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Sample records for swallows tachycineta bicolor

  1. Transgenerational effects of maternal immune challenge in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, G.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The fact that avian eggs contain antibody of maternal origin is well documented, but only recently has this phenomenon been considered in an ecological context. We used tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to examine the possibility of transgenerational immunity and its effect on nestling growth and

  2. Mercury and other element exposure to tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Hoffman, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated mercury concentrations in water were reported in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, ND. In order to determine whether wildlife associated with these wetlands was exposed to and then accumulated higher mercury concentrations than wildlife living near more permanent wetlands (e.g. lakes), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from nests near seasonal wetlands, semi-permanent wetlands, and lakes. Mercury concentrations in eggs collected near seasonal wetlands were higher than those collected near semi-permanent wetlands or lakes. In contrast, mercury concentrations in nestling livers did not differ among wetland types. Mercury and other element concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestlings collected from all wetlands were low. As suspected from these low concentrations, mercury concentrations in sample eggs were not a significant factor explaining the hatching success of the remaining eggs in each clutch. - Mercury concentrations in tree swallows nesting in the prairie wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge were not elevated

  3. Health assessment of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the oil sands using stress, immune function and growth indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sand mining companies in Alberta continue to explore reclamation strategies for tailings water and are evaluating the ecological effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the bioremediation of liquid and solid tailings contaminated with naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dissolved inorganic ions. The success of reclaimed sites and ecosystem health can be measured by examining health variables in wild tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting on experimental wetlands receiving tailings or water from tailings ponds. This presentation reported on a study that measured clutch size, egg mass, and hatching and fledging success of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows on 3 experimental wetlands on Suncor Energy Inc. and Syncrude Canada Ltd. oil sands leases. The Shallow Wetlands/Demonstration Pond (Syncrude), Consolidated Tailings and Natural Wetlands (Suncor) represent sites of different ages and different categories of wetland reclamation, notably mature, maturing, and newly reclaimed. Due to lack of nesting success on the selected reference site, the Shallow Wetlands/Demonstration Pond was selected as the reference site because it has undergone nearly complete bioremediation and had a very low level of contamination. Nestling growth and survival were measured in 199 tree swallows nestlings on the 3 experimental wetlands. Two mid-weight nestlings from 12 nest boxes on each study site were also examined for feather corticosterone levels and adaptive immune function.

  4. Chromosomal damage and EROD induction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) along the Upper Mississippi River, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilie Bigorgne,; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Erickson, Richard A.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Cole W. Matson,

    2015-01-01

    The health of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, on the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) was assessed in 2010 and 2011 using biomarkers at six sites downriver of Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area, a tributary into the UMR, and a nearby lake. Chromosomal damage was evaluated in nestling blood by measuring the coefficient of variation of DNA content (DNA CV) using flow cytometry. Cytochrome P450 1A activity in nestling liver was measured using the ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) assay, and oxidative stress was estimated in nestling livers via determination of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio GSSG/GSH, total sulfhydryl, and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH). A multilevel regression model (DNA CV) and simple regressions (EROD and oxidative stress) were used to evaluate biomarker responses for each location. Chromosomal damage was significantly elevated at two sites on the UMR (Pigs Eye and Pool 2) relative to the Green Mountain Lake reference site, while the induction of EROD activity was only observed at Pigs Eye. No measures of oxidative stress differed among sites. Multivariate analysis confirmed an increased DNA CV at Pigs Eye and Pool 2, and elevated EROD activity at Pigs Eye. These results suggest that the health of tree swallows has been altered at the DNA level at Pigs Eye and Pool 2 sites, and at the physiological level at Pigs Eye site only.

  5. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  6. Synthesis of tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) data for Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) assessment at Wisconsin Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul

    2018-03-20

    Assessment of the “Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproductive Problems” Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) can be accomplished by (1) comparing tissue concentrations to established background and Lowest Observable Effect Level (LOEL) for reproductive effects, or (2) directly measuring reproductive success at Areas of Concern (AOCs) and statistically comparing those rates to minimally impacted reference locations (non-AOCs). Results from recent tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) publications were used to evaluate this BUI based on both approaches. For both endpoints, a 95-percent confidence interval (CI) was used to test for significant differences. Additional information on BUIs, AOCs, and the program in general can be found in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (2012).For the first metric, there are good background and reproductive effect threshold LOELs for tree swallow egg concentrations for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and mercury, as well as, for some other organic and inorganic contaminants. For the second assessment, comparisons were made between AOC and non-AOC sites for reproductive success, which was measured as the daily probability of egg failure and the percentage of eggs laid that hatched. Multistate modeling was used to assess whether there was an association between the daily probability of egg failure and a suite of contaminants, including PCBs, but also whether there was an association with ecological variables, such as female age and date within season. Both of these ecological variables are known to affect hatching success in birds. The objective of this report is to synthesize the previously published information to assist in the assessment of the “Bird or Animal Deformities or Reproductive Problems” BUI at 16 sites within the 5 Wisconsin AOCs (table 1). The logic behind this interpretation is applicable to other AOCs as well.

  7. Annual variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings at Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of five eggs or five nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in two randomly selected sets of five eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency, both statistically and qualitatively, for there to be less exposure in the second year compared to the first year.

  8. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  9. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Harms, N., E-mail: naomi.harms@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Fairhurst, Graham D., E-mail: graham.fairhurst@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Bortolotti, Gary R., E-mail: gary.bortolotti@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  10. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jane Harms, N.; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  11. Analysis of the Optimal Duration of Behavioral Observations Based on an Automated Continuous Monitoring System in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor: Is One Hour Good Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Z Lendvai

    Full Text Available Studies of animal behavior often rely on human observation, which introduces a number of limitations on sampling. Recent developments in automated logging of behaviors make it possible to circumvent some of these problems. Once verified for efficacy and accuracy, these automated systems can be used to determine optimal sampling regimes for behavioral studies. Here, we used a radio-frequency identification (RFID system to quantify parental effort in a bi-parental songbird species: the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor. We found that the accuracy of the RFID monitoring system was similar to that of video-recorded behavioral observations for quantifying parental visits. Using RFID monitoring, we also quantified the optimum duration of sampling periods for male and female parental effort by looking at the relationship between nest visit rates estimated from sampling periods with different durations and the total visit numbers for the day. The optimum sampling duration (the shortest observation time that explained the most variation in total daily visits per unit time was 1h for both sexes. These results show that RFID and other automated technologies can be used to quantify behavior when human observation is constrained, and the information from these monitoring technologies can be useful for evaluating the efficacy of human observation methods.

  12. Effects of in ovo exposure to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) on heart development in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Tiffany; Walker, Mary K; Dean, Karen M; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs from 2 uncontaminated sites, the Patuxent Research Refuge (Laurel, MD, USA) and the Cobleskill Reservoir (Cobleskill, NY, USA) were dosed with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 77 to evaluate effects on the developing cardiovascular system. To ensure embryonic viability, treatments were administered into the air cell at embryonic day 2.5 including: untreated (control), vehicle (filtered sterilized fatty acid mixture), 100 ng/g and 1000 ng/g egg. Eggs were dosed in the field with 0.2 μL/egg, returned to the nest, collected at embryonic day 13, hatched in the laboratory, and necropsied. The PCB 77-treated hatchlings were compared with uninjected, vehicle-injected, and environmentally exposed hatchlings collected from a PCB-contaminated Upper Hudson River (NY, USA) site. The PCB 77-treated embryos showed no effects on hatching success or hatchling mortality, heart index, or morphological measures of 4 distinct heart layers (heart width, length, septal thickness, total and ventricular cavity area) compared with controls. Hatchlings that had received PCB 77 exhibited increased incidence of a cardiomyopathy and absence of the ventricular heart wall compact layer (Chi square test; p PCB 77 resulted in distinct cardiomyopathy has implications for long-term individual fitness. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:116-125. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. Effects of oil sands tailings compounds and harsh weather on mortality rates, growth and detoxification efforts in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Marie-Line [Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: marie-line.gentes@usask.ca; Waldner, Cheryl [Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: cheryl.waldner@usask.ca; Papp, Zsuzsanna [Toxicology Research Centre, 44 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B3 (Canada)]. E-mail: zsp127@duke.usask.ca; Smits, Judit E.G. [Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B4 (Canada)]. E-mail: judit.smits@usask.ca

    2006-07-15

    Oil sands mining companies in Alberta, Canada, are evaluating the feasibility of using wetlands to detoxify oil sands process material (OSPM) as a reclamation strategy. Reproductive success, nestling growth, survival and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on experimental wetlands. In 2003, harsh weather triggered a widespread nestling die-off. Mortality rates on the control site reached 48% while they ranged from 59% to 100% on reclaimed wetlands. The odds of dying on the most process-affected sites were more than ten times higher than those on the control site. In 2004, weather was less challenging. Mortality rates were low, but nestlings on reclaimed wetlands weighed less than those on the control site, and had higher EROD activity. These results indicate that compared with reference birds, nestlings from OSPM-impacted wetlands may be less able to withstand additional stressors, which could decrease their chances of survival after fledging. - Under natural stress caused by harsh weather, birds exposed to chemicals from the oil sands extraction process suffered higher mortality than those in control areas.

  14. Effects of oil sands tailings compounds and harsh weather on mortality rates, growth and detoxification efforts in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Waldner, Cheryl; Papp, Zsuzsanna; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2006-01-01

    Oil sands mining companies in Alberta, Canada, are evaluating the feasibility of using wetlands to detoxify oil sands process material (OSPM) as a reclamation strategy. Reproductive success, nestling growth, survival and ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on experimental wetlands. In 2003, harsh weather triggered a widespread nestling die-off. Mortality rates on the control site reached 48% while they ranged from 59% to 100% on reclaimed wetlands. The odds of dying on the most process-affected sites were more than ten times higher than those on the control site. In 2004, weather was less challenging. Mortality rates were low, but nestlings on reclaimed wetlands weighed less than those on the control site, and had higher EROD activity. These results indicate that compared with reference birds, nestlings from OSPM-impacted wetlands may be less able to withstand additional stressors, which could decrease their chances of survival after fledging. - Under natural stress caused by harsh weather, birds exposed to chemicals from the oil sands extraction process suffered higher mortality than those in control areas

  15. Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) used to assess a Beneficial Use Impairment in U.S. and Binational Great Lakes’ Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Etterson, Matthew A.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates. Four of 5 ecological variables (Female Age, Date within season, Year, and Site) were important explanatory variables. Of the 11 contaminants, only total dioxin and furan toxic equivalents (TEQs) explained a significant amount of the egg failure probabilities. Neither total PCBs nor PCB TEQs explained the variation in egg failure rates. In a separate analysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in nestling diet, used as a proxy for female diet during egg laying, was significantly correlated with the daily probability of egg failure. The 8 sites within AOCs which had poorer reproduction when compared to 10 non-AOC sites, the measure of impaired reproduction as defined by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, were associated with exposure to dioxins and furan TEQs, PAHs, or depredation. Only 2 sites had poorer reproduction than the poorest performing non-AOC. Using a classic (non-modeling) approach to estimating reproductive success, 82% of nests hatched at least 1 egg, and 75% of eggs laid, excluding those collected for contaminant analyses, hatched.

  16. EROD activity, chromosomal damage, and oxidative stress in response to contaminants exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings from Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Bigorgne, Emilie; Oziolor, Elias; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Erickson, Richard A.; Aagaard, Kevin; Matson, Cole W.

    2017-01-01

    Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis. Contaminant concentrations, from the same nestlings, included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 17 elements. Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) and parent PAHs (pPAHs) were measured in pooled nestling dietary samples. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and pesticides were measured in sibling eggs. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, and PCBs, in that order, were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest EROD activities; PFCs, PBDEs, the remaining pesticides, and all elements were of secondary importance. The four categories of chromosomal damage did not separate out well based on the contaminants measured. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, heptachlor, PCBs, chlordane, and dieldrin were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest activities of two oxidative stress measures, total sulfhydryl (TSH) activity and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) activity. The four categories of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the ratio of GSSG/GSH did not separate well based on the contaminants measured.

  17. Relating zoobenthic and emergent terrestrial insect production to tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestling diet in oil sands wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoms, J.L.; Martin, J.P.; Ciborowski, J.J. [Windsor Univ., Windsor, ON (Canada); Harms, N.J.; Smits, J.E. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the influence of oil sands process materials (OSPM) on wetland macroinvertebrate community composition and production. Tree swallows are known to inhabit constructed nest boxes and forage near their nest on flying insects of terrestrial and aquatic origin. Therefore, this study evaluated the structure of wetland food webs and how it relates to the transfer of production from aquatic sediments to nestling tree swallows. The study involved 2 reference and 2 oil sands affected wetlands. Exuviae of emerging aquatic and flying insects from floating and sticky traps were collected every 3 days during the tree swallow nestling period in order to estimate benthic invertebrate composition and production. The tree swallow nest boxes, placed around the perimeter of the wetlands in spring were monitored during egg laying and incubation. Diets of the 10-14 day-old nestlings were determined by placing a ligature around the neck of each nestling, preventing the passage of food into the esophagus for 45 min. Food boluses were collected from nestlings fed by the parents during that time. The study showed that although oil sands-affected wetlands had lower aerial insect abundance, they represented over half of the total boluses collected. It was concluded that this study will help determine the ecological viability of oil sands-affected wetlands and their capability of supporting terrestrial predators that rely on zoobenthos.

  18. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  19. Differences in size between first and replacement clutches match the seasonal decline in single clutches in Tree Swallows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagicheva, J.; Liebers, M.; Rakhimberdiev, E.; Hallinger, K.; Saveliev, A.; Winkler, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal decline in clutch size in birds can be a response to the environmentallyconditioned decrease in prospects for offspring or a consequence of a lower physical abilityof late-breeding females. To find out which of the explanations apply in Tree SwallowsTachycineta bicolor, we assessed

  20. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina First record of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae in Chilean swallow nests Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aramburú

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.Chilean swallows Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis nest in the central area in Chile and Southwest in Argentina. In winter, they migrate to Bolivia, Paraguay and Southeast of Brazil. A nest box population of Chilean swallows was established in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. After the breeding season, we collected all nests, treated them with ethyl acetate, and inspected all the nest material for hematophagous arthropods. We found adult fleas, which were fixed, cleared, diaphanized, dehydrated, and mounted in a clove derivative for observation under a microscope. We identified males and females of Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. In Argentina, this flea is only known for Sierra de la Ventana

  1. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  2. Mercury and other element exposure in tree swallows nesting at low pH and neutral pH lakes in northern Wisconsin USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Dummer, Paul M.; Rossmann, Ronald; Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) demonstrate similar responses to lake pH and mercury (Hg) contamination in northern Wisconsin as do common loons (Gavia immer). Similar to common loons, Hg concentrations in the blood of tree swallow nestlings were higher, Hg concentrations in eggs tended to be higher, and egg size tended to be smaller at low (<6.2) pH lakes. In contrast to common loons, tree swallow nestling production was not lower at low pH lakes. Based on modeling associations, Hg concentrations in tree swallow eggs and nestling blood can be used to predict Hg concentrations in common loons without the invasive or destructive sampling of loons. Mean concentrations of cadmium, manganese, and mercury in nestling livers were higher at low pH lakes than neutral pH lakes. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, mercury, selenium, and zinc were not at toxic levels. - Highlights: ► Mercury concentrations in tree swallow nestling livers were higher in low than neutral pH lakes. ► Tree swallow eggs were smaller at low than neutral pH lakes. ► Tree swallow hatching success was not correlated with mercury concentrations in eggs. ► Mercury concentrations in tree swallows can be used to predict common loon exposure. - Mercury concentrations in tree swallows were higher at low pH lakes.

  3. Trace element concentrations and bioindicator responses in tree swallows from northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Warburton, D.; Hoffman, D.J.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Extremely high concentrations of cadmium (3.5 ug/g dry wgt.) and elevated concentrations of chromium (>10 ug/g dry wgt.) and mercury (1.6 ug/g dry wgt.) were reported in waterbird tissues at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in northwestern Minnesota in 1994. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied during 1998-2001 at three drainages into the Refuge, two pools on the Refuge, and at a nearby reference location to document whether high levels of contaminants were still present, and if so to quantify the source and severity of the contamination. Trace elements were measured in tree swallow eggs, livers, and diet. Reproductive success and bioindicator responses were monitored. In 2000, water was drawn down on Agassiz Pool, one of the main pools on the Refuge. This presented an opportunity to evaluate the response of trace element concentrations in the diet and tissues of tree swallows after reflooding. High concentrations of trace elements were not detected in swallow tissues, nor were there differences among locations. Less than 20% of swallow samples had detectable concentrations of cadmium or chromium. Mercury concentrations were low and averaged Bioindicator measurements were within the normal ranges as well.

  4. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  5. Riparian swallows as integrators of landscape change in a multiuse river system: implications for aquatic-to-terrestrial transfers of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Jeremy M; Sullivan, S Mažeika P; Kautza, A

    2013-10-01

    Recent research has highlighted the transfer of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via predation of aquatic emergent insects by riparian consumers. The influence of adjacent land use and land cover (LULC) on aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transfer, however, has received limited attention. From 2010 to 2012, at 11 river reaches in the Scioto River basin (OH, USA), we investigated the relationships between LULC and selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in four species of riparian swallows. Hg concentrations in swallows were significantly higher at rural reaches than at urban reaches (t=-3.58, Pemergent insects. For example, tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at urban reaches exhibited a higher proportion of aquatic prey in their diet, fed at a higher trophic level, and exhibited elevated Se levels. We also found that both Se and Hg concentrations in adult swallows were significantly higher than those observed in nestlings at both urban and rural reaches (Se: t=-2.83, P=0.033, df=3; Hg: t=-3.22, P=0.024, df=3). Collectively, our results indicate that riparian swallows integrate contaminant exposure in linked aquatic-terrestrial systems and that LULC may strongly regulate aquatic contaminant flux to terrestrial consumers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Trejo, Bonnie S.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Crayon, John J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  7. Innate immunity is not related to the sex of adult Tree Swallows during the nestling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Bradley J.; Lombardo, Michael P.; Thorpe, Patrick A.; Hahn, D. Caldwell

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that exposure to more diverse pathogens will result in the evolution of a more robust immune response. We predicted that during the breeding season the innate immune function of female Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) should be more effective than that of males because (1) the transmission of sexually transmitted microbes during copulation puts females at greater risk because ejaculates move from males to females, (2) females copulate with multiple males, exposing them to the potentially pathogenic microbes in semen, and (3) females spend more time in the nest than do males so may be more exposed to nest microbes and ectoparasites that can be vectors of bacterial and viral pathogens. In addition, elevated testosterone in males may suppress immune function. We tested our prediction during the 2009 breeding season with microbicidal assays in vitro to assess the ability of the innate immune system to kill Escherichia coli. The sexes did not differ in the ability of their whole blood to kill E. coli. We also found no significant relationships between the ability of whole blood to kill E. coli and the reproductive performance or the physical condition of males or females. These results indicate that during the nestling period there are no sexual differences in this component of the innate immune system. In addition, they suggest that there is little association between this component of innate immunity and the reproductive performance and physical condition during the nestling period of adult Tree Swallows.

  8. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  9. Behavioral Differences among Eastern Bluebird Populations Could Be a Consequence of Tree Swallow Presence: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria N. Albers

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive interference competition for limited resources is frequently observed among animals. However, these behavioral interactions within (intraspecific and between (interspecific species are costly as they can be energetically expensive and cause injury or death. To avoid these agonistic interactions, numerous species alter their behaviors and resource requirements. Spatial variation in nest site competition allows for investigation of concurrent variation in territorial defense behavior. Further, among species with bi-parental nest defense, behavioral similarity in territorial defense may benefit pairs. Here, we studied territorial aggression between two eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis populations (North Carolina and Alabama, USA that differ in avian community structure; those in North Carolina have recently begun to experience strong interspecific competition for nesting cavities by tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor, a competitive pressure that is relatively new for North Carolina bluebirds (~35–40 years and is absent in Alabama populations. We found that bluebirds in North Carolina are more aggressive to simulated territorial intrusions compared to their Alabama counterparts. Behavioral similarity (here, in aggression between partners is strong and similar in both populations. These results suggest that bluebirds in North Carolina may have to maintain higher baseline aggression during territory establishment and nest construction to co-occur with highly aggressive tree swallows, but that, in both populations, behavioral similarity between partners may be adaptive. Finally, we acknowledge the preliminary nature of this study and the need for expanding the behavioral studies to other sites in the southeastern United States. Greater regional coverage would exclude the possibility of alternative drivers of the observed behavioral differences between the North Carolina and Alabama populations.

  10. Mercury concentrations in eggs of red-winged blackbirds and tree swallows breeding in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyser, Robin W.; Rolfhus, Kristofer R.; Wiener, James G.; Windels, Steve K.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most investigations of the environmental effects of mercury (Hg) have focused on aquatic food webs that include piscivorous fish or wildlife. However, recent investigations have shown that other species, including passerine songbirds, may also be at risk from exposure to methylmercury (MeHg). We quantified Hg concentrations in eggs of two species of songbirds, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), nesting in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Geometric mean concentrations of total Hg (THg) were lower in red-winged blackbird eggs [218 and 107 ng/g dry weight (dw) for 2012 and 2013, respectively] than in tree swallow eggs (228 and 300 ng/g dw for 2012 and 2013, respectively), presumably reflecting differences in the trophic positions of these two species. Concentrations of MeHg averaged 98.4 % of THg in red-winged blackbird eggs. Levels of THg observed in this study were well below critical toxicological benchmarks commonly applied to eggs of avian species, suggesting these breeding populations were not adversely affected by exposure to MeHg. In red-winged blackbirds, concentrations of THg in eggs collected in 2012 were twice those in eggs collected in 2013. Hg levels in eggs of both species increased with date of clutch initiation. In red-winged blackbirds, for example, temporal patterns showed that a 3-week delay in clutch initiation increased egg THg by 60 %. These observations indicate that in ovo exposure of wetland birds to MeHg can vary significantly within nesting season as well as between years.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment: Demolition/Restoration of Ipswich Antenna Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    starling (Sturnus vulgaris ), blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), northern cardinal...southern building, while gray squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis) nests were observed in the overstory within forested uplands. The adjacent Great Neck

  12. Detoxification, endocrine, and immune responses of tree swallow nestlings naturally exposed to air contaminants from the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Fernie, Kim J; Soos, Catherine; Harner, Tom; Getachew, Fitsum; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-01-01

    Changes in environmental and wildlife health from contaminants in tailings water on the Canadian oil sands have been well-studied; however, effects of air contaminants on wildlife health have not. A field study was conducted to assess biological costs of natural exposure to oil sands-related air emissions on birds. Nest boxes for tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were erected at two sites; within 5 km of active oil sands mining and extraction, and ≥ 60 km south, at one reference site. Passive air monitors were deployed at the nest boxes to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nestlings were examined at day 9 post hatching to assess T cell function and morphometry. At day 14 post hatching, a subset of nestlings was euthanized to measure detoxification enzymes, endocrine changes, and histological alterations of immune organs. Except for ozone, all air contaminants were higher at the two oil sands sites than the reference site (up to 5-fold). Adult birds had similar reproductive performance among sites (p>0.05). Nestlings from industrial sites showed higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) induction (p0.6), and no histological alterations in the spleen or bursa of Fabricius (p>0.05). This is the first report examining toxicological responses in wild birds exposed to air contaminants from industrial activity in the oil sands. It is also the first time that small, individual air contaminant monitors have been used to determine local contaminant levels in ambient air around nest boxes of wild birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Consequences of immune system aging in nature: a study of immunosenescence costs in free-living Tree Swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Winkler, David W; Klasing, Kirk C; Hasselquist, Dennis; Vleck, Carol M

    2011-04-01

    Immunosenescence, the aging of the immune system, is well documented in humans and laboratory models and is known to increase infection risk, morbidity, and mortality among the old. Immunosenescence patterns have recently been unveiled in various free-living populations, but their consequences in the wild have not been explored. We investigated the consequences of immunosenescence in free-living Tree Swallows Tachycineta bicolor through a field experiment simulating a bacterial infection (challenge with lipopolysaccharide, LPS) in females of different ages during the nestling rearing period. We assessed behavioral and physiological responses of females, as well as growth and quality of their offspring, to determine the costs associated with the simulated infection. Results of the experiment differed between the two years of study. In the first year, old females challenged with LPS lost more body mass and reduced their nest visitation rates more, and their offspring tended to grow slower compared to similarly challenged younger females. In contrast, in the second year, old females did not appear to suffer larger costs than younger ones. Interestingly, immunosenescence was only detected during the first year of the study, suggesting that it is the dysregulated immune function characteristic of immunosenescent individuals rather than age per se that can lead to higher costs of immune defense in old individuals. These results provide the first evidence of costs of immunosenescence in free-living animals and support the hypothesis that old, immunosenescent individuals pay higher costs than younger ones when faced with a challenge to their immune system. Our results also suggest that these costs are mediated by an exaggerated sickness behavior, as seen in laboratory models, and can be modulated by ecological factors such as weather conditions and food availability.

  14. Swallowing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and other swallowing tests Chest x-ray Esophageal pH monitoring (measures acid in the esophagus) Esophageal manometry ( ... Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 10th ed. ...

  15. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lillian

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the important cereal crops utilized worldwide for human food, animal ... The Kenyan government recognizes the importance of drought- tolerant crops like sorghum in .... the intra-plant competition for nutrients, water and sunlight. Seed rates depend on the.

  16. Robot bicolor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaba, Kazuo

    1999-03-01

    In case of robot vision, most important problem is the processing speed of acquiring and analyzing images are less than the speed of execution of the robot. In an actual robot color vision system, it is considered that the system should be processed at real time. We guessed this problem might be solved using by the bicolor analysis technique. We have been testing a system which we hope will give us insight to the properties of bicolor vision. The experiment is used the red channel of a color CCD camera and an image from a monochromatic camera to duplicate McCann's theory. To mix the two signals together, the mono image is copied into each of the red, green and blue memory banks of the image processing board and then added the red image to the red bank. On the contrary, pure color images, red, green and blue components are obtained from the original bicolor images in the novel color system after the scaling factor is added to each RGB image. Our search for a bicolor robot vision system was entirely successful.

  17. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  18. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Barium Swallow - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Swallowing Problems - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual ...

  19. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  20. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hallucinations/Delusions Pain Skeletal & Bone Health Skin Changes Sleep Disorders Small Handwriting Speech & Swallowing Problems Urinary Incontinence Vision Changes Weight Management Diagnosis Treatment Help Us Make a Difference We need your ...

  1. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Different textures of food are often given. The barium is a contrast material that makes the food and liquid show ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  2. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink 1 to 2 cups of barium. The barium is a contrast material that makes liquids show up on the ... MRI Intravenous Contrast Information MRI with or without Contrast Small Bowel Follow Through (SBFT) Tailored Barium Swallow Study The Upper GI Study (GI Series) ...

  3. Overdrinking, swallowing inhibition, and regional brain responses prior to swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saker, Pascal; Farrell, Michael J; Egan, Gary F; McKinley, Michael J; Denton, Derek A

    2016-10-25

    In humans, drinking replenishes fluid loss and satiates the sensation of thirst that accompanies dehydration. Typically, the volume of water drunk in response to thirst matches the deficit. Exactly how this accurate metering is achieved is unknown; recent evidence implicates swallowing inhibition as a potential factor. Using fMRI, this study investigated whether swallowing inhibition is present after more water has been drunk than is necessary to restore fluid balance within the body. This proposal was tested using ratings of swallowing effort and measuring regional brain responses as participants prepared to swallow small volumes of liquid while they were thirsty and after they had overdrunk. Effort ratings provided unequivocal support for swallowing inhibition, with a threefold increase in effort after overdrinking, whereas addition of 8% (wt/vol) sucrose to water had minimal effect on effort before or after overdrinking. Regional brain responses when participants prepared to swallow showed increases in the motor cortex, prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortex, striatum, and thalamus after overdrinking, relative to thirst. Ratings of swallowing effort were correlated with activity in the right prefrontal cortex and pontine regions in the brainstem; no brain regions showed correlated activity with pleasantness ratings. These findings are all consistent with the presence of swallowing inhibition after excess water has been drunk. We conclude that swallowing inhibition is an important mechanism in the overall regulation of fluid intake in humans.

  4. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  5. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  6. Inappropriate Timing of Swallow in the Respiratory Cycle Causes Breathing–Swallowing Discoordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Yagi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Swallowing during inspiration and swallowing immediately followed by inspiration increase the chances of aspiration and may cause disease exacerbation. However, the mechanisms by which such breathing–swallowing discoordination occurs are not well-understood.Objectives: We hypothesized that breathing–swallowing discoordination occurs when the timing of the swallow in the respiratory cycle is inappropriate. To test this hypothesis, we monitored respiration and swallowing activity in healthy subjects and in patients with dysphagia using a non-invasive swallowing monitoring system.Measurements and Main Results: The parameters measured included the timing of swallow in the respiratory cycle, swallowing latency (interval between the onset of respiratory pause and the onset of swallow, pause duration (duration of respiratory pause for swallowing, and the breathing–swallowing coordination pattern. We classified swallows that closely follow inspiration (I as I-SW, whereas those that precede I as SW-I pattern. Patients with dysphagia had prolonged swallowing latency and pause duration, and tended to have I-SW or SW-I patterns reflecting breathing–swallows discoordination.Conclusions: We conclude that swallows at inappropriate timing in the respiratory cycle cause breathing–swallowing discoordination, and the prolongation of swallowing latency leads to delayed timing of the swallow, and results in an increase in the SW-I pattern in patients with dysphagia.

  7. Acoustical modeling of swallowing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Samaneh Sarraf; Moussavi, Zahra M K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical modeling of the swallowing sound generation is presented. To evaluate the model, its application on swallowing disorder (dysphagia) diagnosis is discussed. As a starting point, a simple linear time invariant model is assumed to represent the pharyngeal wall and tissue excited by a train of impulses. The modeling is approached by two different assumptions. In one approach, it is assumed that the impulse train, representing the neural activities to trigger swallow, is the same for both groups of control and dysphagic, and it is the pharyngeal model that accounts for the difference between the two groups. On the other hand, in the second approach, it is assumed that the pharyngeal response is the same for both groups, but the neural activities to initiate the swallow are different between the two groups. The results show that the second approach complies better with the physiological characteristics of swallowing mechanism as it provides a much better discrimination between the swallowing sounds of control and dysphagic groups of this study. Though, it should be noted that our dysphagic group subjects were cerebral palsy and stroke patients. Hence, the model accounting for initiation of neural activities is reasonable to show better results.

  8. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz

    2005-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylopyranoside. The...

  9. Flavonoids from the Leaves of Impatiens bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Aurangzeb HASAN and Muhammad Nawaz; HASAN, Aurangzeb

    2014-01-01

    Three new flavanone glycosides, naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, naringenin 4'-O-a-L rham\\-nopyranoside and naringenin 4'-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, were characterized from the leaves of Impatiens bicolor, together with 6 known glycosides: naringenin 4'-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 5-O-b-D-xylopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-b-D-galactopyranoside and kaempferol 7-O-b-D-xylo...

  10. Antimicrobial screening of impatiens bicolor royle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisar, M.; Ali, I.; Qayum, M.; Kaleem, W.A.; Shah, R.M.; Zia-ul-Haq, M.

    2010-01-01

    Extracts of Impatiens bicolor Royle obtained from n-hexane (A); dichloromethane (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), aqueous (E) as well as crude (F) were tested In vitro for their antibacterial and antifungal activities. Antibacterial study performed against 6 bacteria viz., Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Shigella flexenari, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi indicated that crude and its fractions had no activity at all against any microorganism. The antifungal activity of these extracts was performed against 6 fungi viz., Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergilus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The extracts showed moderate activity against different fungal strains. (author)

  11. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  12. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  13. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination and Swallowing Safety in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Irene; Rosenbek, John C.; Okun, Michael S.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) demonstrate abnormal respiratory events when swallowing thin liquids. In addition, this study sought to define associations between respiratory events, swallowing apnea duration, and penetration–aspiration (P–A) scale scores. Thirty-nine individuals with PD were administered ten trials of a 5-ml thin liquid bolus. P–A scale score quantified the presence of penetration and aspiration during the swallowing of a 3-oz sequential bolus. Participants were divided into two groups based on swallowing safety judged during the 3-oz sequential swallowing: Group 1 = P–A ≤ 2; Group 2 = P–A ≥ 3. Swallows were examined using videofluoroscopy coupled with a nasal cannula to record respiratory signals during the event(s). Findings indicated that expiration was the predominant respiratory event before and after swallowing apnea. The data revealed no differences in our cohort versus the percentages of post-swallowing events reported in the literature for healthy adults. In addition, individuals with decreased swallowing safety, as measured by the P–A scale, were more likely to inspire after swallows and to have shorter swallowing apnea duration. Individuals who inspired before swallow also had longer swallowing apnea duration. The occurrence of inspiratory events after a swallow and the occurrence of shorter swallowing apnea durations may serve as important indicators during clinical swallowing assessments in patients at risk for penetration or aspiration with PD. PMID:20623304

  15. Breeding biology of tree swallows and house wrens in a gradient of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    In a gradient of gamma radiation ranging from 38.7 mC.kg -1 .d -1 to background levels of 0.05 μC.kg -1 .d -1 , Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor) and House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) avoided nesting in areas of high radiation. Nest boxes selected by swallows and wrens had a mean exposure rate of only 9.3 and 6.6 μC.kg -1 .d -1 , respectively. Lateral and canopy vegetation indices and nest hole height and direction could not explain the observed pattern of box selection. Of the boxes with low exposure rates, swallows selected those with little vegetation cover, whereas wrens chose boxes with heavy cover. It appears that the birds responded to radiaton levels as low as 100 times background but it is not clear whether they actually detected radiation or simply responded to secondary clues. The number of swallows and wrens fledged per box was unrelated to radiation exposure. The same was true for number of eggs, hatching success, fledging success, incubation time, and nestling time. Breeding success was reduced because of infertile eggs, eggs with dead embryos, cracked eggs, predation, adverse weather, abandonment, and parasites. The logistic model was ideally suited for describing gains in mass in nestling swallows and wrens. Growth of nestlings was not related to radiation exposure as indicated by the growth rate constant, asymptotic mass, and the proportion of variation explained by the logistic model. The data show that birds avoided adverse effects of radiation by judicious box selection. However, there were indications that at higher breeding densities birds may use high-exposure boxes, where breeding success or growth of nestlings may become reduced due to radiation

  16. Breeding biology of Tree Swallows and House Wrens in a gradient of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    In a gradient of gamma radiation from 38.7 mC kg - 1 .d - 1 to background levels of 0.05 μC. kg - 1 . d - 1 to background levels of 0.05 μC . kg - 1 . d - 1 , Tree Swallows (Iridoprocne bicolor) and House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) avoided nesting in areas of high radiation. Nest boxes selected by swallows and wrens had a mean exposure rate of only 9.3 and 6.6 μC . kg - 1 . d - 1 , respectively. Lateral and canopy vegetation indices and nest hole height and direction could not explain the observed pattern of box selection. Of the boxes with low exposure rates, swallows selected those with little vegetation cover, whereas wrens chose boxes and heavy cover. It appears that the birds responded to radiation levels as low as 100 times background, but it is not clear whether they actually detected radiation or simply responded to secondary clues. The number of swallows and wrens fledged per box was unrelated to radiation exposure. The same was true for number of eggs, hatching success, fledging success, incubation time, and nestling time. Breeding success was reduced because of infertile eggs, eggs with dead embryos, cracked eggs, predation, adverse weather, abandonment, and parasites. The logistic model was ideally suited for describing gains in mass in nestling swallows and wrens. Growth of nestlings was not related to radiation exposure as indicated by the growth rate constant, asymptotic mass, and the proportion of variation explained by the logistic model. Breeding and growth performance were similar in studies not involving experimental radiation

  17. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  18. Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics Secondary to Hemispheric Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Nelson H; Pisegna, Jessica M; Marchina, Sarah; Langmore, Susan E; Kumar, Sandeep; Pearson, William G

    2017-05-01

    Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is a method that utilizes multivariate shape change analysis to uncover covariant elements of pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with impairment using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The goals of this preliminary study were to (1) characterize swallowing mechanics underlying stroke-related dysphagia, (2) decipher the impact of left and right hemispheric strokes on pharyngeal swallowing mechanics, and (3) determine pharyngeal swallowing mechanics associated with penetration-aspiration status. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies of 18 dysphagic patients with hemispheric infarcts and age- and gender-matched controls were selected from well-controlled data sets. Patient data including laterality and penetration-aspiration status were collected. Coordinates mapping muscle group action during swallowing were collected from videos. Multivariate morphometric analyses of coordinates associated with stroke, affected hemisphere, and penetration-aspiration status were performed. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in the following comparisons: stroke versus controls (D = 2.19, P mechanics associated with each comparison were visualized using eigenvectors. Whereas current literature focuses on timing changes in stroke-related dysphagia, these data suggest that mechanical changes are also functionally important. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed by the affected hemisphere and the penetration-aspiration status. CASM can be used to identify patient-specific swallowing impairment associated with stroke injury that could help guide rehabilitation strategies to improve swallowing outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Presencia de Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae en nidos de golondrina (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae en Argentina Presence of Caminicimex furnarii (Hemiptera: Cimicidae in nests of swallows and martins (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Carpintero

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se examinaron nidos de cuatro especies de golondrinas que nidifican en la República Argentina, en búsqueda de Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, chinche conocida como ectoparásita de Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («hornero» y de Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («gorrión», fue encontrada en nidos de tres especies de golondrinas: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («golondrina doméstica», Progne elegans Baird («golondrina negra» e Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («golondrina tijerita». El parásito no fue hallado en cajas-nido de Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («golondrina de ceja blanca». Nuestros resultados constituyen la primera cita de Caminicimex furnarii para golondrinas. La interacción poblacional entre estas aves, asociada al hábito de usar nidos ajenos, explicaría la presencia de la misma especie de chinche en sus nidos. En función de esta idea, se sugieren otros posibles huéspedes para C. furnarii.Nests of four species of Hirundinidae that nest in Argentina were prospected for Cimicidae. Caminicimex furnarii (Cordero & Vogelsang, a parasite of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin (Furnaridae («oven bird» and Passer domesticus (L. (Ploceidae («house sparrow» was found in nests of three species of Hirundinidae: Progne chalybea (Gmelin («gray-breasted martin», Progne elegans Baird («southern martin» and Hirundo rustica erythrogaster Boddaert («barn swallow». The parasite was not found in nest boxes of Tachycineta leucorrhoa Vieillot («white-rumped swallow». Caminicimex furnarii is recorded for first time parasitizing swallows and martins. Interaction among these bird populations, associated with usurpation nests behavior, may explain the presence of the same cimicid species at the nests. According this idea, other possible C. furnarii hosts are suggested.

  20. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ertekin C, Keskin A, Kiylioglu N, Kirazli Y, On AY,. Tarlaci S, et al. The effect of head and neck positions on oropharyngeal swallowing: a clinical and electrophysio- logic study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilita- tion. 2001;829:1255-60. Epub 2001/09/12. 17. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Kahrilas.

  1. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, Judith E.; Brennan, Mike T.; Leeuw, Irma M. Verdonck-de; Gibson, Rachel J.; Eilers, June G.; Waltimo, Tuomas; Bots, Casper P.; Michelet, Marisol; Sollecito, Thomas P.; Rouleau, Tanya S.; Sewnaik, Aniel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Fliedner, Monica C.; Silverman, Sol; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  2. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; Verdonck- de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  3. Swallowing dysfunction in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raber-Durlacher, J.E.; Brennan, M.T.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Gibson, R.J.; Eilers, J.G.; Waltimo, T.; Bots, C.P.; Michelet, M.; Sollecito, T.P.; Rouleau, T.S.; Sewnaik, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Fliedner, M.C.; Silverman, S.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia (swallowing dysfunction) is a debilitating, depressing, and potentially life-threatening complication in cancer patients that is likely underreported. The present paper is aimed to review relevant dysphagia literature between 1990 and 2010 with a focus on assessment tools,

  4. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : Advances for the genetic improvement of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol. Plant 37, 504–. 515. Penna S. 2003 Building stress tolerance through over-producing trehalose in transgenic plants. Trends Plant Sci.

  5. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  6. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Isabela; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin). The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  7. Feeding ecology of Saguinus bicolor bicolor (Callitrichidae: Primates) in a relict forest in Manaus, Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egler, S G

    1992-01-01

    This study is part of a long-term ecological study of habitat and dietary requirements of the pied bare-face tamarin (Saguinus bicolor bicolor). One group was studied for 11 months in an area of secondary forest in a suburb of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Three main vegetation types occurred inside the group's home range (12 ha): capoeira, older secondary forest and campinarana (white sand forest). The tamarins ate fruits (21 species), flowers (1 species), exudates (4 species), and arthropods (insects and spiders). They spent 14.3% of total activity time seeking and eating animal prey, and 9.9% feeding on plant material, mostly fruits. In general, fruits consumed were ripe, small and succulent. Trees used for feeding were low and had small crown diameters. Three plant species (Protium aracouchinni, Myrcia cf. fallax, and Couma utilis) were used intensively during the three seasons covered by the study period. The concentrated use of 3 fruit species, each for an extended period (one fruiting species per season), provided the tamarins with a regular food supply. Tamarins consumed exudates from holes in the bark of trees of the families Anacardiaceae and Vochysiaceae, as well as gum exuded from seed pods of Mimosaceae. Exudates were exploited during the dry season and at the beginning of the wet season. Group travel was primarily based on routes connecting the fruiting trees exploited, with foraging for animal prey occurring during travel. Tamarins searched for arthropods on trunks, branches and leaves and in trunk holes. The foraging and feeding tactics displayed by S. b. bicolor are closely linked to morphological characteristics (small size and weight, claw-like nails) that allowed access to energy-rich resources (arthropods and plant exudates) in different strata of the vegetation.

  8. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth; it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonista bicolor (Haan) (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chunan; Huang, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Gonista bicolor belongs to Orthoptera, Acrididae, Gonista Bolivar, which is widely distributed in China. In this work, we first published the complete mitochondrial genome of G. bicolor. It is 15 618 bp long, and the AT content of the whole genome (J-strand) is 76.3%. The mitogenome consists of 37 typical invertebrate mitochondrial genes and a 761 bp (A + T) rich region. Of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 12 start with a standard ATN codon except for COI, whose initiation codon is ACC. Eight PCGs use TAG or TAA as complete termination codons, while others terminate with T or TA. The size of the lrRNA and srRNA genes is 1321  and 793 bp, respectively. Here, we use the 13 PCGs of G. bicolor, together with 12 other related species (two species as the outgroup) as PCGs data set, to construct the species phylogenetic tree.

  10. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Harding, C.; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Cockerill, H.

    2017-01-01

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on

  11. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Quantitative classification of pediatric swallowing through accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Merey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia or swallowing disorder negatively impacts a child’s health and development. The gold standard of dysphagia detection is videofluoroscopy which exposes the child to ionizing radiation, and requires specialized clinical expertise and expensive institutionally-based equipment, precluding day-to-day and repeated assessment of fluctuating swallowing function. Swallowing accelerometry is the non-invasive measurement of cervical vibrations during swallowing and may provide a portable and cost-effective bedside alternative. In particular, dual-axis swallowing accelerometry has demonstrated screening potential in older persons with neurogenic dysphagia, but the technique has not been evaluated in the pediatric population. Methods In this study, dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected simultaneous to videofluoroscopic records from 29 pediatric participants (age 6.8 ± 4.8 years; 20 males previously diagnosed with neurogenic dysphagia. Participants swallowed 3-5 sips of barium-coated boluses of different consistencies (normally, from thick puree to thin liquid by spoon or bottle. Videofluoroscopic records were reviewed retrospectively by a clinical expert to extract swallow timings and ratings. The dual-axis acceleration signals corresponding to each identified swallow were pre-processed, segmented and trimmed prior to feature extraction from time, frequency, time-frequency and information theoretic domains. Feature space dimensionality was reduced via principal components. Results Using 8-fold cross-validation, 16-17 dimensions and a support vector machine classifier with an RBF kernel, an adjusted accuracy of 89.6% ± 0.9 was achieved for the discrimination between swallows with and with out airway entry. Conclusions Our results suggest that dual-axis accelerometry has merit in the non-invasive detection of unsafe swallows in children and deserves further consideration as a pediatric medical device.

  13. Genetic diversity of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEL

    2015-04-22

    Apr 22, 2015 ... preservation of their genetic potential. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivated in the Northwest of Benin and to reveal certain fundamental evolutionary mechanisms. A total of 61 accessions of sorghum landraces belonging to the.

  14. Occurrence of diploid and polyploid microspores in Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colchicine is used in this investigation to increase chromosome doubling in Sorghum bicolor Line IS4546. Of a total of 500 plants which were treated, eight of them showed the occurrence of cytomixsis at meiotic stages. No polyploids were found in the treated plants. The results obtained from meiotic studies on control ...

  15. In planta transformation of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An in planta transformation protocol for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) using shoot apical meristem of germinating seedlings is reported in this study. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, LBA4404 with pCAMBIA1303 vector and construct pCAMBIA1303TPS1 were individually used for transformation. Since, the ...

  16. Evaluation of aqueous methanolic extract of Sorghum bicolor leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... aqueous and ethylacetate fractions were evaluated for antinociceptive activity using acetic acid- induced ... The aqueous methanolic extract and its aqueous fraction exhibited a significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity ... The study revealed that S. bicolor leaf base contains analgesic components which ...

  17. Effect of partial replacement of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) dust for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) dust for maize (Zea mays) in broiler starter ration. BU Ekenyem, EC Ndubuisi, L Anyanwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Animal Production Research Advances Vol. 4 (2) 2008: pp. 88-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/apra.v4i2.36434 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  18. Root-shoot growth interactions of sorghmn ( Sorghwn Bicolor L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual pregerminated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) seeds cultivar ICSV-I12 were grown for 8 days in a growth room in seven replicate cylinders per treatment. Treatments were: (a) impeded root and impeded shoot (II), (b) impeded root and unimpeded shoot (lU), (c) unimpeded root and impeded shoot (UI), and ...

  19. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] Seed Quality as Affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design was a three factorial split-split block design in the rain fed Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench producing areas of Bomet County of Kenya. Treatments within the block were randomized. There were three factors which included variety at two levels (improved and local varieties); fertilizer application at two ...

  20. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing.

