinalis were Encephalitozoon species. Of 7 Enterocytozoon bieneusi samples, 5 and 2 cases were detected as genotype M and L, respectively. Also, all Encephalitozoon cuniculi samples were identified as genotype II. Conclusions: Our findings showed a relatively high prevalence of microsporidia at pigeons and these birds can be a significant and important source of microsporidiosis. It is essential that the high-risk individuals including patients with immunodeficient diseases should be receiving the accurate and valid information about the risk of direct and indirect contact with the infected pigeons.

  16. Land use influences on acidification and recovery of freshwaters in Galloway, south-west Scotland

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    R. C. Helliwell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The long term response of surface waters to changes in sulphur deposition and afforestation is investigated for three upland river systems in the Galloway region of south-west Scotland. From 1984-1999, these rivers exhibited a statistically significant decline in non-marine sulphate concentrations in response to reduced acid deposition. This reduction in non-marine sulphate was, however, insufficient to induce a pH recovery over the period. A statistically significant increase in river pH was observed between 1956-1970 (0.05 yr-1 when subsidised agricultural lime payments were at a maximum. In 1976, this subsidy ceased and surface waters have progressively acidified. In addition, climatic change is found to influence long-term trends in pH. Mean annual pH was greatest during a dry period between 1969-1973 when total annual discharge was low. Thereafter, pH declined gradually in response to higher rainfall and increased total annual discharge. Overall, surface waters draining the afforested catchments of the Rivers Cree and Bladnoch are more acid than those draining the moorland catchment of the Luce. These results indicate that in afforested catchments, current reductions in sulphur emissions have not led to an observed improvement in the acid status of surface waters. Forestry, therefore, represents a confounding factor with regard to chemical recovery from acidification in this region. Keywords: acidification, afforestation, deposition, rivers, lochs, non-marine sulphate, pH

  17. Relationships between groundwater, surface water, and soil salinity in Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, D. C.; Ayers, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal areas of Southwest Bangladesh polders are surrounded by tidal channels filled with brackish water. In the wet season, farmers create openings in the embankments to irrigate rice paddies. In the dry season, farmers do the same to create saline shrimp ponds. Residents on Polder 32, located within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta system, practice these seasonal farming techniques. Soils in the area are entisols, being sediment recently deposited, and contain mostly silt-sized particles. Brackish water in brine shrimp ponds may deposit salt in the soil, causing soil salinization. However, saline connate groundwater could also be contributing to soil salinization. Groundwater, surface water (fresh water pond, rice paddy and tidal channel water) and soil samples have been analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and ion chromatography in an attempt to correlate salinity measurements with each other in order to determine major sources of soil salinity. Multiple parameters, including distances of samples from tidal channels, inland streams, shrimp ponds and tube wells were measured to see if spatial correlations exist. Similarly, values from wet and dry seasons were compared to quantify temporal variations. Salt content in many soil samples were found to be high enough to significantly decrease rice yields. Continued soil salinization can decrease these yields even more, leading to farmers not producing enough food to sustain their families.

  18. Instructional Technology and School Ethos: A Primary School Model in Southwest England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Jon Byker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The way in which information and communication technology (ICT enhances the dimensions of teaching and student learning is not well understood. As a result, schools and teacher often integrate ICT with little thought to how it could be educationally profitable or pedagogically meaningful. The literature calls for models of primary school ICT integration. This paper reports on a case study of a primary school (or elementary school model of technology integration. Specifically, the case study investigates a public, primary school located in rural Southwest England. In particular, the paper describes how ICT is integrated in a Grade Six classroom in this primary school. Using a mixed-methods research methodology, the study’s data is drawn from 60 participants (n=60, including the school’s teachers and students. The analyses of this study uncovered a strong link between successful ICT integration and school ethos. Furthermore, the study found that along with school ethos the teacher leadership fostered an environment where the integration of ICT can flourish and students are motivated to learn.

  19. A Cenozoic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) in the southwest Pacific without rift or plume origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Panter, Kurt S.

    2005-02-01

    Common geological, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics of continental fragments of East Gondwana and adjacent oceanic lithosphere define a long-lived, low-volume, diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) encompassing the easternmost part of the Indo-Australian Plate, West Antarctica, and the southwest portion of the Pacific Plate. A key to generating the Cenozoic magmatism is the combination of metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, in contrast to large igneous provinces where mantle temperatures are presumed to be high. The SW Pacific DAMP magmatism has been conjecturally linked to rifting, strike-slip faulting, mantle plumes, or hundreds of hot spots, but all of these associations have flaws. We suggest instead that sudden detachment and sinking of subducted slabs in the late Cretaceous induced Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities along the former Gondwana margin that in turn triggered lateral and vertical flow of warm Pacific mantle. The interaction of the warm mantle with metasomatized subcontinental lithosphere that characterizes much of the SW Pacific DAMP concentrates magmatism along zones of weakness. The model may also provide a mechanism for warming south Pacific mantle and resulting Cenozoic alkaline magmatism, where the oceanic areas are characterized primarily, but not exclusively, by short-lived hot spot tracks not readily explained by conventional mantle plume theory. This proposed south Pacific DAMP is much larger and longer-lived than previously considered.

  20. Melting glaciers stimulate large summer phytoplankton blooms in southwest Greenland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.; Castelao, Renato M.; Luo, Hao; Rennermalm, Ósa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Mote, Thomas L.; Oliver, Hilde; Yager, Patricia L.

