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Sample records for swan falls dam

  1. Methods to determine pumped irrigation-water withdrawals from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams, Idaho, using electrical power data, 1990-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1999-01-01

    Pumped withdrawals compose most of the irrigation-water diversions from the Snake River between Upper Salmon Falls and Swan Falls Dams in southwestern Idaho. Pumps at 32 sites along the reach lift water as high as 745 feet to irrigate croplands on plateaus north and south of the river. The number of pump sites at which withdrawals are being continuously measured has been steadily decreasing, from 32 in 1990 to 7 in 1998. A cost-effective and accurate means of estimating annual irrigation-water withdrawals at pump sites that are no longer continuously measured was needed. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1998, as part of its Water-Use Program, to determine power-consumption coeffi- cients (PCCs) for each pump site so that withdrawals could be estimated by using electrical powerconsumption and total head data. PCC values for each pump site were determined by using withdrawal data that were measured by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990–92 and 1994–95, energy data reported by Idaho Power Company during the same period, and total head data collected at each site during a field inventory in 1998. Individual average annual withdrawals for the 32 pump sites ranged from 1,120 to 44,480 acre-feet; average PCC values ranged from 103 to 1,248 kilowatthours per acre-foot. During the 1998 field season, power demand, total head, and withdrawal at 18 sites were measured to determine 1998 PCC values. Most of the 1998 PCC values were within 10 percent of the 5-year average, which demonstrates that withdrawals for a site that is no longer continuously measured can be calculated with reasonable accuracy by using the PCC value determined from this study and annual power-consumption data. K-factors, coefficients that describe the amount of energy necessary to lift water, were determined for each pump site by using values of PCC and total head and ranged from 1.11 to 1.89 kilowatthours per acre-foot per foot. Statistical methods were used to define the

  2. Whistling swan dyeing program, Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, fall, 1961-spring, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the whistling swan dyeing program on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, in the fall of 1961 to trap birds which, owing to the absence of food in...

  3. Recent blooms of the dinoflagellate Ceratium in Albert Falls Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent blooms of the dinoflagellate Ceratium in Albert Falls Dam (KZN): History, causes, spatial features and impacts on a reservoir ecosystem and its zooplankton. ... Ceratium totally dominated the phytoplankton assemblage, accounting almost completely for coincident chlorophyll levels, which generally increased with ...

  4. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, Mark; Scholz, Allan; McLellan, Holly [Eastern Washington University Department of Biology; Olson, Jason [Kalispel Tribe of Indians Natural Resources Department

    2009-07-13

    This study was designed to monitor movements of bull trout that were provided passage above Albeni Falls Dam, Pend Oreille River. Electrofishing and angling were used to collect bull trout below the dam. Tissue samples were collected from each bull trout and sent to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center Conservation Genetics Lab, Washington. The DNA extracted from tissue samples were compared to a catalog of bull trout population DNA from the Priest River drainage, Lake Pend Oreille tributaries, and the Clark Fork drainage to determine the most probable tributary of origin. A combined acoustic radio or radio tag was implanted in each fish prior to being transported and released above the dam. Bull trout relocated above the dam were able to volitionally migrate into their natal tributary, drop back downstream, or migrate upstream to the next dam. A combination of stationary radio receiving stations and tracking via aircraft, boat, and vehicle were used to monitor the movement of tagged fish to determine if the spawning tributary it selected matched the tributary assigned from the genetic analysis. Seven bull trout were captured during electrofishing surveys in 2008. Of these seven, four were tagged and relocated above the dam. Two were tagged and left below the dam as part of a study monitoring movements below the dam. One was immature and too small at the time of capture to implant a tracking tag. All four fish released above the dam passed by stationary receivers stations leading into Lake Pend Oreille and no fish dropped back below the dam. One of the radio tags was recovered in the tributary corresponding with the results of the genetic test. Another fish was located in the vicinity of its assigned tributary, which was impassable due to low water discharge at its mouth. Two fish have not been located since entering the lake. Of these fish, one was immature and not expected to enter its natal tributary in the fall of 2008. The other

  5. Ground-water quality in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parliman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected from 92 wells in the western Snake River basin, Swan Falls to Glenns Ferry, Idaho. Current data were compiled with pre-1980 data from 116 wells to define water-quality conditions in major aquifers. Factors affecting water quality are composition of aquifer materials, water temperature, and source of recharge. Mixing of water by interaquifer flow, from confined, hot water aquifers (40 degrees Celsius or greater) with water from cold water aquifers (less than 20 degrees Celsius) occurs along regional complex fault systems, and through partially cased boreholes. Cold water generally contains calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions; hot water generally contains sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate plus carbonate ions. Warm water (between 20 degrees and 40 degrees Celsius) has an intermediate chemical composition resulting from mixing. Ground-water quality is acceptable for most uses, although it locally contains chemical constituents or physical properties that may restrict its use. Effects of thermal water used for irrigation on quality of shallow ground water are inconclusive. Long-term increase in concentrations of several constituents in parts of the study area may be due to effects of land- and water-use activities, such as infiltration of septic-tank effluent. (USGS)

  6. Temporary Restoration of Bull Trout Passage at Albeni Falls Dam, 2008 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-03-31

    The goal of this project is to provide temporary upstream passage of bull trout around Albeni Falls Dam on the Pend Oreille River, Idaho. Our specific objectives are to capture fish downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, tag them with combination acoustic and radio transmitters, release them upstream of Albeni Falls Dam, and determine if genetic information on tagged fish can be used to accurately establish where fish are located during the spawning season. In 2007, radio receiving stations were installed at several locations throughout the Pend Oreille River watershed to detect movements of adult bull trout; however, no bull trout were tagged during that year. In 2008, four bull trout were captured downstream of Albeni Falls Dam, implanted with transmitters, and released upstream of the dam at Priest River, Idaho. The most-likely natal tributaries of bull trout assigned using genetic analyses were Grouse Creek (N = 2); a tributary of the Pack River, Lightning Creek (N = 1); and Rattle Creek (N = 1), a tributary of Lightning Creek. All four bull trout migrated upstream from the release site in Priest River, Idaho, were detected at monitoring stations near Dover, Idaho, and were presumed to reside in Lake Pend Oreille from spring until fall 2008. The transmitter of one bull trout with a genetic assignment to Grouse Creek was found in Grouse Creek in October 2008; however, the fish was not found. The bull trout assigned to Rattle Creek was detected in the Clark Fork River downstream from Cabinet Gorge Dam (approximately 13 km from the mouth of Lightning Creek) in September but was not detected entering Lightning Creek. The remaining two bull trout were not detected in 2008 after detection at the Dover receiving stations. This report details the progress by work element in the 2008 statement of work, including data analyses of fish movements, and expands on the information reported in the quarterly Pisces status reports.

  7. Kalispel Tribe of Indians Wildlife Mitigation and Restoration for Albeni Falls Dam: Flying Goose Ranch Phase I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Christopher

    1993-02-01

    This report is a recommendation from the Kalispel Tribe to the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) for wildlife habitat mitigation for the extensive habitat losses caused by Albeni Falls Dam on and near the Kalispel Indian Reservation.

  8. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery (Snake River stock) yearling fall chinook salmon that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1998. The three fall chinook acclimation facilities are operated by the Nez Perce Tribe and located at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids on the Snake River and at Big Canyon Creek on the Clearwater River. Yearlings at the Big Canyon facility consisted of two size classes that are referred to in this report as 9.5 fish per pound (fpp) and 30 fpp. The Big Canyon 9.5 fpp were comparable to the yearlings at Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. A total of 9,942 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Pittsburg Landing. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 159.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.19. Of the 9,942 PIT tagged fish released, a total of 6,836 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams (Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental and McNary). A total of 4,926 9.5 fpp and 2,532 30 fpp yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Big Canyon. PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 156.9 mm and mean condition factor of 1.13. PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings had a mean fork length of 113.1 mm and mean condition factor of 1.18. Of the 4,926 PIT tagged 9.5 fpp yearlings released, a total of 3,042 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. Of the 2,532 PIT tagged 30 fpp yearlings released, a total of 1,130 unique tags were detected at mainstem Snake and Columbia River dams. A total of 1,253 yearlings were PIT tagged and released at Captain John Rapids. PIT tagged yearlings had a mean fork length of 147.5 mm and mean condition factor of 1.09. Of

  9. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  10. Dams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset �is generated from from the Vermont Dam Inventory (VDI). The VDI is managed by the VT DEC's Dam Safety and Hydrology Section and contains information...

  11. Rise and fall of a small ice-dammed lake - Role of deglaciation processes and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehyba, Slavomír; Hanáček, Martin; Engel, Zbyněk; Stachoň, Zdeněk

    2017-10-01

    A small ice-dammed lake, which developed along the margin of Nordenskiöldbreen on the northern coast of Adolfbukta, (central Spitsbergen, Svalbard) has been studied by a combination of facies analysis, ground penetrating radar, analysis of photos and satellite imagery, and by surface mapping by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (drone). The lake existed between the years 1990-2012 and occupied two partial depressions in the bedrock, separated by a bedrock ridge for the dominant period of its history. Whereas the eastern depression was almost completely infilled due to direct fluvial input, the western depression revealed only thin sedimentary cover and was dotted from the eastern depression by an outflow of surficial waters. Gilbert delta deposits with typical tripartite zones of topset, foreset and bottomset were recognised in the eastern depression. Topset was comprised by deposits of a braided river. Foreset is formed by deposits of sediment gravity flows (turbidity currents and debris flows). Bottomset is represented by alternating suspension deposits and deposits of hyperpycnal underflows (low-density turbidity currents). The ruling factors of the evolution of the delta were glacier retreat, bedrock morphology, both affecting the relative lake level, and the rate of sediment delivery. Glacier retreat over stepped and inclined bedrock morphology led to delta prograding and downstepping. The recognised fluvio-deltaic terraces revealed four lake level falls followed by fluvial downcutting, erosion and redeposition of the older deltaic/lake deposits, the shifting of the lake's position towards the damming glacier and the transition of the sediment input in the same direction. The termination of the lake was a result of further glacier retreat and the opening of subglacial drainage.

  12. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  14. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2002. This was the seventh year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 479,358 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities exceeded the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,545 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,482 from Big Canyon and 2,487 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium to high with 43-62% of fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 146.7 mm (146.2-147.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.8 mm (163.5-166.1 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.14 at Pittsburg Landing and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 88.6% (86.0-91.1%) for Pittsburg Landing to 97.0% (92.4-101.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 54.3% (50.2-58.3%) for Big Canyon to 70.5% (65.4-75.5%) for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 8.1 river kilometers per

  16. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2001. This was the sixth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 318,932 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,503 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,499 from Big Canyon and 2,518 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 991 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 155.4 mm (154.7-156.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 171.6 mm (170.7-172.5 mm) at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.02 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.4% (73.2-75.5%) for Big Canyon to 85.2% (83.5-87.0%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release

  17. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 2000. This was the fifth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 397,339 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,477 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,421 from Big Canyon and 2,488 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 980 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids and about average at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 157.7 mm (157.3-158.1 mm) at Big Canyon to 172.9 mm (172.2-173.6 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Captain John Rapids and Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.12 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 87.0% (84.7-89.4%) for Pittsburg Landing to 95.2% (91.5-98.9%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to

  18. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J.; Kellar, Dale S. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam along with yearlings released on-station from Lyons Ferry Hatchery in 1999. This was the fourth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 453,117 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities not only slightly exceeded the 450,000 fish quota, but a second release of 76,386 yearlings (hereafter called Surplus) were acclimated at the Big Canyon facility and released about two weeks after the primary releases. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 9,941 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 9,583 from Big Canyon, 2,511 Big Canyon Surplus and 2,494 from Captain John Rapids. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife released 983 PIT tagged yearlings from Lyons Ferry Hatchery. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered relatively low and did not appear to increase after transport to the acclimation facilities. Compared to prior years, Quantitative Health Assessment Indices were relatively low at Pittsburg Landing and Lyons Ferry Hatchery and relatively high at Big Canyon and Captain John Rapids. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the release groups ranged from 147.4 mm (146.7-148.1 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 163.7 mm (163.3-164.1 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.04 at

  19. Free Will, Black Swans and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ted; Wiers, Reinout W

    2017-01-01

    The current dominant perspective on addiction as a brain disease has been challenged recently by Marc Lewis, who argued that the brain-changes related to addiction are similar to everyday changes of the brain. From this alternative perspective, addictions are bad habits that can be broken, provided that people are motivated to change. In that case, autonomous choice or "free will" can overcome bad influences from genes and or environments and brain-changes related to addiction. Even though we concur with Lewis that there are issues with the brain disease perspective, we also argue that pointing to black swans can be important, that is: there can be severe cases where addiction indeed tips over into the category of brain disease, but obviously that does not prove that every case of addiction falls into the disease category, that all swans are black. We argue that, for example, people suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome, can be described as having a brain disease, often caused by alcohol addiction. Moreover, the brain changes occurring with addiction are related to choice-behaviour (and the related notions of willed action), habit formation and insight, hence essential mental abilities to break the addiction. We argue for a more graded perspective, where both black swans (severe brain disease which makes recovery virtually impossible) and white swans (unaffected brain) are rare, and most cases of addiction come as geese in different shades of gray.

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2003. This was the eighth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 437,633 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 7,492 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 7,494 from Big Canyon and 2,497 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels at the acclimation facilities could be considered medium with 37-83% of the fish sampled rating medium to very high. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 153.7 mm (153.2-154.2 mm) at Captain John Rapids to 164.2 mm (163.9-164.5 mm) at Pittsburg Landing. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.22 at Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 83.1% (80.7-85.5%) for Big Canyon to 91.7% (87.7-95.7%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 59.9% (54.6-65.2%) for Big Canyon to 69.4% (60.5-78.4%) for Captain John Rapids. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.8 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain

  1. Monitoring and Evaluation of Yearling Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Released from Acclimation Facilities Upstream of Lower Granite Dam; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Stephen J. Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapawi, ID)

    2005-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, conducted monitoring and evaluation studies on Lyons Ferry Hatchery reared yearling fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha that were acclimated and released at three Fall Chinook Acclimation Project (FCAP) sites upstream of Lower Granite Dam in 2004. This was the ninth year of a long-term project to supplement natural spawning populations of Snake River stock fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. The 414,452 yearlings released from the Fall Chinook Acclimation Project facilities were short of the 450,000 fish quota. We use Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tag technology to monitor the primary performance measures of survival to mainstem dams and migration timing. We also monitor size, condition and tag/mark retention at release. We released 4,983 PIT tagged yearlings from Pittsburg Landing, 4,984 from Big Canyon and 4,982 from Captain John Rapids. Fish health sampling indicated that, overall, bacterial kidney disease levels could be considered low with 53-94% rating not detected to low. Mean fork lengths (95% confidence interval) of the PIT tagged groups ranged from 154.6 mm (154.0-155.2 mm) at Pittsburg Landing to 163.0 mm (162.6-163.4 mm) at Captain John Rapids. Mean condition factors ranged from 1.06 at Lyons Ferry Hatchery to 1.16 at Big Canyon. Estimated survival (95% confidence interval) of PIT tagged yearlings from release to Lower Granite Dam ranged from 74.7% (72.9-76.5%) for Big Canyon to 88.1% (85.7-90.6%) for Captain John Rapids. Estimated survival from release to McNary Dam ranged from 45.3% (39.2-51.5%) for Pittsburg Landing to 52.1% (42.9-61.2%) for Big Canyon. Median migration rates to Lower Granite Dam, based on all observations of PIT tagged yearlings from the FCAP facilities, ranged from 5.5 river kilometers per day (rkm/d) for Captain John Rapids to 12.8 rkm/d for Pittsburg Landing. Median migration

  2. Final report: Waterfowl activity and habitat use on the Swan Lake HREP Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied diurnal activity and habitat use patterns of waterfowl on Swan Lake in Calhoun County, IL during fall and spring migrations 1992-93. Swan Lake, a 1,255 ha...

  3. National Dam Safety Program. Potters Falls Dam (Inventory Number N.Y. 378), Oswego River Basin, Tompkins County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-23

    feature is the arched curva - ture of the dam which would resist lateral pressures from the reservoir. It is also known that the structure has...I U I * I . * Io- Iq [. I * * -- *---- .- ~.- -. - -. . -~ * ~ - ~ .--- * -: L? u o 4 Idf W dI- f V f W00 go a AW~d " be fn - 04 02 01 In on a~ A.IO

  4. Henrietta Swan Leavitt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. CPMG/KNBGE-340/2001. Licenced to post WPP(E) NO.6. Resonance - June 2001. Henrietta Swan Leavitt. (1868 - 1921). Registered with Registrar of Newspapers in India vide Regn. No. 66273/96. ISSN 0971-8044.

  5. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  6. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Sewalls Falls Dam (NH 00091), Merrimack River Basin, Concord, New Hampshire, Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    Merrimack River Above this point include the Contoocook River, Winnipesaukee River and the Pemigewassit River. The basin is S 0 regulated by many large...reservoirs which include: Franklin Falls, Hopkinton-Everett, Blackwater Reservoir, Edward MacDowell Reservoir, and Newfound Lake . These Corps of Engineers

  7. Fall transport - A study to compare smolt-to-adult return rates (SARs) of Snake River fall Chinook salmon under alternative transport and dam operational strategies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)-funded study that began in 2005 compares the SARs of PIT tagged juvenile hatchery Snake River fall Chinook that are split...

  8. 76 FR 77890 - Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.-Operation Exemption-Swan Industrial Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Swan Ranch Railroad, L.L.C.--Operation Exemption--Swan Industrial Park Swan... located within the Swan Industrial Park, in Cheyenne, Wyo. The track over which SRR will operate is...

  9. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At

  10. Mute swans: Natural (?) environmental indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the Chesapeake Bay's population of feral mute swans (Cygnus olar), coupled with a dramatic Bay-wide decline in submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), has fueled much of the current debate surrounding the need for a management plan to protect the aquatic food resources that are critical to many species native to the Bay. Crucial to this decision process is a sound understanding of the ecological ramifications of having the year-round presence of a large, nonnative, aquatic herbivore on the Bay. Ultimately, this will require a quantitative assessment of the ecological harm currently posed by mute swans before a biologically defensible management strategy can be developed. Unfortunately, very little new information specific to the Bay's mute swan population has been gathered since Reese first studied them in the late 1960s and 1970s. While the debate over what to do about the rapidly expanding mute swan population continues, there is much that can be gained from study of this beautiful intruder. Several recent studies of the feeding habits of mute swans have shown that mutes can provide a unique barometer, or indicator, of environmental conditions. Because of their reliance on SAV as a primary food source, monitoring the density of swans utilizing a particular area can give some indication of the status of the area's grass beds. This phenomenon was clearly demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when there was a dramatic decline in the number of swans observed around the Eastern Neck NWR, a traditional population stronghold. The shift in bird use was precipitated by a rapid, large-scale collapse of the area's aquatic grass beds, possibly the result of a prolonged drought. During the winter of 2000/2001, a similar ecological assessment was conducted by comparing body weights of swans collected from Tangier Sound, an area with relatively abundant grass beds, and swans from the waters adjacent to Eastern Neck Island. Swans weights tended to reflect the

  11. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  12. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  13. The SWAN biomedical discourse ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Wu, Elizabeth; Wong, Gwen; Ocana, Marco; Kinoshita, June; Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Developing cures for highly complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, requires extensive interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of biomedical information in context. Our ability to exchange such information across sub-specialties today is limited by the current scientific knowledge ecosystem's inability to properly contextualize and integrate data and discourse in machine-interpretable form. This inherently limits the productivity of research and the progress toward cures for devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) is an interdisciplinary project to develop a practical, common, semantically structured, framework for biomedical discourse initially applied, but not limited, to significant problems in Alzheimer Disease (AD) research. The SWAN ontology has been developed in the context of building a series of applications for biomedical researchers, as well as in extensive discussions and collaborations with the larger bio-ontologies community. In this paper, we present and discuss the SWAN ontology of biomedical discourse. We ground its development theoretically, present its design approach, explain its main classes and their application, and show its relationship to other ongoing activities in biomedicine and bio-ontologies.

  14. Survival of Subyearling Fall Chinook Salmon in the Free-flowing Snake River and Lower Snake River Reservoirs in 2003 and from McNary Dam Tailrace to John Day Dam Tailrace in the Columbia River from 1999 to 2002, 1999-2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, William D.; Axel, Gordon A.; Smith, Steven G. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Fish Ecology Division, Seattle, WA)

    2004-12-01

    We report results from an ongoing study of survival and travel time of subyearling fall Chinook salmon in the Snake River during 2003 and in the Columbia River during 1999-2002. Earlier years of the study included serial releases of PIT-tagged hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon upstream from Lower Granite Dam, but these were discontinued in 2003. Instead, we estimated survival from a large number of PIT-tagged fish released upstream from Lower Granite Dam to evaluate transportation from Snake River Dams. During late May and early June 2003, 68,572 hatchery-reared subyearling fall Chinook salmon were PIT tagged at Lyons Ferry Hatchery, trucked upstream, acclimated, and released at Couse Creek and Pittsburg Landing in the free-flowing Snake River. We estimated survival for these fish from release to Lower Granite Dam tailrace. In comparison to wild subyearling fall Chinook salmon PIT tagged and released in the free-flowing Snake River, the hatchery fish we released traveled faster and had higher survival to Lower Granite Dam, likely because of their larger size at release. For fish left in the river to migrate we estimated survival from Lower Granite Dam tailrace to McNary Dam tailrace. Each year, a small proportion of fish released are not detected until the following spring. However, the number of fish released in 2003 that overwintered in the river and were detected as they migrated seaward as yearlings in 2004 was small (<1.0%) and had minimal effect on survival estimates. We evaluated a prototype floating PIT-tag detector deployed upstream from Lower Granite reservoir to collect data for use in partitioning travel time and survival between free-flowing and reservoir habitats. The floating detector performed poorly, detecting only 27 PIT tags in 340 h of operation from a targeted release of 68,572; far too few to partition travel time and survival between habitats. We collected river-run subyearling Chinook salmon (mostly wild fish from the Hanford Reach) at Mc

  15. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Data: Investigator Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...

  16. Review of SOP's for Prodcutivity Surveys for EP tundra swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report reviews the SOPs for productivity surveys of tundra swans to identify areas of improvement. An average of 18,700 swans has been surveyed in the Atlantic...

  17. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Trumpeter Swan - Production

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The survey estimates recruitment of trumpeter swan on the refuge. The survey should be conducted in August and September, before migratory swans arrive on the Refuge...

  18. Wildlife Impact Assessment and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Phase I, Volume Two (A), Clark Fork Projects, Thompson Falls Dam, Operator, Montana Power Company.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn

    1984-03-27

    The Thompson Falls Dam inundated approximately 347 acres of wildlife habitat that likely included conifer forests, deciduous bottoms, mixed conifer-deciduous forests and grassland/hay meadows. Additionally, at least one island, and several gravel bars were inundated when the river was transformed into a reservoir. The loss of riparian and riverine habitat adversely affected the diverse wildlife community inhabiting the lower Clark Fork River area. Quantitative loss estimates were determined for selected target species based on best available information. The loss estimates were based on inundation of the habitat capable of supporting the target species. Whenever possible, loss estimates bounds were developed by determining ranges of impacts based on density estimates and/or acreage loss estimates. Of the twelve target species or species groups, nine were assessed as having net negative impacts. 86 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Mortality in tundra swans Cygnus columbianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.; Serie, J.R.; Converse, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Our paper identifies and examines the significance of hunting and non-hunting mortality affecting the Eastern Population (EP) and Western Population (WP) (see Serie & Bartonek 1991a) of Tundra Swans. Sport hunting (Serie & Bartonek 1991b), native subsistence hunting (Copp 1989, Stewart & Bernier 1989), malicious shooting (McKelvey & MacNeill 1981), avian cholera (Friend et al. 1981, Schroeder 1983), ecto- and endoparasites (Trauger & Bartonek 1977, Woebeser 1981), lead poisoning (Sherwood 1960, Friend et al. 1981), collision (Willard 1978), and drowning (Miller et al. 1986) have been documented as being direct or indirect causes of mortality in fledged Tundra Swans; but their relative importance remains unknown.

  20. Feasibility determination of hydroelectric power development at the existing Sewall's Falls Dam and power facilities for the New Hampshire Water Resources Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of restoring the hydroelectric power generating capacity of the Sewall's Falls facility near Concord, NH was evaluated considering technical, economic, safety and environmental factors. It was concluded that electric power can be generated at the proposed facility at a cost of $0.025 to $0.029 per kWh, and that the construction and operation of the facility is feasible. (LCL)

  1. SWANS: A Prototypic SCALE Criticality Sequence for Automated Optimization Using the SWAN Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, E.

    2001-01-11

    SWANS is a new prototypic analysis sequence that provides an intelligent, semi-automatic search for the maximum k{sub eff} of a given amount of specified fissile material, or of the minimum critical mass. It combines the optimization strategy of the SWAN code with the composition-dependent resonance self-shielded cross sections of the SCALE package. For a given system composition arrived at during the iterative optimization process, the value of k{sub eff} is as accurate and reliable as obtained using the CSAS1X Sequence of SCALE-4.4. This report describes how SWAN is integrated within the SCALE system to form the new prototypic optimization sequence, describes the optimization procedure, provides a user guide for SWANS, and illustrates its application to five different types of problems. In addition, the report illustrates that resonance self-shielding might have a significant effect on the maximum k{sub eff} value a given fissile material mass can have.

  2. Dam Safety Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duricic, J.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of dams constructed in the world are dams that can be categorized as embankment dams. Throughout history we can point to many failures of dams, and embankment dams in particular. Nowadays it is clear that the goal to construct stable dams has not been achieved, even with advanced

  3. Canada goose kill statistics: Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses how the flexible kill formula for Canada goose hunting at Swan Lake Public Hunting Area was reached. Methods used to collect Canada goose...

  4. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) manages multiple water management units. Silver Lake is the largest unit that is utilized primarily as a water storage...

  5. Narrative Report : Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Swan Lake NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  7. Primitive Weapons Deer Hunt Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge [Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Swan...

  8. Tundra swan avian infuenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in mid to late July 2008. This...

  9. The swans and geese of Alaska's arctic slope

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A mid-summer aerial search was made on the 23,000 square miles of waterfowl habitat on Alaska's Arctic slope. Observations included 159 whistling swan (Olor...

  10. SWAN: a Service for Interactive Analysis in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Piparo, Danilo; Mato, Pere; Mascetti, Luca; Moscicki, Jakub; Lamanna, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    SWAN (Service for Web based ANalysis) is a platform to perform interactive data analysis in the cloud. SWAN allows users to write and run their data analyses with only a web browser, leveraging on the widely-adopted Jupyter notebook interface. The user code, executions and data live entirely in the cloud. SWAN makes it easier to produce and share results and scientific code, access scientific software, produce tutorials and demonstrations as well as preserve analyses. Furthermore, it is also a powerful tool for non-scientific data analytics. This paper describes how a pilot of the SWAN service was implemented and deployed at CERN. Its backend combines state-of-the-art software technologies with a set of existing IT services such as user authentication, virtual computing infrastructure, mass storage, file synchronisation and sharing, specialised clusters and batch systems. The added value of this combination of services is discussed, with special focus on the opportunities offered by the CERNBox service and it...

  11. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAKP) as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in late July 2009....

  12. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAKP) and the Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAKP) in late July 2010 as part of...

  13. Tundra swan avain influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in late July 2006. At Caribou River,...

  14. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Alaska Peninsula as part of statewide Avian Influenza (AI) investigations in late July 2007. On the Northern...

  15. [Disease Prevention and Control Plan Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Prevention and Control Plan for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge...

  16. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  17. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  18. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  20. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative : Calendar Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Grassland Management Plan : Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Grassland Management Plan for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides an overview of the Refuge, a list of special considerations affecting grassland...

  6. Narrative Report : Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September to December 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Cardiac filariosis in migratory Mute swans (Cygnus olor in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarconema eurycerca is a common parasitic disease of North America swans and geese. The infection has been correlated with severe heart lesions, often resulting in cardiac failure and death of the animals. Heartworms infections have been previously reported in European swans, and specifically in the United Kingdom and Nederland. Both the countries are characterized by a cold temperate weather, similar to the one that can be found in swan wintering areas of U.S.A. and Canada. The first record of cardiac filariasis associated with Sarconema eurycerca infection in four swans in Italy. Twelve mute swans were examined during avian influenza surveillance activities on migratory birds. Birds were collected in the year 2006, in wintering areas of Eastern Sicily (Italy. Four of the twelve swans showed necrotic-haemorrhagic myocarditis with intra-lesional nematodes. Morphological characteristics identified the parasite as a filarial nematode. Birds lungs samples were used for parasites DNA extraction. The latter was used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and sequencing of part of the 12S rDNA gene. Comparison of genomic DNA extracted from a reference S. eurycerca isolate confirmed parasite identity and provided the first sequence resources for this species of value to future diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

  8. Coexistence and population genetic structure of the whooper swan Cygnus cygnus and mute swan Cygnus olor in Lithuania and Latvia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butkauskas, Dalius; Švažas, Saulius; Tubelytė, Vaida; Morkūnas, Julius; Sruoga, Aniolas; Boiko, Dmitrijs; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Stanevičius, Vitas; Baublys, Vykintas

    2012-01-01

    .... Marked differences in the genetic population structure of both species may partially explain the dominance of the whooper swan, as genetic population divergence can be a major factor affecting inter...

  9. When is the Swan Knight not the Swan Knight? 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Alastair

    2017-01-01

    Berthold von Holle wrote three thirteenth-century romances that straddle the boundary between Low and High German. This article addresses the challenges posed by his position on the northern perimeter of the medieval German literary canon. It argues against a reductive focus on Arthurian romance...... when contextualizing Berthold, describing instead an apparent reworking of the Swan Knight story in Demantin. The article thereby reassesses Berthold’s significance, proposing that research on European literatures would be better able to deal with such authors if it deployed an abstract concept...... of literary space alongside approaches that focus on the material world and manuscript transmission....

  10. Overview of efforts to expand the range of the Rocky Mountain population of trumpeter swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near extinction in 1900, by 1992 the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) contained +2200 swans. The foremost problem facing the...

  11. Water‐Data Report 3936360931115 SILVER LAKE AT SWAN LAKE NWR, WEST LEVEE, 2014-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2014 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393636093111501 SITE NAME: Silver Lake at Swan Lake NWR, West Levee COOPERATION: Swan...

  12. Population structure and productivity of whistling swans on the Yukon Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Whistling swans Cygnus colombianus are the most conspicuous of wildfowl of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the principal nesting grounds for swans wintering in western...

  13. Artificial intelligence based decision support for trumpeter swan management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojda, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    The number of trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) breeding in the Tri-State area where Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming come together has declined to just a few hundred pairs. However, these birds are part of the Rocky Mountain Population which additionally has over 3,500 birds breeding in Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, and Yukon Territory. To a large degree, these birds seem to have abandoned traditional migratory pathways in the flyway. Waterfowl managers have been interested in decision support tools that would help them explore simulated management scenarios in their quest towards reaching population recovery and the reestablishment of traditional migratory pathways. I have developed a decision support system to assist biologists with such management, especially related to wetland ecology. Decision support systems use a combination of models, analytical techniques, and information retrieval to help develop and evaluate appropriate alternatives. Swan management is a domain that is ecologically complex, and this complexity is compounded by spatial and temporal issues. As such, swan management is an inherently distributed problem. Therefore, the ecological context for modeling swan movements in response to management actions was built as a multiagent system of interacting intelligent agents that implements a queuing model representing swan migration. These agents accessed ecological knowledge about swans, their habitats, and flyway management principles from three independent expert systems. The agents were autonomous, had some sensory capability, and could respond to changing conditions. A key problem when developing ecological decision support systems is empirically determining that the recommendations provided are valid. Because Rocky Mountain trumpeter swans have been surveyed for a long period of time, I was able to compare simulated distributions provided by the system with actual field observations across 20 areas for the period 1988

  14. DAM Safety and Deformation Monitoring in Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.; Potts, L.; Miiama, J.; Mahgoub, M.; Rahman, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water is the life and necessity to water is increasing day by day with respect to the World population, rising of living standards and destruction of nature. Thus, the importance of water and water structures have been increasing gradually. Dams are among the most important engineering structures used for water supplies, flood controls, agricultural purposes as well as drinking and hydroelectric power. There are about 150.000 large size dams in the World. Especially after the Second World War, higher and larger capacity dams have been constructed. Dams create certain risks like the other manmade structures. No one knows precisely how many dam failures have occurred in the World, whereas hundreds of dam failures have occurred throughout the U.S. history. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. These physical data are measured and monitored by the instruments and equipment. Dams and their surroundings have to be monitored by using essential methods at periodic time intervals in order to determine the possible changes that may occur over the time. Monitoring programs typically consist of; surveillance or visual observation. These programs on dams provide information for evaluating the dam's performance related to the design intent and expected changes that could affect the safety performance of the dam. Additionally, these programs are used for investigating and evaluating the abnormal or degrading performance where any remedial action is necessary. Geodetic and non-geodetic methods are used for monitoring. Monitoring the performance of the dams is critical for producing and maintaining the safe dams. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the

  15. 50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.107 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the 48 contiguous United...

  16. Black swans and dragon kings: A unified model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    The term “black swan” is a metaphor for outlier events whose statistics are characterized by Pareto's Law and by Zipf's Law; namely, statistics governed by power-law tails. The term “dragon king” is a metaphor for a singular outlier event which, in comparison with all other outlier events, is in a league of its own. As an illustrative example consider the wealth of a family that is sampled at random from a medieval society: the nobility constitutes the black-swan category, and the royal family constitutes the dragon-king category. In this paper we present and analyze a dynamical model that generates, universally and jointly, black swans and dragon kings. According to this model, growing from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic scale, black swans and dragon kings emerge together and invariantly with respect to initial conditions.

  17. Cowlitz Falls Fish Passage.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system.

  18. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J. St; Ransler, F.A.; Quinn, T.W.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Primers for 16 microsatellite loci were developed for the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator), a species recovering from a recent population bottleneck. In a screen of 158 individuals, the 16 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from two to seven alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although two loci repeatedly revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Amplification in the closely related tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) was successful for all except one locus. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses and ultimately aid in management efforts. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  19. Susan swan and the female grotesque Susan swan and the female grotesque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bornéo Funck

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics. Introduced to readers as “the tallest woman freelance writer in Canada”, Susan Swan belongs to a generation of writers whose experimental, innovative fiction has proved vital in the contemporary project of de/re/constructing narrative practice. Her 1983 novel The Biggest Modern Woman of the World constitutes an excellent example of what critic Linda Hutcheon has termed “historiographic metafiction”—”fiction that is intensely, self-reflexively art, but is also grounded in historical, social, and political realities” (Canadian 13. As a conscious engagement with social and historical contexts, such fiction aims at destabilizing and subverting accepted patterns of belief by reconceptualizing and narrating possible subjectivities. By means of intertextuality, especially parody, it engages in an ideological critique in terms of both sexual and national politics.

  20. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2017-01-01

    A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

  1. The black swan the impact of the highly improbable

    CERN Document Server

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    A black swan is a highly improbable event with three principal characteristics: It is unpredictable; it carries a massive impact; and, after the fact, we concoct an explanation that makes it appear less random, and more predictable, than it was. The astonishing success of Google was a black swan; so was 9/11. For Nassim Nicholas Taleb, black swans underlie almost everything about our world, from the rise of religions to events in our own personal lives. Why do we not acknowledge the phenomenon of black swans until after they occur? Part of the answer, according to Taleb, is that humans are hardwired to learn specifics when they should be focused on generalities. We concentrate on things we already know and time and time again fail to take into consideration what we don’t know. We are, therefore, unable to truly estimate opportunities, too vulnerable to the impulse to simplify, narrate, and categorize, and not open enough to rewarding those who can imagine the “impossible.” For years, Taleb has studi...

  2. Dam removal: Listening in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  3. Hoover Dam Learning Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This learning packet provides background information about Hoover Dam (Nevada) and the surrounding area. Since the dam was built at the height of the Depression in 1931, people came from all over the country to work on it. Because of Hoover Dam, the Colorado River was controlled for the first time in history and farmers in Nevada, California, and…

  4. Toxicity of lead-contaminated sediment to mute swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, D.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Hoffman, D.J.; Morton, Alexandra; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Most ecotoxicological risk assessments of wildlife emphasize contaminant exposure through ingestion of food and water. However, the role of incidental ingestion of sediment-bound contaminants has not been adequately appreciated in these assessments. This study evaluates the toxicological consequences of contamination of sediments with metals from hard-rock mining and smelting activities. Lead-contaminated sediments collected from the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in Idaho were combined with either a commercial avian maintenance diet or ground rice and fed to captive mute swans (Cygnus olor) for 6 weeks. Experimental treatments consisted of maintenance or rice diets containing 0, 12 (no rice group), or 24% highly contaminated (3,950 ug/g lead) sediment or 24% reference (9.7 ug/g lead) sediment. Although none of the swans died, the group fed a rice diet containing 24% lead-contaminated sediment were the most severely affected, experiencing a 24% decrease in mean body weight, including three birds that became emaciated. All birds in this treatment group had nephrosis; abnormally dark, viscous bile; and significant (p fast intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are diagnostic of lead poisoning in waterfowl. Body weight and hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations in swans on control (no sediment) and reference (uncontaminated) sediment diets remained unchanged. These data provide evidence that mute swans consuming environmentally relevant concentrations of Coeur d'Alene River Basin sediment developed severe sublethal lead poisoning. Furthermore, toxic effects were more pronounced when the birds were fed lead contaminated sediment combined with rice, which closely resembles the diet of swans in the wild.

