Sample records for swallow-worts vincetoxicum rossicum

  1. Abrostola clarissa (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new potential biocontrol agent for invasive swallow-worts, Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae), perennial vines native to Eurasia, are now invading natural and anthropogenic habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada, threatening natural biodiversity and increasing contr...

  2. First report of blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on the invasive exotic weed, Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) in western New York (United States)

    Pale (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) are invasive, perennial twining vines that are becoming increasingly problematic in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Observations at one natural area heavily populated by pale swallow-wort in Monroe County, NY, revealed a ...

  3. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update (United States)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  4. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  5. Impact of Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) under different light environments (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A defoliating moth from the Ukraine, Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepid...

  6. Impact of Abrostola asclepiadis and plant competition on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that have become invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in...

  7. Impact of the defoliating moth Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum species) under different light environments (United States)

    Black and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) are twining vines from Europe that have become invasive in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a defoliating forest moth from the Ukraine, ha...

  8. When population genetics meets biological control of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar) (United States)

    We explored the population genetics of two European swallow-worts belonging to the Apocynaceae that have become established in the eastern United States and Canada. Population genetic data concerning both native and introduced populations are being used to pinpoint introduced population origin, and ...

  9. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  10. Establishment of the invasive perennial Vincetoxicum rossicum across a disturbance gradient in New York State, USA (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) is a non-native, perennial, herbaceous vine in the Apocynaceae. The species’ abundance is steadily increasing in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Little is known about Vincetoxicum species recruitment and growth. Therefore, we condu...

  11. Ploidy level and genome size of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich (Apocynaceae), two invasive vines in North America (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Black swallow-wort] and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich [Pale swallow-wort] (Apocynaceae) are perennial vines that are targeted for classical biological control as a result of their massive invasion in natural areas and horticultural nurseries in the U.S. and Canada....

  12. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  13. Towards biological control of swallow-worts: the good, the bad and the ugly (United States)

    Native from Eurasia, the ugly swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum - Apocynaceae) invaded forested landscapes and prevent native plant regeneration in eastern North America. We first aimed to understand where do the invasive populations of both species come from, then we evaluated the ...

  14. The Invasive Swallow-worts: What Do We Know About Their Biology and Management? (United States)

    The swallow-worts [Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. and V. nigrum (L.) Moench] are nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are invading natural areas in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. The species form dense monospecific stands across a wide range of mo...

  15. Preliminary host range assessment of Asian Chrysochus spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), potential biological control agents of Vincetoxicum spp. (United States)

    The European herbaceous perennials pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have been the subject of classical biological control efforts, due to their invasion of various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeaste...

  16. Host specificity of Asian Chrysochus Chevr. in Dej. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae) and their potential use for biological control of invasive Vincetoxicum species (United States)

    The European herbaceous perennials Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) and V. nigrum (black swallow-wort; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have invaded various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and a classical biological contro...

  17. Survival, growth, and fecundity of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum) in New York State (United States)

    Black and pale swallowwort (BSW and PSW, respectively) are perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are native to Europe. The species are becoming increasingly abundant in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and are difficult to manage. However, we know little about t...

  18. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)? (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio


    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  19. The exotic invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum is a strong competitor even outside its current realized climatic temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurа Sanderson


    Full Text Available Dog-strangling vine (Vincetoxicum rossicum is an exotic plant originating from Central and Eastern Europe that is becoming increasingly invasive in southern Ontario, Canada. Once established, it successfully displaces local native plant species but mechanisms behind this plant’s high competitive ability are not fully understood. It is unknown whether cooler temperatures will limit the range expansion of V. rossicum, which has demonstrated high tolerance for other environmental variables such as light and soil moisture. Furthermore, if V. rossicum can establish outside its current climatic limit it is unknown whether competition with native species can significantly contribute to reduce fitness and slow down invasion. We conducted an experiment to test the potential of V. rossicum to spread into northern areas of Ontario using a set of growth chambers to simulate southern and northern Ontario climatic temperature regimes. We also tested plant-plant competition by growing V. rossicum in pots with a highly abundant native species, Solidago canadensis, and comparing growth responses to plants grown alone. We found that the fitness of V. rossicum was not affected by the cooler climate despite a delay in reproductive phenology. Growing V. rossicum with S. canadensis caused a significant reduction in seedpod biomass of V. rossicum. However, we did not detect a temperature x competition interaction in spite of evidence for adaptation of S. canadensis to cooler temperature conditions. We conclude that the spread of V. rossicum north within the tested range is unlikely to be limited by climatic temperature but competition with an abundant native species may contribute to slow it down.