    2017-06-01

    Each summer, large quantities of freshwater and associated dissolved and particulate material are released from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) into local fjords where they promote local phytoplankton growth. Whether the influx of freshwater and associated micronutrients in glacial meltwater is able to stimulate phytoplankton growth beyond the fjords is disputed, however. Here we show that the arrival of freshwater discharge from outlet glaciers from both southeast and southwest GrIS coincides with large-scale blooms in the Labrador Sea that extend over 300 km from the coast during summer. This summer bloom develops about a week after the arrival of glacial meltwater in early July and persists until the input of glacial meltwater slows in August or September, accounting for 40% of annual net primary production for the area. In view of the absence of a significant change in the depth of the mixed layer associated with the arrival of glacial meltwater to the Labrador Sea, we suggest that the increase in phytoplankton biomass and productivity in summer is likely driven by a greater nutrient supply (most likely iron). Our results highlight that the ecological impact of meltwater from the GrIS likely extends far beyond the boundaries of the local fjords, encompassing much of the eastern Labrador Sea. Such impacts may increase if melting of the GrIS accelerates as predicted.

  1. [Study of dental attrition in a medieval adult population from Southwest France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, R; Boimond, L; Sevin, A; Donat, R; Lucas, S; Grimoud, A M

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the authors was to study dental attrition in a medieval sample of paired mandibles and maxillas from the Southwest France (IX to XV century). We selected 58 adult individuals with maxillas and mandibles in good state of conservation, 29 women and 29 men from the medieval collection of Vilarnau-d'Amont (Western Pyrenees, France). Attrition was graded according to the Brabant index. We found a high prevalence of attrition in this sample. The first molars (M1) were the maxillary and mandibular teeth most concerned by attrition. The most frequent attrition level was level 2, with dentin exposure. We did not find any significant difference of tooth wear between maxillary and mandibular teeth, even if maxillary teeth seemed to be more worn. There was symmetry of attrition between the left and right side. There was no significant difference between men and women. Working on paired mandibles and maxillas showed that attrition in the middle age was a global phenomenon, intermaxillary and symmetric. It was much more severe than today, rapidly evolving and generalized because of the abrasive quality of food, cooking, chewing habits, and intensity of chewing pressure.

  2. Urban Heat Stress Vulnerability in the U.S. Southwest: The Role of Sociotechnical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pincetl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat vulnerability of urban populations is becoming a major issue of concern with climate change, particularly in the cities of the Southwest United States. In this article we discuss the importance of understanding coupled social and technical systems, how they constitute one another, and how they form the conditions and circumstances in which people experience heat. We discuss the particular situation of Los Angeles and Maricopa Counties, their urban form and the electric grid. We show how vulnerable populations are created by virtue of the age and construction of buildings, the morphology of roads and distribution of buildings on the landscape. Further, the regulatory infrastructure of electricity generation and distribution also contributes to creating differential vulnerability. We contribute to a better understanding of the importance of sociotechnical systems. Social infrastructure includes codes, conventions, rules and regulations; technical systems are the hard systems of pipes, wires, buildings, roads, and power plants. These interact to create lock-in that is an obstacle to addressing issues such as urban heat stress in a novel and equitable manner.

  3. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G Page; Morgan, M Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-11-15

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3-7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35-40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  4. Key pluvial parameters in assessing rainfall erosivity in the south-west development region, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Monica; Dragotă, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Dumitraşcu, Costin; Vlăduţ, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Located in the south-western part of Romania, the south-west development region overlaps the main relief forms: the Carpathians mountains, the Getic Subcarpathians, the Getic piedmont, the Romanian plain and the Danube valley. The study aims at providing an overview on the main pluvial parameters and their role in assessing rainfall erosivity in the study area. The authors assessed the occurrence, frequency and magnitude of some of the most significant pluvial parameters and their impact on the climatic aggressiveness in the study area. Thus, the monthly and annual mean and extreme climatic values for different rainfall related parameters (e.g., maximum amounts of precipitation/24 hr, heavy rainfall), as well as relevant indices and indicators for pluvial aggressiveness (Fournier, Fournier Modified, Angot) were calculated. The rainfall erosivity was assessed in order to provide both the spatial distribution of the triggering extreme weather phenomena and the resulted intensity classes for the analysed indices and indicators. The authors used long-term precipitation records (1961-2010) for the selected relevant meteorological stations distributed throughout all analysed relief units.

  5. Seasonal variations of selected biomarkers in sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus from the Guadalquivir Estuary, Southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Kopecka, J; Parra, L M García de la

    2006-02-01

    Sand gobies, Pomatoschistus minutus, were collected monthly from September 2002 to August 2003 at a station situated 8 km upstream from the mouth of the Guadalquivir estuary (southwest Spain). Physical parameters of the water and selected biomarkers of organic pollution were recorded in the fish to discuss its potential as a sentinel species in estuaries. The biomarkers selected were the activities of catalase (CAT), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lipid peroxidation (LP) in the head. The results showed an increase in total protein synthesis in late spring and early summer coinciding with the reproductive period as well as the release of fresh water from a dam situated 110 km upstream. During the same period, a significant depletion of hepatic GST and head AChE but higher LP levels in this tissue suggest exposure to pesticides such as those applied to crops established along the course of the river and reaching the estuary mostly when the freshwater discharges occur. Changes in CAT and EROD activities fluctuated randomly and were not noted as seasonally dependent. Biomarker fluctuations in sand goby are discussed as normal seasonal variations, but other variables-such as potential local pollution inputs-cannot be disregarded.