  5. Dams designed to fail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penman, A. [Geotechnical Engineering Consultants, Harpenden (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    New developments in geotechnical engineering have led to methods for designing and constructing safe embankment dams. Failed dams can be categorized as those designed to fail, and those that have failed unexpectedly. This presentation outlined 3 dam failures: the 61 m high Malpasset Dam in France in 1959 which killed 421; the 71 m high Baldwin Hills Dam in the United States in 1963 which killed 5; and, the Vajont Dam in Italy in 1963 which killed 2,600 people. Following these incidents, the International Commission for Large Dams (ICOLD) reviewed regulations on reservoir safety. The 3 dams were found to have inadequate spillways and their failures were due to faults in their design. Fuse plug spillways, which address this problem, are designed to fail if an existing spillway proves inadequate. They allow additional discharge to prevent overtopping of the embankment dam. This solution can only be used if there is an adjacent valley to take the additional discharge. Examples of fuse gates were presented along with their effect on dam safety. A research program is currently underway in Norway in which high embankment dams are being studied for overtopping failure and failure due to internal erosion. Internal erosion has been the main reason why dams have failed unexpectedly. To prevent failures, designers suggested the use of a clay blanket placed under the upstream shoulder. However, for dams with soft clay cores, these underblankets could provide a route for a slip surface and that could lead to failure of the upstream shoulder. It was concluded that a safe arrangement for embankment dams includes the use of tipping gates or overturning gates which always fail at a required flood water level. Many have been installed in old and new dams around the world. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  6. Facilitating fish passage at ultra low head dams: An alternative to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeh, M.

    2004-01-01

    Ecosystem sustainability and returning the biological integrity to rivers continue to change the landscape of fish passage technology. Installing a conventional fishways has a limited degree of success in accommodating fish passage needs. Recently, the option of total dam removal has been gaining momentum among resource managers, conservationists, and even engineers. Certain dams, however, cannot be removed, and conventional fishways are either too expensive to build or the real estate is simply not available; yet freedom of passage must be attained. At the Little Falls Dam on the Potomac River a notch in the crest of the dam was installed to accommodate passage of fish. The notch has three labyrinth weirs used for energy dissipation. Water velocities are maintained at less than about 4 m/s anywhere within the passage structure during migratory season of the target species (American shad). Construction of this novel design was recently completed (March 2000) and future biological evaluations are ongoing. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  7. Forecasting, Foresight and Strategic Planning for Black Swans

    OpenAIRE

    Kostas Nikolopoulos; F. Petropoulos

    2015-01-01

    In this research essay we propose a methodological innovation through: a) advocating for the broader use of OR forecasting tools and in specific intermittent demand estimators for forecasting black and grey swans, as a simpler, faster and quite robust alternative to econometric probabilistic methods like EVT; b) demonstrating the use in such a context of a rather popular forecasting paradigm: the Naive method (forecasting short horizons) and the SBA method (foresight long horizons) through th...

  8. Financial black swans driven by ultrafast machine ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Neil; Hunsader, Eric; Meng, Jing; Ravindar, Amith; Carran, Spencer; Tivnan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Society's drive toward ever faster socio-technical systems, means that there is an urgent need to understand the threat from 'black swan' extreme events that might emerge. On 6 May 2010, it took just five minutes for a spontaneous mix of human and machine interactions in the global trading cyberspace to generate an unprecedented system-wide Flash Crash. However, little is known about what lies ahead in the crucial sub-second regime where humans become unable to respond or intervene sufficiently quickly. Here we analyze a set of 18,520 ultrafast black swan events that we have uncovered in stock-price movements between 2006 and 2011. We provide empirical evidence for, and an accompanying theory of, an abrupt system-wide transition from a mixed human-machine phase to a new all-machine phase characterized by frequent black swan events with ultrafast durations (<650ms for crashes, <950ms for spikes). Our theory quantifies the systemic fluctuations in these two distinct phases in terms of the diversity of the...

  9. Dam Seepage Investigation of an Earthfill Dam in Warren County, Missouri Using Geophysical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C. Nwokebuihe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT, induced polarization (IP and spontaneous potential (SP data were acquired across and in proximity to a leaking earth-fill dam (Wolf Creek dam in Warren County, Missouri. The objectives were to identify and map probable seepage pathways through the dam and to determine if the outlet works drainage pipe used in the construction of the dam was leaking. On the basis of the integrated interpretation of the acquired geophysical data two probable seepage pathways through the leaking earth-fill dam were identified and mapped. These two pathways are referred to as the Groin Leak and Water Fall Leak, respectively. The Groin Leak and Water Fall Leak seepage pathways are both characterized by relatively low resistivity and low chargeability. It is also concluded that there is high probability that water is leaking from the downstream end of the outlet works drainage pipe. The interpreted drainage pipe leak (Outlet works Leak is characterized by relatively low resistivity, high chargeability and negative self-potential values.

  10. Landsat evaluation of trumpeter swan historical nesting sites in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Laura Elizabeth

    The trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) has historically nested in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Declines in habitat quality may be limiting the growth of the Tri-State Flock. The purpose of this study was to map historical nesting areas for trumpeter swans in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) and evaluate Landsat images for changes to habitat. Historical nesting sites were evaluated through image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and compared to field conditions. Swan nesting records were analyzed in comparison to drought index and human visitation rates to determine if these factors may contribute to the decline of trumpeter swans nesting in YNP. Vegetation type and water quality were evaluated at 36 wetlands identified as historical nesting locations. Potamogetonaceae was the largest family represented in plant samples and had the highest frequency of occurrence in samples. There was no significant difference in whether swans were present or absent in wetlands with regards to water quality parameters tested or physical parameters identified. There was an association between certain drought index values and the number of cygnets fledged and the number of territories occupied by swan pairs. I was unsuccessful in using image classification to define pixel characteristics common among historical nesting territories of swans in YNP based on 5 Landsat images from 1975, 1979, 1990, 1999, and 2005. I was also unable to distinguish aquatic plant species composition, emergent and submergent plants, open water versus aquatic vegetation, wetland classification, or swan preference using image classification. No relationship was found in a regression model of NDVI values and swan pair occupancy or number of swans fledged, with the exception of a weak, positive relationship between pair occupancy and positive NDVI values, and a strong, positive relationship between swan fledge rates and positive NDVI values

  11. Phase I Inspection Report. National Dam Safety Program, Boonton Dam and Parsippany Dike, Morris County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    inspection for Boonton Dam, Parsippany Dike and reservoir, was conducted on April 14, 1978. The air temperature was about 50 F with partly cloudy skies...operating procedures, the gates are raised in the spring and lowered in the fall. e. Seismic Stability - The dam is located in the Triassic Highlands...physiographic subprovince of northern New Jersey and is founded on fine to medium grained, red sandstone and shale of the Triassic Newark Group

  12. Reported tailings dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rico, M. [CSIC - Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia, Zaragoza (Spain)], E-mail: mayterico@ipe.csic.es; Benito, G. [CSIC - Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Madrid (Spain); Salgueiro, A.R. [CERENA - Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente of IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Diez-Herrero, A. [Geological Hazards Unit, Spanish Geological Survey (IGME), Madrid (Spain); Pereira, H.G. [CERENA - Centro de Recursos Naturais e Ambiente of IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-04-01

    A detailed search and re-evaluation of the known historical cases of tailings dam failure was carried out. A corpus of 147 cases of worldwide tailings dam disasters, from which 26 located in Europe, was compiled in a database. This contains six sections, including dam location, its physical and constructive characteristics, actual and putative failure cause, sludge hydrodynamics, socio-economical consequences and environmental impacts. Europe ranks in second place in reported accidents (18%), more than one third of them in dams 10-20 m high. In Europe, the most common cause of failure is related to unusual rain, whereas there is a lack of occurrences associated with seismic liquefaction, which is the second cause of tailings dam breakage elsewhere in the world. Moreover, over 90% of incidents occurred in active mines, and only 10% refer to abandoned ponds. The results reached by this preliminary analysis show an urgent need for EU regulations regarding technical standards of tailings disposal.

  13. Significance of the White Sea as a Stopover for Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in Spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolet, B. A.; Andreev, V. A.; Clausen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We searched for a major stopover site of Bewick's Swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii in the White Sea following the suggestion that one should exist on the stretch between Estonia and the breeding grounds (1750 km). We discovered 733 Swans in Dvina Bay during a late aerial survey in spring 1993...

  14. A hybrid version of swan for fast and efficient practical wave modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Genseberger (Menno); J. Donners

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the Netherlands, for coastal and inland water applications, wave modelling with SWAN has become a main ingredient. However, computational times are relatively high. Therefore we investigated the parallel efficiency of the current MPI and OpenMP versions of SWAN. The MPI version is

  15. Cardiac output monitoring by echocardiography: should we pass on Swan-Ganz catheters?

    OpenAIRE

    Perrino, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography offers a noninvasive technique for the continuous monitoring of cardiac performance. The combination of 2-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler velocitometry provide assessment of cardiac anatomy, valve function and, ventricular loading conditions. Although transesophageal echocardiography has become accepted for perioperative monitoring, it is typically used in conjunction with Swan-Ganz catheterization. To supplant Swan-Ganz catheters, an echocardiographi...

  16. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  17. Project Planning for Cougar Dam during 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    adult fish that are allowed to spawn above Cougar Dam move downstream into Cougar Reservoir in the spring. Under the BIOP, the USACE is required to provide downstream fish passage or operational alternatives at Cougar Dam by 2014. Currently, there is little information about the seasonal timing of reservoir entry of juvenile Chinook salmon and what habitats they and other fishes use in the reservoir. However, rotary screw traps placed in the outlet channel below the dam indicate peak juvenile passage coinciding with seasonally low pool elevation in mid December and late January. It is unknown whether juveniles upstream of Cougar Dam can be captured in large enough numbers for tagging and subsequent survival studies to proceed. These studies are needed to examine the feasibility of installing downstream fish passage structures at Cougar Dam to meet BIOP requirements. Therefore, the USACE contracted with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to test the efficacy of using a mid-water trawl and lampara seine to capture fish in Cougar Reservoir on three consecutive days in the fall of 2010. These collection methods could potentially provide fish for feasibility and subsequent survival studies and as verification of fish targets in future active hydroacoustic surveys.

  18. The reversibility of swan neck deformity in chronic atlantoaxial dislocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passias, Peter G; Wang, Shenglin; Zhao, Deng; Wang, Shaobai; Kozanek, Michal; Wang, Chao

    2013-04-01

    Prospective case series and radiographical analysis. This study aimed to characterize the changes in subaxial alignment after surgical correction of occipitoaxial kyphosis, establish normal parameters, and report on clinical outcomes in a population of patients with chronic atlantoaxial dislocation patients presenting with swan neck deformities. Swan neck deformity of the cervical spine is a term used to describe the simultaneous development of both abnormal kyphosis and hyperlordosis malalignments. Currently, there are no published series that discuss their outcomes after treatment and, more specifically, the subsequent changes that occur in the subaxial spine after the correction of the primary deformity in cases of chronic hyperkyphosis at the occipitoaxial segment. This was a prospective clinical and radiographical study in a population of patients with chronic atlantoaxial dislocation presenting with swan neck deformities. C0-C2 and C2-C7 angles were measured using plain radiographs pre- and postsurgery. The relationship between the alignment of the occipitoaxial joint and the subaxial cervical spine was evaluated. Japanese Orthopaedic Society scores were used to assess functional outcomes. C0-C2 improved from a mean of -14.4° (SD, 9.5°) preoperatively to a mean of 7.8° (SD, 1.0°) postoperatively (P = 0.02). C2-C7 changed from a mean of 43° (SD, 2.8°) to a mean of 18.6° (SD, 11.2°) postoperatively (P = 0.02). A significant correlation was detected between the changes that occurred in the upper and lower cervical alignments (R = 0.133; P atlantoaxial dislocation are favorable and associated with a low complication rate.

  19. Public history and mass incarceration: interview with Martha Swan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Martha; Rizzo, Mary

    2014-02-01

    Nonprofit human rights organization John Brown Lives! uses local and regional history as a tool to raise contemporary questions around racial injustice, inspired by the work of controversial abolitionist leader John Brown. In this interview, founder Martha Swan discusses how John Brown Lives! uses public history, from a series of community conversations around mass incarceration and drug laws to a traveling exhibit on voting rights in nineteenth century New York State, to encourage people to question the narrative of American history, the meaning of freedom, the role of policy in racial issues, and the connections between history and place.

  20. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  1. Satellite tracking of the migration of Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hijikata, N.; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Hupp, Jerry; Flint, Paul L.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Go; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Sato, F.; Kurechi, Masayuki; Pearce, John M.; Ramey, Andy M.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We satellite-tracked Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus wintering in northern Japan to document their migration routes and timing, and to identify breeding areas. From 47 swans that we marked at Lake Izunuma-Uchinuma, Miyagi Prefecture, northeast Honshu, and at Lake Kussharo, east Hokkaido, we observed 57 spring and 33 autumn migrations from 2009-2012. In spring, swans migrated north along Sakhalin Island from eastern Hokkaido using stopovers in Sakhalin, at the mouth of the Amur River and in northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk. They ultimately reached molting/breedmg areas along the Indigirka River and the lower Kolyma River in northern Russia. In autumn, the swans basically reversed the spring migration routes. We identified northern Honshu, eastern Hokkaido, coastal areas in Sakhalin, the lower Amur River and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk as the most frequent stopover sites, and the middle reaches of the Indigirka and the lower Kolyma River as presumed breeding sites. Our results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the breeding and stopover sites of Whooper Swans wintering in Japan and in identifying their major migration habitats. Our findings contribute to understanding the potential transmission process of avian influenza viruses potentially carried by swans, and provide information necessary to conserve Whooper Swans in East Asia.

  2. The RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnant, Rene; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles; Spits, Justine; Stegen, Koen; Stankov, Stan

    The SWANS (Space Weather and Navigation Systems) research and development project (http://swans.meteo.be) is an initiative of the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) under the auspices of the Belgian Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE). The RMI SWANS objectives are: research on space weather and its effects on GNSS applications; permanent mon-itoring of the local/regional geomagnetic and ionospheric activity; and development/operation of relevant nowcast, forecast, and alert services to help professional GNSS/GALILEO users in mitigating space weather effects. Several SWANS developments have already been implemented and available for use. The K-LOGIC (Local Operational Geomagnetic Index K Calculation) system is a nowcast system based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition, data screening, and calculating the local geomagnetic K index. Simultaneously, the planetary Kp index is estimated from solar wind measurements, thus adding to the service reliability and providing forecast capabilities as well. A novel hybrid empirical model, based on these ground-and space-based observations, has been implemented for nowcasting and forecasting the geomagnetic index, issuing also alerts whenever storm-level activity is indicated. A very important feature of the nowcast/forecast system is the strict control on the data input and processing, allowing for an immediate assessment of the output quality. The purpose of the LIEDR (Local Ionospheric Electron Density Reconstruction) system is to acquire and process data from simultaneous ground-based GNSS TEC and digital ionosonde measurements, and subsequently to deduce the vertical electron density distribution. A key module is the real-time estimation of the ionospheric slab thickness, offering additional infor-mation on the local ionospheric dynamics. The RTK (Real Time Kinematic) status mapping provides a quick look at the small-scale ionospheric effects on the RTK

  3. Lead toxicosis in tundra swans near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Grove, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Die-offs of waterfowl have occurred in the Coeur d`Alene River system in northern Idaho since at least the early 1900`s. We investigated causes of mortality and lead and cadmium contamination of 46 tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) from 1987 to 1989; an additional 22 swans found dead in 1990 were not examined. We necropsied 43 of the 46 birds found from 1987 to 1989; 38 of these were from the Coeur d`Alene River system, which has been contaminated with mining and smelting wastes for a century, and the other 5 were from a nearby, relatively uncontaminated area. Of the 36 livers of swans from the contaminated area that were analyzed, 32 contained lethal levels of lead (6 to 40 micrograms/g, wet weight) and all birds exhibited several symptoms of lead poisoning, notably enlarged gall bladders containing viscous, darkgreen bile. Only 13% of the lead-poisoned birds (10% when data were included from other studies of swans in the area) contained shot, compared to 95% of lead-poisoning swans in studies outside northern Idaho. Lead concentrations in blood samples from 16 apparently healthy swans (0.5 to 2.3 micrograms/g, and 4 leadpoisoned birds found moribund (1.3 to 9.6 micrograms/g) indicating that tundra swans accumulated high levels of lead from ingestion of sediment that contained up to 8,700 micrograms/g of lead and plants that contained up to 400 micrograms/g. The swans spend only a few weeks in the area staging during the spring migration. The five tundra swans from the uncontaminated area had low levels of lead and essentially no symptoms of lead poisoning.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Assessment of fall risk and fall prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Atsushi

    2012-06-01

    Typical risk factors for falls include a history of falling, decreased walking ability, and taking certain drugs. Serum vitamin D concentration is associated with falls, and vitamin D administration decreases falls. Fall prevention methods include exercise intervention, interventions other than exercise, and multifaceted interventions. However, the scientific evidence for whether fall prevention prevents fractures is poor. Fracture prevention with the use of hip protectors is effective in nursing facility dwellers, but not in elderly people living at home.

  5. 75 FR 30422 - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Chariton County, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ..., 2006). For more about the initial process and the history of this refuge, see that notice. Swan Lake... photography, and environmental education and interpretation. CCP Alternatives and Our Preferred Alternative...

  6. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report for January - April 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Pacific Flyway management plan for the Western Population of tundra swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to establish guidelines for the cooperative management of the Western Population (WP) of tundra swans (Cygnus c. columbianus). This...

  8. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with Refuge...

  9. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  10. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  11. Report on a Cannon Net Trap Workshop Held at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a report of material covered during a workshop on cannon net trapping and banding held at the Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Sumner, Missouri,...

  12. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  13. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  15. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge trumperter swan translocation project : Issues/action items

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Background information and current issues regarding the trumpeter swan translocation project at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. Major issues include harvesting of...

  16. 1977-1984 Canada Goose Necropsy Data from Swan Lake NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Collection of data sheets detailing necropsy results from Canada Geese carcasses found at Swan Lake NWR. The data sheets give detailed reports on what was found...

  17. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  18. Tundra swan avian influenza surveillance and banding effort, Alaska Peninsula, 18-28 July, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) were captured on the Northern Alaska Peninsula (NAKP) and the Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAKP) in late July20 10 as part of...

  19. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  20. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 2008 fiscal year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  2. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1997-2007 calendar years. The report begins with a...

  3. Tundra swan population survey in Bristol Bay, Northern Alaska Peninsula, 2003 and 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) population surveys were conducted in spring and late summer of 2003 and 2008 according to the schedule established in the Alaska...

  4. Tundra swan population survey in Bristol Bay, northern Alaska Peninsula, 2003 and 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) population surveys were conducted in spring and late summer of 2003 and 2008 according to the schedule established in the Alaska...

  5. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report for January - April 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the...

  7. Tundra swan populations, productivity, and local movements on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, northwest Alaska, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the monitoring of populations and production of tundra swans on Selawik National Wildlife Refuge in 1985 as part of a long-term study. Radio...

  8. Swan River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with Refuge...

  9. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report for January - April 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  11. [Swan Song: The Advent of the Psychotic Nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Fernando Muñoz

    2012-09-01

    Different forms of artistic expression, such as literature and cinema, constitute an inexhaustible source for the study of mental illness. The use of psychodynamic models may contribute to a better understanding of the spectrum between personality disorders and the psychosis spectrum, thus enriching the phenomenological approach in the psychiatric clinical practice. To examine from psychodynamic standpoints the main character of the American film Black Swan, and the nature of her psychotic symptoms. Reviewing of sources and relevant theoretical currents. Analysis shows the usefulness of a psychodynamically- oriented dimensional model for understanding the so-called psychotic breaks as well as the applicability of psychoanalytic psychosis theories in general psychiatric practice, as they may provide a more flexible clinical approach, closer to the patient's subjective experience. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Society environmental economic benefits of swan-labelled workwear service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüttner, Henrik; Dall, Ole; Thomsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    was funded and published by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency 2009-2011. The assessment illustrates the problems to find reliable documentation for the environmental performance of eco-labelled versus conventional products. The assessment mainly focuses on the use-phase since this has been proven......This paper presents an environmental and socio-economic comparison of textile supply of workwear with and without the Nordic Swan labelling scheme. The study is part of a project for development of a methodology for the environmental and socio-economic comparison for product groups. The study...... to be the most important part of the lifecycle. For the use-phase a significant difference in environmental performance can be demonstrated between the European average figures and the figures for the Danish company providing the ecolabelled service. By application of the developed methodology this difference...

  13. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low ( < 0.2 μg/ml) in swans across all breeding areas. Pb levels were lower in cygnets than adults, suggesting that swans were likely exposed to Pb on wintering areas or on return migration to Alaska, rather than on the summer breeding grounds. Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  14. Limnology of hartbeespoort dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available consequences, for example the proliferation of filter clogging algae. Pilot or full-scale experimentation will be necessary to establish the true poten tial of this technique as a in-dam method for dealing with eutrophied waters. (d) Protein harvesting... essential amino-acids and is therefore of little practical use. If the conditions in the dam could be changed to result in a more palatable algae, this will have definite advantages (vi) for its protein production potential. Unfortunately, the factors...

  15. Dam health diagnosis and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongru; Su, Huaizhi

    2005-06-01

    Based on the bionics principle in the life sciences field, we regard a dam as a vital and intelligent system. A bionics model is constructed to observe, diagnose and evaluate dam health. The model is composed of a sensing system (nerve), central processing unit (cerebrum) and decision-making implement (organism). In addition, the model, index system and engineering method on dam health assessment are presented. The proposed theories and methods are applied to evaluate dynamically the health of one concrete dam.

  16. Hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and biochemical values for mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolka, B; Włodarczyk, R; Zbikowski, A; Dolka, I; Szeleszczuk, P; Kluciński, W

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge of the correct morphological and biochemical parameters in mute swans is an important indicator of their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological parameters in relation to age, sex and serum biochemistry values in wild-living mute swans. We found the significant differences in the erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in relation to age of mute swans. There were no differences in hematological values between males and females. The leukogram and H/L ratio did not vary by age and sex in swans. Among of biochemical parameters the slightly increased AST, ALP, CK, K, urea, decreased CHOL and TG values were recorded. As far as we know, this is the first study in which the morphometric parameters of blood cells in mute swans were presented. We found extremely low concentration of lead in blood (at subthreshold level). No blood parasites were found in blood smears. The analysis of body mass and biometric parameters revealed a significant differences dependent on age and sex. No differences in the scaled mass index were found. Our results represent a normal hematologic and blood chemistry values and age-sex related changes, as reference values for the mute swan.

  17. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for six weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, to estimate the sediment?s toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses were detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies, but these elements did not accumulate in the livers of the treated swans and probably were not readily available in the sediment. Although ingestion of the Anacostia River sediment caused subtle toxicological effects in swans, we concluded from pathological examinations and weight data that the treated swans remained basically healthy.

  18. Dam of Ksob (Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stucky, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Design of a sediment by-pass. The Ksob dam was heightened in 1977 in order to increase its storage capacity. A sediment derivation tunnel by-passing the reservoir was designed for a second stage. It will be operated during floods and is expected to delay significantly important storage losses due to reservoir sedimentation.

  19. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  20. Environmental and human influences on trumpeter swan habitat occupancy in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J.H.; Lindberg, M.S.; Johnson, D.S.; Schmultz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 70-80% of the entire population of the Trumpeter Swan (Cygnus huccinator) depends for reproduction on wetlands in Alaska. This makes the identification of important habitat features and the effects of human interactions important for the species' long-term management. We analyzed the swan's habitat preferences in five areas throughout the state and found that swan broods occupied some wetland types, especially larger closed-basin wetlands such as lakes and ponds, at rates much higher than they occupied other wetland types, such as shrubby or forested wetlands. We also found a negative effect of transportation infrastructure on occupancy by broods in and around the Minto Flats State Game Refuge, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge. This finding is of particular interest because much of the Minto Flats refuge has recently been licensed for oil and gas exploration and parts of the Kenai refuge have been developed in the past. We also investigated the potential effects of the shrinkage of closed-basin ponds on habitat occupancy by nesting Trumpeter Swans. We compared nesting swans' use of ponds with changes in the ponds' size and other characteristics from 1982 to 1996 and found no relationships between occupancy and changes in pond size. However, we believe that the recent and rapid growth of Trumpeter Swan populations in Alaska may become limited by available breeding habitat, and anthropogenic and climate-induced changes to the swan's breeding habitats have the potential to limit future production. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Dragon-Kings, Black-Swans and Prediction (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme fluctuations or events are often associated with power law statistics. Indeed, it is a popular belief that "wild randomness'' is deeply associated with distributions with power law tails characterized by small exponents. In other words, power law tails are often seen as the epitome of extreme events (the "Black Swan'' story). Here, we document in very different systems that there is life beyond power law tails: power laws can be superseded by "dragon-kings'', monster events that occur beyond (or changing) the power law tail. Dragon-kings reveal hidden mechanisms that are only transiently active and that amplify the normal fluctuations (often described by the power laws of the normal regime). The goal of this lecture is to catalyze the interest of the community of geophysicists across all fields of geosciences so that the "invisible gorilla" fallacy may be avoided. Our own research illustrates that new statistics or representation of data are often necessary to identify dragon-kings, with strategies guided by the underlying mechanisms. Paradoxically, the monsters may be ignored or hidden by the use of inappropriate analysis or statistical tools that amount to cut a mamooth in small pieces, so as to lead to the incorrect belief that only mice exist. In order to stimulate further research, we will document and discuss the dragon-king phenomenon on the statistics of financial losses, economic geography, hydrodynamic turbulence, mechanical ruptures, avalanches in complex heterogeneous media, earthquakes, and epileptic seizures. The special status of dragon-kings open a new research program on their predictability, based on the fact that they belong to a different class of their own and express specific mechanisms amplifying the normal dynamics via positive feedbacks. We will present evidence of these claims for the predictions of material rupture, financial crashes and epileptic seizures. As a bonus, a few remarks will be offered at the end on how the dragon

  2. Monitoring of heavy metal burden in mute swan (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grúz, Adrienn; Szemerédy, Géza; Kormos, Éva; Budai, Péter; Majoros, Szilvia; Tompai, Eleonóra; Lehel, József

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (especially arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury and lead) were measured in the contour (body) feathers of mute swans (Cygnus olor) and in its nutrients (fragile stonewort [Chara globularis], clasping leaf pondweed [Potamogeton perfoliatus], Eurasian watermilfoil [Myriophyllum spicatum], fennel pondweed [Potamogeton pectinatus]) to investigate the accumulation of metals during the food chain. The samples (17 feathers, 8 plants) were collected at Keszthely Bay of Lake Balaton, Hungary. Dry ashing procedure was used for preparing of sample and the heavy metal concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Copper (10.24 ± 2.25 mg/kg) and lead (1.11 ± 1.23 mg/kg) were detected the highest level in feathers, generally, the other metals were mostly under the detection limit (0.5 mg/kg). However, the concentrations of the arsenic (3.17 ± 1.87 mg/kg), cadmium (2.41 ± 0.66 mg/kg) and lead (2.42 ± 0.89 mg/kg) in the plants were low but the chromium (198.27 ± 102.21 mg/kg) was detected in high concentration.

  3. Drivers of waterfowl population dynamics: from teal to swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, David N.; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Schmutz, Joel A.; Rotella, Jay J.

    2014-01-01

    Waterfowl are among the best studied and most extensively monitored species in the world. Given their global importance for sport and subsistence hunting, viewing and ecosystem functioning, great effort has been devoted since the middle part of the 20th century to understanding both the environmental and demographic mechanisms that influence waterfowl population and community dynamics. Here we use comparative approaches to summarise and contrast our understanding ofwaterfowl population dynamics across species as short-lived as the teal Anas discors and A.crecca to those such as the swans Cygnus sp. which have long life-spans. Specifically, we focus on population responses to vital rate perturbations across life history strategies, discuss bottom-up and top-down responses of waterfowlpopulations to global change, and summarise our current understanding of density dependence across waterfowl species. We close by identifying research needs and highlight ways to overcome the challenges of sustainably managing waterfowl populations in the 21st century.

  4. Long-term Results of Lateral Band Translocation for the Correction of Swan Neck Deformity in Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Marije; van Vliet, Daphne C.; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Mick

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of lateral band translocation for correcting swan neck deformity in patients with cerebral palsy at a minimum follow-up of 5 years. Methods: Swan neck deformities of 62 fingers were corrected using a modified lateral band

  5. Commensal foraging with Bewick’s Swans Cygnus bewickii doubles instantaneous intake rate of Common Pochards Aythya ferina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gyimesi, A.; van Lith, B.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquatically foraging Bewick’s Swans Cygnus bewickii have been repeatedly reported to be accompanied by diving ducks, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Based on field observations, we found a strong correlation between the number of foraging swans and the number of foraging Common

  6. State of the arch dam and foundation of the Inguri Hydroelectric Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronshtein, V.I.

    1994-08-01

    The Inguri hydroelectric station (HES) is a cascade of hydroelectric stations including, in addition to the dam - diversion installation of the Inguri HES proper, the near-dam installation of the Perepad HES-1 and three similar channel installations of the Perepad HESs-2, -3, and -4 located on the tailrace emptying into the Black Sea. The HESs of the cascade use the fall of two rivers, the Inguri and Eristskali, by diverting the waters of the Inguri into the Eristskali.

  7. Alaska productivity surveys of geese, swans, and brant

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Productivity surveys were conducted by several agencies and individuals during late summer, fall, and/or winter of 2009 and early 2010 to estimate juvenile-to-adult...

  8. Mute swans and their Chesapeake Bay habitats: proceedings of a symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The symposium 'Mute Swans and their Chesapeake Bay Habitats,' held on June 7, 2001, provided a forum for biologists and managers to share research findings and management ideas concerning the exotic and invasive mute swan (Cygnus olar). This species has been increasing in population size and is considered by many to be a problem in regard to natural food resources in the Bay that are used by native waterfowl during the winter months. Other persons, however, feel that resource managers are attempting to create a problem to justify more killing of waterfowl by hunters. Some persons also believe that managers should focus on the larger issues causing the decline of native food resources, such as the unabated human population increase in the Bay watershed and in the immediate coastal areas of the Bay. The symposium, sponsored by the Wildfowl Trust of North America and the U.S. Geological Survey, provided the atmosphere for presentation of mute swan data and opinions in a collegial setting where discussion was welcomed and was often informative and enthusiastic. An interesting historic review of the swan in regard to the history of mankind was presented, followed by a discussion on the positive and negative effects of invasive species. Biologists from different parts of the continent discussed the population status of the species in several states in the east and in the Great Lakes area. Data on the food habits of this species were presented in regard to submerged aquatic vegetation, and an interesting discussion on the role that the food habits of Canada geese in regard to native vegetation was presented. Findings and recommendations of the Mute Swan Task Force were presented. Finally, a representative of the Friends of Animals gave a thought-provoking presentation in defense of the mute swan. The presentations, in general, provided the necessary information and recommendations to allow managers to proceed with management of this controversial species with new and

  9. Risk, surprises and black swans fundamental ideas and concepts in risk assessment and risk management

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Risk, Surprises and Black Swans provides an in depth analysis of the risk concept with a focus on the critical link to knowledge; and the lack of knowledge, that risk and probability judgements are based on.Based on technical scientific research, this book presents a new perspective to help you understand how to assess and manage surprising, extreme events, known as 'Black Swans'. This approach looks beyond the traditional probability-based principles to offer a broader insight into the important aspects of uncertain events and in doing so explores the ways to manage them.

  10. Baseline hematology and clinical chemistry results from captive-raised trumpeter swans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.

  11. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total

  12. Damming evidence : Canada and the World Commission on Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vert, P.; Parkinson, B.

    2003-06-01

    Large hydroelectric projects have been met with strong resistance from affected communities, particularly indigenous groups who have been displaced from their flooded communities following the damming of a river. The World Commission on Dams (WCD) was formed in 1998 to review the effectiveness of large dams and develop internationally acceptable guidelines and standards for large dams or hydro energy projects. The Canadian government, through the Canadian International Development Agency, was one of many governments to fund the WCD. However, the authors argue that despite the financial support, the Canadian government was absent from any effort to follow-up on the recommendations of the WCD. The seven strategic priorities in the decision making process include: (1) gaining public acceptance, (2) comprehensive option assessment of water, energy, food and development needs, (3) addressing existing dams to improve the benefits that can be derived from them, (4) sustaining livelihoods, (5) recognizing the entitlements and sharing benefits, (6) ensuring compliance, and (7) sharing rivers for peace, development and security. This report offers a means to assess planned or existing dams and presents a set of guidelines for good practices linked to the seven strategic priorities. Ten case studies from around the world were presented, including the Three Gorges Dam in China. 154 refs., 3 figs., 3 appendices.

  13. Skyscraper dams in Yunnan : China's new electricity generator should step in

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, G.

    2006-05-12

    The construction of a series of high-head hydroelectric power dams in China's earthquake-prone Yunnan province has raised concerns in China's scientific and environmental communities. The series of skyscraper-high dams are being built to meet Beijing's power production targets without the benefit of market discipline or effective regulatory oversight. Dam building is central to Beijing's plan for tripling the country's hydropower production by 2020. To meet that target, the State Council granted exclusive development rights to Hydrolancang, the Yunnan Huadian Nu River Hydropower Development Company and the Three Gorges Corporation. The Hydrolancang company is building 2 of the world's tallest and most controversial hydro dams on the Lancang River. When completed in 2012, Xiaowan will be the world's tallest arch dam at 292 metres high. Another dam, the 254 metre high Nuozhadu dam is expected to start generating power in 2017. In addition, there are plans for 13 other high dams along the Nu River, one of only 2 major rivers in China that remains free-flowing. This document expressed that China's new electricity regulator should initiate a full-cost review of state dam-building in the earthquake-prone province. It was argued that as state-owned power companies, the dam builders are not market-driven and are shielded from many of the financial risks and environmental liabilities associated with large dams. The author argued that China's electricity regulator should examine the dam builders' projects costs and profits and review the economic implications of the hydro policy for China's power consumers. It was also suggested that the country's modernization goals for the power industry should be reviewed. The immediate concerns are ecological damage and the frequency with which Yunnan province is hit by earthquakes, rock falls and landslides. Experts caution that the extra weight of the high dams and reservoirs

  14. Migration of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) Wintering in Japan Using Satellite Tracking: Identification of the Eastern Palearctic Flyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenbo; Doko, Tomoko; Fujita, Go; Hijikata, Naoya; Tokita, Ken-Ichi; Uchida, Kiyoshi; Konishi, Kan; Hiraoka, Emiko; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Migration through the Eastern Palearctic (EP) flyway by tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) has not been thoroughly documented. We satellite-tracked the migration of 16 tundra swans that winter in Japan. The objectives of this study were 1) to show the migration pattern of the EP flyway of tundra swans; 2) to compare this pattern with the migration pattern of whooper swans; and 3) to identify stopover sites that are important for these swans' conservation. Tundra swans were captured at Kutcharo Lake, Hokkaido, in 2009-2012 and satellite-tracked. A new method called the "MATCHED (Migratory Analytical Time Change Easy Detection) method" was developed. Based on median, the spring migration began on 18 April and ended on 27 May. Autumn migration began on 9 September and ended on 2 November. The median duration of the spring and autumn migrations were 48 and 50 days, respectively. The mean duration at one stopover site was 5.5 days and 6.8 days for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The number of stopover sites was 3.0 and 2.5 for the spring and autumn migrations, respectively. The mean travel distances for the spring and autumn migrations were 6471 and 6331 km, respectively. Seven migration routes passing Sakhalin, the Amur River, and/or Kamchatka were identified. There were 15, 32, and eight wintering, stopover, and breeding sites, respectively. The migration routes and staging areas of tundra swans partially overlap with those of whooper swans, whose migration patterns have been previously documented. The migration patterns of these two swan species that winter in Japan confirm the importance of the Amur River, Udyl' Lake, Shchastya Bay, Aniva Bay, zaliv Chayvo Lake, zal Piltun Lake, zaliv Baykal Lake, Kolyma River, Buyunda River, Sen-kyuyel' Lake, and northern coastal areas of the Sea of Okhotsk.

  15. SWAN-Fly : A flexible cloud-enabled framework for context-aware applications in smartphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharath Das, R.; van Halteren, A.T.; Bal, H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are equipped with various hardware sensors to enrich the user experience. SWAN is a middleware framework that supports easy collection and processing of sensor data. However, the limited resources of the smartphones prevent the apps from supporting big data applications that need to

  16. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, BA; Langevoord, O; Bevan, RM; Engelaar, KR; Klaassen, M; Mulder, RJW

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  17. Spatial variation in tuber depletion by swans explained by differences in net intake rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.; Langevoord, O.; Bevan, R.M.; Engelaar, K.R.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Van Dijk, S.

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether the spatial variation in resource depletion by Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus) foraging on belowground tubers of sage pondweed (Potnmogeton pectinatus) was caused by differences in net energy intake rates. The variation in giving up densities within the confines of one lake was

  18. Water‐Data Report 393556093132501 ELK CREEK NR SUMNER MO, DS ON SWAN LAKE REFUGE-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 390 35’ 56.0” N, long. 930 13’ 25” W, at Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillecothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is located near abandoned...