  1. Observations on nematodes from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland in India, including a revalidation of Heliconema ahiri Karve, 1941 (Physalopteridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, S.; Kumar, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 4 (2013), s. 496-503 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Parasitic nematode * Heliconema * Procamallanus * Spirocamallanus * freshwater eel * Anguilla bicolor bicolor * Kerala * India Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2013

  2. Identification of Swallowing Tasks from a Modified Barium Swallow Study That Optimize the Detection of Physiological Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, R. Jordan; Armeson, Kent E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify which swallowing task(s) yielded the worst performance during a standardized modified barium swallow study (MBSS) in order to optimize the detection of swallowing impairment. Method: This secondary data analysis of adult MBSSs estimated the probability of each swallowing task yielding the derived…

  3. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  4. Instrumentation for bedside analysis of swallowing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Catiuscia S S; Nunes, Luiz G Q; Melo, Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is a common problem seen in patients undergoing treatment for cancer, stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses. This disease is associated with aspiration-induced chest infections. The methods currently used for diagnosis, however, are qualitative or based on expensive equipment. Swallowing accelerometry is a promising low-cost, quantitative and noninvasive tool for the evaluation of swallowing. This work describes the design and application of a bedside instrument able to evaluate swallowing mechanisms and to identify patients at risk of aspiration. Three-axis swallowing accelerometry was used to measure the neck vibrations associated with deglutition, providing analog signals to a virtual instrument developed in LabVIEW environment. In vivo tests in normal subjects as well as tests with disphagic patients showed that the system was able to easily and non-invasively detect changes in the swallowing acceleration pattern associated with increasing values of water volume (p disphagia. We concluded that the developed system could be a useful tool for the objective bedside evaluation of patients at risk of aspiration.

  5. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%-100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%-100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows.

  6. Salt gland distribution in limonium bicolor at the individual level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, B. Y.; Yuan, F.; Dong, X. X.; Wang, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    Limonium bicolor is a typical exo-recretohalophyte with multi-cellular salt glands. A differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope were applied to investigate the pattern of salt gland distribution in L. bicolor at the individual level. For a single mature leaf, more salt glands are distributed in the leaf central and apical regions than leaf base. For the leaves in different developmental stages, firstly, the density of salt glands linearly decreased at the beginning of leaf expansion and kept a relatively constant value in the later periods, which was mainly due to the rapid expansion of epidermal cells. Secondly, the total number of glands per leaf showed a reversed trend compared to the density of salt glands. These results suggested that the salt gland density was adapted to the leaf age and area as more and more salt accumulated in the saline soils.

  7. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  8. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  9. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards.

  10. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  11. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  12. Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow Hirundo spilodera

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vocalizations of the South African cliff swallow. Hirundo spilodera. A.A. Earle. National Museum, Bloemfontein. The vocalizations of both adult and juvenile South African cliff swallows Hirundo spilodera are described. This swallow has a large vocal repertoire considering that it is a highly colonial species, and at least seven ...

  13. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F; Aerts, A; Ahrén, D; Brun, A; Danchin, E G J; Duchaussoy, F; Gibon, J; Kohler, A; Lindquist, E; Pereda, V; Salamov, A; Shapiro, H J; Wuyts, J; Blaudez, D; Buée, M; Brokstein, P; Canbäck, B; Cohen, D; Courty, P E; Coutinho, P M; Delaruelle, C; Detter, J C; Deveau, A; DiFazio, S; Duplessis, S; Fraissinet-Tachet, L; Lucic, E; Frey-Klett, P; Fourrey, C; Feussner, I; Gay, G; Grimwood, J; Hoegger, P J; Jain, P; Kilaru, S; Labbé, J; Lin, Y C; Legué, V; Le Tacon, F; Marmeisse, R; Melayah, D; Montanini, B; Muratet, M; Nehls, U; Niculita-Hirzel, H; Oudot-Le Secq, M P; Peter, M; Quesneville, H; Rajashekar, B; Reich, M; Rouhier, N; Schmutz, J; Yin, T; Chalot, M; Henrissat, B; Kües, U; Lucas, S; Van de Peer, Y; Podila, G K; Polle, A; Pukkila, P J; Richardson, P M; Rouzé, P; Sanders, I R; Stajich, J E; Tunlid, A; Tuskan, G; Grigoriev, I V

    2008-03-06

    Mycorrhizal symbioses--the union of roots and soil fungi--are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains approximately 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles

  14. The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Aerts, A.; Ahren, D.; Brun, A.; Danchin, E. G. J.; Duchaussoy, F.; Gibon, J.; Kohler, A.; Lindquist, E.; Peresa, V.; Salamov, A.; Shapiro, H. J.; Wuyts, J.; Blaudez, D.; Buee, M.; Brokstein, P.; Canback, B.; Cohen, D.; Courty, P. E.; Coutinho, P. M.; Delaruelle, C.; Detter, J. C.; Deveau, A.; DiFazio, S.; Duplessis, S.; Fraissinet-Tachet, L.; Lucic, E.; Frey-Klett, P.; Fourrey, C.; Feussner, I.; Gay, G.; Grimwood, J.; Hoegger, P. J.; Jain, P.; Kilaru, S.; Labbe, J.; Lin, Y. C.; Legue, V.; Le Tacon, F.; Marmeisse, R.; Melayah, D.; Montanini, B.; Muratet, M.; Nehls, U.; Niculita-Hirzel, H.; Secq, M. P. Oudot-Le; Peter, M.; Quesneville, H.; Rajashekar, B.; Reich, M.; Rouhier, N.; Schmutz, J.; Yin, T.; Chalot, M.; Henrissat, B.; Kues, U.; Lucas, S.; Van de Peer, Y.; Podila, G. K.; Polle, A.; Pukkila, P. J.; Richardson, P. M.; Rouze, P.; Sanders, I. R.; Stajich, J. E.; Tunlid, A.; Tuskan, G.; Grigoriev, I. V.

    2007-08-10

    Mycorrhizal symbioses the union of roots and soil fungi are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants 1, 2. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae1. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are

  15. Cortical swallowing processing in early subacute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Maren

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a major complication in hemispheric as well as brainstem stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia and increased mortality. Little is known about the recovery from dysphagia after stroke. The aim of the present study was to determine the different patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with hemispheric and brainstem stroke with and without dysphagia in the early subacute phase. Methods We measured brain activity by mean of whole-head MEG in 37 patients with different stroke localisation 8.2 +/- 4.8 days after stroke to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced swallowing. An age matched group of healthy subjects served as controls. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry and group analyses were performed using a permutation test. Results Our results demonstrate strong bilateral reduction of cortical swallowing activation in dysphagic patients with hemispheric stroke. In hemispheric stroke without dysphagia, bilateral activation was found. In the small group of patients with brainstem stroke we observed a reduction of cortical activation and a right hemispheric lateralization. Conclusion Bulbar central pattern generators coordinate the pharyngeal swallowing phase. The observed right hemispheric lateralization in brainstem stroke can therefore be interpreted as acute cortical compensation of subcortically caused dysphagia. The reduction of activation in brainstem stroke patients and dysphagic patients with cortical stroke could be explained in terms of diaschisis.

  16. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF SWALLOWS IN ANOREXIA NERVOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There are some studies in the literature about the feeding behavior and masticatory process in patients with feeding disorders; however, it is not very well known if there are alterations in oral-pharyngeal swallowing dynamics in subjects with anorexia nervosa. To evaluate the oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with anorexia nervosa. The study was conducted with 8 individuals clinically diagnosed and in treatment for restricting-type anorexia nervosa (seven women and one man), and 14 healthy individuals with no digestive or neurological symptoms (10 women, 4 men). Swallows were evaluated by videofluoroscopy with three swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus and three swallows of 5 mL paste bolus consistency, given in a random sequence. The participants were asked after each swallow about the sensation of the bolus passage. In the analysis of oral-pharyngeal transit duration, the mean duration of pharyngeal transit with paste bolus in patients with anorexia was shorter than in healthy volunteers (P=0.02). In the duration of movement of the hyoid bone, longer movement was observed in anorexia than in healthy volunteers with liquid bolus (P=0.01). With liquid bolus, five (62.5%) patients and one (7.1%) control had sensation of the bolus passage (Panorexia nervosa, although the results suggest that pharyngeal transit has shorter duration than that seen in healthy volunteers and the hyoid movement duration is longer in patients than in healthy volunteers. Fast pharyngeal transit may be the cause of bolus transit perception in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  17. Swallowing Disorders in Severe Brain Injury in the Arousal Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremare, A; Rapin, A; Veber, B; Beuret-Blanquart, F; Verin, E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of swallowing disorders in severe brain injury in the arousal phase after coma. Between December 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, eleven patients with severe acquired brain injury who were admitted to rehabilitation center (Male 81.8 %; 40.7 ± 14.6 years) were included in the study. Evaluation of swallowing included a functional examination, clinical functional swallowing test, and naso-endoscopic swallowing test. All patients had swallowing disorders at admission. The first functional swallowing test showed oral (77.8 %) and pharyngeal (66.7 %) food bolus transport disorders; and alterations in airway protection mechanisms (80 %). Swallowing test under endoscopic control showed a disorder in swallowing coordination in 55.6 % of patients tested. Seven (63.6 %) patients resumed oral feeding within an average of 6 weeks after admission to rehabilitation center and 14 weeks after acquired brain injury. Six (85.7 %) of these seven patients continued to require modified solid and liquid textures. Swallowing disorders are a major concern in severe brain injury in the arousal phase. Early bedside assessment of swallowing is essential for detection of swallowing disorders to propose appropriate medical rehabilitation care to these patients in a state of altered consciousness.

  18. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Primeiro registro de Chalcodermus bicolor (Coleoptera: Curculionidae em plantios de eucalipto First record of Chalcodermus bicolor in eucalypt plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Molinário de Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou relatar, pela primeira vez, o ataque de um besouro podador em plantios de clones híbridos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus urophylla vs. E. grandis, localizados nos Estados da Bahia e do Espírito Santo. A espécie foi determinada como sendo Chalcodermus bicolor Fiedler, 1936 (Curculionidae: Molytinae. A fêmea poda os ponteiros e constrói um pequeno orifício onde deposita um único ovo, logo abaixo do ponto de incisão. O eucalipto é o primeiro hospedeiro relatado para esta espécie de besouro.This research aimed to record, for the first time, the damage caused by a pruner beetle on hybrid eucalypts cloned trees (Eucalyptus urophylla vs. E. grandis, located in Bahia and Espírito Santo States, Brazil. The specie was determined as Chalcodermus bicolor Fiedler, 1936 (Curculionidae: Molytinae. The female prunes the tree shoot and lays a single egg inside a small hole, just below the incision point. Eucalypt is the first host recorded to this pruner beetle specie.

  20. Speech, language and swallowing in Huntington’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryluz Camargo-Mendoza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD has been described as a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine nucleotide sequence. Depending on the stage of the disease, people may have difficulties in speech, language and swallowing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties in detail, as well as to provide an account on speech and language therapy approach to this condition. Regarding speech, it is worth noticing that characteristics typical of hyperkinetic dysarthria can be found due to underlying choreic movements. The speech of people with HD tends to show shorter sentences, with much simpler syntactic structures, and difficulties in tasks that require complex cognitive processing. Moreover, swallowing may present dysphagia that progresses as the disease develops. A timely, comprehensive and effective speech-language intervention is essential to improve the quality of life of people and contribute to their communicative welfare.

  1. Management of accidental swallowing in implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Francisley Ávila; Statkievicz, Cristian; Guilhem Rosa, Ana Laura; da Silveira Bossi, Fabrício

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a protocol for managing the accidental swallowing of dental instruments in implant dentistry, illustrated by a patient who accidentally swallowed a hexagonal wrench. The first step was to refer the patient to the medical emergency hospital service for radiographic and clinical evaluation. The hexagonal wrench was located in the stomach and was immediately removed with an endoscopic procedure. The gastric mucosa was sampled via biopsy and the sample submitted to the urease test, which was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Triple treatment was instituted for gastritis caused by H pylori to avoid exposing the patient to unnecessary risk. Removal of a foreign body by means of an endoscopic procedure constitutes a safe and effective treatment. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Technology of swallowable capsule for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Intzes, I; Meng, H; Cosmas, J

    2014-01-01

    Medical technology has undergone major breakthroughs in recent years, especially in the area of the examination tools for diagnostic purposes. This paper reviews the swallowable capsule technology in the examination of the gastrointestinal system for various diseases. The wireless camera pill has created a more advanced method than many traditional examination methods for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases such as gastroscopy by the use of an endoscope. After years of great innovation...

  4. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  5. Spatiotemporal characteristics of swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo H; Oh, Byung-Mo; Jung, Ii-Young; Lee, Jung C; Lee, Goo J; Han, Tai R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate spatiotemporal movement abnormalities during the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate relationships between disease and dysphagia severities. Retrospective study. We performed two-dimensional motion analysis of the hyoid bone, epiglottis, and vocal folds using videofluoroscopic images from 33 PD patients and 33 age-matched, healthy controls. The outcome measures were spatial and temporal movement variables during swallowing. Additionally, three subgroups of patients were compared based on the Hoehn and Yahr scale to identify the relationship between disease and dysphagia severities. Individuals with PD showed a reduced anterior hyoid bone displacement after normalization for each individual. The maximal angle of the epiglottic rotation was smaller in PD patients. The time to maximal displacement of the hyoid bone, epiglottis, and vocal folds were significantly delayed in PD patients (P = 0.001, 0.002, and disease severity was related to level of diet and supervision but not with dysphagia severity. This study shows that oropharyngeal bradykinesia, incoordination, reduced anterior hyoid bone movement, and decreased epiglottic rotation angle during swallowing are the most noticeable findings in individuals with PD. N/A. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Examination of swallowing maneuver training and transfer of practiced behaviors to laryngeal vestibule kinematics in functional swallowing of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Renata; Azola, Alba; Macrae, Phoebe; Sunday, Kirstyn; Mejia, Veerley; Vose, Alicia; Humbert, Ianessa A

    2017-05-15

    Swallowing maneuvers are routinely trained in dysphagia rehabilitation with the assumption that practiced behaviors transfer to functional swallowing, however transfer is rarely examined in the deglutition literature. The goal of this study was to train the volitional laryngeal vestibule closure (vLVC) maneuver, which is a swallowing maneuver that targets prolonged laryngeal vestibule closure (LVC). In two different training experiments, 69 healthy adults underwent Long-hold (hold vLVC as long as possible) or Short-hold vLVC training (hold vLVC for 2s). Before and after vLVC training, natural swallows (swallowing without a therapeutic technique) were completed. The outcome variables included laryngeal vestibule closure reaction time and the duration of laryngeal vestibule closure. Results indicate that during both Long-hold and Short-hold vLVC trainings, vLVC swallows had faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times and longer durations of laryngeal vestibule closure than in pre-training 5ml liquid swallows. However, only faster laryngeal vestibule closure reaction times transferred to post-training 5ml liquid swallows (20-24% faster), but not prolonged durations of laryngeal vestibule closure. Our findings suggest that swallowing maneuver training has the potential to induce transfer of what was practiced to functional swallowing behavior, although not all practiced behaviors may generalize. These findings are significant for bolstering the effectiveness of dysphagia management in medical settings and should be tested in individuals with dysphagia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phyllomedusa bicolor skin secretion and the Kambô ritual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Brave, Paul S; Bruins, Eugéne; Bronkhorst, Maarten W G A

    2014-01-01

    The ritual of Kambô or Sapo is a type of voluntary envenomation. During this purification ritual a shaman healer, from various South American countries, deliberately burns the right shoulder with a glowing stick from a fireplace. Excretions of Phyllomedusa bicolor (or Giant Leaf Frog, Kambô or Sapo) are then applied to these fresh wounds. This ritual is used as a means of purification of the body, supposedly brings luck to hunters, increases stamina and enhances physical and sexual strength. All the peripheral and most of the central effects of the secretion can be ascribed to the exceptionally high content of active peptides, easily absorbed through burned skin. This article describes the ritual and the bio-active peptides from the secretion.

  8. Observations on nematodes from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor McClelland in India, including a revalidation of Heliconema ahiri Karve, 1941 (Physalopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, František; Sheeba, Sarasamma; Kumar, Appukuttannair Biju

    2013-12-01

    Two species of parasitic nematodes, Heliconema ahiri Karve, 1941 (Physalopteridae) and Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) anguillae Moravec et al., 2006 (Camallanidae), were recorded from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor Mc-Clelland in the Chalakkudi River and Veli Lake, respectively, both Kerala, India. The former species (H. ahiri), rediscovered from eels in India after 82 years from its original description, has been redescribed and revalidated based on its specific feature (presence of groups of minute denticles in the mouth) distinguishing it from other congeners; its finding in A. b. bicolor represents a new host record. The latter species (P. anguillae) has been recorded in India for the first time. SEM examination of its first-stage larvae from uterus has shown that P. anguillae is another species of Procamallanus whose larvae possess a crown of digit-like processes at the tail tip.

  9. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  10. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  11. Gas swallow during meals in patients with excessive belching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, N; Serra, J

    2017-09-01

    Swallowed gas is an important source of abdominal gas, and aerophagia is often believed as a putative cause of gas-related abdominal symptoms. However, altered gas-swallow during meals has not been demonstrated. Our aim was to characterize the number of gas swallows during meals in patients complaining of excessive belching and gaseousness and a control group without abdominal symptoms during a 24-h period. A 24-h pH-impedance monitoring was performed in 10 patients with excessive belching, and 11 patients without digestive symptoms or reflux in the pH-impedance study. During the study, patients followed their daily routine and customary meals, without any specific limitation. In each patient the number and content of swallows and belches were analyzed. Total meal periods were similar in controls (75±26 min) and patients (79±21 min; P=.339), but the number of gaseous swallows was greater in patients (114±13 swallows) than controls (71±8 swallows; P=.007), due to a greater frequency of gaseous swallows during meals (15±2 swallows/10 min vs 10±1 swallows/10 min, respectively; P=.008). During the 24-h study period, 66±13 belches were recorded in patients, but only 13±3 belches in controls (PGas is frequently swallowed during meals. Patients complaining of excessive belching have a different swallow pattern during meals, with an increased ingestion of gas that correlates with increased gastric belching events. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Computational Analysis of Gynura bicolor Bioactive Compounds as Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah Zawawi, Muhammad Redha; Ahmad, Muhamad Aizuddin; Jaganath, Indu Bala

    2017-01-01

    The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) is a popular route for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Commercially available gliptin-based drugs such as sitagliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, and alogliptin were specifically developed as DPPIV inhibitors for diabetic patients. The use of Gynura bicolor in treating diabetes had been reported in various in vitro experiments. However, an understanding of the inhibitory actions of G. bicolor bioactive compounds on DPPIV is still lacking and this may provide crucial information for the development of more potent and natural sources of DPPIV inhibitors. Evaluation of G. bicolor bioactive compounds for potent DPPIV inhibitors was computationally conducted using Lead IT and iGEMDOCK software, and the best free-binding energy scores for G. bicolor bioactive compounds were evaluated in comparison with the commercial DPPIV inhibitors, sitagliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, and alogliptin. Drug-likeness and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) analysis were also performed. Based on molecular docking analysis, four of the identified bioactive compounds in G. bicolor, 3-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and trans-5-p-coumaroylquinic acid, resulted in lower free-binding energy scores when compared with two of the commercially available gliptin inhibitors. The results revealed that bioactive compounds in G. bicolor are potential natural inhibitors of DPPIV. PMID:28932239

  13. [A study of Boletus bicolor from different areas using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zai-Jin; Liu, Gang; Ren, Xian-Pei

    2010-04-01

    It is hard to differentiate the same species of wild growing mushrooms from different areas by macromorphological features. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis was used to identify 58 samples of boletus bicolor from five different areas. Based on the fingerprint infrared spectrum of boletus bicolor samples, principal component analysis was conducted on 58 boletus bicolor spectra in the range of 1 350-750 cm(-1) using the statistical software SPSS 13.0. According to the result, the accumulated contributing ratio of the first three principal components accounts for 88.87%. They included almost all the information of samples. The two-dimensional projection plot using first and second principal component is a satisfactory clustering effect for the classification and discrimination of boletus bicolor. All boletus bicolor samples were divided into five groups with a classification accuracy of 98.3%. The study demonstrated that wild growing boletus bicolor at species level from different areas can be identified by FTIR spectra combined with principal components analysis.

  14. Journey of a Swallowed Toothbrush to the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Hee; Kim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Kang Hun; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Sang Wook; Lee, Seung Ok

    2007-01-01

    Toothbrush swallowing is a rare event. Because no cases of spontaneous passage have been reported, prompt removal is recommended to prevent the development of complications. Most swallowed toothbrushes have been found in the esophagus or the stomach of affected patients, and there has been no previously reported case of a toothbrush in the colon. Here, we report a case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the ascending colon that caused a fistula between the right colon and the liver, with a complicating small hepatic abscess. This patient was successfully managed using exploratory laparotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of a swallowed toothbrush found in the colon. PMID:17616026

  15. Mastication and swallowing in patients with postirradiation xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, Sandra; Faull, Jennifer; Klein, Barbara; Aref, Amr; Fontanesi, James; Stachler, Robert; Shamsa, Falah; Jones, Lewis; Simpson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Very little objective data has been reported on mastication and swallowing in xerostomic patients, which would substantiate presumed causal relationships between xerostomia and patient complaints. The purpose was to elucidate which components of mastication and swallowing were abnormal, and most directly related to xerostomia, and which appeared unaffected. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of timing events in mastication and swallowing was done using videofluoroscopic data for 15 cancer patients with xerostomia, and 20 normal controls. Scintigraphy was also used to determine oropharyngeal residue after a water swallow. Cancer treatment modalities included radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy. Results: For barium liquid and paste substances, timing measures were equivalent for controls and patients. Xerostomic patients took 46% longer to masticate a shortbread cookie, and timing for the initiation of swallowing was shorter, but duration of swallowing appeared unaffected. Oral and pharyngeal residues following the swallow were greater in the patient group. Conclusions: Xerostomia primarily affected mastication and oral manipulation of a dry, absorbent food material. Increased oral and pharyngeal residues after a water swallow are ambiguously related to xerostomia. The initiation and duration of the pharyngeal swallow was not abnormal

  16. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  17. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...

  18. Swallowing dysfunction as a factor that should be remembered in recurrent pneumonia: videofluoroscopic swallow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Nazan; Özçelik, Uğur; Demir, Numan; Cinel, Güzin; Yalçin, Ebru; Ersöz, Deniz D; Kiper, Nural

    2017-10-01

    The swallow function is one of the strong defense mechanism against aspiration. Aspiration and pneumonia are unavoidable in patients with defective mechanism of swallowing. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with recurrent pneumonia in terms of videofluoroscopic examination results. The study comprised fifty pediatric cases (22 boys, 28 girls) with an average age of 2.9 years (2 months-7.5 years) who were referred to our clinic due to suffering from recurrent pneumonia. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) was performed on all patients. The presence of a correlation with pneumonia was investigated. In 45 of the children, VFSS results were not normal. Of the children, 41 had mental-motor retardation. The results of the videofluoroscopic study show that silent aspiration was the most common pathology in participants with the percentage of 40 (27.5% mild, 17.5% severe). Patients in the study had pneumonia with an incidence of 2.6 illnesses per year. Having one than more results on VFSS was found to be associated with more number of annual pneumonia episodes. Children with neurological impairments are at risk of recurrent acute pneumonia due to aspiration. Disturbances of swallowing phases should be remembered as a cause of pneumonia in these patients.

  19. Derangement of swallowing in children with myelomeningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernbach, S.K.; McLone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Barium esophagrams performed in 13 children with myelomeningocele demonstrated a variety of swallowing disorders: difficulty in bolus formation, nasopharyngeal reflux, tracheobronchial aspiration. Cricopharyngeal spasm was not identified in this group. Antegrade peristalsis in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus was normal. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 8 of the children. Vocal cord paralysis (8/13) and death in early child-hood (6/13) occurred with greater frequency than in the general myelomeningocele population. Correct management of these children may require tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and fundoplication. (orig.)

  20. Primer registro de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae en nidos de golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Passeriformes: Hirundinidae, en Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana ARAMBURÚ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La golondrina chilena, Tachycineta meyeni (Cabanis, nidifica en el centro de Chile y suroeste de Argentina. En invierno migra a Bolivia, Paraguay y al sureste de Brasil. Estas golondrinas ocuparon una serie de cajas-nido en Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego. Luego de la temporada de cría, tratamos los nidos con acetato de etilo y los revisamos en búsqueda de artrópodos hematófagos. Encontramos pulgas adultas, que fueron fijadas, aclaradas, deshidratadas, diafanizadas y montadas en un derivado de clavo de olor para su observación al microsocopio óptico. Identificamos machos y hembras de Dasypsyllus (Avesopsylla lasius lasius (Rothschild. En Argentina, esta pulga es conocida solamente en Sierra de la Ventana (Buenos Aires, donde se la halló parasitando la golondrina barranquera, Notiochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica (Vieillot. La información disponible debería complementarse con prospecciones en localidades intermedias. Otras aves relacionadas con ambas golondrinas por la ocupación de nidos, como el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda (Gmelin, ratona común (Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, caminera común (Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot, hornero (Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, podrían contribuir a la dispersión de la pulga entre las dos localidades registradas.

  1. A case of colohepatic penetration by a swallowed toothbrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Ro; Hwang, Yong; Kim, Jong Hun

    2006-01-01

    Although foreign body ingestion is relatively common, toothbrush swallowing is rare. We report a case of a swallowed toothbrush which passed through the ileocecal valve and perforated the proximal transverse colon, then the liver. To our knowledge, this is the first case to be reported. PMID:16688846

  2. The surgical management and speech and swallowing rehabilitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advanced tongue cancer may have a devastating effect on a person's ability to speak and to swallow. Very little is known about the surgical management and speech and swallowing rehabilitation of persons with advanced tongue cancer in South Africa. The aim of this study was to obtain information regarding clinical ...

  3. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K

    2015-01-01

    Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience reduced quality of life due to radiotherapy (RT)-related dysphagia. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic swallowing exercises on swallowing-related outcomes in HNC patients treated with curative...

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  5. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  6. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two surveys of Blue Swallows were conducted in the southern Tanzanian highland grasslands in order to determine the habitat preferences and estimate the size of this subpopulation. During the 2008/09 and 2012 surveys, a total distance of 3 635 km was travelled in search of Blue Swallows (at an altitude of above 1 400 ...

  7. Swallowing in moderate and severe phases of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla de Medeiros Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the problems of feeding and swallowing in individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer´s disease (AD and to correlate these with functional aspects. METHOD: Fifty patients with AD and their caregivers participated in this study. The instruments used were: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Activities of Daily Living, Assessment of Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Dementia, Functional Outcome Questionnaire for Aphasia, and Swallowing Rating Scale. RESULTS: Problems with passivity, distraction and refusal to eat were encountered in the CDR2 group. Distraction, passivity and inappropriate feeding velocity were predominant in the CDR3 group. The problems were correlated with communication, swallowing severity of AD individuals and caregiver schooling. CONCLUSION: Given the inexorable functional alterations during the course of the disease, it is vital to observe these in patients with a compromised feeding and swallowing mechanism. The present study supplies the instruments to orient caregivers and professionals.

  8. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, M.S.; Okun, M.S.; Rosenbek, J.C.; Musson, N.; Fernandez, H.H.; Rodriguez, R.; Romrell, J.; Pitts, T.; Wheeler-Hegland, K.M.; Sapienza, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. Methods: This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration–aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. Results: No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. Conclusions: EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. Classification of evidence: This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; EMST = expiratory muscle strength training; MEP = maximum expiratory pressure; PA = penetration–aspiration; PD = Parkinson disease; SWAL-QOL = Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire; UES = upper esophageal

  9. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  10. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding difficulties are known to occur with advancing age in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We evaluated the role of videofluoroscopy swallow study (VFSS) in a group of 30 DMD patients with feeding difficulties. Indications for feeding assessment were: respiratory infections potentially...... on VFSS. It is the oral phase of swallowing that is most significantly affected in DMD. The pharyngeal phase is well triggered but is weak with incomplete pharyngeal clearance leaving pharyngeal residue. Insufficient or effortful chewing coupled with weak clearance may predispose them to choking episodes...... either as a one off event or with increasing frequency with age. This study suggests that VFSS may not be of additional benefit to careful feeding history and observation in DMD with feeding difficulties Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...

  11. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  12. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  13. Fabrication of Artificial Food Bolus for Evaluation of Swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyu Hosotsubo

    Full Text Available Simple and easy methods to evaluate swallowing are required because of the recently increased need of rehabilitation for dysphagia. "Artificial food bolus", but not "artificial food", would be a valuable tool for swallowing evaluation without considering the mastication effect which is altered according to the individual's oral condition. Thus, this study was carried out to fabricate artificial bolus resembling natural food bolus. The mechanical property and the volume change of food bolus in normal people were firstly investigated. Thirty healthy adults without dysphagia were selected and asked to chew four sample foods (rice cake, peanut, burdock, and gummy candy. The results indicated that Young's modulus of bolus before swallowing was below 150 kPa. The bolus volume before swallowing was below 400 mm3. In addition, the saliva component ratio of each bolus was approximately 30wt%, and the average saliva viscosity of research participants was approximately 10 mPa•s. Based on the obtained data, artificial food bolus was designed and fabricated by using alginate hydrogel as a visco-elastic material and gelatin solution as a viscotic material with a ratio of 7:3 based on weight. Consequently, the swallowing time of fabricated artificial food bolus was measured among the same participants. The results indicated the participants swallowed fabricated food bolus with similar manner reflecting their mechanical property and volume. Thus, this artificial food bolus would be a promising tool for evaluation of swallowing.

  14. Skill training for swallowing rehabilitation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Ruvini P; Jones, Richard D; Sella, Oshrat; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2014-07-01

    To examine the effects of skill training on swallowing in individuals with dysphagia secondary to Parkinson's disease (PD) and to explore skill retention after treatment termination. Within-subject pilot study with follow-up after 2 weeks of treatment and after a 2-week nontreatment period. Clinic in a research institute. Patients (N=10; mean age, 67.4y) included 3 women (mean Hoehn and Yahr score, 2.6) and 7 men (mean Hoehn and Yahr score, 2.4). Patients underwent 10 daily sessions of skill training therapy focused on increasing precision in muscle contraction during swallowing using visual feedback. Data from the timed water swallow test, Test of Mastication and Swallowing Solids, surface electromyography (sEMG) of submental muscles, and swallowing-related quality of life questionnaire were collected at 2 baseline sessions (conducted 2wk apart) at the end of treatment and after 2 nontreatment weeks to assess skill retention. Immediately after posttreatment, the swallowing rate for liquids (P=.034), sEMG durational parameters of premotor time (P=.003), and preswallow time (P<.001) improved. A functional carryover effect was seen from dry to water swallows (P=.009). Additionally, swallowing-related quality of life improved (P=.018). Reassessment at 2 weeks after treatment termination revealed short-term retention of treatment effects. A skill-based training approach produced functional, biomechanical, and swallowing-related quality of life improvements in this cohort indicating compelling evidence for the effectiveness of this novel approach for dysphagia rehabilitation in PD. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RNA-seq-based evaluation of bicolor tepal pigmentation in Asiatic hybrid lilies (Lilium spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuma; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Dohra, Hideo; Yamagishi, Masumi; Matsuyama, Kohei; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2016-08-11

    Color patterns in angiosperm flowers are produced by spatially and temporally restricted deposition of pigments. Identifying the mechanisms responsible for restricted pigment deposition is a topic of broad interest. Some dicots species develop bicolor petals, which are often caused by the post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. An Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.) cultivar Lollypop develops bicolor tepals with pigmented tips and white bases. Here, we analyzed the global transcription of pigmented and non-pigmented tepal parts from Lollypop, to determine the main transcriptomic differences. De novo assembly of RNA-seq data yielded 49,239 contigs (39,426 unigenes), which included a variety of novel transcripts, such as those involved in flavonoid-glycosylation and sequestration and in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Additionally, 1258 of the unigenes exhibited significantly differential expression between the tepal parts (false discovery rates 2-fold higher in the pigmented parts. Thus, LhMYB12 should be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the biosynthesis genes in bicolor tepals. Other factors that potentially suppress or enhance the expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, including a WD40 gene, were identified, and their involvement in bicolor development is discussed. Our results indicate that the bicolor trait of Lollypop tepals is caused by the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and that the transcription profile of LhMYB12 provides a clue for elucidating the mechanisms of the trait. The tepal transcriptome constructed in this study will accelerate investigations of the genetic controls of anthocyanin color patterns, including the bicolor patterns, of Lilium spp.

  16. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of a Medicinal Halophyte Limonium Bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze to Salt-Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Li, W.; Yang, H.; Wu, W.; Ma, L.; Huang, T.; Wang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Limonium bicolor (Bag.) Kuntze is a perennial herb belonging to the Plumbaginaceae family. It is a typical recretohalophyte as well as a medicinal plant, distributing at saline soil areas in coastal areas and grasslands. In this paper,physiological mechanisms of L. bicolor to defend salt stress and effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients were investigated. The effects of different NaCl concentrations on the number of salt glands, Na/sup +/ content, dry weight and water content in tissues, gas exchange parameters involving net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration and transpiration rate, malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage, activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase and accumulations of secondary metabolites such as total phenolic, total flavonoid, gallic acid and myricetrin of leaves were determined. The results show that 100 and 200 mM NaCl induced facilitated effects in L. bicolor reflected in the increase in dry weight, tissue water content, net CO/sub 2/ assimilation rate, the number of salt glands, activity of superoxide dismutase, and content of gallic acid and myricetrin. The 300 mM NaCl treatment resulted in obviously decline in gas exchange parameters, and significant increases in Na/sup +/ levels, malondialdehyde level and electrolyte leakage. It was suggested that increased salt tolerance of L. bicolor was due to the corresponding resistance mechanisms involving an increased number of salt glands, enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, and an accelerated accumulation of secondary metabolites. What's more, the results on effects of salinity on medicinal ingredients in L. bicolor under different salt concentrations could provide theoretical basis for the standardization cultivation technique of L. bicolor. (author)

  17. Decoding human swallowing via electroencephalography: a state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-10-01

    Swallowing and swallowing disorders have garnered continuing interest over the past several decades. Electroencephalography (EEG) is an inexpensive and non-invasive procedure with very high temporal resolution which enables analysis of short and fast swallowing events, as well as an analysis of the organizational and behavioral aspects of cortical motor preparation, swallowing execution and swallowing regulation. EEG is a powerful technique which can be used alone or in combination with other techniques for monitoring swallowing, detection of swallowing motor imagery for diagnostic or biofeedback purposes, or to modulate and measure the effects of swallowing rehabilitation. This paper provides a review of the existing literature which has deployed EEG in the investigation of oropharyngeal swallowing, smell, taste and texture related to swallowing, cortical pre-motor activation in swallowing, and swallowing motor imagery detection. Furthermore, this paper provides a brief review of the different modalities of brain imaging techniques used to study swallowing brain activities, as well as the EEG components of interest for studies on swallowing and on swallowing motor imagery. Lastly, this paper provides directions for future swallowing investigations using EEG.

  18. Neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and detection of motor imagery of swallow for dysphagia rehabilitation-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Ang, K K; Wang, C; Phua, K S; Guan, C

    2016-01-01

    Swallowing is an essential function in our daily life; nevertheless, stroke or other neurodegenerative diseases can cause the malfunction of swallowing function, ie, dysphagia. The objectives of this review are to understand the neural and cortical basis of swallowing and tongue, and review the latest techniques on the detection of motor imagery of swallow (MI-SW) and motor imagery of tongue movements (MI-TM), so that a practical system can be developed for the rehabilitation of poststroke dysphagia patients. Specifically, we firstly describe the swallowing process and how the swallowing function is assessed clinically. Secondly, we review the techniques that performed the neural and cortical analysis of swallowing and tongue based on different modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and magnetoencephalography. Thirdly, we review the techniques that performed detection and analysis of MI-SW and MI-TM for dysphagia stroke rehabilitation based on electroencephalography (EEG) and NIRS. Finally, discussions on the advantages and limitations of the studies are presented; an example system and future research directions for the rehabilitation of stroke dysphagia patients are suggested. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced anthocyanin synthesis in foliage plant Caladium bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S J; Deng, X M; Mao, H Z; Hong, Y

    2005-03-01

    A protocol was developed for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of monocotyledon foliage plant Caladium bicolor cv. Jackie Suthers using leaf disc and petiole as the explants. The explants were inoculated with Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector with the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. Callus formation was induced in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), 0.1 mg/1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 30 g/l sucrose and kanamycin 50 mg/l for selection. Resistant calli were induced for shoot generation in MS medium with 2 mg/l 6-BA and 0.2 mg/l alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid. As much as 10% of the explants gave rise to kanamycin-resistant shoots with our procedure. Transformed plants had enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in the roots, leaves and stems (epidermis and vascular bundles). Integration of the transgene into the host genome was confirmed by genomic Southern blot hybridization, and RNA blot hybridization analysis indicated that the expression of the transgene correlated with anthocyanin accumulation. This investigation illustrates the utility of anthocyanin regulatory genes in the genetic manipulation of the color of foliage plants. It also supports the premise that the Lc gene can be used as a powerful non-destructive cell autonomous visual marker in a wide variety of plants, as exemplified by the perfect symmetrical half-green/half-red plant presumably derived from the symmetrical division of one transgenic and one non-transgenic precursor meristematic cell.

  20. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ghaemi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: Swallowing is a multifaceted performance that needs contribution of the tongue, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus as well as the neurological structures such as neocortex and subcortical regions - BG and brainstem.

  1. Swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with shortened dental arches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreulen, C.M.; Witter, D.J.; Tekamp, F.A.; Slagter, A.P.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To quantify swallowing threshold parameters of subjects with a moderate shortened dental arch dentition (SDA: missing molar teeth, but premolar teeth in occluding position and uninterrupted anterior regions) compared to subjects with a complete dental arch dentition (CDA). METHODS:

  2. Swallowing rehabilitation before and during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneyuki, Miki; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Morimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hitoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, oropharyngeal cancer is more frequently being managed with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). As more patients receive CCRT, there is increasing attention on dysphagia. Since 2009, speech therapists in our hospital have performed swallowing rehabilitation for dysphagia associated with CCRT. We evaluated dysphagia after CCRT and examined the relationship between swallowing rehabilitation and swallowing disability. A total of 26 patients (22 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 63 years (range, 41 to 79), underwent CCRT between March 2008 and March 2010. Dysphagia after treatment was graded at the end of CCRT and discharge according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 and Fujishima dysphagia grade. Ten of the 26 patients underwent swallowing rehabilitation, exercise and education on muscle strengthening programs before and during CCRT. They tended not to have severe dysphagia, but there were no significant differences. (author)

  3. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, André Vinicius Marcondes Natel; Giacheti, Célia Maria; Cola, Paula Cristina; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-10-23

    To describe the qualitative and quantitative temporal analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing in children diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS) through a case series study of six individuals aged 4 to 17 months (mean age = 11.16 months; median = 12 months). Qualitative and quantitative temporal analysis of swallowing using videofluoroscopy and specific software. The following parameters were assessed: presence or absence of oral incoordination, labial sphincter sealing incompetence, oral residue, posterior oral spillage, laryngotracheal penetration and aspiration, pharyngeal and total oral transit time (TOTT). Qualitative analysis identified individuals with disorders in at least four of the swallowing parameters investigated. Only one individual presented total oral transit time (TOTT) different from the others. No difference was observed between the cases regarding pharyngeal transit time. Qualitative swallowing disorders are observed in children with DS, with difference in TOTT only in the case report of the youngest infant.

  4. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker.......We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker....

  5. Evidence for adaptive cortical changes in swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntrup, Sonja; Teismann, Inga; Bejer, Joke; Suttrup, Inga; Winkels, Martin; Mehler, David; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer; Warnecke, Tobias

    2013-03-01

    Dysphagia is a relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease, whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is mainly attributed to degeneration of brainstem nuclei. However, alterations in the cortical contribution to deglutition control in the course of Parkinson's disease have not been investigated. Here, we sought to determine the patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without dysphagia. Swallowing function in patients was objectively assessed with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. Swallow-related cortical activation was measured using whole-head magnetoencephalography in 10 dysphagic and 10 non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group during self-paced swallowing. Data were analysed applying synthetic aperture magnetometry, and group analyses were done using a permutation test. Compared with healthy subjects, a strong decrease of cortical swallowing activation was found in all patients. It was most prominent in participants with manifest dysphagia. Non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease showed a pronounced shift of peak activation towards lateral parts of the premotor, motor and inferolateral parietal cortex with reduced activation of the supplementary motor area. This pattern was not found in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease. We conclude that in Parkinson's disease, not only brainstem and basal ganglia circuits, but also cortical areas modulate swallowing function in a clinically relevant way. Our results point towards adaptive cerebral changes in swallowing to compensate for deficient motor pathways. Recruitment of better preserved parallel motor loops driven by sensory afferent input seems to maintain swallowing function until progressing neurodegeneration exceeds beyond the means of this adaptive strategy, resulting in manifestation of dysphagia.

  6. Normal erect swallowing. Normal function and incidence of variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, D J; Cruess, D F; Dachman, A H

    1985-10-01

    Of 871 candidates presenting for upper gastrointestinal examinations, 16 met the rigorous criteria established for selecting asymptomatic normal volunteers. Frame-by-frame evaluation of their videorecorded pharyngeal swallow confirmed many observations made previously utilizing cine recording at much higher radiation dosages. In addition, new observations were made: the nasopharynx may not occlude until the bolus is entirely within the pharynx; air mixes with the bolus if the swallow is an "open" type; the epiglottis always inverts in normal individuals regardless of the type of swallow ("open," air filled oro-and hypopharynx into which the swallowed bolus is dropped; "closed," airless oropharynx into which the swallowed bolus is pushed by a continuous peristaltic drive of the tongue and palate, thus reconstituting the pharyngeal space); laryngeal descent may aid in stripping the bolus from the pharynx; the vestibule may not completely close during the swallow and the larynx can still be impervious to the bolus; the peristaltic wave does not begin until the bolus has breeched the cricopharyngeus; the cricopharyngeus may be seen frequently in normal individuals, but does not delay the passage of the bolus; asymmetric flow of the bolus around the larynx is common and may not be the result of epiglottic tilt or head positioning.

  7. Observation the swallowing mechanism in elderly patients with pharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Campo-Cañar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the swallowing dynamics is an issue that demands close attention by the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia. This article is a review of the literature aimed to enhance the knowledge regarding the speech therapy assessment of pharyngeal dysphagia in elder adults. The disorder of the swallowing is called dysphagia and it is defined as difficulty swallowing. The dysphagia is often caused by affectation of mechanical or neuromuscular components of the swallowing mechanism. This type of disorder is likely to impact the the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallowing. The speech therapist should take into account assessing aspects such as level of consciousness, vital signs, whether or not the patient is ventilator dependent, means of feeding, if intubated what type of cannula, whether or not the patient uses a speaking valve (if a trach tube is present, nutritional status, the patient’s expressive and receptive language, the anatomical and physiological state of the oral motor structures. When assessing swallowing clinicians should also make sure to develop an adequate beside clinical, voice assessment and videofluoroscopy.

  8. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  9. Acoustic analysis of oropharyngeal swallowing using Sonar Doppler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Franciele Savaris; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da; Furkim, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the aging process, one of the functions that changes is swallowing. These alterations in oropharyngeal swallowing may be diagnosed by methods that allow both the diagnosis and biofeedback monitoring by the patient. One of the methods recently described in the literature for the evaluation of swallowing is the Sonar Doppler. To compare the acoustic parameters of oropharyngeal swallowing between different age groups. This was a field, quantitative, study. Examination with Sonar Doppler was performed in 75 elderly and 72 non-elderly adult subjects. The following acoustic parameters were established: initial frequency, first peak frequency, second peak frequency; initial intensity, final intensity; and time for the swallowing of saliva, liquid, nectar, honey, and pudding, with 5- and 10-mL free drinks. Objective, measurable data were obtained; most acoustic parameters studied between adult and elderly groups with respect to consistency and volume were significant. When comparing elderly with non-elderly adult subjects, there is a modification of the acoustic pattern of swallowing, regarding both consistency and food bolus volume. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid bolus swallowing in the radiologic evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westen, D. van; Ekberg, O.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with dysphagia, heartburn and chest pain are regularly referred for radiologic evaluation of swallowing. The liquid barium swallow has been of great value for the biphasic evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus. Though many patients complain of dysphagia specifically for solids, solid bolus swallow is ususally not part of the evaluation. For the present study we therefore included the use of a solid bolus with a diameter of 13 mm and interviewed the patients carefully for any symptoms during this tablet swallow. Of 200 patients examined, the tablet passed through the esophagus without delay in 102. In the 98 patients with delayed passage, the solid bolus arrest occurred in the pharynx in 5 and in the esophagus in 93. Arrest in the esophagus was due to esophageal dysmotility in 48 patients. Twenty of these were symptomatic during the tablet swallow. A narrowing was the cause in 45, of whom 9 had symptoms. In 18 patients (9%) the solid bolus added key information to the radiologic evaluation. We therefore recommend that the solid bolus is included in the routine radiologic work-up of patients with dysphagia. Careful attention to symptoms during the tablet swallow is important. (orig.)

  11. Interferential electric stimulation applied to the neck increases swallowing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Takayuki; Takemura, Masanori; Tsujita, Junzo; Oku, Yoshitaka

    2012-03-01

    Swallowing disorders are a common complaint among the elderly. Recently, surface electrical stimulation applied to the neck region has received increased attention as a new modality to treat pharyngeal dysphagia. Previous reports used pulsed current at a frequency range of 1-120 Hz. Kilohertz-frequency alternating currents (ACs) have not been tested for treating dysphagia. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of interferential currents (IFCs), the most popular modality of amplitude-modulated kilohertz-frequency ACs in clinical practice, on the swallowing reflex in healthy subjects. We found that IFC stimulation at the sensory threshold with 50-Hz modulation significantly increased the number of swallows without any discomfort, but pure AC stimulation at the carrier frequency did not have a significant effect. There was no statistically significant difference in the time course of the number of swallows among 1,000-, 2,000-, 4,000-, and 6,000-Hz carrier frequencies. The number of swallows remained increased during the 15-min IFC stimulation, suggesting that IFC stimulation facilitates the swallowing reflex without adaptation, at least during this stimulation period. We suggest that an IFC stimulation or a low-frequency, modulated kilohertz AC stimulation, which would be more comfortable than pulsed currents, is an alternative stimulation mode for treating pharyngeal dysphagia.