  6. The Effect of the Leeuwin Current on Offshore Surface Gravity Waves in Southwest Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandres, Moritz; Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Cosoli, Simone; Pattiaratchi, Charitha

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of regional wave regimes is critical for coastal zone planning, protection, and management. In this study, the influence of the offshore current regime on surface gravity waves on the southwest Western Australian (SWWA) continental shelf was examined. This was achieved by coupling the three dimensional, free surface, terrain-following hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) and the third generation wave model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-WaveSediment Transport (COAWST) model. Different representative states of the Leeuwin Current (LC), a strong pole-ward flowing boundary current with a persistent eddy field along the SWWA shelf edge were simulated and used to investigate their influence on different large wave events. The coupled wave-current simulations were compared to wave only simulations, which represented scenarios in the absence of a background current field. Results showed that the LC and the eddy field significantly impact SWWA waves. Significant wave heights increased (decreased) when currents were opposing (aligning with) the incoming wave directions. During a fully developed LC system significant wave heights were altered by up to ±25% and wave directions by up to ±20°. The change in wave direction indicates that the LC may modify nearshore wave dynamics and consequently alter sediment patterns. Operational regional wave forecasts and hindcasts may give flawed predictions if wave-current interaction is not properly accounted for.

  7. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  8. Specific features of basalts from the western part of Andrew Bain Fault, Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyve, A. A.; Skolotnev, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports original data on the composition of volcanic rocks in the western part of the Andrew Bain Fault of the South-West Indian Ridge obtained in the 23rd voyage of R/V Akademik Nikolai Strakhov. In accordance with high La/Th and low Nb/U ratios, the basalt compositions of stations S2317, S2318, and S2330 could result from melting of the DM-type source with HIMU traces. Meanwhile, the enriched samples of station S2326 correspond to a mantle source with a considerable contribution of recycled sediments (EM). Sample S2326/35, which is composed of a melt almost completely depleted in EM material, corresponds to the volcanic rocks of the Marion and Prince Edward islands. The obtained and available data on the SWIR segment from Bouvet Island to Andrew Bain Fault are indicative of small mantle heterogeneities in this region. Two possible variants of their origin are considered: either preservation of the enriched material fragments in the depleted mantle during the split of Gondwana or "contamination" of the mantle with plume material with the formation of vein irregularities before opening of the ocean in this region. In the latter case, the plume material could cover a huge area not constrained by the young plume magmatism regions on Bouvet, Marion, and Prince Edward islands.

  9. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  10. Trace metal concentrations in sediments from the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Blasco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal sediment concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn in surface sediments (0 to 5 cm from 11 sampling stations in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (the Ria Formosa and the Guadiana River, the Ría de Huelva and the Bay of Cadiz were determined in two seasonal periods (autumn 2006 and spring 2007. No seasonal metal concentration pattern was identified, as similar values were found in both periods. The highest concentrations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium were reported in the Ria of Huelva area, and those of mercury and nickel in the Bay of Cadiz. The hazard potential index (HPiM was determined to assess the potential risk associated with metal contamination (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn, taking into account extractable (presumed bioavailable fractions of these metals and site-specific sediment quality values. When the HPiM is > 1 there is risk, and according to this index Ría de Huelva is polluted whereas the Bay of Cadiz is not.

  11. Demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV/STI among Vietnamese female sex workers in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yeon Jung; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhou, Yuejiao; Chen, Yi; Shen, Zhiyong

    2016-11-01

    Previous literature has suggested high rates of HIV/STIs among Chinese FSWs. However, limited data were available regarding HIV-related risks among Vietnamese FSWs - a rapidly increasing, vulnerable population in southwest China. The current study examined the demographic and behavioral factors associated with the infection rates of HIV, syphilis, and Hepatitis C (HCV) among Vietnamese FSWs in Guangxi, China. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a cumulative sample of 1026 Vietnamese FSWs (aged 14-66) recruited over five years (2010-2014) from 35 National Sentinel Surveillance sites in Guangxi. Analyses included Fisher's exact chi-square test, t-test, and binary logistic regression. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections among the cross-border women were 3.2%, 6.9%, and 2.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that greater lengths of sex work and low paying work venues were significant risk factors for HIV infection; for syphilis infection, older age, drug use experience, and forgoing condom use were significant risk factors; for HCV infection, drug use experience was the only significant risk factor. Our findings suggest that elevated HIV-related risks among the Vietnamese FSWs are closely related to their financial disadvantages and that drug use is a prominent risk factor for cross-border women in the sex trade. Furthermore, culturally tailored and linguistically accessible HIV prevention and intervention initiatives that target cross-border FSWs, with a close international collaboration between China and Vietnam, are urgently needed.

  12. Consumptive Water Use from Electricity Generation in the Southwest under Alternative Climate, Technology, and Policy Futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talati, Shuchi; Zhai, Haibo; Kyle, G. Page; Morgan, M. Granger; Patel, Pralit; Liu, Lu

    2016-10-21

    This research assesses climate, technological, and policy impacts on consumptive water use from electricity generation in the Southwest over a planning horizon of nearly a century. We employed an integrated modeling framework taking into account feedbacks between climate change, air temperature and humidity, and consequent power plant water requirements. These direct impacts of climate change on water consumption by 2095 differ with technology improvements, cooling systems, and policy constraints, ranging from a 3–7% increase over scenarios that do not incorporate ambient air impacts. Upon additional factors being changed that alter electricity generation, water consumption increases by up to 8% over the reference scenario by 2095. With high penetration of wet recirculating cooling, consumptive water required for low-carbon electricity generation via fossil fuels will likely exacerbate regional water pressure as droughts become more common and population increases. Adaptation strategies to lower water use include the use of advanced cooling technologies and greater dependence on solar and wind. Water consumption may be reduced by 50% in 2095 from the reference, requiring an increase in dry cooling shares to 35–40%. Alternatively, the same reduction could be achieved through photovoltaic and wind power generation constituting 60% of the grid, consistent with an increase of over 250% in technology learning rates.