  19. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M; Beekman, JH; Kontiokorpi, J; Mulder, RJW; Nolet, BA

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewick's swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  20. Migrating swans profit from favourable changes in wind conditions at low altitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Beekman, J.H.; Kontiokorpi, J.; Mulder, R.J.W.; Nolet, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Because energy reserves limit flight range, wind assistance may be of crucial importance for migratory birds. We tracked eight Bewicks swans Cygnus columbianus bewickii, using 95-g satellite transmitters with altimeters and activity sensors, during their spring migration from Denmark to northern

  1. Black swan risk management : The moderation effect of risk mitigation strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Q; Krikke, H.R.; Caniels, M.C.J.; Giannakis, M.; Johnsen, T.; Miemczyk, J.; Kamann, D.-J.; Bernardin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many scholars have discussed supply chain risk mitigation on operational risks, but less on rare, highly influential, and retrospective predictable risks, such as natural disasters, epidemics, and socio-political crises. They are Black Swan risks (Taleb, 2007). More than disrupting supply chains,

  2. Teaching migration routes to canada geese and trumpeter swans using ultralight aircraft, 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese

  3. SWAN-mud: engineering model for mud-induced wave damping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter; Winterwerp, J.C.; de Boer, G.J.; Cornelisse, JM.; Zijlema, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a new dispersion relation and energy-dissipation equation obtained from a viscous two-layer model schematization in the state-of-the-art wave forecasting model SWAN to simulate wave damping in coastal areas by fluid mud deposits. This new dispersion

  4. The C3 Framework: One Year Later - an Interview with Kathy Swan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    On September 17, 2013 (Constitution Day), the C3 Framework was released under the title "The College, Career and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History." The C3 Project Director and lead writer was NCSS member Kathy Swan, who is…

  5. On the Development of an Operational SWAN Model for the Black Sea (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the results of some studies performed on the development of an efficient and operational SWAN model for the Black Sea. This model will be used to study the wind-wave climate and wave energy potential in the region and will provide boundary conditions for coastal engineering and

  6. Mutual ornamentation, sexual selection, and social dominance in the black swan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, K; Gregurke, J; Hall, C; Komdeur, J; Mulder, RA

    We investigated the adaptive significance of a sexually monomorphic ornament in the black swan Cygnus atratus. Both sexes grow curled feathers on their wings (range 7-22 curled feathers per wing), which are displayed prominently in a range of social interactions. The number of curled feathers

  7. SWAN: NGC 253’s Nucleated Star Bursting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Juergen; Meier, David; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian; Rand, Richard

    2015-08-01

    We present the first results from SWAN: Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies. Nearby galaxies are conveniently located to probe molecular gas properties on scales of 10 to 200 pc, which are appropriate for Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). The resolution of the VLA in D and C configurations maps to a few 10’s of parsecs in these galaxies. To advance studies of galaxy evolution it is paramount to understand how processes in the molecular ISM and star formation are linked on these scales. We have observed the metastable transitions of ammonia and the 22GHz water maser line in four nearby galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6946. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rate, and a range of galactic ecosystems. We use the ammonia transitions to derive kinetic temperatures, which exposes the heating and cooling balance of the ISM. We then aim to relate these conditions to energetic feedback from star formation indicated by water masers. Currently our analysis is focused on NGC 253. NGC 253 is a barred spiral galaxy with a nucleated starburst of ≈3M⊙ per year. We have observed ammonia transitions (1,1) to (5,5) and the 22GHz water maser line with a resolution of ≈63pc. We have identified nine regions across the nucleated starburst for study. The ammonia (3,3) line appears to be masing in the centermost 200pc. In combination with Large Velocity Gradient models (LVG) we find that the properties of the molecular gas is warm, ranging from 100K to 160K, with molecular hydrogen densities from 2.2e3 cm-3 to 4.8e3 cm-3. We have identified two regions of water maser emission. The first region is a north south extension, about the center of the galaxy, with a major axis of ≈7”(150pc) and a minor axis of ≈3”(90pc), and the second is a nearby region ≈6”(100pc) to the southeast of the galaxy center. By means of these measurements, we gain an understanding of the molecular ISM associated with the nucleated

  8. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Sileo, L.

    2000-03-01

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. The authors did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that they did consider, they concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  9. Swan foraging shapes spatial distribution of two submerged plants, favouring the preferred prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandsten, Håkan; Klaassen, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Compared to terrestrial environments, grazing intensity on belowground plant parts may be particularly strong in aquatic environments, which may have great effects on plant-community structure. We observed that the submerged macrophyte, Potamogeton pectinatus, which mainly reproduces with tubers, often grows at intermediate water depth and that P. perfoliatus, which mainly reproduces with rhizomes and turions, grows in either shallow or deep water. One mechanism behind this distributional pattern may be that swans prefer to feed on P. pectinatus tubers at intermediate water depths. We hypothesised that when swans feed on tubers in the sediment, P. perfoliatus rhizomes and turions may be damaged by the uprooting, whereas the small round tubers of P. pectinatus that escaped herbivory may be more tolerant to this bioturbation. In spring 2000, we transplanted P. perfoliatus rhizomes into a P. pectinatus stand and followed growth in plots protected and unprotected, respectively, from bird foraging. Although swan foraging reduced tuber biomass in unprotected plots, leading to lower P. pectinatus density in spring 2001, this species grew well both in protected and unprotected plots later that summer. In contrast, swan grazing had a dramatic negative effect on P. perfoliatus that persisted throughout the summer of 2001, with close to no plants in the unprotected plots and high densities in the protected plots. Our results demonstrate that herbivorous waterbirds may play a crucial role in the distribution and prevalence of specific plant species. Furthermore, since their grazing benefitted their preferred food source, the interaction between swans and P. pectinatus may be classified as ecologically mutualistic.

  10. Age-specific survival of tundra swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixell, Brandt W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Conn, Paul B.; Dau, Christian P.; Sarvis, John E.; Sowl, Kristine M.

    2013-01-01

    The population of Tundra Swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) breeding on the lower Alaska Peninsula represents the southern extremity of the species' range and is uniquely nonmigratory. We used data on recaptures, resightings, and recoveries of neck-collared Tundra Swans on the lower Alaska Peninsula to estimate collar loss, annual apparent survival, and other demographic parameters for the years 1978–1989. Annual collar loss was greater for adult males fitted with either the thinner collar type (0.34) or the thicker collar type (0.15) than for other age/sex classes (thinner: 0.10, thicker: 0.04). The apparent mean probability of survival of adults (0.61) was higher than that of immatures (0.41) and for both age classes varied considerably by year (adult range: 0.44–0.95, immature range: 0.25–0.90). To assess effects of permanent emigration by age and breeding class, we analyzed post hoc the encounter histories of swans known to breed in our study area. The apparent mean survival of known breeders (0.65) was generally higher than that of the entire marked sample but still varied considerably by year (range 0.26–1.00) and indicated that permanent emigration of breeding swans was likely. We suggest that reductions in apparent survival probability were influenced primarily by high and variable rates of permanent emigration and that immigration by swans from elsewhere may be important in sustaining a breeding population at and near Izembek National Wildlife Refuge.

  11. The isolation and characterization of a novel telomerase immortalized first trimester trophoblast cell line, Swan 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straszewski-Chavez, S L; Abrahams, V M; Alvero, A B; Aldo, P B; Ma, Y; Guller, S; Romero, R; Mor, G

    2009-11-01

    Studies using first trimester trophoblast cells may be limited by the inability to obtain patient samples and/or adequate cell numbers. First trimester trophoblast cell lines have been generated by SV40 transformation or similar methods, however, this approach is known to induce phenotypic and karyotypic abnormalities. The introduction of telomerase has been proposed to be a viable alternative for the immortalization of primary human cells. To investigate whether telomerase-induced immortalization might be a more feasible approach for the generation of first trimester trophoblast cell lines, we isolated primary trophoblast cells from a 7-week normal placenta and infected the cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase. Although this hTERT-infected first trimester trophoblast cell line, which we have named Swan 71, has been propagated for more than 100 passages, it still has attributes that are characteristic of primary first trimester trophoblast cells. The Swan 71 cells are positive for the expression of cytokeratin 7, vimentin and HLA-G, but do not express CD45, CD68 or the Fibroblast Specific Antigen (FSA), CD90/Thy-1. In addition, we also demonstrated that the Swan 71 cells secrete fetal fibronectin (FFN) as well as low levels of human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG). Moreover, the Swan 71 cells exhibit a cytokine and growth factor profile that is similar to primary trophoblast cells and are resistant to Fas, but not TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. This suggests that the Swan 71 cells may represent a valuable model for future in vitro trophoblast studies.

  12. Landscape Evolution Modelling of naturally dammed rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Wouter; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Baartman, Jantiene E. M.; Schoorl, Jeroen M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural damming of upland river systems, such as landslide or lava damming, occurs worldwide. Many dams fail shortly after their creation, while other dams are long-lived and therefore have a long-term impact on fluvial and landscape evolution. This long-term impact is still poorly understood and

  13. 7 CFR 1724.55 - Dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dam safety. 1724.55 Section 1724.55 Agriculture... § 1724.55 Dam safety. (a) The provisions of this section apply only to RUS financed electric system... for Dam Safety,”(Guidelines), as applicable. A dam, as more fully defined in the Guidelines, is...

  14. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements Prevent Falls Winter 2014 Issue: Volume 8 Number 4 Page 16-17 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  15. FCJ-210 Falling Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Lian Loke

    2016-01-01

    Falling is not usually viewed as a desirable act for humanoid robots, as it can lead to damage and injury of people, things and the robot itself. This article explores how falling can be viewed as an aesthetic, creative act, through positioning it within dance. Strategies for falling safely in dance are compared with engineering approaches to controlling falling for bipedal robots, through the language of automatic reflex, righting reaction and equilibrium response patterns in relation to gra...

  16. Big Lake Dam Inspection Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes an inspection of the Big Lake Dam that was done in September of 1983. The inspection did not reveal any conditions that constitute and...

  17. Peralta Facts: Fall 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    Data were collected in fall 1983 to provide a profile of the student population of the Peralta Community College District (PCCD). The data revealed: (1) total student enrollment declined by 12% from fall 1982 (N=38,976) to fall 1983 (N=34,183); (2) 57% of the students whose sex was identified were women; (3) minorities constituted 58% of the…

  18. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  19. Ririe Dam Release Test Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes 1420 Ririe Dam Ririe Dam 119,880 Gates opened and initial release started. 1455 115th St...16°F air temperature. Table A2. Observations made on 11 February 2013. Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes...ERDC/CRREL TR-13-10 52 Time Location Notes HEC - RAS Location Station (ft) Observation Notes Travel Time* (sec) Vel.** (fps) 1224 5th

  20. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical therapist. The physical therapist can create a custom exercise program aimed at improving your balance, flexibility, ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  1. Status report of the 1989 Survey of Hunter Activity and Harvest on the Swan Lake Public Hunting Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A half-day hunting restriction for the Swan Lake Public Hunting Area (SLPHA) has been recommended to- improve goose use of food resources within hunting zones. The...

  2. Water Data Analysis 394031093062801 ELK CREEK NR ROTHVILLE MO, STUTSMAN RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 TO 2016 SITE NUMBER: 394031093062801 SITE NAME: Elk Creek nr Rothville MO, Stutman Rd US of Swan Lake NWR...

  3. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  4. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  5. The Trumpeter, Company 424 Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Redington in Swan Quarter, North Carolina; October Issue, Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a historic monthly report of Camp Redington Civilian Conservation Corps located in Swan Quarter, North Carolina. It describes the progress and...

  6. Climate change impact on operation of dams and hydroelectricity generation in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2016-12-01

    We are using a large-scale, high-resolution, fully integrated hydrological/reservoir/hydroelectricity model to investigate the impact of climate change on the operation of 11037 dams and generation of electricity from 375 hydroelectric power plants in the Northeastern United States. Moreover, we estimate the hydropower potential of the region by energizing the existing non-powered dams and then studying the impact of climate change on the hydropower potential. We show that climate change increases the impact of dams on the hydrology of the region. Warmer temperatures produce shorter frozen periods, earlier snowmelt and elevated evapotranspiration rates, which when combined with changes in precipitation, are projected to increase water availability in winter but reduce it during summer. As a result, the water that is stored by dams will be more than ever a necessary part of the routine water systems operations to compensate for these seasonal imbalances. The function of dams as emergency water storage for creating drought resiliency will mostly diminish in the future. Building more dams to cope with the local impacts of climate change on water resources and to offset the increased drought vulnerability may thus be inevitable. Annual hydroelectricity generation in the region is 41 Twh. Our estimate of the annual hydropower potential of non-powered dams adds up to 350 Twh. Climate change may reduce hydropower potential from non-powered dams by up to 13% and reduce current hydroelectricity generation by up to 8% annually. Hydroelectricity generation and hydropower potential may increase in winter months and decline in months of summer and fall. These changes call for recalibration of dam operations and may raise conflict of interests in multipurpose dams.

  7. Pre-impact fall detection

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xinyao; Qu, Xingda

    2016-01-01

    Pre-impact fall detection has been proposed to be an effective fall prevention strategy. In particular, it can help activate on-demand fall injury prevention systems (e.g. inflatable hip protectors) prior to fall impacts, and thus directly prevent the fall-related physical injuries. This paper gave a systematical review on pre-impact fall detection, and focused on the following aspects of the existing pre-impact fall detection research: fall detection apparatus, fall detection indicators, fal...

  8. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  9. Molecular detection of hematozoa infections in tundra swans relative to migration patterns and ecological conditions at breeding grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Pearce, John M.; Heard, Darryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) are broadly distributed in North America, use a wide variety of habitats, and exhibit diverse migration strategies. We investigated patterns of hematozoa infection in three populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska using satellite tracking to infer host movement and molecular techniques to assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of parasites. We evaluated whether migratory patterns and environmental conditions at breeding areas explain the prevalence of blood parasites in migratory birds by contrasting the fit of competing models formulated in an occupancy modeling framework and calculating the detection probability of the top model using Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). We described genetic diversity of blood parasites in each population of swans by calculating the number of unique parasite haplotypes observed. Blood parasite infection was significantly different between populations of Alaska tundra swans, with the highest estimated prevalence occurring among birds occupying breeding areas with lower mean daily wind speeds and higher daily summer temperatures. Models including covariates of wind speed and temperature during summer months at breeding grounds better predicted hematozoa prevalence than those that included annual migration distance or duration. Genetic diversity of blood parasites in populations of tundra swans appeared to be relative to hematozoa prevalence. Our results suggest ecological conditions at breeding grounds may explain differences of hematozoa infection among populations of tundra swans that breed in Alaska.

  10. Reliability Analysis of Free Jet Scour Below Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Current formulas for calculating scour depth below of a free over fall are mostly deterministic in nature and do not adequately consider the uncertainties of various scouring parameters. A reliability-based assessment of scour, taking into account uncertainties of parameters and coefficients involved, should be performed. This paper studies the reliability of a dam foundation under the threat of scour. A model for calculating the reliability of scour and estimating the probability of failure of the dam foundation subjected to scour is presented. The Maximum Entropy Method is applied to construct the probability density function (PDF of the performance function subject to the moment constraints. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS is applied for uncertainty analysis. An example is considered, and there liability of its scour is computed, the influence of various random variables on the probability failure is analyzed.

  11. Conflicts Associated with Dam Removal in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna G. C. Lejon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of deteriorating old dams that need renovation or have lost their function make dam removal a viable management option. There are at least four major reasons for dam removal: safety, law and policy, economy, and ecology. Here we discuss 17 Swedish dams that were recently considered for removal. Because dam removal usually causes controversy, dam removal initiatives may succeed, fail, or result in a compromise such as a bypass channel for migrating fish. We identify and discuss three major obstructions to dam removal: funding, cultural-historical values, and threatened species. To facilitate dam removal, the reasons for, and the effects of, dam removal must be carefully explained, and the public and stakeholders must be kept informed. In complicated cases in which compromise solutions may be the most feasible outcome, the integration of the knowledge of different stakeholders is crucial. The involvement of diverse stakeholders increases their willingness to find compromises, thus avoiding conflicts and failures.

  12. Persistence of high lead concentrations and associated effects in Tundra Swans captured near a mining and smelting complex in northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Henny, C.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Audet, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Lead poisoning of waterfowl, particularly tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus), has been documented in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin in northern Idaho for nearly a century. Over 90% of the lead-poisoned tundra swans in this area that were necropsied have no ingested lead shot. Spent lead shot from hunting activities over the years is therefore a minor source of lead in these swans. The migrating swans accumulated lethal burdens of lead from ingestion of sediments and aquatic vegetation during a short stopover in the spring. The lead originated from mining and smelting activities. Lead concentrations and physiological characteristics of blood were compared in swans captured in swim-in traps, with moribund swans caught by hand in the lead-contaminated area in 1987 and 1994-1995 and with birds captured by night-lighting in reference areas in 1994-1995. Blood lead concentrations in swans were highest in moribund birds (3.3 ?g g-1 in 1987 and 1995), intermediate in those trapped in the contaminated area (0.82 ?g g-1 in 1987 and 1.8 ?g g-1 in 1995), and lowest (0.11 ?g g-1) in those trapped in the reference areas. daminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was significantly inhibited in swans from the contaminated area. Hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly depressed only in moribund swans. Of the 19 swans found moribund and euthanized, 18 were classified as having lead toxicosis on the basis of lead levels in blood (1.3 to 9.6 ?g g-1) and livers (6 to 40 ?g g-1) and necropsy findings. The 19th swan had aspergillosis. There was no evidence that effects of lead on tundra swans had diminished from 1987 to 1995.

  13. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of ...... domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.......Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...

  14. Microbial impact of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and whistling swans (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) on aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, D; Damaré, J M; Limpert, R J; Sladen, W J; Weiner, R M; Colwell, R R

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the intestinal bacterial flora of Canada geese and whistling swans were carried out with the finding that wild birds harbor significantly more fecal coliforms than fecal streptococci. The reverse was typical of captive and fasting birds. Neither Salmonella spp. nor Shigella spp. were isolated from 44 migratory waterfowl that were wintering in the Chesapeake Bay region. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were detected in seven birds. Geese eliminated 10(7) and swans 10(9) fecal coliforms per day. Results of in situ studies showed that large flocks of waterfowl can cause elevated fecal coliform densities in the water column. From the data obtained in this study, it is possible to predict the microbial impact of migratory waterfowl upon aquatic roosting sites.

  15. Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Arima, Eugenio Y.; Dunne, Thomas; Park, Edward; Baker, Victor R.; D'Horta, Fernando M.; Wight, Charles; Wittmann, Florian; Zuanon, Jansen; Baker, Paul A.; Ribas, Camila C.; Norgaard, Richard B.; Filizola, Naziano; Ansar, Atif; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stevaux, Jose C.

    2017-06-01

    More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam constructions are under consideration. The accumulated negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin’s floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for collective action among nations and states to avoid cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of Amazon rivers.

  16. Gender equity programmes in academic medicine: a realist evaluation approach to Athena SWAN processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Louise; Wyatt, David; Fudge, Nina; Mattingley, Helena; Williamson, Catherine; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-09-08

    Gender inequity has persisted in academic medicine. Yet equity is vital for countries to achieve their full potential in terms of translational research and patient benefit. This study sought to understand how the gender equity programme, Athena SWAN, can be enabled and constrained by interactions between the programme and the context it is implemented into, and whether these interactions might produce unintended consequences. Multimethod qualitative case studies using a realist evaluation approach. 5 departments from a university medical school hosting a Translational Research Organisation. 25 hours of observations of gender equality committee meetings, 16 in-depth interviews with Heads of Departments, Committee Leads and key personnel involved in the initiative. 4 focus groups with 15 postdoctoral researchers, lecturers and senior lecturers. The implementation of Athena SWAN principles was reported to have created social space to address gender inequity and to have highlighted problematic practices to staff. However, a number of factors reduced the programme's potential to impact gender inequity. Gender inequity was reproduced in the programme's enactment as female staff was undertaking a disproportionate amount of Athena SWAN work, with potential negative impacts on individual women's career progression. Early career researchers experienced problems accessing Athena SWAN initiatives. Furthermore, the impact of the programme was perceived to be undermined by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms, which are beyond the programme's remit. Gender equity programmes have the potential to address inequity. However, paradoxically, they can also unintentionally reproduce and reinforce gender inequity through their enactment. Potential programme impacts may be undermined by barriers to staff availing of career development and training initiatives, and by wider institutional practices, national policies and societal norms. Published by the

  17. Lessons in Adaptability and Preparing for Black Swan Risks from the Military and Hedge Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    U.S. forces.50 Getting bureaucracy to loosen up to enable adaptability is difficult, especially with the federal government’s regulatory labyrinth ...this at a time when both men were in essential jobs, one running the entire war and the other operating from the shadows to defeat the most...for Black Swan Risks from the Military and Hedge Funds William R. Burns, Jr. Drew Miller Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  18. The influence of drought-induced acidification on the biotic recovery of Swan Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnott, S.E. [York Univ., Dorset, ON (Canada) Dept. of Biology; Yan, N.; Nicholls, K. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide emissions from Sudbury smelters have been reduced from greater than 2.2 million t/year in the 1960s, to less than 0.3 million t/year since1994, as a result of changes in industrial practices that were developed in accordance with government emission control regulations. In response, sulfate concentrations have decreased in hundreds of Sudbury area lakes and both alkalinity and pH values have risen. In some cases the pH changes were enough to begin to restore damaged biotic assemblages. There is no current understanding of how short term, drought- induced acidification effects affect the recovery of biota from historical acidification. A study was undertaken to determine if the biota of Swan Lake were recovering as water quality improved during the early to mid-1980s and to determine if the drought-driven acidification event influenced this recovery. As well, investigators wanted to determine if changes in the recovery patterns of planktonic algae, rotifers, and Crustacea in Swan Lake coincided with the 1988 re-acidification event. The plankton of Swan Lake began to recover from acid stress during the early 1980s as did the rotifer community, but, in contrast to the algae and rotifers, the crustacean zooplankton was both slow to recover and incomplete in the early 1980s. The slow pace of recovery in Swan Lake was probably not attributable to an absence of potential colonists. The drought-induced re-acidification of the lake had a dramatic effect in biological recovery through a multitude of factors. Reasons for expected plankton communities decline and unexpected Crustacean communities increases are speculated about. 52 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  20. Ancient DNA and morphometric analysis reveal extinction and replacement of New Zealand's unique black swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlence, Nicolas J; Kardamaki, Afroditi; Easton, Luke J; Tennyson, Alan J D; Scofield, R Paul; Waters, Jonathan M

    2017-07-26

    Prehistoric human impacts on megafaunal populations have dramatically reshaped ecosystems worldwide. However, the effects of human exploitation on smaller species, such as anatids (ducks, geese, and swans) are less clear. In this study we apply ancient DNA and osteological approaches to reassess the history of Australasia's iconic black swans ( Cygnus atratus ) including the palaeo-behaviour of prehistoric populations. Our study shows that at the time of human colonization, New Zealand housed a genetically, morphologically, and potentially ecologically distinct swan lineage ( C. sumnerensis , Poūwa), divergent from modern (Australian) C. atratus Morphological analyses indicate C. sumnerensis exhibited classic signs of the 'island rule' effect, being larger, and likely flight-reduced compared to C. atratus Our research reveals sudden extinction and replacement events within this anatid species complex, coinciding with recent human colonization of New Zealand. This research highlights the role of anthropogenic processes in rapidly reshaping island ecosystems and raises new questions for avian conservation, ecosystem re-wilding, and de-extinction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Black Swans and Many Worlds: Contemporary models in music, the arts and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black Swans and Many Worlds are new models to help explain musical structures, and by extension, events in the social environment and in internal human experience. Many Worlds takes its departure point from quantum physics, and especially the work of Hugh Everett III, who used the defining point of a measurement in the sub-atomic world as initiating alternative courses of action. Everett extrapolated this idea to the macro-world: a defining point may initiate multiple outcomes, each with its own character and events, as parallel worlds. One application of this model is to consider musical works within a genre as Many Worlds. Black Swans derive from Nassim Taleb, who proposes that social, political, and in fact all aspects of today’s world are not understandable by logical processes or incremental change but are often rocked by extreme, unpredictable shocks. If Many Worlds provide new ways of thinking about potentiality, probability and innovation, Black Swans arrest us in our tracks by eruptions that threaten to derail contemporary life, and with it, music, the arts and ideas.

  2. Implementing Lumberjacks and Black Swans Into Model-Based Tools to Support Human-Automation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Angelia; Wickens, Christopher D

    2017-03-01

    The objectives were to (a) implement theoretical perspectives regarding human-automation interaction (HAI) into model-based tools to assist designers in developing systems that support effective performance and (b) conduct validations to assess the ability of the models to predict operator performance. Two key concepts in HAI, the lumberjack analogy and black swan events, have been studied extensively. The lumberjack analogy describes the effects of imperfect automation on operator performance. In routine operations, an increased degree of automation supports performance, but in failure conditions, increased automation results in more significantly impaired performance. Black swans are the rare and unexpected failures of imperfect automation. The lumberjack analogy and black swan concepts have been implemented into three model-based tools that predict operator performance in different systems. These tools include a flight management system, a remotely controlled robotic arm, and an environmental process control system. Each modeling effort included a corresponding validation. In one validation, the software tool was used to compare three flight management system designs, which were ranked in the same order as predicted by subject matter experts. The second validation compared model-predicted operator complacency with empirical performance in the same conditions. The third validation compared model-predicted and empirically determined time to detect and repair faults in four automation conditions. The three model-based tools offer useful ways to predict operator performance in complex systems. The three tools offer ways to predict the effects of different automation designs on operator performance.

  3. Three Gorges Dam, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This ASTER image shows a 60 km stretch of the Yangtze River in China, including the Xiling Gorge, the eastern of the three gorges. In the left part of the image is the construction site of the Three Gorges Dam, the world's largest.This image was acquired on July 20, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Size: 60 x 24 km (36 x 15 miles) Location: 30.6 deg. North lat., 111.2 deg. East long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3

  4. Douglas County Dam Breach Inundation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Dam breach analysis provides a prediction of the extent and timing of flooding from a catastrophic breach of the dams. These results are sufficient for developing...

  5. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the

  6. Fall Leaf Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  7. Fall prevention conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow-healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

  8. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The paper reports on the conclusions of decennial and annual inspections of French dams. Dams surveillance is performed by the operators and consists in visual examinations and measurements. Concrete dams, in particular, always have more or less developed fissures with water sweating threw the concrete mass or the foundations. Old concrete often show low swelling phenomena which are measured too. (J.S.)

  9. Dam, Prof. Carl Peter Henrik

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1965 Honorary. Dam, Prof. Carl Peter Henrik Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1943. Date of birth: 21 February 1895. Date of death: 17 April 1976. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ...

  10. Elevated streamflows increase dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter: Implications of climate change in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike; Bumbaco, Karin A.

    2012-01-01

    A 4-year evaluation was conducted to determine the proportion of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch passing Cowlitz Falls Dam, on the Cowlitz River, Washington, during winter. River and reservoir populations of coho salmon parr were monitored using radiotelemetry to determine if streamflow increases resulted in increased downstream movement and dam passage. This was of interest because fish that pass downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam become landlocked in Riffe Lake and are lost to the anadromous population. Higher proportions of reservoir-released fish (0.391-0.480) passed Cowlitz Falls Dam than did river-released fish (0.037-0.119). Event-time analyses demonstrated that streamflow increases were important predictors of dam passage rates during the study. The estimated effect of increasing streamflows on the risk of dam passage varied annually and ranged from 9% to 75% for every 28.3 m3/s increase in streamflow. These results have current management implications because they demonstrate the significance of dam passage by juvenile coho salmon during winter months when juvenile fish collection facilities are typically not operating. The results also have future management implications because climate change predictions suggest that peak streamflow timing for many watersheds in the Pacific Northwest will shift from late spring and early summer to winter. Increased occurrence of intense winter flood events is also expected. Our results demonstrate that juvenile coho salmon respond readily to streamflow increases and initiate downstream movements during winter months, which could result in increased passage at dams during these periods if climate change predictions are realized in the coming decades.

  11. Research on Safety Factor of Dam Slope of High Embankment Dam under Seismic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant development of construction technology of embankment dam, the constructed embankment dam becomes higher and higher, and the embankment dam with its height over 200m will always adopt the current design criteria of embankment dam only suitable for the construction of embankment dam lower than 200m in height. So the design criteria of high embankment dam shall be improved. We shall calculate the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam under different dam height, slope ratio and different seismic intensity based on ratio of safety margin, and clarify the change rules of stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m. We calculate the ratio of safety margin of traditional and reliable method by taking the stable, allowable and reliability index 4.2 of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m as the standard value, and conduct linear regression for both. As a result, the conditions, where 1.3 is considered as the stability and safety factors of dam slope of high embankment dam with its height over 200m under seismic condition and 4.2 as the allowable and reliability index, are under the same risk control level.

  12. Research on shape optimization of CSG dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Cai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The multi-objective optimization method was used for shape optimization of cement sand and gravel (CSG dams in this study. The economic efficiency, the sensitivities of maximum horizontal displacement and maximum settlement of the dam to water level changes, the overall stability, and the overall strength security were taken into account during the optimization process. Three weight coefficient selection schemes were adopted to conduct shape optimization of a dam, and the case studies lead to the conclusion that both the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios for the optimal cross-section equal 1:0.7, which is consistent with the empirically observed range of 1:0.6 to 1:0.8 for the upstream and downstream dam slope ratios of CSG dams. Therefore, the present study is of certain reference value for designing CSG dams.

  13. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  14. Study of Dam-break Due to Overtopping of Four Small Dams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaraya Alhasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam-break due to overtopping is one of the most common types of embankment dam failures. During the floods in August 2002 in the Czech Republic, several small dams collapsed due to overtopping. In this paper, an analysis of the dam break process at the Luh, Velký Bělčický, Melín, and Metelský dams breached during the 2002 flood is presented. Comprehensive identification and analysis of the dam shape, properties of dam material and failure scenarios were carried out after the flood event to assemble data for the calibration of a numerical dam break model. A simple one-dimensional mathematical model was proposed for use in dam breach simulation, and a computer code was compiled. The model was calibrated using the field data mentioned above. Comparison of the erodibility parameters gained from the model showed reasonable agreement with the results of other authors.

  15. Proceedings of the 2010 Canadian Dam Association's public safety around dams workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Nearly 30 people have drowned in dam-related incidents over the last 10 years in Canada. The Canadian public is now calling for improved safety guidelines. Public interaction with dams is increasing as a result of interest in extreme sports and perceived rights of access. However, many members of the public are not aware of the dangers posed by dams. This workshop provided a forum to discuss proposals for a draft publication of the Canadian Dam Association (CDA) guidelines for public safety and security around dams. Issues related to current legislation and liability were discussed. Methods of increasing public awareness of the hazards posed by dams included increased signage in dam locations, the use of audible and visual alert systems, and the use of booms and buoys. The responsibilities of dam owners in ensuring the safety of dams were also discussed. The conference featured 5 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  16. Role of manganese oxides in the exposure of mute swans (Cygnus olor) to Pb and other elements in the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Day, D.

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study are to estimate exposure of waterfowl to elements in contaminated sediments in the Chesapeake Bay and to consider the potential role of Mn in influencing bioavailability and exposure. Mute swans living on the Aberdeen Proving Ground were collected and samples of swan digesta were analyzed and compared to samples of feces collected from mute swans living at a nearby reference site. Sediments from the proving ground had elevated concentrations of Cu, S, Se, Zn, As, Co, Cr, Hg and Pb, but concentrations of only the first four of these elements were elevated in swan digesta. Sediments from the proving ground had an elevated mean concentration of total As, about seven times the concentration at the reference site, but the swans from that site were not ingesting more As than were reference swans. Swans at both sites were feeding on submerged aquatic vegetation and ingested about 4% sediment at the proving ground and about 5% sediment at the reference site. None of the concentrations detected in the digesta or livers of the swans was considered toxic, although the concentrations of Cu and Se were high compared to those concentrations reported in other waterfowl. A remarkably high mean concentration of Mn (6900 mg/kg, dry weight) detected in the feces of the reference swans was attributed to the deposition of manganese oxides on vegetation. The ingestion of Pb by swans at the reference site was correlated with Mn and Fe concentrations, rather than with markers of sediment ingestion. The Pb was presumably scavenged by Mn and Fe oxides from the water and deposited on the surface of vegetation. Under some environmental chemical conditions, this route of exposure for Pb is more important than sediment ingestion, which was previously thought to be the main route of exposure.

  17. SWAN: An expert system with natural language interface for tactical air capability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    SWAN is an expert system and natural language interface for assessing the war fighting capability of Air Force units in Europe. The expert system is an object oriented knowledge based simulation with an alternate worlds facility for performing what-if excursions. Responses from the system take the form of generated text, tables, or graphs. The natural language interface is an expert system in its own right, with a knowledge base and rules which understand how to access external databases, models, or expert systems. The distinguishing feature of the Air Force expert system is its use of meta-knowledge to generate explanations in the frame and procedure based environment.

  18. The queering of Swan Lake: a new male gaze for the performance of sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Kent G

    2003-01-01

    This essay argues that, by re-gendering the ballet classic Swan Lake, choreographer Matthew Bourne has also queered it. He thrusts center stage an unstable relationship between two male characters, and in so doing, de-centers the conventionally fixed categories of sex, gender and sexual desire. He also forces a long-simmering relationship between homosexuality and dance out of the closet and into mainstream popular culture. Applying Mulvey's theory of spectatorship and Butler's theory of gendered performance, the essay describes how viewers may be intrigued, rather than repulsed, by the ambiguities surrounding Bourne's portrayal of sexual identity.

  19. Computed tomography of coxofemoral injury in five mute swans (Cygnus olor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpenberger, Michaela; Scope, Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Five mute swans (Cygnus olor) were presented with inability to stand or with abnormal positioning of a leg. Clinical examinations indicated the possibility of femoral fractures or coxofemoral luxations. The suspected diagnosis was proven by means of computed tomography (CT), while superimposition of gastrointestinal contents or other artefacts limited radiographic diagnosis in three birds. A typical CT sign for lesions of the coxofemoral joint apart from femoral displacement was haemorrhage within the pelvic bones (especially around the acetabulum), found in four of the five birds. Small femoral head avulsion fractures could be detected only with CT.

  20. Demographic outcomes of diverse migration strategies assessed in a metapopulation of tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R; Meixell, Brandt W

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a prominent aspect of the life history of many avian species, but the demographic consequences of variable migration strategies have only infrequently been investigated, and rarely when using modern technological and analytical methods for assessing survival, movement patterns, and long-term productivity in the context of life history theory. We monitored the fates of 50 satellite-implanted tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) over 4 years from five disparate breeding areas in Alaska, and used known-fate analyses to estimate monthly survival probability relative to migration distance, breeding area, migratory flyway, breeding status, and age. We specifically tested whether migratory birds face a trade-off, whereby long-distance migrants realize higher survival rates at the cost of lower productivity because of reduced time on breeding areas relative to birds that migrate shorter distances and spend more time on breeding areas. Annual migration distances varied significantly among breeding areas (1020 to 12720 km), and were strongly negatively correlated with time spent on breeding areas (r = -0.986). Estimates of annual survival probability varied by wintering area (Pacific coast, Alaska Peninsula, and Eastern seaboard) and ranged from 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.88) to 1.0, depending on criteria used to discern mortalities from radio failures. We did not find evidence for a linear relationship between migration distance and survival as swans from the breeding areas with the shortest and longest migration distances had the highest survival probabilities. Survival was lower in the first year post-marking than in subsequent years, but there was not support for seasonal differences in survival. Productivity varied among breeding populations and was generally inversely correlated to survival, but not migration distance or time spent on breeding areas. Tundra swans conformed to a major tenet of life history theory, as populations with the highest survival

  1. Delineation of Tundra Swan Cygnus c. columbianus populations in North America: geographic boundaries and interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Sladen, William J. L.; Wilson, Heather M.; Savage, Susan E.; Sowl, Kristine M.; Henry, Bill; Schwitters, Mike; Snowden, James

    2014-01-01

    North American Tundra Swans Cygnus c. columbianus are composed of two wellrecognised populations: an Eastern Population (EP) that breeds across northern Canada and north of the Brooks Range in Alaska, which migrates to the eastern seaboard of the United States, and a Western Population (WP) that breeds in coastal regions of Alaska south of the Brooks Range and migrates to western North America. We present results of a recent major ringing effort from across the breeding range in Alaska to provide a better definition of the geographic extent of the migratory divide in Alaska. We also reassess the staging and winter distributions of these populations based on locations of birds tracked using satellite transmitters, and recent recoveries and sightings of neck-collared birds. Summer sympatry of EP and WP Tundra Swans is very limited, and largely confined to a small area in northwest Alaska. Autumn migration pathways of EP and WP Tundra swans abut in southwest Saskatchewan, a region where migrating WP birds turn west, and EP birds deviate abruptly eastward. Overall, from 1989 to 2013 inclusive, 2.6% of recoveries or resightings reported to the USGS Bird Banding Laboratory were of birds that moved from the domain of the population in which they were initially captured to within the range of the other population; a proportion roughly comparable to the results of Limpert et al. (1991) for years before 1990. Of the 70 cross-boundary movements reported since 1989, 39% were of birds marked on breeding areas and 61% were of birds marked on wintering areas. Dispersing swans (i.e. those that made crossboundary movements) did not differ with respect to age or sex from those that did not move between populations. The Brooks Range in northern Alaska effectively separates the two populations within Alaska, but climate-induced changes in tundra breeding habitats and losses of wetlands on staging areas may alter the distribution for both of these populations.