  12. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  13. Evaluation of toxicity profile of leaf base extract of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... drink the leaf decoction for measles, grinding the seeds with those of the calabash tree .... euthanised rats was dispensed into EDTA anticoagulant bottle for haematological analyses. ... Effect of S. bicolor leaf extract (100 – 400 mg/kg p.o.) on water intake of male rats treated for 28 days. Mean water intake ...

  14. Diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia-nodulating Adesmia bicolor in soils of Central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Luciana; Angelini, Jorge; Fabra, Adriana; Malpassi, Rosana

    2013-02-01

    Native perennial legume Adesmia bicolor reveals characteristics that are key to securing persistence under grazing. Literature on the diversity and symbiotic effectiveness of indigenous rhizobia-nodulating A. bicolor in central Argentina is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to determine phenotypic and genotypic variability as well as biological N-fixation effectiveness in rhizobia isolated from A. bicolor nodules. To this end, repetitive genomic regions were analyzed using ERIC primers. In the greenhouse, plants were grown under a (i) N-fertilized treatment, (ii) N-free control treatment, and (iii) rhizobia inoculation treatment. Dry weight and N-content were analyzed. All isolates belonged to Rhizobium genus and showed high symbiotic effectiveness. The N-content/subterranean N-content ratio in aerial and subterranean parts of inoculated plants was higher than that observed in N-fertilized plants during the vegetative stage. Results from this study demonstrate that symbiosis between native rhizobial strains and A. bicolor is very effective.

  15. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in. Sorghum bicolor. Ghanbar Laei*, M. H. Khajehzadeh, Hossein Afshari, Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi and Hossein. Abbaspour. Department of Agricultural Sciences, Damghan branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran. Accepted 19 May, 2011. In order to ...

  16. Effect of mycorrhiza symbiosis on the Nacl salinity in Sorghum bicolor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine mycorrhizal symbiosis on the Nacl salinity tolerance in Sorghum bicolor (aspydfyd cultivar), an experiment with two factors was done in Damghan Islamic Azad University laboratory (Iran) in 2007. The first factor with two levels (mycorihizal and non-mycorihizal) and second factor with six levels Nacl ...

  17. Comportamento bioquímico de plantas de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mara

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... The aim of this research was to characterize the biochemical behavior of sorghum plants under saline stress using multivariate statistical analysis methods for efficient management of Sorghum bicolor. [Moench.]). The experimental design was completely randomized design composed of three saline.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated insertional mutagenesis in the mycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, B I; Alvarez Crespo, M C; Kemppainen, M J; Pardo, A G

    2017-05-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer (AMT) is extensively employed as a tool in fungal functional genomics and accordingly, in previous studies we used AMT on a dikaryotic strain of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor. The interest in this fungus derives from its capacity to establish a symbiosis with tree roots, thereby playing a major role in nutrient cycling of forest ecosystems. The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is a highly complex interaction involving many genes from both partners. To advance in the functional characterization of fungal genes, AMT was used on a monokaryotic L. bicolor. A collection of over 1200 transgenic strains was produced, of which 200 randomly selected strains were analyzed for their genomic T-DNA insertion patterns. By means of insertional mutagenesis, a number of transgenic strains were obtained displaying differential growth features. Moreover, mating with a compatible strain resulted in dikaryons that retained altered phenotypic features of the transgenic monokaryon. The analysis of the T-DNA integration pattern revealed mostly similar results to those reported in earlier studies, confirming the usefulness of AMT on different genetic backgrounds of L. bicolor. Taken together, our studies display the great versatility and potentiality of AMT as a tool for the genetic characterization of L. bicolor.

  19. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  20. Materials as regard about ecology and spreading of lycodine striatum bicolor nik in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattorov, T.S.; Khidirov, Kh.; Mukhammadkulov, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article is placed new scientific information about biology, ecology and spreading of Lycodine striatum bicolor within the territory of Tajikistan. Finding available in this article concerning spreading of flus snake are considered to be new. This scarce snake was discovered for the first time in Northern part of Tajikistan. This new information will enrich our notions about Reptile fauna of Tajikistan

  1. Radioinduced variation in genetic improvement of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (l.). Moench)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez del Rio, E.

    1984-01-01

    A genetic variability study among 25 varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is presented. The populations are irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Krads of cobalt 60 as far as M 5 generation. An individual selection is done taking into consideration agronomic characteristics like precocity, type, size. height of the plant. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum bicolor impacts both primary and secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few transcription factors have been identified in C4 grasses that either positively or negatively regulate monolignol biosynthesis. Previously, overexpression of SbMyb60 in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was shown to induce monolignol synthesis, which led to elevated lignin deposition and al...

  3. The effect of some fixatives on the staining ability of Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-10-20

    Oct 20, 2006 ... The effect of some fixatives on the staining reactions of the extracts of Sorghum bicolor on tissue sections was studied in order to identify the most appropriate fixative for the stain. Tissue sections taken at postmortem were fixed in 10% formol saline, Carnoy's fluid, Bouin's fluid, Formol sublimate,.

  4. Analysis of aluminium sensitivity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, K.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve genotypes of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) differing in Al sensitivity were grown in an acid soil (with additions of lime or MgSO 4 ) and in nutrient solutions (with or without Al at constant pH) for periods between 14 and 35 days.

  5. Dosimetric assessment of swallowing examinations with videofluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.B.; Canevaro, L.V.; Azevedo, A.C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dosimetric analysis measurements of the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) of 7 individuals were estimated for the deglutition dynamic using the videofluoroscopic method. The aim of this study is to establish in a preliminary way, typical DAP values for this kind of study. The DAP values were obtained attaching to the X ray tube exit, an ionization chamber from PTW and a Diamentor M4 meter. The typical DAP values obtained during the videofluoroscopic evaluation of the deglutition dynamic, including its three phases, was: 4101 ± 881 cGy.cm 2 and the typical DAP rate was 577 ± 94 cGy.cm 2 /min. These values refer to a standard patient (1.57 cm height, 56 kg. weight) and a protocol that can be performed in about 7 minutes. The values, defined herein as typical refer to the used protocol. To our knowledge, the mean DAP rate is a good parameter to estimate radiation exposure from videofluoroscopic study of swallowing process. (author)

  6. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Rizal

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33 with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT. The back-cross (BC1F1 progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used

  7. Cs phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor cultivated in soil and in hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chen, Can; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-04-03

    Cs accumulation characteristics by Sorghum bicolor were investigated in hydroponic system (Cs level at 50-1000 μmol/L) and in soil (Cs-spiked concentration was 100 and 400 mg/kg soil). Two varieties of S. bicolor Cowly and Nengsi 2# grown on pot soil during the entire growth period (100 days) did not show significant differences on the height, dry weight (DW), and Cs accumulation. S. bicolor showed the potential phytoextraction ability for Cs-contaminated soil with the bioaccumulation factor (BCF) and the translocation factor (TF) values usually higher than 1 in soil system and in hydroponic system. The aerial parts of S. bicolor contributed to 86-92% of the total removed amounts of Cs from soil. Cs level in solution at 100 μmol/L gave the highest BCF and TF values of S. bicolor. Cs at low level tended to transfer to the aerial parts, whereas Cs at high level decreased the transfer ratio from root to shoot. In soil, the plant grew well when Cs spiked level was 100 mg/kg soil, but was inhibited by Cs at 400 mg/kg soil with Cs content in sorghum reaching 1147 mg/kg (roots), 2473 mg/kg (stems), and 2939 mg/kg (leaves). In hydroponic system, average Cs level in sorghum reached 5270 mg/kg (roots) and 4513 mg/kg (aerial parts), without significant damages to its biomass at 30 days after starting Cs treatment. Cs accumulation in sorghum tissues was positively correlated with the metal concentration in medium.

  8. Hard to Swallow: Developmental Biological Insights into Pediatric Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMantia, Anthony-Samuel; Moody, Sally A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Zohn, Irene E.; Mendelowitz, David; Lee, Norman H.; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric dysphagia—feeding and swallowing difficulties that begin at birth, last throughout childhood, and continue into maturity—is one of the most common, least understood complications in children with developmental disorders. We argue that a major cause of pediatric dysphagia is altered hindbrain patterning during pre-natal development. Such changes can compromise craniofacial structures including oropharyngeal muscles and skeletal elements as well as motor and sensory circuits necessary for normal feeding and swallowing. Animal models of developmental disorders that include pediatric dysphagia in their phenotypic spectrum can provide mechanistic insight into pathogenesis of feeding and swallowing difficulties. A fairly common human genetic developmental disorder, DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) includes a substantial incidence of pediatric dysphagia in its phenotypic spectrum. Infant mice carrying a parallel deletion to 22q11DS patients have feeding and swallowing difficulties. Altered hindbrain patterning, neural crest migration, craniofacial malformations, and changes in cranial nerve growth prefigure these difficulties. Thus, in addition to craniofacial and pharyngeal anomalies that arise independently of altered neural development, pediatric dysphagia may reflect disrupted hindbrain patterning and its impact on neural circuit development critical for feeding and swallowing. The mechanisms that disrupt hindbrain patterning and circuitry may provide a foundation to develop novel therapeutic approaches for improved clinical management of pediatric dysphagia. PMID:26554723

  9. A swallowed sewing needle migrating to the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcu, Serhat; Unal, Ozkan; Ozen, Ozkan; Bora, Aydın; Dülger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2009-09-01

    Swallowing foreign bodies is a common problem in children. Although most objects pass through the gastrointestinal tract with no untoward effect; long, sharppointed, or slender objects can perforate the gut. Migration of a swallowed object to the liver is extremely rare and very few cases have been reported in the literature up to now. The aim of this study is to draw attention to this subject once again by contributing a case report of a child with hepatic migration of a swallowed sewing needle. A 16-year-old girl presented to the emergency room of pediatrics department in our hospital with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Physical examination revealed tenderness on the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory examination revealed increased hepatic enzymes as well as increased white blood cell count. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography examinations revealed foreign body in the liver accompanied by surrounding abscess formation. The foreign body (sewing needle) was removed surgically after two operations. The children may not be able to remember the swallowing of the foreign body or they may try to hide such a condition. The radiological diagnosis in such cases which can be achieved by X-rays, ultrasonography or computed tomography is of critical importance, as well as getting detailed patient history for foreign body swallowing.

  10. Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taeok; Kim, Youngsun

    2016-01-01

    The risk of swallowing disorders is increased for older individuals due to weak tongue and pharyngeal muscle strength. This study was appraised the value of a preventative approach by developing the tongue pressing effortful swallow (TPES) applied using a home-based and self-administered procedure. The TPES was developed by combining two swallowing exercises: tongue strengthening exercise and the effortful swallow. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the TPES on maximum tongue pressure and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity in older individuals. 27 older individuals (mean 73 years) performed a 4-week TPES. The exercise program was adapted to a home-based and self-administered procedure. The maximum tongue pressure was measured by the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity by surface electromyography (sEMG). Statistical comparisons were made by a matched pairs t-test (ptongue pressure, but the peak amplitude of the submental sEMG did not differ between before and after exercises. The TPES had a positive impact in older individuals. The TPES, a combining exercise, was possible because two exercises had common physiological events. The TPES was a more innovative and efficient approach than the tongue strengthening exercise alone. In addition, older individuals were able to perform the swallowing exercise at home and by themselves with little assistance. Future research needs to refine the TPES and apply it to patients with dysphagia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Tongue pressure production during swallowing in patients with mandibular prognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, K; Fukui, T; Sasakura, C; Hori, K; Ono, T; Saito, I

    2016-05-01

    Abnormalities of swallowing in patients with mandibular prognathism have not been evaluated quantitatively. The aim of this study was to compare tongue pressure production for bolus transfer between volunteers with normal occlusion and patients with mandibular prognathism. The control group had 10 female volunteers with normal occlusion, and the patient group had 10 women with mandibular prognathism. Tongue pressure was measured by a palatal sensor sheet at five sites on swallowing 4 mL of a tasteless and odourless jelly. The tongue pressure waveform differed between the control and patient groups. The incidence of a double-peak tongue pressure waveform was more frequent in the patient group. In both groups, the exertion of tongue pressure began at the anterior point of the sensor sheet, followed by the peripheral parts. Although the order of expression of tongue pressure was the same for the two groups, maximum tongue pressure at all parts of the sensor sheet was lower in the patient group than in the control group. Furthermore, swallowing time was longer in the patient group than in the control group at the peripheral parts of the palate. These results clearly show the difference in tongue pressure production during swallowing between patients with mandibular prognathism and volunteers with normal occlusion. The current findings suggest that maxillofacial morphology may affect tongue movement during swallowing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease: a surface electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.

  13. Recent Advances in Sensing Oropharyngeal Swallowing Function in Japan

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    Takahiro Ono

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing is an important issue in the elderly because it causes aspiration pneumonia, which is the second largest cause of death in this group. It also causes decline in activities of daily living and quality of life. The oral phase of swallowing has been neglected, despite its importance in the evaluation of dysphagia, because adequate protocols and measuring devices are unavailable. However, recent advances in sensor technology have enabled straightforward, non-invasive measurement of the movement of important swallowing-related organs such as the lips and tongue, as well as the larynx. In this article, we report the present state and possibility of clinical application of such systems developed in Japan.

  14. Tracking the hyoid bone in videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellen, Patrick M.; Becker, Darci; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; van Daele, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    Difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia, has become a growing problem. Swallowing complications can lead to malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infection, and even death. The current gold standard for analyzing and diagnosing dysphagia is the videofluoroscopic barium swallow study. In these studies, a fluoroscope is used to image the patient ingesting barium solutions of different volumes and viscosities. The hyoid bone anchors many key muscles involved in swallowing and plays a key role in the process. Abnormal hyoid bone motion during a swallow can indicate swallowing dysfunction. Currently in clinical settings, hyoid bone motion is assessed qualitatively, which can be subject to intra-rater and inter-rater bias. This paper presents a semi-automatic method for tracking the hyoid bone that makes quantitative analysis feasible. The user defines a template of the hyoid on one frame, and this template is tracked across subsequent frames. The matching phase is optimized by predicting the position of the template based on kinematics. An expert speech pathologist marked the position of the hyoid on each frame of ten studies to serve as the gold standard. Results from performing Bland-Altman analysis at a 95% confidence interval showed a bias of 0.0+/-0.08 pixels in x and -0.08+/-0.09 pixels in y between the manually-defined gold standard and the proposed method. The average Pearson's correlation between the gold standard and the proposed method was 0.987 in x and 0.980 in y. This paper also presents a method for automatically establishing a patient-centric coordinate system for the interpretation of hyoid motion. This coordinate system corrects for upper body patient motion during the study and identifies superior-inferior and anterior-posterior motion components. These tools make the use of quantitative hyoid motion analysis feasible in clinical and research settings.

  15. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina SCHEEREN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I - without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II - with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333 consecutive patients were studied - 213 (64% in Group I and 120 (36% in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31% patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%, especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9% and tertiary contractions (16.4%. It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.

  16. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  17. Comparison of endoscopy and barium swallow with marshmallow in dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Thompson, G

    1986-06-01

    Forty-four patients with dysphagia were examined both by endoscopy and by barium swallow with a marshmallow bolus. In these patients 36 stenoses were found: 34 by radiology and 30 by endoscopy. The radiologic criteria for stenosis included arrest of the marshmallow in a manner to support a column of barium and reproduction of the patient's symptoms at the time this occurred. Radiologic false negative findings were partly due to an inability by patients to swallow an adequate marshmallow bolus; endoscopic failures were associated with small endoscopes and mild stenoses.

  18. KLT-type relations for QCD and bicolor amplitudes from color-factor symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.; Naculich, Stephen G.

    2018-03-01

    Color-factor symmetry is used to derive a KLT-type relation for tree-level QCD amplitudes containing gluons and an arbitrary number of massive or massless quark-antiquark pairs, generalizing the expression for Yang-Mills amplitudes originally postulated by Bern, De Freitas, and Wong. An explicit expression is given for all amplitudes with two or fewer quark-antiquark pairs in terms of the (modified) momentum kernel. We also introduce the bicolor scalar theory, the "zeroth copy" of QCD, containing massless biadjoint scalars and massive bifundamental scalars, generalizing the biadjoint scalar theory of Cachazo, He, and Yuan. We derive KLT-type relations for tree-level amplitudes of biadjoint and bicolor theories using the color-factor symmetry possessed by these theories.

  19. Scent gland constituents of the Middle American burrowing python, Loxocemus bicolor (Serpentes: Loxocemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Thies; Weldon, Paul J; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-07-14

    Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the scent gland secretions of male and female Middle American burrowing pythons (Loxocemus bicolor) revealed the presence of over 300 components including cholesterol, fatty acids, glyceryl monoalkyl ethers, and alcohols. The fatty acids, over 100 of which were identified, constitute most of the compounds in the secretions and show the greatest structural diversity. They include saturated and unsaturated, unbranched and mono-, di-, and trimethyl-branched compounds ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. The glyceryl monoethers possess saturated or unsaturated, straight or methyl-branched alkyl chains ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. Alcohols, which have not previously been reported from the scent glands, possess straight, chiefly saturated carbon chains ranging in length from 13 to 24. Sex or individual differences in secretion composition were not observed. Compounds in the scent gland secretions of L. bicolor may deter offending arthropods, such as ants.

  20. Ultraestructura del bambú Guadua angustifolia var. bicolor (Poaceae: Bambusoideae, presente en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Montiel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la ultraestructura anatómica de la lámina y la vaina de la hoja, así como de la bráctea del culmo, de Guadua angustifolia var. bicolor, por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se encontraron similitudes con otras guaduas: estomas de alto domo, células largas con paredes sinuosas y células de sílice. Son propios de la var. bicolor el patrón estomático en la zona abaxial de la hoja cerca de la vaina, con la presencia de gran cantidad de tricomas ganchudos y sin papilas; las brácteas de color café dorado que cubren los culmos y tienen tricomas papilares que cubren el haz; y el abundante número de tricomas auriculares, en grupos de 12.The anatomy of several parts of Guadua angustifolia var. bicolor was analyzed and characterized under a scanning electron icroscope. any similarities ere observed with other Guadua species, particularly the presence of high dome stomata, of large cells with sinuous walls and of silica cells. Specific bicolor characteristics include (1 a different stomatal pattern in the adaxial zone of the leaf base (close to the sheath; (2 the abundance of hook-sshaped trichomes without papilla; (3 the distinctive golden brown color of the bract that covers the culm (caused by papillar trichomes that cover the adaxial sheath; and (4 the size of the groups of auricular trichomes (formed by 12 trichomes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(Suppl. 2: 13-19. Epub 2006 Dec. 01.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of Sorghum bicolor Laccases Reveals Potential Targets for Lignin Modification

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    Jinhui Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Laccase is a key enzyme in plant lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the final step of monolignols polymerization. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] is considered as an ideal feedstock for ethanol production, but lignin greatly limits the production efficiency. No comprehensive analysis on laccase has ever been conducted in S. bicolor, although it appears as the most promising target for engineering lignocellulosic feedstock. The aim of our work is to systematically characterize S. bicolor laccase gene family and to identify the lignin-specific candidates. A total of twenty-seven laccase candidates (SbLAC1-SbLAC27 were identified in S. bicolor. All SbLACs comprised the equivalent L1-L4 signature sequences and three typical Cu-oxidase domains, but exhibited diverse intron-exon patterns and relatively low sequence identity. They were divided into six groups by phylogenetic clustering, revealing potential distinct functions, while SbLAC5 was considered as the closest lignin-specific candidate. qRT-PCR analysis deciphered that SbLAC genes were expressed preferentially in roots and young internodes of sweet sorghum, and SbLAC5 showed high expression, adding the evidence that SbLAC5 was bona fide involved in lignin biosynthesis. Besides, high abundance of SbLAC6 transcripts was detected, correlating it a potential role in lignin biosynthesis. Diverse cis regulatory elements were recognized in SbLACs promoters, indicating putative interaction with transcription factors. Seven SbLACs were found to be potential targets of sbi-miRNAs. Moreover, putative phosphorylation sites in SbLAC sequences were identified. Our research adds to the knowledge for lignin profile modification in sweet sorghum.

  2. Bicolored display of Miconia albicans fruits: Evaluating visual and physiological functions of fruit colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Maria Gabriela G; Schaefer, H Martin; Habermann, Gustavo; Cazetta, Eliana; Soares, Natalia Costa; Morellato, Leonor Patrícia C

    2015-09-01

    Most bird-dispersed fruits are green when unripe and become colored and conspicuous when ripe, signaling that fruits are ready to be consumed and dispersed. The color pattern for fruits of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae), however, is the opposite, with reddish unripe and green ripe fruits. We (1) verified the maintenance over time of its bicolored display, (2) tested the communicative function of unripe fruits, (3) tested the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits, and (4) verified whether green ripe fruits can assimilate carbon. Using a paired experiment, we tested whether detection of ripe fruits was higher on infructescences with unripe and ripe fruits compared with infructescences with only ripe fruits. We also measured and compared gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, and heat dissipation of covered (to prevent anthocyanin synthesis) and uncovered ripe and unripe fruits. Although the bicolored display was maintained over time, unripe fruits had no influence on bird detection and removal of ripe fruits. Ripe and unripe fruits did not assimilate CO2, but they respired instead. Since the communicative function of unripe fruits was not confirmed, seed dispersers are unlikely to select the display with bicolored fruits. Because of the absence of photosynthetic activity in ripe and unripe fruits and enhanced photoprotective mechanisms in ripe fruits rather than in unripe fruits, we could not confirm the photoprotective role of anthocyanins in unripe fruits. As an alternative hypothesis, we suggest that the bicolored fruit display could be an adaptation to diversify seed dispersal vectors instead of restricting dispersal to birds and that anthocyanins in unripe fruits may have a defense role against pathogens. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  3. First record of Triaenodes bicolor (Curtis, 1834) (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Ecoregion Hellenic Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kuçi, Ruzhdi; Bilalli, Astrit; Gashi, Ermira

    2017-01-01

    We collected adult caddisfly specimens with entomological nets and ultraviolet light traps monthly from May to November 2012 in Brezne Lake situated in Dragash Municipality. During this investigation we found the Leptocerid species Triaenodes bicolor for the first time in Kosovo; it is also the first record for Ecoregion 6, Hellenic Western Balkans. Additionally, this is the first record of the genus Triaenodes from Kosovo. In total seven males and three females of this species were found. Tr...

  4. Transitioning from phosphate mining to agriculture: Responses to urea and slow release fertilizers for Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrof, Katinka X; Steel, Emma; Misra, Sunil; McComb, Jen; O'Hara, Graham; Hardy, Giles E St J; Howieson, John

    2018-06-01

    Globally, land-use transition from mining to agriculture is becoming increasingly attractive and necessary for many reasons. However, low levels of necessary plant nutrients, and high levels of heavy metals, can hamper plant growth, affecting yield, and potentially, food safety. In post-phosphate mining substrates, for example, nitrogen (N) is a key limiting nutrient, and, although legumes are planted prior to cereals, N supplementation is still necessary. We undertook two field trials on Christmas Island, Australia, to determine whether Sorghum bicolor could be grown successfully in a post-phosphate mining substrate. The first trial investigated N (urea) demand (amount of N required for adequate crop growth) for S. bicolor, and whether N addition could reduce the naturally occurring cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the crop. The second trial examined whether slow release nitrogen fertilizers (SRF) could replace urea to increase biomass and reduce Cd concentrations. Our first trial demonstrated that S. bicolor has a high N demand, with the highest biomass being recorded in the 160kg/ha urea treatment. However, plants treated with 80, 120 and 160kg/ha were not significantly different from one another. After 7weeks of growth, leaf Cd concentrations were significantly lower for all urea treatments compared with the control plants. However, after 23weeks, seed Cd concentrations did not differ across treatments. Our second trial demonstrated that the application of SRF (Macracote® and Sulsync®) and 160kg/ha urea significantly increased biomass above the control plants. There was, however, no treatment response in terms of Cd or N concentrations in the seed at final harvest. Thus, we have shown that N is currently critical for S. bicolor, even following legume cropping, and that high biomass and a significant reduction in Cd can be attained with appropriate levels of urea. Our work has important implications for cereal growth and food safety in post-mining agriculture

  5. Challenges of Detecting Directional Selection After a Bottleneck: Lessons From Sorghum bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Hamblin, Martha T.; Casa, Alexandra M.; Sun, Hong; Murray, Seth C.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Aquadro, Charles F.; Kresovich, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Multilocus surveys of sequence variation can be used to identify targets of directional selection, which are expected to have reduced levels of variation. Following a population bottleneck, the signal of directional selection may be hard to detect because many loci may have low variation by chance and the frequency spectrum of variation may be perturbed in ways that resemble the effects of selection. Cultivated Sorghum bicolor contains a subset of the genetic diversity found in its wild ances...

  6. Tongue Movements during Water Swallowing in Healthy Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Van Lieshout, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the nature and extent of variability in tongue movement during healthy swallowing as a function of aging and gender. In addition, changes were quantified in healthy tongue movements in response to specific differences in the nature of the swallowing task (discrete vs. sequential swallows). Method:…

  7. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cu/Zn SOD Gene from Gynura bicolor DC.

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    Xin Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant enzyme extensively existing in eukaryote, which scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays an essential role in stress tolerance of higher plants. A full-length cDNA encoding Cu/Zn SOD was cloned from leaves of Gynura bicolor DC. by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length cDNA of Cu/Zn SOD is 924 bp and has a 681 bp open reading frame encoding 227 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that belonged to the plant SOD super family. Cu/Zn SODs of the Helianthus annuus, Mikania micrantha, and Solidago canadensis var. scabra all have 86% similarity to the G. bicolor Cu/Zn SOD. Analysis of the expression of Cu/Zn SOD under different treatments revealed that Cu/Zn SOD was a stress-responsive gene, especially to 1-MCP. It indicates that the Cu/Zn SOD gene would be an important gene in the resistance to stresses and will be helpful in providing evidence for future research on underlying molecular mechanism and choosing proper postharvest treatments for G. bicolor.

  8. A genomic analysis of disease-resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding sites in Sorghum bicolor

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    Xiao Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A large set of candidate nucleotide-binding site (NBS-encoding genes related to disease resistance was identified in the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor genome. These resistance (R genes were characterized based on their structural diversity, physical chromosomal location and phylogenetic relationships. Based on their N-terminal motifs and leucine-rich repeats (LRR, 50 non-regular NBS genes and 224 regular NBS genes were identified in 274 candidate NBS genes. The regular NBS genes were classified into ten types: CNL, CN, CNLX, CNX, CNXL, CXN, NX, N, NL and NLX. The vast majority (97% of NBS genes occurred in gene clusters, indicating extensive gene duplication in the evolution of S. bicolor NBS genes. Analysis of the S. bicolor NBS phylogenetic tree revealed two major clades. Most NBS genes were located at the distal tip of the long arms of the ten sorghum chromosomes, a pattern significantly different from rice and Arabidopsis, the NBS genes of which have a random chromosomal distribution.

  9. Transcript profiling of aquaporins during basidiocarp development in Laccaria bicolor ectomycorrhizal with Picea glauca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Cooke, Janice E K; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2016-01-01

    Sporocarp formation is part of the reproductive stage in the life cycle of many mycorrhizal macrofungi. Sporocarp formation is accompanied by a transcriptomic switch and profound changes in regulation of the gene families that play crucial roles in the sporocarp initiation and maturation. Since sporocarp growth requires efficient water delivery, in the present study, we investigated changes in transcript abundance of six fungal aquaporin genes that could be cloned from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor strain UAMH8232, during the initiation and development of its basidiocarp. Aquaporins are intrinsic membrane proteins facilitating the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. In controlled-environment experiments, we induced basidiocarp formation in L. bicolor, which formed ectomycorrhizal associations with white spruce (Picea glauca) seedlings. We profiled transcript abundance corresponding to six fungal aquaporin genes at six different developmental stages of basidiocarp growth and development. We also compared physiological parameters of non-inoculated to mycorrhizal seedlings with and without the presence of basidiocarps. Two L. bicolor aquaporins--JQ585592, a functional channel for CO2, NO and H2O2, and JQ585595, a functional water channel--showed the greatest degree of upregulation during development of the basidiocarp. Our findings point to the importance of aquaporin-mediated transmembrane water and CO2 transport during distinct stages of basidiocarp development.

  10. Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications: White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis in Tanzania. NE Baker, EM Baker. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  11. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  12. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

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    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  13. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911): Ecological Foremother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia J.

    Most educated women (in the sciences and other fields) still have a hard time discarding the patriarchal socialization and pressures in their own fields which prevent them from seeing this extraordinary woman as an environmental pioneer and ecological foremother. Ellen Swallow Richards merits attention and respect as a foremother of what would…

  15. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  16. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence

  17. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  18. White-throated Swallow Hirundo albigularis in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus 33: 84–85, January 2014. Received 22 August 2013. White-throated Swallow Hirundo ... Paul Oliver and John Whittle for submitting records to the Atlas database. N.E. and E.M. Baker. P.O. Box 1605, Iringa, Tanzania; Email: tzbirdatlas@yahoo.co.uk. Scopus 33: 85, January 2014. Received 21 December 2011.

  19. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  20. Quantitative Measures of Swallowing Deficits in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerston, Julia K; Heller, Amanda C; Houtz, Daniel R; Kendall, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Dysphagia and associated aspiration pneumonia are commonly reported sequelae of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies of swallowing in patients with PD have described prolonged pharyngeal transit time, delayed onset of pharyngeal transit, cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia, reduced pharyngeal constriction, and slowed hyolaryngeal elevation. These studies were completed using inconsistent evaluation methodology, reliance on qualitative analysis, and a lack of a large control group, resulting in concerns regarding diagnostic precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate swallowing function in patients with PD using a norm-referenced, quantitative approach. This retrospective study includes 34 patients with a diagnosis of PD referred to a multidisciplinary voice and swallowing clinic. Modified barium swallow studies were performed using quantitative measures of pharyngeal transit time, hyoid displacement, CP sphincter opening, area of the pharynx at maximal constriction, and timing of laryngeal vestibule closure relative to bolus arrival at the CP sphincter. Reduced pharyngeal constriction was found in 30.4%, and a delay in airway closure relative to arrival of the bolus at the CP sphincter was the most common abnormality, present in 62% of patients. Previously reported findings of prolonged pharyngeal transit, poor hyoid elevation, and CP achalasia were not identified as prominent features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, Kelly A.; McMahon, Sandra M.; Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Coakley, Kerry S.; Chang, Anne B.

    2007-01-01

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 ± 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 ± 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 ± 41.72 cGy cm 2 . Significant differences were found across three age groups (≤1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic evaluation of swallowing disorders with electron-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, J.; Lindbichler, F.; Kern, R.; Groell, R.; Rienmueller, R.

    1996-01-01

    Three cases preselected by videofluorography were studied to evaluate whether electron beam tomography (EBT) permits more detailed dynamic imaging of swallowing disorders focusing on the mesonasopharyngeal segment, the hypopharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Immediately after videofluorographic examination of the oropharyngeal deglutition, EBT is performed. The patient is in a supine position and while the patient swallows a 20 ml bolus of water or diluted iodine containing contrast agent, a sequence of 20 images per level is scanned. The levels, which are determined by using the scout view, are oriented parallel to the hard palate either at the level of the hard palate to image the mesonasopharyngel segment or just above the hyoid bone to focus on the hypopharynx or at the location of the USE. The scan technique is a single-slice cinemode with a slice thickness of 3 mm (exposure time 100 ms, interscan delay 16 ms, 130 kV, 620 mA). The following structural interactions that we have so far been unable to image can be clearly demonstrated with EBT: During normal swallowing, the mesonasopharyngeal segment is completely and symmetrically closed by the soft palate and Passavant's cushion; lateral hypopharyngeal pouches can be located more precisely; and disorders of the UES can be differentiated into functional or morphologically caused disorders (e.g., goiter or cervical osteophytes). Videofluorography and cinematography are still the gold standard in functional evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, EBT permits dynamic imaging of pharyngeal deglutition in a preselected transverse plane and can give useful additional information concerning functional anatomical changes in the pharynx during swallowing. Further clinical evaluation is needed. (orig.) [de

  3. Barn swallows nesting near radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonally occurring populations of barn swallows nest near the Test Reactor Area (TRA) radioactive leaching ponds on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site. These birds utilize leaching pond arthropods and are therefore capable of accumulating radioactive materials and exporting them from the INEL Site during migration. The breeding biology is discussed for these swallows and a control group located 100 km away. Total nestling mortality for the controls and a 1977 TRA population was found to be statistically identical. Over 20 fission and activation products have been detected in immature and adult TRA birds. Mean concentrations of detectable radionuclides were used to calculate internal dose rates, and results showed that Na-24 contributed about 72% of the total average of 21.9 mrad/d for adult birds. Concentration factors were also calculated for predominant radionuclides in swallows relative to filtered pond water. Data from LiF dosimeters in swallow nests constructed with contaminated mud indicated average dose rates were 84 mrad/d for eggs and 220 mrad/d for nestlings. Growth curves were constructed for the immature TRA birds and controls. The first clutch of TRA swallows was found to have a significantly lower mean growth rate constant than the first clutch of controls. The statistical difference in growth rate between the control and TRA first clutch populations may have resulted from differences in climate, nesting site habitat, or available food sources, and cannot be solely attributed to radiation exposure as a causative factor. Growth rate parameters for TRA birds were within the range of values reported in the literature

  4. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  5. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, Kelly A. [University of Queensland, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia); McMahon, Sandra M. [SpeechNet Speech Pathology Services, Brisbane (Australia); Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Herston (Australia); Pandeya, Nirmala [Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston (Australia); Coakley, Kerry S. [Biomedical Technology Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Herston (Australia); Chang, Anne B. [Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Herston (Australia)

    2007-03-15

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 {+-} 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 {+-} 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 {+-} 41.72 cGy cm{sup 2}. Significant differences were found across three age groups ({<=}1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P = 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  6. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  7. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. Objective: To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011. They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. Conclusion: The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series.

  8. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Karen Fontes; Kitamura, Satoshi; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011). They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The swallowing reflex and its significance as an airway defensive reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eNishino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing function, in humans, is very complex. Swallowing plays, not only an important role in food digestion, but also a major role in preventing the entrance of food and/or other materials into the lower respiratory tract. To achieve this, precise coordination is necessary between breathing and swallowing since the pharynx serves as a common pathway for both respiration and digestion. The swallowing reflex consists of afferent pathways, central integration, and efferent pathways. Any defect or disorder along reflex arc can cause a potential delay or impairment in swallow function. The swallowing reflex can be modulated not only by pathological factors but also by physiological factors. Among these, timing of swallows in relation to the phase of respiration may be the most important factor that determines the occurrence of pulmonary aspiration, since phases of inspiration and the expiration-inspiration transition are the most vulnerable for pulmonary aspiration.

  10. Effect of occlusal vertical dimension on swallowing patterns and perioral electromyographic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S K; Jack, H C; Kieser, J; Farella, M

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal swallow patterns have been associated with specific dentofacial traits, such as an anterior open bite, but the cause-effect relationship between swallowing and malocclusion remains highly controversial. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of acute change in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) on intraoral pressure swallow patterns and perioral electromyographic activity (EMG) during swallowing. Ten volunteers (five female, five male; 27-32 years) repeated standardised swallowing tasks as the OVD was progressively increased using mandibular trays of different heights. Standardised swallowing tasks were performed repetitively with each tray in place. Individual swallowing waveforms were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed. Peak pressure, swallow duration, time to peak pressure and lip EMG peak activity were assessed for each swallow. Data were analysed using mixed-model analysis. As OVD increased, lip peak pressure during swallowing increased almost threefold (+2·1 kPa; P ≤ 0·001), whereas swallow duration increased by 12·7 per cent (+160 ms; P = 0·01) at lip level and by 26·4 per cent (+270 ms; P < 0·001) at tongue level. Perioral muscle activity during swallows increased by 43·7 per cent (P ≤ 0·01) up to the OVD where resting lip seal was not attainable. Swallowing waveforms varied markedly between individuals, but interindividual waveforms were only minimally affected. The adaptive response and the waveform similarities associated with OVD variation supports the existence of a central control mechanism for swallowing, which may be modified by peripheral inputs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aging-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration determined by novel non-invasive measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Ji-Yih; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng; Tseng, Wen-Chun; Wong, Alice M K; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the process of swallowing changes with aging, a phenomenon known as presbyphagia. These subtle and subclinical age-related changes make older adults more vulnerable to dysphagia during disease insults. However, there are limited studies of the swallowing process in older adults, because measurements are typically invasive or require exposure to X-rays. In the present study, we used integrated non-invasive measurements to determine aging-related changes of swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration for a population of healthy participants. The non-invasive system provided measurements of larynx movement with piezoelectric sensors, submental muscle activity with surface electromyography and respiration-swallowing coordination by measurement of nasal airflow. We recruited 112 healthy participants from the community, 35 in a young-age group (age 20-30 years), 38 in a middle-age group (age 31-50 years) and 39 in an old-age group (age 51-70 years). The oropharyngeal swallowing parameters of the old-age group had delayed onset latency and longer swallowing apnea duration relative to the other groups, and these differences were greater for larger boluses. The middle- and old-age groups had less expiratory-expiratory respiratory phase pattern than the young-age group. The probability of piecemeal deglutition was highest in the old-age group and lowest in the young-age group. These results show that the phases of oropharyngeal swallowing and the coordination of swallowing with respiration gradually change with aging. We used integrated non-invasive measurements to document age-related changes in swallowing, and in the coordination of swallowing and respiration in healthy adults. © 2014 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Successful endoscopic removal of a swallowed toothbrush: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkic, Ante; Bogdanovic, Zoran; Grandić, Leo

    2011-04-06

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.

  13. Successful Endoscopic Removal of a Swallowed Toothbrush: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Tonkic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Most ingested foreign bodies will pass uneventfully through the gastrointestinal tract. Nevertheless, long and rigid foreign bodies are associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal impaction, perforation and bleeding. Moreover, there has been no case of spontaneous passage of a toothbrush reported. Therefore, the prompt removal of such ingested foreign objects is recommended before complications develop. This case report describes a case of an 18-year-old woman who accidentally swallowed her toothbrush. The toothbrush was successfully removed via flexible endoscopy using a polypectomy snare. A swallowed toothbrush is a special clinical challenge. Early endoscopic retrieval of the toothbrush is critical for reducing morbidity and mortality. In cases when endoscopic removal fails, a laparoscopic surgical approach may be an alternative.

  14. "Music & Memory" and improved swallowing in advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dan; Post, Stephen G; Lo, Angela; Lombardo, Robin; Pfeffer, Brandon

    2018-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and difficulty with eating affects a significant portion of individuals with advanced dementia. Such problems with oral intake can have serious health consequences including mealtime distress, dehydration and malnutrition, aspiration, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality risk. Design We present the first data indicating that "Music & Memory" interventions improve swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, thereby making oral feeding easier and potentially diminishing reliance on PEG. Setting Columbia Health Care Center, Wyocena, WI (with Music&Memory.org, Mineola, NY and Stony Brook University). Participants Residents with advanced dementia (N = 5). Observation by eight professional caregivers. Results (1) Enhanced swallowing mechanism with Music & Memory prior to dining; (2) decreased incidents of choking during mealtime; (3) improved nutritional status; (4) reduced weight loss; (5) reduced need for speech interventions; (6) enhanced quality of life. Conclusions The preliminary results call for additional research.

  15. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  16. Survey and analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Laccaria bicolor genome, with development of microsatellite markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that simple sequence repeats (SSRs) play a significant role in fungal genome organization, and they are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. We identified SSRs in the Laccaria bicolor genome by in silico survey and analyzed their distribution in the different genomic regions. We also compared the abundance and distribution of SSRs in L. bicolor with those of the following fungal genomes: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinopsis cinerea, Ustilago maydis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, Magnaporthe grisea, Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using the MISA computer program, we detected 277,062 SSRs in the L. bicolor genome representing 8% of the assembled genomic sequence. Among the analyzed basidiomycetes, L. bicolor exhibited the highest SSR density although no correlation between relative abundance and the genome sizes was observed. In most genomes the short motifs (mono- to trinucleotides) were more abundant than the longer repeated SSRs. Generally, in each organism, the occurrence, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the repeat unit increased. Furthermore, each organism had its own common and longest SSRs. In the L. bicolor genome, most of the SSRs were located in intergenic regions (73.3%) and the highest SSR density was observed in transposable elements (TEs; 6,706 SSRs/Mb). However, 81% of the protein-coding genes contained SSRs in their exons, suggesting that SSR polymorphism may alter gene phenotypes. Within a L. bicolor offspring, sequence polymorphism of 78 SSRs was mainly detected in non-TE intergenic regions. Unlike previously developed microsatellite markers, these new ones are spread throughout the genome; these markers could have immediate applications in population genetics.

  17. Genomic and transcriptomic analysis of Laccaria bicolor CAZome reveals insights into polysaccharides remodelling during symbiosis establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneault-Fourrey, Claire; Commun, Carine; Kohler, Annegret; Morin, Emmanuelle; Balestrini, Raffaella; Plett, Jonathan; Danchin, Etienne; Coutinho, Pedro; Wiebenga, Ad; de Vries, Ronald P; Henrissat, Bernard; Martin, Francis

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, living in soil forests, are required microorganisms to sustain tree growth and productivity. The establishment of mutualistic interaction with roots to form ectomycorrhiza (ECM) is not well known at the molecular level. In particular, how fungal and plant cell walls are rearranged to establish a fully functional ectomycorrhiza is poorly understood. Nevertheless, it is likely that Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZyme) produced by the fungus participate in this process. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling during ECM development was used to examine how the CAZome of Laccaria bicolor is regulated during symbiosis establishment. CAZymes active on fungal cell wall were upregulated during ECM development in particular after 4weeks of contact when the hyphae are surrounding the root cells and start to colonize the apoplast. We demonstrated that one expansin-like protein, whose expression is specific to symbiotic tissues, localizes within fungal cell wall. Whereas L. bicolor genome contained a constricted repertoire of CAZymes active on cellulose and hemicellulose, these CAZymes were expressed during the first steps of root cells colonization. L. bicolor retained the ability to use homogalacturonan, a pectin-derived substrate, as carbon source. CAZymes likely involved in pectin hydrolysis were mainly expressed at the stage of a fully mature ECM. All together, our data suggest an active remodelling of fungal cell wall with a possible involvement of expansin during ECM development. By contrast, a soft remodelling of the plant cell wall likely occurs through the loosening of the cellulose microfibrils by AA9 or GH12 CAZymes and middle lamella smooth remodelling through pectin (homogalacturonan) hydrolysis likely by GH28, GH12 CAZymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fetal swallowing as a protective mechanism against oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios in late gestation sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brace, Robert A; Anderson, Debra F; Cheung, Cecilia Y

    2013-03-01

    Our objectives were to (1) quantify the relationship between daily swallowed volume and amniotic fluid volume (AF volume) in late gestation ovine fetuses and (2) use the resulting regression equation to explore the role of swallowing in regulating AF volume. Daily swallowed volume ranged from 36 to 1963 mL/d while experimental AF volume ranged from 160 to 6150 mL (n = 115). Swallowed volume was near zero when AF volume was far below normal, a maximum of 635 ± 41 (standard error) mL/d when AF volume was 1682 ± 31 mL and did not increase further with higher AF volumes. Computer simulations predicted that fetal swallowing would (1) return AF volume to normal in 5 to 6 days following an acute volume change in the absence of changes in other amniotic inflows or outflows and (2) stabilize AF volume in 4 to 8 days following sustained alterations in amniotic inflows or outflows other than swallowing. The volume of AF swallowed each day by the fetus is a strong function of AF volume and reaches a maximum when mild polyhydramnios develops. With deviations in AF volume from normal, changes in fetal swallowing protect against oligohydramnios and polyhydramnios because the changes in swallowing over time reduce the extent of the AF volume change. However, with experimental changes in AF volume stabilizing in 1 to 2 days, it appears that swallowing is not the major regulator of AF volume.

  19. Attentional resource allocation and swallowing safety in Parkinson's disease: a dual task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S; Okun, Michael S; Rosenbek, John C; Altmann, Lori J; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-04-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite this, the mechanisms underlying dysphagia in this population are unclear. To date, researchers have not investigated the effects of varying cognitive demand on objective measures of swallowing safety. This study assessed whether swallowing safety could be disrupted by increasing cognitive demands during the task of swallowing. Twenty participants with moderate PD and dysphagia were tested while completing a novel dual task experimental paradigm under videofluoroscopy. In the dual task condition, participants swallowed 10 cc of thin liquid barium while completing a digits forward task. Four females and 16 males completed the study. Results revealed differential effects to swallowing safety based on baseline measures of cognitive flexibility and attention. Participants with mild impairment in cognitive flexibility and attention demonstrated cognitive-motor interference with worsening of both swallowing and cognitive performance. In contrast, participants who were most impaired in the domains of cognitive flexibility and attention improved swallowing safety in the dual task condition. Additionally, decreased swallow timing durations existed in the dual task condition compared to the single task condition. The results of this study support the hypothesis that supramedullary drive can influence the swallowing plan. Additionally, this study highlights the need for cognitive taxing during swallowing evaluations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attentional resource allocation and swallowing safety in Parkinson’s disease: A dual task study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S.; Okun, Michael S.; Rosenbek, John C.; Altmann, Lori J.; Sapienza, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Despite this, the mechanisms underlying dysphagia in this population are unclear. To date, researchers have not investigated the effects of varying cognitive demand on objective measures of swallowing safety. This study assessed whether swallowing safety could be disrupted by increasing cognitive demands during the task of swallowing. Methods Twenty participants with moderate PD and dysphagia were tested while completing a novel dual task experimental paradigm under videofluoroscopy. In the dual task condition, participants swallowed 10 cc of thin liquid barium while completing a digits forward task. Results Four females and 16 males completed the study. Results revealed differential effects to swallowing safety based on baseline measures of cognitive flexibility and attention. Participants with mild impairment in cognitive flexibility and attention demonstrated cognitive-motor interference with worsening of both swallowing and cognitive performance. In contrast, participants who were most impaired in the domains of cognitive flexibility and attention improved swallowing safety in the dual task condition. Additionally, decreased swallow timing durations existed in the dual task condition compared to the single task condition. Conclusions The results of this study support the hypothesis that supramedullary drive can influence the swallowing plan. Additionally, this study highlights the need for cognitive taxing during swallowing evaluations. PMID:24444532

  1. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  2. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  3. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  4. Pain, masticatory performance and swallowing threshold in orthodontic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Porto Trein

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess pain, masticatory performance and swallowing threshold of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Ten patients of both genders (mean age of 17.25 ± 5.21 years, with complete permanent dentition, who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were evaluated. The masticatory performance and the swallowing threshold were assessed by patient's individual capacity of fragmenting an artificial test food (Optocal which was chewed and had the resulting particles processed by a standardized sieving method, presenting the median particle size (MPS of crushed units. The intensity of pain / discomfort during chewing was evaluated by means of a visual analog scale. All tests were performed at the following times: T0 - before activating the orthodontic appliance; T1 - 24 hours after activation, and T2 - 30 days after activation. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in pain at T1 (T0 - 0.60 ± 0.70 mm; T1 - 66.2 ± 34.5 mm, returning to baseline values at T2 (3.20 ± 3.82 mm. Masticatory performance was also reduced in T1 (MPS 10.15 ± 1.1 mm² in comparison to T0 (MPS 7.01 ± 2.9 mm² and T2 (MPS 6.76 ± 1.3 mm². However, particle size was not affected in the swallowing threshold test (T0 - 5.47 ± 2.37 mm²; T1 - 6.19 ± 2.05 mm²; T2 - 5.94 ± 2.36 mm². CONCLUSION: The orthodontic appliances did not interfere in the size of the particles that would be swallowed, even in the presence of pain.