  13. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  14. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-09

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  15. Elevational Distribution of Adult Trees and Seedlings in a Tropical Montane Transect, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Montane habitats are characterized by high variation of environmental factors within small geographic ranges, which offers opportunities to explore how forest assemblages respond to changes in environmental conditions. Understanding the distributional transition of adult trees and seedlings will provide insight into the fate of forest biodiversity in response to future climate change. We investigated the elevational distribution of 156 species of adult trees and 152 species of seedlings in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Adult trees and seedlings were surveyed within 5 replicate plots established at each of 4 elevational bands (800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 m above sea level. We found that species richness of both adult trees and seedlings changed with elevation, showing a notable decline in diversity values from 1000 to 1200 m. Tree species composition also demonstrated distinct differences between 1000 and 1200 m, marking the division between tropical seasonal rain forest (800 and 1000 m and tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (1200 and 1400 m. The results suggested that soil moisture and temperature regimes were associated with elevational distribution of tree species in this region. We also observed that seedlings from certain species found at high elevations were also distributed in low-elevation zones, but no seedlings of species from low elevations were distributed in high-elevation zones. The increase in temperature and droughts predicted for this region may result in the contraction of tropical seasonal rain forest at lower elevations and a downhill shift of higher tropical montane tree species.

  16. High incidence of dry eye in young children with allergic conjunctivitis in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Pi, Lianhong; Fang, Jing; Chen, Xinke; Ke, Ning; Liu, Qing

    2016-12-01

    To identify the prevalence of dry eye in pediatric population with allergic conjunctivitis in Southwest China. A single-centre, prospective, case-control study conducted between May 2015 and December 2015 included 40 children, 3-6 years of age, with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) or perennial allergic conjunctivitis (PAC) and 40 age- and gender-matched children undergoing medical healthy examination without history of allergy or dry eye as a control. A dry eye score system (DESS) was administered to both groups. Slit-lamp examinations including tear film break-up time (TFBUT) and fluorescent corneal staining (FCS) were performed. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate associations between measures of dry eye and signs and symptoms of AC. The prevalence of dry eye was 97.5% (78/80 eyes) in cases and 27.50% (22/80 eyes) in controls. Mean DESS score was 4.75 ± 2.22 in the case group and 0.80 ± 1.22 in the control group (p conjunctivitis. The incidence of dry eye assessed by TFBUT was higher in young children with SAC and PAC than in controls. However, subjective symptoms of dry eye (DESS) were inconsistent with objective signs, indicating that close attention should be paid to the evaluation and treatment of dry eye in pediatric population with AC. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distinct phases of eustatic and tectonic forcing for late Quaternary landscape evolution in southwest Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Begg, John; Fülling, Alexander; Moraetis, Daniel; Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Oncken, Onno

    2017-09-01

    The extent to which climate, eustasy and tectonics interact to shape the late Quaternary landscape is poorly known. Alluvial fans often provide useful indexes that allow the decoding of information recorded on complex coastal landscapes, such as those of the eastern Mediterranean. In this paper we analyse and date (using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating) a double alluvial fan system on southwest Crete, an island straddling the forearc of the Hellenic subduction margin, in order to constrain the timing and magnitude of its vertical deformation and discuss the factors contributing to its landscape evolution. The studied alluvial system is exceptional because each of its two juxtaposed fans records individual phases of alluvial and marine incision, thus providing unprecedented resolution in the formation and evolution of its landscape. Specifically, our analysis shows that the fan sequence at Domata developed during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 due to five distinct stages of marine transgressions and regressions and associated river incision, in response to sea-level fluctuations and tectonic uplift at averaged rates of ˜ 2.2 mm yr-1. Interestingly, comparison of our results with published tectonic uplift rates from western Crete shows that uplift during 20-50 kyr BP was minimal (or even negative). Thus, most of the uplift recorded at Domata must have occurred in the last 20 kyr. This implies that eustasy and tectonism impacted the landscape at Domata over mainly distinct time intervals (e.g. sequentially and not synchronously), with eustasy forming and tectonism preserving the coastal landforms.

  18. Slow slip rate and excitation efficiency of deep low-frequency tremors beneath southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiku, Kumiko; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Matsuzawa, Takanori; Mizukami, Tomoyuki

    2018-01-01

    We estimated the long-term average slip rate on the plate interface across the Nankai subduction zone during 2002-2013 using deep low-frequency tremors as a proxy for short-term slow slip events based on empirical relations between the seismic moment of short-term slow slip events and tremor activities. The slip rate in each region is likely to compensate for differences between the convergence rate and the slip deficit rate of the subducting Philippine Sea plate estimated geodetically, although the uncertainty is large. This implies that the strain because of the subduction of the plate is partially stored as the slip deficit and partially released by slow slip events during the interseismic period. The excitation efficiency of the tremors for the slow slip events differs among regions: it is high in the northern Kii region. Some events in the western Shikoku region show a somewhat large value. Antigorite serpentinite of two types exists in the mantle wedge beneath southwest Japan. Slips with more effective excitation of tremors presumably occur in high-temperature conditions in the antigorite + olivine stability field. Other slip events with low excitation efficiency are distributed in the antigorite + brucite stability field. Considering the formation reactions of these minerals and their characteristic structures, events with high excitation efficiency can be correlated with a high pore fluid pressure condition. This result suggests that variation in pore fluid pressure on the plate interface affects the magnitude of tremors excited by slow slip events.

  19. DYNAMICS OF MAIN INDICATORS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Claudia Mungiu- Pupăzan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All resources available to a certain point in time (both physical and economic sense and financial sense are highlighted by the nation's wealth, in the very limited sense, is a stock. Given that the stock of physical resources (infrastructure, natural resources, capital invested in enterprises, technical knowledge and training of the population is very difficult to measure, are always references but not a stock at a flow: the flow of goods and services produced in a given year by a country, just what we call gross domestic product GDP (gross domestic product. Economic growth and thus real convergence, both at national and regional level are assessed based on the development processes of gross domestic product.Socio-economic development of South-West Oltenia Region and parts of five counties must take into account national development priorities established by the National Development Plan and the strategic guidelines and EU Integrated Guidelines for Growth and jobs. In an attempt to define the basic problems is very important to take into account and consider the existence of situations of discrimination and promoting equal opportunities for men and women, young and old, the majority and ethnic minorities, while paying attention needs of disabled persons for their economic and social integration.