  20. A look at ploidy level of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Apocynaceae) from the perspective of a study of their invasion success (United States)

    This study aimed to document precisely the patterns of chromosome counts and/or ploidy level variation of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Apocynaceae) following their introduction and dispersion in the U.S. and Canada. V. nigrum is native to southwestern Europe whe...

  1. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae). (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M


    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  2. Pale Swallow-wort Establishment and Survival in Four Disturbance Regimens in New York State (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) is a nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vine in the Apocynaceae that is invading natural areas in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. The species forms dense stands across a wide range of moisture regimes in full sun or forest understories. ...

  3. Evaluation of host range and larval feeding impact of Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa): considerations for biological control of Vincetoxicum in North America. (United States)

    Weed, Aaron S; Casagrande, Richard A


    A biological control program has been initiated against European swallow-worts Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench. and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., which are invasive in North America. A population of the leaf beetle Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa) originating from the western Alps has been under evaluation as a part of this program. The preliminary host range of C. a. asclepiadis was determined among 37 potential host plants. In addition, a prerelease impact study was conducted to determine the effect of larval feeding on the performance of V. nigrum. Under no-choice conditions beetle larvae completed development on nine plant species within the genera Artemisia and Tanacetum (Asteraceae) and Asclepias and Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae). The host range of adults is broader than larvae (13 plant species within five genera received sustained feeding). Three of the six nontarget species supporting larval development are native to North America, however in separate oviposition tests, female beetles failed to produce eggs when confined to these hosts. In multiple-choice tests, neither larvae nor adults preferred Vincetoxicum spp. to nontarget species. Larval damage by C. a. asclepiadis at densities at and above five larvae per plant substantially reduced growth, biomass, and delayed reproduction of V. nigrum. However, this population of C. a. asclepiadis is polyphagous and unsuitable for biological control of Vincetoxicum because of potential risk of attack to Asclepias tuberosa L. and native North American Asteraceae, particularly Artemisia.

  4. Investigation of fungal root colonizers of the invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum and co-occurring local native plants in a field and woodland area in Southern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard


    Full Text Available Fungal communities forming associations with plant roots have generally been described as ranging from symbiotic to parasitic. Disruptions to these associations consequently can have significant impacts on native plant communities. We examined how invasion by Vincetoxicum rossicum, a plant native to Europe, can alter both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the general fungal communities associating with native plant roots in both field and woodland sites in Southern Ontario. In two different sites in the Greater Toronto Area, we took advantage of invasion by V. rossicum and neighbouring uninvaded sites to investigate the fungal communities associating with local plant roots, including goldenrod (Solidago spp., wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis, meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum, and wild ginger (Asarum canadense. Fungi colonizing roots were characterized with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of amplified total fungal (TF and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF ribosomal fragments. We saw a significant effect of the presence of this invader on the diversity of TF phylotypes colonizing native plant roots, and a composition shift of both the TF and AMF community in native roots in both sites. In native communities invaded by V. rossicum, a significant increase in richness and colonization density of TF suggests that invaders such as V. rossicum may be able to influence the composition of soil fungi available to natives, possibly via mechanisms such as increased carbon provision or antibiosis attributable to unique root exudates.

  5. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae) (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  6. Seedbank dynamics of two swallowwort (Vincetoxicum) species (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallowwort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. A multi-year seed bank study was initiated in fall 201...

  7. Diapause in Abrostola asclepiadis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) may make for an ineffective weed biological control agent (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that are invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in develop...