  2. Sea level variability influencing coastal flooding in the Swan River region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Coastal flooding refers to the incidence of high water levels produced by water level fluctuations of marine origin, rather than riverine floods. An understanding of the amplitude and frequency of high water level events is essential to foreshore management and the design of many coastal and estuarine facilities. Coastal flooding events generally determine public perception of sea level phenomena, as they are commonly associated with erosion events. This investigation has explored the nature of coastal flooding events affecting the Swan River Region, Western Australia, considering water level records at four sites in the estuary and lower river, extending from the mouth of the Swan River to 40 km upstream. The analysis examined the significance of tides, storms and mean sea level fluctuations over both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The relative timing of these processes is significant for the enhanced or reduced frequency of coastal flooding. These variations overlie net sea level rise previously reported from the coastal Fremantle record, which is further supported by changes to the distribution of high water level events at an estuarine tidal station. Seasonally, coastal flooding events observed in the Swan River region are largely restricted to the period from May to July due to the relative phases of the annual mean sea fluctuation and biannual tidal cycle. Although significant storm surge events occur outside this period, their impact is normally reduced, as they are superimposed on lower tidal and mean sea level conditions. Over inter-annual time scales tide, storminess and mean sea level produce cycles of enhanced and depressed frequency of coastal flooding. For the Swan River region, the inter-annual tidal variation is regular, dominated by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Storminess and mean sea level variations are independent and irregular, with cycles from 3 to 10 year duration. Since 1960, these fluctuations have not occurred in phase

  3. Brazil's Amazonian dams: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil's 2015-2024 Energy Expansion Plan calls for 11 hydroelectric dams with installed capacity ≥ 30 MW in the country's Amazon region. Dozens of other large dams are planned beyond this time horizon, and dams with consumers. Population displacement is a major impact; for example, the Marabá Dam would displace 40,000 people, mostly traditional riverside dwellers (ribeirinhos). Various dams impact indigenous peoples, such as the Xingu River dams (beginning with Belo Monte) and the São Luiz do Tapajós and Chacorão Dams on the Tapajós River. Brazil has many energy options other than dams. Much energy use has little benefit for the country, such as exporting aluminum. Electric showerheads use 5% of the country's power. Losses in transmission lines (20%) are far above global averages and can be expected to increase as Amazonian hydroelectric dams far from consumer centers come on line. Brazil has tremendous wind and solar potential, but these do not have the same priority as dams. At the root of many questionable policies is a decision-making process in need of reform.

  4. Falls in the Aging Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khow, Kareeann S F; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2017-08-01

    The number of people living beyond 65 years of age is increasing rapidly, and they are at increased risk of falls. Falls-related injuries and hospitalizations are steadily increasing. Falls can lead to fear of falling, loss of independence, institutionalization, and death, inevitably posing a significant burden to the health care system. Therefore, screening of people at risk of falls and comprehensive assessment of older people at high risk of falls are critical steps toward prevention. This review evaluates the current knowledge relating to falls, with particular focus on rapid screening, assessment, and strategies to prevent falls in the community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Post-Release Attributes and Survival of Hatchery and Natural Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted in 1999 and years previous. In an effort to provide this information to a wider audience, the individual chapters in this report have been submitted as manuscripts to peer-reviewed journals. These chapters communicate significant findings that will aid in the management and recovery of fall chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Abundance and timing of seaward migration of Snake River fall chinook salmon was indexed using passage data collected at Lower Granite Dam for five years. We used genetic analyses to determine the lineage of fish recaptured at Lower Granite Dam that had been previously PIT tagged. We then used discriminant analysis to determine run membership of PIT-tagged smolts that were not recaptured to enable us to calculate annual run composition and to compared early life history attributes of wild subyearling fall and spring chinook salmon. Because spring chinook salmon made up from 15.1 to 44.4% of the tagged subyearling smolts that were detected passing Lower Granite Dam, subyearling passage data at Lower Granite Dam can only be used to index fall chinook salmon smolt abundance and passage timing if genetic samples are taken to identify run membership of smolts. Otherwise, fall chinook salmon smolt abundance would be overestimated and timing of fall chinook salmon smolt passage would appear to be earlier and more protracted than is the case.

  6. The effect of river damming on vegetation: is it always unfavourable? A case study from the River Tiber (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Simona; Tombolini, Ilaria; Abati, Silverio; Zuccarello, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    River damming leads to strong hydromorphological alterations of the watercourse, consequently affecting river vegetation pattern. A multitemporal and spatial analysis of the dam effect on composition, structure and dynamic of the upstream vegetation was performed on Tiber River at Nazzano-dam (Rome). The main research questions were as follows: How does plant landscape vary over time and along the river? Where does the dam effect on vegetation end? How does naturalistic importance of the vegetation affected by damming change over time? Data collection was performed mapping the vegetation in aerial photos related to the period before (1944), during (1954) and after dam construction (1984, 2000). The plant landscape has significantly changed over time and along the river, particularly as a result of the dam construction (1953). The major vegetation changes have involved riparian forests and macrophytes. Dam effect on vegetation is evident up to 3 km, and gradually decreases along an attenuation zone for about another 3 km. Despite the fact that the damming has caused strong local hydromorphological modification of the river ecosystem transforming it into a sub-lacustrine habitat, it has also led to the formation of wetlands of considerable naturalistic importance. Indeed, in these man-made wetlands, optimal hydrological conditions have been created by favouring both the expansion of pre-existing riparian communities and the rooting of new aquatic communities, albeit typical of lacustrine ecosystems. Some of these plant communities have become an important food resource, refuge or nesting habitats for aquatic fauna, while others fall into category of Natura 2000 habitats. Therefore, river damming seems to have indirectly had a "favourable" effect for habitat conservation and local biodiversity.

  7. Exporting dams: China's hydropower industry goes global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristen; Bosshard, Peter; Brewer, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    In line with China's "going out" strategy, China's dam industry has in recent years significantly expanded its involvement in overseas markets. The Chinese Export-Import Bank and other Chinese financial institutions, state-owned enterprises, and private firms are now involved in at least 93 major dam projects overseas. The Chinese government sees the new global role played by China's dam industry as a "win-win" situation for China and host countries involved. But evidence from project sites such as the Merowe Dam in Sudan demonstrates that these dams have unrecognized social and environmental costs for host communities. Chinese dam builders have yet to adopt internationally accepted social and environmental standards for large infrastructure development that can assure these costs are adequately taken into account. But the Chinese government is becoming increasingly aware of the challenge and the necessity of promoting environmentally and socially sound investments overseas.

  8. Mass production of `Swan`s Golden`, Cupressus sempervirens by tissue culture and its radiation breeding. 2. Study on growth regulating substance to stimulate the elongation of shoot apex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suda, Hirokatsu [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    Some species of `Swan`s Golden` have been propagated by means of grafting because propagation by cutting is difficult. However, not a few species of the plant are easily lodged, resulting that spreading of `Swan`s Golden` is difficult. Here, an investigation was made on growth regulating substances added into the basal medium in respects of their kinds and concentrations and also the kind of medium for successive culture. As the basal medium, SH medium supplemented with 4 g/l of gel-light and 3 g/l of carbon-powder was used. The optimum medium for the initiation of culture was the basal medium added with zeatin (Ze) and gibberellin (GA) and it was also suitable for successive culture after the 14 day. The medium added with Ze and benzyladenine (BA) or Ze alone was found to be most suitable for the culture after the 28 day. The concentration was optimum at 1 - 2.5 mg/l for either of these growth regulating substances. (M.N.)

  9. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane

    2016-04-01

    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  10. Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1 (GRanDv1): Dams, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1 (Revision 01) contains 6,862 records of reservoirs and their associated dams with a cumulative storage capacity of...

  11. Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1 (GRanDv1): Dams, Revision 01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Reservoir and Dam Database, Version 1, Revision 01 (v1.01) contains 6,862 records of reservoirs and their associated dams with a cumulative storage...

  12. A STRUGGLE FOR LOVE OF BELLA SWAN REFLECTED IN NEW MOON MOVIE: AN INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Riska Lestari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the struggle for love of Bella Swan reflected in New Moon movie by using Alfred Adler’s individual psychology and analyzed the plot of the movie. It used qualitative research method and the object of this study was a major character named Bella Swan. Primary data sources were the New Moon movie directed by Christopher Weitz and the script of the movie, while secondary data sources were collected from many sources such as dictionary, articles from internet, and books related to this study. Methods of data collecting were observation and library research. The method of data analysis was descriptive analysis. Based on the analysis, It reflected the condition of a person who had a goal and struggle to get it. It concluded that Bella had high struggles to reach her goals. The plot of New Moon movie is complicated and stimulating, therefore it made the story was not flat and boring. By analyzing the plot, the viewers could easily understand the story and the message of the movie and catch up the moral lesson of it.

  13. Treatment of giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema by ipsilateral bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Shantanu [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Gupta, Archana; Wung, Jen-Tien [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Pediatric Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Unilateral giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) can be seen as a complication of chronic ventilation in extremely low-birth-weight babies. Many can be managed by conventional pulmonary care which includes positioning, suctioning, chest physiotherapy, gentle conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation. Some may need invasive procedures such as lung puncture, pleurotomies and excisional surgery. This is the group in which single-lung ventilation may be beneficial and circumvent the need for an invasive procedure. We describe the technique of single-lung ventilation using a Swan-Ganz catheter to block the main stem bronchus on the diseased side in air-leak syndromes. A retrospective chart review was done on 17 newborns undergoing single-lung ventilation using this technique at the Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University, from 1986 to 2000. The technique was successful in the management of severe, neonatal unilateral lung disease not responsive to conventional modes of therapy in all but two neonates as seen by a significant improvement in pH and a decrease in PaCO{sub 2} levels. In one neonate malpositioning of the Swan-Ganz catheter balloon could have contributed to the development of pneumothorax. The described technique of single-lung ventilation provides a safe, minimally invasive and economically feasible method of management of unilateral giant PIE in newborns not responsive to conventional modes of therapy with minimal complications. (orig.)

  14. Tourism today: Between the black swan and the reality of the fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Sánchez Arciniegas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present essay begins by adapting the metaphor of Nassim Taleb, The Black Swan to the phenomenon of tourism in order to inquire the effects that terrorism acts have on the world´s tourist behaviour. This article was finished on June 2016 and is consistent with the unpredictability of subsequent events. You won’t find an analysis of statistics based on tourism models or analysis methods; nonetheless it presents a deductive approximation based on news reviews and social network publications that circulate about tourism. On the one hand, the news related to the impacts of terrorist attacks disturb the world at global scale making an impact on tourism destinations and on the other hand, there are cities with a parallel reality, one that shows an idyllic world, with positive and encouraging statistics of tourist visitors, travel promotion and circulation of travel experiences in social networks. Resembling the novel, the fiction of real characters. The sources triangulation, is not conclusive but indicative about the vast information that exists, the elaborated circulation of images and the broad literature of tourism; (some of them showing an interdisciplinary relation between terrorism and tourism however, some of it lacks research and do not contribute to the knowledge of this phenomenon in social and economic aspects, beyond the marketing, a thematic highly privilege by the production of texts. The current swan disturbs, but the reaction of the travel industry is to settle.

  15. Falls and fall prevention in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvemo Johnson, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    Falls are the primary cause of injuries among older adults, and accidents that result from falls can lead to personal suffering and extensive societal burdens. The overall aims of this thesis were to explore and describe falls and fall prevention strategies in community-dwelling older adults and to evaluate a fall prevention home exercise program, the Otago Exercise Program (OEP), with or without motivational interviewing (MI). Methods: Qualitative and quantitative research methods were uses....

  16. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behaviors questionnaire (SWAN) when compared with DISC-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Grace Fong-Chun; Lai, Kelly Yee-Ching; Luk, Ernest Siu-Luen; Hung, Se-Fong; Leung, Patrick Wing-Leung

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN) questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV) and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined. A total of 290 children aged 6-12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN. Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder. SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample.

  17. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila, and Borrelia. Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted. PMID:28567210

  18. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  19. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  20. Water‐Data Report 393619093074801 YELLOW CREEK NR MENDON MO, HWY CC ON SWAN LAKE NWR-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — LOCATION: Lat. 39036’19”N, long. 9307’48”W near Swan Lake NWR, 23.5 miles southeast of Chillicothe, MO, in Charlton County. Gage is mounted 9 feet off the ground on...

  1. Gulf of Mexico hurricane wave simulations using SWAN : Bulk formula-based drag coefficient sensitivity for Hurricane Ike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Weisberg, R.H.; Zheng, L.; Zijlema, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of wind input parameterizations on wave estimations under hurricane conditions are examined using the unstructured grid, third-generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Experiments using Hurricane Ike wind forcing, which impacted the Gulf of Mexico in 2008, illustrate

  2. Bagging grey swans : A supply network approach to identifying and managing low-probability high-impact supply chain events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetti, Christian; Akkermans, Henk; Bhakoo, Vikram; Carnovale, Steven

    Over the past decade practitioners and researchers have become increasingly focused on managing risks in extended supply chains. Whether these risks involve supply disruptions, financial liabilities for a supplier’s actions, or large market shifts; Grey Swan events, defined as unforeseen

  3. A ravenous river reclaims its true course: the tale of Marmot Dam''s demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen Parks; Gordon Grant

    2009-01-01

    Removing dams that are outdated, unsafe, or pose significant economic or environmental costs has emerged in the last 10 years as a major river restoration strategy. The removal of the 45-foot-high Marmot Dam on the Sandy River in 2007 resulted in the biggest sediment release accompanying any dam removal to date. It also provided an unprecedented opportunity...

  4. Archaeological Investigations at Site 45-DO-273, Chief Joseph Dam Project, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    send; Loose soft, moderately well sorted. 5 Brown send, coarse, unconsolidated, well sorted with inclusions of * ash in rodent holes to the south. 6...Project. Office of Public Archaeology, University of Washington, Seattle. Chance, D.H., and J.V. Chance 1982 Kettle Falls: 1971/1974. University of... landscape along the Columbia between Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. Ms. on file, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District. -- Holmer, R.N

  5. Fall 1982 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    In fall 1982, a study was conducted in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) using withdrawal and grade distribution data to analyze student retention patterns. Successful retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received a passing grade, while total retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received…

  6. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any…

  7. Editors' Fall Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbrun, Margaret; McCormack, Heather; Katterjohn, Anna; Kuzyk, Raya; Roncevic, Mirela; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal's" review editors select fall titles readers won't want to miss--"Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service" (James McCommons); "Happy" (Alex Lemon); "Free for All: Joe Papp, the Public, and the Greatest Theater Story Ever Told" (Kenneth Turan & Joseph Papp); "In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers…

  8. Patients' attitudes to rubber dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, D A; McHugh, E S

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study were to record patients' views of their experience of RD use in an objective manner, and to evaluate the influence of some personal and clinical factors on patients' opinion. A questionnaire was designed which was then distributed to patients receiving dental treatment under RD by (a) final-year dental students at Birmingham Dental School, and (b) general dental practitioners. Patients completed the confidential questionnaire anonymously after treatment, outside the treatment room. After 100 correctly completed forms were collected from group (a) and 106 from group (b), data were entered into a database and subsequently analyzed using SPSS. Analyses were confined to simple cross-tabulations of the patients' responses and potential associated factors, with chi-square analysis and appropriate follow-up comparisons wherever necessary. In both groups, the majority of patients said they would prefer RD to be used at their next appointment, and most had a positive opinion of the experience. No statistically significant association between age, sex, procedure, application time or duration of use and preference for rubber dam was found. Prolonged RD use showed some association with a negative opinion of the experience of RD. Compared with the dentists, students took longer to apply rubber dam and it was in place for longer. Fewer student patients preferred RD next time, and were less positive about its use than the dentists' patients. Further evidence is presented that (i) Patients generally are not averse to RD. (ii) Placement of rubber dam does not take long. (iii) Operator experience improves patient compliance.

  9. Safety Aspects of Sustainable Storage Dams and Earthquake Safety of Existing Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wieland

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic element in any sustainable dam project is safety, which includes the following safety elements: ① structural safety, ② dam safety monitoring, ③ operational safety and maintenance, and ④ emergency planning. Long-term safety primarily includes the analysis of all hazards affecting the project; that is, hazards from the natural environment, hazards from the man-made environment, and project-specific and site-specific hazards. The special features of the seismic safety of dams are discussed. Large dams were the first structures to be systematically designed against earthquakes, starting in the 1930s. However, the seismic safety of older dams is unknown, as most were designed using seismic design criteria and methods of dynamic analysis that are considered obsolete today. Therefore, we need to reevaluate the seismic safety of existing dams based on current state-of-the-art practices and rehabilitate deficient dams. For large dams, a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is usually recommended. Today, large dams and the safety-relevant elements used for controlling the reservoir after a strong earthquake must be able to withstand the ground motions of a safety evaluation earthquake. The ground motion parameters can be determined either by a probabilistic or a deterministic seismic hazard analysis. During strong earthquakes, inelastic deformations may occur in a dam; therefore, the seismic analysis has to be carried out in the time domain. Furthermore, earthquakes create multiple seismic hazards for dams such as ground shaking, fault movements, mass movements, and others. The ground motions needed by the dam engineer are not real earthquake ground motions but models of the ground motion, which allow the safe design of dams. It must also be kept in mind that dam safety evaluations must be carried out several times during the long life of large storage dams. These features are discussed in this paper.

  10. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  11. Passage and behavior of radio-tagged adult Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus) at the Willamette Falls Project, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Magie, Robert J.; Copeland, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    Populations of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Columbia River basin have declined and passage problems at dams are a contributing factor. We used radio telemetry to monitor the passage of adult Pacific lampreys at the Willamette Falls Project (a hydroelectric dam integrated into a natural falls) on the Willamette River near Portland, Oregon. In 2005 and 2006, fish were captured at the Project, implanted with a radio tag, and released downstream. We tagged 136 lampreys in 2005 and 107 in 2006. Over 90% of the fish returned to the Project in 7 – 9 h and most were detected from 2000 – 2300 h. In 2005, 43 fish (34%) passed the dam via the fishway, with peak passage in August. No fish passed over the falls, but 13% ascended at least partway up the falls. In 2006, 24 fish (23%) passed the Project using the fishway, with most prior to 9 June when the powerhouse was off. Although 19 lampreys ascended the falls, only two passed via this route. The time for fish to pass through the fishway ranged from 4 – 74 h, depending on route. Many fish stayed in the tailrace for hours to almost a year and eventually moved downstream. Our results indicate that passage of lampreys at the Project is lower than that for lampreys at dams on the Columbia River. Low passage success may result from low river flows, impediments in fishways, delayed tagging effects, changing environmental conditions, or performance or behavioral constraints.

  12. Anthropocene streams and base-level controls from historic dams in the unglaciated mid-Atlantic region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritts, Dorothy; Walter, Robert; Rahnis, Michael; Hartranft, Jeff; Cox, Scott; Gellis, Allen; Potter, Noel; Hilgartner, William; Langland, Michael; Manion, Lauren; Lippincott, Caitlin; Siddiqui, Sauleh; Rehman, Zain; Scheid, Chris; Kratz, Laura; Shilling, Andrea; Jenschke, Matthew; Datin, Katherine; Cranmer, Elizabeth; Reed, Austin; Matuszewski, Derek; Voli, Mark; Ohlson, Erik; Neugebauer, Ali; Ahamed, Aakash; Neal, Conor; Winter, Allison; Becker, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Recently, widespread valley-bottom damming for water power was identified as a primary control on valley sedimentation in the mid-Atlantic US during the late seventeenth to early twentieth century. The timing of damming coincided with that of accelerated upland erosion during post-European settlement land-use change. In this paper, we examine the impact of local drops in base level on incision into historic reservoir sediment as thousands of ageing dams breach. Analysis of lidar and field data indicates that historic milldam building led to local base-level rises of 2-5 m (typical milldam height) and reduced valley slopes by half. Subsequent base-level fall with dam breaching led to an approximate doubling in slope, a significant base-level forcing. Case studies in forested, rural as well as agricultural and urban areas demonstrate that a breached dam can lead to stream incision, bank erosion and increased loads of suspended sediment, even with no change in land use. After dam breaching, key predictors of stream bank erosion include number of years since dam breach, proximity to a dam and dam height. One implication of this work is that conceptual models linking channel condition and sediment yield exclusively with modern upland land use are incomplete for valleys impacted by milldams. With no equivalent in the Holocene or late Pleistocene sedimentary record, modern incised stream-channel forms in the mid-Atlantic region represent a transient response to both base-level forcing and major changes in land use beginning centuries ago. Similar channel forms might also exist in other locales where historic milling was prevalent.

  13. McNary Dam, Ice Harbor Dam, and Lower Monumental Dam Smolt Monitoring Program; 1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd; Lind, Sharon; Price, William (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    1997-07-01

    The Washington Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW) assumed responsibility for the Smolt Monitoring Program at McNary Dam on the Columbia River in 1990 and at the new juvenile collection facility at Lower Monumental Dam on the Snake River in 1993. In 1996, Smolt Monitoring Program activities also began at the new juvenile collection facility located at Ice Harbor Dam. This report summarizes the 1996 Smolt Monitoring work at all three sites. The work at Ice Harbor consisted of Gas Bubble Trauma (GBT) monitoring only. In general, the 1996 passage season at both the McNary and Lower Monumental sites can be characterized by reduced passage of juveniles through the collection systems due to elevated river flows and spill, and low (<1%) overall facility mortality rates most likely resulting from cooler water temperatures. In accordance with the National Marine Fisheries Service recommendations (NMFS, 1995) all spring migrants were bypassed at McNary Dam in 1996. Mechanical problems within the McNary collection system resulted in collection and sampling activities being delayed until April 18 at this site, while sampling and collection began on the scheduled starting date of April 1 at Lower Monumental Dam. Monitoring operations were conducted through December 14 at McNary Dam and through October 28 at Lower Monumental Dam. An ongoing transportation evaluation summer migrant marking program was conducted at McNary Dam in 1996 by the NMFS. This necessitated the sampling of 394,211 additional fish beyond the recommended sampling guidelines. All total, 509,237 and 31,219 juvenile salmonids were anesthetized and individually counted, examined for scale loss, injuries, and brands by WDFW Smolt Monitoring personnel in 1996 at McNary Dam and Lower Monumental Dam, respectively.

  14. Falls following discharge after an in-hospital fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are among the most common adverse events reported in hospitalized patients. While there is a growing body of literature on fall prevention in the hospital, the data examining the fall rate and risk factors for falls in the immediate post-hospitalization period has not been well described. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fall rate of in-hospital fallers at home and to explore the risk factors for falls during the immediate post-hospitalization period. Methods We identified patients who sustained a fall on one of 16 medical/surgical nursing units during an inpatient admission to an urban community teaching hospital. After discharge, falls were ascertained using weekly telephone surveillance for 4 weeks post-discharge. Patients were followed until death, loss to follow up or end of study (four weeks. Time spent rehospitalized or institutionalized was censored in rate calculations. Results Of 95 hospitalized patients who fell during recruitment, 65 (68% met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. These subjects contributed 1498 person-days to the study (mean duration of follow-up = 23 days. Seventy-five percent were African-American and 43% were women. Sixteen patients (25% had multiple falls during hospitalization and 23 patients (35% suffered a fall-related injury during hospitalization. Nineteen patients (29% experienced 38 falls at their homes, yielding a fall rate of 25.4/1,000 person-days (95% CI: 17.3-33.4. Twenty-three patients (35% were readmitted and 3(5% died. One patient experienced a hip fracture. In exploratory univariate analysis, persons who were likely to fall at home were those who sustained multiple falls in the hospital (p = 0.008. Conclusion Patients who fall during hospitalization, especially on more than one occasion, are at high risk for falling at home following hospital discharge. Interventions to reduce falls would be appropriate to test in this high-risk population.

  15. SUITABILITY OF DAM SITES IN MAURITIUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    Sites where dams/reservoirs have been proposed in Mauritius are listed in Table 1. In many of these places, detailed investigations have been carried out, only to be shelved for some reason or other. Other dams have been constructed, sometimes after a sketchy desk study investigation, simply because of the urgency of ...

  16. 75 FR 62024 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Parts 56 and 57 RIN 1219-AB70 Metal and Nonmetal Dams AGENCY... measures to assure that metal and nonmetal mine operators design, construct, operate and maintain dams in a...

  17. SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN FLOOD CONTROL DAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanapanchai, Maneechit; Shah, Farhed A.; Annandale, George

    2002-01-01

    Reservoir sedimentation reduces economic value and longevity of flood control dams. Periodic sediment removal allows extension of reservoir life. An optimal control model is developed to evaluate alternative sediment management strategies for flood control dams. An illustrative empirical analysis shows that sustainable management is economically desirable for a wide range of parameter values.

  18. Restoring Environmental Flows by Modifying Dam Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Richter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of new dams has become one of the most controversial issues in global efforts to alleviate poverty, improve human health, and strengthen regional economies. Unfortunately, this controversy has overshadowed the tremendous opportunity that exists for modifying the operations of existing dams to recover many of the environmental and social benefits of healthy ecosystems that have been compromised by present modes of dam operation. The potential benefits of dam "re-operation" include recovery of fish, shellfish, and other wildlife populations valued both commercially and recreationally, including estuarine species; reactivation of the flood storage and water purification benefits that occur when floods are allowed to flow into floodplain forests and wetlands; regaining some semblance of the naturally dynamic balance between river erosion and sedimentation that shapes physical habitat complexity, and arresting problems associated with geomorphic imbalances; cultural and spiritual uses of rivers; and many other socially valued products and services. This paper describes an assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the benefits that might be restored through dam re-operation. Assessing the potential benefits of dam re-operation begins by characterizing the dam's effects on the river flow regime, and formulating hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits that might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles natural flow patterns. These hypotheses can be tested by implementing a re-operation plan, tracking the response of the ecosystem, and continually refining dam operations through adaptive management. The paper highlights a number of land and water management strategies useful in implementing a dam re-operation plan, with reference to a variety of management contexts ranging from individual dams to cascades of dams along a river to regional energy grids. Because many of the

  19. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  20. The Resource. Fall 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Adams, Director of Scientific Visualization, initiated a Bring Your Own Data ( BYOD ) workshop for MSRC users. The first workshop was held June 25-26 in...leverage these assets in their future work. The first BYOD workshop was definitely a benefit to the users. Chris Stone, in particular was able to...publications 28 ERDC MSRC The Resource, Fall 2001 ac ro ny m s AG Access Grid AMR Adaptive Mesh Refinement BYOD Bring Your Own Data CDC Control Data

  1. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  2. Do we need construct more dams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Shi, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reviews global dam development in association with the growths of global population, economy, and energy consumption in the past several decades, and also evaluates contributions of dam development to future world sustainable development. Eventually, this paper answers whether we need more dams in the future or not. The world population has rapidly increased from 1.6 billion in 1900, 2.5 billion in 1950, 6.1 billion in 2000, to 7.0 billion in 2011, and is projected to reach 9.5 billion in 2050; similarly, the world economy has dramatically expanded. To maintain socioeconomic development, the consumption of water, food and energy has increased rapidly as well. However, the total volume of available water resource over the world is limited, the food production largely depends on water supply, and the main energy sources are still oil, coal and gas at present, which are regarded as non-renewable resources. Accordingly, it is expected that we will face serious problems to deal with the challenges of water crisis, food security and energy shortage in the near future. In order to enhance the capability of regulating water resource, a great number of global dams (and related reservoirs) have been constructed in the last one hundred years; currently, almost all large rivers over the world have been regulated by dams. The reservoirs can supply sufficient water for irrigated land to ensure food production, and the associated hydropower stations can generate electricity. This article collects the dam data from the ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams) and GRanD (Global Reservoir and Dam) databases, and some socioeconomic data, including population, economy, and consumptions of water, food and energy over the world. Analysis of these data reveals that global dam development has a great impact on the world sustainable development. Further, it is concluded that we need further dam development to maintain our future development.

  3. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks...

  4. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batch 324NC Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  5. Report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on 1985-2004 Coastal Zone Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Survey of geese, swans and sandhill cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) for the 20th consecutive year. The...

  6. Report to the Pacific Flyway Committee on 1985-2002 Coastal Zone Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta Goose Survey of geese, swans and sandhill cranes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) for the 18th consecutive year. The...

  7. Temperature data from buoy casts in the North Atlantic Ocean from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from 01 August 1928 to 04 September 1932 (NODC Accession 0000242)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data were collected using buoy casts from the COLUMBUS and HMAS SWAN from August 1, 1928 to September 4, 1932 in the North Atlantic Ocean. Data were...

  8. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Raw data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Example of raw data submitted from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood...

  9. Testing The ‘Black Swan Effect’ on Croatian Stock Market Between 2000 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Radman Peša

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We tested the economic activity and stock exchange of Croatia as a new country of EU in order to investigate the ‘Black Swan effect’ from 2000 to 2013. The empirical findings obtained in application of OLS methodology and Chow breaking point test provide evidence and show that resignation of the Croatian ex Prime Minister lead country successfully to EU, but were also ‘The Black Swan’ event, being unpredictable and having huge impact on political and economic environment in Croatia obtained through CROBEX, Croatian stock exchange indices. Authors conclude that the resignation was connected to one of the first significant cases of corruption in Croatia which has got the negative impact on the economic development of the country in general, dealing at the same time with global recession.

  10. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  11. Ballet in the Dark: A Critical Review of Black Swan by Darren Aronofsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Angela Corpus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Choreographing the life of a ballerina in an ominous psychological thriller is a highly gendered project that takes us to well-established suspects in the patriarchal schema of the ballet world. Black Swan’s filmmakers created a narrative out of a performance of the classic ballet Swan Lake, making it a mimicry of the life of the tragic heroine Nina Sayers (Natalie Portman. The symptomatic pathology of perfectionism haunts the lead character, revealing her manifest hubris while unmasking the systemic social conditioning of women in the ballet system. These women are driven to become tenacious competitors, pleasant and willing objects of a gaze and patronage that are traditionally male-defined and controlled.

  12. LEVEL CONDITIONS OF AKOSOMBO DAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inlet gates through the hydraulic turbine down. ' the draft tube and out the tailrace at plant exit. The power that the water can produce is equal to the rate of the water flow times a conversion coefficient that takes into account the net head. (the distance through which the water falls less the losses in head caused by the flow) ...

  13. Sleep duration and weight change in midlife women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Janssen, Imke; Cursio, John F.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Gold, Ellen B.; Burns, John W.; Kravitz, Howard M.

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with higher current body mass index (BMI) and subsequent weight gain. However, most prior longitudinal studies are limited by reliance on self-reported sleep duration, and none accounted for the potential confounding effect of sleep-disordered breathing. The associations of sleep duration with current BMI and BMI change were examined among 310 midlife women in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (2003–2005). Sleep duration was assessed for approximately one month with concurrent wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries. The presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) based on in-home polysomnography. BMI was assessed annually through core SWAN visit 10 (2006 and 2008). Mean BMI increased from 29.6 (SD=7.8) kg/m2 to 30.0 (SD=8.0) kg/m2 over an average of 4.6 years (SD=1.0) of follow up. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for AHI, demographic variables, and several potential confounding variables, actigraphy (estimate=−1.22, 95%C.I.: −2.03, −.42) and diary (estimate=−.86, 95%C.I. −1.62, −.09) measures of sleep duration were inversely associated with BMI. Each hour of less sleep was associated with 1.22 kg/m2 greater BMI for actigraphy sleep duration, and a 0.86 kg/m2 greater BMI for diary sleep duration. Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and annual BMI change were non-significant in unadjusted and fully-adjusted models. In this cohort of midlife women, cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and current BMI were independent of sleep-disordered breathing, but sleep duration was not prospectively associated with weight change. PMID:23505171

  14. Clonal diversity and structure within a population of the pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus foraged by Bewick's swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangelbroek, H H; Ouborg, N J; Santamaría, L; Schwenk, K

    2002-10-01

    Clonal diversity within plant populations is affected by factors that influence genet (clone) survival and seed recruitment, such as resource availability, disturbance, seed dispersal mechanism, propagule predation and the age of the population. Here we studied a population of Potamogeton pectinatus, a pseudo-annual aquatic macrophyte. Within populations reproduction appears to be mainly asexually through subterranean propagules (tubers), while recruitment via seeds is believed to be relatively unimportant. RAPD markers were used to analyse clonal diversity and genetic variation within the population. Ninety-seven genets were identified among 128 samples taken from eight plots. The proportion of distinguishable genets (0.76) and Simpson's diversity index (0.99) exhibited high levels of clonal diversity compared to other clonal plants. According to an analysis of molecular variance (amova) most genetic variation occurred between individuals within plots (93-97%) rather than between plots (8-3%). These results imply that sexual reproduction plays an unexpectedly important role within the population. Nevertheless, autocorrelation statistics revealed a spatial genetic structure resulting from clonal growth. In contrast to genetic variation, clonal diversity was affected by several ecological factors. Water depth and silt content had direct negative effects on clonal diversity. Tuber predation by Bewick's swans had an unexpected indirect negative effect on clonal diversity through reducing the tuber-bank biomass in spring, which on its turn was positively correlated to clonal diversity. The disturbance by swans, therefore, did not enhance seed recruitment and thus clonal diversity; on the contrary, heavily foraged areas are probably more prone to stochastic loss of genets leading to reduced clonal diversity.

  15. Sleep duration and weight change in midlife women: the SWAN sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Janssen, Imke; Cursio, John F; Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Gold, Ellen B; Burns, John W; Kravitz, Howard M

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with higher current BMI and subsequent weight gain. However, most prior longitudinal studies are limited by reliance on self-reported sleep duration, and none accounted for the potential confounding effect of sleep-disordered breathing. The associations of sleep duration with current BMI and BMI change were examined among 310 midlife women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study (2003-2005). Sleep duration was assessed for approximately one month with concurrent wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries. The presence and severity of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified using the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) based on in-home polysomnography. BMI was assessed annually through core SWAN visit 10 (2006 and 2008). Mean BMI increased from 29.6 (SD = 7.8) kg/m(2) to 30.0 (SD = 8.0) kg/m(2) over an average of 4.6 years (SD = 1.0) of follow-up. In cross-sectional analyses controlling for AHI, demographic variables, and several potential confounding variables, actigraphy (estimate = -1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): -2.03, -0.42) and diary (estimate = -0.86, 95% CI -1.62, -0.09) measures of sleep duration were inversely associated with BMI. Each hour of less sleep was associated with 1.22 kg/m(2) greater BMI for actigraphy sleep duration, and a 0.86 kg/m(2) greater BMI for diary sleep duration. Longitudinal associations between sleep duration and annual BMI change were nonsignificant in unadjusted and fully adjusted models. In this cohort of midlife women, cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and current BMI were independent of sleep-disordered breathing, but sleep duration was not prospectively associated with weight change. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  16. Clinical utility of the Chinese Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-behaviors questionnaire (SWAN when compared with DISC-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan GFC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grace Fong-Chun Chan,1 Kelly Yee-Ching Lai,2 Ernest Siu-Luen Luk,3 Se-Fong Hung,2 Patrick Wing-Leung Leung4 1Department of Psychiatry, Alice Ho Miu Ling Nethersole Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Private practice, 4Clinical and Health Psychology Centre, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common and impairing child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Early identification and prompt treatment are essential. Rating scales are commonly used by clinicians and researchers to assess ADHD children. Objective: In the current study, we aimed to examine the clinical utility of the Chinese version of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD Symptoms and Normal Behaviors (SWAN questionnaire. We validated its subscale scores against the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV and looked into its ability to identify ADHD in a psychiatric clinic setting. We also tested age and gender effects on SWAN scores. Specific subscale cutoff scores of SWAN were subsequently determined.Method: A total of 290 children aged 6–12 years old studying in local mainstream primary schools were recruited from a clinic setting and interviewed with the parent version of DISC-IV. Their parents and teachers completed the corresponding version of SWAN.Results: Both parent and teacher versions of SWAN were found to have good concurrent validity with DISC-IV. It could identify ADHD well in a clinic sample. Gender-specific cutoff scores were determined. Sensitivities and specificities were found to be satisfactory. SWAN was also found to perform equally well in identifying ADHD in those with and without comorbid Autistic Spectrum Disorder.Conclusion: SWAN was proven to be a useful tool to aid the assessment of ADHD in a clinic sample. Keywords: ADHD, SWAN, DISC-IV, validity

  17. Deformation Monitoring and Bathymetry Analyses in Rock-Fill Dams, a Case Study at Ataturk Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Y.; Bilgi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkey has 595 dams constructed between 1936 and 2013 for the purposes of irrigation, flood control, hydroelectric energy and drinking water. A major portion of the dam basins in Turkey are deprived of vegetation and have slope topography on near surrounding area. However, landscaping covered with forest around the dam basin is desirable for erosion control. In fact; the dams, have basins deprived of vegetation, fill up quickly due to sediment transport. Erosion control and forestation are important factors, reducing the sediment, to protect the water basins of the dams and increase the functioning life of the dams. The functioning life of dams is as important as the investment and construction. Nevertheless, in order to provide safety of human life living around, well planned monitoring is essential for dams. Dams are very large and critical structures and they demand the use or application of precise measuring systems. Some basic physical data are very important for assessing the safety and performance of dams. These are movement, water pressure, seepage, reservoir and tail-water elevations, local seismic activities, total pressure, stress and strain, internal concrete temperature, ambient temperature and precipitation. Monitoring is an essential component of the dam after construction and during operation and must en­able the timely detection of any behavior that could deteriorate the dam, potentially result in its shutdown or failure. Considering the time and labor consumed by long-term measurements, processing and analysis of measured data, importance of the small structural motions at regular intervals could be comprehended. This study provides some information, safety and the techniques about the deformation monitoring of the dams, dam safety and related analysis. The case study is the deformation measurements of Atatürk Dam in Turkey which is the 6th largest dam of world considering the filling volume of embankment. Brief information is given about the

  18. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  19. Advancing gender equality through the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science: an exploratory study of women's and men's perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Chapple, Alison; Edmunds, Laurel D; Ziebland, Sue

    2017-02-21

    While in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Australia, higher education and research institutions are widely engaged with the Athena SWAN Charter for Women in Science to advance gender equality, empirical research on this process and its impact is rare. This study combined two data sets (free- text comments from a survey and qualitative interviews) to explore the range of experiences and perceptions of participation in Athena SWAN in medical science departments of a research-intensive university in Oxford, United Kingdom. The study is based on the secondary analysis of data from two projects: 59 respondents to an anonymous online survey (42 women, 17 men) provided relevant free-text comments and, separately, 37 women participated in face-to-face narrative interviews. Free-text survey comments and narrative interviews were analysed thematically using constant comparison. Both women and men said that participation in Athena SWAN had brought about important structural and cultural changes, including increased support for women's careers, greater appreciation of caring responsibilities, and efforts to challenge discrimination and bias. Many said that these positive changes would not have happened without linkage of Athena SWAN to government research funding, while others thought there were unintended consequences. Concerns about the programme design and implementation included a perception that Athena SWAN has limited ability to address longstanding and entrenched power and pay imbalances, persisting lack of work-life balance in academic medicine, questions about the sustainability of positive changes, belief that achieving the award could become an end in itself, resentment about perceived positive discrimination, and perceptions that further structural and cultural changes were needed in the university and wider society. The findings from this study suggest that Athena SWAN has a positive impact in advancing gender equality, but there may be limits to how much it can

  20. Columbia River Salmonid Outmigration: McNary Dam Passage and Enhanced Smolt Quality, 1984 Second Year Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of the McNary Dam transportation system on emigrating fall and spring chinook smolts were evaluated using physiological indices of stress (e.g., plasma cortisol, hepatic glycogen, leucocrit, interrenal cell nuclear diameter) and performance tests (e.g., saltwater challenge, secondary stress challenge, disease resistance). Controlled experiments were conducted in a hatchery environment to characterize the fishes' physiological responses to stress, and disease resistance to allow a basis for judging the nature of the stress experienced by smolts at McNary Dam. 55 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Short report: Antibody prevalence of select arboviruses in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in the Great Lakes region and Atlantic coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kerri; Marks, David R; Arsnoe, Dustin M; Bevins, Sarah N; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Mickley, Randall M; DeLiberto, Thomas J

    2014-12-01

    Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species in the United States. The dramatic increase in their populations in localized areas has led to various problems, among them competition with native species and attacks on humans by aggressive swans. However, very little is known about the ability of these swans to transmit pathogens to humans, domestic birds, or wildlife or participate in enzootic maintenance. To learn more about select pathogens that mute swans may harbor, a survey was conducted from April of 2011 to August of 2012 in the Great Lakes region and localized areas of the Atlantic coast, which revealed serologic evidence of arbovirus exposure in mute swans. Of 497 mute swans tested, antibodies were detected for eastern equine encephalitis (4.8%), St. Louis encephalitis (1.4%), West Nile (1.2%), and Turlock (0.6%) viruses. Samples were also tested for evidence of antibodies to La Crosse virus, but none were positive. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. TYPOLOGY OF LARGE DAMS. A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dams represent hydrotechnical constructions meant to ensure a judicious use of water resources. The international literature is extremely rich in data regarding the large dams on Earth. In this context, a hierarchy of the main dams is attempted and the role they play in the economic development of the regions they were built in is underlined. The largest dams are built on the big rivers in Asia, North America, South America and Africa. The reservoirs have multiple roles: electricity production, drinking or industrial water supply, irrigations, recreation, etc. High costs and land fragility do not allow the construction of dams in the places most affected by drought or flood. This is why they are usually built in mountainous areas, at great distance from the populated centres. On the Romanian territory, there are 246 large dams, built in the hydrographical basins of Siret, Olt, Arges, Somes, etc. The largest rivers on Earth, by discharge, (Amazon and Zair do not also include the largest dams because the landform and the type of flow have not allowed such constructions.