  20. Hydrothermal extremes at the South-West Pribaikalie during the current climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropay, Nadezhda

    2017-04-01

    Climatic extremes of air temperature and precipitation were analyzed for the Tunka Intermountain Depression (South-West Pribaikalie, Buryatia, Russian Federation). Intermountain depressions occupy a quarter of the territory of the Baikal region. The specific climatic conditions in the depressions are formed due to the geographic location and the influence of latitudinal zonation and altitudinal gradients. Air temperature and precipitation data records from at weather stations for the period 1940-2015 were analyzed. Long-term average annual temperature is negative and varies from -0.8 °C to -2.4 °C. Air temperature absolute minimum is -48 °C, absolute maximum is +36 °C. The long-term average annual precipitation is 370-480 mm, but in some years annual precipitation reach 760 mm. The summer months have about 70% of the total annual precipitation, in July and August the sum may reach 340 mm. Maximum daily sum of rainfalls is 80 mm. The contribution of the global and regional circulation characteristics into the variability of regional climatic characteristics was estimated.

  1. [Growth and mortality of the fish Haemulon aurolineatum (Teleostei: Haemulidae) from southwest of Margarita Island, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Edwis; Eslava, Nora; González, Leo

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the growth and natural mortality of the fish known locally as cuji (H. aurolineatum) in the southwest of Margarita Island, July 2005 to June 2006. A sample of 1,378 males and 1,143 females from artisanal fishing vessels of Boca del Río was analyzed. The common relation for both sexes was expressed by the equation P=0.038*L(2.87). The asymptotic length (L(infinity)) was estimated with Powell's (1979) routine and Wetherall (1986), and the growth coefficient (k) with ELEFAN I - FISAT II (FAO-ICLARM). The modal progression analysis was used after decomposition of lengths frequency according to Bhattacharya, and the estimations of L(infinity), and k optimized according to Gulland and Holt (1959). The growth curve was fitted to von Bertalanffy (1960); it is exponential, with accelerated growth in the first two years and less growth as the fish approaches maximal length. The rate of natural mortality was high (M=1.15 year(-1)), and probably was caused by high depredation.

  2. Nutritional composition of boletus mushrooms from Southwest China and their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuntao; Chen, Di; You, Yuxian; Zeng, Siqi; Li, Yiwen; Tang, Qianqian; Han, Guoquan; Liu, Aiping; Feng, Chaohui; Li, Cheng; Su, Yujie; Su, Zhao; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-11-15

    Thirteen samples representing five species were collected from different provinces of Southwest China, and their chemical composition, antihyperglycemic activity, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. These mushrooms had high crude protein (21.72-30.59g/100g dw) and total carbohydrate (49.18-62.58g/100g dw) contents, but low crude fat contents (1.96-7.87g/100g dw). They also accumulated notable quantities of potassium, zinc, sodium, magnesium and copper from the soil. The potassium content, in particular, was 18.75-39.21 times that found in the soil at the collection site. The natural habitat of these mushrooms, especially the mineral content of the soil, seems to have more influence on the mineral content of these mushrooms than their species. Most of the samples possessed antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities. Suillellus luridus showed the highest antioxidant activity and antihyperglycemic activities, suggesting that S. luridus shows potential for development as a dietary nutritional supplement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Small is beautiful: Marine small-scale fisheries catches from the South-West Maluku Regency

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    Hutubessy, BG; Mosse, JW; Hayward, P.

    2017-10-01

    The fisheries data supplied by fisheries agency have served as the primary tool for regional fisheries statistics. However, it is recognized these data are incomplete and often underestimate actual catches, particularly for small-scale fisheries. There is no widely accepted definition of small-scale fisheries or global data on number of small-scale fishers and their catches. This study reconstructed total marine catches from 1980 to 2015 for South-west Maluku (MBD) regency, by applying an established catch construction approach utilizing all available quantitative and qualitative data, combined with assumption-based estimations and interpolations. As newly established regency since 2009, there is lack of fisheries data available which is needed for fisheries management. Fishers’ knowledge is important information taken from to construct long-term fisheries data. Estimated total fish withdrawal from MBD waters was 86,849.66 tonnes during 1980 – 2015, dominated by pelagic fishes. Consistency of estimated total removal and total landings at MBD regency play important role in small-scale fisheries management and this method of visualizing the history of fishery from poor-data condition might be an optimistic effort.

  4. Pattern and prognostic factor of ocular injuries in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study

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    Sisay Bekele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the pattern, severity, and prognostic factors of ocular injuries in the southwest Ethiopia.METHODS:A prospective hospital based study was done on all patients presented with ocular injury to Jimma University Specialized Hospital from Apr. to Sep. 2009. Each patient underwent a detailed interview and a standard comprehensive ocular examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13 and PRESULTS:The overall prevalence of ocular injury was 3.03%. Nearly 99% of ocular injuries were mechanical. The majority of the ocular injuries(53.2%were work-related and none of these patients had eye protection at the time of injury. Out of 170 globe injuries, 57.6% were closed globe injury and 42.4% were open globe injuries. Closed globe injuries were less severe and had significantly better visual outcome than open globe injuries(PPCONCLUSION: Most ocular injuries occurred in the workplace,and a significantly larger proportion of patients with ocular injury developed monocular blindness. For the prevention of serious injuries, eye health education and safety strategies should be applied both at home and work place.