  5. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  6. Flavonoids Isolated From the Flowers of Limonium bicolor and their In vitro Antitumor Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Teng, Jiehui; Ma, Li; Tong, Haiying; Ren, Bingru; Wang, Linshan; Li, Weilin

    2017-01-01

    Limonium bicolor , a halophytic species, can grow in saline or saline-alkali soil, is well known as a traditional Chinese medicine. Recently it attracted much attention for its treatment for cancer. The present study was performed to evaluate this species from the phytochemical standpoint and the possible relationship between the antitumor activity and its natural products. The chemical constituents from the flowers of L. bicolor were investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. All the individual compounds were characterized by spectroscopic analysis and their potential antitumor activity was tested against three different human tumor cell lines by MTT assays. The EtOAc extract was proven as the most potent fraction and further fractionation led to the isolation of 15 natural flavonoids, which were characterized as luteolin (1), acacetin (2), quercetin (3), isorhamnetin (4), kaempferol (5), eriodictyol (6), kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (8), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (9), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (10), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside (11), myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (12), kaempferol-3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucoside (13), hesperidin (14) and rutin (15). The biotesting results demonstrated that both compounds 1 and 3 showed good cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells (LOVO). Compound 5 exhibited relative greater growth inhibition against both human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and osteosarcoma cell lines (U2-OS) at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. On the basis of these findings, the flavonoids were deduced to be potentially responsible for the antitumor activity of L. bicolor . The preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that the 3-O-glycosylation moiety in natural flavonoids was not essential for the antiproliferative activity on LOVO and U2-OS cells. The phytochemical investigation of Limonium bicolor led to the isolation of 15 flavonoids.The biotesting of the

  7. Genetic diversity study of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moenc genotypes, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Kassahun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum bicolor is one of the most important cereal crops around the world, particularly in Africa, highly cultivated for dietary staple. For this reason, a good knowledge and usage of this genetic resource in sorghum accessions is highly vital for improving crop quality. Analysis of genetic variability among the accessions will enable accurate results in breeding. The research design used was augmented design, which is common in many gene banks. This research finding would be used later by plant breeders to select best performers for further evaluation of the crop and obtain a new variety of sorghum.

  8. Determination of antioxidant properties of Rumex crispus and Scrophularia canina subsp. bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Serhat; Bozkurt, Buket; Önür, Mustafa Ali; Kaya, İrem Gülen; Ünver Somer, Nehir

    2017-01-01

    Methanoland ethyl acetate extracts of Rumex crispus L. and Scrophularia canina L. subsp. bicolor (SM.) Greuter were tested fortheir antioxidant activity using the DPPH method. Extracts were prepared fromthe above-ground parts of these plants. Significant antioxidant activity wasdetermined for methanol (IC50: 4.16 µg/mL) and ethyl acetate (IC50:8.71 µg/mL) extracts of Rumex crispus.Moreover, methanol (IC50: 60.78 µg/mL) and ethyl acetate (IC50:149.33 µg/mL) extracts of Scrophulariacanina subsp...

  9. Suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie Degenaar

    2015-12-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic and compare it with infants without the condition. Method: An assessment protocol for suck, swallow and breathing coordination was compiled from literature. This protocol was performed on a research group of 50 infants, independently diagnosed with infantile colic, and a control group of 28 infants without the condition. All participants were from two rural towns in the North–West province, South Africa, selected with a snowball selection method and strict selection criteria. The study followed a static comparison group design. Results: A significant difference in the key components of feeding and the presence of colic in participants of four age categories were found. The correlation between postural control and the presence of infantile colic were sustained in participants from 2–19 weeks old. Conclusion: Suck, swallow and breathing were found to be significantly associated with infantile colic. The findings should be investigated further. It appears that speech-language therapists may play an expanding role in infantile colic. [pdf to follow

  10. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  11. Tongue-surface movement patterns during speech and swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2003-05-01

    The tongue has been frequently characterized as being composed of several functionally independent articulators. The question of functional regionality within the tongue was examined by quantifying the strength of coupling among four different tongue locations across a large number of consonantal contexts and participants. Tongue behavior during swallowing was also described. Vertical displacements of pellets affixed to the tongue were extracted from the x-ray microbeam database. Forty-six participants recited 20 vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) combinations and swallowed 10 ccs of water. Tongue-surface movement patterns were quantitatively described by computing the covariance between the vertical time-histories of all possible pellet pairs. Phonemic differentiation in vertical tongue motions was observed as coupling varied predictably across pellet pairs with place of articulation. Moreover, tongue displacements for speech and swallowing clustered into distinct groups based on their coupling profiles. Functional independence of anterior tongue regions was evidenced by a wide range of movement coupling relations between anterior tongue pellets. The strengths and weaknesses of the covariance-based analysis for characterizing tongue movement are considered.

  12. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Dana M.; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne; Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  13. Evaluation of Chewing and Swallowing Sensors for Monitoring Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring Ingestive Behavior (MIB) of individuals is of special importance to identify and treat eating patterns associated with obesity and eating disorders. Current methods for MIB require subjects reporting every meal consumed, which is burdensome and tend to increase the reporting bias over time. This study presents an evaluation of the burden imposed by two wearable sensors for MIB during unrestricted food intake: a strain sensor to detect chewing events and a throat microphone to detect swallowing sounds. A total of 30 healthy subjects with various levels of adiposity participated in experiments involving the consumption of four meals in four different visits. A questionnaire was handled to subjects at the end of the last visit to evaluate the sensors burden in terms of the comfort levels experienced. Results showed that sensors presented high comfort levels as subjects indicated that the way they ate their meal was not considerably affected by the presence of the sensors. A statistical analysis showed that chewing sensor presented significantly higher comfort levels than the swallowing sensor. The outcomes of this study confirmed the suitability of the chewing and swallowing sensors for MIB and highlighted important aspects of comfort that should be addressed to obtain acceptable and less burdensome wearable sensors for MIB.

  14. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  15. Critical Factors in the Oral Control Needed for Chewing and Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, Jerilyn A

    2014-06-01

    Normal oropharyngeal swallowing is a complex set of neuromotor behaviors containing three phases: 1) Oral preparation to break food down to a swallowable consistency; 2) Oral phase which propels food from the mouth; 3) Pharyngeal phase creates pressure to push food into the esophagus, and includes valve functions which prevent food from entering the nose or airway and allow food into the esophagus. Systematic changes in normal oropharyngeal swallow are based on volume, viscosity, and taste of the food swallowed as well as age. Patients with oropharyngeal swallowing difficulties (dysphagia) react differently to these systematic variables in food characteristics. This review manuscript presents the results of a series of studies that examine the role of each of the stages of the nonoral orpharyngeal swallow. The importance of the definition of food viscosity in the care of dysphagic patients and the role of food production companies in this effort are emphasized.

  16. Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation Improves Breathing-Swallowing Interaction of Ventilator Dependent Neuromuscular Patients: A Prospective Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garguilo, Marine; Lejaille, Michèle; Vaugier, Isabelle; Orlikowski, David; Terzi, Nicolas; Lofaso, Frédéric; Prigent, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory involvement in neuromuscular disorders may contribute to impaired breathing-swallowing interactions, swallowing disorders and malnutrition. We investigated whether the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) controlled by the patient could improve swallowing performances in a population of neuromuscular patients requiring daytime NIV. Ten neuromuscular patients with severe respiratory failure requiring extensive NIV use were studied while swallowing without and with NIV (while ventilated with a modified ventilator allowing the patient to withhold ventilation as desired). Breathing-swallowing interactions were investigated by chin electromyography, cervical piezoelectric sensor, nasal flow recording and inductive plethysmography. Two water-bolus sizes (5 and 10ml) and a textured yogurt bolus were tested in a random order. NIV use significantly improved swallowing fragmentation (defined as the number of respiratory interruption of the swallowing of a single bolus) (p = 0.003) and breathing-swallowing synchronization (with a significant increase of swallows followed by an expiration) (p <0.0001). Patient exhibited piecemeal swallowing which was not influenced by NIV use (p = 0.07). NIV use also significantly reduced dyspnea during swallowing (p = 0.04) while preserving swallowing comfort, regardless of bolus type. The use of patient controlled NIV improves swallowing parameters in patients with severe neuromuscular respiratory failure requiring daytime NIV, without impairing swallowing comfort. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01519388.

  17. Characterizing functional connectivity patterns during saliva swallows in different head positions

    OpenAIRE

    Jestrovi?, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Sejdi?, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    Background The anatomical rationale and efficacy of the chin tuck in improving airway protection for some people with swallowing disorders have been well researched and established. However, there are still open questions regarding whether brain activity for swallowing control is altered while performing this chin-tuck maneuver. Methods In this study, we collected EEG signals from 55 healthy adults while swallowing in the neutral and chin-tuck head positions. The time-frequency based synchron...

  18. Challenges of detecting directional selection after a bottleneck: lessons from Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Martha T; Casa, Alexandra M; Sun, Hong; Murray, Seth C; Paterson, Andrew H; Aquadro, Charles F; Kresovich, Stephen

    2006-06-01

    Multilocus surveys of sequence variation can be used to identify targets of directional selection, which are expected to have reduced levels of variation. Following a population bottleneck, the signal of directional selection may be hard to detect because many loci may have low variation by chance and the frequency spectrum of variation may be perturbed in ways that resemble the effects of selection. Cultivated Sorghum bicolor contains a subset of the genetic diversity found in its wild ancestor(s) due to the combined effects of a domestication bottleneck and human selection on traits associated with agriculture. As a framework for distinguishing between the effects of demography and selection, we sequenced 204 loci in a diverse panel of 17 cultivated S. bicolor accessions. Genomewide patterns of diversity depart strongly from equilibrium expectations with regard to the variance of the number of segregating sites, the site frequency spectrum, and haplotype configuration. Furthermore, gene genealogies of most loci with an excess of low frequency variants and/or an excess of segregating sites do not show the characteristic signatures of directional and diversifying selection, respectively. A simple bottleneck model provides an improved but inadequate fit to the data, suggesting the action of other population-level factors, such as population structure and migration. Despite a known history of recent selection, we find little evidence for directional selection, likely due to low statistical power and lack of an appropriate null model.

  19. Identification of Bipolaris bicolor and Bipolaris sorokiniana on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. in Brazil Identificação de Bipolaris bicolor e Bipolaris sorokiniana sobre sementes de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra R. Morejon

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused in wheat by Helminthosporium spp. have led to considerable yield and production losses. Different species in this genus are associated with wheat seeds. In Brazil, spot blotch in wheat is caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, and another fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem that has been also isolated from wheat seeds. The current study was undertaken to identify the most frequent fungus species that normaly infects wheat seeds and compared them with B. sorokiniana. The fungus Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolated from wheat seeds cultivar IAPAR, was identified by taxonomic methods and compared with the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. Shoem., in relation to growth characteristics on the seeds, as well as to growth characteristics in PDA and morphology of the structures. Type of colony observed on the seeds is important for the differentiation between the fungus species. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented black colonies, which were well-adherent to the seeds, whereas B. bicolor presented grayish, aerial, cotton-like colonies. The size of the conidia also differed in length and width, and B. bicolor presented the smallest dimensions. In relation to septa, B. bicolor conidia presented deep ones, with dark color bases, but seldom presented dark apex. Bipolaris sorokiniana presented homogenous color.Doenças causadas por Helminthosporium spp. em trigo, causam consideráveis perdas na produção. Diferentes espécies do gênero do fungo podem ser encontradas em sementes. No caso do Brasil, a mancha foliar do trigo tem sido causada por Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc Schoem, entretanto, outro fungo como Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem tem sido isolado de sementes do trigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi identificar as espécies de fungo que normalmente infectam sementes de trigo e comparar com a mais comum B. sorokiniana. O fungo Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra Shoem., isolado de sementes de trigo var. IAPAR, foi identificado por

  20. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Characteristics of sequential swallowing of liquids in young and elderly adults: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Helena Perrut; Bianchini, Esther Mandelbaum Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    To perform an integrative review of studies on liquid sequential swallowing, by characterizing the methodology of the studies and the most important findings in young and elderly adults. Review of the literature written in English and Portuguese on PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, within the past twenty years, available fully, using the following uniterms: sequential swallowing, swallowing, dysphagia, cup, straw, in various combinations. Research articles with a methodological approach on the characterization of liquid sequential swallowing by young and/or elderly adults, regardless of health condition, excluding studies involving only the esophageal phase. The following research indicators were applied: objectives, number and gender of participants; age group; amount of liquid offered; intake instruction; utensil used, methods and main findings. 18 studies met the established criteria. The articles were categorized according to the sample characterization and the methodology on volume intake, utensil used and types of exams. Most studies investigated only healthy individuals, with no swallowing complaints. Subjects were given different instructions as to the intake of all the volume: usual manner, continually, as rapidly as possible. The findings about the characterization of sequential swallowing were varied and described in accordance with the objectives of each study. It found great variability in the methodology employed to characterize the sequential swallowing. Some findings are not comparable, and sequential swallowing is not studied in most swallowing protocols, without consensus on the influence of the utensil.

  2. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  3. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  4. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  5. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Pediatric Neuromuscular Diseases: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2015-11-20

    Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist.

  6. Coordination of cough and swallow: a meta-behavioral response to aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Rose, Melanie J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Poliacek, Ivan; Sapienza, Christine M; Lindsey, Bruce G; Morris, Kendall F; Davenport, Paul W; Bolser, Donald C

    2013-12-01

    Airway protections is the prevention and/or removal of material by behaviors such as cough and swallow. We hypothesized these behaviors are coordinated to respond to aspiration. Anesthetized animals were challenged with simulated aspiration that induced both coughing and swallowing. Electromyograms of upper airway and respiratory muscles together with esophageal pressure were recorded to identify and evaluate cough and swallow. During simulated aspiration, both cough and swallow intensity increased and swallow duration decreased consistent with rapid pharyngeal clearance. Phase restriction between cough and swallow was observed; swallow was restricted to the E2 phase of cough. These results support three main conclusions: 1) the cough and swallow pattern generators are tightly coordinated so as to generate a protective meta-behavior; 2) the trachea provides feedback on swallow quality, informing the brainstem about aspiration incidences; and 3) the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter act as two separate valves controlling the direction of positive and negative pressures from the upper airway into the thorax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  8. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, M S; Okun, M S; Rosenbek, J C; Musson, N; Fernandez, H H; Rodriguez, R; Romrell, J; Pitts, T; Wheeler-Hegland, K M; Sapienza, C M

    2010-11-23

    Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration-aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST.

  9. Objective Measures of Swallowing Function Applied to the Dysphagia Population: A One Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology.

  10. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  11. Field damage of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) with reduced lignin levels by naturally occurring insect pests and pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutant lines of sorghum with low levels of lignin are potentially useful for bioenergy production, but may have problems with insects or disease. Field grown normal and low lignin bmr6 and bmr12 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were examined for insect and disease damage in the field, and insect damage in ...

  12. [Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker: Species associated to folial spot in pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in Brazil.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morejón, K; Kimati, H; Fancelli, M I

    1998-03-01

    One species of hiphomycetos group, belonging to the genus Bipolaris Shoemaker that was identified like Bipolaris bicolor (Mitra) Shoemaker is recorded for the first time on pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) from Brazil. The comparison with other close species reported like pathogenic folial spot in genus Arecaceae is made. Its morphological and cultural characteristics are described.

  13. DNA-based and geometric morphometric analysis to validate species designation: a case study of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J F B; Gonçalves, G L; Leipnitz, L; Freitas, T R O

    2013-10-25

    The genus Ctenomys (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) shows several taxonomic inconsistencies. In this study, we used an integrative approach including DNA sequences, karyotypes, and geometric morphometrics to evaluate the taxonomic validity of a nominal species, Ctenomys bicolor, which was described based on only one specimen in 1912 by Miranda Ribeiro, and since then neglected. We sampled near the type locality assigned to this species and collected 10 specimens. A total of 820 base pairs of the cytochrome b gene were sequenced and analyzed together with nine other species and four morphotypes obtained from GenBank. Bayesian analyses showed that C. bicolor is monophyletic and related to the Bolivian-Matogrossense group, a clade that originated about 3 mya. We compared the cranial shape through morphometric geometrics of C. bicolor, including the specimen originally sampled in 1912, with other species representative of the same phylogenetic group (C. boliviensis and C. steinbachi). C. bicolor shows unique skull traits that distinguish it from all other currently known taxa. Our findings confirm that the specimen collected by Miranda Ribeiro is a valid species, and improve the knowledge about Ctenomys in the Amazon region.

  14. Kugelzellen in larval anuran epidermis: an ultrastructural study on tadpoles of Pelobates cultripes (Pelobatidae) and Phyllobates bicolor (Dendrobatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delfino, G.; Quagliata, S.; Giachi, F.; Malentacchi, C.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to hind limb development, tadpoles of the western spadefoot frog Pelobates cultripes (Pelobatidae) and dart-arrow frog Phyllobates bicolor (Dendrobatidae) possess large clear cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. These cells closely resemble Kugelzellen (KZn) of larval clawed frog,

  15. Field performance of Quercus bicolor established as repeatedly air-root-pruned container and bareroot planting stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W." Jerry" Van Sambeek; Larry D. Godsey; William D. Walter; Harold E. Garrett; John P. Dwyer

    2016-01-01

    Benefits of repeated air-root-pruning of seedlings when stepping up to progressively larger containers include excellent lateral root distribution immediately below the root collar and an exceptionally fibrous root ball. To evaluate long-term field performance of repeatedly air-root-pruned container stock, three plantings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor...

  16. A comparative analysis of DBSCAN, K-means, and quadratic variation algorithms for automatic identification of swallows from swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-04-01

    Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differentiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  18. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  19. Clinical investigation on application of water swallowing to MR esophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinping, E-mail: zjpmri@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Hu, Weijian; Zang, Lin [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Yao, Yibin; Tang, Yongxiang; Qian, Zhen; Gao, Ping; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shijian [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Xie, Zhenlan; Yuan, Xiaoqing [Department of Pathology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To verify the clinical outcomes of applying water swallowing to MR esophagography. Methods: Thirty patients confirmed postoperatively or histopathologically with thoracic esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers with normal esophagus underwent respectively conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection and water swallowing MR esophagography. Of those patients, 4 underwent second examination after radiotherapy. Assessment on imaging effects of MR esophagography was performed. Assessment on definition on MR esophagography of the tumor in both upper and lower ends, specific localization, tumor size finally measured, coincidence with the gross pathologic types and tumor staging were respectively performed by comparison with conventional MRI. Additionally, we evaluated the outcomes of radiotherapy by comparing the previous MR esophagography with the second one with interventional technique. Results: Of the total 44 images of MR esophagography, 97.7% (43/44) were in high resolution by sagittal view and 81.8% (36/44) by cross-section. 93.3% (56/60) of the MR esophagography were clearly defined with the neoplastic lesion ends in the 30 patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma, compared with 11.7% (7/60) by conventional MRI. The results were totally different in statistics (P < 0.005). Preoperative conventional MRI detection of the 22 cases in 25 undergone radical resection suggested vague diameter of the primary tumor and impossibly identified it at middle-lower thoracic esophagus in 5, and even failed to confirm gross pathologic types in 19 cases. Yet, MR esophagography with water swallowing represented accurate tumor length (graded as excellent) in 88% (22/25), localization in 100% (25/25), exact gross pathologic types in 88% (22/25), and accuracy for tumor staging in 80.8% (21/26) compared to 92.3% (24/26) by conventional MRI. Therapeutic effects achieved in 4 patients with radiotherapy. Conclusions: MR esophagography

  20. Treatment for dysphagia (swallowing difficulties) in hereditary ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Keage, Megan J; Johansson, Kerstin; Schalling, Ellika

    2015-11-13

    Hereditary ataxias are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting in progressive inco-ordination. Swallowing impairment, also known as dysphagia, is a common and potentially life threatening sequel of disease progression. The incidence and nature of dysphagia in these conditions is largely unknown. The loss of an effective and safe swallow can dramatically affect the health and well-being of an individual. Remediation of difficulties of eating and drinking is an important goal in the clinical care of people with hereditary ataxia. To assess the effects of interventions for swallowing impairment (dysphagia) in people with hereditary ataxias. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) on 14 September 2015. We also searched Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA), Dissertation Abstracts, and Trials Registries on 24 September 2015. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared treatments for hereditary ataxia with placebo or no treatment. We only included studies measuring dysphagia. Three review authors (ES, KJ, MK) independently screened all titles and abstracts. In the event of any disagreement or uncertainty over the inclusion of a particular paper, the review authors planned to meet and reach consensus. We identified no RCTs from the 519 titles and abstracts screened. We excluded papers primarily for not including participants with a hereditary ataxia (that is, being focused on other neurological conditions), being theoretical reviews rather than intervention studies, or being neither randomised nor quasi-randomised trials.We identified five papers of various design that described treatment for dysphagia, or improvement to swallow as a by-product of treatment, in people with hereditary ataxia. None of these studies were RCTs or

  1. Swallowing in Parkinson's disease: clinical issues and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Changes to swallowing affect most people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Changes may not initially exercise a decisive impact, but can later pose significant threats to nutritional, hydration and respiratory health and psychosocial quality of life. This review, from a largely clinical viewpoint, outlines the nature of changes in PD and considers the issue of how many people are affected and in what ways. It outlines main approaches to assessment and management, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to PD. Dysphagia contributes to drooling in PD. The review therefore also touches on the nature and management of this condition that has its own set of health and psychosocial quality-of-life issues.

  2. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  4. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on swallowing apraxia and cortical excitability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Wu, Dongyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Song, Weiqun

    2017-10-01

    Swallowing apraxia is characterized by impaired volitional swallowing but relatively preserved reflexive swallowing. Few studies are available on the effectiveness of behavioral therapy and management of the condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on swallowing apraxia and cortical activation in stroke patients. The study included three inpatients (age 48-70 years; 1 male, 2 females; duration of stroke, 35-55 d) with post-stroke swallowing apraxia and six age-matched healthy subjects (age 45-65 years; 3 males, 3 females). Treatments were divided into two phases: Phase A and Phase B. During Phase A, the inpatients received three weeks of sham tDCS and conventional treatments. During Phase B, these patients received three weeks of anodal tDCS over the bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S 1 M 1 ) of swallowing and conventional treatments. Swallowing apraxia assessments were measured in three inpatients before Phase A, before Phase B, and after Phase B. The electroencephalography (EEG) nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated for three patients and six healthy subjects. After tDCS, scores of swallowing apraxia assessments increased, and ApEn indices increased in both stimulated and non-stimulated areas. Anodal tDCS might provide a useful means for recovering swallowing apraxia, and the recovery could be related to increased excitability of the swallowing cortex. Further investigations should explore the relationship between lesion size and/or lesion site and the prognosis of swallowing apraxia. Clinical trial registry: http://www.chictr.org Registration Number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004955.

  5. Voice- and swallow-related quality of life in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, Michel R A; Baijens, Laura W J; Vos, Rein; Pilz, Walmari; Kuijpers, Laura M F; Kremer, Bernd; Michou, Emilia

    2016-02-01

    This study explores whether changes in voice- and swallow-related QoL are associated with progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it examines the relationship between patients' perception of both voice and swallowing disorders in IPD. Prospective clinical study, quality of life (QoL). One-hundred mentally competent IPD patients with voice and swallowing complaints were asked to answer four QoL questionnaires (Voice Handicap Index, MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, Visual Analog Scale [VAS] voice, and Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]). Differences in means for the QoL questionnaires and their subscales within Hoehn and Yahr stage groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Scores on both voice and swallow questionnaires suggest an overall decrease in QoL with progression of IPD. A plateau in QoL for VAS voice and the DSS was seen in the early Hoehn and Yahr stages. Finally, scores on voice-related QoL questionnaires were significantly correlated with swallow-related QoL outcomes. Voice- and swallow-related QoL decreases with progression of IPD. A significant association was found between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires. Healthcare professionals can benefit from voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires in a multidimensional voice- or swallow-assessment protocol. The patient's perception of his/her voice and swallowing disorders and its impact on QoL in IPD should not be disregarded. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Effects of carbonated liquid on swallowing dysfunction in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Victoria; Torisson, Gustav; Bülow, Margareta; Londos, Elisabet

    2017-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is an increasingly recognized problem in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death. Few studies have examined potential ways of improving swallowing function in this fragile patient group. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction and carbonated liquid using videofluoroscopy in DLB and PDD patients. A total of 48 patients with DLB and PDD were referred for a clinical examination with videofluoroscopy. Descriptive overall assessments were provided at the time of the examination regarding swallowing function and the effects of different modifications, including carbonated thin liquid (CTL). Additionally, a repeated measures quantitative retrospective analysis has been performed comparing 1) thin liquids; 2) thickened liquids and 3) CTLs, with regard to the quantitative variables 1) pharyngeal transit time (PTT); 2) pharyngeal retention and 3) tracheal penetration. In all, 40/48 (83%) of the patients had a swallowing dysfunction, which was confirmed on videofluoroscopy, with 34/40 (85%) patients having a pharyngeal-type dysfunction. A total of 14/40 (35%) patients with an objective swallowing impairment did not have any subjective swallowing symptoms. Out of the patients with swallowing dysfunction, 87% had an overall improved swallowing function with carbonated liquid. PTT for carbonated liquid (median 633 ms, interquartile range [IQR] 516-786 ms) was quicker than for thin liquid (760 ms, IQR 613-940 ms, P =0.014) and thickened liquid (880.0 ms, IQR 600-1,500 ms, P <0.001). No significant effect was seen in residue or penetration. The majority of patients with DLB or PDD had a swallowing dysfunction, sometimes without subjective swallowing symptoms, which improved with carbonated liquid. This highlights the importance of investigating patients with videofluoroscopy and to carry out a prospective interventional study to further

  7. Nutrient availability controls the decomposition activities of the ectomycorrhizal fungi Paxillus involutus and Laccaria bicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, César; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas; Bentzer, Johan; Johansson, Tomas; Smits, Mark; Troein, Carl; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2017-04-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi play an important role in the ecological sustainability of northern temperate and boreal forests by foraging and mining soil organic matter for nutrients to their host plants. In this process, the fungal partner provides the plant host with nutrients and receives in return carbon, which supports the growth of extramatrical mycelium. Here, we examine the chemical changes in the soil organic matter (SOM) and physiological response of two species of ECM fungi Paxillus involutus and Laccaria bicolor during the decomposition of SOM and utilization of glucose. These two ECM fungi were grown in axenic cultures containing a water extract of organic matter (WEOM), which was supplemented with glucose at the start of the experiment. The fungi then went through two phases: a decomposition phase characterized by a WEOM with glucose followed by a starvation phase, with no glucose left in the media. The chemical modifications in the WEOM were followed using techniques such as infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, while the fungal physiological response was studied using transcriptomic (RNAseq) analysis. The spectroscopic techniques showed that both fungi enhanced the amount of oxidized compounds while uptaking glucose or nitrogen from the media. In case of P. involutus, this oxidation process was more pronounced than that occurring with L. bicolor. In addition, the X-ray absorption spectroscopy showed a higher reduced iron content in WEOM incubated with P. involutus in comparison to L. bicolor, which may suggest the preference of P. involutus for oxidative mechanisms via Fenton chemistry. During the decomposition phase, both fungi expressed a large number of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose in wood decomposing fungi. In parallel, the expression levels of extracellular peptidases, and enzymes involved in the metabolism of amino acids and assimilated glucose were regulated. However, during prolonged

  8. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing Functions in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jin Song

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that OST and NMES facilitated swallowing functions than OST and sham–NMES in children with CP and dysphagia. Future studies need to utilise video fluoroscopy swallowing study for outcome measurements in a large participant group.

  9. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  10. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, Johannes A.; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H. F.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Leemans, C. Rene; Slotman, Ben J.

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after

  11. A predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after curative radiotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, J.A.; Doornaert, P.A.H.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Leemans, C.R.; Slotman, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Recently, we found that swallowing dysfunction after curative (chemo) radiation (CH) RT has a strong negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), even more than xerostomia. The purpose of this study was to design a predictive model for swallowing dysfunction after

  12. Prevalence of Auditory Problems in Children with Feeding and Swallowing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawool, Vishakha Waman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although an interdisciplinary approach is recommended for assessment and management of feeding or swallowing difficulties, audiologists are not always included in the interdisciplinary team. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of middle ear and hearing problems in children with feeding and swallowing disorders and to…

  13. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  14. Association between swallow perception and esophageal bolus clearance in patients with globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Globus sensation is common, but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Our purpose was to investigate subjective perception of swallowing and esophageal motility by combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) for patients with globus sensation. Combined MII-EM was performed for 25 globus patients and 15 healthy controls. Swallows were abnormal if hypocontractivity or simultaneous contractions occurred. Esophageal bolus transit was incomplete if bolus exit was not found at one or more of all measurement sites. Perception of each swallow was assessed by use of a standardized scoring system, and was enhanced if the score was >1. Few globus patients reported enhanced perception during viscous or solid swallows. Incomplete bolus transit and enhanced perception occurred similarly between viscous and solid boluses. Agreement between enhanced perception and proximal bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.45, 95 % CI: 0.32-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0-0.25) (P perception and total bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.34-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.11, 95 % CI: 0-0.22) (P perception is uncommon in patients with globus sensation, although there is a significant association between enhanced esophageal perception and solid bolus clearance. Application of a solid bolus may help better delineation of the interrelationship between the subjective perception of bolus passage and the objective measurement of bolus clearance.

  15. Effects of pacifier and taste on swallowing, esophageal motility, transit, and respiratory rhythm in human neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, T R; Sitaram, S; Jadcherla, S R

    2016-04-01

    Pacifier use is widely prevalent globally despite hygienic concerns and uncertain mechanistic effects on swallowing or airway safety. The effects of pacifier and taste interventions on pharyngo-esophageal motility, bolus transit, and respiratory rhythms were investigated by determining the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), esophageal body, esophagogastric junction (EGJ) motor patterns and deglutition apnea, respiratory rhythm disturbances, and esophageal bolus clearance. Fifteen infants (six males; median gestation 31 weeks and birth weight 1.4 kg) underwent high-resolution impedance manometry at 43 (41-44) weeks postmenstrual age. Manometric, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of spontaneous swallows, pacifier-associated dry swallowing and taste (pacifier dipped in 3% sucrose)-associated swallowing were analyzed. Linear mixed and generalized estimating equation models were used. Data are presented as mean ± SEM, %, or median (IQR). Pharyngo-esophageal motility, respiratory, and impedance characteristics of 209 swallows were analyzed (85 spontaneous swallows, 63 pacifier- swallows, 61 taste- swallows). Basal UES and EGJ pressures decreased upon pacifier (p pacifier or taste interventions decreases UES and EGJ basal pressure, but has no effects on pharyngo-esophageal motility, airway interactions, or esophageal bolus transit. A decrease in central parasympathetic-cholinergic excitatory drive is likely responsible for the basal effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Functional outcome in acute stroke patients with oropharyngeal Dysphagia after swallowing therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  18. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  19. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  20. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, AJ; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Akkermans, LMA; Smout, AJPM

    Background: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  1. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Akkermans, L. M. A.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  2. Swallowing improvement after levodopa treatment in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: lack of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ailton; Monteiro, Larissa

    2013-03-01

    Swallowing impairment is the main cause of pulmonary infection and death in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, there is no established effective treatment to restore swallowing function among these subjects. Levodopa is considered the gold standard treatment for motor symptoms in PD but its efficacy in improving oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia remains controversial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Patient-reported symptom questionnaires in laryngeal cancer: Voice, speech and swallowing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, N.P.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; van den Brakel, N.; de Bree, R.; Eerenstein, S.E.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To validate questionnaires on voice, speech, and swallowing among laryngeal cancer patients, to assess the need for and use of rehabilitation services, and to determine the association between voice, speech, and swallowing problems, and quality of life and distress. Materials and methods

  4. Patient-reported symptom questionnaires in laryngeal cancer: Voice, speech and swallowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, R.N.P.M.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; van den Brakel, N.; de Bree, R.; Eerenstein, S.E.J.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To validate questionnaires on voice, speech, and swallowing among laryngeal cancer patients, to assess the need for and use of rehabilitation services, and to determine the association between voice, speech, and swallowing problems, and quality of life and distress. Materials and

  5. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  6. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.

  7. Voluntary cough production and swallow dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Bolser, Donald; Rosenbek, John; Troche, Michelle; Sapienza, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Cough is important for airway clearance, particularly if penetration/aspiration of foreign material occurs during swallow. Measures of voluntary cough production from ten male participants with stage II-III Parkinson's disease (PD) who showed no videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 1) were examined and compared with those of ten male participants with stage II-III PD who showed videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 2). The degree of penetration/aspiration was expertly judged from the videofluorographic examinations of the participants' sequential swallow of a thin, 30-cc bolus. Measured cough parameters included inspiratory phase duration, inspiratory peak flow, compression phase duration, expiratory peak flow, expiratory rise time, and cough volume acceleration. Results indicated significant group differences for the majority of cough measures, except for inspiratory phase duration and inspiratory peak flow. A modest relationship existed between voluntary cough parameters and penetration/aspiration scores. Decreased ability to adequately clear material from the airway with voluntary cough may exacerbate symptoms resulting from penetration/aspiration, particularly for those with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement of voluntary cough may be useful for the evaluation of airway clearance ability.

  8. Mastication and swallowing: 1. Functions, performance and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchardson, Robert; Cadden, Samuel W

    2009-01-01

    The process of mastication involves movements of the tongue, lips and cheeks as well as the more obvious actions of the teeth and jaws. In recent years there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the relationships between these movements in human beings and of how the processes of mastication are related to the associated events of swallowing. In this, the first of two papers, we review the role of mastication in food processing and nutrition and the effect of tooth loss on masticatory performance.The paper also reviews new information on masticatory and swallowing functions in human beings eating naturally. The review relates this knowledge to clinical dentistry, notably to the relevance of a good dentition to the digestive process and practical considerations in the replacement of missing teeth. Dentists should understand the process of mastication because an adequate dentition can facilitate the general health and well-being of their patients.This understanding can also inform the clinical management of patients with a depleted dentition or otherwise impaired masticatory system.

  9. Efficient in vitro plant regeneration from immature zygotic embryos of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] and Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oldach, KH

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors report an in vitro culture system that provides reliable, highly efficient regeneration from immature embryos of pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Immature embryos were isolated 10...

  10. Elastic Module Study of the Radial Section of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Cardenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic modulus of the radial section of the Guadua angustifolia Kunth variety Bicolor was studied by technique of propagation of acoustic waves; the signal time delay in the samples was used as the control parameter. The studies were carried out in the culm cross-section in radial direction. The results indicate that the elastic modulus and the propagation velocity of the longitudinal wave in each of the cross-sections varied from 2.5×107 to 1.6×109 Pa and from 1370 to 250 m/s for the inside and outside region of the culm, respectively. This behavior is due to the inhomogeneity, the water concentration, the fiber density, and the silicon concentration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis showed bands associated with hemicellulose, cellulose (carbon-carbon bonds, hydroxides carbon, and lignin. Silicone polymer compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.

  11. Identification and profiling of salinity stress-responsive proteins in Sorghum bicolor seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngara, Rudo; Ndimba, Roya; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    sorghum variety, MN1618, were planted and grown on solid MS growth medium with or without 100mM NaCl. Heat shock protein expression immunoblotting assays demonstrated that this salt treatment induced stress within natural physiological parameters for our experimental material. 2D PAGE in combination......Sorghum bicolor, a drought tolerant cereal crop, is not only an important food source in the semi arid/arid regions but also a potential model for studying and gaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drought and salt stress tolerance in cereals. In this study, seeds of a sweet...... with MS/MS proteomics techniques were used to separate, visualise and identify salinity stress responsive proteins in young sorghum leaves. Out of 281 Coomassie stainable spots, 118 showed statistically significant responses (p...

  12. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for conservation genetic studies of the coral reef fish Centropyge bicolor

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera Sarrias, Marcela

    2015-08-14

    A total of 23 novel polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were developed for the angelfish Centropyge bicolor through 454 sequencing, and further tested on two spatially separated populations (90 individuals each) from Kimbe Bay in Papua New Guinea. The mean ± s.e. number of alleles per locus was 14·65 ± 1·05, and mean ± s.e. observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity frequencies were 0·676 ± 0·021 and 0·749 ± 0·018, respectively. The markers reported here constitute the first specific set for this genus and will be useful for future conservation genetic studies in the Indo-Pacific region. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  14. Heterologous expression and characterization of a laccase from Laccaria bicolor in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are known to be highly toxic to mammalian cells and mutagenic and carcinogenic to humans and, therefore, should be detoxified and removed from industrial effluents. Different approaches for removal and detoxication are extensively sought. Biochemical methods are considered the most economical and effective method of dye decolourization. In this research, the laccase gene from Laccaria bicolor was modified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The properties of the recombinant laccase and its ability to degrade synthetic dyes were studied. The laccase activity was optimal at pH 2.2 and 50 °C. Its Km value was 0.187 mmol/L for ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid]. The laccase obtained was shown to decolorize the synthetic dyes, malachite green, crystal violet and orange G, with ABTS as a mediator. These results indicated that the laccase obtained may be used to treat industrial effluents containing artificial dyes.

  15. Germinação e crescimento in vitro de Cattleya bicolor Lindley (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki,Rogério Mamoru; Almeida,Vanessa de; Pescador,Rosete; Ferreira,Wagner de Melo

    2010-01-01

    A germinação de sementes de orquídeas in vitro vem sendo utilizada desde o início do século passado. Apesar disso, o conhecimento disponível a respeito da composição nutricional dos meios de cultura que favorecem a germinação e o crescimento in vitro de orquídeas ainda é bastante escasso. Diante da ameaça de extinção da Cattleya bicolor e devido à escassez de conhecimento a respeito da germinação e do crescimento in vitro dessa espécie, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do...

  16. Sequential evaluation of swallowing function in patients with unilateral neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hideaki; Omura, Ken; Harada, Hiroyuki; Tohara, Haruka

    2010-07-01

    Neck dissection is the most reliable treatment for cervical lymph node metastases in head and neck cancer. However, it is unknown whether neck dissection can cause dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing function after neck dissection. By using videofluoroscopic and videoendoscopic methods, swallowing function was evaluated in 17 patients prior to, 1 month after, and 4 months after neck dissection. In comparison with preoperative observations, swallowing function after neck dissection was affected by the following changes: a forward and downward displacement of the hyoid bone at rest and at its highest position, a decrease in the distance traversed by the hyoid bone during swallowing, and an increase in laryngeal penetration. Pharyngeal residue and aspiration were not observed in any of the patients. Although swallowing function is affected by neck dissection, serious clinical problems are not likely to occur. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-21

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant ("skin-like") electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  18. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  19. Fatty acid composition of seed oil of different Sorghum bicolor varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Orhan, Ilkay; Ahsan, Zaheer; Aslan, Sinem; Gulfraz, Muhammad

    2008-08-15

    In order to find out new sources of premium quality edible oil in the country, seeds of ten varieties of Sorghum bicolor were initially analyzed for their total oil contents. The seed oil was later fractionated into eight fatty acids including two new saturated fatty acids. The oil contents were determined by Soxhlet method and compared with the results obtained by NMR analysis. The total oil contents in the seeds of sorghum ranged from 5.0 to 8.2 % (w/w), indicating non significant difference obtained by two different techniques. The results revealed that oleic acid (31.12-48.99%), Palmitoleic acid (0.43-0.56%), linoleic acids (27.59-50.73%), linolenic acid (1.71-3.89%), stearic acid (1.09-2.59%) and palmitic acid (11.73-20.18%) was present in the seed oil of different sorghum varieties when analyzed by GC-MS. It was observed that in most of the varieties polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The two atypical SFAs, octanedioic (C8:0) and azelaic acid (C9:0) were found in some varieties. These results suggest that these S. bicolor varieties could be additional sources of edible oil due to presence of clinically important saturated and high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. A large scale production of the seed oil after refining process can contribute towards alleviation of edible oil shortage in the country with increased use of premium quality oil. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. "DNA Origami Traffic Lights" with a Split Aptamer Sensor for a Bicolor Fluorescence Readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bauer, Jens; Steinmeyer, Jeannine; Kuzuya, Akinori; Niemeyer, Christof M; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2017-04-12

    A split aptamer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was embedded as a recognition unit into two levers of a nanomechanical DNA origami construct by extension and modification of selected staple strands. An additional optical module in the stem of the split aptamer comprised two different cyanine-styryl dyes that underwent an energy transfer from green (donor) to red (acceptor) emission if two ATP molecules were bound as target molecule to the recognition module and thereby brought the dyes in close proximity. As a result, the ATP as a target triggered the DNA origami shape transition and yielded a fluorescence color change from green to red as readout. Conventional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the topology change from the open form of the DNA origami in the absence of ATP into the closed form in the presence of the target molecule. The obtained closed/open ratios in the absence and presence of target molecules tracked well with the fluorescence color ratios and thereby validated the bicolor fluorescence readout. The correct positioning of the split aptamer as the functional unit farthest away from the fulcrum of the DNA origami was crucial for the aptasensing by fluorescence readout. The fluorescence color change allowed additionally to follow the topology change of the DNA origami aptasensor in real time in solution. The concepts of fluorescence energy transfer for bicolor readout in a split aptamer in solution, and AFM on surfaces, were successfully combined in a single DNA origami construct to obtain a bimodal readout. These results are important for future custom DNA devices for chemical-biological and bioanalytical purposes because they are not only working as simple aptamers but are also visible by AFM on the single-molecule level.

  1. Visual and auditory stimuli associated with swallowing activate mirror neurons: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushioda, Takashi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Sanjo, Yusuke; Yamane, Gen-Yuki; Abe, Shinichi; Tsuji, Yusuke; Ishiyama, Atushi

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated activated areas of the cerebral cortex with regard to the mirror neuron system during swallowing. To identify the activated areas, we used magnetoencephalography. Subjects were ten consenting volunteers. Swallowing-related stimuli comprised an animated image of the left profile of a person swallowing water with laryngeal elevation as a visual swallowing trigger stimulus and a swallowing sound as an auditory swallowing trigger stimulus. As control stimuli, a still frame image of the left profile without an additional trigger was shown, and an artificial sound as a false auditory trigger was provided. Triggers were presented at 3,000 ms after the start of image presentation. The stimuli were combined and presented and the areas activated were identified for each stimulus. With animation and still-frame stimuli, the visual association area (Brodmann area (BA) 18) was activated at the start of image presentation, while with the swallowing sound and artificial sound stimuli, the auditory areas BA 41 and BA 42 were activated at the time of trigger presentation. However, with animation stimuli (animation stimulus, animation + swallowing sound stimuli, and animation + artificial sound stimuli), activation in BA 6 and BA 40, corresponding to mirror neurons, was observed between 620 and 720 ms before the trigger. Besides, there were also significant differences in latency time and peak intensity between animation stimulus and animation + swallowing sound stimuli. Our results suggest that mirror neurons are activated by swallowing-related visual and auditory stimuli.

  2. The Effects of Oral-Motor Exercises on Swallowing in Children: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this unregistered evidence-based systematic review was to determine the state and quality of evidence on the effects of oral motor exercises (OME) on swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing outcomes, and drooling management in children with swallowing disorders. Method: A systematic search of 20 electronic…

  3. Adoption into clinical practice of two therapies to manage swallowing disorders: exercise based swallowing rehabilitation and electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A.; Carnaby, Giselle D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews recent literature depicting a shift in dysphagia rehabilitation in adults. Distinguishing rehabilitation from compensation in dysphagia management, a review of basic exercise principles is followed by description of recent publications depicting exercise based therapies. Subsequently, transcutaneous electrical stimulation is reviewed as it may contribute to exercise based dysphagia rehabilitation in adults. Recent findings Surveys have documented extensive variability in the clinical application of dysphagia therapy techniques. Despite this variability, two trends are emerging in dysphagia rehabilitation research: 1- documentation of physiologic plus functional changes within the swallowing mechanism subsequent to therapy; and 2- prophylactic exercise based therapies. In addition, extensive efforts have emerged describing the potential application of transcutaneous electrical stimulation in dysphagia rehabilitation. Though results of these efforts are conflicted, transcutaneous electrical stimulation may serve a useful role as an adjunct to well-developed exercise based rehabilitation for dysphagia. Summary The focus of dysphagia rehabilitation in adults is changing. Current efforts indicate that exercise based therapies should incorporate multiple principles of exercise physiology and document physiologic change within the impaired swallowing mechanism. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation may function as an adjunctive modality; however, current practices should be evaluated to develop additional parameters of stimulation that are focused toward specific dysphagia impairments. PMID:24675153

  4. Adoption into clinical practice of two therapies to manage swallowing disorders: exercise-based swallowing rehabilitation and electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D

    2014-06-01

    To review recent literature depicting a shift in dysphagia rehabilitation in adults. Distinguishing rehabilitation from compensation in dysphagia management, a review of basic exercise principles is followed by description of recent publications depicting exercise-based therapies. Subsequently, transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) is reviewed as it may contribute to exercise-based dysphagia rehabilitation in adults. Surveys have documented extensive variability in the clinical application of dysphagia therapy techniques. Despite this variability, two trends are emerging in dysphagia rehabilitation research: documentation of physiologic and functional changes within the swallowing mechanism subsequent to therapy; and prophylactic exercise-based therapies. In addition, extensive efforts have emerged describing the potential application of TES in dysphagia rehabilitation. Though results of these efforts are conflicted, TES may serve a useful role as an adjunct to well developed exercise-based rehabilitation for dysphagia. The focus of dysphagia rehabilitation in adults is changing. Current efforts indicate that exercise-based therapies should incorporate multiple principles of exercise physiology and document physiologic change within the impaired swallowing mechanism. TES may function as an adjunctive modality; however, current practices should be evaluated to develop additional parameters of stimulation that are focused toward specific dysphagia impairments.