  3. Fall prevention in older persons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including stroke and Parkinson's disease, which lead to poor balance and muscle weakness are important causes of falls. Dementia and delirium are also associated with increased risk of falls.[3]. Building on the risk factor evidence base, interventions for fall prevention began to be evaluated in randomised trials in the.

  4. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  5. Falls and the falls efficacy scale in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alissa A; Rogers, Jennifer M; Amick, Melissa M; Friedman, Joseph H

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between fear of falling and fall frequency among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). One hundred-two participants with idiopathic PD were interviewed and examined. Participants reported the number of falls they had experienced in the preceding 3 months. They completed a mini-mental state exam (MMSE) and the falls efficacy scale (FES) questionnaire. Disease severity was determined by clinical examination using the Hoehn-Yahr staging system. Excluding two outliers who fell more than once each day, the subjects fell an average of 1.2 times in a 3 month period. There was a positive correlation between the number of falls, freezing of gait and Hoehn-Yahr score, and a negative correlation with the MMSE. In a post-hoc analysis the participants were divided into four groups based on fall frequency. The outliers had the lowest FES scores on average, similar to the scores seen in the rare fallers group. This study suggests that many factors are associated with fear of falling, including fall frequency, disease severity, and mental status. In the present study, the patients who fell the most often did not report the most fear. The lack of fear of falling but frequent falls in this small subgroup may suggest that special techniques to instill suitable caution to prevent falls are necessary, or may make training of these patients impossible.

  6. Interspecific relationships between American coots and waterfowl during fall migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, William R.; Patterson, Craig T.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between American Coots (Fulica americana) and water-fowl during the breeding season are well-documented (Ryder 1959, Nudds 1981). Ducks and coots use similar nesting, feeding, brooding, and loafing sites during the breeding season (Munro 1939, Sooter 1945, Ryder 1959). Coots create potential nest sites, repulse predators, provide predation buffers for ducks (Sooter 1945; Ryder 1958, 1959), and may also destroy eggs and young of other marsh-nesting birds (Munro 1937, Burger 1973, McNicholl 1975). Coots, ducks, and swans often feed cooperatively (Ryder 1959, Anderson 1974, Ryan 1981); and American Wigeon (Anas americana) and Gadwell () may rob feeding coots (Knapton and Knudsen 1978, Ryan 1981). Interspecies aggression between coots and waterfowl usually occurs when ducks approach coot nests or broods (Ryan and Dinsmore 1979). Despite these interactions, the numbers of duck broods produced in areas in Utah with nesting coots and in areas where coots have been removed were similar (Ryder 1958, 1961). Densities of coots and ducks, and brood counts of coots and ducks for a 26-year period in Saskatchewan also indicated no significant relationship between numbers of coots and waterfowl (Nudds 1981). Coots and waterfowl from large areas of breeding habitat concentrate on smaller areas during the nonbreeding season (Weller 1975:102). These species may also change diets and habitats during migration and while wintering (Weller 1975). This study documents associations between waterfowl and coots during fall migration and examines feeding and behavioral interactions between coots and waterfowl in mixed flocks. Specifically, we (1) describe temporal and spatial overlap among migrations of coots and waterfowl, (2) present behavioral interactions among species, and (3) document food habits of birds feeding sympatrically during fall migration in Oklahoma.

  7. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  8. Trend analysis in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, north of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taani, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Temporal status and trends in water quality of Al-Wehda Dam, Jordan, from 2006 to 2012 indicate that the dam is subject to a combination of impacts from rainstorm and agricultural runoffs. It also revealed that mineral dissolution, sediment load, rainfall events, evaporation, and water-level fluctuation are the major contributors to variations in water quality. The water chemistry of the impounded Al-Wehda Reservoir showed that Na, Ca, Mg, HCO₃, and Cl are the principal ions, reflecting the dominance of carbonate weathering, with some contribution of silicates. The pH values showed a cyclic pattern with highest values observed in the spring seasons. Total dissolved solids (TDS), Ca, Mg, and HCO₃ are primarily related to leaching and evaporation, with elevated levels that occurred in the rainy winter months. In contrast, seasonal patterns in Na, K, Cl, and NH₄-N contents showed decreased values in winter. Peaks in NO₃-N observed in winter are strongly associated with agricultural runoff. Fluctuations in chlorophyll-a level were coincided with low ratio of total nitrogen (TN) to total phosphorus (TP). Seasonal variations in organic matter content were also apparent, with peaks that generally occurred in spring through early fall corresponding with high algal growth. On an annual basis, the vast majority of water quality data have generally declined, particularly, in 2011. However, it is not clear whether these decreases are related to change in management practices within the Yarmouk basin, or protective measures have been implemented. Comparison of in-lake and post-dam water quality from 2009 to 2011 showed variation in concentrations, where Ca, HCO₃, NO₃-N, Mg, and TDS showed relatively greater post-dam values than in-lake water, whereas pH, Na, Cl, K, COD, BOD₅, and chlorophyll-a were consistently lower in post-dam water. This comparison emphasizes the importance of self-purification capacity of Al-Wehda Dam in reducing some contaminants.

  9. Geophysics Methods in Electrometric Assessment of Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, V. A., E-mail: davydov-va@yandex.ru; Baidikov, S. V., E-mail: badikek@mail.ru; Gorshkov, V. Yu., E-mail: vitalaa@yandex.ru; Malikov, A. V., E-mail: alex.mal.1986@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Geophysical Institute, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The safety assessment of hydraulic structures is proposed to be conducted via geoelectric measurements, which are capable of assessing the health of earth dams in their natural bedding without intervention in their structure. Geoelectric measurements are shown as being capable of pinpointing hazardous parts of a dam, including areas of elevated seepage. Applications of such methods are shown for a number of mini-dams in the Sverdlovsk region. Aparameter (effective longitudinal conductivity) that may be used to monitor the safety of hydraulic structures is proposed. Quantitative estimates of this parameter are given in terms of the degree of safely.

  10. Sustainability of dams-an evaluation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, E.

    2003-04-01

    Situated in the stream bed of a river, dams and reservoirs interrupt the natural hydrological cycle. They are very sensitive to all kinds of changes in the catchment, among others global impacts on land use, climate, settlement structures or living standards. Vice versa dams strongly affect the spatially distributed, complex system of ecology, economy and society in the catchment both up- and downstream of the reservoir. The occurrence of negative impacts due to large dams led to serious conflicts about future dams. Nevertheless, water shortages due to climatic conditions and their changes, that are faced by enormous water and energy demands due to rising living standards of a growing world population, seem to require further dam construction, even if both supply and demand management are optimised. Although environmental impact assessments are compulsory for dams financed by any of the international funding agencies, it has to be assumed that the projects lack sustainability. Starting from an inventory of today's environmental impact assessments as an integral part of a feasibility study the presentation will identify their inadequacies with regard to the sustainability of dams. To improve the sustainability of future dams and avoid the mistakes of the past, the planning procedures for dams have to be adapted. The highly complex and dynamical system of interrelated physical and non-physical processes, that involves many different groups of stakeholders, constitutes the need for a model-oriented decision support system. In line with the report of the World Commission of Dams an integrated analysis and structure of the complex interrelations between dams, ecology, economy and society will be presented. Thus the system, that a respective tool will be based on, is analysed. Furthermore an outlook will be given on the needs of the potential users of a DSS and how it has to be embedded in the overall planning process. The limits of computer-based decision-support in the

  11. Predictions of total deformations in Jebba main dam by finite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the deformations of the Jebba Main Dam, Jebba Nigeria using the finite element method. The study also evaluated the predicted deformations and compared them with the actual deformations in the dam to identify possible causes of the observed longitudinal crack at the dam crest. The Jebba dam is a ...

  12. Collective Fall Protection for Construction Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Sulowski, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Construction safety regulations require protection of workers against falls from elevations. The collective fall protection systems, in most cases, allow workers to move freely without wearing individual fall protection gear. The collective systems which prevent falls are preferred over the fall arrest systems. The latter are employed only if prevention of falls is not feasible. Arresting a fall always carries with it a residual risk of injury to the fall victim. The collective fall arrest sy...

  13. Dam break analysis and flood inundation map of Krisak dam for emergency action plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Setyandito, Oki

    2017-11-01

    The Indonesian Regulation which refers to the ICOLD Regulation (International Committee on Large Dam required have the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) guidelines because of the dams have potential failure. In EAP guidelines there is a management of evacuation where the determination of the inundation map based on flood modeling. The purpose of the EAP is to minimize the risk of loss of life and property in downstream which caused by dam failure. This paper will describe about develop flood modeling and inundation map in Krisak dam using numerical methods through dam break analysis (DBA) using hydraulic model Zhong Xing HY-21. The approaches of dam failure simulation are overtopping and piping. Overtopping simulation based on quadrangular, triangular and trapezium fracture. Piping simulation based on cracks of orifice. Using results of DBA, hazard classification of Krisak dam is very high. The nearest village affected dam failure is Singodutan village (distance is 1.45 kilometer from dam) with inundation depth is 1.85 meter. This result can be used by stakeholders such as emergency responders and the community at risk in formulating evacuation procedure.

  14. 33 CFR 208.19 - Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir... Marshall Ford Dam and Reservoir (Mansfield Dam and Lake Travis), Colorado River, Tex. The Secretary of the Interior, through his agent, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) shall operate the Marshall Ford Dam...

  15. Physical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  16. Dams life; La vie des barrages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  17. Chemical - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  18. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem response:...

  19. Final Design Analysis : Lake Ladora Dam Repair

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is intended to present Rocky Mountain Arsenal with details concerning the remedial repair for Ladora Dam to meet the geotechnical concerns and hydrologic...

  20. Technical bulletin : geotechnical considerations for dam safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The safety of dams requires a thorough understanding of the geotechnical elements of dam design. This technical bulletin outlined methods for conducting geotechnical assessments as part of dam safety analyses. It included an overview of methods for minimizing and control seepage, as well as preventing internal and surface erosion. Geotechnical considerations for foundation, abutments, and reservoir bank slope conditions were also presented. Geotechnical safety assessment techniques were presented for earthfill, embankment, and rockfill dams. Appurtenant structures, reservoir rims, and foundations were examined. Hazards and failure modes included overtopping, internal erosion, slope instability, and earthquake liquefaction. Foundation irregularities and surface erosion assesment methods were presented. Geotechnical considerations for loading conditions, shear strength, discontinuities, compatibilities, foundation permeability, and foundation compressibility were presented along with analysis, design, and remedial considerations. 53 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Physical and Biological Responses to Dam Removal Sediment Release, Patapsco River, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. J.; Andrews, M.; Banks, W.; Boardman, G.; Dillow, J. J.; Gellis, A.; Harbold, W.; Kilian, J.; Lowe, S.; McClain, S.; Miller, A. J.; Stranko, S.; Wilcock, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Simkins Dam on Maryland's Patapsco River was removed in the fall of 2010 to improve public safety and habitat for migratory fish. An estimated 60,000 m3 of sand and fine gravel were released to a downstream receiving reach that extends approximately 20 river km to Chesapeake Bay. The downstream reach is comprised of a variety of fluvial environments ranging from a comparatively steep, confined valley in lightly developed parkland in the Piedmont section to low gradient, meandering, and tidally-influenced alluvial bottoms bordered by urban development in the Coastal Plain. Less than a kilometer downstream of the Simkins dam removal site is another impoundment that was mostly filled with unconsolidated sediments before the Simkins dam was deconstructed. Bloede Dam is also being considered for removal and partial release of impounded sediment. We are evaluating the physical and biological responses of the lower Patapsco River to these two dam removals and sediment releases by comparing post-removal data with baseline data collected in 2009 and 2010. To investigate the magnitudes and rates of morphologic change in the former impoundments and the downstream receiving reach, we resurvey nearly 30 monumented cross-sections for topography, grain size distribution, and facies maps. We also resurvey detailed digital elevation models in the two impoundments and in three discrete areas of the downstream reach that cover about 2 river kilometers. Nearly 100 repeat photo stations provide qualitative morphologic information in river reaches where we are not collecting quantitative data or they otherwise supplement our physical data. The morphologic data are complemented by continuous suspended-sediment discharge and flow data at three sites: above the project reach, immediately below the Simkins dam removal site, and five kilometers downstream of Bloede Dam. To investigate biological responses to sediment release and increased aquatic connectivity, we are conducting repeat

  2. Space and habitat use by black bears in the Elwha valley prior to dam removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager-Fradkin, K.A.; Jenkins, K.J.; Happe, P.J.; Beecham, J.J.; Wright, R.G.; Hoffman, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Dam removal and subsequent restoration of salmon to the Elwha River is expected to cause a shift in nutrient dynamics within the watershed. To document how this influx of nutrients and energy may affect black bear (Ursus americanus) ecology, we used radio-telemetry to record movements of 11 male and two female black bears in the Elwha Valley from 2002-06. Our objective was to collect baseline data on bear movements prior to dam removal. We calculated annual home ranges, described seasonal timing of den entry and emergence, and described seasonal patterns of distribution and habitat use. Adaptive kernel home ranges were larger formales (mean = 151.1 km2, SE = 21.4) than females (mean = 38.8 km2, SE = 13.0). Males ranged widely and frequently left the watershed during late summer. Further, they exhibited predictable and synchronous patterns of elevation change throughout each year. Bears entered their winter dens between 8 October and 15 December and emerged from dens between 10 March and 9 May. Male bears used low-elevation conifer and hardwood forests along the Elwha floodplain during spring, mid- to high-elevation forests and meadows during early summer, high-elevation forests, meadows and shrubs during late summer, and mid-elevation forests, shrubs and meadows during fall. Data acquired during this study provide important baseline information for comparison after dam removal, when bears may alter their late summer and fall movement and denning patterns to take advantage of energy-rich spawning salmon.

  3. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  4. National Program for Inspection of Non-Federal Dams. Upper Groveton Dam N.H. 00148, Connecticut River Basin, Groveton, New Hampshire. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    Mlax ...;’ ......... ft.: Min. ...St0m L."e.............................f t. P Flashboards-Type F1:: 1 sentionn 91 r,2’ noir :,ble.:Hih . ~ . . . f...Approach Channel Slope Conditions Bottom Conditions Rock Slides or Falls Log Boom Debris Condition of Concrete Lining p - Drains or Weep Holes b...Inventory of Dams II I S 41 w thi LAL3 I~Xo AIL~. 0~~ CI- I VFTT~j .J’ I LI . Li 7-J__ _ 1~ ____; 5 _ _ _ i)4 . -C cc - ~l 2 w 4 I 0 j I % ~ . - *lo FILMED * 8-85 * DTIC

  5. Repair and Rehabilitation of Dams: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    were grouted. In 1958, the entire downstream face of the dam was resurfaced with gunite, and wrought iron nosing was installed on the gatehouse intake...Cpm (32 gpm), virtually all of which was entering the gallery through vertical roof drains and fissures well above the levels grouted. The concrete...long center con- crete gravity dam contains a 12-m- (40-ft-) long gatehouse structure and a 73.5-m- (41-ft-) long flashboard regulated spillway

  6. Falls and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Sahlberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative...... registries from 2000 through 2009. Individuals aged 65 years or older who experienced a hip or a proximal humeral fracture were included. Incidence of hip and of proximal humeral fractures, incidence of FRICs (ischemic heart disease, COPD, dementia, depression, diabetes, heart failure, osteoporosis......, Parkinson's disease and stroke) and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for fractures in patients with FRICs, and all-cause mortality up to 10 years after a hip or a proximal humeral fracture were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 89,150 patients experienced hip fractures and 48,581 proximal humeral fractures. From...

  7. Crosshole seismic tomography across a masonry dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joe

    1995-05-01

    An intensive crosshole seismic survey was done across a 700-foot-long stone-masonry dam. It involved measurements on six connected panels each approximately 100 feet in width extending completely across the dam from abutment to abutment. The objective was to provide tomographic images of P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic moduli of the dam and foundation materials along the axis of the dam. Field seismograms were recorded with an airgun source and hydrophone detectors. Data analysis included interactive time-picking, plotting of common source gathers, and tomographic imaging using an iterative back-propagation technique. Color-coded tomograms of velocity and dynamic Young's modulus were produced and correlated with geological and geophysical data measured on drill core samples. Low values of velocity and dynamic elastic modulus correlated with low RQD and high fracture frequency. The tomograms showed significant variations of mechanical properties in the stone masonry dam and its foundation. The colored tomograms were useful in highlighting zones of weak rock possibly requiring remedial action. They also assisted engineering evaluation of the dam by providing a detailed two-dimensional distribution of mechanical properties which can be used as ground truth data for numerical modeling of stress-strain fields.

  8. Estimating flood inundation caused by dam failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-01-15

    Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  9. Geodetic deformation monitoring at Pendidikan Diponegoro Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwono, Bambang Darmo; Awaluddin, Moehammad; Yusuf, M. A.; Fadillah, Rizki

    2017-07-01

    Deformation monitoring is one indicator to assess the feasibility of Dam. In order to get the correct result of the deformation, it is necessary to determine appropriate deformation monitoring network and the observation data should be analyse and evaluated carefully. Measurement and analysis of deformation requires relatively accurate data and the precision is high enough, one of the observation method that used is GPS (Global Positioning System). The research was conducted at Pendidikan Undip Dams is Dam which is located in Tembang. Diponegoro Dam was built in 2013 and a volume of 50.86 m3 of water, inundation normal width of up to 13,500 m2. The main purpose of these building is not only for drainage but also for education and micro hydro power plant etc. The main goal of this reasearch was to monitor and analyze the deformation at Pendidikan Undip Dam and to determaine whether GPS measurement could meet accuracy requirement for dam deformation measurements. Measurements were made 2 times over 2 years, 2015 and 2016 using dual frequency GPS receivers with static methods and processed by Scientific Software GAMIT 10.6

  10. Global phosphorus retention by river damming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maavara, Taylor; Parsons, Christopher T; Ridenour, Christine; Stojanovic, Severin; Dürr, Hans H; Powley, Helen R; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2015-12-22

    More than 70,000 large dams have been built worldwide. With growing water stress and demand for energy, this number will continue to increase in the foreseeable future. Damming greatly modifies the ecological functioning of river systems. In particular, dam reservoirs sequester nutrient elements and, hence, reduce downstream transfer of nutrients to floodplains, lakes, wetlands, and coastal marine environments. Here, we quantify the global impact of dams on the riverine fluxes and speciation of the limiting nutrient phosphorus (P), using a mechanistic modeling approach that accounts for the in-reservoir biogeochemical transformations of P. According to the model calculations, the mass of total P (TP) trapped in reservoirs nearly doubled between 1970 and 2000, reaching 42 Gmol y(-1), or 12% of the global river TP load in 2000. Because of the current surge in dam building, we project that by 2030, about 17% of the global river TP load will be sequestered in reservoir sediments. The largest projected increases in TP and reactive P (RP) retention by damming will take place in Asia and South America, especially in the Yangtze, Mekong, and Amazon drainage basins. Despite the large P retention capacity of reservoirs, the export of RP from watersheds will continue to grow unless additional measures are taken to curb anthropogenic P emissions.

  11. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...

  12. Impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanrahan, T.P.; Geist, D.R.; Parsley, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonid habitats in main-stem reaches of the Columbia and Snake rivers have changed dramatically during the past 60 years because of hydroelectric development and operation. Only about 13% and 58% of riverine habitats in the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, remain. Most riverine habitat is found in the upper Snake River; however, it is upstream of Hells Canyon Dam and not accessible to anadromous salmonids. We determined that approximately 661 and 805 km of the Columbia and Snake rivers, respectively, were once used by fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for spawning. Fall chinook salmon currently use only about 85 km of the main-stem Columbia River and 163 km of the main-stem Snake River for spawning. We used a geomorphic model to identify three river reaches downstream of present migration barriers with high potential for restoration of riverine processes: the Columbia River upstream of John Day Dam, the Columbia-Snake-Yakima River confluence, and the lower Snake River upstream of Little Goose Dam. Our analysis substantiated the assertion that historic spawning areas for fall chinook salmon occurred primarily within wide alluvial floodplains, which were once common in the mainstem Columbia and Snake rivers. These areas possessed more unconsolidated sediment and more bars and islands and had lower water surface slopes than did less extensively used areas. Because flows in the main stem are now highly regulated, the predevelopment alluvial river ecosystem is not expected to be restored simply by operational modification of one or more dams. Establishing more normative flow regimes - specifically, sustained peak flows for scouring - is essential to restoring the functional characteristics of existing, altered habitats. Restoring production of fall chinook salmon to any of these reaches also requires that population genetics and viability of potential seed populations (i.e., from tributaries, tailrace spawning areas, and hatcheries) be considered.

  13. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Life History Investigations, Annual Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F. [U.S. Geological Survey; Connor, William P. [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Bellgraph, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-09-15

    This study was initiated to provide empirical data and analyses on the dam passage timing, travel rate, survival, and life history variation of fall Chinook salmon that are produced in the Clearwater River. The area of interest for this study focuses on the lower four miles of the Clearwater River and its confluence with the Snake River because this is an area where many fish delay their seaward migration. The goal of the project is to increase our understanding of the environmental and biological factors that affect juvenile life history of fall Chinook salmon in the Clearwater River. The following summaries are provided for each of the individual chapters in this report.

  14. The remains of the dam: what have we learned from 15 years of US dam removals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Important goals for studying dam removal are to learn how rivers respond to large and rapid introductions of sediment, and to develop predictive models to guide future dam removals. Achieving these goals requires organizing case histories systematically so that underlying physical mechanisms determining rates and styles of sediment erosion, transport, and deposition...

  15. Simulating dam - breach flood scenarios of the Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Wenchuan earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Xuanmei; Tang, C.; van Westen, C.J.; Alkema, D.

    2012-01-01

    Floods from failures of landslide dams can pose a hazard to people and property downstream, which have to be rapidly assessed and mitigated in order to reduce the potential risk. The Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Mw=7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake had impounded the largest lake in the

  16. 78 FR 53494 - Dam Safety Modifications at Cherokee, Fort Loudoun, Tellico, and Watts Bar Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Cherokee, TVA would also install about 40 post-tensioned anchors into the concrete portion of the dam... of Dam Structures: Combination of Concrete Floodwalls and Earthen Embankments, will protect the four... Watts Bar). TVA also installed a permanent concrete apron on approximately 2 acres of the downstream...

  17. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  18. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-09-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  19. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  20. Effect of the Operation of Kerr and Hungry Horse Dams on the Reproduction Success of Kokanee in the Flathead River System, 1986 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, Will; Clancey, Patrick

    1987-03-01

    The 1985 kokanee spawning run in the Flathead system was the strongest in five years. Escapement to the Flathead River system was 147,000 fish, including 123,000 in McDonald Creek and an estimated 20,000 in the main stem. Enumeration of spawners and redds in the Flathead River was hindered by high fall flows and early freezing in November. The upstream spawning migration from Flathead Lake began in late August. Schools of kokanee were seen six miles above the lake on September 4. We counted 1,156 redds in Flathead Lake, distributed primarily along the southeastern shore. An unusually high proportion (90 percent) of lakeshore spawning occurred in the zone above minimum pool, where egg mortality is very high because of exposure from drawdown. Escapement to the Swan River was 1,350 fish. Four year old (III+) fish comprised 95 percent of the spawning run in the Flathead system. This continues a five-year trend toward dominance of the III+ year class. The age composition of spawners has varied considerably for the past 15 years. The average size of spawning fish was 365 mm, which is identical to the average size of the parent year class in 1981. One of the goals of managing Flathead kokanee is to produce mature fish 300-330 mm in length. In the main stem Flathead River, pre-emergent survival was 80 percent. Survival in McDonald Creek, unaffected by hydroelectric operations, was 83 percent. Sampling showed few hatched alevins, probably due to unusually cold winter temperatures. Egg survival at Blue Bay, a spawning area on Flathead Lake where redds are concentrated below minimum pool, varied in relation to depth and dissolved oxygen concentration in the substrate. Eggs survived 78 days at 2,880 feet where dissolved oxygen was 5.7 mg/l. Eggs survived 35 days at 2,870 feet where dissolved oxygen concentration averaged 2.9 mg/l. Low dissolved oxygen contributed to poor survival to emergence at all elevations in Blue Ray. Experiments in Skidoo Bay confirmed that survival of

  1. Expression of TGF-β in Fractures Fixed by Nitinol Swan-like Memory Compressive Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Xu, S. G.; Fu, Q. G.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the effect of internal fixation of a Nitinol swan-like memory compressive connector (SMC) on the temporal expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) at fracture sites is evaluated. Specimens were collected from 35 New Zealand rabbits modeled for bilateral humeral fracture fixed with either SMC or stainless dynamic compression plate (DCP). Five rabbits each were killed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. The local positive staining potency, positive area ratio, and positive index of TGF-β were measured using an immunohistochemistry approach (EnVision) in combination with a computerized image analysis system. TGF-β staining was seen in mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and in the extracellular matrix of fractures fixed in both the SMC and the DCP samples without a significant difference in staining at both the early stages (days 1 and 3) and day 56. A higher TGF-β content was observed in the fractures fixed with SMC when compared to that of DCP from day 7 to 28. As a conclusion, TGF-β is highly expressed in fractures fixed with SMC during chondrogenesis stage and entochondrostosis stage. Finally, the mechanism of how SMC promoting synthesis and secretion of TGF-β in the process of fracture healing has been discussed.

  2. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoudary, Samar R; Shields, Kelly J; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Powell, Lynda H; Matthews, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause.

  3. Fall Meeting Hydrology Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Roger

    The AGU 1992 Fall Meeting in San Francisco offered the full range of subjects represented by the Hydrology Section's technical committees. The total number of papers was double the number of just 4 years ago. Sessions were well attended. The following highlights were prepared from material written by session organizers.There were 3 full days of papers on snow, ice, and permafrost. One highlight was the special session on new developments in glacier mass-balance studies, which was organized to compare existing methods and examine new techniques for assessing changes in ice mass of the polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Current methods for assessing mass change of the ice sheets include satellite laser altimetry to detect surface-elevation changes, surface-based control volume methods to determine net ice flux in a region, and ice-shelf melting and iceberg calving to determine mass loss from the ice sheet. Using these techniques, it is difficult to tell whether the ice sheet is gaining or losing mass. Methods that use drainage basin inputs/outputs indicate a net mass increase, whereas methods that emphasize oceanographic estimates of ice-shelf melting suggest a net mass decrease and estimates based on satellite altimetry are equivocal.

  4. Dam metrics representing stream fragmentation and flow alteration for the conterminous United States linked to the NHDPLUSV1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Arthur R.; Infante, Dana M.

    2017-01-01

    This CSV file contains 21 dam metrics representing stream fragmentation and flow alteration for nearly 2.3 million stream reaches in the conterminous USA. Dam metrics fall into four main categories: segment-based, count and density, distance-based, and cumulative reservoir storage (described below). These data were developed using spatially verified large dam locations (n=49,468) primarily from the National Anthropogenic Barrier Dataset (NABD) that were spatially linked to the National Hydrography Dataset Plus version 1 (NHDPlusV1). These dam metrics have been summarized using the unique identifier field native to the NHDPlusV1 (COMID) which can be used to join this table to spatial layers and data tables of the NHDPlusV1. Non-fluvial features in the NHDPlusV1 (lake and reservoir flow paths, coastlines, etc.) are excluded (see NFHP metadata). Please contact Arthur Cooper (coopera@msu.edu) for a copy of the publication associated with this data: Cooper, A.R., Infante, D.M., Daniel, W.M., Wehrly, K.E., Wang, L., Brenden, T.O. 2017. Assessment of dam effects for streams and fish assemblages of the conterminous USA. Science of the Total Environment doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.067

  5. Ice interactions at a dam face

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, B.; Morse, J.; Beaulieu, P.; Pratt, Y. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Stander, E. [State Univ. of New York, Cobleskill College, Cobleskill, NY (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Cote, A.; Tarras, A.; Noel, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a joint research project between Laval University and Hydro-Quebec to study ice forces on dams in an effort to harmonize design criteria and develop mitigation strategies. This paper introduced the project and explored some of the preliminary results of the 2007-2008 field season. Ice displacement, ice stresses and ice forces on the LaGabelle dam were measured at several locations. The paper identified and discussed the complex relationships between data sets and discussed the spatial-temporal variability of the ice forces and its impact on design criteria. The project objective was to develop design criteria for ice forces on dams and to provide a scientific basis for interpreting and harmonizing existing recommended criteria. The methodology and site description were presented. It was concluded that the ice processes in a reservoir near a dam face subject to water fluctuations are quite complex. Therefore, in order to know the real average pressure on the dam, a significant amount of panels are required, having important implications for determining safe design values. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Feasibility Report for Hydropower, St. Anthony Falls Locks and Dams, Mississippi River, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    oriented recreation and the efforts of public and private sectors td "clean up" the river. Future improvements in water quality will ultimately improve...6,800 kwh. 7-2 i7 1< -- I ~:I. N~ ~ S III I 4 I / ji I ~ 𔄁 .1, ~ t A, , / 0 * .1 1.,,~. -- C p. / 1I~ .1 / /7 ~Ii -4 / 4 ~-’/ 𔃾. .4 r *1~ ~: 1jj

  7. Automatic Fall Monitoring: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthapon Pannurat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Falls and fall-related injuries are major incidents, especially for elderly people, which often mark the onset of major deterioration of health. More than one-third of home-dwelling people aged 65 or above and two-thirds of those in residential care fall once or more each year. Reliable fall detection, as well as prevention, is an important research topic for monitoring elderly living alone in residential or hospital units. The aim of this study is to review the existing fall detection systems and some of the key research challenges faced by the research community in this field. We categorize the existing platforms into two groups: wearable and ambient devices; the classification methods are divided into rule-based and machine learning techniques. The relative merit and potential drawbacks are discussed, and we also outline some of the outstanding research challenges that emerging new platforms need to address.

  8. Fall prevention in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-05-01

    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a

  9. ORNL Trusted Corridors Project: Watts Bar Dam Inland Waterway Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Radiation has existed everywhere in the environment since the Earth's formation - in rocks, soil, water, and plants. The mining and processing of naturally occurring radioactive materials for use in medicine, power generation, consumer products, and industry inevitably generate emissions and waste. Radiological measuring devices have been used by industry for years to measure for radiation in undesired locations or simply identify radioactive materials. Since the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11-01 these radiation measuring devices have proliferated in many places in our nation's commerce system. DOE, TVA, the Army Corps and ORNL collaborated to test the usefulness of these devices in our nation's waterway system on this project. The purpose of the Watts Bar Dam ORNL Trusted Corridors project was to investigate the security, safety and enforcement needs of local, state and federal government entities for state-of-the-art sensor monitoring in regards to illegal cargo including utilization of the existing infrastructure. TVA's inland waterways lock system is a recognized and accepted infrastructure by the commercial carrier industry. Safety Monitoring activities included tow boat operators, commercial barges and vessels, recreational watercraft and their cargo, identification of unsafe vessels and carriers, and, monitoring of domestic and foreign commercial vessels and cargo identification. Safety Enforcement activities included cargo safety, tracking, identification of hazardous materials, waterway safety regulations, and hazardous materials regulations. Homeland Security and Law Enforcement Applications included Radiological Dispersive Devices (RDD) identification, identification of unsafe or illicit transport of hazardous materials including chemicals and radiological materials, and screening for shipments of illicit drugs. In the Fall of 2005 the SensorNet funding for the project expired. After several unsuccessful attempts to

  10. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  11. A Mathematical Model for Forecasting the Dam-Break Flood Routing Process of a Landslide Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fugang Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Once a landslide dam bursts, its reservoir discharges quickly in a flood which will cause catastrophic damage to life and property downstream. For a specific landslide dam, the peak flow rate and the evolution of downstream flood are influenced by the shape and size of the dike breach when dam-break occurs. According to the general nature of landslide dams and field observations of dike-breach development patterns, a dike-breach propagation mode has been determined. By combining an improved empirical equation with knowledge of the dike-breach propagation mode, a mathematical model for forecasting dam-break flood routing has been developed and is presented here. Sensitivity analysis was then carried out based on the computed results for peak flow rate and the flood evolution curve under different parameters. The computed results showed that the width coefficient and the depth coefficient had similar effects on the dam-break flood but that the impact of the depth coefficient was more significant than that of the width coefficient. Finally, the proposed model was used to calculate the flood evolution for the Tangjiashan landslide dam. The computed results showed that the error between the simulated result and the measured data was less than 5%.

  12. Seismic response of concrete gravity dam reinforced with FRP sheets on dam surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at exploring the effects of anti-seismic reinforcement with the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP material bonded to the dam surface in dam engineering. Time-history analysis was performed to simulate the seismic failure process of a gravity dam that was assumed to be reinforced at the locations of slope discontinuity at the downstream surface, part of the upstream face, and the dam heel. A damage model considering the influence of concrete heterogeneity was used to model the nonlinearity of concrete. A bond-slip model was applied to the interface between FRP and concrete, and the reinforcement mechanism was analyzed through the bond stress and the stress in FRP. The results of the crack pattern, displacement, and acceleration of the reinforced dam were compared with those of the original one. It is shown that FRP, as a reinforcement material, postpones the occurrence of cracks and slows the crack propagation, and that cracks emanating from the upstream surface and downstream surface are not connected, meaning that the reinforced dam can retain water-impounding function when subjected to the earthquake. Anti-seismic reinforcement with FRP is therefore beneficial to improving the seismic resistant capability of concrete dams.