  5. Runoff projection under climate change over Yarlung Zangbo River, Southwest China

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    Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    The Yarlung Zangbo River is located in southwest of China, one of the major source of "Asian water tower". The river has great hydropower potential and provides vital water resource for local and downstream agricultural production and livestock husbandry. Compared to its drainage area, gauge observation is sometimes not enough for good hydrological modeling in order to project future runoff. In this study, we employ a semi-distributed hydrologic model SWAT to simulate hydrological process of the river with rainfall observation and TRMM 3B4V7 respectively and the hydrological model performance is evaluated based on not only total runoff but snowmelt, precipitation and groundwater components. Firstly, calibration and validation of the hydrological model are executed to find behavioral parameter sets for both gauge observation and TRMM data respectively. Then, behavioral parameter sets with diverse efficiency coefficient (NS) values are selected and corresponding runoff components are analyzed. Robust parameter sets are further employed in SWAT coupled with CMIP5 GCMs to project future runoff. The final results show that precipitation is the dominating contributor nearly all year around, while snowmelt and groundwater are important in the summer and winter alternatively. Also sufficient robust parameter sets help reduce uncertainty in hydrological modeling. Finally, future possible runoff changes will have major consequences for water and flood security.

  6. Reptiles and amphibians of a poorly known region in southwest Amazonia

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    Frederico Gustavo Rodrigues França

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon is the largest tropical forest of the world and it is extremely rich in biodiversity. However, some portions of the biome are still poorly known. This work presents an inventory of the herpetofauna of Boca do Acre municipality, a still preserved region located in southwest Amazonas state. The inventory was carried out in two periods, a sampling during the middle of the rainy season and another one at the end of the rains. Diverse survey methods were employed, such as pitfall traps, diurnal and nocturnal visual searches, car searches on the BR 317 highway, and opportunistic registrations. We recorded 56 amphibians and 53 reptiles during the field work. We captured 27 species in pitfall traps, and 38 were found along the BR 317, alive or dead on the road, being snakes principally affected by road-kills. The species accumulation curves did not reach stability, indicating that the inventory was not complete. Our results show the high species richness of this region, its importance for the Amazonian biodiversity, and the urgency of its preservation.

  7. Factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives: A case study in Southwest Iran

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    Aligholi Heydari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This survey study aimed at identifying the factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives in Southwest Iran. Using a questionnaire, the data were collected from 95 managing directors of the cooperatives who were chosen through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. This study showed an essential need for a systemic framework to analyze the cooperatives’ success. The results showed that the “Honey Bee”, “Cattle (dairy”, and “Lamb” cooperatives were the most successful among different kinds of the cooperatives. Also, among individual attributes, “interest”, “technical knowledge”, and “understanding the concept of cooperative”; among economic variables, “income” and “current investment”; and among external factors, “market access” have significant correlation with the success while structural variables have no significant relation. Furthermore, among all the factors, four variables (“interest”, “understanding the concept of cooperative”, “market access”, and “other incomes” can explain the variations of the success.

  8. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

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    Andreas Neef

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralisation of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

  9. Validation of Visually Observed Waves with the Recorded Waves on the Southwest Coast of India

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    Abdulla, P. K.; James, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    The wave climate, pre-requisite information for planning and design of coastal engineering structures, can be obtained by different methods. Coastal protection works require wave climate in the nearshore region; deployment of wave sensors and visual observation of the waves from the shore are among the methods that can be adopted for collecting the wave data. On the southwest coast of India (Kerala), wave data have been collected by visual observation from the shore, at 18 stations located along the entire coastline since 1973. The pressure type wave sensors were installed in the nearshore region at four stations, almost equally spaced along the coast and data acquired for a period of 4 years. Of the four instrument stations, two were located at the visual observation station itself, the third one was about 7 km from the nearest visual observation station and the fourth station midway between two visual observation stations—the distance between the instrument station and the visual observation stations being about 20 km. Study revealed that the visually observed wave parameters are comparable with the wave parameters acquired by the instrument, particularly with respect to the wave height.

  10. Anthelmintic resistance in cattle nematodes on 13 south-west Victorian properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, D K

    2010-12-01

    To report the level of anthelmintic resistance on 13 commercial cattle properties in south-west Victoria, Australia. Between 2006 and 2009 worm egg count reduction tests were conducted on calves on the 13 properties. Samples were collected 10-14 days post anthelmintic treatment and worm egg counts and larval differentiation tests were conducted. Resistance was defined if there was less than 95% reduction (lower confidence limit Cooperia spp. to IVM (6/11). No resistance to LEV was detected in Trichostrongylus or Cooperia spp. Suspected IVM-resistant Trichostrongylus spp. and BZ-resistant Cooperia spp. were only detected on one property each. This is the first Australian report of macrocyclic lactone-resistant O. ostertagi in the refereed literature. The frequency of resistance in O. ostertagi to BZ, LEV and IVM and in Trichostrongylus spp. to BZ in the present study appears higher than levels detected in the 2004-05 New Zealand survey, whereas the resistance frequency in Cooperia spp. to IVM and BZ was less. © 2010 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. The validity of DSM-IV dissociative disorders categories in south-west Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijl, Marjolein; Cardeña, Etzel; De Jong, Joop T V M

    2005-06-01

    There is little systematic research on the cross-cultural validity of the dissociative disorders, especially in non-western countries. This study evaluates the fit of the DSM-IV classification and concepts of these disorders with local concepts, experiences and local presentations in south-west Uganda. We conducted focus group discussions with medical students, traditional healers, religious leaders, counselors, community members and other health workers (n=48). They were supplemented by key informant interviews with religious people, traditional healers and leaders (n=11). The responses were subjected to thematic analysis. Dissociative amnesia and depersonalization were generally recognized and seen as the result of traumatic experiences and were useful categories in Uganda. However, dissociative fugue did not match local concepts and was confused with spirit possession and other conditions such as alcoholic fugues and dementia. The description of dissociative identity disorder was always interpreted as a possession trance disorder by the local healers. We found only partial support for the validity of the DSM-IV classification of dissociative disorders in Uganda.