  5. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  6. Effect of ozone (O3 on seed vigor of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench variety UDG-110

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Machado Montalvo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in the Insect Pathology Laboratory of the Agricultural Research Center (CIAP at Marta Abreu Central University of Las Villas. The goal was to determine the effect of the ozone (O3 treatment on the vigor of S. bicolor seeds (variety UDG-110. Germination tests, electrical conductivity test and seedling growth rate tests were conducted. The electrical conductivity was low in the treatment of 48 h. In the 72 h treatment, the conductivity was higher than in the other treatments; but it was not significantly different from the control. Root and shoot length parameters were not affected by ozone. Ozone was proved to enhance the germination percentage, but it does not affect the vigor of S. bicolor seeds.

  7. Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) anguillae sp. n. (Camallanidae) and some other nematodes from the Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, F; Taraschewski, H; Anantaphruti, M Thairungroj; Maipanich, W; Laoprasert, T

    2006-12-01

    A new species of parasitic nematode, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) anguillae sp. n. (family Camallanidae), is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the Indonesian eel Anguilla bicolor McClelland (type host) from southern Thailand (type locality Phuket Island). It is characterized mainly by the presence of 10-13 spiral ridges in the buccal capsule, length of spicules (366-372 microm and 198-216 microm), presence of a gubernaculum, arrangement of caudal papillae, and by the broad female tail with a digit-like projection bearing two cuticular spikes. In addition, two species of larval nematodes, Physalopteridae gen. sp. and Anisakis cf. simplex (Rudolphi 1809), were recorded from A. bicolor. All species are briefly described and illustrated.

  8. Combined neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and traditional swallowing rehabilitation in the treatment of stroke-related dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu-Fen; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Sun, Hsien-Pin; Chang, Ping-Hsin; Hsieh, Wan-Ling; Wang, Jue-Long

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is common after stroke. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) for the treatment of dysphagia have gained in popularity, but the combined application of these promising modalities has rarely been studied. We aimed to evaluate whether combined NMES, FEES, and traditional swallowing rehabilitation can improve swallowing functions in stroke patients with moderate to severe dysphagia. Thirty-two patients with moderate to severe dysphagia poststroke (≥3 weeks) were recruited. Patients received 12 sessions of NMES for 1 h/day, 5 days/week within a period of 2-3 weeks. FEES was done before and after NMES for evaluation and to guide dysphagic therapy. All patients subsequently received 12 sessions of traditional swallowing rehabilitation (50 min/day, 3 days/week) for 4 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS). Secondary outcome measures included clinical degree of dysphagia, the patient's self-perception of swallowing ability, and the patient's global satisfaction with therapy. Patients were assessed at baseline, after NMES, at 6-month follow-up, and at 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine patients completed the study. FOIS, degree of dysphagia, and patient's self-perception of swallowing improved significantly after NMES, at the 6-month follow-up, and at the 2-year follow-up (p rehabilitation showed promise for improving swallowing functions in stroke patients with moderate-to-severe dysphagia. The benefits were maintained for up to 2 years. The results are promising enough to justify further studies.

  9. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prophylactic swallowing exercises for patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Justin W G; Ashforth, Kate M

    2011-06-01

    Oncological treatment outcomes in head and neck cancer suggest both acute and longer-term oropharyngeal dysphagia. Studies have been published exploring the potential to improve swallowing outcomes using more targeted treatment modalities such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and through the introduction of swallowing exercises prior to treatment. In this article, we will explore the literature relating to prophylactic swallowing exercises for patients undergoing (chemo-)radiotherapy. Recent studies have attempted to evaluate the benefit of prophylactic, pretreatment swallowing exercises for patients undergoing (chemo-)radiotherapy. We identified three peer-reviewed published studies which present data on the potential benefit of exercise. Only one randomized control trial which includes multidimensional swallowing evaluation with instrumental measures has been published. Authors of all the reviewed studies agree that randomized control trials including baseline measures are required with longitudinal follow-up. More research is required to complement oncological clinical trials evaluating the impact of prophylactic exercise on swallowing outcome. Multidimensional swallowing evaluation including instrumental and patient-reported measures should be conducted pretreatment and longitudinally to develop the evidence base for intervention in patients undergoing organ-preserving treatment protocols.

  11. Characterizing functional connectivity patterns during saliva swallows in different head positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-24

    The anatomical rationale and efficacy of the chin tuck in improving airway protection for some people with swallowing disorders have been well researched and established. However, there are still open questions regarding whether brain activity for swallowing control is altered while performing this chin-tuck maneuver. In this study, we collected EEG signals from 55 healthy adults while swallowing in the neutral and chin-tuck head positions. The time-frequency based synchrony measure was used to form brain networks. We investigated both the small-world properties of these brain networks and differences among the constructed brain networks for the two head positions during swallowing tasks. We showed that brain networks for swallowing in both head positions exhibit small-world properties. Furthermore, we showed that swallowing in the chin-tuck head position affects brain networks in the Alpha and Gamma frequency bands. According to these results, we can tell that the parameter of head position should be considered in future investigations which utilize EEG signals during swallowing activity.

  12. Characterizing Dysphagia and Swallowing Intervention in the Traumatic Spinal Injury Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Teresa J.; Waito, Ashley A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is reported to be a common secondary complication for individuals with traumatic spinal injuries. Different etiologies of traumatic spinal injuries may lead to different profiles of swallowing impairment. We conducted a systematic review to determine the characteristics of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and to describe interventions currently used to improve swallowing function in this population. A comprehensive multi-engine literature search identified 137 articles of which 5 were judged to be relevant. These underwent review for study quality, rating for level of evidence, and data extraction. The literature describing dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury was comprised predominantly of low level evidence and single case reports. Aspiration, pharyngeal residue, and decreased/absent hyolaryngeal elevation were found to be common characteristics of dysphagia in this population. The most commonly used swallowing interventions included tube feeding, compensatory swallowing strategies, and steroids/antibiotics. Improvement in swallowing function following swallowing intervention was reported in all studies, however there was no control for spontaneous recovery. The results demonstrate a need for high-quality research to profile the pathophysiology of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and controlled studies to demonstrate the efficacy of swallowing interventions in this population. PMID:27412004

  13. Kinematic and temporal factors associated with penetration-aspiration in liquid swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we undertook careful analysis of 13 quantitative physiological variables related to oropharyngeal swallowing from a sample of 42 subacute patients referred for dysphagia assessment. Each patient underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing examination in which they swallowed up to 5 boluses of 22% w/v ultra-thin liquid barium suspension administered by teaspoon. Our goal was to determine whether scores on thirteen kinematic or temporal parameters of interest were independently associated with the presence of penetration-aspiration in the final compiled dataset of 178 swallows. Participants were classified as aspirators, based on the presence of at least one swallow demonstrating a penetration-aspiration scale score ≥ 3. The parameters of interest included: six kinematic parameters for capturing hyoid position; three swallow durations (laryngeal closure duration; hyoid movement duration; upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening duration); and four swallow intervals (laryngeal closure to UES opening; bolus dwell time in the pharynx prior to laryngeal closure; stage transition duration; and pharyngeal transit time). Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to determine the association between each parameter and aspiration status. Only one of the 13 parameters tested distinguished aspirators from non-aspirators: aspirators demonstrated significantly shorter UES opening duration. Additionally, a trend towards reduced maximum superior position of the hyoid was seen in aspirators. Limitations and future considerations are discussed. PMID:24445381

  14. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V., E-mail: vijaykumarkv@yahoo.in [Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, SRU (India); Shankar, V., E-mail: drshankarv@yahoo.co.in [Department of Neurology, SRU (India); Santosham, Roy, E-mail: santoshamroy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, SRU (India)

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers.

  15. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S.; Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. “on” vs. “off”, pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23726461

  16. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson's disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. "on" vs. "off", pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Swallowing disturbances in Parkinson's disease: a multivariate analysis of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Cilia, Roberto; Klersy, Catherine; Canesi, Margherita; Zecchinelli, Anna Lena; Mariani, Claudio Bruno; Tesei, Silvana; Sacilotto, Giorgio; Meucci, Nicoletta; Zini, Michela; Isaias, Ioannis Ugo; Cassani, Erica; Goldwurm, Stefano; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2014-12-01

    Swallowing disturbances are an important issue in Parkinson's disease (PD) as several studies have shown that they are associated with increased risk of aspiration pneumonia and mortality. Information about factors related to swallowing disturbances, such as disease duration, age at assessment and concomitant dementia, is limited and would be useful for their management. All consecutive PD out-patients evaluated at a movement disorders clinic over a 7-year period (2007-2014), were included in the present retrospective study. Presence of symptomatic swallowing disturbances was assessed using the specific item of the Non Motor Symptom Questionnaire. In the whole PD population (N = 6462), prevalence of symptomatic swallowing disturbances was 11.7% (95%CI, 10.9-12.5). Multivariable logistic regression analysis (adjusted for education) disclosed a significant interaction between disease duration and gender (P = 0.009). In both gender strata, swallowing disturbances were significantly associated with longer disease duration and dementia (P disease duration (P disease duration (P disease duration and dementia all seem to contribute to the occurrence of swallowing disturbances independently. However, the role played by these factors in sub-groups of patients stratified by gender and concomitant dementia suggests that swallowing disturbances are likely related to different neuro-degenerative patterns within the brain. The underlying mechanisms deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dysphagia in Lewy body dementia - a clinical observational study of swallowing function by videofluoroscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londos, Elisabet; Hanxsson, Oskar; Alm Hirsch, Ingrid; Janneskog, Anna; Bülow, Margareta; Palmqvist, Sebastian

    2013-10-07

    Dysphagia, which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death, is a well-known problem in patients with dementia and Parkinson's disease. There are few studies on dysphagia in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), especially studies objectively documenting the type of swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prevalence, and define the actual swallowing dysfunction according to a videofluoroscopic swallowing examination (VFSE) in patients with DLB and PDD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with DLB or PDD in a clinical follow-up program were asked about symptoms of dysphagia. Those experiencing dysphagia were examined with VFSE. Prevalence and type of swallowing dysfunction was recorded. Twenty-six patients (32%) reported symptoms of dysphagia such as swallowing difficulties or coughing. Twenty-four (92%) of these had a documented swallowing dysfunction on VFSE. Eighty-eight percent suffered from pharyngeal dysfunction. Almost all DLB or PDD patients with subjective signs of dysphagia had pathologic results on VFSE, the majority of pharyngeal type. This type of dysphagia has not been reported in DLB before. The results have clinical implications and highlight the importance of asking for and examining swallowing function to prevent complications such as aspiration.

  19. Nursing swallow screens: why is testing water only not enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allison Loftiss; Hannibal, Ruth Renee

    2013-10-01

    The speech-language pathologist (SLP) standardized a Nursing Bedside Swallowing Screen (NBSS) tool for all patients admitted to the hospital. The adults engaged in the NBSS before oral intake (i.e., medication included) as part of the Brain Attack Pathway for patients with neurological symptoms. If the patient failed the NBSS in the emergency department (ED), then the screen was repeated again after the patient had been admitted before the SLP dysphagia evaluation. Fifty-three male and female patients ranging from 34 to 96 years old with an initial diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted during an 8-week time period from April 25, 2010, to June 19, 2010, were included in this study. There were 32 women and 17 men including 27 strokes and 22 TIAs tested. As a whole, the NBSS and SLP dysphagia evaluation results were consistent with each other for 40 of 46 patients (86.96% perfect agreement). The NBSS had 74% of sensitivity (34 of 46) with the nursing and the speech pathologist in agreement with the patients passing the swallow screen. Accurate identification of aspiration with the patients failing the NBSS was evident with the nursing and speech pathology assessment, which resulted in 83% of sensitivity (10 of 12). The positive predictive value with the corresponding identification of aspiration with the staff was 96% (44 of 46). The naturalistic observation of the patients exhibited internal consistency reliability between the two disciplines. Extraneous variables affecting the results included spontaneous resolution of stroke or TIA symptoms or the patient's decline in neurological status. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JNN/A9.

  20. New Swallowing Evaluation Using Piezoelectricity in Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yuichiro; Kimura, Shinji; Harigai, Toru; Sakurai, Naoki; Toyosato, Akira; Nishikawa, Taro; Inoue, Makoto; Murasawa, Akira; Endo, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the piezoelectric waveform latency, hyoid bone movement, surface electromyogram (sEMG), and the pharyngeal transit time (PTT) during swallowing. Forty-one healthy subjects were divided into three age groups: younger (20-39 years, n = 8), middle-aged (40-59 years, n = 9), and older (60-79 years, n = 24). Motion analysis of the hyoid bone using videofluorography (VF), waveform analysis of the front neck using piezoelectric films, and sEMG of the suprahyoid muscle group were performed simultaneously. Latencies of the three movement phases were defined as upward (VFS1), forward (VFS2), and returning to starting position (VFS3). The three phases of the piezoelectric waveform-from wave initiation of the negative wave to the start of the second deep negative wave; from the start of the second deep negative wave to the start of the last positive wave (SLPW); and from the SLPW to the end of the last positive wave-were defined as PS1, PS2, and PS3, respectively. VFS1-3 and PS1-3 were significantly correlated. VFS1 and PS1 latencies were significantly longer with thick liquid than with thin liquid. VFS2, PS1, and PS2 latencies were longer in the older group than in the other two groups. The start of PS1 was nearly equal to those of sEMG and VFS1. Bolus arrival time in the valleculae was statistically equal to the end of the PS1 with both thin and thick liquids. To establish the swallowing screening using Piezoelectric film, further investigation is necessary in the dysphagia patients.

  1. Diurnal activity budgeting of Large Whistling Teal Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Deepor Beel wetlands, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Das

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal activity budgets of the Large Whistling Teal Dendrocygna bicolor were quantified in Deepor Beel wetlands from March 2007 to January 2008. The study revealed that the Large Whistling Teal utilized 36.1% of time in resting, 37.1% in locomotion, 21.8% of diurnal time in feeding and 3.9% of diurnal time for preening activity. The teal spent <1% time in each, of alert and aggressive behaviours.

  2. Cardiac disorders and mode of action of the Egyptian scorpion venom Androctonus bicolor on isolated toad’s heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Abdel-Rahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom is a complex mixture of components with various pharmacological and toxicological effects. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of toxins that specifically interact with ion channels of excitable cells. The Egyptian scorpion Androctonus bicolor belongs to the family of Buthidae and until now no information is available about the effect of its venom on cardiac muscles. Using an in vitro approach, cardiotoxicity and mode of action of A. bicolor venom on isolated toad’s heart were investigated. Direct application of scorpion venom (0.5 μg/ml into isolated toad’s heart induced a remarkable bradycardia concomitant with a protraction in the conduction time (P–R interval. In the meantime, a significant increase in the R-wave amplitude (ventricular contraction was noticed after 5 min of venom perfusion. Various cases of cardiac disorders were recorded such as sinus arrhythmias, ectopic beats and different degrees of heart block. Through using different autonomic and ion channel blockers, the possible mechanism of action of A. bicolor venom on isolated toad’s heart was revealed. The application of both atropine (4 μg/ml and verapamil (5 μg/ml could not alleviate the pronounced negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects. Meanwhile, a significant decrease in the R-wave amplitude was observed after propranolol (5 μg/ml application. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the venom of A. bicolor directly influenced the cardiac electrical activity of toads through β-adrenergic receptors. The direct effect of this venom on cardiac tissues may significantly contribute in the development of several cardiotoxic effects following scorpion sting.

  3. Assessing costs of carrying geolocators using feather corticosterone in two species of aerial insectivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, Graham D; Berzins, Lisha L; Bradley, David W; Laughlin, Andrew J; Romano, Andrea; Romano, Maria; Scandolara, Chiara; Ambrosini, Roberto; Dawson, Russell D; Dunn, Peter O; Hobson, Keith A; Liechti, Felix; Marchant, Tracy A; Norris, D Ryan; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola; Taylor, Caz M; Whittingham, Linda A; Clark, Robert G

    2015-05-01

    Despite benefits of using light-sensitive geolocators to track animal movements and describe patterns of migratory connectivity, concerns have been raised about negative effects of these devices, particularly in small species of aerial insectivore. Geolocators may act as handicaps that increase energetic expenditure, which could explain reported effects of geolocators on survival. We tested this 'Energetic Expenditure Hypothesis' in 12 populations of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from North America and Europe, using measurements of corticosterone from feathers (CORTf) grown after deployment of geolocators as a measure of physiology relevant to energetics. Contrary to predictions, neither among- (both species) nor within-individual (tree swallows only) levels of CORTf differed with respect to instrumentation. Thus, to the extent that CORTf reflects energetic expenditure, geolocators apparently were not a strong handicap for birds that returned post-deployment. While this physiological evidence suggests that information about migration obtained from returning geolocator-equipped swallows is unbiased with regard to levels of stress, we cannot discount the possibility that corticosterone played a role in reported effects of geolocators on survival in birds, and suggest that future studies relate corticosterone to antecedent factors, such as reproductive history, and to downstream fitness costs.

  4. [Feeding, eating, and swallowing disorders in infants and children : An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmle, C; Arens, C

    2017-07-31

    Swallowing is a dynamic process that requires more than 30 muscles in the recruitment/coordination of the lips, tongue, palate, pharynx, larynx and esophagus. The eating and swallowing procedure is learned in sensitive or critical periods: when a certain degree of maturation has been achieved, the appropriate stimulus permits a certain milestone of development to occur. The swallowing procedure occurs in three main stages oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Therefore, swallowing disorders may present in any, some, or all of these stages in addition to feeding problems. Adult dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, has long been reported in the literature. Infants and children also experience feeding disorders and swallowing problems, either because of developmental disorders, syndromes, behavioral or neurological conditions, respiratory problems, and/or gastroesophageal reflux, eosinophilic esophagitis or anatomical deficits. Feeding problems or dysphagia are seen in up to 25% of all children; approximately 40% of prematurely born infants have swallowing disorders, up to 64-78% with developmental disorders and up to 99% with cerebral palsy. Diagnostic options include health status, broad social environment, parent-child interactions, and parental concerns. Evaluation of dysphagia and feeding disorders involves a multifactorial approach. Imaging studies may include videofluoroscopy and/or fiberoptic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). Successful oral feeding must be measured in quality of meal time experiences with best possible oral sensorimotor skills and safe swallowing while not jeopardizing a child's functional health status or the parent-child relationship. An interdisciplinary team approach enables coordinated global assessment and therapy planning.

  5. Role of Barium Swallow in Diagnosing Clinically Significant Anastomotic Leak following Esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Barium swallow is performed following esophagectomy to evaluate the anastomosis for detection of leaks and to assess the emptying of the gastric conduit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the barium swallow study in diagnosing anastomotic leaks following esophagectomy. Methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy from January 2000 to December 2013 at our institution were investigated. Barium swallow was routinely done between days 5–7 to detect a leak. These results were compared to clinically determined leaks (defined by neck wound infection requiring jejunal feeds and or parenteral nutrition during the postoperative period. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow in diagnosing clinically significant anastomotic leaks was determined. Results: A total of 395 esophagectomies were performed (mean age, 62.2 years. The indications for the esophagectomy were as follows: malignancy (n=320, high-grade dysplasia (n=14, perforation (n=27, benign stricture (n=7, achalasia (n=16, and other (n=11. A variety of techniques were used including transhiatal (n=351, McKeown (n=35, and Ivor Lewis (n=9 esophagectomies. Operative mortality was 2.8% (n=11. Three hundred and sixty-eight patients (93% underwent barium swallow study after esophagectomy. Clinically significant anastomotic leak was identified in 36 patients (9.8%. Barium swallow was able to detect only 13/36 clinically significant leaks. The sensitivity of the swallow in diagnosing a leak was 36% and specificity was 97%. The positive and negative predictive values of barium swallow study in detecting leaks were 59% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: Barium swallow is an insensitive but specific test for detecting leaks at the cervical anastomotic site after esophagectomy.

  6. Swallowing function after laryngeal cleft repair: more than just fixing the cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Alexander J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Tabangin, Meredith E; Miller, Claire K; Cotton, Robin T; Rutter, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and describe the swallowing function in children after laryngeal cleft repair. Ten-year (2002-2012) retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Records of 60 children who had surgical repair of laryngeal cleft (ages 2 weeks-14 years) and postoperative functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluoroscopic swallow studies were examined retrospectively. Twenty-nine children had one postoperative swallow evaluation, 19 children had two, 4 children had three, 5 children had four, and 3 children had five. Median time to the first evaluation was 10.8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.5, 231). On the final swallow evaluation, 34 (57%) children demonstrated normal swallowing parameters, 12 (20%) children showed penetration, and 14 (23%) children showed aspiration. Forty-three (72%) children were able to take everything by mouth normally or with minor behavioral modifications, 11 (18%) children required thickened fluids, and six (10%) children were kept nil per os (NPO). Mean improvement on the penetration-aspiration (pen-asp) scale was 2.13. On multivariable analysis, neurodevelopmental issues and gastronomy tube use were associated with the need for NPO status. Despite a high rate of surgical success, a substantial minority of children have persistent swallowing dysfunction after laryngeal cleft repair. Swallowing dysfunction after repair is multifactorial and arises from concomitant neurologic, anatomic, or other comorbidities that contribute to oropharyngeal and pharyngeal dysphagia. Based on our results, we recommend a testing schedule for postoperative swallowing evaluations after cleft repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Dysphagia and swallowing-related quality of life in Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Brown, Sophie E; Folker, Joanne E; Corben, Louise A; Delatycki, Martin B

    2014-02-01

    Dysphagia in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and its impact on quality of life is not adequately understood. The objective of this study was to characterise dysphagia in FRDA and to determine the impact of swallowing dysfunction on activities, participation, and sense of well-being. Thirty-six individuals with a confirmed diagnosis of FRDA were assessed via a clinical bedside examination (CBE), the Royal Brisbane Hospital outcome measure for swallowing, an oral-motor examination and the Australian therapy outcome measures for speech and swallowing (AusTOMS). Data on swallowing function, diet modification and swallowing strategies were collated. Thirty-three (91.67 %) participants exhibited clinical signs of dysphagia according to the CBE, and all participants received ratings indicating swallowing difficulties on at least one other measure. Dysphagia in FRDA is characterised by oral and pharyngeal stage impairment relating to incoordination, weakness and spasticity. A significant positive correlation was found between the severity of impairment, activity, participation and distress/well-being on the AusTOMS, suggesting that swallowing function decreases with overall reductions in quality of life. A significant correlation was found between activity on the AusTOMS and disease duration (r = -0.283, p = 0.012). No significant correlations were found between dysphagia severity and GAA repeat length, age of onset or disease severity. Participants employing diet modification and swallowing strategies demonstrated higher dysphagia severity, activity limitations and participation restrictions. These data advocate a holistic approach to dysphagia management in FRDA. Early detection of swallowing impairment and consideration of the potential impact dysphagia has on quality of life should be key aspects in disease management.

  8. Effects of swallowing training combined with low-frequency electrical stimulation on dysphagia after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-zhong ZHU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of swallowing training combined with low-frequency electrical stimulation on dysphagia after ischemic stroke.  Methods A total of 68 patients with dysphagia after ischemic stroke were divided into control group (N = 34, receiving swallowing training and feeding strategies and combined treatment group (N = 34, receiving swallowing training, feeding strategies and low-frequency electrical stimulation. Video Fluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS and Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA were used to evaluate the swallowing function of patients in 2 groups before and after 15 d of treatment. Results According to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP classification, 34 patients in control group were classified into 12 cases with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI, 8 cases with partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI, 10 cases with posterior circulation infarct (POCI and 4 cases with lacunar infarct (LACI; 34 patients in combined treatment group were classified into 10 cases with TACI, 7 cases with PACI, 11 cases with POCI and 6 cases with LACI. Compared with before treatment, the VFSS score increased (P = 0.003, 0.000, while SSA score decreased (P = 0.003, 0.000 in both groups. Compared with control group, the VFSS score increased (P = 0.004, while SSA score decreased (P = 0.020 in combined treatment group.  Conclusions Swallowing training combined with low-frequency electrical stimulation can significantly improve the swallowing capacity of patients with acute ischemic stroke, and the effect is better than mere swallowing training. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.007

  9. The swallowing side effects of botulinum toxin type A injection in spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, S E; Ludlow, C L

    1996-01-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BOTOX) injection of the thyroarytenoid muscle is used to control speech symptoms in patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. Transient difficulty in swallowing liquids is a common treatment side effect. Laryngeal movement durations were measured during swallowing in 13 adductor spasmodic dysphonia patients undergoing treatment and in 6 normal control subjects in order to determine the following: 1. whether, prior to the injection, laryngeal movement durations were longer in the spasmodic dysphonia patients than in the control subjects; 2. whether movement durations increased following the injections; 3. whether preinjection swallowing difficulties related to postinjection swallowing measurements and postinjection patient reports of swallowing problems. A piezoelectric movement transducer was shown to be accurate for noninvasive measurement of laryngeal movement duration in relation to muscle onset and offset for hyoid elevation and relaxation. Before botulinum toxin type A injection, no significant differences in swallowing duration were found between the patient and control groups. Four patients with swallowing complaints prior to injection had longer laryngeal movement durations than the other spasmodic dysphonia patients and the control subjects. Following injection, laryngeal movement durations increased in the patients with spasmodic dysphonia, and eight patients reported dysphagia for an average of 2 weeks. Relationships were found between the patients' initial reports of swallowing problems and increased laryngeal movement durations before and after botulinum toxin type A injection. Those patients initially reporting swallowing difficulties had severe dysphagia for 2 weeks after the injection. Patient reports of dysphagia prior to injection may indicate a greater likelihood of significant dysphagia following thyroarytenoid injection with botulinum toxin type A.

  10. Differential chromosomal organization between Saguinus midas and Saguinus bicolor with accumulation of differences the repetitive sequence DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dayane Martins Barbosa; Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Gross, Maria Claudia; Gordo, Marcelo; Schneider, Carlos Henrique

    2017-10-01

    Saguinus is the largest and most complex genus of the subfamily Callitrichinae, with 23 species distributed from the south of Central America to the north of South America with Saguinus midas having the largest geographical distribution while Saguinus bicolor has a very restricted one, affected by the population expansion in the state of Amazonas. Considering the phylogenetic proximity of the two species along with evidence on the existence of hybrids between them, as well as cytogenetic studies on Saguinus describing a conserved karyotypic macrostructure, we carried out a physical mapping of DNA repeated sequences in the mitotic chromosome of both species, since these sequences are less susceptible to evolutionary pressure and possibly perform an important function in speciation. Both species presented 2n = 46 chromosomes; in S. midas, chromosome Y is the smallest. Multiple ribosomal sites occur in both species, but chromosome pairs three and four may be regarded as markers that differ the species when subjected to G banding and distribution of retroelement LINE 1, suggesting that it may be cytogenetic marker in which it can contribute to identification of first generation hybrids in contact zone. Saguinus bicolor also presented differences in the LINE 1 distribution pattern for sexual chromosome X in individuals from different urban fragments, probably due to geographical isolation. In this context, cytogenetic analyses reveal a differential genomic organization pattern between species S. midas and S. bicolor, in addition to indicating that individuals from different urban fragments have been accumulating differences because of the isolation between them.

  11. Scattering of ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation by Sorghum bicolor: influence of epicuticular wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, R.H.; Jenks, M.A.; Rich, P.J.; Peters, P.J.; Ashworth, E.N.

    1995-01-01

    Near-isogenic mutants of Sorghum bicolor with genetic alterations affecting epicuticular wax (EW) structure but having similar canopy architecture provided a model system to examine the influence of EW on plant radiation scattering. Differences in canopies with two different sheath EW amounts showed differences in angular reflectance and transmittance. The differences varied with waveband of radiation. Canopy ultraviolet-B (UVB) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) backward reflectance in the principal solar plane were higher by wild-type plants (N-15) bearing reflective stalk EW filaments than mutant plants (bm-15) lacking stalk EW filaments. Between panicle emergence to anthesis the backward PAR reflectance increased more in the N-15 than bm-15 canopy. We suspect that the increase was a result of reflections from stalk facets emerging above the surface plane of the canopy foliage and exposing reflective EW. As panicles emerged above the foliage, canopy UVB and PAR forward reflectance by bm-15 increased while forward reflectance by N-15 decreased. The increased forward reflectance from bm-15 may be because of high specular reflectance from the microscopically smooth bm-15 stalk surfaces. Based on comparisons of probability distributions, significant differences in PAR and UVB canopy transmittance were detected between N-15 and bm-15. The median UVB transmittance was greater in the bm-15 canopy than the N-15 canopy, while the median PAR transmittance was the same for the two canopies. The greater transmittance in the N-15 canopy corresponded with lower EW load of the sheaths, but the difference between canopies was within the experimental error. Distinct influences of the stalk EW on canopy reflectance and transmittance were difficult to assess because of the relatively low proportion of surface area containing EW, the experimental errors associated with UVB irradiance field measurements. The optical properties of the S. bicolor canopy varied by waveband

  12. Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.) Radlk essential oil induces apoptosis of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanislao Gómez, C C; Aquino Carreño, A; Pérez Ishiwara, D G; San Martín Martínez, E; Morales López, J; Pérez Hernández, N; Gómez García, M C

    2016-08-05

    Decatropis bicolor (Zucc.)Radlk is a plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of breast cancer in some communities of Mexico. So, the aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of the essential oil of Decatropis bicolor against breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. The essential oil obtained from hydrodestillation of leaves of Decatropis bicolor was studied for its biological activity against breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 by MTT assay, Hematoxylin-eosin stain, Annexin V-FITC, TUNEL and western blot assays and for its chemical composition by GC-MS. The results showed a relevant cytotoxic effect of the essential oil towards MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner, with an IC50 of 53.81 ± 1.691 μg/ml but not in the epithelial mammary cell line MCF10A (207.51 ± 3.26 μg/ml). Morphological examination displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells like cell size reduction, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. In addition, the apoptotic rate significantly increased as well as DNA fragmentation and western blot analysis revealed that the essential oil induced apoptosis in the MDA-MB-231 cells via intrinsic pathways due to the activation of Bax, caspases 9 and 3. Phytochemical analysis of the Decatropis bicolor essential oil showed the presence of twenty-three compounds. Major components of the oil were 1,5-cyclooctadiene,3-(methyl-2)propenyl (18.38 %), β-terpineol (8.16 %) and 1-(3-methyl-cyclopent-2-enyl)-cyclohexene (6.12 %). This study suggests that essential oil of Decatropis bicolor has a potential cytotoxic and antitumoral effect against breast cancer cells, with the presence of potential bioactive compounds. Our results contribute to the validation of the anticancer activity of the plant in Mexican traditional medicine.

  13. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao; Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  14. Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Sejdić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.

  15. SWALLOWING DISORDERS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY, ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing is a complex process consisting in transporting food from mouth to the stomach; it involves voluntary and reflex activity of more than 30 nerves and muscles, requiring complex neuromuscular coordination and brainstem and cortical centers for controle. Dysphagia is defined as a alteration in the swallowing process, which cause difficulty in transporting saliva and aliments from the mouth trough the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach . It is a frequent symptom, affecting especially old people, people with neurological diseases, cancers of head and neck or severe reflux . Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus, which could e caused by neurological conditions. Dysphagia carries serious health risks: malnutrition, dehydration, increase risk of infections. Effective dysphagia management requires an interdisciplinary approach; the goal of rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient nutrition. KEY WORDS: swallowing, dysphagia, functional anatomy, rehabilitation, neuroplasticity

  16. Randomized trial of two swallowing assessment approaches in patients with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Annette; Nielsen, Lars Hedemann; Sjölund, Bengt H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether patients assessed for initiation of oral intake only by Facial-Oral Tract Therapy had a greater risk of developing aspiration pneumonia during neurorehabilitation than patients assessed by Fibreoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. DESIGN: Randomized controlled ...

  17. Lost and found…Tracking a swallowed denture: Role of radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Khalekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, and anesthesiologists for prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscous necrosis, perforation, and penetration to neighbouring organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Here, we present the case of a 65 year old female patient who swallowed the denture, which was detected by barium swallow and removed by endoscopy. Hence, the management of swallowed denture needs a multidisciplinary approach with the help of a dentist, otolaryngologist and anesthesiologists. Dentists should recommend patients to visit them for planned check ups or revisit them in case of denture dislodgement or loosening as soon as possible to prevent such life threatening events.

  18. Post-transcriptional silencing of chalcone synthase is involved in phenotypic lability in petals and leaves of bicolor dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) 'Yuino'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hori, Wakako; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2018-02-01

    Post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of a chalcone synthase ( DvCHS2 ) occurred in the white part of bicolor petals and flavonoid-poor leaves; however, it did not in red petals and flavonoid-rich leaves. Petal color lability is a prominent feature of bicolor dahlia cultivars, and causes plants to produce not only original bicolor petals with colored bases and pure white tips, but also frequently single-colored petals without white tips. In this study, we analysed the molecular mechanisms that are associated with petal color lability using the red-white bicolor cultivar 'Yuino'. Red single-colored petals lose their white tips as a result of recover of flavonoid biosynthesis. Among flavonoid biosynthetic genes including four chalcone synthase (CHS)-like genes (DvCHS1, DvCHS2, DvCHS3, and DvCHS4), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 had significantly lower expression levels in the white part of bicolor petals than in red petals, while DvCHS3, DvCHS4, and other flavonoid biosynthetic genes had almost the same expression levels. Small RNAs from the white part of a bicolor petal were mapped onto DvCHS1 and DvCHS2, while small RNAs from a red single-colored petal were not mapped onto any of the four CHS genes. A relationship between petal color and leaf flavonoid accumulation has previously been demonstrated, whereby red petal-producing plants accumulate flavonoids in their leaves, while bicolor petal-producing plants tend not to. The expression level of DvCHS2 was down-regulated in flavonoid-poor leaves and small RNAs from flavonoid-poor leaves were mapped onto DvCHS2, suggesting that the down-regulation of DvCHS2 in flavonoid-poor leaves occurs post-transcriptionally. Genomic analysis also suggested that DvCHS2 is the key gene involved in bicolor formation. Together, these results suggest that post-transcriptional gene silencing of DvCHS2 plays a key role in phenotypic lability in this bicolor dahlia.

  19. Aspiration of barium contrast medium in an elderly man with disordered swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Bağcı Ceyhan, B.; Çelikel, T.; Koç, M.; Ahıskalı, R.; Biren, T.; Ataizi Çelikel, Ç.

    1995-01-01

    The aspiration of contrast medium during the investigation of gastrointestinal diseases is a well recognized hazard, particularly in patients with swallowing disorders. A case is reported in which accidental aspiration of contrast barium occurred owing to disordered swallowing in an elderly man. The infiltration on chest x-ray persisted 2 years after barium contrast aspiration. Inflammatory reaction and retractile, granular material observed in lung biopsy specimens suggested barium-induced p...

  20. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they appeared in boluses prepared in various

  1. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Hiramatsu,1,2 Hideyuki Kataoka,3 Mari Osaki,4 Hiroshi Hagino3,4 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Matsue Co-medical College, Matsue, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 3School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 4Rehabilitation Division, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan Background/purpose: Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs.Methods: Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs and 23 OA volunteers.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption.Conclusion: Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their

  2. Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, Teresa E.; Braun, Sabrina M.; Brooks, Ryan T.; Harris, Rebecca A.; Littrell, Loren L.; Neff, Ryan M.; Hinkel, Cameron J.; Allen, Mitchell J.; Ulsas, Mollie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research. Successful outcomes are dependent upon three critical components: test chambers that permit self-feeding while standing unrestrained in a confined space, recipes that mask the aversive taste/odor of commercially-available oral contrast agents, and a step-by-step test protocol that permits quantification of swallow physi...

  3. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Agnès Peyron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. METHODS: Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. FINDINGS: Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1 in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2 by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3 median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4 except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5 physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. CONCLUSIONS: Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of

  4. Favorable Swallowing Outcomes following Vagus Nerve Sacrifice for Vagal Schwannoma Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira A; Eytan, Danielle F; Bishop, Justin; Califano, Joseph A

    2017-02-01

    Objective To determine the impact of unilateral vagal sacrifice for vagal schwannoma on postoperative swallowing function. Study Design Case series, chart review. Setting Academic medical institution. Subjects and Methods Ten patients underwent vagus nerve sacrifice for vagal schwannoma resection. Archived pathology records dating from 1985 through 2012 at our institution were retrospectively queried for cases of vagal schwannoma with vagus nerve sacrifice. Medical records were abstracted for demographic and disease information as well as cranial nerve and swallowing function. Preoperative and postoperative cranial nerve function, subjective and objective measures of swallowing function, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) level, and need for vocal fold medialization were variables collected. Data were analyzed with summary statistics. Results The patients who underwent vagal sacrifice for vagal schwannoma at our institution had a mean age of 42.3 years (median, 44 years; range, 15-63 years) and follow-up of 35.6 months (median, 9 months; range, 1-115 months). Most presented with no preoperative cranial nerve deficit or difficulty swallowing. Immediately postoperatively, 90% had a vagus nerve deficit, but 50% had no subjective difficulty swallowing, and 70% had a FOIS level of 7 at postoperative hospital discharge. Within 1 month after surgery, 70% had normal swallowing function according to a modified barium swallow study. A full diet was tolerated by mouth within an average of 2.7 days (median, 2 days; range, 1-6 days) after surgery in this cohort. Seventy percent required vocal fold medialization postoperatively for incomplete glottic closure. Conclusion Vagal nerve sacrifice during resection of vagal schwannoma can be performed with normal postoperative swallowing function.

  5. Taste and Temperature in Swallowing Transit Time after Stroke

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    Paula C. Cola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in individuals after stroke. Taste and temperature are used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The influence of stimuli, such as taste and temperature, on swallowing biomechanics has been investigated in both healthy individuals and in individuals with neurological disease. However, some questions still remain unanswered, such as how the sequence of offered stimuli influences the pharyngeal response. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of the sequence of stimuli, sour taste and cold temperature, on pharyngeal transit time during deglutition in individuals after stroke. Methods: The study included 60 individuals with unilateral ischemic stroke, 29 males and 31 females, aged 41–88 years (mean age: 66.2 years examined 0–50 days after ictus (median: 6 days, with mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were hemorrhagic stroke patients, patients with decreased level of consciousness, and clinically unstable patients, as confirmed by medical evaluation. The individuals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Group 1 received a nonrandomized sequence of stimuli (i.e. natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold and group 2 received a randomized sequence of stimuli. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed to analyze the pharyngeal transit time. Four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold were offered. The images were digitalized and specific software was used to measure the pharyngeal transit time. Since the values did not present regular distribution and uniform variances, nonparametric tests were performed. Results: Individuals in group 1 presented a significantly shorter pharyngeal transit time with the sour-cold stimulus than with the other stimuli. Individuals in group 2 did not show a significant difference in pharyngeal transit time between stimuli. Conclusions: The results showed that the sequence of offered stimuli influences

  6. Vibrational and Compositional Analysis Associated with the Color of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor (GAKVB

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    J. I. Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational modes and compositional behavior of plant material of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor (GAKVB and the characteristics associated with color changes were evaluated by Raman, infrared, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In the vibrational spectra, the frequencies of 1598, 2099, and 845 cm−1 were associated with yellow and blue pigments. These pigments can be found in natural organic dyes of vegetable origin, such as indigo blue (anil or pastel, extracted from Central American shrubs (Indigofera and indaco (Domenech, 2010, in some pigments synthesized in solid-state reactions from aluminum oxides, such as CaAl12O19, that have a turquoise color (Costa et al., 2009, and in Indian yellow (MgC19H16O11·5H2O. Using an immersion test, it was shown that the color was stable and that no loss of color occurred when photosynthesis was halted in the sample. The green and yellow stripes are assigned to Fe, N, Mg, and Si compounds. The yellow is due to decrease of Fe, Mg, and elemental Si. Results are obtained using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman measurements.

  7. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  8. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

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    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  9. Effect of salinity and silicon application on oxidative damage of sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) moench.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafi, M.; Nabati, J.; Masoumi, A.; Mehrgerdi, M.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Application of silicon (Si) to soil is considered as an alternative approach to alleviate salinity stress in crop plants. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Si application [control (without Si), 1.44 and 1.92 g.kg /sup -1/ soil on membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), leaf proline, soluble sugars, antioxidant activity, total phenols and dry matter accumulation of two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars under three levels of salinity of irrigation water (5.2, 10.5 and 23.1 dS m/sup -1/ . The results showed that leaf proline content, activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR), Na/sup +/ concentration significantly increased only at high level of salinity, while, RWC Si caused an and dry matter accumulation were significantly decreased at all salinity levels. Soil application of 1.44 g.kg/sup -1/ increase in the activities of APX, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (PRO), glutathione reductase soil Si caused an increase in membrane stabilityindex, (GR), total antioxidant and total phenol contents and 1.92 g.kg/sup -1/ soluble sugar and total phenol contents, CAT, SOD and total antioxidant activity. Soluble sugars, total phenols, SOD and total antioxidant activity and dry matter accumulation in cv. Omidbakhsh were higher than those in cv. Sepideh. In conclusion, alleviation of salinity stress by exogenous application of Si was found to be associated partly with enhanced antioxidant activity. (author)

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN THE OBTAINING OF ETHANOL FROM Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

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    Sandro Pedroso Cunha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Replacing the use of gasoline with ethanol in vehicles reduces by 90% CO2 emissions, this justifies the interest in the use of bioethanol as renewable energy. Besides sugar cane, cassava, maize and sugar beet special emphasis is being given to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench to produce ethanol for its productivity and resistance. The sorghum is grown in Rio Grande do Sul with a production of about 70,000 tons / year. Embrapa has a program to develop cultivars of sorghum from the time the Pro-Alcohol and currently 25 new varieties of sorghum are being evaluated. Several factors are relevant in the optimization of production such as increased productivity and reduced costs in the production of ethanol. This study aimed to survey recent data that will assess production parameters of ethanol from sorghum. Factors such as reducing the risk of bacterial contamination, the means conducive to fermentation processes or grain sorghum stalk through the use of pretreatment of the sample, have been of great importance because it is basically turning cellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. Superior genotypes of sweet sorghum for ethanol production are of utmost importance, as well as better ways to convert sugars into ethanol. Lignin, toxic against microorganisms, prevents the conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. The conversion of lignocellulosic ethanol compounds based on the hydrolysis of cellulose producing simple sugars and fermenting those sugars into ethanol through microbiology.

  11. Techno-economic assessment of Levulinic Acid Plant from Sorghum Bicolor in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozan, M.; Ryan, B.; Krisnandi, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The increasing need of energy is one of the main energy security issues in Indonesia. Hence, alternative energy is needed. Levulinic acid (LA) is among chemical platform used in the synthesis for avariety of high-value materials, such as fuels and commodity chemicals. It is predicted that global LA market demand to reach 3.1 tons in 2016. This study examines industrial processdesign and economic analysis for LA production in Indonesia.Sorghum bicolor was used as feed because of its high cellulose, low lignin contents and availability in Indonesia. The conventional economic problem from biomass based production was diminished sincethe valuable waste from pretreatment processwas sold to otherindustry.This plant was recommended to be built in an industrial estate area in Jawa Timur (East Java) province. Results from simulation using SuperPro Designer 9.0 was used for the techno-economic assessment.The plant assessment showed that the minimum production capacity was 7.7 ton per day to achieve an internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period (PBP) values of 19.61% and 3.93 years, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that product selling price was the most predominant factor for IRR, NPV, PBP and ROI. Raw material and water had low effects on those economic parameters. These values indicated that LA plant was feasible to be built in Indonesia.

  12. In Vitro Screening for Drought Tolerance in Different Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench Varieties

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    Yohannes Tsago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the complex environmental factors affecting growth and yield of sorghum in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. Sixteen elite sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench genotypes were evaluated for their genetic potential to drought tolerance at callus induction and plant regeneration stage for drought tolerance. The non-ionic water soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG of molecular weight 6000 was used as osmoticum to simulate water stress. The factorial experiment was laid down in a completely randomized design which comprised of a combination of two factors (genotypes and five PEG stress level; 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% (w/v treatments. Data were recorded for callus induction efficiency, callus fresh weight, embryogenic callus percentage and plant regeneration percentage. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes, treatments and their interactions for the evaluated plant traits suggesting a great amount of variability for drought tolerance in sorghum. The correlation analysis also revealed strong and significant association between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent as well as between embryogenic callus percent and plant regeneration percent. By taking into consideration all the measured traits, Mann Whitney rank sum test revealed that 76T1#23 and Teshale followed by Meko, Gambella-1107 and Melkam showed better drought stress tolerance. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance while Chelenko, Hormat and Raya appear to be drought sensitive.

  13. LEUKOCYTE DIFFERENTIAL OF ANGUILLID EEL, Anguilla bicolor McClelland, EXPOSED TO VARIED SALINITIES

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    Fita Fatimah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The anguillid eel is a catadromous eel capable of inhabiting freshwater growth habitat and seawater spawning habitat throughout their life cycle. At the juvenile to mature stage, they inhabit freshwater then migrate to marine water to spawn. Changes in salinity, which is one of the stressful environmental factors for the eel, affect their physiological condition by increasing the leukocytes number. This increase is an adaptation method to improve their immune system as a response to salinity change. This study intended to evaluate the leukocyte differential of anguillid eel (Anguilla bicolor McClelland exposed to various salinities. This research applied a Completely Randomized Design. The treatment was three levels of saline media including 4 ppt, 15 ppt, and 30 ppt with five replicates. The independent variable was the different salinity, and the dependent variable was the leukocyte differential. The parameters measured consisted of the different percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils in which the measurements administered after two months of the eel exposure. We analyzed the data with ANOVA at the confidence level of 95%. The results showed that exposure of salinity significantly affected the percentage of leukocyte differential (P < 0.05. The increase in salinity decreased the neutrophils and monocytes, but increased the lymphocytes, and showed no effect on eosinophils.