  13. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook in the Snake River, 1992 and 1993 : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen W.

    1997-05-01

    This final report of the 3-year study summarizes activities and results for 1993. Study objectives were to: (1) determine the source of losses (or accounting errors) for adult chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), and upstream of LGR in the Snake River; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, redd habitat mapping, carcass recovery for genetic stock profile analysis, and correction of estimated adult/redd ratios; and (3) estimate passage and migration times at Snake River. 200 fall chinook salmon were radio tagged and tracked with aerial, fixed-site, and ground mobile tracking. Fish were released upstream of IHR at Charbonneau Park (CHAR). 190 of the fish were tracked or relocated away from CHAR. 59 fish descended to below IHR without crossing Lower Monumental Dam (LMO). Another 128 salmon passed upstream of LMO without falling back at IHR. Only 80 salmon passed Little Goose Dam (LGO) without falling back at a downstream dam; 66 of these fish passed LGR. Many fish that fell back reascended the dams. A total of 72 salmon released at CHAR passed upstream of LGR, including fish that had fallen back and reascended a dam. Over 80 percent of the salmon that entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery each year had reached LGO before descending to the hatchery. Extensive wandering was documented between LMO and upstream of LGR before salmon entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery or the Tucannon River. In 1993, 41 salmon were found to be of hatchery origin when recovered. These fish entered Lyons Ferry Hatchery with similar movements to unmarked salmon. Each year a few salmon have remained near the hatchery without entering, which suggests the hatchery may have inadequate attraction flows. Fall chinook passed lower Snake River dams in 2-5 days each on average. Median travel times through LMO and LGO were 1.0-1.3 days each, which was slower than for spring chinook or steelhead in 1993. 5 refs., 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Study on dynamic anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng-hong CHEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There existed some limitations when analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation system by traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method. The dynamic strength reduction method was used to study on the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam considering complex dam foundation under strong earthquake-induced ground action. The static analysis was firstly carried out by reducing the shear strength parameters of the dam foundation’s rock mass with equal proportion. Then, the time-history seismic analysis was carried out based on the static analysis. It was proposed as one of dynamic instability criterions that the peak values of the dynamic displacements and plastic strain energy change suddenly with increasing strength reduction coefficient. The elasto-plastic behavior of the dam foundation was idealized using Drucker–Prager yield criterion based on associated flow rule assumption. Through the static, dynamic strength reduction analysis and dynamic linear elastic analysis of the overflow dam monolith of a high gravity dam, the results’ reliability of elastic-plastic time history analysis was confirmed. The results also showed that the rock mass strength of the high gravity dam foundation has higher strength reserve coefficient. The instability criterions of dynamic strength reduction method proposed were feasible. Although the static anti-slide analysis methods and standards of gravity dam based on the numerical methods are being discussed at present, the dynamic calculation method and instability criterions proposed in this paper would provide some meaningful suggestions for the dynamic analysis of the similar projects.

  15. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, were located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, was located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  16. Lac Courte Oreilles Hydro Dam Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jason [Lac Courte Oreilles, Hayward, WI (United States); Meyers, Amy [Kiser Hydro, LLC, Norway, MI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The main objective of this project was to investigate upgrading the existing hydro power generating system at the Winter Dam. The tribe would like to produce more energy and receive a fair market power purchase agreement so the dam is no longer a drain on our budget but a contributor to our economy. We contracted Kiser Hydro, LLC Engineering for this project and received an engineering report that includes options for producing more energy with cost effective upgrades to the existing turbines. Included in this project was a negotiation of energy price sales negotiations.

  17. Computational Aspects of Dam Risk Analysis: Findings and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Escuder-Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, risk analysis techniques have proved to be a useful tool to inform dam safety management. This paper summarizes the outcomes of three themes related to dam risk analysis discussed in the Benchmark Workshops organized by the International Commission on Large Dams Technical Committee on “Computational Aspects of Analysis and Design of Dams.” In the 2011 Benchmark Workshop, estimation of the probability of failure of a gravity dam for the sliding failure mode was discussed. Next, in 2013, the discussion focused on the computational challenges of the estimation of consequences in dam risk analysis. Finally, in 2015, the probability of sliding and overtopping in an embankment was analyzed. These Benchmark Workshops have allowed a complete review of numerical aspects for dam risk analysis, showing that risk analysis methods are a very useful tool to analyze the risk of dam systems, including downstream consequence assessments and the uncertainty of structural models.

  18. National Inventory of Dams Coastal California Extract 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The National Inventory of Dams (NID) is a congressionally authorized database, which documents dams in the U.S. and its territories. The NID was most recently...

  19. Dam-Break Flood Analysis Upper Hurricane Reservoir, Hartford, Vermont

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acone, Scott

    1995-01-01

    .... Various dam break flood conditions were modeled and inundation maps developed. Based on this analysis the dam is rated a Class 2 or significant hazard category in terms of its potential to cause downstream damage...

  20. Inventory of Dams in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Permitted dams in Iowa and associated attributes, as recorded by the Floodplain Section of the DNR. The dams regulated are those with the parameters listed below: a....

  1. Investigation on the Causes of Cracking in Earth Dams (Case study: Mahmood-Abad Earth Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rahimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cracking of earth dams is a one of the main threat causes of stability of embankment dams. In this research by modeling of the behavior of an embankment dam and employing conditions of the earthquake, the reasons of cracking were inspected using by modeling of earth dam behavior. Based on the literature, one of the main causes of dam failures is sliding and cracking of the dam structure during earthquake. Localized liquefaction of foundation soils was one of the causes of the observed post-earthquake distress within these dams. Material and Methods: In order to study the causes and the results of crack on earth dams, Mahmoodabad earthen dam with a height of 19 m, is located in Zanjan province, northwest of Iran, which suffered a longitudinal crack on the crest and slight sliding of the upstream slope due to 2001 Avaj earthquake was studied. This dam has faced earthquake two times with an interval of two years. During the first earthquake with the magnitude about 6.6 in Richter scale small longitudinal cracks had created on the crest. The developed cracks had been repaired by injecting the cement and then has been hidden by passing the time. After the second earthquake with the magnitude about 6.5 in Richter scale the hidden cracks had been appeared again and the slight movement of the upper slopes of dam reported. Based on the site investigation and documented information about dam, including maps and parameter data, the behavior of the dam has modeled by using Plaxis as a finite element model. In order to check the accuracy of the design of dam, the stability analysis has been conducted using by Xslope as a limit equilibrium model. The foundation conditions and the Geotechnical properties of the layer beneath the dam has been inspected by open excavation. Results and Discussion: Underground investigation about Geotechnical properties of dam foundation has showed that there is a thin sandy layer confined in alluvium material of the

  2. Detailed review and analysis of complex radiotherapy clinical trial planning data: evaluation and initial experience with the SWAN software system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Martin A; Haworth, Annette; Kearvell, Rachel; Hooton, Ben; Coleman, Rhonda; Spry, Nigel; Bydder, Sean; Joseph, David

    2008-02-01

    Contemporary radiotherapy clinical trials typically require complex three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning. This produces large amounts of data relating technique and dose delivery for correlation with patient outcomes. Assessment of the quality of this information is required to ensure protocol compliance, to quantify the variation in treatments given to patients and to enhance the power of studies to determine correlates of patient outcomes. A software system ('SWAN') was developed to facilitate the objective analysis, quality-assurance and review of digital treatment planning data from multi-centre radiotherapy trials. The utility of this system was assessed on the basis of its functionality and our experience of its use in the context of multi-centre clinical trials and trials-support activities. The SWAN system has been shown to have the functionality required for use in several multi-centre trials, including automated review and archive processes. Approximately 800 treatment plans from over 30 participating institutions have so far been assessed with the system for several treatment planning scenarios. To illustrate this we include a description of the use of the system for a large-recruitment prostate radiotherapy trial being undertaken in Australasia, including examples of how the review process has changed clinical practice. The successful implementation of SWAN has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials. The software provides an opportunity for comprehensive review of treatment parameters that could impact on clinical outcomes and trial results. Such quality-assurance (QA) has previously been difficult or impossible to achieve, particularly for a clinical trial involving large numbers of patients. Such reviews have highlighted inconsistencies in clinical practice that have since been addressed through feedback from the review process. The process of data collection and review should be undertaken by dedicated, experienced and skilled staff in

  3. Dams and transnational advocacy: Political opportunities in transnational collective action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng

    Possible arguments to explain the gradual decline in big dam development and its site transferring from developed to developing countries include technical, economic, and political factors. This study focuses on the political argument---the rise of transnational anti-dam advocacy and its impact on state policy-making. Under what conditions does transnational anti-dam advocacy matter? Under what conditions does transnational advocacy change state dam policies (delay, scale down, or cancel)? It examines the role of transnational anti-dam actors in big dam building in a comparative context in Asia. Applying the social movement theory of political opportunity structure (POS) and using the qualitative case-study method, the study provides both within-case and cross-case analyses. Within-case analysis is utilized to explain the changing dynamics of big dam building in China (Three Gorges Dam and proposed Nu/Salween River dam projects), and to a lesser extent, Sardar Sarovar Project in India and Nam Theun 2 Dam in Laos. Different domestic and international POS (DPOS and IPOS) impact the strategies and outcomes of anti-dam advocacies in these countries. The degree of openness of the POS directly affects the capacity of transnational efforts in influencing state dam policies. The degree of openness or closure is measured by specific laws, institutions, discourse, or elite allies (or the absence of these) for the participation of non-state actors on big dam issues at a particular moment. This degree of openness is relative, varying over time, across countries and regions. This study finds that the impact of transnational anti-dam activism is most effective when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively open. Transnational anti-dam advocacy is least effective in influencing state dam policies when both DPOS and IPOS are relatively closed. Under a relatively open DPOS and closed IPOS, transnational anti-dam advocacy is more likely to successfully change state dam policies and even

  4. Implementation of viscoelastic mud-induced energy attenuation in the third-generation wave model, SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramzade, Mostafa; Siadatmousavi, Seyed Mostafa

    2017-11-01

    The interaction of waves with fluid mud can dissipate the wave energy significantly over few wavelengths. In this study, the third-generation wave model, SWAN, was advanced to include attenuation of wave energy due to interaction with a viscoelastic fluid mud layer. The performances of implemented viscoelastic models were verified against an analytical solution and viscous formulations for simple one-dimensional propagation cases. Stationary and non-stationary test cases in the Surinam coast and the Atchafalaya Shelf showed that the inclusion of the mud-wave interaction term in the third-generation wave model enhances the model performance in real applications. A high value of mud viscosity (of the order of 0.1 m2/s) was required in both field cases to remedy model overestimation at high frequency ranges of the wave spectrum. The use of frequency-dependent mud viscosity value improved the performance of model, especially in the frequency range of 0.2-0.35 Hz in the wave spectrum. In addition, the mud-wave interaction might affect the high frequency part of the spectrum, and this part of the wave spectrum is also affected by energy transfer from wind to waves, even for the fetch lengths of the order of 10 km. It is shown that exclusion of the wind input term in such cases might result in different values for parameters of mud layer when inverse modeling procedure was employed. Unlike viscous models for wave-mud interaction, the inverse modeling results to a set of mud parameters with the same performance when the viscoelastic model is used. It provides an opportunity to select realistic mud parameters which are in more agreement with in situ measurements.

  5. Chronic Stress is Prospectively Associated with Sleep in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Casement, Melynda D; Troxel, Wendy M; Matthews, Karen A; Bromberger, Joyce T; Kravitz, Howard M; Krafty, Robert T; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate whether levels of upsetting life events measured over a 9-y period prospectively predict subjective and objective sleep outcomes in midlife women. Prospective cohort study. Four sites across the United States. 330 women (46-57 y of age) enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. N/A. Upsetting life events were assessed annually for up to 9 y. Trajectory analysis applied to life events data quantitatively identified three distinct chronic stress groups: low stress, moderate stress, and high stress. Sleep was assessed by self-report and in-home polysomnography (PSG) during the ninth year of the study. Multivariate analyses tested the prospective association between chronic stress group and sleep, adjusting for race, baseline sleep complaints, marital status, body mass index, symptoms of depression, and acute life events at the time of the Sleep Study. Women characterized by high chronic stress had lower subjective sleep quality, were more likely to report insomnia, and exhibited increased PSG-assessed wake after sleep onset (WASO) relative to women with low to moderate chronic stress profiles. The effect of chronic stress group on WASO persisted in the subsample of participants without baseline sleep complaints. Chronic stress is prospectively associated with sleep disturbance in midlife women, even after adjusting for acute stressors at the time of the sleep study and other factors known to disrupt sleep. These results are consistent with current models of stress that emphasize the cumulative effect of stressors on health over time. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Bedtime Variability and Metabolic Health in Midlife Women: The SWAN Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Briana J; Matthews, Karen A; Hasler, Brant P; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Kline, Christopher E; Buysse, Daniel J; Kravitz, Howard M; Tiani, Alaina G; Harlow, Sioban D; Hall, Martica H

    2016-02-01

    Circadian misalignment, as seen in shift workers, can disrupt metabolic processes. Associations between sleep timing in nonshift workers and metabolic health are unknown. We examined sleep timing and indices of metabolic health in a community sample of midlife women. Caucasian (n = 161), African American (n = 121) and Chinese (n = 56) non-shift-working women aged 48-58 y who were not taking insulin-related medications, participated in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study and were subsequently examined approximately 5.39 (standard deviation = 0.71) y later. Daily diary-reported bedtimes were used to calculate four measures of sleep timing: mean bedtime, bedtime variability, bedtime delay and bedtime advance. Body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) were measured at two time points. Linear regressions evaluated whether sleep timing was associated with BMI and HOMA-IR cross-sectionally and prospectively. In cross-sectional models, greater variability in bedtime and greater bedtime delay were associated with higher HOMA-IR (β = 0.128; P = 0.007, and β = 0.110; P = 0.013, respectively) and greater bedtime advance was associated with higher BMI (β = 0.095; P = 0.047). Prospectively, greater bedtime delay predicted increased HOMA-IR at Time 2 (β = 0.152; P = 0.003). Results were partially explained by shifted sleep timing on weekends. Frequent shifts in sleep timing may be related to metabolic health among non-shift working midlife women. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 269. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Diagnosis of embankment dam distresses using Bayesian networks. Part I. Global-level characteristics based on a dam distress database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, L. M; Xu, Y; Jia, J. S; Zhao, C

    2011-01-01

    .... The main objective of this paper is to develop a robust probability-based tool using Bayesian networks for the diagnosis of embankment dam distresses at the global level based on past dam distress data...

  8. Major dams of the United States, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2006) [dams00x020_USGS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  9. How to manage the cumulative flood safety of catchment dams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dam safety is a significant issue being taken seriously worldwide. However, in Australia, although much attention is being devoted to the medium- to large-scale dams, minimal attention is being paid to the serious potential problems associated with smaller dams, particularly the potential cumulative safety threats they pose ...

  10. INTRODUCTION All earth dams in their natural state experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. All earth dams in their natural state experience some degree of seepage and spillage flow from the reservoir and through permeable soils. Seepage and spillage may also be associated with internal erosion in the dam, and internal erosion is one of the main reasons for dam failures (Sjodahl, 2006).

  11. SEISMIC RESPONSE OF DAM WITH SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bycroft, G.N.; Mork, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical solution to the response of a long trapezoidal-section dam on a foundation consisting of an elastic half-space and subjected to simulated earthquake motion is developed. An optimum seismic design is achieved when the cross section of the dam is triangular. The effect of soil structure interaction is to lower the strain occurring in the dam.

  12. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  13. Impact of changing water levels and weather on Oncomelania hupensis hupensis populations, the snail host of Schistosoma japonicum, downstream of the Three Gorges Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Edmund Y W; Wu, Weiping; Liu, Hong-Yun; Chen, Hong-Gen; Hubbard, Alan; Holt, Ashley; Davis, George M

    2008-06-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that dams impact riverine ecosystems and human diseases. Poyang Lake, one of the largest schistosomiasis endemic environments in China, will change due to the construction of the Yangtze River Three Gorges Dam. We assess changes in Oncomelania hupensis hupensis, the snail host for Schistosoma japonicum, in response to changing water levels and weather from 1998 to 2002. In the 5 years following the major flooding of Poyang Lake in 1998, seasonal water levels have gradually decreased, concomitant with decreases in mean and variance of fall snail densities. Nonlinear relationships suggest that the highest spring density is associated with current, 2-, and 3-month prior temperatures of 18 degrees, 9.1 degrees, and 5.8 degrees C, while the highest fall density is associated with 2- and 3-month prior water levels of 17 and 18 m, respectively. This suggests that lower, more stable water levels downstream of the dam may result in a reduction in mean fall densities and their variance. However, additional data are needed to determine whether snail populations that are typically destroyed by seasonal floods may live longer in more stable environments created by the dam.

  14. Field Experimental Analysis of Prototype Twin Dam Failure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Fu-Min; Chen, Su-Chin; An, Hsiuan-Pei

    2015-04-01

    We constructed a full scale two-dam system in Landao Creek, Huisun forest, Taiwan. From its own alluvium to investigate the dam break morphology and physical properties between two dams with three intervals in 16.2m (case 1), 32.4m (case 2) and 64.8m (case 3). We adjusted the interval by fixed upstream dam and changed downstream dam site to observed and analyzed dam failure processes and hydraulic properties of the dam system. Grain size distribution investigation and 3D Lidar model of the stream bed were executed before and after dams break to discuss the river morphology evolution. In addition, to explore the type of breach varying with time, we used the method of 3D Remodeling from Motion Structure with Multi-View Stereo, which is a 3D spatial modeling process by photoing an object at same time in more than four different angles with over 70% overlap to each other, to construct the 3D model of dams system in this study. Furthermore, the dam break process were analyzed by cameras images and data recorded from water level gauges. The result showed that the shortest intervals in Case 1 result in a stronger torrent impact at upstream side of downstream dam, more significant reduction in dam intensity and wider breach which was 22% more than that in Case 2. On the contrary, the failure duration between two dams in Case 3 was 4.0 and 2.7 times longer than that in Case 1 and Case 2, respectively. Consequently, the decrement of dam interval led to a greater damage and rapid increment of water level which was prompted by outburst flow from the upstream dam failure at downstream dam, and shorter failure duration in two-dam system. In addition, the transport distance of sediment which yielded from upstream dam breach depend on whether downstream was obstructed or not. The 90% sediment of upstream dam breach were deposited on the upstream side of downstream dam with a comparison of entire loss in case of downstream dam.

  15. Investigation of geophysical methods for assessing seepage and internal erosion in embankment dams : a study of through-dam seismic testing at WAC Bennett Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffran, P.; Jeffries, M. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-15

    Crosshole tomography is used to establish the distribution of seismic velocity between drill holes. The through-dam mode takes advantage of the triangular cross-section of earth embankments, obviating the need for drill holes. Seismic energy, generated on one face of the dam, passes underneath the crest and is detected by sensors arrayed on the opposite face. The sinkholes discovered at WAC Bennett Dam in 1996 provided an opportunity to test the procedure. Using p-wave energy, two series of measurements were conducted, notably one immediately before remediation of one sinkhole, and a second one shortly after the sinkhole was repaired. The known defect was successfully imaged by the first round of measurements. This report presented the results of an investigation of the through-dam seismic method using propagation of seismic waves through a dam from upstream to downstream, or vice-versa. The purpose of the study was to determine if this procedure could characterize the distribution of seismic velocity within a dam in an accurate and cost effective manner. The report presented the methods of velocity testing such as crosshole and downhole, and tomography; and through-dam measurements. Background to the Bennett Dam studies was also provided, with particular reference to the Bennett Dam sinkholes; sinkhole investigations; working hypothesis for sinkhole development; sinkhole number one characterization; and sinkhole remediation. An analysis of compression wave testing at Bennett Dam and shear wave testing was then offered. Other topics that were discussed included field test procedures; methodologies for data processing; p-waves versus s-waves; applicability of the research; and costs of through-dam surveys. It was concluded that under the right circumstances, through-dam seismic testing was capable of detecting changed conditions in an embankment dam. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 41 figs., 1 appendix.

  16. DAM-LAKEFRONT PLAZA: Revitalization of an Agriculture Reservoir Dam in Kashar-Tirana/Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valbona Koçi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dam-Lakefront Plaza in Kashar-Tirana/Albania is a research project that proposes not only the re-consideration and reinforcement of the artificial Reservoirs Dams built during Socialism in Albania, but envisions the maintenance of dams and revitalization of the lakeside area promoting the public-private collaboration. In addition, it envisions the generation of qualitative and lively public spaces in sub-urban areas as well. Admitting the artificial lakes as specific nodes of man-made infrastructure in the landscape, and consequently the dams (together with the drainage channels as important hydrotechnic elements of the flood protection infrastructure, this research intends to elaborate on one type of landscape infrastructure - the vertical screens, offering a mediation between the natural and built landscape.

  17. Dams life. Dams in operation; La vie des barrages. Barrages en exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of the annual inspections of French dams in operation (fissures, water oozing, concrete swelling etc..). Only the observations which require a special attention are reported. (J.S.)

  18. Application of strength reduction method to dynamic anti-sliding stability analysis of high gravity dam with complex dam foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Deng-hong Chen; Cheng-bin Du

    2011-01-01

    Considering that there are some limitations in analyzing the anti-sliding seismic stability of dam-foundation systems with the traditional pseudo-static method and response spectrum method, the dynamic strength reduction method was used to study the deep anti-sliding stability of a high gravity dam with a complex dam foundation in response to strong earthquake-induced ground action. Based on static anti-sliding stability analysis of the dam foundation undertaken by decreasing the shear streng...

  19. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ages. Many of us know someone who has fallen and broken a bone. While healing, the fracture ... break after every fall, the person who has fallen and broken a bone nearly always becomes fearful ...

  20. Modelling approach for gravity dam break analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boussekine Mourad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of dams in rivers can provide considerable benefits such as the supply of drinking and irrigation water; however the consequences which would result in the event of their failure could be catastrophic. They vary dramatically depending on the extent of the inundation area, the size of the population at risk.

  1. 75 FR 49429 - Metal and Nonmetal Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... monitored at frequent intervals by a person trained to recognize unusual conditions; be inspected by a... identify unusual conditions and signs of instability. Personnel with more specialized knowledge of dam... be qualified for their level of responsibility and trained in inspection procedures. 11. What...

  2. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  3. living in Kapulukaya Dam Lake (Kirikkale, Turkey)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... This study involves the investigation of the breeding properties of Esox lucius (L., 1758) living in. Kapulukaya Dam Lake in Turkey. It was observed that the fish reaches sexual maturity at the age of 3, and the breeding period starts in February and ends in March. The highest and lowest gonadosomatic.

  4. Dam that social networking: connecting South Africa's major dams to social media

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available appealing to the general public, the Internet was trawled for additional information. This additional information was appended to the water level status updates. Sites such as YouTube, Google Scholar, Google Books, and Google News were automatically... searched on a regular basis for various keywords such as ?Vaal Dam Sluice Gates? and ?Bloemhof Dam fishing?. The information which was retrieved on those automatic searches was randomly appended to the water level information. 8. Evaluation...

  5. Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Hao, Ming-hui

    2013-01-01

    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

  6. Structural Safety Monitoring of High Arch Dam Using Improved ABC-BP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a structural safety monitoring model of a dam is necessary for the evaluation of the dam’s deformation status. The structural safety monitoring method based on the monitoring data is widely used in traditional research. On the basis of the analysis of the high arch dam’s deformation principles, this study proposes a structural safety monitoring method derived from the dam deformation monitoring data. The method first analyzes and establishes the spatial and temporal distribution of high arch dam’s safety monitoring, overcoming the standard artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm’s shortcoming of easily falling into the local optimum by adopting the adaptive proportion and average Euclidean distance afterwards. The improved ABC algorithm is used to optimize the backpropagation (BP neural network’s initial weight and threshold. The application example proves that ABC-BP model’s improvement method is important for the establishment of a high arch deformation safety monitoring model and can effectively improve the model’s fitting and forecasting ability. This method provides a reference for the establishment of a structural safety monitoring model of dam and provides guidance for the establishment of a forecasting model in other fields.

  7. Proceeding of the public safety around dams conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Canadian Dam Association hosted the Public Safety Around Dams workshop in which presentations were given in the morning to describe the different measures and methods implemented by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Power Generation and others to improve safety around dams. In the afternoon, the participants toured the Auburn and Lakefield dams and facilities to view the infrastructures and equipment. A roundtable discussion concluded the day. Following this workshop, a Public Safety Around Dams group was created on the social network site, LinkedIn. This conference featured 6 presentations, 3 of which have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  8. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun XIONG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  9. Changing distribution and abundance of Swan Goose Anser cygnoides in the Yangtze River floodplain: the likely loss of a very important wintering site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Cao, L.; Barter, M.; Fox, A.D.; Zhao, M.; Meng, F.; Shi, H.; Jiang, Y.; Zhu, W.

    2011-01-01

    Virtually the entire population of the globally ‘Vulnerable’ Swan Goose Anser cygnoides winters in the Yangtze floodplain. Historically, the species was widely distributed throughout the floodplain but now approximately 95% of the population is confined to three closely-situated wetlands in Anhui

  10. Catéter de Swan Ganz: Opinión de expertos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Cohen Arazi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existen dudas sobre la seguridad del uso del catéter de Swan Ganz (CSG. Para definir la opinión de los cardiólogos de nuestro país, el Consejo de Emergencias Cardiovasculares de la Sociedad Argentina de Cardiología (SAC realizó una reunión para evaluar la opinión de expertos en diferentes escenarios (cirugía no cardíaca, cardíaca, síndromes coronarios e insuficiencia cardíaca, usando el método RAND-UCLA appropiateness. Se envió la evidencia bibliográfica previa a la reunión en la SAC y en la misma los panelistas seleccionaron las variables para conformar las situaciones clínicas que luego fueron enviadas para que individualmente, en una segunda etapa, determinaran si consideraban beneficioso o perjudicial la utilización del catéter con una escala de 1 a 9 (1 significaba que los potenciales perjuicios superaban a los beneficios, 9 que los beneficios eran mayores y 5 que podía considerarse indistintamente beneficioso o perjudicial. Dos expertos analizaron los resultados, describiendo la tasa de acuerdo/desacuerdo. Finalmente, cada indicación se clasificó como “apropiada”, “dudosa” o inapropiada de acuerdo a la mediana definida por los panelistas: 1-3 se clasificó como inapropiado, 4-6 dudoso y 7-9 como indicación apropiada. Observamos gran discrepancia en la opinión sobre la indicación de CSG entre los expertos. Sin embargo, los panelistas estuvieron a favor de su utilización en situaciones que incluían shock y disfunción miocárdica, especialmente cuando se asoció disfunción orgánica. Hubo situaciones en las que los panelistas consideraron inapropiada la indicación del CSG, en pacientes sin disfunción orgánica.

  11. Catching a Falling Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  12. GIS inundation mapping and dam breach analysis of Woolwich Dam using HEC-geoRAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Dam-breach analysis and flood-inundation mapping for selected dams in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and near Atoka, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.

  14. HE POWER STRUGGLE IN THE LAYER OF TRANSNATIONAL HYDROPOLITICS: THE CASE OF THE ILISU DAM PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Conker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses hydropolitical relations among state and non-state actors in the context of the layer of transnational hydropolitics by looking at the controversy over the construction of the Ilisu dam project. Turkey is fully engaged in its „hydraulic mission‟, very extensively and rapidly „developing‟ water resources throughout its territory. Some of these flows cross international borders, specifically very heavily contested Euphrates and Tigris basin. This large basin has attracted considerable academic attention, notably in regards to Turkey‟s relations with downstream neighbours, Syria and Iraq. Yet, the great bulk of the existing analysis falls prey to two broader weaknesses; a it has narrowly applied the recently developed literature regarding the role of power in transboundary water politics, and b it has neglected or under-emphasized how non-state actors enrol in hydropolitical processes. Informed by deep investigation of the case study regarding the recent controversy over the construction of the Ilisu dam on the Tigris River, the study proposes a conceptual framework that seeks to analyse how power dynamics are at work at different scales of hydropolitics other than inter-state relations between the riparian states and how both discursive and material power capabilities influence the outcome of interactions as well as conflictual and cooperative relations between the state and non-state actors. The application of the conceptual framework to the relations between opponents and proponents of the construction of the Ilisu dam project shows how power dynamics change over time and they strongly shape conflictual relations between the actors. By highlighting the influence of the transnational anti-dam activist networks, the study shows the relevance of including non-state actors into analysis. The study shows that such actors lack material power but are able to use discursive (ideational and bargaining power very effectively

  15. Evaluating the suitability of the SWAN/COSMO-2 model system to simulate short-crested surface waves for a narrow lake with complex bathymetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectral wave model SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore was applied to Lake Zurich, a narrow pre-Alpine lake in Switzerland. The aim of the study is to investigate whether the model system consisting of SWAN and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 is a suitable tool for wave forecasts for the pre-Alpine Lake Zurich. SWAN is able to simulate short-crested wind-generated surface waves. The model was forced with a time varying wind field taken from COSMO-2 with hourly outputs. Model simulations were compared with measured wave data at one near-shore site during a frontal passage associated with strong on-shore winds. The overall course of the measured wave height is well captured in the SWAN simulation: the wave amplitude significantly increases during the frontal passage followed by a transient drop in amplitude. The wave pattern on Lake Zurich is quite complex. It strongly depends on the inherent variability of the wind field and on the external forcing due to the surrounding complex topography. The influence of the temporal wind resolution is further studied with two sensitivity experiments. The first one considers a low-pass filtered wind field, based on a 2-h running mean of COSMO-2 output, and the second experiment uses simple synthetic gusts, which are implemented into the SWAN model and take into account short-term fluctuations of wind speed at 1-sec resolution. The wave field significantly differs for the 1-h and 2-h simulations, but is only negligibly affected by the gusts.

  16. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  17. Monitoring and maintenance at Kariba dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goguel, B. (Coyne et Bellier, Bureau d' Ingenieurs-Conseils, 75 - Paris (France)); Mpala, A.S. (Zambezi River Authority, Lusaka (Zambia))

    1992-06-01

    The 128 m-high Kariba arch dam, built between 1955 and 1959 on the Zambezi river, is on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It creates one of the largest man-made lakes in the world, and supplies two power stations with a total capacity of 1266 MW. Safety monitoring of the dam and its foundation is a long-term, continuous and very important function, which guides maintenance efforts. The general behaviour of the work is influenced by the complex geological conditional changes on the right(south) bank, slow long-term dimensional changes in the concrete, and variable hydrological conditions. After a comprehensive study of the instrumentation data amassed up to 1983, additional instrumentation was provided between 1986 and 1989. The new data analysis has begun recently and is expected to allow for interpretation of the long-term phenomena involved. (author).

  18. Kariba: the dubious benefits of large dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balon, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    The ecological consequences of dam building extend far beyond the common cost-benefit analysis. On the Zambezi River for example, a unique and stable ecological system, which took millenia to develop, was rapidly changed by dams into less productive lakes. The process was accompanied by widespread destruction and misery. The production of the electricity required for a more profitable export of mineral resources rendered the local inhabitants dependent on external sources of food, water, etc., where they had formerly been self-sufficient. The surface of the lake reflects more solar energy than the old terrestrial system. As a consequence, fish production is lower than the lost production of plants and game. Species diversity may be increased by natural invasion and artificial introduction, but the production limits of the system can not be changed.

  19. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  20. Dam removal increases American eel abundance in distant headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Eyler, Sheila; Wofford, John E.B.

    2012-01-01

    American eel Anguilla rostrata abundances have undergone significant declines over the last 50 years, and migration barriers have been recognized as a contributing cause. We evaluated eel abundances in headwater streams of Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, to compare sites before and after the removal of a large downstream dam in 2004 (Embrey Dam, Rappahannock River). Eel abundances in headwater streams increased significantly after the removal of Embrey Dam. Observed eel abundances after dam removal exceeded predictions derived from autoregressive models parameterized with data prior to dam removal. Mann–Kendall analyses also revealed consistent increases in eel abundances from 2004 to 2010 but inconsistent temporal trends before dam removal. Increasing eel numbers could not be attributed to changes in local physical habitat (i.e., mean stream depth or substrate size) or regional population dynamics (i.e., abundances in Maryland streams or Virginia estuaries). Dam removal was associated with decreasing minimum eel lengths in headwater streams, suggesting that the dam previously impeded migration of many small-bodied individuals (<300 mm TL). We hypothesize that restoring connectivity to headwater streams could increase eel population growth rates by increasing female eel numbers and fecundity. This study demonstrated that dams may influence eel abundances in headwater streams up to 150 river kilometers distant, and that dam removal may provide benefits for eel management and conservation at the landscape scale.

  1. Will Dam Removal Increase Nitrogen Flux to Estuaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur J. Gold

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To advance the science of dam removal, analyses of functions and benefits need to be linked to individual dam attributes and effects on downstream receiving waters. We examined 7550 dams in the New England (USA region for possible tradeoffs associated with dam removal. Dam removal often generates improvements for safety or migratory fish passage but might increase nitrogen (N flux and eutrophication in coastal watersheds. We estimated N loading and removal with algorithms using geospatial data on land use, stream flow and hydrography. We focused on dams with reservoirs that increase retention time at specific points of river reaches, creating localized hotspots of elevated N removal. Approximately 2200 dams with reservoirs had potential benefits for N removal based on N loading, retention time and depth. Across stream orders, safety concerns on these N removal dams ranged between 28% and 44%. First order streams constituted the majority of N removal dams (70%, but only 3% of those were classified as high value for fish passage. In cases where dam removal might eliminate N removal function from a particular reservoir, site-specific analyses are warranted to improve N delivery estimates and examine alternatives that retain the reservoir while enhancing fish passage and safety.

  2. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the fourth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2000 field season.

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach in the Columbia River, 1998 Interim Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Newsome, Todd; Nugent, Michael (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2001-07-27

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the second year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fish species, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1998 field season.

  4. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John; Nugent, Michael; Brock, Wendy (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2002-05-29

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The evaluation, in the fifth year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 2001 field season.

  5. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Salmon Stranding on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, John

    2002-01-24

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) has been contracted through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Grant County Public Utility District (GCPUD) to perform an evaluation of juvenile fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) stranding on the Hanford Reach. The evaluation, in the third year of a multi-year study, has been developed to assess the impacts of water fluctuations from Priest Rapids Dam on rearing juvenile fall chinook salmon, other fishes, and benthic macroinvertebrates of the Hanford Reach. This document provides the results of the 1999 field season.

  6. Falls prevention for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Katrin; Bremer, Martina; Schramm, Susanne; Lühmann, Dagmar; Raspe, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention. The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years), living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed. Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the inclusion criteria. However, to a variable degree the validity of their

  7. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  8. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: are colour differences among swans (Cygnus) attributable to variation at the MCIR locus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Marie A; Mundy, Nicholas I

    2008-09-12

    The MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor) locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. There is far less evidence for functional variants of MC1R being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. We investigated the relationship between MC1R variation and plumage coloration in swans (Cygnus), which show extreme variation in melanic plumage phenotypes among species (white to black). The two species with melanic plumage, C. atratus and C. melanocoryphus (black and black-necked swans respectively), both have amino acid changes at important functional sites in MC1R that are consistent with increased MC1R activity and melanism. Reconstruction of MC1R evolution over a newly generated independent molecular phylogeny of Cygnus and related genera shows that these putative melanizing mutations were independently derived in the two melanic lineages. However, interpretation is complicated by the fact that one of the outgroup genera, Coscoroba, also has a putative melanizing mutation at MC1R that has arisen independently but has nearly pure white plumage. Epistasis at other loci seems the most likely explanation for this discrepancy. Unexpectedly, the phylogeny shows that the genus Cygnus may not be monophyletic, with C. melanocoryphus placed as a sister group to true geese (Anser), but further data will be needed to confirm this. Our study highlights the difficulty of extrapolating from intraspecific studies to understand the genetic basis of interspecific adaptive phenotypic evolution, even with a gene whose structure-function relationships are as well understood as MC1R as confounding variation make clear genotype/phenotype associations difficult at the macroevolutionary scale. However, the identification of substitutions in the black and black-necked swan

  9. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: Are colour differences among swans (Cygnus attributable to variation at the MC1R locus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MC1R (melanocortin-1 receptor locus underlies intraspecific variation in melanin-based dark plumage coloration in several unrelated birds with plumage polymorphisms. There is far less evidence for functional variants of MC1R being involved in interspecific variation, in which spurious genotype-phenotype associations arising through population history are a far greater problem than in intraspecific studies. We investigated the relationship between MC1R variation and plumage coloration in swans (Cygnus, which show extreme variation in melanic plumage phenotypes among species (white to black. Results The two species with melanic plumage, C. atratus and C. melanocoryphus (black and black-necked swans respectively, both have amino acid changes at important functional sites in MC1R that are consistent with increased MC1R activity and melanism. Reconstruction of MC1R evolution over a newly generated independent molecular phylogeny of Cygnus and related genera shows that these putative melanizing mutations were independently derived in the two melanic lineages. However, interpretation is complicated by the fact that one of the outgroup genera, Coscoroba, also has a putative melanizing mutation at MC1R that has arisen independently but has nearly pure white plumage. Epistasis at other loci seems the most likely explanation for this discrepancy. Unexpectedly, the phylogeny shows that the genus Cygnus may not be monophyletic, with C. melanocoryphus placed as a sister group to true geese (Anser, but further data will be needed to confirm this. Conclusion Our study highlights the difficulty of extrapolating from intraspecific studies to understand the genetic basis of interspecific adaptive phenotypic evolution, even with a gene whose structure-function relationships are as well understood as MC1R as confounding variation make clear genotype/phenotype associations difficult at the macroevolutionary scale. However, the identification

  10. Fall risk in an active elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Hoeck, Hans C.; Simonsen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Falls amongst elderly people are often associated with fractures. Training of balance and physical performance can reduce fall risk; however, it remains a challenge to identify individuals at increased risk of falling to whom this training should be offered. It is believed that fall...... risk can be assessed by testing balance performance. In this study a test battery of physiological parameters related to balance and falls was designed to address fall risk in a community dwelling elderly population. RESULTS: Ninety-four elderly males and females between 70 and 80 years of age were...... of community dwelling elderly. Falling is a complex phenomenon of multifactorial origin. The crucial factor in relation to fall risk is the redundancy of balance capacity against the balance demands of the individuals levels of fall-risky lifestyle and behavior. This calls for an approach to fall risk...