  12. Sociodemographic factors associated with functional disability in outpatients with rheumatoid arthritis in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shangping; Chen, Yanling; Chen, Hong

    2015-05-01

    With the rising number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a limited understanding about sociodemographic factors that influence functional disability in Chinese patients. In order to provide more targeted interventions to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients with RA, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the level and influencing factors of functional disability. Convenient samples were collected in outpatients with RA from a rheumatological center in southwest China from September to December 2013. Data were collected by printed questionnaires, and functional disability was measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). The results showed that 58.48 % of 607 outpatients had functional disability. Patients from rural residents, with lower household income and lower education level, were significantly associated with worse functional disability. Multivariate regression findings showed that pain, age, disease duration, total cost for treatment, and frequency of hospitalization were positively associated with functional disability. Meanwhile, subjective and available social support was the protective predictors for functional disability. The results suggested that systematic intervention and therapies should be provided as early as possible. Patients and health care providers should promote the awareness of the importance of accessible health education in early intervention of RA. Besides, pain management and social support are encouraged to postpone the process of disability of patients and improve the HRQoL. Lastly, but not least, prevention and intervention of RA should be incorporated into public health education.

  13. Soil Contamination as a Legacy of the U.S. Auto Industry, Southwest Detroit, Michigan USA

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    Murray, K.; Peterman, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Delray community of southwest Detroit is one of the most depressed areas in southeast Michigan. Historically, Delray was a working class, racially diverse community that depended heavily on industrial jobs provided by nearby factories. However, decades of industrial waste discharges have left Delray with extensive air and soil pollution. Although high unemployment and poverty are major challenges confronting residents in Delray today, the threat to public health from Pb, Hg, As and Cr [VI] in the soil may become an even bigger issue and a significant source of concern. Newspaper headlines cite crime, substance abuse, high school and labor force dropout, as being prevalent in Delray, but recent research suggest that soil contamination, which has resulted in elevated blood Pb levels may be an underlying factor. Recent interest in this area as a potential site for a new bridge to Canada, has offered new hope to the residents by potentially opening the door for redevelopment. The initial step in this process is an environmental assessment of the Delray community. This investigation is being conducted by the University of Michigan-Dearborn in consortium with local community groups and the Detroit Public School. Although preliminary, an analysis of soil samples from over 400 residences has indicated that significant levels of As, and Pb are present in the upper 0.1 meter of soil throughout the Delray area. The high levels of metals present in the soil suggest that further investigation and possible remedial action will be necessary prior to redevelopment.

  14. Longitudinal heterogeneity of sediment characteristics during southwest monsoon season in hyper-eutrophic Krishnagiri reservoir, India.

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    Sudha, Velu; Ambujam, Neelakantapillai Kanniperumal

    2012-03-01

    Krishnagiri reservoir is a hyper-eutrophicated reservoir located in Krishnagiri district which is one of the drought-prone districts in Tamil Nadu, India. The reservoir water is being used for various purposes such as irrigation, drinking, fish rearing, livestock rearing, and recreation. Since there is no an evidence of investigation on bottom sediments in Krishnagiri reservoir, the present study was carried out during southwest monsoon season in 2008. This study examined the physical and chemical characteristics of the bottom sediments such as composition, redox potential, moisture content, organic carbon, organic matter, total phosphorus, and total iron at 15 locations in the reservoir. Phosphorus fractionation study was carried out to find out different fractions such as loosely adsorbed phosphorous, iron and aluminium-bound phosphorus, calcium-bound phosphorous, and organic phosphorous. Results indicated that there was spatial variation in the composition of sediments and low values of redox potential. The significant positive correlation exists between the organic carbon and organic phosphorus concentration. The lacustrine zone of the reservoir showed high accumulation of total phosphorus and total iron when compared to riverine and transition zones. This study concludes an allogenic origin of majority of inorganic phosphorus in the reservoir during the study period and this might have been derived from the catchment during the erosion process. The high concentration of surface sediment phosphorus clearly indicates a greater threat of eutrophication in Krishnagiri reservoir.

  15. Gender Identity, Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Drug Use: Exploring Differences among Adolescents in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hurdle, Donna

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey completed by 1351 predominantly Mexican American middle school students residing in a large urban center in the U.S. Southwest. The study explores possible associations between drug use attitudes and behaviors and gender (biological sex), gender identity, ethnicity, and acculturation status. Based on the concepts of “machismo” and “marianismo” that have been used to describe Mexican populations, four dimensions of gender identity were measured: aggressive masculinity, assertive masculinity, affective femininity, and submissive femininity. In explaining a variety of indicators of drug use behaviors and anti-drug norms, gender alone had limited explanatory power, while gender identity—often regardless of gender—was a better predictor. Aggressive masculinity was generally associated with higher risk of drug use, while the other three gender identity measures had selected protective effects. However, the impact of gender identity was strongly mediated by acculturation. Less acculturated Mexican American students reported lower aggressive masculinity scores than non-Latinos. Less acculturated Mexican American girls reported both the lowest aggressive masculinity scores and the highest submissive femininity scores. More acculturated Mexican American students, along with the less acculturated Mexican American boys, did not appear to be following a polarized approach to gender identity (machismo and marianismo) as was expected. The findings suggest that some aspects of culturally prescribed gender roles can have a protective effect against drug use behaviors and attitudes, possibly for both girls and boys. PMID:21359134

  16. Prevalence of Malaria in Pregnant Women in Lagos, South-West Nigeria

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    Agomo, Chimere O.; Anorlu, Rose I.; Agomo, Philip U.

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence rates reported for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria vary considerably. The accuracy of results of malaria diagnosis is dependent on training, experience, and motivation of the microscopist as well as the laboratory facility available. Results of training programmes on malaria microscopy have shown low levels of sensitivity and specificity of those involved in malaria diagnosis routinely and for research. This study was done to ascertain the true prevalence of malaria in pregnancy in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. A total of 1,084 pregnant women were recruited into this study. Blood smears stained with Giemsa were used for malaria diagnosis by light microscopy. Malaria infection during pregnancy presents mostly as asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of malaria in this population was 7.7% (95% confidence interval; 6.2-9.4%). Factors identified to increase the risk of malaria infection include young maternal age (< 20 years), and gravidity (primigravida). In conclusion, this study exposes the over-diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy and the need for training and retraining of laboratory staffs as well as establishing the malaria diagnosis quality assurance programme to ensure the accuracy of malaria microscopy results at all levels. PMID:19488427

  17. Association between ovine protein polymorphisms and geographical variables in Europe and south-west Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordas, J G; Carriedo, J A

    1997-01-12

    The spatial distribution of six blood-protein polymorphisms in European and south-west Asian ovine breeds was analysed. Latitudinal clines were found for haemoglobin and transferrin loci. The respective F(ST) values are not significantly greater than those for protein-X, esterase, carbonic anhydrase, and albumin, where gene frequencies are not associated with latitude. The results suggest that historical processes of gene flow, rather than adaptation to different environments, have played a major role in determining the observed lives of gene frequencies. RESUMEN: Asociación entre polimorfismos proteicos ovinos y variables geográficas en Europa y sudoeste de Asia Se ha analizado la distribución espacial de seis polimorfismos proteicos sanguíneos en razas ovinas de Europa y del sudoeste de Asia. La hemoglobina y la transferrina muestran clinas latitudinales. Los valores de F(ST) para estos dos loci no son significativamente más grandes que los de la proteína-X, esterasa, anhidrasa carbónica y albúmina, cuyas frecuencias génicas no están asociadas con la latitud. Los resultados sugieren que la distribución de las frecuencias génicas de la hemoglobina y la transferrina se debe a procesos históricos de flujo génico y deriva genética. 1997 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Shore Protection for a Placer Deposit Rich Beach of the Southwest Coast of India

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    L. Sheela Nair

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The placer deposits dominated Neendakara-Kayamkulam sector along the Kerala coast on the southwest coast of India may be characterized as a dynamic, unstable beach based on shoreline oscillations observed over the past years. Both long-term and short-term shoreline variations can be easily linked directly to a number of factors – both natural and anthropogenic. Of these, activities such as large scale mining for heavy minerals; dredging and construction of hard structures such as breakwaters and groins; have contributed significantly to the changes in shoreline. The coastal hydrodynamics of the area is highly complex because of the variation in shoreline orientation and near shore slope. The present work is an attempt to understand the coastal processes and to identify the factors responsible for the shoreline oscillations by conducting numerical model studies. The studies on the shoreline changes are also carried out as a part of this study in order to identify the critical areas of the shore that need immediate protection. The study shows that the northern part of the study area (barring the 2km stretch lying to the immediate south of the Kayamkulam inlet has been eroding significantly which requires immediate protection. The proposed shoreline protection measure is to provide detached offshore submerged breakwaters.

  19. Impact of climate change on the groundwater run-off in south-west Poland

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    Olichwer Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the variability of total runoff and groundwater run-off affected by global and local climate changes using the example of 17 selected river basins located in south-west Poland. Based on the data collected from 1966 to 2005, the average annual values of the total and groundwater run-off, aswell as the seven-day annual minimum flows, were estimated, which provided useful information about droughts. The calculated parameters were compared with precipitation, air temperature, aridity index (the ratio of the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, and the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation and AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation indices. There were no significant changes in the total run-off in the research area; however, there was a reduction in the groundwater run-off, which indicates change in groundwater recharge. The strongest relationship of total run-off, groundwater run-off and seven-day annual flow minimum was obtained from the NAO index,which confirms that the run-off from the study area is dependent on global factors. This is important for the estimation of changes in the runoff from the study area in response to the climate scenarios for the years 2011-2030, which indicate a fairly significant increase in air temperature and slight differences in precipitation. Based on extensive investigations, a reduction in the groundwater run-off in favour of increased surface run-off should be expected in the research area.

  20. Tree growth response of Fokienia hodginsii to recent climate warming and drought in southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiajia; Gou, Xiaohua; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Ruibo; Liu, Wenhuo; Zhang, Fen; Lu, Ming; Chen, Yao; Zheng, Wuji

    2017-09-01

    To date, few attempts have been made to assess the influence of climate change on forest ecosystems and on the relationship between tree growth and climate in humid areas of low latitudes. In this paper, we studied the response of tree growth and forest ecosystem to climate change by using Fokienia hodginsii tree-ring cores from the northern Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, southwest of China. Tree growth correlates the highest (r = -0.64, p climate conditions. The meteorological data suggested that from 1961 to 1987 it was cold and wet in the study area and radial growth is limited by winter and spring temperatures. This restriction is weaker if the climate is appropriate in general. However, from 1988 to 2014, the combined effects of recent warming and decreasing precipitation have led to an increasing response of tree-ring width to drought. In addition, a large proportion of mature F. hodginsii mortality occurred from 2007 to 2013, which corresponds with a drastic reduction of radial growth (narrowest in recent 100 years). The recent drought, induced by decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature, may have passed the threshold which F. hodginsii could tolerate, causing tree growth reduction, tree growth-climate relationship change, as well as catastrophic tree mortality. All these changes may lead to further responses of the local ecosystem to climate change which should be highly regarded.