  8. Going west - A subtropical lineage (Vincetoxicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) expanding into Europe. (United States)

    Liede-Schumann, Sigrid; Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Gherghel, Iulian; Pahlevani, Amirhossein


    Vincetoxicum sensu lato is a tropical lineage comprising two clades that have reached high northern latitudes. Of the temperate clades, one is restricted to the Far East, the other one (Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade) extends into Europe, but their ranges overlap in Central China and Japan. Three species invasive in North America, V. hirundinaria, V. nigrum and V. rossicum, are members of the Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade. We explore the prerequisites for the range expansion in the Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade performing Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses on sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the nuclear external transcribed spacer region (ETS), and five plastid markers. The resulting phylogeny is used to conduct biogeographic analysis using BioGeoBEARS to reconstruct ancestral species ranges. Moreover, we map the known occurrences of two rare characters in Asclepiadoideae, the possession of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and reported cases of autogamy onto our phylogeny. Finally, we have conducted ecological niche modelling using Maxent on a total of 220 spatially unique occurrences of nine Vincetoxicum s. str. species spanning more than 4,000 km along the east-west gradient to learn about the climatic conditions along the presumed migration route. Our results indicate a north-westward migration in Vincetoxicum s. str. along the Asian mountain chains to Europe. Climatic preferences of the nine species sampled are dissimilar, except for the common exposure to at least one month of subfreezing temperatures, indicating a rather wide climatic tolerance for the clade as a whole. The three species invasive in North America belong to the northern Eurasian subclade and show the rare combination of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and autogamy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Control of the invasive dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum

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    Smith, S.


    Field studies have been undertaken in the Highland Creek valley in Toronto to determine the life cycle, reproductive capacity, and methods to control the spread of the dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum which is posing a serious threat to southern Ontario`s flora. The study assessed the potential value of mowing, light blockage and herbicide treatments to reduce the presence of the vine in dense infestation. The effects of timing and the number of treatments on the per cent cover one year later was also determined. Results showed that of the methods tested, herbicide treatment provided the most effective control of the vine in the short-term. Mowing had no significant effect on cover. While plastic sheeting was not successful in controlling Cynanchum rossicum, the method holds promise in effectively suppressing its growth. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) based on the nucleotide sequences of cpDNA and nrDNA. (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tadashi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Jun; Maki, Masayuki


    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vincetoxicum and Tylophora (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) were conducted based on the nucleotide sequences of cpDNA (two intergenic spacers of trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) and psbA-trnH and three introns, i.e., atpF, trnG (UCC) and trnL (UAA)), and nrDNA (ITS and ETS regions). Our phylogenetic analysis revealed two monophyletic groups; one consisted of seven taxa of Tylophora and Vincetoxicum inamoenum, Vincetoxicum magnificum and Vincetoxicum macrophyllum (Clade I) and the other consisted of 17 accessions of Vincetoxicum (Clade II). The monophyly of the genus Vincetoxicum was not supported. Although many nucleotide substitutions were observed in Clade I, the genetic differentiation within Clade II was small. Low genetic diversification but considerable morphological divergence suggests that the species in Clade II had undergone rapid diversification. Although most species in Clade I have tiny flowers, those in Clade II have larger and more nectariferous ones. Thus, we hypothesized that the rapid morphological radiation in Clade II may have been due to the gaining of floral characters such as large flowers and large amounts of nectar corresponding to diverse pollinators.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Divergence in Populations of the Threatened Grassland Perennial Vincetoxicum atratum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) in Japan. (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Asuka; Inoue, Masahito; Maki, Masayuki


    We examined the genetic diversity and structure in populations of the endangered grassland herb Vincetoxicum atratum using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Although the populations were small and disconnected, our molecular data indicated that the species maintains relatively high levels of genetic diversity and connectivity among populations. Population clustering analyses detected 2 to 3 clusters and most of the populations of V. atratum comprised admixture of these genetic clusters. These admixtures likely formed during the process of colonizing habitats that had been disturbed by human activities. However, STRUCTURE clustering detected low-admixtures in populations occurring in rocky maritime sites, which may not be suitable for agriculture/rangeland activities. High genetic diversity and population connectivity suggested that loss of the remaining populations by grassland reduction might be an immediate threat for this species. Small grasslands populations managed by local farmers need appropriate conservation practices. Although our results showed genetic diversity and gene flow among populations of V. atratum were high, it is possible that this resulted from the historical continuous distribution of the species. To examine this hypothesis, further periodical monitoring of the genetic diversity and the genetic differentiation for the species is needed for a conservation action of the species. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  12. Seed bank dynamics of invasive swallowworts (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (SW) (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallowwort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A multi-year seed bank study was initiated in fall 2011 t...