  11. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  12. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  13. Do Hydroelectric Dams Mitigate Global Warming? The Case of Brazil's Curuna Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnside, P.M. [National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), C.P. 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil)

    2005-10-15

    Hydroelectric dams in tropical forest areas emit greenhouse gases, as illustrated by the Curuna dam in the Amazonian portion of Brazil. Emissions include carbon dioxide from decay of the above-water portions of trees that are left standing in the reservoir and methane from soft vegetation that decays under anaerobic conditions on the bottom of the reservoir, especially macrophytes (water weeds) and vegetation that grows in the drawdown zone and is flooded when the reservoir water level rises. Some methane is released from the reservoir surface through bubbling and diffusion, but larger amounts are released from water passing through the turbines and spillway. Methane concentration in the water increases with depth, and the turbines and spillway draw water from sufficient depth to have substantial methane content. In 1990 (13 years after filling), the Curuna Dam emitted 3.6 times more greenhouse gases than would have been emitted by generating the same amount of electricity from oil.

  14. Simulating dam-breach flood scenarios of the Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods from failures of landslide dams can pose a hazard to people and property downstream, which have to be rapidly assessed and mitigated in order to reduce the potential risk. The Tangjiashan landslide dam induced by the Mw = 7.9 2008 Wenchuan earthquake had impounded the largest lake in the earthquake affected area with an estimated volume of 3 × 108 m3, and the potential catastrophic dam breach posed a serious threat to more than 2.5 million people in downstream towns and Mianyang city, located 85 km downstream. Chinese authorities had to evacuate parts of the city until the Tangjiashan landslide dam was artificially breached by a spillway, and the lake was drained. We propose an integrated approach to simulate the dam-breach floods for a number of possible scenarios, to evaluate the severity of the threat to Mianyang city. Firstly, the physically-based BREACH model was applied to predict the flood hydrographs at the dam location, which were calibrated with observational data of the flood resulting from the artificial breaching. The output hydrographs from this model were inputted into the 1-D–2-D SOBEK hydrodynamic model to simulate the spatial variations in flood parameters. The simulated flood hydrograph, peak discharge and peak arrival time at the downstream towns fit the observations. Thus this approach is capable of providing reliable predictions for the decision makers to determine the mitigation plans. The sensitivity analysis of the BREACH model input parameters reveals that the average grain size, the unit weight and porosity of the dam materials are the most sensitive parameters. The variability of the dam material properties causes a large uncertainty in the estimation of the peak flood discharge and peak arrival time, but has little influence on the flood inundation area and flood depth downstream. The effect of cascading breaches of smaller dams downstream of the Tangjiashan dam was

  15. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    passing waterfalls than males. The study also examined energy costs and swimming speeds for fish released above Lyle Falls as they migrated to upstream spawning areas. This journey averaged 15.93 days to travel a mean maximum of 37.6 km upstream at a total energy cost of approx 3,971 kcals (34% anaerobic and 66% aerobic) for a sample of five fish. A bioenergetics example was run, which estimated that fall chinook salmon would expend an estimated 1,208 kcal to pass from the mouth of the Columbia River to Bonneville Dam and 874 kcals to pass Bonneville Dam and pool and the three falls on the Lower Klickitat River, plus an additional 2,770 kcals above the falls to reach the spawning grounds, leaving them with approximately 18% (1,089 kcals) of their original energy reserves for spawning. Results of the bioenergetics example suggest that a delay of 9 to 11 days along the lower Klickitat River may deplete their remaining energy reserves (at a rate of about 105 kcal d{sup -1}) resulting in death before spawning would occur.

  16. How Big of an Effect Do Small Dams Have? Using Geomorphological Footprints to Quantify Spatial Impact of Low-Head Dams and Identify Patterns of Across-Dam Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Katie H.; Daniels, Melinda D.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0–15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136–437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic approach that has been applied to larger dams. PMID:26540105

  17. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus Surveillance for Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: Batches 651NC and 670NC Summaries.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Batch summaries from the National Wildlife Health Center of test results from oral-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs collected on Tundra Swans and Wood Ducks on Pocosin...

  18. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1999 breeding ground survyes of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, tundra swans, and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 15th consecutive year. The...

  19. Report to the Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-2000 breeding ground survyes of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of geese, tundra swans, and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 16th consecutive year. The survey...

  20. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1996 breeding ground surveys of geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, swans and sandhill cranes were conducted in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta for the 12th consecutive year. The survey...

  1. Report to Pacific Flyway Study Committee and Waterfowl Conservation Committee on the 1985-1995 breeding ground surveys of geese and swans in the coastal zone, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys of nesting geese, swans and sandhill cranes in the coastal zone of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta were conducted for the eleventh consecutive year. The...

  2. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River. The study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE). The goal of the study was to provide fish passage and distribution data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE’s Willamette Valley Project in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. During the year-long study period - February 1, 2010 to January 31, 2011the objectives of the hydroacoustic evaluation of fish passage and distribution at LOP were to: 1. Estimate passage rates, run timing, horizontal distribution, and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for smolt-size fish. 2. Estimate passage rates, run timing and diel distribution at turbine penstock intakes for small-size fish. 3. Estimate passage rates and run timing at the regulating outlets for smolt-size fish. 4. Estimate vertical distribution of smolt-size fish in the forebay near the upstream face of the dam. The fixed-location hydroacoustic technique was used to accomplish the objectives of this study. Transducers (420 kHz) were deployed in each penstock intake, above each RO entrance, and on the dam face; a total of nine transducers (2 single-beam and 7 split-beam) were used. We summarize the findings from the hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011 as follows. • Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> ~90 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. • During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish ± 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt

  3. Theoretical electronic transition moments for the Ballik-Ramsay, Fox-Herzberg, and Swan systems of C2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Electronic transition moments and their variation with internuclear separation are calculated for the Ballik-Ramsay (b 3 Sigma g - a 3 Pi u), Fox-Herzberg (e 3 Pi g-a 3 Pi u) and Swan (d 3 Pi g-a 3 Pi u) band systems of C2, which appear in a variety of terrestrial and astrophysical sources. Electronic wave functions of the a 3 Pi u, b 2 Sigma g -, d 3 Pi g and e 3 Pi g states of C2 are obtained by means of a self-consistent field plus configuration interaction calculation using an atomic basis of 46 Slater-type orbitals, and theoretical potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants for the four electronic states were computed. The results obtained for both the potential energy curves and electronic transition moments are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.

  4. Are predictions of cancer response to targeted drugs, based on effects in unrelated tissues, the 'Black Swan' events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Beatrica; Golem, Ante Zvonimir; Kurbel, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Adverse effects of targeted drugs on normal tissues can predict the cancer response. Rash correlates with efficacy of erlotinib, cetuximab and gefitinib and onset of arterial hypertension with response to bevacizumab, sunitinib, axitinib and sorafenib, possible examples of 'Black Swan' events, unexpected scientific observations, as described by Karl Popper in 1935. The proposition is that our patients have individual intrinsic variants of cell growth control, important for tumor response and adverse effects on tumor-unrelated tissue. This means that the lack of predictive side effects in healthy tissue is linked with poor results of tumor therapy when tumor resistance is caused by mechanisms that protect all cells of that patient from the targeted drug effects.

  5. Dynamic Analysis of an Inflatable Dam Subjected to a Flood

    OpenAIRE

    Lowery, Kristen Mary

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic simulation of the response of an inflatable dam subjected to a flood was carried out to determine the survivability envelope of the dam where it can operate without rupture, or overflow. A fully nonlinear free-surface flow was applied in two dimensions using a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation. An ABAQUS finite element model was used to determine the dynamic structural response of the dam. The problem was solved in the time domain which allows the prediction of a number ...

  6. Predicting surfacing internal erosion in moraine core dams

    OpenAIRE

    Rönnqvist, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Dams that comprise broadly and widely graded glacial materials, such as moraines, have been found to be susceptible to internal erosion, perhaps more than dams of other soil types. Internal erosion washes out fine-grained particles from the filling material; the erosion occurs within the material itself or at an interface to another dam zone, depending on the mode of initiation. Whether or not internal erosion proceeds depend on the adequacy of the filter material. If internal erosion is allo...

  7. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Catherine J; Jessop, Tim S; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Johnstone, Michele; Feore, Megan; Mulder, Raoul A

    2012-01-01

    Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  8. Identification of two novel reassortant avian influenza a (H5N6) viruses in whooper swans in Korea, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; Woo, Chanjin; Ip, Hon S.; An, Injung; Kim, Youngsik; Lee, Kwanghee; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeonghwa; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundOn November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identification of HPAIVs in wild birds is significant as there is a potential risk of transmission of these viruses to poultry and humans.ResultsPhylogenetic analysis revealed that Gangjin H5N6 viruses classified into Asian H5 clade 2.3.4.4 lineage and were distinguishable from H5N8 and H5N1 HPAIVs previously isolated in Korea. With the exception of the polymerase acidic (PA) gene, the viruses were most closely related to A/duck/Guangdong/01.01SZSGXJK005-Y/2016 (H5N6) (98.90 ~ 99.74%). The PA genes of the two novel Gangjin H5N6 viruses were most closely related to AIV isolates previously characterized from Korea, A/hooded crane/Korea/1176/2016 (H1N1) (99.16%) and A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) (98.65%). The lack of more recent viruses to A/environment/Korea/W133/2006 (H7N7) indicates the need for analysis of recent wild bird AIVs isolated in Korea because they might provide further clues as to the origin of these novel reassortant H5N6 viruses.ConclusionsAlthough research on the origins and epidemiology of these infections is ongoing, the most likely route of infection for the whooper swans was through direct or indirect contact with reassortant viruses shed by migratory wild birds in Korea. As H5N6 HPAIVs can potentially be transmitted to poultry and humans, continuous monitoring of AIVs among wild birds will help to mitigate this risk.

  9. Population, behavioural and physiological responses of an urban population of black swans to an intense annual noise event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J Payne

    Full Text Available Wild animals in urban environments are exposed to a broad range of human activities that have the potential to disturb their life history and behaviour. Wildlife responses to disturbance can range from emigration to modified behaviour, or elevated stress, but these responses are rarely evaluated in concert. We simultaneously examined population, behavioural and hormonal responses of an urban population of black swans Cygnus atratus before, during and after an annual disturbance event involving large crowds and intense noise, the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. Black swan population numbers were lowest one week before the event and rose gradually over the course of the study, peaking after the event, suggesting that the disturbance does not trigger mass emigration. We also found no difference in the proportion of time spent on key behaviours such as locomotion, foraging, resting or self-maintenance over the course of the study. However, basal and capture stress-induced corticosterone levels showed significant variation, consistent with a modest physiological response. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were highest before the event and decreased over the course of the study. Capture-induced stress levels peaked during the Grand Prix and then also declined over the remainder of the study. Our results suggest that even intensely noisy and apparently disruptive events may have relatively low measurable short-term impact on population numbers, behaviour or physiology in urban populations with apparently high tolerance to anthropogenic disturbance. Nevertheless, the potential long-term impact of such disturbance on reproductive success, individual fitness and population health will need to be carefully evaluated.

  10. Methodology for risk assessment of collapses of torrent check dams

    OpenAIRE

    Martinčič, Manica

    2014-01-01

    Slovenia has a lot of torrential check dams, but until now there was no uniform method one could apply in order to perform a review of the torrential check dams' condition and to assess their physical vulnerability. In 2013, we assessed the risk of torrential check dams on Suhelj, Belca and Pišnica torrents by applying the risk assessment methodology for large dams. Since, for various reasons, the results were deemed useless, we decided to adjust the risk assessment model for torrential ch...

  11. Upstream Passage, Spawning, and Stock Identification of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Snake River, 1992 : Annual Report FY 92-93.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenship, H. Lee; Mendel, Glen Wesley

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results for the second year (1992) of a three year study. The goals of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the source (s) of interdam losses of adult fall chinook salmon between Ice Harbor Dam (IHR) and Lower Granite Dam (LGR), as well as upstream of LGR; (2) identify spawning locations upstream of LGR for calibration of aerial redd surveys, and to assist with redd habitat mapping and carcass recovery (for genetic stock profile analysis). Radio telemetry was used as the method of addressing project goals. Unmarked (not adipose clipped) adult fall chinook salmon were trapped and radio tagged at IHR and LGR dams as they ascended the Snake River during their spawning migration. They used aerial and ground mobile radio tracking to determine the movements of these fish. They examined movements of all radio tagged salmon upstream of LGR Dam. That provided us with a sample of 17 radio tagged fish tagged at IHR and 20 tagged at LGR. They estimate a combined fall back rate at LGR of 37.1% (13 fish). Another 10.8--13.5% were `lost` or prespawning mortalities. They identified two potential spawning locations that would not have been detected from the aerial spawning surveys. One site was upstream of Troy on the Grande Ronde River and the other was in the upper Snake River.

  12. Falls Prevention Process in Assisted Living Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, DaRae; Nordman-Oliveira, Susan E; Schlaak, Mary; Ford, James H

    2017-12-01

    Falls are a significant issue for older adults, and many older adults who once received care in nursing homes now reside in assisted living communities (ALCs). ALC staff needs to address resident falls prevention; however, federal or state requirements or oversight are limited. This research explores falls prevention in Wisconsin ALCs in the context of the Kotter Change Model to identify strategies and inform efforts to establish a more consistent, proactive falls prevention process for ALCs. A mixed methods approach demonstrated inconsistency and variability in the use of falls risk assessments and prevention programs, which led to the development of standardized, proactive falls prevention process flowcharts. This process, as delineated, provides ALCs with an approach to organize a comprehensive falls reduction strategy. Findings highlight the importance of educating staff regarding assessments, resident motivation, falls prevention programs, and feedback, all key components of the falls prevention process.

  13. Fall Chinook Aclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, and will ultimately work towards achieving

  14. Osteoarthritis and falls in the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Teck; Tan, Maw Pin

    2013-09-01

    Osteoarthritis and falls are common conditions affecting older individuals which are associated with disability and escalating health expenditure. It has been widely assumed that osteoarthritis is an established risk factor for falls in older people. The relationship between osteoarthritis and falls has, quite surprisingly, not been adequately elucidated, and published reports have been conflicting. Our review of the existing literature has found limited evidence supporting the current assumption that the presence of osteoarthritis is associated with increased risk of falls with suggestions that osteoarthritis may actually be protective against falls related fractures. In addition, joint arthroplasty appears to increase the risk of falls in individuals with osteoarthritis.

  15. A wearable airbag to prevent fall injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Yoshimura, Takumi; Sekine, Masaki; Uchida, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Osamu

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall-detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall-detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with an accelerometer and gyro sensor. Sixteen subjects mimicked falls, and their acceleration waveforms were monitored. Then, we developed a fall-detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. Although the proposed system can help to prevent fall-related injuries, further development is needed to miniaturize the inflation system.

  16. the effect of age of dam on weaning mass for ftve dam breed types in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at an earlier age than the Charolais, Simmentaler and Dual Purpose types. This was probably due to their rate of maturity. These results indicate that when the average dam-age is low in a herd, the early maturing types can be more productive than later maturing types. Extrapolating this data to extensive conditions, where ...

  17. Dam Design can Impede Adaptive Management of Environmental Flows: A Case Study from the Opuha Dam, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, JoAnna; Murray Hicks, D.; Snelder, Ton H.; Arscott, David B.; Larned, Scott T.; Booker, Doug; Suren, Alastair M.

    2013-02-01

    The Opuha Dam was designed for water storage, hydropower, and to augment summer low flows. Following its commissioning in 1999, algal blooms (dominated first by Phormidium and later Didymosphenia geminata) downstream of the dam were attributed to the reduced frequency and magnitude of high-flow events. In this study, we used a 20-year monitoring dataset to quantify changes associated with the dam. We also studied the effectiveness of flushing flows to remove periphyton from the river bed. Following the completion of the dam, daily maximum flows downstream have exceeded 100 m3 s-1 only three times; two of these floods exceeded the pre-dam mean annual flood of 203 m3 s-1 (compared to 19 times >100 m3 s-1 and 6 times >203 m3 s-1 in the 8 years of record before the dam). Other changes downstream included increases in water temperature, bed armoring, frequency of algal blooms, and changes to the aquatic invertebrate community. Seven experimental flushing flows resulted in limited periphyton reductions. Flood wave attenuation, bed armoring, and a shortage of surface sand and gravel, likely limited the effectiveness of these moderate floods. Floods similar to pre-dam levels may be effective for control of periphyton downstream; however, flushing flows of that magnitude are not possible with the existing dam infrastructure. These results highlight the need for dams to be planned and built with the capacity to provide the natural range of flows for adaptive management, particularly high flows.

  18. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at

  19. Hovercraft drill probes Saraji tailings dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    In early operations at BHP-Utah's Saraji Mine in central Queensland, quantities of coking coal were pumped into the tailings dam because the preparation plant's flotation circuit was unable to handle ultra-fines. A reverse circulating drilling rig mounted on a hovercraft was used to recover 22 samples (representing 9 metres of tailings from 11 x 8 x 0.09 metre cores) in an investigation into whether the tailings can now be treated economically. 1 fig.

  20. The World Commission on Dams + 10: Revisiting the Large Dam Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Moore

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams (WCD was an experiment in multi-stakeholder dialogue and global governance concerned with a subject area – large dams – that was fraught with conflict and controversy. The WCD Report, Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making, was published in 2000 and accompanied by hopes that broad-based agreements would be forged on how to better manage water and energy development. Ten years later, this special issue of Water Alternatives revisits the WCD and its impacts, exploring the question: Is the WCD still relevant? The editorial team and the Guest Editors of this special issue of Water Alternatives have selected a range of 20 papers, 6 viewpoints, and 4 book reviews that help to illustrate the evolution in the dams debate. The goal of this special issue is to examine the influence and the impacts of the WCD on the dam enterprise, in general, and on the policies and practices of key stakeholders and institutions, and on the development outcomes for affected communities and environments, in particular. In this introduction, the Guest Editors provide an overview of the special issue, exploring the new drivers of dam development that have emerged during the last decade, including climate change and new financiers of dams, and describing the themes emerging from this diverse set of papers and viewpoints. This special issue demonstrates the need for a renewed multi-stakeholder dialogue at multiple levels. This would not be a redo of the WCD, but rather a rekindling and redesigning of processes and forums where mutual understanding, information-sharing, and norm-setting can occur. One of the most promising developments of the last decade is the further demonstration, in case studies described here, that true partnership amongst key stakeholders can produce transformative resource-sharing agreements, showing that many of the WCD recommendations around negotiated decision making are working in practice. We hope

  1. Quasi-stable Slope-Failure Dams in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroder, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Collapses of steep mountain slopes in the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir, Hindu Kush, and Tibetan Plateau are well known as a result of:(1) generally high seismicity in active tectonic areas; (2) prior deglaciation leaving undercut, unstable cliffs; (3) present-day debuttressing of rock cliffs by glacial down-wasting in conditions of global warming; and (4) degradation of permafrost cohesion and water-ice cementation in high mountain slopes. Landslide dams across mountain rivers are also well known worldwide and generally do not endure for long because of the common landslide-lake outburst floods (LLOF) whose discharge is commonly sufficiently large to remove much of the dam in a short time. A number of massive slope-failure dams in south High Asia, however, have endured for centuries and require explanations for the length of duration, whereas recent examples require robust assessment for better predictive hazard analysis. Three main factors contribute to longevity of slope-failure dams: (1) mega-rocks >15-30 m that inhibit dam failure in overflow breaches; (2) mega-porosity wherein incoming discharge to the landslide lake is balanced by subterranean water through-flow within the landslide dam; (3) impermeable clay fills caused by remobilization of prior lacustrine-dammed sediment that impart dam strength to allow lasting integrity for a time, and (4) climate-change induced lake-level lowering. Several examples of long-lived or unusually stable, slope-failure dams associated with pronounced structural/tectonic associations include: (1) Pangong Tso, Ladakh and Tibet; (2) Lake Shewa, Afghanistan; (3) Sarez Lake, Tajikistan; and (4) Lake Hunza, Pakistan. Pangong Tso and Lake Shewa were emplaced thousands of years ago and only Lake Shewa shows some instability of the dam front where percolating water maintains lake level but may be causing new slumping. Sarez Lake behind the Usoi landslide dam was emplaced by an earthquake in 1911 and maintains its level by seepage. Lake

  2. Cascade dams influence on sediment characteristics and phosphorus distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Anne; Mourier, Brice; Rabiet, Marion; Malgorzata, Grybos; Kestens, Tim; Deluchat, Veronique

    2017-04-01

    Massive river artificialisation by dam construction, responding to the steadily increasing human demand of water and electricity leads to several environmental consequences, including alteration of hydrological dynamic and sediment discontinuity. Important decreases of water flows and sediment transport downstream impact phosphorus (P) flux to the ocean and its cycle, due to P sediment storage in dam reservoir. Moreover, the release of P from sediments may enhance eutrophication processes in dam reservoir. Our study focused on the influence of cascade dams on physical and chemical characteristics of sediments and particularly on P sedimentary speciation along river continuum. Considering these results, the potential of P release from dam reservoir sediments was appraised and compared to un-impacted river parts. In addition, key parameters controlling P release at sediment/water interface were evaluated. Champsanglard, Chézelles and Age are three consecutive hydroelectric reservoirs on Creuse River (France; respective surfaces area of 55 ha, 23 ha, 38 ha and approximative height of 20 m each) subjected to seasonal cyanobacterial blooms. Surface sediments (17 samples) were collected in dams and free-flow river sections (on a stretch of 17 km); chemical composition (Fe, Al, Ca, Mn and P), organic matter (OM) content, particle size distribution and P fractionation were analysed. An abrupt change in sediment granulometry from a coarse-medium sand to silt texture going through free-flow river to dam reservoirs was observed. The same assessment was made in regard to OM content (from 3 ± 3% in river parts to 18 ± 3% in dams) and total P (0.27 ± 0.11 mgP/g DW in river parts to 1.8 ± 0.3 mgP/gDW in dams). P enrichment in sediment from dam reservoir is due to the retention of fine size particles. Relation between total P content and sediment grain size within each dam reservoir highlighted the role of slowdown river flow occurring in dams. In Champsanglard reservoir

  3. Associated Factors for Falls, Recurrent Falls, and Injurious Falls in Aged Men Living in Taiwan Veterans Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chiou Ku

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the advanced age, depression status, stroke, gouty arthritis, and cataract are independent variables for predicting falls; depression is the only clinical factor capable of predicting the recurrent falls. These variables were potential targets for effective prevention of falls.

  4. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  5. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  6. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  7. Preventing Falls: Great Help for Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements Prevent Falls Winter 2014 Issue: Volume 8 Number 4 Page 14 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  8. How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults / How Can Older Adults Prevent Falls? / Home Improvements Prevent Falls Winter 2014 Issue: Volume 8 Number 4 Page 15 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  9. Factors inducing falling in schizophrenia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Yoko; Akezaki, Yoshiteru; Mori, Kohei; Yuri, Yoshimi; Katsumura, Hitomi; Hara, Tomihiro; Usui, Yuki; Fujino, Yoritaka; Nomura, Takuo; Hirao, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors causing falling among patients with schizophrenia hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were divided into either those having experienced a fall within the past one year (Fall group, 12 patients) and those not having experienced a fall (Non-fall group, 7 patients), and we examined differences between the two groups. Assessment items measured included muscle strength, balance ability, flexibility, body composition assessment, Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF), the antipsychotic drug intake, and Drug Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). [Results] As a result, significant differences were observed in regard to One leg standing time with eyes open, Time Up and Go Test (TUGT), and DIEPSS Sialorrhea between the Fall group and the Non-fall group. [Conclusion] These results suggest that a decrease in balance ability was significantly correlated with falling in schizophrenia patients. PMID:28356628

  10. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  11. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the Secretary...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6300 - Rubber dam and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6300 Rubber dam and accessories. (a) Identification. A rubber dam and accessories is a device composed of a thin sheet of latex with a hole in the... cavity preparation. The device is stretched around a tooth by inserting a tooth through a hole in the...

  13. Major Dams of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  14. Damming Tropical Island Streams: Problems, Solutions, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JAMES G. MARCH; JONATHAN P. BENSTEAD; CATHERINE M. PRINGLE; FREDERICK N. SCATENA

    2003-01-01

    The combination of human population growth, increased water usage, and limited groundwater resources often leads to extensive damming of rivers and streams on tropical islands. Ecological effects of dams on tropical islands can be dramatic, because the vast majority of native stream faunas (fishes, shrimps, and snails) migrate between freshwater and saltwater during...

  15. Iterative analysis of concrete gravity dam-nonlinear foundation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Concrete gravity dam; dam-foundation interaction; iterative algorithm; Duncan-Chang model; viscous dashpots. 1. Introduction. Considerable research has been conducted on the subject of dynamic analysis of structure-foundation system. The various numerical methods developed for the analysis of dynamic ...

  16. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a...

  17. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent...

  18. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...

  19. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research...

  20. METHOD OF OPTIMAL OPERATION OF SMALL DAM IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... We consider that frequency of the month rainfall of the order of P=75% may well ensure a minor risk towards the need of irrigation. *DETERMINATION OF LOSS OF WATER IN DAM. It was agreed to consider that the losses of water in dam are evaporative losses ev. P , from the plan of water and filtration fil.

  1. The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and Ethiopia's Succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... change in the pertinence of the norms of international law nor to any altruistic revision of positions in the lower reaches of the river, but rather to its belated awakening in pursuing the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) as a national project of multifarious impact. Key terms: The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, ...

  2. Walden North Dam overtopping : emergency response and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, S. [FortisBC Inc., South Slocan, BC (Canada); McCreanor, J. [Acres International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Cronin, D.L.R.; Daw, D. [Acres International Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper described the events that led to the overtopping of the Walden North Dam during a heavy rainfall in June 2002, resulting in a breach around an abutment wall. The dam is part of a run-of-river hydro development on Cayoosh Creek near Lillooet, British Columbia. The Walden North Dam was a low, 46 meter wide concrete dam with a single radial gate. The dam overtopping was attributed to failure of the radial gate hoist. Prior to this event, the dam had been classified by the British Columbia Dam Safety Authorities as a high and then a low consequence category of failure. As facility managers, Aquila Networks Canada Ltd. established an immediate action plan to stabilize the situation and resume normal power production by applying the following priorities: (1) ensure safety of workers and the public, (2) limit further damage to the dam and other facilities, (3) ensure environmental protection, and (4) continue to operate the generation units. Local authorities were informed to evacuate a downstream campsite and environmental agencies were contacted along with safety regulators. Repairs included demolition of the damaged portion of the structure and construction a new two-bay gate/stoplog spillway and bridge. Construction was completed by September 2003 according to the requirements of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans for minimum flow, accurate control of fish flows and environmental monitoring of the stream area. 10 figs.

  3. Evaluation of flora diversity and abundance in Awba Dam Tourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The site is rich in flora diversity; a potential for ecotourism development. Much of the reservoir area were overgrown with invasive hydro-flora species suggesting need for effective management and conservation of the flora resources as well as the touristic capacity of Awba dam tourism centre. Keywords: Awba dam tourism ...

  4. Measures of struggle against appearance of cracks in earth dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraeva Yulia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a method calculation of the basic parameters of the transverse rows of pile of simple printed or precast dam. As well, in this article have been shown all the necessary formulas for this calculation and have been proposed solutions to prevent cracking in the dams.

  5. Estimation of permanent displacements of the Tehri dam in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The objective of this paper is to estimate permanent displacements of Tehri dam due to an earthquake of magnitude M w = 8 · 5 , the occurrence of which has a high probability in the region, and for an earthquake of magnitude M w = 7 · 0 , for which the dam has been currently designed. A two-dimensional finite element ...

  6. Measuring fall risk and predicting who will fall: clinimetric properties of four fall risk assessment tools for residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna L; Nitz, Jennifer C; Low Choy, Nancy L; Haines, Terry

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to describe the clinimetric evaluation of four fall risk assessment tools (FRATs) recommended in best practice guidelines for use in residential aged care (RAC). Eighty-seven residents, mean age 81.59 years (SD +/-10.69), participated. The Falls Assessment Risk and Management Tool (FARAM), Peninsula Health Fall Risk Assessment Tool (PHFRAT), Queensland Fall Risk Assessment Tool (QFRAT), and Melbourne Fall Risk Assessment Tool (MFRAT) were completed at baseline, and 2 and 4 months, and falls occurring in the 6 months after the baseline assessment were recorded. Interrater agreement (kappa), predictive accuracy (survival analysis and Youden Index), and fit to the Rasch model were examined. Twelve-month fall history formed the predictive accuracy reference. Interrater risk classification agreement was high for the PHFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .84) and FARAM (small ka, Cyrillic = .81), and low for the QFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .51) and MFRAT (small ka, Cyrillic = .21). Survival analysis identified that 43%-66% of risk factors on each tool had no (p > .10) association with falls. No tool had higher predictive accuracy (Youden index) than the question, "has the resident fallen in past 12 months?" (p > .05). All tools did not exhibit fit to the Rasch model, invalidating summing of risk factor scores to provide an overall risk score. The studied tools have poor clinimetric properties, casting doubt about their usefulness for identifying fall risk factors for those most at risk for falling and measuring fall risk in RAC.

  7. National Dam Safety Program. Fairview Lake Dam (MO 10976), Missouri - Kansas City Basin. Boone County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    Mr. Carl Hulen , the original owner, indicated that the dam was constructed during 1947-1948 by the Bill Goodson Construction Co. h. Normal Operating...available. 2.2 CONSTRUCTION The dam was constructed in 1947 and 1948 by the Bill Goods6n Construction Company. The original owner (Mr. Carl Hulen ) reported

  8. Slope Stability Analysis of Earth-Rockfill Dams Using MGA and UST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Nansheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear Unified Strength Theory (UST, which takes into account the effect of intermediate stress and nonlinear behavior on geotechnical strength, is applied in slope stability analysis of earth-rockfill dams (ERD in this paper. The biggest drawback for general determination of slip surface is that it must presuppose the shape of slip surface and is unable to identify the critical noncircular slip surface more accurately. This paper proposes an optimal analytic model of slope stability analysis of ERD and employs modified genetic algorithm (MGA to search for the slip surface on the basis of shear failure criteria of the nonlinear UST without prior assumption of the shape of slip surface. The application of MGA dependent on Matlab toolbox to the slope stability analysis of ERD shows that MGA can consequently overcome the weakness of easily falling into local optimal solutions brought by general optimal algorithms.

  9. National Dam Safety Program. Palmer Falls Dam, Upper Hudson River Basin, Saratoga and Warren Counties, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-23

    STATE OF NEW YORK j *fJrj U . MOOREJ ME , . " ALOE ’", , HOvv., RICI&RI, W. S.CRNIAN JO N J. FARqELL ..... . . ALEX. RCFMCKIM j CONSERVATION COMMISSION...ii - - Vol I T RUST SUILONGSTETSON* DALEUTICA . NEW YORK • 13501 (Ria1 I [F ROJECT NAMEDATE SUJECT PROJECT NO. I ODAWN BY II AJ’ * |.’ ~ * V. 4t

  10. The Political Ecology of Chinese Large Dams in Cambodia: Implications, Challenges and Lessons Learnt from the Kamchay Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the opportunities offered by foreign investment in energy infrastructure mostly by Chinese firms, the Government of Cambodia is giving high priority to developing hydropower resources for reducing energy poverty and powering economic growth. Using a “Political ecology of the Asian drivers” framework, this paper assesses China’s involvement in the development of large dams’ in Cambodia and its impacts on the access of natural resources such as water and energy by dam builders, local communities and the government. This analysis is based on 61 interviews and 10 focus group discussions with affected communities, institutional actors, Chinese dam builders and financiers in relation to the first large Chinese dam built in Cambodia: the Kamchay dam. Based on the results of the analysis this paper makes recommendations on how to improve the planning, implementation and governance of future large dams in Cambodia.

  11. T2 Star-weighted Angiography (SWAN) Allows to Concomitantly Assess the Prostate Contour While Detecting Fiducials Before MR-based Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy in Prostate Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirajlal, Pierre-Antoine; Jambon, Eva; Albat-Esquirou, Agnes; Galmiche, Chloe; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Grenier, Nicolas; Haaser, Thibaud; Cornelis, François H

    2017-08-22

    To evaluate the performance of T2 star-weighted angiography (SWAN) to concomitantly assess the prostate contour while detecting fiducials before magnetic resonance (MR)-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in prostate carcinoma. Forty patients (mean age: 73.1 ± 7.5 years; average Gleason score: 7 ± 1; average prostate-specific antigen: 14.7 ± 11.6 ng/mL) underwent MR and computed tomography imaging before fiducial-based IMRT. MR protocol included SWAN, T2-weighted (T2w) and diffusion-weighted imaging in a first group (n = 20) and SWAN, T2w and T2-star weighted imaging in a second group (n = 20). In group 1, the depiction of fiducials, image sharpness and visibility of prostate boundaries were independently evaluated by 2 readers on SWAN, T2w or diffusion-weighted images. In group 2, a similar evaluation was performed by 2 other readers on SWAN and T2-star images only. Depiction of fiducials was compared to computed tomography findings. The median scores of visibility of prostate boundaries, image sharpness and depiction of fiducials by SWAN were above average to excellent for all readers. In group 1, readers correctly located 56 of 57 (98.2%) and 47 of 57 (82.5%) fiducials, respectively; and 50 of 51 (98%), and 48 of 51 (88.2%) fiducials in group 2, respectively. By allowing adequate visualization of the prostate boundaries and high depiction of fiducial markers concomitantly, SWAN might be used for treatment planning of IMRT. The use of this sequence might simplify the registration process and limit any errors associated with image fusion. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of earth dam with a vertical core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth dam with impervious element in the form of asphaltic concrete core is currently the most promising type of earth dams (due to simple construction technology and universal service properties of asphaltic concrete and is widely used in the world. However, experience in the construction and operation of high dams (above 160 m is not available, and their work is scarcely explored. In this regard, the paper discusses the results of computational prediction of the stress-strain state and stability of a high earth dam (256 m high with the core. The authors considered asphaltic concrete containing 7 % of bitumen as the material of the core. Gravel was considered as the material of resistant prisms. Design characteristics of the rolled asphaltic concrete and gravel were obtained from the processing of the results of triaxial tests. The calculations were performed using finite element method in elastoplastic formulation and basing on the phased construction of the dam and reservoir filling. The research shows, that the work of embankment dam with vertical core during filling of the reservoir is characterized by horizontal displacement of the lower resistant prism in the tailrace and the formation of a hard wedge prism descending along the core in the upper resistant prism. The key issue of the safety assessment is to determine the safety factor of the overall stability of the dam, for calculation of which the destruction of the earth dam is necessary, which can be done by reducing the strength properties of the dam materials. As a results of the calculations, the destruction of the dam occurs with a decrease in the strength characteristics of the materials of the dam by 2.5 times. The dam stability depends on the stability of the lower resistant prism. The destruction of its slope occurs on the classical circular-cylindrical surface. The presence of a potential collapse surface in the upper resistant prism (on the edges of the descending wedge does

  13. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  14. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research. PMID:21838891

  15. Neotectonics of the Vajont dam site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Franco; Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2003-08-01

    The disastrous Vajont landslide (NE Italy) of 9 October 1963 is generally thought to have occurred on an existing failure surface. Reassessment of the morphological and structural evidence suggests that movement was on a normal fault plane which had juxtaposed Cretaceous limestone and highly fractured rock debris, thus rendering the dam site unusually susceptible to massive sliding. The proposed fault is consistent in strike with the regional lineament pattern. Although movement was triggered by the combined effects of heavy rainfall and changes in reservoir level, there is circumstantial evidence that seismicity played a contributory part in mobilising the slide by increasing pore pressure at the base of the slide as well as by any associated shaking.