  14. Anatomy of predator snail Huttonella bicolor, an invasive species in Amazon rainforest, Brazil (Pulmonata, Streptaxidae

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    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The morpho-anatomy of the micro-predator Huttonella bicolor (Hutton, 1838 is investigated in detail. The species is a micro-predator snail, which is splaying in tropical and subtropical areas all over the world, the first report being from the Amazon Rainforest region of northern Brazil. The shell is very long, with complex peristome teeth. The radula bears sharp pointed teeth. The head lacks tentacles, bearing only ommatophores. The pallial cavity lacks well-developed vessels (except for pulmonary vessel; the anus and urinary aperture are on pneumostome. The kidney is solid, with ureter totally closed (tubular; the primary ureter is straight, resembling orthurethran fashion. The buccal mass has an elongated and massive odontophore, of which muscles are described; the odontophore cartilages are totally fused with each other. The salivary ducts start as one single duct, bifurcating only prior to insertion. The mid and hindguts are relatively simple and with smooth inner surfaces; there is practically no intestinal loop. The genital system has a zigzag-fashioned fertilization complex, narrow prostate, no bursa copulatrix, short and broad vas deferens, and simple penis with gland at distal tip. The nerve ring bears three ganglionic masses, and an additional pair of ventral ganglia connected to pedal ganglia, interpreted as odontophore ganglia. These features are discussed in light of the knowledge of other streptaxids and adaptations to carnivory.

  15. STUDIES ON Aeromonas hydrophila BACTERIA DISEASES IN WILD AND CULTURED ELVER EEL (Anguilla bicolor

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    Noviana Dewi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to detect Aeromonas hydrophila infection in wild and cultured elver eel (Anguilla bicolor. In total, 20 live elvers (10 wild and 10 cultured were collected and subjected to Aeromonas hydrophila tests. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was done for an accurate identification of Aeromonas hydrophila using a universal primer and detection of the aerolysin gene in A. hydrophila using a specific primer. The virulence of A. hydrophila was determined using a pathogenicity test injection. The results showed that A. hydrophila could be detected using PCR and amplification of 685bp DNA. A. hydrophila could also be confirmed to contain the aerolysin gene of 290 bp DNA which could be a virulence indicator. Pathogenicity test revealed that LC50 was estimated to be 10.9 x 10 6.33. Histopathological changes were found in the abdominal and wounded muscles. Those changes were mainly in tissue ephitel cell hyperplasia. Based on the present study, A. hydrophila is a virulent bacteria in elver eel. A. hydrophila disease preventive measures need to be formulated. Elver eels should be tested for the A. hydrophila before restocking into farms.

  16. Embryonic development of the skull of the Andean lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Jaimes, Carlos; Jerez, Adriana; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The study of cranial design and development in Gymnophthalmidae is important to understand the ontogenetic processes behind the morphological diversity of the group and to examine the possible effects of microhabitat use and other ecological parameters, as well as phylogenetic constraints, on skull anatomy. Complete morphological descriptions of embryonic skull development within Gymnophthalmidae are non-existent. Likewise, very little is known about the complete chondrocranium of the family. Herein, the development of the skull of the semi-fossorial lizard Ptychoglossus bicolor is described along with an examination of the chondrocranium of other gymnophthalmid taxa and the teiid Cnemidophorus lemniscatus. Cranial chondrification begins with early condensations in the ethmoid, orbitotemporal and occipital regions of the chondrocranium as well as the viscerocranium. Ossification of the skull starts with elements of the dermatocranium (pterygoid, prefrontal, maxilla and jugal). The orbitosphenoid is the last chondral bone to appear. At birth, the skull is almost completely ossified and exhibits a large frontoparietal fontanelle. In general terms, the chondrocranium of the gymnophthalmids studied is characteristic of lacertiform terrestrial lizards, in spite of their life habits, and resembles the chondrocranium of C. lemniscatus in many aspects. However, the gymnophthalmids show great variation in the orbitosphenoid and a complex nasal capsule. The latter exhibits greater development of some nasal cartilages, which make it more complex than in C. lemniscatus. These characteristics might be related to microhabitat use and the well-developed olfactory and vomeronasal systems observed within this clade. PMID:22881276

  17. Evaluation of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) on several population density for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarti; Efendi, R.; Massinai, R.; Pabendon, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]) crop management that is use for raw source of bioethanol for industrial purpose in Indonesia is less developed. The aim of this research was to evaluated sweet sorghum variety at several population to determine optimum density for juice production. Experiment design was set on split-plot design with three replications, conducted on August to December 2016 at the Indonesian Cereals Research Institute Research Station, Maros South Sulawesi. Main plot were six variation of plant row, and sub plot were three sweet sorghum varieties. Result of the study showed that plant population was high significanty affect to stalk weight, total biomass yield, leaf weight, and also significantly affect bagass weight and juice volume. Varieties were high significantly different in plant height, juice volume, and number of nodes. Super 1 variety on population at 166,667 plants/ha (P1) was obtained the highest juice volume (19,445 lHa-1), meanwhile the highest brix value obtained from Numbu at the same plants population. Furthermore juice volume had significant correlation with biomass weight at the r=0.73. Based on ethanol production, Super 2 and Numbu had the highest volume at 83.333 plants/ha density (P3) and Super 1 at 166.667 plants/ha density with the ethanol volume were 827.68 l Ha-1, 1116.50 l/ha and 993.62 l Ha-1 respectively.

  18. Identification of genes differentially expressed in ectomycorrhizal roots during the Pinus pinaster-Laccaria bicolor interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Monterroso, Aranzazu; Canales, Javier; de la Torre, Fernando; Ávila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2013-06-01

    Ectomycorrhizal associations are of major ecological importance in temperate and boreal forests. The development of a functional ectomycorrhiza requires many genetic and biochemical changes. In this study, suppressive subtraction hybridization was used to identify differentially expressed genes in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, a mycorrhizal fungus. A total number of 200 unigenes were identified as being differentially regulated in maritime pine roots during the development of mycorrhiza. These unigenes were classified into 10 categories according to the function of their homologues in the GenBank database. Approximately, 40 % of the differentially expressed transcripts were genes that coded for unknown proteins in the databases or that had no homology to known genes. A group of these differentially expressed genes was selected to validate the results using quantitative real-time PCR. The transcript levels of the representative genes were compared between the non-inoculated and inoculated plants at 1, 5, 15 and 30 days after inoculation. The observed expression patterns indicate (1) changes in the composition of the wall cell, (2) tight regulation of defence genes during the development of mycorrhiza and (3) changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Ammonium excess or deficiency dramatically affected the stability of ectomycorrhiza and altered gene expression in maritime pine roots.

  19. The nutritional value of sorghum bicolor stem flour used for infusion drinks in nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetuyi, A.O.; Akpambang, V.O.E.

    2006-01-01

    The black purple sheath (stem) of Sorgum bicolor, used locally as colour additive in cooked meals and infusion drinks taken as beverages, was examined for its nutritive value. The stem made into flour, was found to be rich in energy (1121.3 kJ/100 g), and in some micronutrients (mg/100 g), such as Mg (185.33), Ca (151.70), K (138.87), Na (127.61), and Fe (10.98). High Mg content of stem may be useful for overcoming Mg deficiency. The Fe content was sufficient to meet the daily-required intake (DRI) value for human beings. The presence of Cu, Zn and Mn was also observed. The content of crude fibre (32.0%) and carbohydrates (44.50%) were useful for making the stem a fodder for animal consumption. However, the protein content of the stem was low (3.20%). The functional properties observed for the stem compared favourably with those already reported for some other plants such as pigeon pea flour, African yam bean, and wheat flour. (author)

  20. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Genotypes in Western Kenya

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    Moses Owuor Oyier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p=0.05 differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1 due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1 and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1 due to its high brix (16.21.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of multiple Dof genes of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhra; Arya, Gulab C; Malviya, Neha; Bisht, Naveen C; Yadav, Dinesh

    2016-08-01

    DNA binding with one finger (Dof) proteins represent a family of plant specific transcription factors associated with diverse biological processes, such as seed maturation and germination, phytohormone and light mediated regulation, and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In present study, a total of 21 Dof genes from Sorghum bicolor were cloned, sequenced and in silico characterized for homology search, revealing their identity to Dof like proteins. The expression profiling of SbDof genes using quantitative RT-PCR in different tissue types and also under drought and salt stresses was attempted. The SbDof genes displayed differential expression either in their transcript abundance or in their expression patterns under normal growth condition. Two of the SbDof genes namely SbDof8 and SbDof12 showed comparatively high level of transcript abundance in all the tissue types tested; whereas some of the SbDof genes showed a distinct tissue specific expression pattern. Further a total of 13 SbDof genes showed differential expression when subjected to either of the abiotic stress i.e. drought or salinity. Three of the SbDof genes namely SbDof12, SbDof19 and SbDof24 were found to be up-regulated in response to drought and salt stress. Comparative analysis of SbDof genes expression revealed existence of a complex transcriptional and functional diversity across plant growth and developmental stages.

  2. Whole Genome Sequencing Reveals Potential New Targets for Improving Nitrogen Uptake and Utilization in Sorghum bicolor

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    Karen Massel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilizers are a major agricultural input where more than 100 million tons are supplied annually. Cereals are particularly inefficient at soil N uptake, where the unrecovered nitrogen causes serious environmental damage. Sorghum bicolor (sorghum is an important cereal crop, particularly in resource-poor semi-arid regions, and is known to have a high NUE in comparison to other major cereals under limited N conditions. This study provides the first assessment of genetic diversity and signatures of selection across 230 fully sequenced genes putatively involved in the uptake and mobilization of N from a diverse panel of sorghum lines. This comprehensive analysis reveals an overall reduction in diversity as a result of domestication and a total of 128 genes displaying signatures of purifying selection, thereby revealing possible gene targets to improve NUE in sorghum and cereals alike. A number of key genes appear to have been involved in selective sweeps, reducing their sequence diversity. The ammonium transporter (AMT genes generally had low allelic diversity, whereas a substantial number of nitrate/peptide transporter 1 (NRT1/PTR genes had higher nucleotide diversity in domesticated germplasm. Interestingly, members of the distinct race Guinea margaritiferum contained a number of unique alleles, and along with the wild sorghum species, represent a rich resource of new variation for plant improvement of NUE in sorghum.

  3. Small-scale genetic connectivity of bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits in Mexican Caribbean reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Sánchez, C. A.; Rivera-Madrid, R.; Arias-González, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of genetic similarities among marine populations is a key method for use in connectivity studies intended to provide information for management strategies. The present study aimed at assessing the connectivity levels of subpopulations of bicolor damselfish ( Stegastes partitus) recruits at a small scale (~200 km) among four reefs in the Mexican Caribbean. Samples were collected from 13 sites nested in two Marine Parks (Cozumel and Xcalak), one Biosphere Reserve (Chinchorro Bank) and one unprotected area (Mahahual). A total of 713 samples were genetically characterized by means of seven microsatellite DNA markers and were analyzed on a hierarchical basis. A strong genetic structure was detected among sites with a weak but significant genetic structure among reefs, the combination of which has not been reported in previous studies. These results appear to be related to a “sweepstake-chance effect” combined with oceanographic factors. An isolation by distance test, in addition to a hierarchical Bayesian method, revealed that neither distance among sites and reefs nor any of 10 environmental factors tested could be used to explain the genetic differences observed. The results suggest that conservation strategies for S. partitus based on local scales are likely to be effective.

  4. Swallowing Disorders in Sjögren's Syndrome: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jenny L; Tanner, Kristine; Merrill, Ray M; Miller, Karla L; Kendall, Katherine A; Roy, Nelson

    2016-02-01

    This epidemiological investigation examined the prevalence, risk factors, and quality-of-life effects of swallowing disorders in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). One hundred and one individuals with primary or secondary SS (94 females, 7 males; mean age 59.4, SD = 14.1) were interviewed regarding the presence, nature, and impact of swallowing disorders and symptoms. Associations among swallowing disorders and symptoms, select medical and social history factors, SS disease severity, and the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) were examined. The prevalence of a current self-reported swallowing disorder was 64.4 %. SS disease severity was the strongest predictor of swallowing disorders, including significant associations with the following swallow symptoms: taking smaller bites, thick mucus in the throat, difficulty placing food in the mouth, and wheezing while eating (p quality of life. Among those with swallowing disorders, 42 % sought treatment, with approximately half reporting improvement. Patient-perceived swallowing disorders are relatively common in SS and increase with disease severity. Specific swallowing symptoms uniquely and significantly reduce swallow and health-related quality of life, indicating the need for increased identification and management of dysphagia in this population.

  5. A model experiment to study swallowing of spherical and elongated particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marconati Marco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing disorders are not uncommon among elderly and people affected by neurological diseases. For these patients the ingestion of solid grains, such as pharmaceutical oral solid formulations, could result in choking. This generally results in a low compliance in taking solid medications. The effect of the solid medication size on the real or perceived ease of swallowing is still to be understood from the mechanistic viewpoint. The interplay of the inclusion shape and the rheology of the liquid being swallowed together with the medication is also not fully understood. In this study, a model experiment was developed to study the oropharyngeal phase of swallowing, replicating the dynamics of the bolus flow induced by the tongue (by means of a roller driven by an applied force. Experiments were performed using a wide set of solid inclusions, dispersed in a thick Newtonian liquid. Predictions for a simple theory are compared with experiments. Results show that an increase in the grain size results in a slower dynamics of the swallowing. Furthermore, the experiments demonstrated the paramount role of shape, as flatter and more streamlined inclusions flow faster than spherical. This approach can support the design of new oral solid formulations that can be ingested more easily and effectively also by people with mild swallowing disorders.

  6. Digital cineradiographic study of swallowing in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Re, G; Galia, M; La Grutta, L; Russo, S; Runza, G; Taibbi, A; D'Agostino, T; Lo Greco, V; Bartolotta, T V; Midiri, M; Cardinale, A E; De Maria, M; Lagalla, R

    2007-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of digital cineradiography in detecting swallowing disorders in dysphagic patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with a view to planning an adequate therapeutic approach. From January 2005 to September 2006, 23 patients (10 men and 13 women; mean age 41.3+/-8.6 years) affected by ALS were evaluated with digital cineradiography to assess the grade of dysphagia. All patients were classified using the Hillel ALS Severity Scale (ALSSS). All examinations were performed with radiocontrolled equipment provided with a digital C-arm. The cineradiographic technique enabled us to differentiate patients with disorders of the oral (17/23) and/or pharyngeal (19/23) swallowing phase from those without swallowing dysfunction (4/23). In 14/23 patients, passage of contrast medium into the upper airways was observed during swallowing, whereas in 5/23 cases, aspiration of contrast medium into the lower airways was recorded. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study has high diagnostic capabilities in the evaluation of swallowing disorders, as it is able to identify the degree and causes of impairment. In addition, the study proved useful for planning speech therapy and for follow-up in patients with ALS.

  7. Viscosity threshold that allows safe swallow in elderly with post-stroke dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Peña

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the viscosity threshold that allows safe swallowing in older adults with post-stroke dysphagia. Method: Cross-sectional analytical study. 6 patients over 60 years old with dysphagia participated. Were given six viscosities (50mPa s, 110mPa s, 170mPa s, 230mPa s, 290mPa s and 350mPa s made from no carbonated water and a corn starch-based thickener. Swallowing safety signs (wet voice, cough and oxygen saturation were assessed in each viscosity by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES. Viscosities’ performances in swallowing safety signs were compared in order to know which viscosity would be the safest. Results: 100% of swallowing safety signs did not appear in any viscosity assessed. Conclusions: It is not possible to determine the viscosity threshold that allows safe swallowing in patients with post-stroke dysphagia in the viscosities assessed. We discuss about multiple factors that had had affect our results: size sample, use of FEES to assess low viscosities, and viscosities’ intervals used.

  8. Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective videofluoroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William G; Davidoff, Alisa A; Smith, Zachary M; Adams, Dorothy E; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-02-28

    To determine swallowing outcomes and hyolaryngeal mechanics associated with post radiation therapy head and neck cancer (rtHNC) patients using videofluoroscopic swallow studies. In this retrospective cohort study, videofluoroscopic images of rtHNC patients (n = 21) were compared with age and gender matched controls (n = 21). Penetration-aspiration of the bolus and bolus residue were measured as swallowing outcome variables. Timing and displacement measurements of the anterior and posterior muscular slings elevating the hyolaryngeal complex were acquired. Coordinate data of anatomical landmarks mapping the action of the anterior muscles (suprahyoid muscles) and posterior muscles (long pharyngeal muscles) were used to calculate the distance measurements, and slice numbers were used to calculate time intervals. Canonical variate analysis with post-hoc discriminant function analysis was performed on coordinate data to determine multivariate mechanics of swallowing associated with treatment. Pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR) was also measured to determine if weak pharyngeal constriction is associated with post radiation therapy. The rtHNC group was characterized by poor swallowing outcomes compared to the control group in regards to: Penetration-aspiration scale (P time of displacement was abbreviated (P = 0.002) and distance of excursion was reduced (P = 0.02) in the rtHNC group. A canonical variate analysis shows a significant reduction in pharyngeal mechanics in the rtHNC group (P clearance. Using videofluoroscopy, this study shows rtHNC patients have worse swallowing outcomes associated with reduced hyolaryngeal mechanics and pharyngeal constriction compared with controls.

  9. Swallowing Disorders after Oral Cavity and Pharyngolaryngeal Surgery and Role of Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Giannitto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide and the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx can be treated by surgical resection or radiotheraphy with or without chemotheraphy and have a profound impact on quality of life functions, including swallowing. When surgery is the chosen treatment modality, the patient may experience swallowing impairment in the oral and pharyngeal phases of deglutition. A videofluoroscopic study of swallow enables the morphodynamics of the pharyngeal-esophageal tract to be accurately examined in patients with prior surgery. These features allow an accurate tracking of the various phases of swallowing in real time, identifying the presence of functional disorders and of complications during the short- and long-term postoperative recovery. The role of imaging is fundamental for the therapist to plan rehabilitation. In this paper, the authors aim to describe the videofluoroscopic study of swallow protocol and related swallowing impairment findings in consideration of different types of surgery.

  10. Quality-of-life scores compared to objective measures of swallowing after oropharyngeal chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A; Kosek, Steven R; Tanner, Kristine

    2014-03-01

    To compare objective measures of swallowing function with patient reports of swallowing-related quality of life 1 year after treatment of oropharyngeal cancer with chemoradiation therapy. Patients seen for follow-up at least 1 year after treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma with chemoradiation therapy were sequentially approached and asked to participate in the study. Maximum pharyngeal constriction, hyoid elevation, upper esophageal sphincter opening size, and bolus pharyngeal transit time were measured from modified barium swallowing studies in a group of 31 patients at least 1 year after chemoradiation therapy for the treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma. Measures were made for a liquid 1-mL, 3-mL, and 20-mL bolus. Objective measure results were compared to scores from the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory and The University of Washington Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire results from the same patients. No strong correlation was identified between any of the objective measures of swallowing physiology and quality-of-life scores. Patient perception of the impact of swallowing function on quality of life does not correlate well with actual physiologic functioning. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Swallowing is differentially influenced by retronasal compared with orthonasal stimulation in combination with gustatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welge-Lüssen, Antje; Ebnöther, Myriam; Wolfensberger, Markus; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Identical stimuli are processed differently when presented ortho- or retronasally. In contrast to orthonasal olfaction, retronasal odorant perception is strongly associated with flavor and food intake, which is usually followed by swallowing. Along with other stimuli, gustatory stimuli are known to influence the swallowing reflex. It was therefore the aim of present study to examine whether retronasal olfaction, in combination with simultaneous gustatory stimuli, influences swallowing in a manner different from that of orthonasal olfaction. Fifty normosmic and normogeusic subjects took part in the study. A sweet taste (glucose, delivered via an intraoral taste dispenser) was presented simultaneously with vanillin, a food-like odor, either ortho- or retronasally at random using a computer-controlled olfactometer. Ultrasound imaging of the mouth floor was recorded on videotape to continuously monitor swallowing activity. After retronasal stimulation, swallowing occurred significantly faster (7.49 vs. 9.42 s; P food-like odorant presented retronasally in combination with a congruent taste stimulus can influence swallowing. Whether these results can be assigned to other, unfamiliar, unpleasant nonfood-like odors has yet to be determined.

  12. Efficacy of EMG/bioimpedance-triggered functional electrical stimulation on swallowing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Schultheiss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to support swallowing, the efficacy of functional electrical stimulation for different stimulation settings of the submental musculature has been investigated. The stimulation was administrated at rest and synchronously to voluntary initiated swallows. The onset of a swallow was detected in real-time by a combined electromyography/ bioimpedance measurement at the neck in order to trigger the stimulation. The amplitude and speed of larynx elevation caused by the FES has been assessed by the observed change in bioimpedance whereas a reduction of bioimpedance corresponds to an increase in larynx elevation. Study results from 40 healthy subjects revealed that 73% of the subjects achieved a larger and faster larynx elevation during swallowing with triggered FES and therefor a better protection of their airways. However, we also observed a decrease in larynx elevation compared to normal swallowing in 11 out of the 40 subjects what might not benefit from such a treatment. The largest improvement of larynx elevation and speed during swallowing could be achieved with three stimulation channels formed by four electrodes in the submental region.

  13. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

  14. Cine MRI of swallowing in patients with advanced oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeft, Anne Marijn; Rasch, Coen R N; Muller, Sara H; Pameijer, Frank A; Hallo, Eeke; Balm, Alfons J M

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancer may cause dysphagia. Purpose is to examine whether cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) yields additional information compared to standard examination in the evaluation of posttreatment dysphagia and mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures. Thirty-four cine MRIs were made in 23 patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer, consisting of an MR image every 800 ms during swallowing which is compared to videofluoroscopy and quality of life questionnaires. A scoring system was applied to assess mobility on cine MR and videofluoroscopy leading to a score ranging from 9 to 17. Cine MRI of the swallowing in a midsagittal plane visualized the tumor (if located in the same plane), important anatomic structures and surgical reconstructions. Posttreatment mobility on cine MRI and videofluoroscopy was significantly diminished compared to pretreatment, mean pretreatment cine MRI score was 10.8 and posttreatment 12.4 (p = 0.017). Impaired mobility on cine MRI was significantly correlated to more swallowing problems (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.73, p = 0.04), on videofluoroscopy not. Cine MRI is a promising new technique as an adjunct to standard examinations for evaluation of swallowing in patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cine MRI directly visualizes the dynamics of swallowing and allows evaluation of pre- and posttreatment differences. Abnormal findings are significantly correlated with subjective swallowing complaints of patients.

  15. Contemporary management of voice and swallowing disorders in patients with advanced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Grainne C; Carding, Paul N; Bhosle, Jaishree; Roe, Justin W G

    2015-06-01

    Advanced lung cancer can cause changes to swallowing and communication function. Direct tumour invasion, dyspnoea and deconditioning can all impact on swallowing function and communication. Cancer treatment, if administered, may cause or compound symptoms. In this study, the nature of swallowing and communication difficulties in patients with advanced lung cancer will be discussed, and management options including medical management, speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention, and surgical interventions will be considered. Advanced lung cancer can result in voice and swallowing difficulties, which can increase symptom burden and significantly impact on quality of life (QOL). There is a growing evidence base to support the use of injection laryngoplasty under local anaesthetic to offer immediate improvement in voice, swallowing and overall QOL. There is limited literature on the nature and extent of voice and swallowing impairment in patients with lung cancer. Well designed studies with robust and sensitive multidimensional dysphagia and dysphonia assessments are required. Outcome studies examining interventions with clearly defined treatment goals are required. These studies should include both functional and patient-reported outcome measures to develop the evidence base and to ensure that interventions are both timely and appropriate.

  16. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abysique, Anne; Tardivel, Catherine; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Félix, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

  17. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Abysique

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, one of the most abundant mycotoxins found on cereals, is known to be implicated in acute and chronic illnesses in both humans and animals. Among the symptoms, anorexia, reduction of weight gain and decreased nutrition efficiency were described, but the mechanisms underlying these effects on feeding behavior are not yet totally understood. Swallowing is a major motor component of ingestive behavior which allows the propulsion of the alimentary bolus from the mouth to the esophagus. To better understand DON effects on ingestive behaviour, we have studied its effects on rhythmic swallowing in the rat, after intravenous and central administration. Repetitive electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve or of the tractus solitarius, induces rhythmic swallowing that can be recorded using electromyographic electrodes inserted in sublingual muscles. Here we provide the first demonstration that, after intravenous and central administration, DON strongly inhibits the swallowing reflex with a short latency and in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, using c-Fos staining, a strong neuronal activation was observed in the solitary tract nucleus which contains the central pattern generator of swallowing and in the area postrema after DON intravenous injection. Our data show that DON modifies swallowing and interferes with central neuronal networks dedicated to food intake regulation.

  18. The mechanics and behavior of cliff swallows during tandem flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Ryan M; Jackson, Brandon E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are highly maneuverable social birds that often forage and fly in large open spaces. Here we used multi-camera videography to measure the three-dimensional kinematics of their natural flight maneuvers in the field. Specifically, we collected data on tandem flights, defined as two birds maneuvering together. These data permit us to evaluate several hypotheses on the high-speed maneuvering flight performance of birds. We found that high-speed turns are roll-based, but that the magnitude of the centripetal force created in typical maneuvers varied only slightly with flight speed, typically reaching a peak of ~2 body weights. Turning maneuvers typically involved active flapping rather than gliding. In tandem flights the following bird copied the flight path and wingbeat frequency (~12.3 Hz) of the lead bird while maintaining position slightly above the leader. The lead bird turned in a direction away from the lateral position of the following bird 65% of the time on average. Tandem flights vary widely in instantaneous speed (1.0 to 15.6 m s(-1)) and duration (0.72 to 4.71 s), and no single tracking strategy appeared to explain the course taken by the following bird. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M

  20. SU-D-BRA-01: Feasibility Study for Swallowing Prediction Using Pressure Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, K; Shin, D; Noh, Y; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a swallowing prediction system (SPS) using force sensing sensors and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: The SPS developed consists of force sensing sensor units, a thermoplastic mask, a signal transport device and a control PC installed with an in-house software. The SPS is designed to predict the pharyngeal stage of swallowing because it is known that internal organ movement occurs in pharyngeal stage. To detect prediction signal in the SPS, the force sensing sensor units were attached on both the submental muscle region and thyroid cartilage region of the thermoplastic mask. While the signal from the thyroid cartilage region informs the action of swallowing, the signal from the submental muscle region is utilized as a precursor for swallowing. Since the duration of swallowing is relatively short, using such precursor (or warning) signals for machine control is considered more beneficial. A volunteer study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this volunteer study, we intended to verify that the system could predict the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing. We measured time gaps between obtaining the warning signals in the SPS and starting points of the pharyngeal stage of swallowing. Results: The measured data was examined whether the time gaps were in reasonable order to be easily utilized. The mean and standard deviation values of these time gaps were 0.550 s ± 0.183 s. in 8 volunteers. Conclusion: The proposed method was able to predict the on-set of swallowing of human subjects inside the thermoplastic mask, which has never been possible with other monitoring systems such as camera-based monitoring system. With the prediction ability of swallowing incorporated into the machine control mechanism (in the future), beam delivery can be controlled to skip swallowing periods and significant dosimetric gain is expected in head & neck cancer treatments. This work was supported by the Radiation Technology R&D program (No. 2015M

  1. Development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist, a Screening Tool for Nutrition Risk and Swallowing Risk in People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses nutrition problems in people with intellectual disabilities, the need for nutrition risk screening, and the development of the Nutrition and Swallowing Checklist in New South Wales. The checklist ensures carer involvement in identifying risks and an interdisciplinary approach to the assessment and management of nutrition and…

  2. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, S.A.C.; van der Molen, L.; Jacobi, I.; Hamming-Vrieze, O.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in

  3. Functional connectivity and laterality of the motor and sensory components in the volitional swallowing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Soren Y; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Horwitz, Barry; Ludlow, Christy L

    2012-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging has shown that multiple brain regions are active during volitional swallowing. Little is known, however, about which regions integrate motor execution and sensory feedback in the swallowing system. Although unilateral brain lesions in either hemisphere can produce swallowing deficits, some functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the left hemisphere has greater activation in certain sensory and motor-related swallowing regions. In this study, correlation coefficients were computed for five seed regions during volitional saliva swallowing to determine the functional relationships of these regions with the rest of the brain: the anterior and posterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), primary sensory cortex (S1), and primary motor cortex (M1). A laterality index (LI) was derived that accounts for relative differences in total, positive connected voxels for the left/right hemisphere seeds. Clusters of significantly connected voxels were greater from the anterior and posterior insula than from the other three seed regions. Interactions of the insula with other brain regions were greater on the left than on the right during volitional swallowing. Group means showed laterality in the anterior insula (LI = 0.25) and the posterior insula (LI = 0.33). BA44 showed a lesser degree of difference in left versus right hemisphere interactions (LI = 0.12) while S1 did not show lateralization (LI = 0.02) and M1 showed some predominance of interactions in the right hemisphere (LI = -0.19). The greater connectivity from the left hemisphere insula to brain regions within and across hemispheres suggests that the insula is a primary integrative region for volitional swallowing in humans.

  4. Comparison of ease of swallowing of dietary supplement products for age-related eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherman, Donald P; Bayraktaroglu, Tolgar O; Garofalo, Renee J

    2004-01-01

    To examine patients' perceptions on the relative importance of the physical characteristics and appearance of dietary supplements, and to evaluate two supplements with the same combination of vitamins and minerals used in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) with respect to ease of swallowing and other features in elderly patients. A single-site, single-visit, crossover design, subject-masked comparison of two dietary supplements (ICaps AREDS Formula--Alcon; Ocuvite PreserVision-Bausch & Lomb). Ophthalmology practice. 50 patients aged 50 years or older. Patients ranked the importance of eight physical characteristics of a vitamin tablet or capsule (ease of swallowing, size, shape, color, smell, coating, texture, and taste) irrespective of the test products used in the study and then took both test products randomly and were asked to indicate which product they preferred based on the same eight characteristics. Overall patient preference and preference for swallowing two tablets at once. The highest rated (most important) characteristic in a vitamin supplement was ease of swallowing, with a median score of 9.0 on a 0-10 visual analogue scale. The characteristic of least importance was tablet color, with the lowest median score of 1.0. Statistically significant differences were detected between the products with regard to preferences for ease of swallowing, swallowing two tablets at once, size, and coating (P preferred the ICaps AREDS formula to Ocuvite PreserVision with respect to these characteristics and overall preference (P preferences. Based on the results of this study, ease of swallowing is the most important characteristic of dietary supplement tablets for elderly patients, followed by taste, size, and smell. Significant differences in preference exist between the study products, which contain similar formulations but have different physical characteristics.

  5. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2017-08-31

    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Determination of Suitable Water Salinity and Live Food in The Rearing of Eel (Anguilla bicolor Fry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sutrisno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine suitable water salinity and live food in the rearing of eel,  Anguilla bicolor fry.  Eel fry in weight of 0.15±0.008 g/tail were reared at controlled tank at density of 2 fish liter-1 for 42 days.  Experiment was devided into two steps.  In the first step of experiment, eel fry were reared at different water salinity, i.e., 0; 5; 10 and 15 ppt.  Fish were fed on Tubifex at satiation.  The best result from the first experiment was then used in the second step of study to examine proper live food for eel fry.  Fish were fed on live food (Tubifex, Artemia, or Spirulina at 10% body weight.  Survival rate, specific growth rate and food conversion ratio were observed.  The result of experiment showed that survival rate of eel fry reared in water salinity of 5 ppt (100%, 10 (96% and 15 ppt (97% was higher (p0.05.  The best food conversion ratio was also being obtained at treatment of 5 ppt (3.36, followed repectively by 10 ppt (5.11, 15 ppt (5.70 and 0 ppt (21.11.  No different survival rate of eel fry by feeding on different live food was obtained.  Higher specific growth rate was achieved at feeding of Artemia (2.82% per day, followed respectively by Tubifex (1.85% per day and Spirulina (0.15% per day.  Food coversion ratio in each treatment was 4.42, 2.77 and 134.33, respectively. Keywords:  eel, salinity, live food   ABSTRAK Penelitian dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui salinitas air dan jenis pakan alami yang tepat dalam pemeliharaan benih ikan sidat (Anguilla bicolor. Benih sidat dengan berat rata-rata 0,15±0,008 g/ekor dipelihara selama 42 hari pada wadah terkontrol dengan kepadatan 2 ekor/liter. Penelitian dibagi kedalam dua tahap. Pada tahap pertama benih sidat diperlihara pada media dengan salinitas 0; 5, 10 dan 15 ppt.  Pakan alami berupa cacing sutera diberikan secara satiasi.  Salinitas terbaik hasil penelitian tahap pertama digunakan pada penelitian tahap kedua untuk

  7. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor contains its co-expressed vacuolar MATE transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darbani Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    for the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin in Sorghum bicolor additionally contains a gene, SbMATE2, encoding a transporter of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, which is co-expressed with the biosynthetic genes. The predicted localisation of SbMATE2 to the vacuolar membrane was demonstrated......-glucoside or the glucosinolate indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate. The genomic co-localisation of a transporter gene with the biosynthetic genes producing the transported compound is discussed in relation to the role self-toxicity of chemical defence compounds may play in the formation of gene clusters....

  8. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini; Latha Puttarudrappa; Belagumba Vijaykumar Ravi; Mala Majumdar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g re...

  9. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH IKAN SIDAT INDONESIA (Anguilla bicolor SEBAGAI TEPUNG PADA INDUSTRI PENGOLAHAN IKAN DI PALABUHANRATU, KABUPATEN SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Hangesti Emi Widyasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research aims to analyze the nutritive value of flour head, liver powder and bone meal as by product of Indonesian eel (Anguilla bicolor processing. Eel waste flour was made by using a thermal process in the drum dryer fish flouring mill PT. Carmelitha Lestari in Bogor, whereas proximate analysis for chemical tests were performed in the laboratory of Integrated Chemical Laboratory, IPB and direct observation was conducted in PT Jawa Suisan Indah, Palabuhanratu Sukabumi district in October 2012—April 2013. The nutritive value based on proximate analysis showed that head flour, liver flour, and bone flour contained protein 61.78%, 53.92%, and 41.01%; fat 15.55%, 27.28%, 13.07%; carbohydrate 11.48%; 14.96%, 8.13%; water 5.44%, 8.48%, 3.01%; ash 12.95%, 3.62%, 37.49%, and crude fiber 1.33%, 0.04%, 1.11%, respectively.Keywords: Anguilla bicolor, bone flour, head flour, liver flour, nutritive valueABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kandungan gizi tepung kepala, tepung tulang dan tepung hati ikan yang merupakan limbah pengolahan ikan sidat Indonesia (Anguilla bicolor. Tepung limbah ikan sidat dibuat berdasarkan proses termal menggunakan drum dryer di pabrik penepungan ikan PT. Carmelitha Lestari di Bogor dan analisis proksimat untuk uji kimiawi dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia Terpadu, IPB serta observasi langsung di PT Jawa Suisan Indah, Palabuhanratu Kabupaten Sukabumi pada bulan Oktober 2012—April 2013. Hasil analisis proksimat tepung kepala, tepung hati dan tepung tulang mengandung protein berturut-turut sebesar 61.78%, 53.92%, dan 41.01%; lemak sebesar 15.55%; 27.28%; 13.07%, karbohidrat sebesar 11.48%; 14.96%; 8.13%, kadar air sebesar 5.44%; 8.48%; 3.01%, kadar abu 12.95%; 3.62%; 37.49% dan serat kasar 1.33%; 0.04%; 1.11%.Kata kunci: Anguilla bicolor, nilai gizi, tepung hati, tepung kepala, tepung tulang

  10. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE APLICAÇÕES TECNOLÓGICAS PARA SORGO (SORGHUM BICOLOR L. MOENCH

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    Cláudia Helena DEGÁSPARI

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench é utilizado para consumo humano em diversas partes do mundo. No entanto, no Brasil, ele é visto apenas como um produto destinado à ração animal. Isto ocorre em razão da falta de tecnologias adequadas que incentivem a produção em escala industrial e/ou artesanal. Este trabalho demonstra que é possível o desenvolvimento de um produto expandido, obtido a partir de grãos integrais de sorgo, que resulta em um produto final com boas características sensoriais. Os testes foram realizados em um equipamento rudimentar de expansão com aquecimento direto em chama. Este equipamento rudimentar pode ser facilmente construído pelo agricultor, permitindo a ele fabricar este produto na sua própria propriedade rural, aumentando com isso sua renda familiar. O equipamento opera com pressão interna de 200 lbf/pol², gerando em um produto com baixa umidade alta taxa de expansão (1.500% e sem sabores ou odores desagradáveis. A redução da densidade aparente, associada à perda de umidade, confere ao produto uma textura crocante, que é uma característica sensorial muito apreciada em diversos produtos alimentícios. Uma formulação protótipo foi elaborada com este produto expandido, resultando em um produto final com boa aceitabilidade .

  11. Identification of STOP1-Like Proteins Associated With Aluminum Tolerance in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity in acidic soils affects crop production worldwide. C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor STOP1/ART1-mediated expression of Al tolerance genes has been shown to be important for Al resistance in Arabidopsis, rice and other crop plants. Here, we identified and characterized four STOP1-like proteins (SbSTOP1a, SbSTOP1b, SbSTOP1c, and SbSTOP1d in sweet sorghum, a variant of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.. Al induced the transcription of the four SbSTOP1 genes in both time- and Al concentration-dependent manners. All SbSTOP1 proteins localized to the cell nucleus, and they showed transcriptional activity in a yeast expression system. In the HEK 293 coexpression system, SbSTOP1d showed transcriptional regulation of SbSTAR2 and SbMATE, indicating the possible existence of another SbSTOP1 and SbSTAR2-dependent Al tolerance mechanism in sorghum apart from the reported SbMATE-mediated Al exclusion mechanism. A transgenic complementation assay showed that SbSTOP1d significantly rescued the Al-sensitivity characteristic of the Atstop1 mutant. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC assays showed that SbSTOP1d interacted with SbSTOP1b and SbSTOP1d itself, suggesting that SbSTOP1 may function as a homodimer and/or heterodimer. These results indicate that STOP1 plays an important role in Al tolerance in sweet sorghum and extend our understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms of STOP1-like proteins in response to Al toxicity.

  12. Alleviation of Boron Stress through Plant Derived Smoke Extracts in Sorghum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirzada Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient necessary for plant growth at optimum concentration. However, at high concentrations boron affects plant growth and is toxic to cells. Aqueous extract of plant-derived smoke has been used as a growth regulator for the last two decades to improve seed germination and seedling vigor. It has been established that plant-derived smoke possesses some compounds that act like plant growth hormones. The present research was the first comprehensive attempt to investigate the alleviation of boron stress with plant-derived smoke aqueous extract on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor seed. Smoke extracts of five plants, i.e. Cymbopogon jwarancusa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Peganum harmala, Datura alba and Melia azedarach each with six dilutions (Concentrated, 1:100, 1:200, 1:300, 1:400 and 1:500 were used. While boron solutions at concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ppm were used for stress. Among the dilutions of smoke, 1:500 of E. camaldulensis significantly increased germination percentage, root and shoot length, number of secondary roots and fresh weight of root and shoot while, boron stress reduced growth of Sorghum. It was observed that combined effect of boron solution and E. camaldulensis smoke extract overcome inhibition and significantly improved plant growth. Present research work investigated that the smoke solution has the potential to alleviate boron toxicity by reducing the uptake of boron by maintaining integrity of plant cell wall. The present investigation suggested that plant derived smoke has the potential to alleviate boron stress and can be used to overcome yield losses caused by boron stress to plants.

  13. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

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    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  14. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Dália; Reis, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes. The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST). For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test. The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age, education, the Geriatric Depression Scale score, 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, and diagnosed conditions (such as neurological disorder, dementia, and cardiorespiratory problems) as explaining variables. Results showed a high prevalence of dysphagia signs

  15. Swallowing disorders in nursing home residents: how can the problem be explained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Dália Nogueira,1 Elizabeth Reis21Speech Therapy Department, Escola Superior de Saúde de Alcoitão, Estoril, Portugal; 2Department of Quantitative Methods, Lisbon University Institute ISCTE/IUL, Lisbon, PortugalBackground: The swallowing mechanism changes significantly as people age, even in the absence of chronic diseases. Presbyphagia, a term that refers to aging-related changes in the swallowing mechanism, may be linked to many health conditions and presents itself in distinct ways. Swallowing disorders are also identified as a major problem amongst the elderly population living in nursing homes.Methods: The study sought to determine the prevalence of swallowing disorders in nursing home residents, to identify the relationship between self-perceived swallowing disorders, cognitive functions, autonomy, and depression, and also to analyze which variables explain the score of the Dysphagia Self-Test (DST. For this purpose, the researchers chose to apply a survey conveying questions on demographic aspects, general health, eating and feeding, as well as instruments to assess functional performance and the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test.Results: The sample consisted of 272 elderly people living in eight nursing homes in Portugal. Six did not sign the informed consent form. Of the total, 29% were totally dependent, 33% were depressed, 45% had cognitive impairment, and 38% needed help with feeding. About 43% of the individuals reported having problems related to eating. Regarding the DST, 40% showed signs of dysphagia. With respect to the 3 ounce Water Swallow Test, 38% revealed at least one of the symptoms, wet voice being the most prevalent. Correlation measures showed that age had no linear association with the DST score although correlation with the Barthel Index and Mini Mental State Examination was found to be significant. A linear regression model was estimated with the DST score as the dependent variable and the MMSE and BI scores, gender, age

  16. Nitric Oxide - Its Importance in Swallowing, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is a neurotransmitter found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS is localized in the central nervous system, including the nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus ambiguus and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. These are regions that are implicated in the central control of swallowing and esophageal motility. In rats and rabbits, NOS has been shown to be present in the nucleus subcentralis of the nucleus of the solitary tract, and is thought to be responsible for the central programming of the striated muscle component of esophageal peristalsis. Beyak and co-workers from the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario provided evidence that the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway is implicated in the central control of swallowing and esophageal motility. They studied oropharyngeal swallowing as well as esophageal peristalsis, and determined the functional role of brain stem nitric oxide by examining the effects of blockade of central nervous system NOS on swallowing, and on primary and secondary peristalsis. Administering NOS inhibitors intravenously or intracerebroventricularly into the fourth ventricle produced a number of oropharyngeal swallows and induced primary peristalsis in the smooth muscle portion of the esophageal body. NOS reduced the number of oropharyngeal swallows and the incidence of primary peristalsis in both smooth and striated muscle, and reduced the amplitude of peristalsis and smooth muscle contraction. This suggests that nitric oxide is a functional neurotransmitter in the central pattern generator responsible for swallowing and the central control of esophageal peristalsis. Peripherally administered NOS inhibitor can access structures within the blood-brain barrier to affect neuronal activity and physiological function. The central pattern generated for swallowing and esophageal peristalsis is suggested to be a serial network of linked neurons within the nucleus of the solitary

  17. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  18. Oropharyngeal and laryngeal sensory innervation in the pathophysiology of swallowing disorders and sensory stimulation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Berdugo, Daniel; Rofes, Laia; Casamitjana, J Francesc; Padrón, Andreína; Quer, Miquel; Clavé, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) affects older and neurological patients, causing malnutrition and dehydration and increasing the risk for aspiration pneumonia. There is evidence that sensory deficits in those populations are closely related to swallowing disorders, and several research groups are developing new therapies based on sensory stimulation of this area. More information on the sensory innervation participating in the swallow response is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of OD and to develop new treatments. This review focuses on the sensory innervation of the human oropharynx and larynx in healthy people compared with patients with swallowing disorders in order to unravel the abnormalities that may lead to the loss of sensitivity in patients with OD. We also hypothesize the pathway through which active sensory-enhancement treatments may elicit their therapeutic effect on patients with swallowing dysfunctions. As far as we know, this is the first time a review covers the anatomy, histology, ultrastructure, and molecular biology of the sensory innervation of the swallowing function. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Esophageal Transit, Contraction and Perception of Transit After Swallows of Two Viscous Boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazo, Jucileia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    There have been results showing the influence of bolus viscosities and consistency on esophageal motility and transit. However, there is no description about the influence of two different viscous boluses on esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses. By impedance and manometric methods, we measured the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses of 5 mL volume, 100% barium sulfate and yogurt, swallowed in duplicate in the supine and upright positions. The bolus transit, esophageal contractions and the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus were evaluated in both positions. Impedance and contraction were measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. After each swallow, the volunteers were asked about the sensation of bolus transit through the esophagus. In supine position, the yogurt had a less frequent complete bolus transit than barium. Also in the supine position, the esophageal transit was longer with yogurt than with barium. Esophageal contractions after swallows were similar between barium and yogurt boluses. There was no difference in perception of transit between the two boluses. Although both 100% barium sulfate and yogurt are viscous boluses and have similar viscosities, the transit through the esophagus is slower with yogurt bolus than with barium bolus, which suggests that viscosity may be not the sole factor to determine transit.

  20. Application of Kinesio Taping method for newborn swallowing difficultly: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Lin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Preterm infants are at an increased risk of sucking problems, swallowing difficulty, and poor nourishment. During the neonatal period, the neurobehavioral organization of a preterm baby is poor compared with that of appropriate gestational age infants. Kinesio Taping has been widely used for edema control, joint protection, and proprioception training. With the help of augmentation of the sensory input for muscle facilitation and inhibition through tapping, the coordination of the target muscle groups can be improved. Until now, no research is available on the use of Kinesio Taping for the swallowing difficulty of infant. We reported a preterm infant suffering from brain edema at birth and swallowing difficultly until 40 weeks. The swallowing reflex was delayed. Moreover, lip closure and rooting reflex combined with the dysfunction grade of jaw movement were poor. We performed KT methods on the baby under the theory of the direction of the tape for facilitate or inhibit the muscle. After the Kinesio Taping treatment, the sucking function was improved with good lip closure.One week later, the baby was discharged without the use of an oral gastric tube. Kinesio Taping contributed significantly to the improvement of impaired sucking and swallowing and could be implemented as a regular rehabilitative approach for infants suffering from these difficulties.