  13. Long-term persisting hybrid swarm and geographic difference in hybridization pattern: genetic consequences of secondary contact between two Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae). (United States)

    Li, Yue; Tada, Fumito; Yamashiro, Tadashi; Maki, Masayuki


    During glacial periods, glacial advances caused temperate plant extirpation or retreat into localized warmer areas, and subsequent postglacial glacial retreats resulted in range expansions, which facilitated secondary contact of previously allopatric isolated lineages. The evolutionary outcomes of secondary contact, including hybrid zones, dynamic hybrid swarm, and resultant hybrid speciation, depends on the strengths of reproductive barriers that have arisen through epistatic and pleiotropic effects during allopatric isolation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate refugia isolation and subsequent secondary contact between two perennial Asclepioid species and to assess the genetic consequences of the secondary contact. We modeled the range shift of two ecologically distinct Vincetoxicum species using the species distribution model (SDM) and assessed the genetic consequences of secondary contact by combining morphological and genetic approaches. We performed morphometric analysis (592 individuals) and examined 10 nuclear microsatellites (671 individuals) in V. atratum, V. japonicum, and putative hybrid populations. Multivariate analysis, model-based Bayesian analysis, and non-model-based discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed the hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum. High pollen fertility and a lack of linkage disequilibrium suggested that the hybrid populations may be self-sustaining and have persisted since V. atratum and V. japonicum came into contact during the post-glacial period. Moreover, our findings show that the pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. Geographically-isolated hybrid populations exist as genetically distinct hybrid swarms that consist of V. atratum-like genotypes, V. japonicum-like genotypes, or admixed genotypes. In addition, Bayesian-based clustering analysis and coalescent-based estimates of long-term gene flow showed patterns of

  14. Exploring the feasibility of Sclerotium rolfsii VrNY as a potential bioherbicide for control of Swallowworts (Vincetoxicum spp.) (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (PSW) and black swallowwort (BSW) are two viney milkweeds native to Europe that have increasingly become problematic and noxious weeds in eastern North America. An indigenous fungal isolate, Sclerotium rolfsii VrNY, was discovered causing significant mortality in a dense stand of PS...

  15. Honey bees are the dominant diurnal pollinator of native milkweed in a large urban park. (United States)

    MacIvor, James Scott; Roberto, Adriano N; Sodhi, Darwin S; Onuferko, Thomas M; Cadotte, Marc W


    In eastern North America, the field milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae), is used in planting schemes to promote biodiversity conservation for numerous insects including the endangered monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae). Less is known about its pollinators, and especially in urban habitats where it is planted often despite being under increasing pressure from invasive plant species, such as the related milkweed, the dog-strangling vine (DSV), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Asclepiadaceae). During the A. syriaca flowering period in July 2016, we surveyed bees in open habitats along a DSV invasion gradient and inspected 433 individuals of 25 bee species in 12 genera for pollinia: these were affixed to bees that visited A. syriaca for nectar and contain pollen packets that are vectored (e.g., transferred) between flowers. Of all bees sampled, pollinia were found only on the nonindigenous honeybee, Apis mellifera (43% of all bees identified), as well as one individual bumblebee, Bombus impatiens Cresson. Pollinia were recorded from 45.2% of all honeybees collected. We found no relationship between biomass of DSV and biomass of A. syriaca per site. There was a significant positive correlation between A. syriaca biomass and the number of pollinia, and the proportion vectored. No relationship with DSV biomass was detected for the number of pollinia collected by bees but the proportion of vectored pollinia declined with increasing DSV biomass. Although we find no evidence of DSV flowers attracting potential pollinators away from A. syriaca and other flowering plants, the impacts on native plant-pollinator mutualisms relate to its ability to outcompete native plants. As wild bees do not appear to visit DSV flowers, it could be altering the landscape to one which honeybees are more tolerant than native wild bees.