  16. Minidoka Dam Wildlife Impact Assessment: Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Robert C.; Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1989-03-01

    A wildlife impact assessment has been developed for the US Bureau of Reclamation's Minidoka Dam and Reservoir in south central Idaho. This assessment was conducted to fulfill requirements of the Fish and Wildlife Program. Specific objectives of this study included the following: select target wildlife species, and identify their current status and management goals; estimate the net effects on target wildlife species resulting from hydroelectric development and operation; recommend protection, mitigation, and enhancement goals for target wildlife species affected by hydroelectric development and operation; and consult and coordinate impact assessment activities with the Northwest Power Planning Council, Bonneville Power Administration, US Bureau of Reclamation, Bureau of Land Management, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee, and other entities expressing interest in the project. 62 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    Coastal development in Black Sea has increased in recent years. Therefore, careful monitoring of the storms and verification of numerical tools with reliable data has become important. Previous studies by Kirezci and Ozyurt (2015) investigated extreme events in Black Sea using different wind datasets (NCEP's CFSR and ECMWF's operational datasets) and different numerical tools (SWAN and Wavewatch III). These studies showed that significant effect to results is caused by the deep water source-sink terms (wave growth by wind, deep water dissipation of wave energy (whitecapping) and deep water non-linear wave-wave interactions). According to Timmermans(2015), uncertainty about wind forcing and the process of nonlinear wave-wave interactions are found to be dominant in numerical wave modelling. Therefore, in this study deep water source and sink term solution approaches of 3rd generation numerical tool (SWAN model) are tested, validated and compared using the selected extreme storms in Black Sea. 45 different storms and storm like events observed in Black Sea between years 1994-1999 are selected to use in the models. The storm selection depends on the instrumental wave data (significant wave heights, mean wave period and mean wave direction) obtained in NATO-TU Waves project by the deep water buoy measurements at Hopa, Sinop, Gelendzhik, and wind data (mean and peak wind speeds, storm durations) of the regarding events. 2 different wave growth by wind with the corresponding deep water dissipation terms and 3 different wave -wave interaction terms of SWAN model are used in this study. Wave growth by wind consist of two parts, linear growth which is explained by Cavaleri and Malanotte-Rizzoli(1981),and dominant exponential growth. There are two methods in SWAN model for exponential growth of wave, first one by Snyder et al. (1981), rescaled in terms of friction velocity by Komen et. al (1984) which is derived using driving wind speed at 10m elevation with related drag

  18. Verifying Pressure of Water on Dams, a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Bayrak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensing and monitoring deformation pattern of dams is often one of the most effective ways to understand their safety status. The main objective of the present study is to find the extent to which rising reservoir level affects the mechanism of deformation of the Yamula dam under certain changes in the reservoir level conditions during the first filling period. A new dynamic deformation analysis technique was developed to analyze four geodetic monitoring records consisting of vertical and horizontal displacements of nine object points established on the dam and six reference points surrounding it, to see whether the rising reservoir level is responsible for the vertical and horizontal deformations during the first filling period. The largest displacements were determined in the middle points of the dam construction. There is an apparent linear relationship between the dam subsidence and the reservoir level. The dynamic deformation model was developed to model this situation. The model infers a causative relationship between the reservoir level and the dam deformations. The analysis of the results determines the degree of the correlation between the change in the reservoir level and the observed structural deformation of the dam.

  19. STABILITAS CHECK DAM DI ARBORETUM DESA SUMBER BRANTAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Purwati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The stability of check-dam in arboretum of Sumber Brantas village. Sumber Brantas water sources area is arboretum territory which has to be maintained as conservation either for technical or vegetation (plants cover by sustainable development. Arboretum territory is made as asylum in irrigation system district of Brantas River. This research discusses technical conservation activity to build the check dam in conserving the area. Check dam is built dimensionally by using HEC-RAS Program to get safe and stable dimension for rolling, shifting and piping of Sf > 1.5, and based on hydrologic analysis to get maximum flood discharge of 48.01 m3second-1. Hydraulic analysis is used to get water level profile and pressure for the dam body. Stability of the structure will be controlled by construction load (weight of check dam and its fully sediment storage condition. The result of this research shows that the safe and stable dimension for check dam are as follows: 28 meter of width; 3 meter of main height; 1.5 meter of sub-height; 10 meter of stilling basin length (Main Dam–Sub Dam.

  20. Environmental and dam effects on cannibalism in Wistar rat litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Tarôco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The factors related to cannibalistic behavior of dams in a Wistar rat colony are identified and analyzed. The maternal genetic effects were tested as a random effect by the method of generalized linear models. The season at parturition, the dam´s age at parturition and the density of the room at parturition were tested as fixed effects, whereas the litter size at birth was tested as a co-variable. The genetic effect of the dam was significant for the number of cannibalized pups. Although the season at parturition, the dam´s age and room density on the day of parturition were not individually significant (p > 0.05, most of the interactions between the variation sources were significant (p < 0.05. Cannibalism occurred mostly in dams aged over 241 days, with parturition during spring. So that occurrences of cannibalism could be avoided, dams with the smallest number of cannibalized pups should be selected, coupled to dams younger than 241 days, breeding during spring. The above strategies may reduce the number of couples in the vivarium and increase their production efficiency.

  1. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  2. The design and construction of the Shikwamkwa replacement dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C.R.; Rigbey, S.J.; Rigby, G. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Clark, C. [Brookfield Power, Gatineau, PQ (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The original Shikwamkwa dam was constructed in 1958 near Wawa, Ontario. It was a zoned earth-fill structure founded on a deep, central impervious core and complex overburden deposit. The primary defence against foundation seepage was a relatively short and thin impervious blanket constructed directly on the course grained river alluvium that was susceptible to piping. Serious incidents occurred shortly after impoundment in 1958, including the development of deep sinkholes in the reservoir, migration of fine particles through the foundation, and boiling at the downstream toe of the dam which continued to cause problems for decades. As the foundation was clearly deteriorated as evidenced by numerous sinkholes in the head pond and boils downstream, as well as concentrated seepage that had formed distinct pathways through the dam, a dam safety management plan was implemented in 1994 involving a phased program of remedial works designed to extend the life of this dam and to provide information on the nature of the problem and the foundation itself. This paper discussed the phased and managed approach for maintaining the safety of the Shikwamkwa dam. The paper provided detailed information on the remedial works program as well as the requirement for a new dam. Analysis of the changing hydrogeological conditions were done using a three-dimensional seepage model. Design and construction of the replacement dam, the use of enriched till in the embankment dam, the design of a plastic concrete cutoff wall, and the sealing between the cutoff wall and irregular bedrock surface using grouting were also outlined. Last, quality control for the cutoff wall and constructing dewatering were discussed. It was concluded that the project was successfully implemented following a fast track design and construction approach. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Fall Chinook Acclimation Project; Pittsburg Landing, Captain John Rapids, and Big Canyon, Annual Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Fisheries co-managers of U.S. v Oregon supported and directed the construction and operation of acclimation and release facilities for Snake River fall Chinook from Lyons Ferry Hatchery at three sites above Lower Granite Dam. In 1996, Congress instructed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE) to construct, under the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP), final rearing and acclimation facilities for fall Chinook in the Snake River basin to complement their activities and efforts in compensating for fish lost due to construction of the lower Snake River dams. The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) played a key role in securing funding and selecting acclimation sites, then assumed responsibility for operation and maintenance of the facilities. In 1997, Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) was directed to fund operations and maintenance (O&M) for the facilities. Two acclimation facilities, Captain John Rapids and Pittsburg Landing, are located on the Snake River between Asotin, WA and Hells Canyon Dam and one facility, Big Canyon, is located on the Clearwater River at Peck. The Capt. John Rapids facility is a single pond while the Pittsburg Landing and Big Canyon sites consist of portable fish rearing tanks assembled and disassembled each year. Acclimation of 450,000 yearling smolts (150,000 each facility) begins in March and ends 6 weeks later. When available, an additional 2,400,000 fall Chinook sub-yearlings may be acclimated for 6 weeks, following the smolt release. The project goal is to increase the naturally spawning population of Snake River fall Chinook salmon upstream of Lower Granite Dam. This is a supplementation project; in that hatchery produced fish are acclimated and released into the natural spawning habitat for the purpose of returning a greater number of spawners to increase natural production. Only Snake River stock is used and production of juveniles occurs at Lyons Ferry Hatchery. This is a long-term project, targeted to work towards achieving

  4. Internship Progress Summary: Fall 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ralph S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valencia, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-13

    This fall I had the opportunity to work at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Technology Applications engineering group. I assisted two main projects during my appointment, both related to the Lab’s mission statement: “To solve national security challenges through scientific excellence.” My first project, a thermal source transfer unit, involved skills such as mechanical design, heat transfer simulation, and design analysis. The goal was to create a container that could protect a heat source and regulate its temperature during transit. I generated several designs, performed heat transfer simulations, and chose a design for prototyping. The second project was a soil drying unit for use in post blast sample analysis. To ensure fast and accurate sample processing, agents in the field wanted a system that could process wet dirt and turn it into dry powder. We designed a system of commercially available parts, and we tested the systems to determine the best methods and processes.

  5. Risk Perception Analysis Related To Existing Dams In Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned

  6. [Fear of falling in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkodo Mekongo, Y P; De Breucker, S; Delvaux, N; Pepersack, T

    2007-01-01

    Fear of falling and poor physical performance are prominent symptoms in many older people. The prevalence of fear of falling in community-living elderly ranges between 12 % and 65 %, and is higher in women than men. It commonly occurs after falls, but it also occurs without a previous fall history. One of the major consequences of fear of falling is the restriction and avoidance of activities. However, not all elderly with fear of falling avoid activities in daily life. Some elderly only become cautious, which may be functional in preventing falls. Only a small percentage of elderly show a pattern of excessive fear and restriction of activities. The consequences of this pattern may, however, be debilitating and devastating. Excessive fear and avoidance may compromise the quality of life, and may result in a decline of physical capabilities and, ultimately, in an increased risk of falls, which may further fuel fear and avoidance. Future research should investigate whether individualised intervention strategies are efficient in preventing falls and activity-related fear of falling within this population in order to improve her quality of life.

  7. Characteristics of Falls Among Institutionalized Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Akbari Kamrani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Falls by elderly people area frequent cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in institutionalized elders. to describe the features of falls among institutionalized elderly people. Methods & Materials: characteristics of falls in the preceding six months (March 2006 - September 2006 that occurred among elder lies (aged over 60years with normal physical function and cognitive status, who lived at Kahrizak Institute, along term nursing home in Tehran, were surveyed and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the patients with falls was 76.9 yrs. These numbers of falls had occurred among 29 elders that 48.3% were women and 51.7% were men. 57.6% off alls were simple and elders could standup immediately independently. 42.4% of falls needed to help for standup, 2 elder person (2.6% had sever consequence of fall and had fractures. (Skull fracture, head trauma & hip fracture 30.3% of falls occurred in yard, 28.9% at room, 18.4%inhallway, 14.5% at WC, .3.9%at bathroom, and 3.9% at lunch saloon. Analysis of the time of falls showed: 45.3% of falls occurred at 7bl2 am, 13.2% at the lunch time (12bI4, 17% at 14b19, 11.3%at night (19b4 am, and 13.2% at 4b7 am. Conclusion: falls among elder lies occur mainly outside of room. And occur at the time of maximum activities, for example at morning; also falls have been happened more in subjects older, and occasionally result in sever injury such as head trauma, skull fracture, femur and pelvis fracture and cause more mortality and morbidity. Control of environmental risk factors could be protective factors against falls.

  8. Dogs and cats as environmental fall hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A; Teh, S L; Haileyesus, Tadesse

    2010-02-01

    Falls are the leading cause of non-fatal injuries in the United States. This study assessed the prevalence of fall injuries associated with cats and dogs in the United States and describes the types of injuries sustained, the location, activity, and circumstances under which they occurred. Data were from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2006, available through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP). Based on 7,456 cases, an estimated 86,629 fall injuries each year were associated with cats and dogs, for an injury rate of 29.7. There were 7.5 times as many injuries involving dogs as cats and females were 2.1 times more likely to be injured than males. Injury rates were highest among people aged >/=75, but pets were a fall hazard for all ages. Fractures and contusions or abrasions were the most common injuries; the highest rates were for injuries to the extremities. About 66.4% of falls associated with cats and 31.3 % of falls associated with dogs were caused by falling or tripping over the pet. An additional 21.2% of falls related to dogs were caused by being pushed or pulled. Although pets were associated with fall injuries, this risk can be reduced by increasing public awareness about situations that can lead to falls, such as dog-walking and chasing pets, and by calling attention to the importance of obedience training for dogs to minimize hazardous behaviors such as pulling and pushing. Fall injuries represent a burden to individuals, our society and our health care system. Increasing public awareness and implementing basic prevention strategies can help people of all ages enjoy their pets, reduce their chances of experiencing pet-related falls, and lessen the impact of fall injuries on our health care system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Prediction of falls and/or near falls in people with mild Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Lindholm

    Full Text Available To determine factors associated with future falls and/or near falls in people with mild PD.The study included 141 participants with PD. Mean (SD age and PD-duration were 68 (9.7 and 4 years (3.9, respectively. Their median (q1-q3 UPDRS III score was 13 (8-18. Those >80 years of age, requiring support in standing or unable to understand instructions were excluded. Self-administered questionnaires targeted freezing of gait, turning hesitations, walking difficulties in daily life, fatigue, fear of falling, independence in activities of daily living, dyskinesia, demographics, falls/near falls history, balance problems while dual tasking and pain. Clinical assessments addressed functional balance performance, retropulsion, comfortable gait speed, motor symptoms and cognition. All falls and near falls were subsequently registered in a diary during a six-month period. Risk factors for prospective falls and/or near falls were determined using logistic regression.Sixty-three participants (45% experienced ≥ 1 fall and/or near fall. Three factors were independent predictors of falls and/or near falls: fear of falling (OR = 1.032, p<0.001 history of near falls (OR = 3.475, p = 0.009 and retropulsion (OR = 2.813, p = 0.035. The strongest contributing factor was fear of falling, followed by a history of near falls and retropulsion.Fear of falling seems to be an important issue to address already in mild PD as well as asking about prior near falls.

  10. Body image satisfaction and depression in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kathryn L; Janssen, Imke; Appelhans, Bradley M; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; Karavolos, Kelly; Dugan, Sheila A; Avery, Elizabeth A; Shipp-Johnson, Karla J; Powell, Lynda H; Kravitz, Howard M

    2014-06-01

    With aging, women's bodies undergo changes that can affect body image perception, yet little is known about body image in midlife. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between body image and depressive symptoms in Caucasian and African-American midlife women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Chicago site. Body image was measured using the Stunkard Adult Female Figure Rating Scale, and a clinically significant level of depressive symptoms was defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score of ≥16 (N=405; N=63 (15.6%) with clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms). Differences between perceived actual, perceived ideal, and actual body size and responses to questions concerning weight satisfaction and attractiveness were examined using logistic regression for associations with a CES-D score of ≥16. Women with body image dissatisfaction (odds ratio (OR)=1.91; p=0.04) or who perceived themselves as "unattractive" (OR=7.74; pbody image may be more likely to have clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Larger prospective studies are needed to better understand this association.

  11. Swan-shaped bone fixation device made of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy for treating humeral fracture in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qing-lin; Zhang, Chun-cai; Gao, Tang-cheng; Xu, Shuo-gui; Ren, Ke

    2003-07-01

    To establish the animal model for treating humeral fracture with swan-shaped bone fixation device made of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy. Models of humeral fractures was established in 30 rabbits and on one side the fracture was fixed with the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy device (SMC side) and on the other with 4-hole dynamic compression plate (DCP side). Anteroposterior radiograph of both humeri were taken at the time points of 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks respectively after operation. All the rabbits survived the experiment and their forelimbs bore obviously less weight than hindlimb. In SMC side, the humeral fracture healed without either osteoporosis or external callus. The fracture healing in DCP side gave rise to obvious external callus formation, and the healing process took significantly longer time than in SMC group. The humerus of rabbit is similar to human humerus in view of their anatomic morphology and biomechanical properties, therefore rabbit humeral fracture models can be ideal for exploring the mechanism of fracture healing induced by the alloy device.

  12. An ugly duckling becomes a swan {hor_ellipsis}: How an organization becomes customer focused through listening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asercion, R.E.; Myer, V.J. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The story we`re about to tell is true and the names have not been changed to protect the innocent because BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR), a subsidiary of the Boeing Company, is proud of its metamorphosis from the ugly duckling of computer support to the shining swan-like star of the Help Desk industry. The transformation occurred in the midst of an all but antiquated computer technology environment, rapid technology changes, low employee morale, and high amount of customer frustration. BCSR, located at the Hanford site in the southeastern corner of Washington State, provides information resource management and computer support to the Department of Energy (DOE) complex located at the site. The primary mission of DOE is environmental restoration and waste clean-up. End User Support (EUS), an organization within BCSR, is tasked with all aspects of microcomputer support, both hardware and software. EUS efficiently and effectively supports approximately 12,000 computer users across the entire 560 square mile site. With a small staff of 50 consultants and technicians, EUS provides support to a diverse customer base that includes engineers and scientists, as well as financial personnel, managers, and clerical support. But it wasn`t always this way. BCSR management recognized it and empowered the EUS staff to make the necessary changes. Here`s how they did it.

  13. Wave energy balance in wave models (SWAN) for semi-enclosed domains-Application to the Catalan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; Espino, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    This study has been motivated by the limited accuracy of wave models under short-duration, fetch-limited conditions. This applies particularly to the wave period, in semi-enclosed domains with highly variable wind patterns as along the Catalan coast. The wave model SWAN version 40.91A is used here in three nested grids covering all the North-western Mediterranean Sea with a grid resolution from 9 to 1 km, forced with high resolution wind patterns from BSC (Barcelona Supercomputing Center) for two study periods, the winter 2010 and the spring 2011. The results are validated in eight locations with different types of instrumentations. In order to improve the results, a modification of the whitecapping term parameters is performed. Also the appropriate frequency integral range used to calculate the integral wave parameters is tested to be sure to compare the simulation results and the measurements for the same frequency interval. The results obtained show a clear improvement of the mean wave period and the peak period for the study area, decreasing considerably the negative bias observed previously, while almost no change is observed in wave height due to the proposed modifications. These results can be generalized to the Spanish Mediterranean coast and may be applicable to study areas with similar characteristics as the ones presented here: semi-enclosed domains with fetch-limited conditions and young sea waves.

  14. Hydraulic characteristics and dynamics of beaver dams in a Midwestern U.S. agricultural waershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.C. McCullough; D.E. Eisenhauer; M.G. Dosskey; D.M. Admiraal

    2006-01-01

    Populations of Noth America beaver (castor canadensis) have increased in the past decades throughout the Midwestern U.S., leading to an increase in the frequency of beaver dams in small streams. Beaver dams form ponds and slow water velocity. Multiple dams create a stair-step effect on the water surface profile. The hydraulic and geomorphic influence of beaver dams on...

  15. Management of agro-pastoral dams in Benin: stakeholders, institutions and rehabilitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Saïdou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Mensah, G.A.; Sinsin, B.A.; Kossou, D.K.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agro-pastoral dams are waterholes constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development. In Benin, agro-pastoral dams are managed by dam management committees. This study seeks to (1) characterize the stakeholders involved in agro-pastoral dam use and management, (2) identify

  16. Management of agro-pastoral dams in Benin: Stakeholders, institutions and rehabilitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Saidou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Mensah, G.A.; Sinsin, B.; Kossou, D.K.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agro-pastoral dams are waterholes constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development. In Benin, agro-pastoral dams are managed by dam management committees. This study seeks to (1) characterize the stakeholders involved in agro-pastoral dam use and management, (2) identify

  17. Linking Three Gorges Dam and downstream hydrological regimes along the Yangtze River, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, X.; Dai, Z.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Gao, J.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of anthropogenic influence, especially dam regulation, on hydrological system is of scientific and practical value for large river management. As the largest dam in the world by far, Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is expected to be a strong evidence on dam impacts on downstream hydrological

  18. National Dam Inspection Program. Converse Lake Dam (CT 00044). Connecticut Coastal Basin, Greenwich, Connecticut. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Rosenstiel Estate. S-: f. Operator - Mr. Fredrick Jansen (Estate Superintendent) (203)661-9168 -’ .g. Purpose of Dam - Recreational - The dam was originally...cut from the downstream slope of the dam by Mr. Jansen , the estate superintendent. N 4.3 MAINTENANCE OF OPERATING FACILITIES ft There is no known...a bre in the blooi’pn.Ts cn o esosn ,71 ncut drainn theo lake or e;: v.atng7 oac C" t J C n o -2 alor A’J 1 Ian toWld that a considerable flow

  19. Masculinity and preventing falls: insights from the fall experiences of men aged 70 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, J L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine; Willis, Karen

    2018-01-11

    To explore men's fall experiences through the lens of masculine identities so as to assist health professionals better engage men in fall prevention programs. Twenty-five men, aged 70-93 years who had experienced a recent fall, participated in a qualitative semi-structured interview. Men's willingness to engage in fall prevention programs taking account of individual contexts and expressions of masculinity, were conceptualised using constant comparative methods. Men's willingness to engage in fall prevention programs was related to their perceptions of the preventability of falls; personal relevance of falls; and age, health, and capability as well as problem-solving styles to prevent falls. Fall prevention advice was rarely given when men accessed the health system at the time of a fall. Contrary to dominant expectations about masculine identity, many men acknowledged fall vulnerability indicating they would attend or consider attending, a fall prevention program. Health professionals can better engage men by providing consistent messages that falls can be prevented; tailoring advice, understanding men are at different stages in their awareness of fall risk and preferences for action; and by being aware of their own assumptions that can act as barriers to speaking with men about fall prevention. Implications for rehabilitation Men accessing the health system at the time of the fall, and during rehabilitation following a fall represent prime opportunities for health professionals to speak with men about preventing falls and make appropriate referrals to community programs. Tailored advice will take account of individual men's perceptions of preventability; personal relevance; perceptions of age, health and capability; and problem-solving styles.

  20. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  1. Gait, mobility, and falls in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Gschwind, Yves Josef

    2012-01-01

    My doctoral thesis contributes to the understanding of gait, mobility, and falls in older people. All presented projects investigated the most prominent and sensitive markers for fall-related gait changes, that is gait velocity and gait variability. Based on the measurement of these spatio-temporal gait parameters, particularly when using a change-sensitive dual task paradigm, it is possible to make conclusions regarding walking, balance, activities of daily living, and falls in o...

  2. [Falls and renal function: a dangerous association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Alfredo; Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Misurati, Elisa; Manfredini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Falls are an important health problem and the risk of falling increases with age. The costs due to falls are related to the progressive decline of patients' clinical conditions, with functional inability inducing increasing social costs, morbidity and mortality. Renal dysfunction is mostly present in elderly people who often have several comorbidities. Risk factors for falls have been classified as intrinsic and extrinsic, and renal dysfunction is included among the former. Chronic kidney disease per se is an important risk factor for falls, and the risk correlates negatively with creatinine clearance. Vitamin D deficiency, dysfunction of muscles and bones, nerve degeneration, cognitive decline, electrolyte imbalance, anemia, and metabolic acidosis have been reported to be associated with falls. Falls seem to be very frequent in dialysis patients: 44% of subjects on hemodialysis fall at least once a year with a 1-year mortality due to fractures of 64%. Male sex, comorbidities, predialysis hypotension, and a history of previous falls are the main risk factors, together with events directly related to renal replacement therapy such as biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane, arrhythmias, fluid overload and length of dialysis treatment. Peripheral nerve degeneration and demyelination as well as altered nerve conduction resulting in muscular weakness and loss of peripheral sensitivity are frequent when the glomerular filtration rate is less than 12 mL/min. Moreover, depression and sleep disorders can also increase the risk of falls. Kidney function is an important parameter to consider when evaluating the risk of falls in the elderly, and the development of specific guidelines for preventing falls in the uremic population should be considered.

  3. Hydroacoustic Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Passage and Distribution at Lookout Point Dam, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Fenton; Johnson, Gary E.; Royer, Ida M.; Hughes, James S.; Fischer, Eric S.; Trott, Donna M.; Ploskey, Gene R.

    2012-05-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at Lookout Point Dam (LOP) on the Middle Fork Willamette River for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE), to provide data to support decisions on long-term measures to enhance downstream passage at LOP and others dams in USACE's Willamette Valley Project. This study was conducted in response to the listing of Upper Willamette River Spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River steelhead (O. mykiss) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. We conducted a hydroacoustic evaluation of juvenile salmonid passage and distribution at LOP during February 2010 through January 2011. Findings from this 1 year of study should be applied carefully because annual variation can be expected due to variability in adult salmon escapement, egg-to-fry and fry-to-smolt survival rates, reservoir rearing and predation, dam operations, and weather. Fish passage rates for smolt-size fish (> {approx}90 mm and < 300 mm) were highest during December-January and lowest in mid-summer through early fall. Passage peaks were also evident in early spring, early summer, and late fall. During the entire study period, an estimated total of 142,463 fish {+-} 4,444 (95% confidence interval) smolt-size fish passed through turbine penstock intakes. Of this total, 84% passed during December-January. Run timing for small-size fish ({approx}65-90 mm) peaked (702 fish) on December 18. Diel periodicity of smolt-size fish showing crepuscular peaks was evident in fish passage into turbine penstock intakes. Relatively few fish passed into the Regulating Outlets (ROs) when they were open in summer (2 fish/d) and winter (8 fish/d). Overall, when the ROs were open, RO efficiency (RO passage divided by total project passage) was 0.004. In linear regression analyses, daily fish passage (turbines and ROs combined) for smolt-size fish was significantly related to

  4. Global perturbation of organic carbon cycling by river damming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maavara, Taylor; Lauerwald, Ronny; Regnier, Pierre; van Cappellen, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The damming of rivers represents one of the most far-reaching human modifications of the flows of water and associated matter from land to sea. Dam reservoirs are hotspots of sediment accumulation, primary productivity (P) and carbon mineralization (R) along the river continuum. Here we show that for the period 1970-2030, global carbon mineralization in reservoirs exceeds carbon fixation (Pchanging age distribution of dams. We further estimate that at the start of the twenty-first century, in-reservoir burial plus mineralization eliminated 4.0+/-0.9 Tmol per year (48+/-11 Tg C per year) or 13% of total organic carbon (OC) carried by rivers to the oceans. Because of the ongoing boom in dam building, in particular in emerging economies, this value could rise to 6.9+/-1.5 Tmol per year (83+/-18 Tg C per year) or 19% by 2030.

  5. Elwha Master Datafile - Elwha dam removal neashore monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Removal of two dams on the Elwha River, Washington will help restore natural sediment processes to the coastal environment near the river mouth. We are interested in...

  6. Eutrophication levels of some South African impoundments III. Roodeplaat Dam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, DJ

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available . The purpose of the study was to determine the present eutrophication status of Roodeplaat dam and the effect of either increased discharges of secondary treated sewage effluents....

  7. Determination of trophic situation of Sarimsakli Dam Lake (Kayseri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    msakl. Dam Lake from May 2001 to June 2002 monthly to determine the trophic situation of lake. Additionally, physical parameters of water such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, light permeability were measured in ...

  8. Dam Failure Effects on Local/Regional Critical Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pîrvuleţu Marius-Eugen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper will focus on multi-hazard assessment following the failure of the Ezer dam on Jijia river. All induced risks are analyzed in terms of critical infrastructure protection, considering three possible failure scenarios.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnside, Philip M.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical dams are often falsely portrayed as ‘clean’ emissions-free energy sources. The letter by de Faria et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 124019) adds to evidence questioning this myth. Calculations are made for 18 dams that are planned or under construction in Brazilian Amazonia and show that emissions from storage hydroelectric dams would exceed those from electricity generation based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels need not be the alternative, because Brazil has vast potential for wind and solar power as well as opportunities for energy conservation. Because dam-building is rapidly shifting to humid tropical areas, where emissions are higher than in other climatic zones, the impact of these emissions needs to be given proper weight in energy-policy decisions.

  10. Bed Sediment Monitoring of Multiple Contiguous Small Dam Removals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, J. C.; Wyrick, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Dam removal is crucial for reconnecting river habitats, restoring passage of fish and other aquatic organisms, and restoring the free flow of water and sediment. However, removal of obsolete dams is often resisted due to concerns of releasing sediment and initiating channel instability. Two dams on the Musconetcong River in northern New Jersey have been removed as part of a watershed-wide effort to remove or breach all major obstructions to restore the river to its original free-flowing state. The two dams were consecutively situated 1 kilometer apart and their removals provided an opportunity to study the geomorphic response in the form of bed elevation changes and sediment size through pre- and post-removal monitoring. Initial geomorphic surveys of the riverbed in the vicinity of and between the two dams have shown areas of erosion and deposition. These surveys have established a set of control points along the river channel between the two dams, and confirm the downstream movement of a sediment plume and localized areas of erosion. At the upstream dam, comparisons pre- and post-dam removal surveys show greater than 100 cubic meters of sediment being both eroded and deposited within the site. Most but not all of the erosion occurred around the newly exposed sediment bar upstream of the former dam, where the thalweg has reestablished itself following the dam’s removal. Areas that were excavated during removal have experienced deposition. Most of the deposition occurred downstream and on the left-hand bank. Due to the two low flow culverts in the former dam, a mid-channel sediment bar formed but has subsequently eroded. At the downstream dam site, erosion has removed up to 1.1 m of sediment from the bed in places while depositing up to 0.5 m sediment in others. As sediment from the former impoundment migrated through the project site, areas excavated during the removal became areas of deposition following the removal, and; alternately, areas in the channel

  11. STUDY ON TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION DUE TO FREEZING AND THAWING AT THE FENGMAN CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Freezing and thawing damage is one of the major problems of the Fengman concrete dam. Based on the temperature records of the dam, appropriate heat transfer boundary conditions in the dam body are suggested. A three-dimensional finite element model is used to determine annual variation of temperature field of the dam as a case study. The deterioration problem of concrete dam owing to freezing and thawing effect is investigated.

  12. Cathode fall measurements in fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtrieb, Robert [Lutron Electronics Co Inc., 7200 Suter Rd., Coopersburg, PA 18036 (United States); Khan, Farheen [Lutron Electronics Co Inc., 7200 Suter Rd., Coopersburg, PA 18036 (United States); Waymouth, John F [Consultant, 16 Bennett Rd. Marblehead, MA 01945 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    We describe an improved method and apparatus for making capacitive measurements of the cathode fall in fluorescent lamps employing known behaviour of anode oscillations to provide a zero-of-potential reference, placing the entire cathode and anode fall waveform on an absolute rather than relative scale. The improved method is applicable to any diameter of fluorescent lamp currently manufactured. We also describe a method and apparatus for making spectroscopic measurements of the cathode fall in fluorescent lamps. This uses the abrupt onset of emission of certain selected spectral lines of the rare gas filling as a signal that the cathode fall has exceeded the excitation potentials of the spectral lines in question.

  13. Riparian Vegetation Encroachment Ratios in rivers below large Dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Jalón, Diego; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; González del Tánago, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Large Dams and reservoirs change the natural flow regime and consequently cause many alterations in riparian vegetation dynamics which may be assessed at different spatial and temporal scales. In Mediterranean regions flow regulation is frequently associated with irrigation. Regulated rivers with this purpose very often show reduced discharges during the wet season when the reservoir is being filled and increased discharges during the dry season when irrigation takes place. This type of regulation frequently promotes riparian vegetation growth as soil moisture levels are increased during summer when a natural drought would otherwise limit its growth. Additionally, flow regulation by large dams promotes the aging of late seral riparian vegetation reducing the frequency of flood disturbance and consequently, the potential recruitment of pioneer species. In this work we study the response of woody riparian vegetation to flow regulation by large dams in four rivers from Central Spain: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadalix and Alberche. The aim is to quantify the annual vegetation encroachment ratios and to develop a model to understand the main controlling factors, such as floodplain and channel traits; flow regulation intensity; type of regulation; present vegetation canopy; distance to the dam; and time since dam commissioning. A temporal comparison using aerial photographs from 1956, 1966, 1972, 1991, 2011 and 2014 was done in thirteen river reaches downstream from large dams, to evaluate their morphological evolution.. Floodplain dimensions and channel and riparian vegetation changes were assessed by comparing different pre-dam and post-dam conditions. Recent coloured photographs with 0.5 m spatial resolution and older black-and-white photographs at 1:33 000 spatial scale were supplied by the National Geographic Institute of Spain (www.ign.es) and the Statistical Institute (www.madrid.org/nomecalles/Inicio.icm) from Madrid Community. Similar visual scales were used to cope

  14. Indirect effects of impoundment on migrating fish: temperature gradients in fish ladders slow dam passage by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Caudill

    Full Text Available Thermal layering in reservoirs upstream from hydroelectric dams can create temperature gradients in fishways used by upstream migrating adults. In the Snake River, Washington, federally-protected adult salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp. often encounter relatively cool water in dam tailraces and lower ladder sections and warmer water in the upstream portions of ladders. Using radiotelemetry, we examined relationships between fish passage behavior and the temperature difference between the top and bottom of ladders (∆T at four dams over four years. Some spring Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha experienced ∆T ≥ 0.5 °C. Many summer and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead (O. mykiss experienced ∆T ≥ 1.0 °C, and some individuals encountered ΔT > 4.0°C. As ΔT increased, migrants were consistently more likely to move down fish ladders and exit into dam tailraces, resulting in upstream passage delays that ranged from hours to days. Fish body temperatures equilibrated to ladder temperatures and often exceeded 20°C, indicating potential negative physiological and fitness effects. Collectively, the results suggest that gradients in fishway water temperatures present a migration obstacle to many anadromous migrants. Unfavorable temperature gradients may be common at reservoir-fed fish passage facilities, especially those with seasonal thermal layering or stratification. Understanding and managing thermal heterogeneity at such sites may be important for ensuring efficient upstream passage and minimizing stress for migratory, temperature-sensitive species.

  15. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  16. The Changing Political Dynamics of Dam Building on the Mekong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Hirsch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores political dynamics surrounding dam building in the Mekong river basin, prior to, and following, the World Commission on Dams (WCD. Since the 1950s, dam building in the Mekong river basin has been enmeshed in a complex and shifting geopolitical and eco-political landscape. The broad geopolitical sweep of US hegemony, Cold War, regional rapprochement and the rise of China has been superimposed on eco-political shifts between modernist belief in progress as mastery over nature, concerns of global and national environmental movements over dams and their impacts, and a galvanised Mekong environmentalism. During the first decade of the 21st century, mainstream dams on the Lower Mekong have returned to the agenda after having almost disappeared in favour of tributary projects. The growing strength and assertiveness of regional economic players has fundamentally altered the context of energy demand, planning and investment. New sources of finance have relocated the points of political leverage. Environment has been mustered in favour of, as well as in opposition to, dam construction in the contexts of climate-change discourses, protected-area linkage with dam projects, and an industry push for sustainability protocols and certification. Despite the Mekong being one of its focal basins, WCD has not played a prominent role in this transformed arena, yet many of the social and environmental concerns, stakeholder-based processes and safeguard-oriented approaches to hydropower planning that WCD brought to the fore have persisted in the wider ethos of politics around dams in the region.

  17. Phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake, Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nese Yilmaz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytoplankton composition of Sazlidere Dam lake was studied at 5 sampling sites between December 2003 - November 2005. A total of 67 taxa were recorded, representing Bacillariophyta (31, Chlorophyta (18, Cyanophyta (9, Chrysophyta (1, Cryptophyta (1, Dinophyta (3 and Euglenophyta (4. Bacillariophyta members constituted the dominant phytoplankton group in terms of species number. Nygaard’s compound index value and composition of phytoplankton indicate that the trophic state of Sazlidere Dam lake was changing from oligotrophic to mesotrophic.

  18. (Pisces, Cyprinidae) in Wuras Dam, a shallow, turbid impoundment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an important role in energy cycling. In Wuras Dam, in which energy cycling is detritus-based, this species makes up 70"70 of the mass of fish (Pieterse & Keulder 1982). Wuras Dam is situated in the central highveld area of South. Africa (19°4O'S126°00E) in the Fourie Spruit, an annual tributary of the Modder River, Orange ...

  19. How Do Community-Dwelling Persons with Alzheimer Disease Fall Falls in the FINALEX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko M. Perttila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: People with dementia are at high risk for falls. However, little is known of the features causing falls in Alzheimer disease (AD. Our aim was to investigate how participants with AD fall. Methods: In the FINALEX (Finnish Alzheimer Disease Exercise Trial study, participants’ (n = 194 falls were followed up for 1 year by diaries kept by their spouses. Results: The most common reason for falls (n = 355 was stumbling (n = 61. Of the falls, 123 led to injuries, 50 to emergency department visits, and 13 to fractures. The participants without falls (n = 103 were younger and had milder dementia than those with 1 (n = 34 or ≥2 falls (n = 57. Participants with a Mini Mental State Examination score of around 10 points were most prone to fall. In adjusted regression models, good nutritional status, good physical functioning, and use of antihypertensive medication (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–0.85 protected against falls, whereas fall history (IRR 2.71, 95% CI 2.13–3.44, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher number of drugs, drugs with anticholinergic properties, psychotropics, and opioids (IRR 4.27, 95% CI 2.92–6.24 were risk factors for falls. Conclusions: Our study provides a detailed account on how and why people with AD fall, suggesting several risk and protective factors.

  20. Dementia as a risk factor for falls and fall injuries among nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Carol; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Hebel, J Richard; Port, Cynthia L; Baumgarten, Mona; Quinn, Charlene C; Taler, George; May, Conrad; Magaziner, Jay

    2003-09-01

    To compare rates of falling between nursing home residents with and without dementia and to examine dementia as an independent risk factor for falls and fall injuries. Prospective cohort study with 2 years of follow-up. Fifty-nine randomly selected nursing homes in Maryland, stratified by geographic region and facility size. Two thousand fifteen newly admitted residents aged 65 and older. During 2 years after nursing home admission, fall data were collected from nursing home charts and hospital discharge summaries. The unadjusted fall rate for residents in the nursing home with dementia was 4.05 per year, compared with 2.33 falls per year for residents without dementia (Pinjurious falls was higher than for residents without dementia. Dementia is an independent risk factor for falling. Although most falls do not result in injury, the fact that residents with dementia fall more often than their counterparts without dementia leaves them with a higher overall risk of sustaining injurious falls over time. Nursing home residents with dementia should be considered important candidates for fall-prevention and fall-injury-prevention strategies.