  1. Experimental infection of cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) with varying doses of West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, P.T.; Nemeth, N.M.; VanDalen, Kaci K.; Sullivan, H.; Bentler, K.T.; Young, G.R.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Smeraski, C.; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) were inoculated with differing doses of West Nile virus (WNV) to evaluate their potential role as reservoir hosts in nature. Swallows often nest in large colonies in habitats and months associated with high mosquito abundance and early WNV transmission in North America. Additionally, cliff swallow diet consists of insects, including mosquitoes, leading to an additional potential route of WNV infection. The average peak viremia titer among infected cliff swallows was 106.3 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL serum and the reservoir competence index was 0.34. There was no correlation between dose and probability of becoming infected or viremia peak and duration. Oral shedding was detected from 2 to 14 days post-inoculation with an average peak titer of 1044 PFU/swab. These results suggest that cliff swallows are competent reservoir hosts of WNV and therefore, they may play a role in early seasonal amplification and maintenance of WNV. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  3. Visual and auditory stimuli associated with swallowing. An fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Tonogi, Morio; Yamane, Gen-yuki; Abe, Shinichi; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Callan, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    We focused on brain areas activated by audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motions. In this study, three kinds of stimuli related to human swallowing movement (auditory stimuli alone, visual stimuli alone, or audiovisual stimuli) were presented to the subjects, and activated brain areas were measured using functional MRI (fMRI) and analyzed. When auditory stimuli alone were presented, the supplementary motor area was activated. When visual stimuli alone were presented, the premotor and primary motor areas of the left and right hemispheres and prefrontal area of the left hemisphere were activated. When audiovisual stimuli were presented, the prefrontal and premotor areas of the left and right hemispheres were activated. Activation of Broca's area, which would have been characteristic of mirror neuron system activation on presentation of motion images, was not observed; however, activation of brain areas related to swallowing motion programming and performance was verified for auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion. These results suggest that audiovisual stimuli related to swallowing motion could be applied to the treatment of patients with dysphagia. (author)

  4. Analysis of oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Flores, Melissa; Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Villeda-Miranda, Alicia; Rocha-Cacho, Karina Elizabeth; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Hernández-López, Xochiquetzal

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a high incidence in Mexico and is estimated at approximately 500,000 patients. One of the main clinical manifestations of PD is dysphagia, which is the difficult passage of food from the mouth to the stomach. The aim of this study was to assess oropharyngeal dysphagia through fibroendoscopy evaluation of swallowing in patients with PD. We conducted a census sample of patients with PD: 17 males and 10 females, aged >49 years. Clinical history, physical examination and neurological evaluation of swallowing fibroendoscopy were carried out. Of the symptomatic patients, 16 patients (59.25%) reported dysphagia. Fibroendoscopic evaluation demonstrated swallowing disorders in 25 patients (92.59%). The main findings were poor bolus control in 19 patients (70.37%), deficits in bolus propulsion in 25 patients (92.59%), impaired swallowing in 14 patients (51.85%), fractional swallowing in 11 patients (40.74%), reduced epiglottic tilting in 11 patients (48.14%), food residue in vallecula in 24 patients (88.88%) and piriform sinus in 19 patients (70.37%). There was no correlation between duration of PD and degree of involvement of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with PD is a common symptom and can range from the oral cavity to the upper esophageal sphincter. Early onset of severe dysphagia is exceptional in this disease and should alert the clinician to the diagnostic possibility of parkinsonism.

  5. Swallowing impairment and pulmonary dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: the silent threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Larissa; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Pinho, Patrícia; Sampaio, Marília; Nóbrega, Ana Caline; Melo, Ailton

    2014-04-15

    Swallowing disorders and respiratory impairment are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and aspiration pneumonia remains the leading cause of death among these subjects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between pulmonary impairment and swallowing dysfunction in PD patients. A cross-sectional study with a comparison group was conducted with PD patients. Subjects were submitted to demographic questionnaires and underwent spirometric and videofluorographic assessments. Significance level was considered at 95% (p<0.05). Among 35 PD patients, 40% presented with swallowing complaints. However, 22% of the clinically asymptomatic patients presented airway food penetration when submitted to videofluoroscopy. In 20% of PD patients material entered the airways and there was contact with the vocal folds in 7%. However, there was an efficient cleaning with residue deglutition in almost all patients. No penetration/aspiration was detected among the controls. Respiratory parameters were below the normal predicted values in PD patients when compared to the healthy controls. These data suggest an association between pulmonary dysfunction and swallowing impairment in PD patients; even in patients without swallowing complaints, impaired pulmonary function can be detected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Bolus Viscosity on the Safety and Efficacy of Swallowing and the Kinematics of the Swallow Response in Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: White Paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Roger; Vilardell, Natàlia; Clavé, Pere; Speyer, Renée

    2016-04-01

    Fluid thickening is a well-established management strategy for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD). However, the effects of thickening agents on the physiology of impaired swallow responses are not fully understood, and there is no agreement on the degree of bolus thickening. To review the literature and to produce a white paper of the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD) describing the evidence in the literature on the effect that bolus modification has upon the physiology, efficacy and safety of swallowing in adults with OD. A systematic search was performed using the electronic Pubmed and Embase databases. Articles in English available up to July 2015 were considered. The inclusion criteria swallowing studies on adults over 18 years of age; healthy people or patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia; bolus modification; effects of bolus modification on swallow safety (penetration/aspiration) and efficacy; and/or physiology and original articles written in English. The exclusion criteria consisted of oesophageal dysphagia and conference abstracts or presentations. The quality of the selected papers and the level of research evidence were assessed by standard quality assessments. At the end of the selection process, 33 articles were considered. The quality of all included studies was assessed using systematic, reproducible, and quantitative tools (Kmet and NHMRC) concluding that all the selected articles reached a valid level of evidence. The literature search gathered data from various sources, ranging from double-blind randomised control trials to systematic reviews focused on changes occurring in swallowing physiology caused by thickened fluids. Main results suggest that increasing bolus viscosity (a) results in increased safety of swallowing, (b) also results in increased amounts of oral and/or pharyngeal residue which may result in post-swallow airway invasion, (c) impacts the physiology with increased lingual pressure patterns, no major changes in impaired

  7. Mercury exposure and effects on cavity-nesting birds from the Carson River, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were 15-40 times higher in the eggs and livers of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) that nested along the Carson River at and below Dayton, Nevada than in the same species above the mining-impacted areas. Hg contamination was mainly the result of processing mills in the 1800s that used Hg to separate gold and silver from ore. The exposure pattern of tree swallows and house wrens along the Carson River was consistent with their trophic status (i.e., lower levels in liver tissue of aquatic insectivores than in piscivorous birds nesting nearby). Even though they are aquatic insectivores, tree swallows and house wrens were exposed to the same amount of Hg as piscivores in the Florida Everglades; this indicated the extreme level of Hg contamination in the Carson River. Only 70-74% of the eggs hatched. This was less than the nationwide average for these two species that generally hatch ???85% of eggs. Although the sample size was small, Hg might be impacting reproductive end points in cavity-nesting birds from the Carson River. Other trace elements were present at background concentrations. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  8. 'Brasileirinha': cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata de frutos bicolores com valor ornamental e aptidão para consumo verde 'Brasileirinha': an ornamental bicolor squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar for immature fruit consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S Boiteux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Brasileirinha' é uma cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata com frutos bicolores que foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de disponibilizar um produto diferenciado devido ao aspecto ornamental e a composição nutricional de seus frutos. Esta cultivar foi selecionada na geração F7, sendo obtida via cruzamentos convencionais entre um acesso de frutos bicolores, provavelmente devido à presença de um alelo do gene B, e a cultivar Mocinha (com frutos imaturos de cor verde uniforme. A característica peculiar da cultivar Brasileirinha é a produção de frutos com casca apresentando uma marcante coloração bicolor (coloração amarela na região proximal e verde na posição distal dos frutos. A polpa apresenta coloração amarela-esverdeada em frutos colhidos imaturos e, à medida que o fruto amadurece, intensifica-se uma coloração alaranjada. Beta-caroteno e luteína são os principais carotenóides presentes em frutos para consumo verde. Em frutos em completo estádio de maturação (polpa laranja intensa verifica-se a acumulação de beta-caroteno e alfa-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A em torno de 243 mg g-1. A cultivar Brasileirinha tem apresentado boa resistência de campo a diferentes raças de oídio (Podosphaera xanthii. Esta cultivar é preferencialmente recomendada para consumo como abobrinha verde (no estádio de fruto imaturo e para fins ornamentais (frutos em todos os estádios. Uma opção é o uso de frutos jovens em conservas. A cultivar Brasileirinha é recomendada para plantio em todas as tradicionais regiões produtoras do país. O sistema de produção para esta cultivar tem sido o mesmo adotado para outros tipos de abóboras.'Brasileirinha' is a squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar developed by Embrapa Vegetable Crops, with a appealing ornamental appearance and carotenoid composition of its fruits might provide raw material for the development of value-added products targeting new market niches. This cultivar is an F7

  9. Effects of Urin Cow Dosage on Growth and Production of Sorgum Plant (Sorghum Bicolor L) on Peat Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami Lestari, Sri; Andrian, Andi

    2017-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)), is a potential cultivated plant, especially in marginal and dry areas, sorghum has an important role as a source of carbohydrates, sorghum is expected as an alternative choice for peatland cultivation, with the use of peatlands is also expected Raising awareness of the environment by cultivating more environmentally friendly plants. The aim of this research is to know the influence and get the best dosage of cow urine on growth and production of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L) plant on peat soil. The experiment was conducted experimentally by using Completely Randomized Design (RAL), with one factor, namely: Cow urine administration, given in 5 treatments and 4 replications, resulting in 20 trials. Each experimental unit consists of 4 plants and 2 plants to be sampled. The factors studied were A0 = dose of cow urine 0 cc / 1, A1 = dose of cow urine 25 cc / 1, A2 = dose of cow urine 50 cc / 1, A3 = dose of cow urine 75 cc / 1, A4 = dose Cow urine 100 cc / 1. Conclusion Giving of cow urine has significant effect on growth and production of sorghum plant which is seen on the parameters of plant height, leaf length, leaf width. While wet weight 100 seeds and dry weight of 100 seeds of sorghum plants have no significant effect. The best dose is given by A4 treatment with the best dose of 100 cc / 1.

  10. Padrão reprodutivo de Elachistocleis bicolor (Anura, Microhylidae na Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Domingos de Jesus

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive pattern of Elachistocleis bicolor (Guérin Méneville, 1838 was studied at Serra da Bodoquena, from October 2000 to September 2001. Reproduction occurred in the wet season (October to April and was correlated to high continuous pluviometric precipitation. The species presents sexual size dimorphism, with females larger than males. The number of mature eggs per ovary was 620 ± 251 (n=39 and mature eggs measured 1.15 ± 0.30 mm (n=40. Elachistocleis bicolor presented significant relations between snout-vent length and number of mature eggs (n=39; r²=0.25; p=0.001, individual weight and number of mature eggs (n=41, r²=0.30; p=0.002, snout-vent length and ovarian weight (n=35; r²=0.47; p<0.01, and individual weight and ovarian weight (n=36; r²=0.55; p<0.01. Weight and volume are better to study size-fecundity relationships than snout-vent length. The females invested 22.7 ± 6.3 % (n=35 of their weights in reproduction and the variance associated to this variable was high, related to the reproductive mode of the species.

  11. GC-MS analysis, evaluation of phytochemicals, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Exacum bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Mahesh Ashwini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the GC-MS analysis, phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of leaves of Exacum bicolor. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of alcohol, phenols, alkanes, aromatic compounds, aldehyde and ethers. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of eight phyto-constituents. The total phenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were 18.0 ± 0.2 mg/GAE/g, 13.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/g and 108.0 ± 1.2 mg AE/g respectively. The DPPH assay exhibited potent anti-oxidant abilities with IC50 8.8 µg/mL. Significant thrombolytic activity was demonstrated by clot lysis method (45.1 ± 0.8%. The methanol extract showed significant membrane stabilization on human red blood cell with IC50 value of 37.4 µg/mL. There was a significant correlation (R2>0.98 with total phenolic content versus anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. The above results confirmed that E. bicolor could be a promising anti-oxidant, thrombolytic and anti-inflammatory agent.

  12. Detection and Toxicity Evaluation of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Medicinal Plants Gynura bicolor and Gynura divaricata Collected from Different Chinese Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lü, Han; Fang, Lian-Xiang; Li, Wei-Lin; Verschaeve, Luc; Wang, Zheng-Tao; De Kimpe, Norbert; Mangelinckx, Sven

    2017-02-01

    Two edible plants in Southeast Asia, Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata, are not only known to be nutritive but also useful as medicinal herbs. Previous phytochemical investigation of Gynura species showed the presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), indicating the toxic risk of using these two plants. The present study was designed to analyze the distribution of PA components and tried to evaluate the preliminary toxicity of these two Gynura species. Eight samples of G. bicolor and G. divaricata from five different Chinese locations were collected and their specific PAs were qualitatively characterized by applying an UPLC/MS/MS spectrometry method. Using a pre-column derivatization HPLC method, the total retronecine ester-type PAs in their alkaloids extracts were quantitatively estimated as well. Finally, their genotoxicity was investigated with an effective high-throughput screening method referred to as Vitotox™ test and their potential cytotoxicity was tested on HepG2 cells. It was found that different types of PAs were widely present in Gynura species collected from south of China. Among them, no significant genotoxic effects were detected with serial concentrations through the present in vitro assay. However, the cytotoxicity assay of Gynura plants collected from Jiangsu displayed weak activity at the concentration of 100 mg/ml. It is important to note that this research validates in part the indication that the use of Gynura species requires caution. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Gypsophila bicolor from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafagha, Ali; Shafaghatlonbar, Masoud

    2011-02-01

    The volatile constituents from flower, leaf and stem of Gypsophila bicolor growing in Iran were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The flower oil was characterized by high amounts of germacrene-D (21.2%), p-cymene (20.6%), bicyclogermacrene (17.6%), gamma-dodecadienolactone (13.7%) and terpinolene (9.4%). Twenty-four constituents representing 97.4% of the leaf oil were identified of which germacrene-D (23.4%), terpinolene (14.5%), bicyclogermacrene (7.5%), gamma-dodecadienolactone (6.8%), p-cymene (6.7%) and cis-beta-ocimene (6.3%) were major components. The main components of the stem oil were gamma-dodecadienolactone (28.5%), bicyclogermacrene (14.8%), germacrene-D (12.6%), p-cymene (12.5%), terpinolene (11.6%) and trans-beta-ocimene (4.2%). The antimicrobial effects of flower, leaf and stem essential oils from Gypsophila bicolor were studied according to the agar diffusion cup method. The essential oils had a moderate effect on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but had a substantial effect on the fungi studied.

  14. [Visualization of laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with cine mode 64-row MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudeya, Taku; Otake, Shoichiro; Watabe, Hirotaka; Mitsuoka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Akitoshi

    2010-05-20

    Video fluoroscopic examination of swallowing generally needs a contrast media such as a barium sulfate. Since the examination is usually performed in patients with dysphasia, there is a risk of aspiration. We tried to visualize the laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Cine mode 64-MDCT was performed to visualize the laryngopharynx in 4 healthy volunteers during swallowing of negative contrast media (air). The data were converted to three-dimensional (3D) images of 2 conditions (air and bone) and sagittal images of the soft tissue condition at a workstation. These images were sent to a personal computer and modeled to 3D cine images with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Viewer and Quick Time Player. 3D cine images demonstrated movements of the epiglottis, vallecula, piriform sinus, tongue, pharyngeal wall, hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  15. Effect of the Enveloppe Linguale Nocturne on atypical swallowing: surface electromyography and computerised postural test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, D; Mastrovincenzo, M; Sabatucci, A; Parziale, V; Chimenti, C

    2010-09-01

    Swallowing is a neuromuscular mechanism regulated by many nervous reflex arcs. Persistence of child swallowing at the end of dental eruption is called atypical swallowing (AS). This condition is related to a dysfunction of vertical maxillary growth called open bite. The authors treated this malocclusion with the Enveloppe Linguale Nocturne (ELN), or tongue positioner, created by Dr. Bonnet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of ELN on swallowing and the postural variation obtained by its use. Seven patients affected by AS were evaluated. Surface Electromyography (sEMG) testing was performed on each patient with different tongue positions, and swallowing was evaluated with and without the ELN. A surface Electromyograph (Biopack) with 8 channels was used (4 channels for the right muscles and 4 for the left) on 4 groups of muscles: temporals, masseters (MM), submental (SUB) and sternocleidmastoids. On each patient a postural test using a computerised Postural test (Lizard) was also performed. Statistical analysis was done using the Graph pad Instat 3 both for sEMG activity and for computerised postural analysis. All seven subjects had different results in the sEMG and footrest tests. The sEMG test results indicated that muscle activation and swallowing duration varied greatly with the use of ELN, with a reduction of time of swallow act (p = 0.002) and variation in contraction of muscles. Mean MM activation was higher without ELN than in tests performed with the appliance (p = 0.002). Mean SUB activation was higher with than without ELN (p = 0.0033). ELN has a therapeutic effect on posture too. Computerised postural test without device showed in all patients an alteration of barycentre as well as an elevated oscillatory record (A mmq; V mms). With ELN footrest kilogram difference (p = 0.0110), Oscillatory Area (P = 0.0102) and velocity of oscillation (P = 0.0102) presented a great reduction in respect to patients record without ELN. With ELN the tongue

  16. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  17. Polysomnography evaluation and swallowing endoscopy of patients with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Neto, Carlos Diógenes; Alonso, Nivaldo; Sennes, Luiz Ubirajara; Goldenberg, Dov Charles; Santoro, Patrícia de Paula

    2009-01-01

    The Pierre Robin sequence is characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis and upper airway obstruction. Symptom severity varies, and this makes the treatment of these patients a true challenge. to identify the presence of sleep hypopnea-apnea in patients with Pierre-Robin sequence. retrospective study in which we assessed 14 children with Pierre-Robin sequence, eight girls. The children were submitted to swallowing video-endoscopy study and polysomnography. eight patients were included in this study. Six had normal polysomnography and only one patient had mild central hypopnea-apnea. Swallowing video-endoscopy was normal in five patients and moderate dysphagia was detected in three patients, who were then submitted to gastrostomy. Mandible distraction was carried out in four patients who were also submitted to tracheostomy during the same procedure. dysphagia was more prevalent than sleep apnea. Swallowing video-endoscopy proved to be a dynamic test and one able to detect feeding disorders in patients with Pierre Robin sequence.

  18. Adapting human videofluoroscopic swallow study methods to detect and characterize dysphagia in murine disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Teresa E; Braun, Sabrina M; Brooks, Ryan T; Harris, Rebecca A; Littrell, Loren L; Neff, Ryan M; Hinkel, Cameron J; Allen, Mitchell J; Ulsas, Mollie A

    2015-03-01

    This study adapted human videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) methods for use with murine disease models for the purpose of facilitating translational dysphagia research. Successful outcomes are dependent upon three critical components: test chambers that permit self-feeding while standing unrestrained in a confined space, recipes that mask the aversive taste/odor of commercially-available oral contrast agents, and a step-by-step test protocol that permits quantification of swallow physiology. Elimination of one or more of these components will have a detrimental impact on the study results. Moreover, the energy level capability of the fluoroscopy system will determine which swallow parameters can be investigated. Most research centers have high energy fluoroscopes designed for use with people and larger animals, which results in exceptionally poor image quality when testing mice and other small rodents. Despite this limitation, we have identified seven VFSS parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice when using a high energy fluoroscope in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol. We recently obtained a low energy fluoroscopy system with exceptionally high imaging resolution and magnification capabilities that was designed for use with mice and other small rodents. Preliminary work using this new system, in combination with the new murine VFSS protocol, has identified 13 swallow parameters that are consistently quantifiable in mice, which is nearly double the number obtained using conventional (i.e., high energy) fluoroscopes. Identification of additional swallow parameters is expected as we optimize the capabilities of this new system. Results thus far demonstrate the utility of using a low energy fluoroscopy system to detect and quantify subtle changes in swallow physiology that may otherwise be overlooked when using high energy fluoroscopes to investigate murine disease models.

  19. Successful treatment of pill-swallowing difficulties with head posture practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Steiger, Roberta A; Pope, Jamie; Marsh, Ashley; Sharp, Maegan; Crawford, Susan G

    2010-05-01

    Clinics often encounter neurologically intact patients who are unable to swallow pills. All of the interventions published previously have used traditional behavioural techniques, which are time consuming and often not helpful. To determine whether children who had never been able to swallow a whole pill could become successful as a result of an intervention based on head posture. A novel intervention was developed based on published research showing that changing head position alters swallowing dynamics. The method was developed in two studies of 240 adults and children, pilot tested in a study of 108 university students with very mild pill-swallowing discomfort, and then evaluated in a study of 41 children who had never successfully swallowed a pill in spite of much instruction and coaxing. Children were recruited from a tertiary paediatric hospital: 34 were clinic patients, four were their siblings or friends, and three were children of hospital staff. The primary intervention involved teaching five head positions (centre, up, down, left and right) followed by a two-week period of daily practice. EIGHT CHILDREN (ALL CLINIC REFERRALS) WITHDREW WITHOUT PRACTICING: four were too ill to practice (primarily due to sedation or nausea) and four simply refused to do the homework practice. All 33 of the children who were able and willing to practice daily were successful. Practice with head posture variations was successful in treating pill-swallowing difficulties in all 33 children who practiced for 14 days. A training video can be viewed at www.ucalgary.ca/research4kids/pillswallowing.

  20. Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective videofluoroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson Jr, William G; Davidoff, Alisa A; Smith, Zachary M; Adams, Dorothy E; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine swallowing outcomes and hyolaryngeal mechanics associated with post radiation therapy head and neck cancer (rtHNC) patients using videofluoroscopic swallow studies. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, videofluoroscopic images of rtHNC patients (n = 21) were compared with age and gender matched controls (n = 21). Penetration-aspiration of the bolus and bolus residue were measured as swallowing outcome variables. Timing and displacement measurements of the anterior and posterior muscular slings elevating the hyolaryngeal complex were acquired. Coordinate data of anatomical landmarks mapping the action of the anterior muscles (suprahyoid muscles) and posterior muscles (long pharyngeal muscles) were used to calculate the distance measurements, and slice numbers were used to calculate time intervals. Canonical variate analysis with post-hoc discriminant function analysis was performed on coordinate data to determine multivariate mechanics of swallowing associated with treatment. Pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR) was also measured to determine if weak pharyngeal constriction is associated with post radiation therapy. RESULTS: The rtHNC group was characterized by poor swallowing outcomes compared to the control group in regards to: Penetration-aspiration scale (P < 0.0001), normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS) for the valleculae (P = 0.002) and NRRS for the piriform sinuses (P = 0.003). Timing and distance measurements of the anterior muscular sling were not significantly different in the two groups, whereas for the PMS time of displacement was abbreviated (P = 0.002) and distance of excursion was reduced (P = 0.02) in the rtHNC group. A canonical variate analysis shows a significant reduction in pharyngeal mechanics in the rtHNC group (P < 0.0001). The PCR was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (P = 0.0001) indicating reduced efficiency in pharyngeal clearance. CONCLUSION: Using videofluoroscopy, this study shows

  1. Objective clinical assessment of change in swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients when wearing obturator prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Miwa; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of treatment outcome is important in maxillofacial rehabilitation. Although eating is one of the oral functions that most strongly influences patients' quality of life, only a few reports exist on the objective assessment of swallowing for maxillectomy patients. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients when wearing obturator prostheses through the use of an objective clinical assessment. The swallowing ability of 38 postmaxillectomy patients consecutively treated with obturator prostheses was objectively evaluated with the "water-drinking test" that was developed for the assessment of dysphagia patients after cerebrovascular disease. In this test, the subjects were instructed to drink 30 mL of water in one swallow. The profile was evaluated with the combination of the time required for drinking the water and the incidence of cough reflex. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the paired t test, and the Chi-square test with StatView 5.0 for the Macintosh. Performance improved significantly when the patients wore prostheses (P = .0026, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The mean drinking times without and with prostheses were 8.2 +/- 6.3 s and 5.0 +/- 3.5 s, respectively. Drinking time was shortened significantly when the prosthesis was worn (P = .0002, paired t test). The assessment of behavior and episodes revealed that the swallowing ability of the maxillectomy patients was significantly improved when a prosthesis was worn (P = .0002, Chi-square test). The swallowing ability of maxillectomy patients was quantitatively and qualitatively improved with obturator prostheses.

  2. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior

  3. Non-invasive monitoring of chewing and swallowing for objective quantification of ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L; Neuman, Michael

    2008-05-01

    A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone-conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free-living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprising sensors, related hardware and software for multi-modal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in 21 volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of five subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior.

  4. Propriedades funcionais da semente do sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in natura e germinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. F. Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de sementes germinadas na elaboração de produtos alimentícios com boa qualidade nutricional é uma possibilidade e o sorgo pode se apresentar como alternativa ao consumo dos cereais convencionais. O objetivo deste estudo foi de observar as alterações nos parâmetros físico-químicos da semente de sorgo antes e após o processo de germinação, assim como avaliar as propriedades funcionais indicando suas possíveis utilizações como ingrediente alimentar. As sementes germinadas apresentaram um aumento no teor proteico, passando de 4,32 para 7,20%, além da diminuição no teor de amido e consequente aumento no teor de açúcares redutores. A partir das propriedades funcionais avaliadas, a semente de sorgo germinada apresentou uma boa capacidade de absorção de óleo, podendo ser utilizado como ingrediente para auxiliar na textura e suculência de produtos. A germinação garantiu boa capacidade de formação de espuma e sua estabilidade, podendo ser utilizado como ingrediente em produtos alimentícios de fermentação, como bolos e biscoitos, além de bom agente de formação de gel podendo ser útil em sistemas alimentícios como pudim e lanches, que requerem espessamento e gelificação.Properties of sorghum seed Functional (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in natura and germinatedAbstract: The use of germinated seeds in the preparation of food products with good nutritional quality is a possibility and sorghum can be presented as an alternative to the consumption of conventional cereals. The objective of this study was to observe the changes in physical and chemical parameters of sorghum seed before and after the germination process, and assess the functional properties indicating their possible use as a food ingredient. Germinated seeds showed an increase in protein content, from 4.32 to 7.20% in addition to the decrease in the starch content and the consequent increase in reducing sugars. From the functional properties

  5. Neonatal swallowing assessment and practical recommendations for oral feeding in a girl with a severe congenital myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Erasmus, C.E.; Swart, B.J.M. de; Sie, L.T.L.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2011-01-01

    The investigators report the case of a 6-week-old girl with a cap-like congenital myopathy and frequent coughing during feeding. Neonatal swallowing assessments were performed with surface electromyography of the submental muscle group and nasal airflow during sucking and swallowing. A

  6. Changes in Swallowing after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Instrumentation: A Presurgical versus Postsurgical Videofluoroscopic Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Lydia; Wilmskoetter, Janina; Richter, Kerstin; Fix, Constanze; Stanschus, Soenke; Pitzen, Tobias; Drumm, Joerg; Molfenter, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with anterior instrumentation on swallowing function and physiology as measured on videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Method: We retrospectively analyzed both functional measures (penetration-aspiration, residue) and…

  7. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  8. Is head balance a major determinant for swallowing problems in patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 2?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Erasmus, C.E.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2008-01-01

    A child with spinal muscular atrophy type 2 was referred for evaluation of eating and swallowing problems. The dysphagia evaluation demonstrated coughing during eating and drinking and occasionally stertorous when eating solid food. The videofluoroscopic swallow study showed a late upper esophageal

  9. Feasibility and usefulness of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound to diagnose Zenker's diverticulum: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Ignee, Andre; Baum, Ulrich; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-04-01

    Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) may be misdiagnosed on conventional ultrasound as a thyroid nodule or other lesion. A barium esophagram is usually used to confirm the diagnosis; however, this procedure exposes the patient to radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound (swallow-CEUS) to diagnose ZD. Ten consecutive patients with ZD (7 men and 3 women, aged 67 ± 11 y) were included in the study. In 4 patients, ZD was incidentally found on head and neck ultrasound, and in 6 patients, ZD was suspected because of dysphagia. All lesions could be detected on conventional ultrasound before swallow-CEUS. Ten healthy volunteers (8 men and 2 women, aged 60 ± 12 y) were chosen as a control group. Written informed consent was obtained. With the patient in the sitting or upright position, conventional ultrasound was performed first to image the lesion, then the patient was asked to swallow ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) (2-4 drops of SonoVue diluted with about 200 mL of tap water). Transity of the contrast agent in the esophagus was imaged with CEUS. Retention of the UCA in the diverticulum was monitored for at least 3 min. All patients underwent a barium esophagram as the gold standard. Swallow-CEUS revealed that in all patients (100%), the UCA was transported from the pharynx to the esophagus while the patient swallowed. ZD appeared as a pouch-shaped structure at the posterior pharyngo-esophageal junction that retained UCA longer than 3 min. The barium esophagram confirmed the diagnosis of ZD in all patients. For the 10 volunteers, no abnormal structure (retaining UCA) was detected during or after swallowing of UCA. With the advantages of no radiation and bedside availability, swallow-CEUS may become a method of choice in confirmation of the diagnosis of ZD, especially when ZD is suspected on conventional ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier

  10. Fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): predictor of swallowing-related complications in the head and neck cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Michael W; McDonough, Alanna; Dort, Joseph C; Dort, Erika; Nakoneshny, Steve; Matthews, T Wayne

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of head and neck cancer is associated with significant dysphagia and morbidity. Prescribing a safe oral diet in this population is challenging. Data from 116 consecutive patients having 189 fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) examinations over a 3-year period were analyzed. All patients had been treated for head and neck cancer and subsequently were assessed by FEES. The primary outcome was the incidence of swallowing-related adverse events resulting from the FEES-based dietary recommendations. There were 10 episodes of aspiration pneumonia, 4 episodes of airway obstruction, 3 unanticipated insertions of gastrostomy tubes, and 2 unexplained deaths within the study period. The overall rate of adverse events was 10.1%. The only statistically significant predictor of adverse events was the Rosenbek score (p = .03). Our experience is that FEES guides appropriate and safe diet recommendations in this population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Eating and swallowing ability after treatment for head and neck cancers with superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisada, Takeshi; Harada, Tamotsu; Aihara, Teruhito; Uno, Masako; Imai, Shigeki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hiraoka, Takashi; Kumakura, Isami

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservation of eating and swallowing function following the use of superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancers. Among the 96 Patients receiving concomitant radiation and intra-arterial docetaxel, systemic cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (FU) chemotherapy, the videofluoroscopic and videoendoscopy findings and results of a questionnaire were evaluated. A Videofluoroscopic examination revealed an improved swallow function in 2 of 13, no change in 4, slightly worse in 5 and worse in 2 patients. Following treatment, the incidence of aspiration increased in four patients. Videoendoscopy revealed a residual of vallecula in few cases. Most of the patients were able to swallow after chemoradiation. The questionnaire results showed that the eating and swallowing functions were well preserved in almost 80% of the patients. The new chemoradiation protocol is thus considered to be equivalent to the other treatment modalities for maintaining the functions of eating and swallowing. (author)

  12. Prospective clinical study on long-term swallowing function and voice quality in advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and preventive swallowing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, Sophie A C; van der Molen, Lisette; Jacobi, Irene; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Hilgers, Frans J M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2015-11-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is associated with substantial early and late side effects, most notably regarding swallowing function, but also regarding voice quality and quality of life (QoL). Despite increased awareness/knowledge on acute dysphagia in HNC survivors, long-term (i.e., beyond 5 years) prospectively collected data on objective and subjective treatment-induced functional outcomes (and their impact on QoL) still are scarce. The objective of this study was the assessment of long-term CCRT-induced results on swallowing function and voice quality in advanced HNC patients. The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial on preventive swallowing rehabilitation (2006-2008) in a tertiary comprehensive HNC center with twenty-two disease-free and evaluable HNC patients as participants. Multidimensional assessment of functional sequels was performed with videofluoroscopy, mouth opening measurements, Functional Oral Intake Scale, acoustic voice parameters, and (study specific, SWAL-QoL, and VHI) questionnaires. Outcome measures at 6 years post-treatment were compared with results at baseline and at 2 years post-treatment. At a mean follow-up of 6.1 years most initial tumor-, and treatment-related problems remained similarly low to those observed after 2 years follow-up, except increased xerostomia (68%) and increased (mild) pain (32%). Acoustic voice analysis showed less voicedness, increased fundamental frequency, and more vocal effort for the tumors located below the hyoid bone (n = 12), without recovery to baseline values. Patients' subjective vocal function (VHI score) was good. Functional swallowing and voice problems at 6 years post-treatment are minimal in this patient cohort, originating from preventive and continued post-treatment rehabilitation programs.

  13. Relationship between swallow-specific quality of life and fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing findings in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florie, Michelle; Baijens, Laura; Kremer, Bernd; Kross, Kenneth; Lacko, Martin; Verhees, Femke; Winkens, Bjorn

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between swallow-specific quality of life (QOL) using the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) and the swallowing function using a standardized fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) protocol in patients with dysphagia with head and neck cancer. Sixty-three patients with dysphagia and head and neck cancer were enrolled in the study. Patients completed the MDADI questionnaire and underwent a standardized FEES examination. Ordinal FEES variables were measured. Descriptive statistics and 1-way analysis of variance tests were carried out. For all FEES variables, the observer agreement level was sufficient (kappa ≥0.7).These preliminary results show statistically significant mean differences of MDADI subscales between the ordinal scale levels for several FEES variables. The MDADI questionnaire can be used to assess the impact of dysphagia on the patients' health-related QOL. Despite clear trends, it remains unclear if the MDADI questionnaire can be used as an indicator for the severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1848-E1856, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Linking larval history to juvenile demography in the bicolor damselfish Stegastes partitus (Perciformes:Pomacentridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Nemeth

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Otolith-based reconstructions of daily larval growth increments were used to examine the effect of variation in larval growth on size and age at settlement and post-settlement growth,survival and habitat preferences of juvenile bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus Poey.During August 1992 and 1994,newly settled S. partitus were collected from Montastraea coral heads and Porites rubble piles in Tague Bay,St.Croix,U.S. Virgin Islands (17 °45 ’ N,64 °42 ’ W.Daily lapillar otolith increments from each fish were counted and measured with Optimas image analysis software.S.partitus pelagic larval duration was 23.7 d in 1992 (n =70and 24.6 d in 1994 (n =38and larval age at settlement averaged 13.0 mm total length both years.Analysis of daily otolith increments demonstrated that variation in larval growth rates and size and age at settlement had no detectable effect on post-settlement survivorship but that larger larvae showed a preference for Montastraea coral at settlement.Late larval and early juvenile growth rates showed a significant positive relationship indicating that growth patterns established during the planktonic stage can span metamorphosis and continue into the benthic juvenile phase.Larval growth rates during the first two weeks post-hatching also had a strong effect on age to developmental competence (ability to undergo metamorphosisin both 1992 and 1994 with the fastest growing larvae being 8 d younger and 0.8 mm smaller at settlement than the slowest growing larvae.These differential growth rates in early stage larvae established trajectories toward larval developmental competence and may prove important in biogeographical studies of larval dispersal.Reconstruyendo aumentos diarios de otolitos se compará la variación en crecimiento larval sobre el tamaño y la edad de asentamiento,y el crecimiento post-acentamiento, sobrevivencia y preferencia de hábitat,del pez damisela bicolor (Stegastes partitus Poeyjoven.En agosto de 1992

  15. SU-E-J-193: Application of Surface Mapping in Detecting Swallowing for Head-&-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D; Xie, X; Mehta, V; Shepard, D [Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Recent evidence is emerging that long term swallowing function may be improved after radiotherapy for head-&-neck cancer if doses are limited to certain swallowing structures. Immobilization of patients with head-&-neck cancer is typically done with a mask. This mask, however, doesn’t limit patient swallowing. Patient voluntary or involuntary swallowing may introduce significant tumor motion, which can lead to suboptimal delivery. In this study, we have examined the feasibility of using surface mapping technology to detect patient swallowing during treatment and evaluated its magnitude. Methods: The C-RAD Catalyst system was used to detect the patient surface map. A volunteer lying on the couch was used to simulate the patient under treatment. A virtual marker was placed near the throat and was used to monitor the swallowing action. The target motion calculated by the Catalyst system through deformable registration was also collected. Two treatment isocenters, one placed close to the throat and the other placed posterior to the base-of-tongue, were used to check the sensitivity of surface mapping technique. Results: When the patient’s throat is not in the shadow of the patient’s chest, the Catalyst system can clearly identify the swallowing motion. In our tests, the vertical motion of the skin can reach to about 5mm. The calculated target motion can reach up to 1 cm. The magnitude of this calculated target motion is more dramatic when the plan isocenter is closer to the skin surface, which suggests that the Catalyst motion tracking technique is more sensitive to the swallowing motion with a shallower isocenter. Conclusion: Surface mapping can clearly identify patient swallowing during radiation treatment. This information can be used to evaluate the dosimetric impact of the involuntary swallowing. It may also be used to potentially gate head-&-neck radiation treatments. A prospective IRB approved study is currently enrolling patients in our

  16. A combined approach of bedside clinical examination and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in poststroke dysphagia: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshkumar Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As with most neurologic conditions, stroke involves impairment of the swallowing mechanism. This could be a spectrum of issues, the worst of which is aspiration. At the same time, the prolonged presence of a naso-gastric tube (NGT has its own morbidity. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES is one reliable method to assess the structural and functional status of the oropharynx and larynx, during the swallowing process. Objective: To study the utility of FEES in decision-making with respect to resumption of oral intake in stroke patients. To document the findings of FEES in stroke patients, and to look for correlations between these and the site of stroke. Materials and Methods: Protocol insertion of naso-gastric tube in all stroke patients, at presentation. Initial assessment by a neurologist and swallowing therapist, depending on cognitive status of the patient. All patients underwent MRI Brain with diffusion weighted sequences. After detailed clinical examination, they underwent swallow exercises under the supervision of a trained swallowing therapist. The decision to remove NGT was taken clinically by the combined decision of neurologist and swallowing therapist. Then all patients underwent FEES by the ENT surgeon. The final decision for NGT removal was taken as per the FEES findings. Result: Sixteen stroke patients underwent the FEES procedure during a period of six months. The oropharyngeal and laryngeal findings varied depending on the area of stroke involvement. Of these, change in decision regarding swallowing rehabilitation or NGT removal was needed in four patients, following the FEES findings. Conclusions: FEES is an easy, efficient and reliable method to evaluate the swallowing status in stroke patients. In combination with good bedside clinical examination and swallow exercises, it can be a good tool in assessing patients with post- stroke dysphagia. Post-stroke rehabilitation and prevention of aspiration

  17. Nutritional status and ion uptake response of Gynura bicolor DC. between Porous-tube and traditional hydroponic growth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Hydroponic culture has traditionally been used for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) because the optimal environment for roots supports high growth rates. Recent developments in Porous-tube Nutrient Delivery System (PTNDS) also offer high control of the root environment which is designed to provide a means for accurate environmental control and to allow for two-phase flow separation in microgravity. This study compared the effects of PTNDS and traditional hydroponic cultures on biomass yield, nutritional composition and antioxidant defense system (T-AOC, GSH, H2O2 and MDA) of G. bicolor, and ionic concentration (NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, NO3-, H2 PO4-, SO42-) of nutrient solution during planting period in controlled environment chambers. The results indicated that the biomass production and yield of G. bicolor grown in PTNDS were higher than in hydroponic culture, although Relative water content (RWC), leaf length and shoot height were not significantly different. PTNDS cultivation enhanced calories from 139.5 to 182.3 kJ/100 g dry matter, and carbohydrate from 4.8 to 7.3 g/100 g dry matter and reduced the amount of protein from 7.3 to 4.8 g/100 g dry matter and ash from 1.4 to1.0 g/100 g dry matter, compared with hydroponic culture. PTNDS cultivation accumulated the nutrition elements of Ca, Cu, Fe and Zn, and reduced Na concentration. T-AOC and GSH contents were significantly lower in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture in the first harvest. After the first harvest, the contents of MDA and H2O2 were significantly higher in PTNDS than in hydroponic culture. However, the activity of T-AOC and GSH and H2O2 and MDA contents had no significant differences under both cultures after the second and third harvest. Higher concentrations of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were found in nutrient solution of plants grown in hydroponics culture compared to PTNDS, wherein lower concentrations of NO3-, H2 PO4- and SO42- occurred. Our results demonstrate that PTNDS culture has more

  18. Movie MRI at five frames a second for evaluation of speech and swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumada, Masanobu; Mori, Koichi; Nakajima, Yasoichi; Nozaki, Seiji

    2004-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging method that is widely used in the medical field. One of the limitations of MRI is its low time-resolution images of MRI are usually obtained as still images. Here we introduced a newly developed method of ``movie'' MRI with high time-resolution at five images a second. Its good application would include study and evaluation of speech and swallowing. Instrument: MRT-2001 XG with Software ver.5.5. (Toshiba). Coil: head QD coil for the tongue; CTL ARRY coil (3ch) for the neck, Imaging condition: sagital FFE2D; TR=2.8 ms TE=1.2 ms FA=10 deg Matrix=64×128 ST=10 mm NAQ=1 AV FOV=23×35 ; ROAFI; sequential acquisition. Maximum imaging length=51 s. A healthy Japanese male (Tokyo dialect speaker, 39 years). Task: Repetitive utterance of /tenten.../ and intentional swallowing of saliva. Results: In the task of /tenten..../, we could detect, in temporal order, velopharyngeal (VP) closure, opening of the tongue-palate (TP) closure, VP opening, TP closure, VP closure, and so on. In the swallowing task of saliva, we could detect movement of the tongue for conveying saliva to the pharynx, VP closure, backward movement of the tongue root, elevation and descent of the larynx in this temporal order. Our ``Movie MRI'' seemed promising for the noninvasive evaluation of speech and deglutition. Appropriate materials for swallowing evaluation will be presented.

  19. Evaluation of Swallow Function in Patients with Craniofacial Microsomia: A Retrospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lande, L.S. (Lara S.); C.J.J.M. Caron (C. J J M); B.I. Pluijmers (Britt); K.F.M. Joosten (Koen); Streppel, M. (Marloes); D.J. Dunaway (David); M.J. Koudstaal (Maarten); B.L. Padwa (Bonnie L.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractCraniofacial microsomia (CFM) is characterized by underdevelopment of the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches resulting in aesthetic, psychological, and functional problems including feeding and swallowing difficulties. The aim of this study is to gain more

  20. Building a three-dimensional model of the upper gastrointestinal tract for computer simulations of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Alfonso; Mata, Lucely; Brito-de-la-Fuente, Edmundo; Delmas, Patrice; Vicente, William; Salinas-Vázquez, Martín; Ascanio, Gabriel; Marquez, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to provide realistic three-dimensional (3D) models to be used in numerical simulations of peristaltic flow in patients exhibiting difficulty in swallowing, also known as dysphagia. To this end, a 3D model of the upper gastrointestinal tract was built from the color cryosection images of the Visible Human Project dataset. Regional color heterogeneities were corrected by centering local histograms of the image difference between slices. A voxel-based model was generated by stacking contours from the color images. A triangle mesh was built, smoothed and simplified. Visualization tools were developed for browsing the model at different stages and for virtual endoscopy navigation. As result, a computer model of the esophagus and the stomach was obtained, mainly for modeling swallowing disorders. A central-axis curve was also obtained for virtual navigation and to replicate conditions relevant to swallowing disorders modeling. We show renderings of the model and discuss its use for simulating swallowing as a function of bolus rheological properties. The information obtained from simulation studies with our model could be useful for physicians in selecting the correct nutritional emulsions for patients with dysphagia.

  1. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Prince, Gaynor

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department. PMID:23326718

  2. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Harvey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department.