  16. Trichoderma stromaticum and its overseas relatives (United States)

    Trichoderma stromaticum, T. rossicum and newly discovered species form a new lineage in Trichoderma. Phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity in Trichoderma stromaticum are examined in light of reported differences in ecological parameters and AFLP patterns. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis using 4 gen...

  17. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian


    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....

  18. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan. (United States)

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A


    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Preliminary Anti-Fungal Activity of the Aqueous Bark Extract of Calotropis procera (ASCLEPIADACEAE). (United States)

    Olaitan, Olatunde James; Wasagu, S U Rabiu; Adepoju-Bello, Aderonke Ayinke; Nwaeze, Kenneth Uzoma; Olufunsho, Awodele


    Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant which belongs to the Asclepiadaceous family. Its other names are Apple of Sodom, Giant Milkweed and Swallow-wort. It's native to Africa and Asian countries where they exist as a spreading shrub or small tree with height of about 4m. They. exude copious milky sap when cut or broken. It has a broad grey-green leaves with a pointed tip, two rounded basal lobes and no leaf stalk. Their flowers are waxy white. The different part of this plant has been used for different medicinal purposes such as cure of leprosy, eczema, inflammation, cutaneous infections, syphilis, malarial and low hectic fevers, and as abortifacient. The extract of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera used locally by people in Sokoto to treat ringworm infection was investigated for the claimed activity by subjecting the extract collected to both phytochemical and antifungal screening. The extracts of water, n-hexane, petroleum ether and chloroform of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera were evaluated for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. And the water extract which is often used by the local people was tested for antifungal activity using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) in Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method developed by Kirby et al. Fulcin tablet was used as a standard and two petridishes that does not contain the extracts were used as control. In the phytochemical study using extracts of n-hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and water, the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids (cardiac glycoside) were confirmed. Also, for the antifungal activity of the plant, there was a complete inhibition of Microsporum specie and Trichophyton specie in the sample after 10 days of inoculation when water extract at different concentrations (i.e. 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L and 40 mg/L) were applied. The tablet only completely inhibited Trichophyton specie. Epidermophyton specie was not found in the sample

  20. Plant chemistry and local adaptation of a specialized folivore.

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    Liisa Laukkanen

    Full Text Available Local adaptation is central for creating and maintaining spatial variation in plant-herbivore interactions. Short-lived insect herbivores feeding on long-lived plants are likely to adapt to their local host plants, because of their short generation time, poor dispersal, and geographically varying selection due to variation in plant defences. In a reciprocal feeding trial, we investigated the impact of geographic variation in plant secondary chemistry of a long-lived plant, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, on among-population variation in local adaptation of a specialist leaf-feeding herbivore, Abrostola asclepiadis. The occurrence and degree of local adaptation varied among populations. This variation correlated with qualitative and quantitative differences in plant chemistry among the plant populations. These findings provide insights into the mechanisms driving variation in local adaptation in this specialized plant-herbivore interaction.

  1. Diversity of MAPs in some plant communities of Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obratov-Petković Dragica


    Full Text Available The high floristic diversity of Stara Planina was the starting base for the research of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs in individual forest and meadow communities. The sites Javor and Prelesje, forest community Fagetum moesiacae montanum B. Jov. 1953, pioneer community of birch Betuletum verrucosae s.l. and meadow community Agrostietum vulgaris (capillaris Pavlović, Z. 1955, were researched as follows: soil types, floristic composition and structure of the community, percentage of MAPs, as well as the selection of species which, according to the predetermined criteria can be recommended for further exploitation. The study shows that the soil of the forest communities is eutric brown, and meadow soils are dystric and eutric humus-siliceous. The percentage of MAPs in the floristic structure of the study sites in forest and meadow communities is 32.35%. The following species can be recommended for the collection and utilisation: Hypericum perforatum L., Asperula odorata L., Dryopteris filix-mas (L Schott. Urtica dioica L., Euphorbia amygdaloides L., Prunella grandiflora L. Tanacetum vulgare L., Achillea millefolium L., Rumex acetosa L., Campanula glomerata L., Stachys officinalis (L Trevis., Plantago lanceolata W. et K., Potentilla erecta (L Rauchel, Chamaespartium sagittale (L P. Gibbs. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L Pers., Euphrasia stricta Host., Fagus moesiaca (Matt Liebl. and Fragaria vesca L.

  2. Simultaneous inbreeding modifies inbreeding depression in a plant-herbivore interaction. (United States)

    Kalske, Aino; Mutikainen, Pia; Muola, Anne; Scheepens, J F; Laukkanen, Liisa; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Leimu, Roosa


    Because inbreeding is common in natural populations of plants and their herbivores, herbivore-induced selection on plants, and vice versa, may be significantly modified by inbreeding and inbreeding depression. In a feeding assay with inbred and outbred lines of both the perennial herb, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, and its specialist herbivore, Abrostola asclepiadis, we discovered that plant inbreeding increased inbreeding depression in herbivore performance in some populations. The effect of inbreeding on plant resistance varied among plant and herbivore populations. The among-population variation is likely to be driven by variation in plant secondary compounds across populations. In addition, inbreeding depression in plant resistance was substantial when herbivores were outbred, but diminished when herbivores were inbred. These findings demonstrate that in plant-herbivore interactions expression of inbreeding depression can depend on the level of inbreeding of the interacting species. Furthermore, our results suggest that when herbivores are inbred, herbivore-induced selection against self-fertilisation in plants may diminish. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Preference for outbred host plants and positive effects of inbreeding on egg survival in a specialist herbivore. (United States)

    Kalske, Aino; Muola, Anne; Mutikainen, Pia; Leimu, Roosa


    Inbreeding can profoundly affect the interactions of plants with herbivores as well as with the natural enemies of the herbivores. We studied how plant inbreeding affects herbivore oviposition preference, and whether inbreeding of both plants and herbivores alters the probability of predation or parasitism of herbivore eggs. In a laboratory preference test with the specialist herbivore moth Abrostola asclepiadis and inbred and outbred Vincetoxicum hirundinaria plants, we discovered that herbivores preferred to oviposit on outbred plants. A field experiment with inbred and outbred plants that bore inbred or outbred herbivore eggs revealed that the eggs of the outbred herbivores were more likely to be lost by predation, parasitism or plant hypersensitive responses than inbred eggs. This difference did not lead to differences in the realized fecundity as the number of hatched larvae did not differ between inbred and outbred herbivores. Thus, the strength of inbreeding depression in herbivores decreases when their natural enemies are involved. Plant inbreeding did not alter the attraction of natural enemies of the eggs. We conclude that inbreeding can significantly alter the interactions of plants and herbivores at different life-history stages, and that some of these alterations are mediated by the natural enemies of the herbivores. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Plant-species diversity correlates with genetic variation of an oligophagous seed predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Laukkanen

    Full Text Available Several characteristics of habitats of herbivores and their food-plant communities, such as plant-species composition and plant quality, influence population genetics of both herbivores and their host plants. We investigated how different ecological and geographic factors affect genetic variation in and differentiation of 23 populations of the oligophagous seed predator Lygaeus equestris (Heteroptera in southwestern Finland and in eastern Sweden. We tested whether genetic differentiation of the L. equestris populations was related to the similarity of vegetation, and whether there was more within-population genetic variation in habitats with a high number of plant species or in those with a large population of the primary food plant, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria. We also tested whether genetic differentiation of the populations was related to the geographic distance, and whether location of the populations on islands or on mainland, island size, or population size affected within-population genetic variation. Pairwise FST ranged from 0 to 0.1 indicating low to moderate genetic differentiation of populations. Differentiation increased with geographic distance between the populations, but was not related to the similarity of vegetation between the habitats. Genetic variation within the L. equestris populations did not increase with the population size of the primary food plant. However, the more diverse the plant community the higher was the level of genetic variation within the L. equestris population. Furthermore, the level of genetic variation did not vary significantly between island and mainland populations. The effect of the population size on within-population genetic variation was related to island size. Usually small populations are susceptible to loss of genetic variation, but small L. equestris populations on large islands seemed to maintain a relatively high level of within-population genetic variation. Our findings suggest that, in

  5. Genetic factors affecting food-plant specialization of an oligophagous seed predator. (United States)

    Laukkanen, L; Leimu, R; Muola, A; Lilley, M; Mutikainen, P


    Several ecological and genetic factors affect the diet specialization of insect herbivores. The evolution of specialization may be constrained by lack of genetic variation in herbivore performance on different food-plant species. By traditional view, trade-offs, that is, negative genetic correlations between the performance of the herbivores on different food-plant species favour the evolution of specialization. To investigate whether there is genetic variation or trade-offs in herbivore performance between different food plants that may influence specialization of the oligophagous seed-eating herbivore, Lygaeus equestris (Heteroptera), we conducted a feeding trial in laboratory using four food-plant species. Although L. equestris is specialized on Vincetoxicum hirundinaria (Apocynaceae) to some degree, it occasionally feeds on alternative food-plant species. We did not find significant negative genetic correlations between mortality, developmental time and adult biomass of L. equestris on the different food-plant species. We found genetic variation in mortality and developmental time of L. equestris on some of the food plants, but not in adult biomass. Our results suggest that trade-offs do not affect adaptation and specialization of L. equestris to current and novel food-plant species, but the lack of genetic variation may restrict food-plant utilization. As food-plant specialization of herbivores may have wide-ranging effects, for instance, on coevolving plant-herbivore interactions and speciation, it is essential to thoroughly understand the factors behind the specialization process. Our findings provide valuable information about the role of genetic factors in food-plant specialization of this oligophagous herbivore. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Variation in the helminth community structure in spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) from four montane wadis in the St Katherine region of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt. (United States)

    Behnke, J M; Harris, P D; Bajer, A; Barnard, C J; Sherif, N; Cliffe, L; Hurst, J; Lamb, M; Rhodes, A; James, M; Clifford, S; Gilbert, F S; Zalat, S


    We compared helminth communities in spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) from 4 wadis in the arid montane region of the southern Sinai in Egypt, in a 4-week period in late summer. Total helminth species richness was 14 (8 nematodes, 5 cestodes and 1 acanthocephalan) with 94% of mice carrying at least 1 species and an overall mean species richness of 1.85. The most prevalent parasites were Protospirura muricola (47.8 %) and Dentostomella kuntzi (46.3%). One larval cestode, Joyeuxiella rossicum, represents a new host record. The helminth community was dominated by intestinal nematodes (88.7%) of which 58.2% were arthropod-transmitted heteroxenic species. At the component community level, 70% of the worms were recovered from mice in just two wadis (Gharaba and Tlah) and 48.6 % of intestinal nematodes were from Wadi Gharaba. Although only 7 species of helminths were recorded from Wadi Gharaba, this site gave the highest Berger-Parker dominance index because of P. muricola. P. muricola was also dominant in Wadi El Arbaein whilst Syphacia minuta was the dominant species in Wadis Gebal and Tlah. At the infracommunity level, mean species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity were highest in Wadi Tlah and lowest in Wadi Gebal, and the former was age dependent. Whilst mice from different wadis differed in the nematodes that were most common, those from Wadi Gharaba carried the highest mean number of worms/mouse. The abundance of P. muricola in particular varied markedly between sites: Wadi Gharaba was distinct as the site showing the highest mean worm burden whereas mice from Wadi Gebal were uninfected. None of the directly transmitted oxyuroid nematodes showed significant variation in abundance between wadis, or host sex or age classes. Overall, the single extrinsic factor in the study, site of capture, was more important than the intrinsic factors in explaining variation in helminth communities in the region. We conclude that in the high mountains of southern Sinai, each