  3. Variability of NTCP prediction of swallowing organs at risk, due to variation in delineation guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gort, E.M.; Brouwer, C.L.; Lotz, H.T.; Steenbakkers, R.J.H.M.; Wopken, K.; Van Der Laan, H.P.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: In daily practice, several different delineation guidelines can be used for the delineation of organs at risk that are involved in swallowing (SWOARs). Based on these delineation guidelines, predictive models have been developed for the different aspects of post treatment

  4. Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation : Results of a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, Miranda E M C; Schilstra, Cornelis; Beetz, Ivo; Muijs, C.T.; Chouvalova, Olga; Burlage, Fred R.; Doornaert, P.; Koken, P.W.; Leemans, C.R.; Rinkel, R.N.; de Bruijn, M.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Roodenburg, J.L.; van der Laan, B.F.; Slotman, B.J.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Bijl, Hendrik P.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this large multicentre prospective cohort study was to identify which dose volume histogram parameters and pre-treatment factors are most important to predict physician-rated and patient-rated radiation-induced swallowing dysfunction (RISD) in order to develop

  5. Predictive modelling for swallowing dysfunction after primary (chemo)radiation: Results of a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christianen, M.E.M.C.; Schilstra, C.; Beetz, I.; Muijs, C.T.; Chouvalova, O.; Burlage, F.R.; Doornaert, P.A.H.; Koken, P.W.; Leemans, C.R.; Rinkel, R.N.P.M.; de Bruijn, M.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.; van Laan, B.F.A.M.; Slotman, B.J.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Bijl, H.P.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this large multicentre prospective cohort study was to identify which dose volume histogram parameters and pre-treatment factors are most important to predict physician-rated and patient-rated radiation-induced swallowing dysfunction (RISD) in order to develop

  6. Swallowing and Dysphagia Rehabilitation: Translating Principles of Neural Plasticity into Clinically Oriented Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, JoAnne; Butler, Susan G.; Daniels, Stephanie K.; Gross, Roxann Diez; Langmore, Susan; Lazarus, Cathy L.; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; McCabe, Daniel; Musson, Nan; Rosenbek, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This review presents the state of swallowing rehabilitation science as it relates to evidence for neural plastic changes in the brain. The case is made for essential collaboration between clinical and basic scientists to expand the positive influences of dysphagia rehabilitation in synergy with growth in technology and knowledge. The…

  7. Five days of successful oral alimentation for hospitalized patients based upon passing the Yale Swallow Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Steven B; Suiter, Debra M

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the success of oral alimentation and patient retention rate 1 to 5 days after passing the Yale Swallow Protocol. Participants were 200 consecutive acute care inpatients referred for swallow assessment. Inclusion criteria were adequate cognitive abilities to participate safely, completing an oral mechanism examination, and passing the 3-ounce water swallow challenge. Exclusion criteria were altered mental status, failing the 3-ounce challenge, preadmission dysphagia, head-of-bed restrictions alimentation and retention rate. All patients who remained medically and neurologically stable drank thin liquids and ate successfully 1 to 5 days after passing the protocol. Mean (SD) volume of liquid ingested per day was 474.2 (435.5) cc. Patient retention declined steadily from day of testing (n = 200) through post-testing day 5 (n = 95). Passing the Yale Swallow Protocol allowed for initial determination of aspiration risk followed by successful oral alimentation for 1 to 5 days in medically and neurologically stable acute care hospitalized patients and without the need for instrumental dysphagia testing. The decline in patient retention was expected because of increasingly rapid transit through the acute care setting, which often renders longer follow-up problematic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. [Cine-MRI contribution to assess swallowing mechanism and oro-pharyngeal dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvet, F; Charpiot, A; Schultz, P; Riehm, S; Vetter, D; Veillon, F; Hémar, P; Debry, C

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of Cine-MRI to assess swallowing in patients previously treated for head and neck cancer. 10 healthy control subjects and a cohort of 10 patients with 8 partial glossectomies, 1 total laryngectomy and 1 glossolaryngectomy underwent imaging from October 2005 to February 2007. The MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5 Tesla system (Siemens Avanto), with True-Fisp sequences (TR = 170 ms, TE = 1 ms, slice thickness = 10 mm) at a rate of 8 pictures per second, during dry swallowing. Results are relevant for real-time spatial resolution from lips to larynx and dynamic motions analyses of tongue, velum, posterior pharyngeal wall and larynx during dry swallowing. Oro-pharyngo-laryngeal occlusion deficiency induces aspiration in case of partial glossectomy. Total laryngectomy modifies tongue, velum and pharynx landmarks. Cine-MRI i) provides functional insight from the oral cavity to the larynx, ii) gives accurate informations about impairments due to the pathology and its treatment, iii) completes others investigations like fiberoptic endoscopy or transit time, iiii) allows a precise analysis of the muscular movements involved in the deficient swallowing mechanism, in order to optimize rehabilitative strategies and results.

  9. Variation in sperm morphometry and sperm competition among barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laskemoen, T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bonisoli-Alquati, A.; Cepák, J.; De Lope, F.; Hermosell, I. G.; Johannessen, L. E.; Kleven, O.; Marzal, A.; Mousseau, T. A.; Moller, A. P.; Robertson, R. J.; Rudolfsen, G.; Saino, N.; Vortman, Y.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2013), s. 301-309 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Barn swallow * Extrapair paternity * Hirundo rustica * Sperm competition * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2013

  10. Swallows Rugby Football Club, South Africa: The story of a century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to deconstruct and isolate a century-long story of the Swallows RFC from a multifarious Xhosa and black peoplees rugby history and locate it in the epicentre of research in the country. This Club was established in 1911 at the East Bank Location (EBL) of East London, in the present day Eastern Cape ...

  11. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (60) and genetic taste status…

  12. Effect of 45° reclining sitting posture on swallowing in patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Hwan; Ko, Myoung-Hwan; Park, Sung-Hee

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of a 45° reclining sitting posture on swallowing in patients with dysphagia. Thirty-four patients with dysphagia were evaluated. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed for each patient in 90° upright and in 45° reclining sitting posture. Patients swallowed 5 types of boluses twice: sequentially 2 mL thin liquid, 5 mL thin liquid, thick liquid, yogurt, and cooked rice. Data such as the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal delay time (PDT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), residue in valleculae and pyriform sinuses, premature bolus loss, and nasal penetration were obtained. The mean PAS on the 2 mL thin liquid decreased significantly in the 45° reclining sitting posture (p=0.007). The mean PAS on 5 mL thin liquid in the 45° reclining sitting posture showed decreasing tendency. The residue in valleculae decreased significantly for all boluses in the 45° reclining sitting posture (psitting posture. Therefore, we believe that the 45° reclining sitting posture on swallowing is beneficial for the patients with penetration or aspiration on small amounts of thin liquid and large amounts of residue in valleculae.

  13. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding | Earlé ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditure was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  14. Development of a system to monitor laryngeal movement during swallowing using a bend sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing dysfunction (also known as dysphagia, which results in a deterioration of nutritional intake, slows rehabilitation and causes aspiration pneumonia, is very common following neurological impairments. Although videofluorographic (VF examination is widely used for detecting aspiration, an objective and non-invasive method for assessing swallowing function has yet to be established because of a lack of adequate devices and protocols. In this paper, a bend sensor whose resistance is altered by bending was introduced to monitor swallowing-related laryngeal movement. METHODS: Six healthy male volunteers were recruited in the present study. Specific time points on the signal waveform produced by the bend sensor were defined to describe laryngeal movement by differential analysis. Additionally, the physiological significance of the obtained waveform was confirmed by analyzing the sequential correlations between the signal waveform from the bend sensor and hyoid bone kinetics simultaneously recorded by VF. RESULTS: Seven time points were successfully defined on the signal waveform to reference laryngeal movement. Each time point was well correlated with certain VF events, with evidence of no significant time lags, and there were positive correlations between waveform time points and matched VF events. Furthermore, obvious similarities were noticed between the duration of each phase on the signal waveform and the duration of the matched hyoid bone activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present monitoring system using a bend sensor might be useful for observing the temporal aspects of laryngeal movement during swallowing, and it was well coordinated with hyoid bone movement.

  15. Quality of life in swallowing of the elderly patients affected by stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Émerson Soares; Amaral, Ana Karênina de Freitas Jordão do; Rêgo, Flávia Luiza Costa do; Azevedo, Elma Heitmann Mares; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa

    2017-01-01

    - The elderly population faces many difficulties as a result of the aging process. Conceptualize and evaluate their life quality is a challenge, being hard to characterize the impact on daily activities and on functional capacity. The stroke is one of the most disabling neurological diseases, becoming a public health problem. As an aggravating result, there is dysphagia, a disorder that compromises the progression of the food from the mouth to the stomach, causing clinical complications to the individual. - Characterize the life quality of the elderly swallowing affected by stroke. - Cross-sectional study conducted at the University Hospital, attended by 35 elderly with stroke, being 19 women and 16 men, with age between 60 and 90 years old, that self-reported satisfactory overall clinical picture. It was applied the Quality of Life Swallowing protocol. The data were statistically analyzed, by means of ANOVA tests, Spearman correlation, t test, with significance level of 5%. - The mean age was 69.5 years; as for the scores obtained by the 35 participants in the 11 domains of the protocol, it was observed a change in score indicating severe to moderate impact in quality of life related to self-reported swallowing (31.8% to 59.5%); the domain that most interfered was the feeding time (31.8%). - Elderly affected by stroke that present dysphagia has low scores in quality of life related to swallowing.

  16. Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

  17. Effects of Dining on Tongue Endurance and Swallowing-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Stephanie A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that eating a meal reduces tongue strength and endurance in healthy old and young adults. It was predicted that older adults would show greater declines in tongue endurance while demonstrating higher perceived effort, longer meal durations, and clinical signs of swallowing difficulty.…

  18. A VALIDATION STUDY OF THE FACIAL-ORAL TRACT THERAPY SWALLOWING ASSESSMENT OF SALIVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Jensen, Ditte; Kjærsgaard, Annette

    Introduction Facial-Oral Tract Therapy (F.O.T.T.) (1) is an approach that provides both clinical assessment and treatment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. In the F.O.T.T. approach, a prerequisite for the initiation of oral intake is safe swallowing of saliva. A recent randomized controlled trial (2...

  19. Impact of Children’s Feeding/Swallowing Problems: Validation of a New Caregiver Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okelo, Sande O.; Wright, Jennifer M.; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.; Eakin, Michelle N.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of caring for children with deglutition disorders is poorly understood and tools to measure the unique concerns of these caregivers are lacking. The aims of this investigation were to develop and validate The Feeding/Swallowing Impact Survey (FS-IS) as an instrument designed to measure and improve understanding of caregiver issues. Demographic, economic, and dysphagic data were provided by the primary caregivers of 164 children (median age: 14 months, male: 78, female: 86) presenting for initial outpatient feeding/swallowing evaluations. Caregivers completed the PEDS-QL™ Family Impact Module (PEDS-QL™ FIM) and the FS-IS. A principal component analysis was conducted on the FS-IS to identify appropriate subscales. Concurrent validity was assessed by examining correlations between the FS-IS and PEDS-QL™ FIM. Caring for children with feeding/swallowing problems adversely impacted the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of their caregivers. The FS-IS had a strong 3-factor solution to indicate 3 subscales: Daily Activities, Worry, and Feeding Difficulties. All three sub-scales and total score of the FS-IS correlated with PEDS-QL™ FIM. The FS-IS was validated as an instrument that may help clinicians detect specific factors that influence caregiver HRQoL, identify caregivers who might benefit from additional support, and ultimately improve the care of their children with feeding/swallowing disorders. PMID:25159316

  20. A study of brain networks associated with swallowing using graph-theoretical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Luan

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity between brain regions during swallowing tasks is still not well understood. Understanding these complex interactions is of great interest from both a scientific and a clinical perspective. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was utilized to study brain functional networks during voluntary saliva swallowing in twenty-two adult healthy subjects (all females, [Formula: see text] years of age. To construct these functional connections, we computed mean partial correlation matrices over ninety brain regions for each participant. Two regions were determined to be functionally connected if their correlation was above a certain threshold. These correlation matrices were then analyzed using graph-theoretical approaches. In particular, we considered several network measures for the whole brain and for swallowing-related brain regions. The results have shown that significant pairwise functional connections were, mostly, either local and intra-hemispheric or symmetrically inter-hemispheric. Furthermore, we showed that all human brain functional network, although varying in some degree, had typical small-world properties as compared to regular networks and random networks. These properties allow information transfer within the network at a relatively high efficiency. Swallowing-related brain regions also had higher values for some of the network measures in comparison to when these measures were calculated for the whole brain. The current results warrant further investigation of graph-theoretical approaches as a potential tool for understanding the neural basis of dysphagia.

  1. Effects of club soda and ginger brew on linguapalatal pressures in healthy swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krival, Kate; Bates, Crystal

    2012-06-01

    Oral chemesthesis is the detection of chemicals that activate temperature and pain receptors in the oral mucosa. Presentation of orally chemesthetic input has been theorized to stimulate a faster, stronger swallow. We measured differences in peak linguapalatal swallowing pressures, pressure durations, and pressure adjustments in response to two volumes of water and carbonation (in Schweppes® Club Soda) and carbonation + gingerol (in Reed's Extra Ginger Brew) in 20 young adult women. There was a main effect of stimulus on linguapalatal swallowing pressure, F(6,74) = 6.247, p = 0.000, hp(2) = 0.536 (Reed's Extra Ginger Brew > Schweppes Club Soda > water). Rising and releasing linguapalatal pressure durations were greater for carbonation + gingerol and carbonation than for water. Our results add to the evidence that orally chemesthetic beverages influence greater neuromotor activity compared to water during the oral stage of swallowing. Our findings also suggest that there may be some benefit to the cumulative addition of chemosensory agents in a beverage. Clinically, this provides a theoretical basis for considering the use of these or chemically similar beverages as facilitating stimuli in patients who aspirate thin liquids.

  2. The mechanics of swallowing and the muscular control of diverse behaviours in gopher snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B R

    2000-09-01

    Snakes are excellent subjects for studying functional versatility and potential constraints because their movements are constrained to vertebral bending and twisting. In many snakes, swallowing is a kind of inside-out locomotion. During swallowing, vertebral bends push food from the jaws along a substantial length of the body to the stomach. In gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) and king snakes (Lampropeltis getula), swallowing often begins with lateral bending of the head and neck as the jaws advance unilaterally over the prey. Axial movement then shifts to accordion-like, concertina bending as the prey enters the oesophagus. Once the prey is completely engulfed, concertina bending shifts to undulatory bending that pushes the prey to the stomach. The shift from concertina to undulatory bending reflects a shift from pulling the prey into the throat (or advancing the mouth over the prey) to pushing it along the oesophagus towards the stomach. Undulatory kinematics and muscular activity patterns are similar in swallowing and undulatory locomotion. However, the distinct mechanical demands of internal versus external force exertion result in different duty factors of muscle activity. Feeding and locomotor movements are thus integral functions of the snake axial system.

  3. Lingual Pressure as a Clinical Indicator of Swallowing Function in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Laura L.; Morales, Sarah; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Swallowing impairment, or dysphagia, is a known contributor to reduced quality of life, pneumonia, and mortality in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the contribution of tongue dysfunction, specifically inadequate pressure generation, to dysphagia in PD remains unclear. Our purpose was to determine whether lingual pressures in PD are (a)…

  4. Swallowing assessment in early laryngeal cancer patients treated either with surgery or radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celedon L, Carlos; Gambi A, Galo; Royer F, Michel; Esquivel C, Patricia; Arteaga J, Patricia; Valdes P, Constanza

    2008-01-01

    Swallowing is a complex neuromuscular process that requires anatomical indemnity and an adequate coordination of several organs. Laryngeal cancer treatment may cause swallowing disorders. Traditionally, a high frequency of this type of disorder after surgery has been reported, but no actual data concerning its incidence in patients undergoing radiotherapy for early laryngeal cancer has been published. Aim. To compare swallowing disorders frequency posterior to treatment in early laryngeal cancer patients. Material and Method. Two groups of early laryngeal cancer patients were transversally studied, one treated with vertical partial surgery (CP), and the other treated exclusively with radiotherapy. Each patient had otorhinolaryngological, nasofibroscopic and video fluoroscopic evaluations after treatment. Differences between groups were compared using the - square test. Results. Twenty patients per group were entered in this study, predominantly males of similar age. Both groups presented a high incidence of aspiration symptoms (55% in RT and 35% in CP). There were no significant differences between both groups. Discussion and Conclusion. A high incidence of swallowing disorders in patients treated for early laryngeal cancer was found. It should then be considered as a frequent alteration in this group of patients, either treated with RT or CP

  5. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27 from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8 and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5 traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3 and New Brunswick (n = 10, Canada which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67% birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America.

  6. Impact of Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A defoliating moth from the Ukraine, Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepid...

  7. Towards biological control of swallow-worts: the good, the bad and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native from Eurasia, the ugly swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum - Apocynaceae) invaded forested landscapes and prevent native plant regeneration in eastern North America. We first aimed to understand where do the invasive populations of both species come from, then we evaluated the ...

  8. Impact of Abrostola asclepiadis and plant competition on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that have become invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in...

  9. The Invasive Swallow-worts: What Do We Know About Their Biology and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swallow-worts [Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. and V. nigrum (L.) Moench] are nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are invading natural areas in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. The species form dense monospecific stands across a wide range of mo...

  10. Endoscopic Removal of an Inadvertently Swallowed Toothbrush in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Prince, Gaynor

    2012-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl inadvertently swallowed a toothbrush during attempted manual induction of emesis. The 20 cm toothbrush was successfully removed via overtube facilitated endoscopy using a retractable snare while the patient was sedated in the emergency department.

  11. Effect of carbon dioxide in carbonated drinks on linguapalatal swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritaka, Hatsue; Kitade, Masami; Sawamura, Shin-ichi; Takihara, Takanobu; Awano, Izumi; Ono, Takahiro; Tamine, Kenichi; Hori, Kazuhiro

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of carbonated drinks with gas volumes (GV) of 0, 1.5, and 2.7 on linguapalatal swallowing pressure, intraoral carbonation perception, and maximum velocity of a bolus through the pharynx in healthy volunteers (N = 20, all female, age range; 20-21 years). The volunteers swallowed a 12-mL drink in the natural state. Linguapalatal swallowing pressure was measured using a special sensor sheet, and maximum velocity of the bolus through the pharynx was measured using ultrasonic diagnostic imaging equipment. Peak magnitude, integrated value, and duration of linguapalatal swallowing pressure and maximum velocity of a liquid bolus through the pharynx increased with an increase in carbon dioxide content in the carbonated drink. The total integrated values of carbonated drinks with GV of 1.5 and 2.7 were larger than that of the drink without carbon dioxide. These results suggest that the carbon dioxide dissolved in carbonated drinks influences the activity of taste receptors in the mouth and results in neuromotor responses.

  12. Age-Related Variability in Tongue Pressure Patterns for Maximum Isometric and Saliva Swallowing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peladau-Pigeon, Melanie; Steele, Catriona M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The ability to generate tongue pressure plays a major role in bolus transport in swallowing. In studies of motor control, stability or variability of movement is a feature that changes with age, disease, task complexity, and perturbation. In this study, we explored whether age and tongue strength influence the stability of the tongue…

  13. Instrumental and sensory quantification of oral coatings retained after swallowing semi-solid foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinz, J.F.; Huntjens, L.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2006-01-01

    After a mouthful of food has been swallowed, some food material is always retained in the mouth. With semi-solid foods this is in the form of a coating that adheres to the oral mucosa. The amount and location of this material may play an important role in food sensations. In this study two

  14. Surface Electromyography for Speech and Swallowing Systems: Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Cara E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Applying surface electromyography (sEMG) to the study of voice, speech, and swallowing is becoming increasingly popular. An improved understanding of sEMG and building a consensus as to appropriate methodology will improve future research and clinical applications. Method: An updated review of the theory behind recording sEMG for the…

  15. Novel methods reveal shifts in migration phenology of barn swallows in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; Broms, Kristin; Erni, Birgit; Barnard, Phoebe; Midgley, Guy F; Underhill, Les G

    2012-04-22

    Many migratory bird species, including the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), have advanced their arrival date at Northern Hemisphere breeding grounds, showing a clear biotic response to recent climate change. Earlier arrival helps maintain their synchrony with earlier springs, but little is known about the associated changes in phenology at their non-breeding grounds. Here, we examine the phenology of barn swallows in South Africa, where a large proportion of the northern European breeding population spends its non-breeding season. Using novel analytical methods based on bird atlas data, we show that swallows first arrive in the northern parts of the country and gradually appear further south. On their north-bound journey, they leave South Africa rapidly, resulting in mean stopover durations of 140 days in the south and 180 days in the north. We found that swallows are now leaving northern parts of South Africa 8 days earlier than they did 20 years ago, and so shortened their stay in areas where they previously stayed the longest. By contrast, they did not shorten their stopover in other parts of South Africa, leading to a more synchronized departure across the country. Departure was related to environmental variability, measured through the Southern Oscillation Index. Our results suggest that these birds gain their extended breeding season in Europe partly by leaving South Africa earlier, and thus add to scarce evidence for phenology shifts in the Southern Hemisphere.

  16. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in batch and fed batch systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Gulfraz, M.; Rana, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different...... were used in order to increase the monomeric sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis and it has been observed that the addition of these surfactants contributed significantly in cellulosic conversion but no effect was shown on hemicellulosic hydrolysis. Fermentability of hydrolyzate was tested using...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red (TM) and it was observed that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) with both batch and fed batch resulted in better ethanol yield as compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation ( SHF). Detoxification of furan during SHF facilitated reduction...

  17. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  18. Replacement of Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill) for Sorghum Silage (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the Dairy Cows Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Wanderley, Walmir Lima; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Andrade, Dulciene Karla Bezerra de; Véras, Antônia Sherlânea Chaves; Farias, Iderval; Lima, Luís Evandro de; Dias, Argélia Maria de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36%) de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill) em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). Foram utilizadas oito vacas distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4x4). Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo 14 destinados à adaptação dos animais às rações e sete para coleta. Os consum...

  19. High-efficient, bicolor-emitting GdVO4:Dy3+ phosphor under near ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jinjin; Zhou, Jia; Jia, Huayu; Tian, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Bicolor emitting GdVO 4 :Dy 3+ phosphor with short columniation-shape was prepared via a simple co-precipitation process. The optimal doping concentration for obtaining maximal luminescent intensity was confirmed to be 0.3 mol% and the electric dipole–dipole interaction is responsible for concentration quenching of Dy 3+ emission in GdVO 4 phosphor. In order to evaluate the luminescent performance of as-prepared phosphor, the luminescent efficiency and color coordinates were studied. The results show that luminescent efficiency of this phosphor is very high under near UV excitation and twice times higher than commercial Y 2 O 2 S:Eu 3+ phosphor. In addition, the color coordinates for optimal Dy 3+ concentration are (0.339, 0.379), which are close to equal energy point. Therefore, the GdVO 4 :Dy 3+ phosphor may have potential application for solid state lighting.

  20. Cortical processing of swallowing in ALS patients with progressive dysphagia--a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga K Teismann

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a rare disease causing degeneration of the upper and lower motor neuron. Involvement of the bulbar motor neurons often results in fast progressive dysphagia. While cortical compensation of dysphagia has been previously shown in stroke patients, this topic has not been addressed in patients suffering from ALS. In the present study, we investigated cortical activation during deglutition in two groups of ALS patients with either moderate or severe dysphagia. Whole-head MEG was employed on fourteen patients with sporadic ALS using a self-paced swallowing paradigm. Data were analyzed by means of time-frequency analysis and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM. Group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. We found a reduction of cortical swallowing related activation in ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally a disease-related shift of hemispheric lateralization was observed. While healthy subjects showed bilateral cortical activation, the right sensorimotor cortex was predominantly involved in ALS patients. Both effects were even stronger in the group of patients with severe dysphagia. Our results suggest that bilateral degeneration of the upper motor neuron in the primary motor areas also impairs further adjusted motor areas, which leads to a strong reduction of 'swallowing related' cortical activation. While both hemispheres are affected by the degeneration a relatively stronger activation is seen in the right hemisphere. This right hemispheric lateralization of volitional swallowing observed in this study may be the only sign of cortical plasticity in dysphagic ALS patients. It may demonstrate compensational mechanisms in the right hemisphere which is known to predominantly coordinate the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. These results add new aspects to our understanding of the pathophysiology of dysphagia in ALS patients and beyond. The compensational

  1. The study on development of easily chewable and swallowable foods for elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soojeong; Joo, Nami

    2015-08-01

    When the functions involved in the ingestion of food occurs failure, not only loss of enjoyment of eating, it will be faced with protein-energy malnutrition. Dysmasesis and difficulty of swallowing occurs in various diseases, but it may be a major cause of aging, and elderly people with authoring and dysmasesis and difficulty of swallowing in the aging society is expected to increase rapidly. In this study, we carried out a survey targeting nutritionists who work in elderly care facilities, and examined characteristics of offering of foods for elderly and the degree of demand of development of easily chewable and swallowable foods for the elderly who can crush foods and take that by their own tongues, and sometimes have difficulty in drinking water and tea. In elderly care facilities, it was found to provide a finely chopped food or ground food that was ground with water in a blender for elderly with dysmasesis. Elderly satisfaction of provided foods is appeared overall low. Results of investigating the applicability of foods for elderly and the reflection will of menus, were showed the highest response rate in a gelification method in molecular gastronomic science technics, and results of investigating the frequent food of the elderly; representative menu of beef, pork, white fish, anchovies and spinach, were showed Korean barbecue beef, hot pepper paste stir fried pork, pan fried white fish, stir fried anchovy, seasoned spinach were the highest offer frequency. This study will provide the fundamentals of the development of easily chewable and swallowable foods, gelification, for the elderly. The study will also illustrate that, in the elderly, food undergone gelification will reduce the risk of swallowing down to the wrong pipe and improve overall food preference.

  2. Altered Cortical Swallowing Processing in Patients with Functional Dysphagia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollbrink, Andreas; Warnecke, Tobias; Winkels, Martin; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current neuroimaging research on functional disturbances provides growing evidence for objective neuronal correlates of allegedly psychogenic symptoms, thereby shifting the disease concept from a psychological towards a neurobiological model. Functional dysphagia is such a rare condition, whose pathogenetic mechanism is largely unknown. In the absence of any organic reason for a patient's persistent swallowing complaints, sensorimotor processing abnormalities involving central neural pathways constitute a potential etiology. Methods In this pilot study we measured cortical swallow-related activation in 5 patients diagnosed with functional dysphagia and a matched group of healthy subjects applying magnetoencephalography. Source localization of cortical activation was done with synthetic aperture magnetometry. To test for significant differences in cortical swallowing processing between groups, a non-parametric permutation test was afterwards performed on individual source localization maps. Results Swallowing task performance was comparable between groups. In relation to control subjects, in whom activation was symmetrically distributed in rostro-medial parts of the sensorimotor cortices of both hemispheres, patients showed prominent activation of the right insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral premotor, motor as well as inferolateral parietal cortex. Furthermore, activation was markedly reduced in the left medial primary sensory cortex as well as right medial sensorimotor cortex and adjacent supplementary motor area (pdysphagia - a condition with assumed normal brain function - seems to be associated with distinctive changes of the swallow-related cortical activation pattern. Alterations may reflect exaggerated activation of a widely distributed vigilance, self-monitoring and salience rating network that interferes with down-stream deglutition sensorimotor control. PMID:24586948

  3. Reflex Cough and Disease Duration as Predictors of Swallowing Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S; Schumann, Beate; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Okun, Michael S; Hegland, Karen W

    2016-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have progressive and pervasive disorders of airway protection. Recent work has highlighted the relationship between reflex and voluntary cough and swallowing safety. The goal of this study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of several airway protective and disease-specific factors for predicting swallowing safety outcomes in PD. Sixty-four participants (44 males) completed measures of voluntary and reflex cough, and swallowing safety. Clinical predictors included disease severity and duration, and cough airflow and sensitivity measures. ROC and Chi-square analyses identified predictors of swallowing safety (penetration-aspiration score) in PD. Disease duration significantly discriminated between patients with normal and abnormal swallowing safety (p = 0.027, sensitivity: 71 %, specificity: 55.4 %). Cough reflex sensitivity significantly discriminated between patients who penetrated above the level of the vocal folds and those with more severe penetration/aspiration (p = 0.021, sensitivity: 71.0 %, specificity 57.6 %). Urge-to-cough sensitivity (log-log linear slope) was the only variable which significantly discriminated between patients with penetration versus aspiration (p = 0.017, sensitivity: 85.7 %, specificity 73.2 %). It is important to identify the factors which influence airway protective outcomes in PD especially given that aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Results from this study highlight the ecological validity of reflex cough in the study of airway protection and this study further identifies important factors to consider in the screening of airway protective deficits in PD.

  4. Relationships between dysphagia and tongue pressure during swallowing in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagi, Y; Ono, T; Hori, K; Fujiwara, S; Tokuda, Y; Murakami, K; Maeda, Y; Sakoda, S; Yokoe, M; Mihara, M; Mochizuki, H

    2018-03-25

    Although dysphagia is a life-threatening problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathophysiology of oropharyngeal dysphagia is yet to be understood. This study investigated the tongue motor function during swallowing in relation to dysphagia and the severity of PD. Thirty patients with PD (14 males and 16 females; average age, 69.4 years), Hoehn and Yahr stage II-IV, in Osaka University Hospital are participated in this study. During swallowing 5 ml of water, tongue pressure on the hard palate was measured using a sensor sheet with 5 measuring points. The maximal tongue pressure at each measuring point during swallowing was compared between patients with PD and healthy controls. Subjective assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia was performed using Swallowing Disturbance Questionnaire-Japanese. The maximal tongue pressure at each measuring point was significantly lower in patients with PD than in healthy controls (8 males and 12 females; average age, 71.6 years). Furthermore, the maximal tongue pressure was significantly lower in dysphagic PD patients than non-dysphagic PD patients. Loss of tongue pressure production at the anterior part of the hard palate was strongly related to dysphagia in the oral phase as well as in the pharyngeal phase. An abnormal pattern of tongue pressure production was more frequently observed in dysphagic PD patients than in non-dysphagic PD patients. The results suggest that tongue pressure measurement might be useful for early and quantitative detection of tongue motor disability during swallowing in patients with PD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of IQoro(R) training in hiatal hernia patients with misdirected swallowing and esophageal retention symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägg, Mary; Tibbling, Lita; Franzén, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Misdirected swallowing can be triggered by esophageal retention and hiatal incompetence. The results show that oral IQoro(R) screen (IQS) training improves misdirected swallowing, hoarseness, cough, esophageal retention, and globus symptoms in patients with hiatal hernia. The present study investigated whether muscle training with an IQS influences symptoms of misdirected swallowing and esophageal retention in patients with hiatal hernia. A total of 28 adult patients with hiatal hernia suffering from misdirected swallowing and esophageal retention symptoms for more than 1 year before entry to the study were evaluated before and after training with an IQS. The patients had to fill out a questionnaire regarding symptoms of misdirected swallowing, hoarseness, cough, esophageal retention, and suprasternal globus, which were scored from 0-3, and a VAS on the ability to swallow food. The effect of IQS traction on diaphragmatic hiatus (DH) pressure was recorded in 12 patients with hiatal hernia using high resolution manometry (HRM). Upon entry into the study, misdirected swallowing, globus sensation, and esophageal retention symptoms were present in all 28 patients, hoarseness in 79%, and cough in 86%. Significant improvement was found for all symptoms after oral IQS training (p < 0.001). Traction with an IQS resulted in a 65 mmHg increase in the mean HRM pressure of the DH.

  6. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  7. Central orexin inhibits reflex swallowing elicited by the superior laryngeal nerve via caudal brainstem in the rat.

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    Kobashi, Motoi; Mizutani, Satoshi; Fujita, Masako; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Shimatani, Yuichi; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2014-05-10

    We examined the effects of orexins on the reflex swallowing using anesthetized rats. Orexins were administered into the fourth ventricle. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated the mylohyoid muscle through bipolar electrodes. The frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN decreased after the administration of orexin-A in a dose-dependent manner. The latency of the first swallowing tended to be extended after the administration of orexin-A. The administration of orexin-B did not affect swallowing frequency. Pre-administration of SB334867, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, attenuated the degree of inhibition of swallowing frequency induced by the administration of orexin-A. To identify the effective site of orexin-A, the effect of a microinjection of orexin-A into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) was evaluated. Orexin-A was injected into one of the lateral DVC, the intermediate DVC, or the medial DVC. Microinjection of orexin-A into the medial DVC but not the other two sites decreased swallowing frequency. Pre-injection of SB334867 into the medial DVC disrupted the inhibitory response induced by fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. The electrical lesion of the commissural part of the NTS, but not ablation of the AP, abolished the inhibition of reflex swallowing induced by fourth ventricular administration of orexin-A. These results suggest that orexin-A inhibits reflex swallowing via orexin-1 receptors situated in the commissural part of the NTS and/or its vicinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of organic contaminants in eggs of an insectivorous, an omnivorous, and a piscivorous bird nesting on the Hudson River, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon), spotted sandpiper (Actitus macularia), and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs were collected in 2004 from the upper Hudson River, New York, USA. This area is one of the most polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated locations in North America. Multivariate analyses indicated among species differences in the concentration and composition of PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), and dibenzofuran (PCDF, PCDD-F when combined with PCDDs) congeners, and chlorinated pesticides. Total PCB concentrations followed the typical food chain biomagnification paradigm of higher concentrations in piscivorous bird eggs and lower concentrations in eggs of species that feed at lower trophic levels. Concentrations in the insectivorous swallows (geometric mean=6.8μg/g wet wt) were approximately half the concentrations present in the piscivorous kingfisher (11.7μg/g) or omnivorous sandpiper (12.6μg/g). In contrast, PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) were higher in swallows (1,790 pg/g wet wt) than in either kingfishers (776pg/g) or sandpipers (881pg/g). This difference can be mainly attributed to higher PCB77 concentrations in swallows relative to the other two species. Also contrary to the accepted food-chain paradigm, the sum of PCDD-F concentrations and the sum of their TEQs were higher in swallows than in either sandpipers or kingfishers. Metabolic pathway differences in the respective food chains of the three species probably accounted for the differences observed in PCB TEQ, total PCDD-F, and PCDD-F TEQ concentrations among species.

  9. 'Pharyngocise': Randomized Controlled Trial of Preventative Exercises to Maintain Muscle Structure and Swallowing Function During Head-and-Neck Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle, E-mail: gmann@phhp.ufl.edu [Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Crary, Michael A. [Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Schmalfuss, Ilona [Department of Radiology, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL (Georgia); Amdur, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy is common. The present randomized clinical trial studied the effectiveness of preventative behavioral intervention for dysphagia compared with the 'usual care.' Methods and Materials: A total of 58 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy were randomly assigned to usual care, sham swallowing intervention, or active swallowing exercises (pharyngocise). The intervention arms were treated daily during chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was muscle size and composition (determined by T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary outcomes included functional swallowing ability, dietary intake, chemosensory function, salivation, nutritional status, and the occurrence of dysphagia-related complications. Results: The swallowing musculature (genioglossus, hyoglossuss, and mylohyoid) demonstrated less structural deterioration in the active treatment arm. The functional swallowing, mouth opening, chemosensory acuity, and salivation rate deteriorated less in the pharyngocise group. Conclusion: Patients completing a program of swallowing exercises during cancer treatment demonstrated superior muscle maintenance and functional swallowing ability.

  10. Effects of carbonated liquid on swallowing dysfunction in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia

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    Larsson V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Victoria Larsson,1 Gustav Torisson,1,2 Margareta Bülow,3 Elisabet Londos1 1Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, 2Department of Infectious Diseases, 3Diagnostic Centre of Imaging and Functional Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Background: Swallowing dysfunction is an increasingly recognized problem in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD, which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death. Few studies have examined potential ways of improving swallowing function in this fragile patient group. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction and carbonated liquid using videofluoroscopy in DLB and PDD patients. Methods: A total of 48 patients with DLB and PDD were referred for a clinical examination with videofluoroscopy. Descriptive overall assessments were provided at the time of the examination regarding swallowing function and the effects of different modifications, including carbonated thin liquid (CTL. Additionally, a repeated measures quantitative retrospective analysis has been performed comparing 1 thin liquids; 2 thickened liquids and 3 CTLs, with regard to the quantitative variables 1 pharyngeal transit time (PTT; 2 pharyngeal retention and 3 tracheal penetration. Results: In all, 40/48 (83% of the patients had a swallowing dysfunction, which was confirmed on videofluoroscopy, with 34/40 (85% patients having a pharyngeal-type dysfunction. A total of 14/40 (35% patients with an objective swallowing impairment did not have any subjective swallowing symptoms. Out of the patients with swallowing dysfunction, 87% had an overall improved swallowing function with carbonated liquid. PTT for carbonated liquid (median 633 ms, interquartile range [IQR] 516–786 ms was quicker than for thin liquid (760 ms, IQR 613–940 ms, P=0.014 and thickened liquid (880.0 ms, IQR 600–1,500 ms, P<0.001. No significant effect

  11. Neck electrical impedance for measurement of swallowing; Enge katsudo no keisoku no tame no keibu denki impedance

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    Yamamoto, Y. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)] Nakamura, T. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). School of Health Science; Utsunomiya, K.; Akashi, K. [Kawasaki Medical School, Kawasaki (Japan)] Jikuya, K. [Kawasaki College of Allied Health Professions, Kawasaki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Recently videofluorography has been used for evaluation of swallowing function in rehabilitation field. But it is not easy to evaluate swallowing disorder simply. And it has problems or exposure for daily use. We have proposed a measurement method of swallowing using bioelectrical impedance method (Impedance Pharyngography, IPG) which has advantages of easy handle and non-invasive measurement. Appropriate electrode positions have been determined. The waveform of IPG can be obtained with some extent reproducibility. The change of neck electrical impedance in pharyngeal phase is mainly caused by the changes of equivalent cross sectional area of near epiglottis. The possibilities of applications for clinical diagnosis have been shown. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Effects of age and viscosity on food transport and breathing-swallowing coordination during eating of two-phase food in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Koichiro; Izawa, Masayuki; Yamada, Shizuru; Masuda, Yuji; Ogasawara, Tadashi

    2017-11-01

    When eating food that contains both liquid and solid phases, the liquid component frequently enters the hypopharynx before swallowing and can increase the risk of aspiration. Thus, we examined whether the initial viscosity of mixed consistency food could alter pre-swallow food transport and breathing-swallowing coordination in older adults. Fiberoptic endoscopy was recorded while 18 healthy young adults and 19 older adults ate 5 g of steamed rice combined with 3 mL of blue-dye water. Liquid viscosity was set at three levels by the addition of a thickening agent (0 wt%, thin; 2 wt%, thicker; 4 wt%, higher-viscosity, respectively). We measured the timing of swallow initiation and its corresponding respiratory phase for each participant. For thin mixed consistency food, whereas the timing of swallow initiation was comparable between young and older participants, swallowing was initiated during inspiration significantly more often in older participants (31.6 %) than in young participants (5.6 %). In contrast, the timing of swallow initiation was delayed in older participants for thicker and higher-viscosity foods, although swallowing was commonly initiated during expiration in both groups. In older adults, we observed that swallow initiation function was preserved for thin mixed consistency samples, but breathing-swallowing coupling was diminished. For higher-viscosity foods, swallow initiation was delayed in this group, but breathing-swallowing coordination was not disturbed, probably as a result of the slow bolus flow into the hypopharynx. Thus, it appears the initial viscosity of mixed consistency food profoundly affects food transport before swallowing as well as breathing-swallowing coordination in nursing home residents. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2171-2177. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Lauren; Gaziano, Joy; Watts, Stephanie; Robison, Raele; Plowman, Emily K

    2016-06-01

    Although it is known that dysphagia contributes to significant malnutrition, pneumonia, and mortality in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), it remains unclear how swallowing impairment impacts quality of life in this vulnerable patient population. The aim of the current study was to (1) delineate swallow-related quality of life (SR-QOL) profiles in individuals with ALS and (2) evaluate relationships between SR-QOL, degree of swallowing impairment, and ALS global disease progression. Eighty-one ALS patients underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallow study and completed the swallowing quality of life (SWAL-QOL) instrument and ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R). Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores were derived by a blinded rater. Correlation analyses and a between groups ANOVA (safe vs. penetrators vs. aspirators) were performed. Mean SWAL-QOL score for this cohort was 75.94 indicating a moderate degree of SR-QOL impairment with fatigue, eating duration, and communication representing the most affected domains. Correlations were revealed between the SWAL-QOL and (1) PAS (r = -0.39, p < 0.001) and (2) ALSFRS-R (r = 0.23, p < 0.05). Mean (SD) SWAL-QOL scores for safe versus penetrator versus aspirator groups were 81.2 (2.3) versus 77 (3.4) versus 58.7 (5.9), respectively, with a main effect observed [F(2,78) = 9.71, p < 0.001]. Post hoc testing revealed lower SWAL-QOL scores for aspirators versus safe swallowers (p < 0.001) and aspirators versus penetrators (p < 0.001). Overall, SR-QOL was moderately reduced in this cohort of ALS patients and profoundly impacted in ALS aspirators and individuals with advanced disease. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary intervention to not only avoid malnutrition, weight loss, and pulmonary sequelae but also the associated reduced QOL seen in these individuals.

  14. Excessive anterior cervical muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing in healthy individuals

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    Yamazaki Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether excessive neck muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing using videofluorography (VF in an unnatural posture in healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 28 healthy adults (12 men, 16 women; mean age, 39.75±9.50 years without any history or present complaints of swallowing disorders. We first established the participant’s posture a reclining wheelchair that was adjusted to a 30-degree angle with the headrest (without excessive neck muscle tone or without headrest (with excessive neck muscle tone, used an electromyogram above the mylohyoid muscle to represent the suprahyoid muscles and above the sternohyoid muscle to represent the infrahyoid muscles to confirm neck muscle tone, and then conducted VF of swallowing measurements. Videofluorographic images were obtained when 5 mL of 50% (w/v barium sulfate was being swallowed, and hyoid bone coordinate (the resting position and the elevated position, extent of horizontal and vertical hyoid bone elevation, as well as duration and velocity of hyoid bone elevation were evaluated (x-axis and y-axis coordinates for the resting position of hyoid bone are referred to as Xr and Yr, respectively; those for the elevated hyoid bone position induced during swallowing are referred to as Xs and Ys, respectively. Results: In the resting position of the hyoid bone, the Yr coordinates in those with excessive neck muscle tone were significantly lower than in those without excessive neck muscle tone. Vertical hyoid bone elevation and hyoid bone elevation velocity were significantly higher with excessive neck muscle tone than without excessive neck muscle tone, whereas horizontal elevation showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Our findings

  15. SOILS, FERTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WATER Halotolerant/alkalophilic bacteria associated with the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt Gomont that promote early growth in Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

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    Liliana Gómez G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis associated bacteria (APAB identified through molecuar biology like Bacillus okhensis, Indibacter alkaliphilus and Halomonas sp., are also producing 3-indol acetic acid (IAA, these bacteria was used in early plant growth promotion tests over Sorghum bicolor, these bioassay was considered indirect evidence to suggest that APAB also may have stimulatory effects over A. platensis growth naturally. I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis enhanced early germination of S. bicolor seads, with better results than that achieved by Azospirillum brasilense, bacterium used like reference as a common plant growth promoting rizobacteria. The three APAB enhanced significative differences (P≤0.05 over morphoagronomic parameters, I. alkaliphilus and B. okhensis exhibith better resoults in elongation stimulation and root and foliage dry weight. Above evidence suggest this bacteria like plant growth promoting and it recomended testing with A. platensis axenic cultures and its associated bactteri for understanding true interaction between them.

  16. Improving medication administration in nursing home residents with swallowing difficulties: sustainability of the effect of a multifaceted medication safety programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijt, Clementine C. M.; Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kluft-van Driel, Chantal; Le, Nhut; Binnekade, Jan; van der Kleij, Bea; van der Schors, Tjalling; van den Bemt, Patricia; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine

    2013-01-01

    Crushing solid oral dosage forms is an important risk factor for medication administration errors (MAEs) in patients with swallowing difficulties. Nursing home (NH) residents, especially those on psychogeriatric wards, have a high prevalence of such difficulties. Six different psychogeriatric wards

  17. Bioremediation of soil contaminated by waste motor oil in 55000 and 65000 and phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor inoculated with Burkholderia cepacia and Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In soil spill a high concentration of waste motor oil (WMO it´s causing lost soil fertility, which is solved by remediation, but is expensive and polluting, an ecological alternative is bioremediation (BR by biostimulation follow by phytoremediation (PY with Sorghum bicolor using Burkholderia cepacia and Penicillium chrysogenum, promoting growth plant microorganisms (PGPM at concentration value below to the maximum according to NOM-138 SEMARNAT/SS-2003 de 4400 ppm/Kg soil. The objectives of this research were a bioremediation of soil contaminated by high WMO concentrations by biostimulation with mineral solution and Vicia sativa as green manure (GM, and subsequent b phytoremediation by S. bicolor with B. cepacia and P. chrysogenum to reduce remaining WMO at concentration below to maximum according to NOM-138 SEMARNAT/SS-2003. The results showed that biostimulation with mineral solution and V. sativa reduced WMO from 55000 to 33400 ppm, and from 65000 to 24300 ppm. Follow by PY by S. bicolor with B. cepacia and P. chrysogenum decreased WMO from 33400 ppm to 210 ppm, and from 24300 ppm to 360 ppm, compared to soil as negative control in which WMO did not change by natural attenuation. This suggests that to integrate BR and PY is an ecological option instead to apply chemical technique expensive and causing environmental pollution.

  18. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation combined with effortful swallowing on post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-S; Oh, D-H; Hwang, N-K; Lee, J-H

    2016-06-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been used as a therapeutic intervention for dysphagia. However, the therapeutic effects of NMES lack supporting evidence. In recent years, NMES combined with traditional swallowing therapy has been used to improve functional recovery in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. This study aimed to investigate the effects of effortful swallowing combined with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on hyoid bone movement and swallowing function in stroke patients. Fifty stroke patients with mild dysphagia who were able to swallow against the resistance applied by using NMES and cooperate actively in training were included. This study was designed as a 6-week single-blind, randomised, controlled study. In the experimental group, two pairs of electrodes were placed horizontally in the infrahyoid region to depress the hyoid bone. The NMES intensity was increased gradually until the participants felt a grabbing sensation in their neck and performed an effortful swallow during the stimulation. In the placebo group, the same procedure was followed except for the intensity, which was increased gradually until the participants felt an electrical sensation. All participants underwent this intervention for 30 min per session, 5 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS) were carried out before and after the intervention and kinematics of the hyoid bone and swallowing function were analysed based on the VFSS. The experimental group revealed a significant increase in anterior and superior hyoid bone movement and the pharyngeal phase of the swallowing function. This intervention can be used as a novel remedial approach in dysphagic stroke patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Language and swallowing disorders in acute stroke patients: tools and early management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, C; Roze, E; Denier, C

    2012-05-01

    The contribution of stroke units to improve morbidity, mortality and recovery in stroke victims is clearly demonstrated. However, acute management of language disorders in these specialized units is controversial and little standardization is seen for the management of swallowing disorders. The recently validated French scale for rapid screening for language disorders (LAST) in acute stroke patients should enable optimal detection and early management. A standardized protocol should be used to screen for and manage swallowing disorders. This protocol should include daily evaluations, individually tailored rehabilitation sessions, adaptation of food textures, patient education for adequate eating position, team training, and information for families. These protocols imply co-operation and coordination between the medical and allied profession teams and the daily presence of a speech and language therapist. This presence is crucial for patients in stroke units to achieve the full benefits of the management scheme proposed in this paper. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential predation cost of a secondary sexual character: sparrowhawk predation on barn swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MØller; Nielsen

    1997-12-01

    Models of reliable signalling assume that secondary sexual characters and other displays are more costly to individuals of low than high phenotypic quality, and that low quality individuals disproportionately compromise their reproduction and survival prospects by investment in signalling. A field study of barn swallows, Hirundo rustica with sexually exaggerated tail feathers, supported this prediction. Males were captured by sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus more often than females, and captured males had shorter and more asymmetric tails than male barn swallows that were still alive at the end of the breeding season. These results suggest that there was a negative relationship between degree of sexual ornamentation and predation risk, consistent with the hypothesis that the secondary sexual character is a reliable indicator of quality.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour