WorldWideScience

Sample records for swallow-wort vines vincetoxicum

  1. New biological information on the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi] (black swallow-wort) and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. [Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi] (pale swallow-wort) are herbaceous perennial vines in the Apocynaceae native to Europe. Both species are considered invasive in their in...

  2. Swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum spp.) biological control update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum = Cynanchum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum = C. louiseae) are herbaceous, perennial, viney milkweeds introduced from Europe (Apocynaceae-subfamily Asclepiadoideae). Both species are becoming increasingly invasive in a variety of natural and manag...

  3. Impact of Abrostola asclepiadis and plant competition on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that have become invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in...

  4. First report of blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on the invasive exotic weed, Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) in western New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) are invasive, perennial twining vines that are becoming increasingly problematic in the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada. Observations at one natural area heavily populated by pale swallow-wort in Monroe County, NY, revealed a ...

  5. Impact of the defoliating moth Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum species) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum and V. rossicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) are twining vines from Europe that have become invasive in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a defoliating forest moth from the Ukraine, ha...

  6. Abrostola clarissa (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a new potential biocontrol agent for invasive swallow-worts, Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae), perennial vines native to Eurasia, are now invading natural and anthropogenic habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada, threatening natural biodiversity and increasing contr...

  7. Impact of Hypena opulenta on invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum spp.) under different light environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A defoliating moth from the Ukraine, Hypena opulenta (Christoph) (Lepid...

  8. Ploidy level and genome size of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich (Apocynaceae), two invasive vines in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench [Black swallow-wort] and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbarich [Pale swallow-wort] (Apocynaceae) are perennial vines that are targeted for classical biological control as a result of their massive invasion in natural areas and horticultural nurseries in the U.S. and Canada....

  9. The Invasive Swallow-worts: What Do We Know About Their Biology and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swallow-worts [Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. and V. nigrum (L.) Moench] are nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are invading natural areas in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. The species form dense monospecific stands across a wide range of mo...

  10. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench (synonym=Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (synonym=Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi) are invasive plants belonging to the family Apocynaceae and are the targets of biological cont...

  11. Leaf anthracnose, a new disease of swallow-worts caused by Colletotrichum lineola from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and pale swallow-wort Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Borhidi (family Apocynaceae subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are invasive plants and are the targets of biological control efforts to control their spread in the USA. In 2010, diseased leaves of a rela...

  12. Establishment of the invasive perennial Vincetoxicum rossicum across a disturbance gradient in New York State, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) is a non-native, perennial, herbaceous vine in the Apocynaceae. The species’ abundance is steadily increasing in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Little is known about Vincetoxicum species recruitment and growth. Therefore, we condu...

  13. Survival, growth, and fecundity of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum) in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black and pale swallowwort (BSW and PSW, respectively) are perennial, herbaceous vines in the Apocynaceae that are native to Europe. The species are becoming increasingly abundant in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada and are difficult to manage. However, we know little about t...

  14. When population genetics meets biological control of the invasive swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We explored the population genetics of two European swallow-worts belonging to the Apocynaceae that have become established in the eastern United States and Canada. Population genetic data concerning both native and introduced populations are being used to pinpoint introduced population origin, and ...

  15. Towards biological control of swallow-worts: the good, the bad and the ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native from Eurasia, the ugly swallow-worts (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum - Apocynaceae) invaded forested landscapes and prevent native plant regeneration in eastern North America. We first aimed to understand where do the invasive populations of both species come from, then we evaluated the ...

  16. Preliminary host range assessment of Asian Chrysochus spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), potential biological control agents of Vincetoxicum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European herbaceous perennials pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have been the subject of classical biological control efforts, due to their invasion of various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeaste...

  17. Host specificity of Asian Chrysochus Chevr. in Dej. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Eumolpinae) and their potential use for biological control of invasive Vincetoxicum species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European herbaceous perennials Vincetoxicum rossicum (pale swallow-wort) and V. nigrum (black swallow-wort; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) have invaded various natural areas and managed habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, and a classical biological contro...

  18. Does polyembryony confer a competitive advantage to the invasive perennial vine Vincetoxicum rossicum (Apocynaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Megan L; Barney, Jacob N; Averill, Kristine M; Mohler, Charles L; Ditommaso, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Determining which traits may allow some introduced plant species to become invasive in their new environment continues to be a key question in invasion biology. Vincetoxicum rossicum is an invasive, perennial vine colonizing natural and seminatural habitats primarily in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. More than half its seeds exhibit polyembryony, a relatively uncommon condition in which a single seed produces multiple seedlings. For evaluating the potential consequences of polyembryony on invasiveness, V. rossicum plants derived from seeds of three embryonic classes-singlets, doublets, and triplets (one, two, and three seedlings per seed, respectively)-were paired in all combinations intraspecifically and with the co-occurring native herbs Solidago canadensis and Asclepias syriaca in a greenhouse study. Vincetoxicum rossicum biomass was 25-55% greater and follicle production 55-100% greater under intraspecific competition compared with interspecific competition. However, within a competitive environment, follicle production varied little. Regardless of competitive environment, V. rossicum originating from seeds with a greater number of embryos typically performed no better than plants arising from seed with fewer embryos (singlets = doublets = triplets)-except intraspecifically where doublets outperformed singlets, and with S. canadensis where triplets outperformed singlets. Our findings suggest that overall performance and fitness of V. rossicum is higher in monocultures than in mixed stands and that its ability to invade new habitats may not be attributable to the production of polyembryonic seeds.

  19. Pale Swallow-wort Establishment and Survival in Four Disturbance Regimens in New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) is a nonnative, perennial, herbaceous vine in the Apocynaceae that is invading natural areas in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. The species forms dense stands across a wide range of moisture regimes in full sun or forest understories. ...

  20. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum are perennial invasive vines impacting several ecosystems in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, including old-fields and forest understories. The integrity of these ecosystems is threatened by these two Vincetoxicum species. In order to bett...

  1. Evaluation of host range and larval feeding impact of Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa): considerations for biological control of Vincetoxicum in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Aaron S; Casagrande, Richard A

    2011-12-01

    A biological control program has been initiated against European swallow-worts Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench. and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., which are invasive in North America. A population of the leaf beetle Chrysolina aurichalcea asclepiadis (Villa) originating from the western Alps has been under evaluation as a part of this program. The preliminary host range of C. a. asclepiadis was determined among 37 potential host plants. In addition, a prerelease impact study was conducted to determine the effect of larval feeding on the performance of V. nigrum. Under no-choice conditions beetle larvae completed development on nine plant species within the genera Artemisia and Tanacetum (Asteraceae) and Asclepias and Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae). The host range of adults is broader than larvae (13 plant species within five genera received sustained feeding). Three of the six nontarget species supporting larval development are native to North America, however in separate oviposition tests, female beetles failed to produce eggs when confined to these hosts. In multiple-choice tests, neither larvae nor adults preferred Vincetoxicum spp. to nontarget species. Larval damage by C. a. asclepiadis at densities at and above five larvae per plant substantially reduced growth, biomass, and delayed reproduction of V. nigrum. However, this population of C. a. asclepiadis is polyphagous and unsuitable for biological control of Vincetoxicum because of potential risk of attack to Asclepias tuberosa L. and native North American Asteraceae, particularly Artemisia.

  2. Diapause in Abrostola asclepiadis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) may make for an ineffective weed biological control agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale and black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum and V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are perennial vines from Europe that are invasive in various terrestrial habitats in the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada. A classical weed biological control program has been in develop...

  3. Seedbank dynamics of two swallowwort (Vincetoxicum) species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallowwort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. A multi-year seed bank study was initiated in fall 201...

  4. Thunder God Vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U V W X Y Z Thunder God Vine Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... fact sheet provides basic information about thunder god vine—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  5. Smooth Nonparametric Bernstein Vine Copulas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiß, Gregor; Scheffer, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use nonparametric Bernstein copulas as bivariate pair-copulas in high-dimensional vine models. The resulting smooth and nonparametric vine copulas completely obviate the error-prone need for choosing the pair-copulas from parametric copula families. By means of a simulation study and an empirical analysis of financial market data, we show that our proposed smooth nonparametric vine copula model is superior to competing parametric vine models calibrated via Akaike's Information C...

  6. Going west - A subtropical lineage (Vincetoxicum, Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) expanding into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede-Schumann, Sigrid; Khanum, Rizwana; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad; Gherghel, Iulian; Pahlevani, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Vincetoxicum sensu lato is a tropical lineage comprising two clades that have reached high northern latitudes. Of the temperate clades, one is restricted to the Far East, the other one (Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade) extends into Europe, but their ranges overlap in Central China and Japan. Three species invasive in North America, V. hirundinaria, V. nigrum and V. rossicum, are members of the Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade. We explore the prerequisites for the range expansion in the Vincetoxicum s. str. Clade performing Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses on sequences of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, the nuclear external transcribed spacer region (ETS), and five plastid markers. The resulting phylogeny is used to conduct biogeographic analysis using BioGeoBEARS to reconstruct ancestral species ranges. Moreover, we map the known occurrences of two rare characters in Asclepiadoideae, the possession of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and reported cases of autogamy onto our phylogeny. Finally, we have conducted ecological niche modelling using Maxent on a total of 220 spatially unique occurrences of nine Vincetoxicum s. str. species spanning more than 4,000 km along the east-west gradient to learn about the climatic conditions along the presumed migration route. Our results indicate a north-westward migration in Vincetoxicum s. str. along the Asian mountain chains to Europe. Climatic preferences of the nine species sampled are dissimilar, except for the common exposure to at least one month of subfreezing temperatures, indicating a rather wide climatic tolerance for the clade as a whole. The three species invasive in North America belong to the northern Eurasian subclade and show the rare combination of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids and autogamy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The exotic invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum is a strong competitor even outside its current realized climatic temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurа Sanderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dog-strangling vine (Vincetoxicum rossicum is an exotic plant originating from Central and Eastern Europe that is becoming increasingly invasive in southern Ontario, Canada. Once established, it successfully displaces local native plant species but mechanisms behind this plant’s high competitive ability are not fully understood. It is unknown whether cooler temperatures will limit the range expansion of V. rossicum, which has demonstrated high tolerance for other environmental variables such as light and soil moisture. Furthermore, if V. rossicum can establish outside its current climatic limit it is unknown whether competition with native species can significantly contribute to reduce fitness and slow down invasion. We conducted an experiment to test the potential of V. rossicum to spread into northern areas of Ontario using a set of growth chambers to simulate southern and northern Ontario climatic temperature regimes. We also tested plant-plant competition by growing V. rossicum in pots with a highly abundant native species, Solidago canadensis, and comparing growth responses to plants grown alone. We found that the fitness of V. rossicum was not affected by the cooler climate despite a delay in reproductive phenology. Growing V. rossicum with S. canadensis caused a significant reduction in seedpod biomass of V. rossicum. However, we did not detect a temperature x competition interaction in spite of evidence for adaptation of S. canadensis to cooler temperature conditions. We conclude that the spread of V. rossicum north within the tested range is unlikely to be limited by climatic temperature but competition with an abundant native species may contribute to slow it down.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of Vincetoxicum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) based on the nucleotide sequences of cpDNA and nrDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tadashi; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Jun; Maki, Masayuki

    2004-05-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Vincetoxicum and Tylophora (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) were conducted based on the nucleotide sequences of cpDNA (two intergenic spacers of trnL (UAA)-trnF (GAA) and psbA-trnH and three introns, i.e., atpF, trnG (UCC) and trnL (UAA)), and nrDNA (ITS and ETS regions). Our phylogenetic analysis revealed two monophyletic groups; one consisted of seven taxa of Tylophora and Vincetoxicum inamoenum, Vincetoxicum magnificum and Vincetoxicum macrophyllum (Clade I) and the other consisted of 17 accessions of Vincetoxicum (Clade II). The monophyly of the genus Vincetoxicum was not supported. Although many nucleotide substitutions were observed in Clade I, the genetic differentiation within Clade II was small. Low genetic diversification but considerable morphological divergence suggests that the species in Clade II had undergone rapid diversification. Although most species in Clade I have tiny flowers, those in Clade II have larger and more nectariferous ones. Thus, we hypothesized that the rapid morphological radiation in Clade II may have been due to the gaining of floral characters such as large flowers and large amounts of nectar corresponding to diverse pollinators.

  9. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  10. Initial Response by a Native Beetle, Chrysochus auratus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), to a Novel Introduced Host-Plant, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Gentianales: Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    deJonge, R B; Bourchier, R S; Smith, S M

    2017-06-01

    Native insects can form novel associations with introduced invasive plants and use them as a food source. The recent introduction into eastern North America of a nonnative European vine, Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar., allows us to examine the initial response of a native chrysomelid beetle, Chrysochus auratus F., that feeds on native plants in the same family as V. rossicum (Apocynaceae). We tested C. auratus on V. rossicum and closely related or co-occurring native plants (Apocynum spp., Asclepias spp., and Solidago canadensis L.) using all life stages of the beetle in lab, garden, and field experiments. Experiments measured feeding (presence or absence and amount), survival, oviposition, and whether previous exposure to V. rossicum in the lab or field affected adult beetle feeding. Beetles fed significantly less on V. rossicum than on native Apocynum hosts. Adult beetles engaged in exploratory feeding on leaves of V. rossicum and survived up to 10 d. Females oviposited on V. rossicum, eggs hatched, and larvae fed initially on the roots; however, no larvae survived beyond second instar. Beetles collected from Apocynum cannabinum L. field sites intermixed with V. rossicum were less likely to feed on this novel nonnative host than those collected from colonies further from and less likely to be exposed to V. rossicum (>5 km). Our experimental work indicates that V. rossicum may act as an oviposition sink for C. auratus and that this native beetle has not adapted to survive on this recently introduced novel host plant. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Modeling stochastic frontier based on vine copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, Michel; Candido, Osvaldo; Tabak, Benjamin M.; da Costa, Reginaldo Brito

    2017-11-01

    This article models a production function and analyzes the technical efficiency of listed companies in the United States, Germany and England between 2005 and 2012 based on the vine copula approach. Traditional estimates of the stochastic frontier assume that data is multivariate normally distributed and there is no source of asymmetry. The proposed method based on vine copulas allow us to explore different types of asymmetry and multivariate distribution. Using data on product, capital and labor, we measure the relative efficiency of the vine production function and estimate the coefficient used in the stochastic frontier literature for comparison purposes. This production vine copula predicts the value added by firms with given capital and labor in a probabilistic way. It thereby stands in sharp contrast to the production function, where the output of firms is completely deterministic. The results show that, on average, S&P500 companies are more efficient than companies listed in England and Germany, which presented similar average efficiency coefficients. For comparative purposes, the traditional stochastic frontier was estimated and the results showed discrepancies between the coefficients obtained by the application of the two methods, traditional and frontier-vine, opening new paths of non-linear research.

  12. Application of Vine Copulas to Credit Portfolio Risk Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Geidosch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the superiority of vine copulas over conventional copulas when modeling the dependence structure of a credit portfolio. We show statistical and economic implications of replacing conventional copulas by vine copulas for a subportfolio of the Euro Stoxx 50 and the S&P 500 companies, respectively. Our study includes D-vines and R-vines where the bivariate building blocks are chosen from the Gaussian, the t and the Clayton family. Our findings are (i the conventional Gauss copula is deficient in modeling the dependence structure of a credit portfolio and economic capital is seriously underestimated; (ii D-vine structures offer a better statistical fit to the data than classical copulas, but underestimate economic capital compared to R-vines; (iii when mixing different copula families in an R-vine structure, the best statistical fit to the data can be achieved which corresponds to the most reliable estimate for economic capital.

  13. Growth models for tree stems and vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Alberto; Palladino, Michele; Shen, Wen

    2017-08-01

    The paper introduces a PDE model for the growth of a tree stem or a vine. The equations describe the elongation due to cell growth, and the response to gravity and to external obstacles. An additional term accounts for the tendency of a vine to curl around branches of other plants. When obstacles are present, the model takes the form of a differential inclusion with state constraints. At each time t, a cone of admissible reactions is determined by the minimization of an elastic deformation energy. The main theorem shows that local solutions exist and can be prolonged globally in time, except when a specific ;breakdown configuration; is reached. Approximate solutions are constructed by an operator-splitting technique. Some numerical simulations are provided at the end of the paper.

  14. VITICULTURAL POTENTIAL AND VINE TOURISM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian NEDELCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania, a member of the International Organization of Vine and Wine in 1927, has a wine heritage of European notoriety and worldwide, privileged positions it occupies in economic statistics every year, confirm this fact. Vine are grown, especially in areas traditionally enshrined, located mainly in the hilly area, on the sands, and in other fields with favourable conditions, and disposed as an architectural viticulture landscape grouped in 8 wine regions of the assigned three growing areas of the European Union.Wine tourism is on an incipient phase in Romania, compared to other countries of Europe with significant wine heritage, but it has real chances of development, sustained especially, by the potential value of wine recently indicated, once again, by the studies undertaken in order to implement reform wine sector of the European Union.

  15. A look at ploidy level of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Apocynaceae) from the perspective of a study of their invasion success

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to document precisely the patterns of chromosome counts and/or ploidy level variation of Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench and V. rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Apocynaceae) following their introduction and dispersion in the U.S. and Canada. V. nigrum is native to southwestern Europe whe...

  16. Seed yam tuber production from vine cuttings | Okunade | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed yam tuber production accounts for 30 per cent to 50 per cent of total cost of production. Efforts to obtain seed yam tubers from vine cuttings are still rudimentary, and research information available is scanty and sparse. Studies to compare the effectiveness of vine cuttings for seed yam tuber production were conducted ...

  17. Pulverization of sweet potato vine at different mower speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakahy, Amer N. N.; Ahmad, D.; Akhir, M. D.; Sulaiman, S.; A, Ishak

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different mower speeds (2358, 2440 and 2553 rpm) and different knife angles (30°, 40° and 50°) on sweet potato vine pulverization were studied. The results indicated that all the treatments were significant at p sweet potato vine. The 30° knife angle gave the best result with highest vine pulverized percentage of 54.60 %, and a mower speed of 2553 rpm had the finest vine pulverized percentage of 46.99 %. The best performance for interaction effect between knife angle and speed of mower was achieved by the 30° knife angle and a mower speed of 2440 rpm resulting in an average percentage of 61.27% of pulverized vine.

  18. [Study on chemical constituents of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine (II)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Dai, Hang; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2013-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate fraction of Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine. Compounds were isolated and purified by polyamide column chromatography, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and sephadex gel column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Ten compounds were isolated from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine and elucidated as: pentadecanoic acid (1), monopentadecanoin (2), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl nonadecoate (3), lignoceric acid-2, 3-dihydroxy-propanenyl ester (4), lancerebroside 5 (5), salicylic acid (6), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (7), hydroquinone (8), succinic acid (9) and vanillic acid (10). Compounds 1 - 10 are obtained from Citrullus vulgaris Schrad vine for the first time.

  19. Modeling flood event characteristics using D-vine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaei, Maryam; Fakheri-Fard, Ahmad; Dinpashoh, Yagob; Mirabbasi, Rasoul; De Michele, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    The authors investigate the use of drawable (D-)vine structures to model the dependences existing among the main characteristics of a flood event, i.e., flood volume, flood peak, duration, and peak time. Firstly, different three- and four-dimensional probability distributions were built considering all the permutations of the conditioning variables. The Frank copula was used to model the dependence of each pair of variables. Then, the appropriate D-vine structures were selected using information criteria and a goodness-of-fit test. The influence of varying the data length on the selected D-vine structure was also investigated. Finally, flood event characteristics were simulated using the four-dimensional D-vine structure.

  20. Pyrolytic characteristics of sweet potato vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tipeng; Dong, Xiaochen; Jin, Zaixing; Su, Wenjing; Ye, Xiaoning; Dong, Changqing; Lu, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    To utilized biomass for optimum application, sweet potato vine (SPV) was studied on its pyrolytic characteristics by TGA and Py-GC/MS analysis as a representative of biomass with low lignin content and high extractives content. Results indicated that lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and extractives contents were 7.85 wt.%, 33.01 wt.%, 12.25 wt.% and 37.12 wt.%, respectively. In bio-oil, sugars content firstly increased from 8.76 wt.% (350 °C) to 13.97 wt.% (400 °C) and then decreased to 9.19 wt.% (500 °C); linear carbonyls and linear acids contents decreased from 16.58 wt.% and 17.45 wt.% to 5.26 wt.% and 4.03 wt.%, respectively; furans content increased from 7.10 wt.% to 15.47 wt.%. The content 11.86 wt.% of levoglucose at 400 °C, 15.41 wt.% of acetic acid at 350 °C and 6.94 wt.% of furfural at 500 °C suggested good pyrolysis selectivity of SPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotransformation of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) by solid-state fermentation using medicinal fungus Poria cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Chenhuan; Huang, Gang; Zhao, Jieyuan; Wang, Xinfeng; Ji, Lilian; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2016-08-01

    Vine tea was bio-transformed using Poria cocos by solid-state fermentation in order to improve its taste and quality. Volatile components in vine tea were also identified by GC-MS. The changes of flavonoid, tea polyphenols and polysaccharides in fermented vine tea were evaluated. Flavonoid and polyphenols in vine tea were remained unchanged even after biotransformation, but content of polysaccharides increased to 3.9-fold than that of unfermented vine tea. Antioxidant activity such as DPPH free radical scavenging capacity (SR) was determined that there was a positive correlation between SR and content of polysaccharides in vine tea. Methyl 2-methylvalerate-a new volatile compound was identified and gave the vine tea rich delicate fragrance of fruits. The content of linolenic acid increased from 0.88 to 19.59 %. Biotransformation improved the taste and quality of vine tea.

  2. Volatile composition of Merlot wine from different vine water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Michael C; Fang, Yu; Shellie, Krista

    2009-08-26

    The impact of deficit irrigation during berry development on Merlot wine volatile composition was investigated in this study. Own-rooted Merlot vines grown in a commercial vineyard in Idaho were supplied with 100 or 35% of their estimated crop evapotranspiration needs throughout the berry development. Wines were produced from those grapes from the 2002, 2003, and 2004 growing seasons. Volatile compounds in the wines were analyzed using the stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The results demonstrated that despite vintage differences in volatile composition, in each of 3 years of this study, deficit irrigation during berry development had a consistent effect on wine volatile composition. Wine produced from deficit-irrigated vines had increased amounts of vitispiranes, beta-damascenone, guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-ethylguaiacol, and 4-vinylguaiacol relative to wine produced from well-watered vines. Deficit irrigation had no effect on the concentrations of other measured volatiles such as esters and terpenes.

  3. Control of the invasive dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.

    1998-12-31

    Field studies have been undertaken in the Highland Creek valley in Toronto to determine the life cycle, reproductive capacity, and methods to control the spread of the dog-strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum which is posing a serious threat to southern Ontario`s flora. The study assessed the potential value of mowing, light blockage and herbicide treatments to reduce the presence of the vine in dense infestation. The effects of timing and the number of treatments on the per cent cover one year later was also determined. Results showed that of the methods tested, herbicide treatment provided the most effective control of the vine in the short-term. Mowing had no significant effect on cover. While plastic sheeting was not successful in controlling Cynanchum rossicum, the method holds promise in effectively suppressing its growth. 11 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Pellegrino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons.Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  5. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Divergence in Populations of the Threatened Grassland Perennial Vincetoxicum atratum (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Tadashi; Yamashiro, Asuka; Inoue, Masahito; Maki, Masayuki

    2016-09-01

    We examined the genetic diversity and structure in populations of the endangered grassland herb Vincetoxicum atratum using 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Although the populations were small and disconnected, our molecular data indicated that the species maintains relatively high levels of genetic diversity and connectivity among populations. Population clustering analyses detected 2 to 3 clusters and most of the populations of V. atratum comprised admixture of these genetic clusters. These admixtures likely formed during the process of colonizing habitats that had been disturbed by human activities. However, STRUCTURE clustering detected low-admixtures in populations occurring in rocky maritime sites, which may not be suitable for agriculture/rangeland activities. High genetic diversity and population connectivity suggested that loss of the remaining populations by grassland reduction might be an immediate threat for this species. Small grasslands populations managed by local farmers need appropriate conservation practices. Although our results showed genetic diversity and gene flow among populations of V. atratum were high, it is possible that this resulted from the historical continuous distribution of the species. To examine this hypothesis, further periodical monitoring of the genetic diversity and the genetic differentiation for the species is needed for a conservation action of the species. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Vine balance: relationships between Pinot noir vegetative vigor and fruit composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine balance metrics have been determined in hot climates to help growers quantify vine growth in relation to crop level to produce high quality fruit. A study was implemented in a commercial vineyard to evaluate a range of crop loads in relation to vine growth and fruit quality. Vegetative vigor wa...

  8. Sampling methods for titica vine (Heteropsis spp.) inventory in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carine Klauberg; Edson Vidal; Carlos Alberto Silva; Michelliny de M. Bentes; Andrew Thomas. Hudak

    2016-01-01

    Titica vine provides useful raw fiber material. Using sampling schemes that reduce sampling error can provide direction for sustainable forest management of this vine. Sampling systematically with rectangular plots (10× 25 m) promoted lower error and greater accuracy in the inventory of titica vines in tropical rainforest.

  9. Vine Nutrition and Extraction Parameters Can Influence Winegrape YAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article covered the initial portion of our exploration of how altered vine nutrient regimes and sample preparation methods influence 'Pinot noir' grape nitrogen (N) content and composition. We mainly focused on ammonia and free amino acids and recalculated these values as YAN (yeast assimilable...

  10. ARBOLITCONCRETE ON SILICATESODIUM COMPOSITE BINDER AND SCRAPS OF VINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Manturov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim.The results of experimental studies produce siliсatеsodium composite binder of calcareous stone sawing waste, anhydrous sodium silicate, and based on them wood concrete using as an organic filler vine cuttings for the production of heat-insulating, heat-insulating, structural and structural wall material.Methods.The main technological operations of the developed arbalitconcrete are given : preparation of a composite binder; production of organic filler from the vine; preparation of arbolit concrete mass; formation of arbolit concrete mass; low-temperature treatment (drying.Results. It is found that the composite binder derived from waste stone sawing and anhydrous sodium silicate at their joint fine grinding (Ssp = 3000 cm2 / g, acquires binding properties and with the appropriate seal and heat treatment hardens and gains strength characteristics sufficient for making arbolitconcrete using crushed vine.Conclusion. It was determined that arbolitobeton obtained on the basis of the crushed vine and silikatnatrievogo composite binder strength exceeds arbolitobetona from other types of binders and organic fillers of vegetable origin.

  11. Risk Measurement and Risk Modelling using Applications of Vine Copulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__abstract__ This paper features an application of Regular Vine copulas which are a novel and recently developed statistical and mathematical tool which can be applied in the assessment of composite nancial risk. Copula-based dependence modelling is a popular tool in nancial

  12. Risk measurement and risk modelling using applications of Vine copulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); A.K. Singh (Abhay)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis paper features an application of Regular Vine copulas which are a novel and recently developed statistical and mathematical tool which can be applied in the assessment of composite financial risk. Copula-based dependence modelling is a popular tool in financial applications, but is

  13. Risk Measurement and Risk Modelling Using Applications of Vine Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Allen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper features an application of Regular Vine copulas which are a novel and recently developed statistical and mathematical tool which can be applied in the assessment of composite financial risk. Copula-based dependence modelling is a popular tool in financial applications, but is usually applied to pairs of securities. By contrast, Vine copulas provide greater flexibility and permit the modelling of complex dependency patterns using the rich variety of bivariate copulas which may be arranged and analysed in a tree structure to explore multiple dependencies. The paper features the use of Regular Vine copulas in an analysis of the co-dependencies of 10 major European Stock Markets, as represented by individual market indices and the composite STOXX 50 index. The sample runs from 2005 to the end of 2013 to permit an exploration of how correlations change indifferent economic circumstances using three different sample periods: pre-GFC (January 2005–July 2007, GFC (July 2007– September 2009, and post-GFC periods (September 2009–December 2013. The empirical results suggest that the dependencies change in a complex manner, and are subject to change in different economic circumstances. One of the attractions of this approach to risk modelling is the flexibility in the choice of distributions used to model co-dependencies. The practical application of Regular Vine metrics is demonstrated via an example of the calculation of the VaR of a portfolio made up of the indices.

  14. Physical and chemical characteristics of off vine ripened mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to develop the best off vine mango ripening technique for both consumption and processing was investigated. Some physical and chemical measurements were performed on mature Green Dodo mangoes before and during a 3-day and 6-day ripening period by smoked pit ripening (SPR), ethylene (fruit ...

  15. Vine vigor components and its variability - relationship to wine composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Magali; Tittmann, Susanne; Stoll, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    It was pointed out that a high spatial variability for canopy size and yield would exist within a vineyard but a high temporal stability over the years was observed. Furthermore, a greater variability in grape phenolics than in sugars and pH was detected within a vineyard. But the link between remote sensing indices and quality parameters of grapes is still unclear. Indeed, though in red grape varieties anthocyanins content was spatially negatively correlated to vigor parameters, it seemed that yield, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Plant Cell Density (PCD) indices were poorly correlated. Moreover, the link to quality parameters of wines remains uncertain. It was shown that more vigorous vines would lead to wines with less tannins while anthocyanins in wines would be highest when the vines were balanced but the question is if vine size or architecture, yield or nitrogen assimilation would play major contribution to those differences. The general scope of our project was to provide further knowledge on the relationship between vigor parameters and wine composition and relate these to the information gained by remote sensing. Variability in a 0.15 ha vineyard of Pinot noir planted in 2003 and grafted on SO4 rootstock at Geisenheim (Germany) was followed. Vine vigor was assessed manually for each of the 400 vines (cane number, pruning weight, trunk diameter) together with yield parameters (number of bunches per vine, crop yield). Leaf composition was assessed with a hand-held optical sensor (Multiplex3® [Mx3] (Force-A, Orsay, France) based on chlorophyll fluorescence screening providing information on leaf chlorophyll (SFR_G) and nitrogen (NBI_G) content. A micro-scale winemaking of single vines with a 3 factorial design on yield (L low, M middle, H high), SFRG (L, M, H) and canopy size (pruning weight, trunk diameter) (L, M, H) was performed for 2013 and 2014 to completely reflect variability. Wine tannin concentration represented the highest

  16. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  17. Spiders of the Vine Plants in Southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Havlová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Araneofauna of vineyards is relatively known in Central Europe but we have a lack of knowledge about araneofauna which occur directly on the vine plants. Our investigation was focused on spiders which live on vine plants, especially on the vine plants trunks. We investigated spiders in six vineyards in southern Moravia (Šatov, Mikulov, Popice, Morkůvky, Nosislav and Blučina. Vineyards were under different soil management, traps were placed on different parts of particular locality (terraced and plain and all localities were under integrated pest management. We employed two types of cardboard traps for spider collecting during whole vegetation season. Altogether, we collected 21 spider species which belong to seven families. The most important species was Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1836, which is mentioned in the Red List as vulnerable (VU and Sibianor tantulus (Simon, 1868 which had unknown distribution in the Czech Republic. The other very interesting result is that the most common species is myrmecomorph Synageles venator (Lucas, 1836, which is scarcely recorded in such huge numbers as we documented in our study.

  18. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, Liubov; Klimenko, Nina; Rätsep, Reelika

    2017-10-01

    The study was focused on Zn, Cu and Pb transfer in the system of soil-grape-must-juice-wine in a Chardonnay grape variety from Ukrainian vine growing regions. The analyses of soil, grape, must, pomace, juice and wine were done at the study plot in the south-west of Crimea. Commercial white wines of Chardonnay from different vine growing regions in Ukraine were analysed for trace metals content. Results revealed that trace elements transfer was related to diverse Zn, Cu and Pb sources, trace metals bioavailability, their speciation and complexes during the wine making processes. The analysed commercial wines had lower Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations than wine from the Inkerman study plot. Trace metals concentrations were comparable to those in European wines and lower than limits recommended by International Organization of Vine and Wine. The tentative relationship between wine and soil was found for Zn at the study plot. The method can be used to describe the relationship between the soil and wine in other study areas. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Approximate Uncertainty Modeling in Risk Analysis with Vine Copulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Tim; Daneshkhah, Alireza; Wilson, Kevin J

    2016-04-01

    Many applications of risk analysis require us to jointly model multiple uncertain quantities. Bayesian networks and copulas are two common approaches to modeling joint uncertainties with probability distributions. This article focuses on new methodologies for copulas by developing work of Cooke, Bedford, Kurowica, and others on vines as a way of constructing higher dimensional distributions that do not suffer from some of the restrictions of alternatives such as the multivariate Gaussian copula. The article provides a fundamental approximation result, demonstrating that we can approximate any density as closely as we like using vines. It further operationalizes this result by showing how minimum information copulas can be used to provide parametric classes of copulas that have such good levels of approximation. We extend previous approaches using vines by considering nonconstant conditional dependencies, which are particularly relevant in financial risk modeling. We discuss how such models may be quantified, in terms of expert judgment or by fitting data, and illustrate the approach by modeling two financial data sets. © 2015 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Evaluation of Nitrogen Management Schemes upon Vine Performance in Cover Cropped Vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, James Russell

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards in the Eastern United States are often prone to excessive vegetative growth. In order to suppress excessive vine vigor, many viticulturists have employed cover cropping strategies. Cover crops provide a myriad of agronomic benefits, however they are known to compete with the vine for water and nutrients. Due to the widespread use of cover crops in Eastern vineyards, many vineyards experience nitrogen (N) deficiencies in both the vegetative vine tissue and yeast assimilable nitrogen ...

  1. A multivariate joint hydrological drought indicator using vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Menzel, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    We present a multivariate joint hydrological drought indicator using the high-dimensional vine copula. This hydrological indicator is based on the concept of the standardized index (SI) (the version of this algorithm for streamflow is called the standardized streamflow index, simply the SSI). Unlike the single SSI n-month scales (e.g., SSI 1-month or 6-month), this indicator is done without focusing on a certain time window. This means that all different time windows from 1- to 12-months (i.e., the SSI-1 month, SSI 2-month, ..., SSI 12-month) are considered together when developing this hydrological drought indicator. Therefore, in this study, a 12-dimensional joint function is modeled to join the multivariate margins (the distribution functions of the SSI-1 month, SSI 2-month, ..., SSI 12-month) for all time windows based on the copula algorithm. We then used the C-vine copulas to construct the joint dependence of the multivariate margins with window sizes from 1-month to 12-months. To construct the C-vine copula, five bivariate copulas (i.e., Gaussian, Clayton, Frank, Gumbel, and Joe copulas) were considered as the potential pair-copulas (building blocks). Based on well-fitted marginal distributions, a 12-d C-vine copula was used to join the margins, model the joint dependence structure and generate this 12-variate hydrological indicator (named joint streamflow drought indicator, simply JSDI). We tested the performance of this indicator using two hydrological stations in Germany. The results indicate that the JSDI generally combines the strengths of the short-term drought index in capturing the drought onset and medium-term drought index in reflecting the drought duration or persistence. Therefore, it provides a more comprehensive assessment of drought and could be more competitive than other traditional hydrological drought indices (e.g., the SSI). This attractive feature is attributed to the fact that the JSDI describes the overall drought conditions based on

  2. NEWEST PINK BERRY AROMATIC VINE GRAPE VARIETY – RADOST LEONIDOV

    OpenAIRE

    Zamanidi P. C.; Troshin L. P.; Radchevskiy P. P.

    2014-01-01

    New wine grape flavored pink berry grape variety named “Radost Leonidov” breed at Athens Institute of Viticulture by P.Zamanidi, L.Troshin and P.Radchevskii in 2009 by crossing the new Moskhoragos Greek muscat variety with old European variety Traminer pink. According to morphological and biological characteristics, it can be assigned to Western European eco-geographical group of varieties. Strong growth of shoots (2,1-3,0 m). The extent of maturation of vines is very high (over the entire le...

  3. Volunteers Teaching Children: A Guide for Establishing VINE Ecology Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, Karen S.

    "Volunteers Teaching Children" describes the Volunteer-led Investigations in Neighborhood Ecology, or VINE Programs, established by Denver Audubon Society members as an urban education project, and how that model has been adapted to draw on the human and financial resources available in other cities. VINE Programs give children…

  4. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  5. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  6. Protection of Vine Plants against Esca Disease by Breathable Electrospun Antifungal Nonwovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Viola; Molnar, Melanie; Wang, Hui; Reich, Steffen; Agarwal, Seema; Fischer, Michael; Greiner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    The harmful Esca disease in vine plants caused by wood-inhabiting fungi including Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Pch) is spreading all across the world. This disease leads to poor vine crops and a slow decline or to a sudden dieback of the vine plants. The pruning wounds of vine plants are the main entry point for Pch. While model experiments with aerosol particles recommend electrospun nonwovens as a suitable barrier to block Pch, tests with living spores show clearly that only electrospun fibrous nonwovens do not prevent Pch invasion. However it is found, that with antifungal additives electrospun nonwovens could be applied successfully for blocking of Pch to infect the substrate. Thereby, a highly useful concept for the protection of vine plants against Esca disease is provided which could also serve as a concept for related plant diseases. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Georeferenced LiDAR 3D Vine Plantation Map Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Queraltó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic devices for canopy characterization has recently been widely discussed. Among such devices, LiDAR sensors appear to be the most accurate and precise. Information obtained with LiDAR sensors during reading while driving a tractor along a crop row can be managed and transformed into canopy density maps by evaluating the frequency of LiDAR returns. This paper describes a proposed methodology to obtain a georeferenced canopy map by combining the information obtained with LiDAR with that generated using a GPS receiver installed on top of a tractor. Data regarding the velocity of LiDAR measurements and UTM coordinates of each measured point on the canopy were obtained by applying the proposed transformation process. The process allows overlap of the canopy density map generated with the image of the intended measured area using Google Earth®, providing accurate information about the canopy distribution and/or location of damage along the rows. This methodology was applied and tested on different vine varieties and crop stages in two important vine production areas in Spain. The results indicate that the georeferenced information obtained with LiDAR sensors appears to be an interesting tool with the potential to improve crop management processes.

  8. Ochratoxin A in dried vine fruit: method development and survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, S; Wilson, P; Barnes, K; Damant, A; Massey, R; Mortby, E; Shepherd, M J

    1999-06-01

    A method is described for the determination of concentrations of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits (currants, raisins and sultanas) using acidic methanolic extraction, immunoaffinity chromatography clean-up and HPLC determination. The limit of detection was estimated as 0.2 microgram/kg, and recoveries of 63-77% were achieved at 5 micrograms/kg. HPLC-mass spectrometric confirmation of the identity of ochratoxin was obtained. Ochratoxin A and aflatoxins were determined in 60 samples of retail dried vine fruits purchased in the United Kingdom. Ochratoxin A was found in excess of 0.2 microgram/kg in 19 of 20 currant, 17 of 20 sultana and 17 of 20 raisin samples examined, an overall incidence of 88%. The maximum level found was 53.6 micrograms/kg. No aflatoxin was found in any sample analysed, using a method with a detection limit of 0.2 microgram/kg for each of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2.

  9. Gynogenesis in the vine cacti Hylocereus and Selenicereus (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Reinerio Benega; Cisneros, Aroldo; Schneider, Bert; Tel-Zur, Noemi

    2009-05-01

    Gynogenesis was investigated on the allotetraploid Selenicereus megalanthus and the diploid Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus vine cactus species. Unpollinated ovules from developing flower buds containing microspores at middle uninucleate developmental stage were cultured on MS basal medium containing 2,4-D/TDZ with different sucrose concentrations. Ovule size increased under dark culture conditions in all the three species and the level of response was species and sucrose concentration dependent. The best responses were achieved in the two S. megalanthus accessions, E-123 and J-80, at 0.18 and 0.26 M sucrose. Only ovule enlargement was obtained in H. undatus and both ovule enlargement and callus were obtained in H. polyrhizus. Development in both species ceased and embryoids were not formed. Plant regeneration was directly and indirectly obtained in both S. megalanthus accessions. Ploidy level was determined for a total of 29 S. megalanthus gynogenic plants using flow cytometry: 15 were found to be dihaploid (plants with the gametophytic chromosome number) and the other 14 were found to have higher ploidy levels. This is the first report of successful gynogenesis in Cactaceae. The dihaploids of S. megalanthus successfully produced by ovule culture techniques opens new perspectives in vine cacti breeding.

  10. Vine spacing on cv. Tempranillo in the Appellation of Origin Cigales (Spain: Agronomy and quality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuste Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of the Tempranillo variety, vertically trellised trained, according to a placement of vines with three different distances (1.04, 1.40 and 1.80 meters in the row and a common distance between rows (2.40 meters, in order to determine the most suitable vine distance for the growing conditions. The experimental test has been developed for the period 2007–2011 in the Appellation of Origin Cigales, in Valladolid (Spain. The reduction of vine distance has favored the vegetative growth, through the shoot weight, while the grape yield has been slightly higher in the intermediate vine distance, 1.40 m, through the cluster weight. Ravaz index showed some increase with the increasing of vine distance, derived from the decrease of pruning wood. In qualitative terms, the variation of the vine distance did not significantly modify the basic composition of the grape. Therefore, the choice of the vine distance involves the convenience to assess both potential effects in terms of production and economic objectives of the new plantations, in accordance with the characteristics of each growing situation.

  11. FERTILIZATION OF VINE BY A 5-AMINOLEVULINIC ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AND ITS PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMR IMANSK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the effect of different doses of NPKS fertilizer added into the soil for nutrient contents in the soil, as well as the quantity and quality of grapes. During the vegetation of the vine, we tested the 5-aminolevulinic acid-based fertilizer (ALA. We summarize that higher doses of fertilizer added into soil caused higher amounts of available nutrients. During the vegetation of the vine an increase of ALA had a positive effect on the optimal balance of nutrients. Fertilization also increased the grape-vine yield, with the strongest effect (by 68% observed due to the application of ALA during the vegetation period of the vine. Added fertilizers had a statistically significant influence on decreased sugar concentration in the grape-vine however the addition of fertilizer into the soil, mainly the application of ALA during vegetation of the vine (by 57% had a positive effect on increase of the total content of sugar in the grape-vine, produced on 1 hectare. The year had a significant influence on the economical evaluation.

  12. VineSens: An Eco-Smart Decision-Support Viticulture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josman P. Pérez-Expósito

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents VineSens, a hardware and software platform for supporting the decision-making of the vine grower. VineSens is based on a wireless sensor network system composed by autonomous and self-powered nodes that are deployed throughout a vineyard. Such nodes include sensors that allow us to obtain detailed knowledge on different viticulture processes. Thanks to the use of epidemiological models, VineSens is able to propose a custom control plan to prevent diseases like one of the most feared by vine growers: downy mildew. VineSens generates alerts that warn farmers about the measures that have to be taken and stores the historical weather data collected from different spots of the vineyard. Such data can then be accessed through a user-friendly web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. VineSens was deployed at the beginning in 2016 in a vineyard in the Ribeira Sacra area (Galicia, Spain and, since then, its hardware and software have been tested to prevent the development of downy mildew, showing during its first season that the system can led to substantial savings, to decrease the amount of phytosanitary products applied, and, as a consequence, to obtain a more ecologically sustainable and healthy wine.

  13. Foliar treatment of esca-proper affected vines with nutrients and bioactivators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foliar treatment with nutrients and bioactivators was carried out in two vineyards affected with esca proper in 2004 and 2005. Changes in the foliar symptoms and in the quality of berries without lesions from treated symptomatic vines were assessed. Treated vines unexpectedly had a higher incidence and a greater severity of symptomatic leaves than untreated plants, most likely because physiological processes were stimulated by the treatments, possibly also because treatments facilitated the movement of toxins produced by the wood fungi of esca. However it cannot be excluded that the increase in foliar symptoms was due to the forced nutrition causing an imbalance between the various elements, and altering the mechanisms that vines use for the remission of foliar symptoms. This supposition seemed corroborated by the observation that treated vines diseased with esca proper had a weaker defense response than untreated diseased vines, and that treated diseased vines had lower levels of nitrogen and microelements, which are respectively involved in osmoregulation and as cofactors of enzymes involved in the defense response of the plant. The main quality parameters of berries without lesions from treated and untreated symptomatic vines were very similar.

  14. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen L; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i......) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...

  15. Volatile components of vine leaves from two Portuguese grape varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), Touriga Nacional and Tinta Roriz, analysed by solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruno; Correia, Ana C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M; Jordão, António M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the volatile composition of vine leaves and vine leaf infusion prepared from vine leaves collected at 30 and 60 days after grape harvest of two Vitis vinifera L. species. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in vine leaves and in vine leaf infusions. It was observed that the volatile compounds present in vine leaves are dependent on the time of harvest, with benzaldehyde being the major volatile present in vine leaves collected at 30 days after harvesting. There are significant differences in the volatile composition of the leaves from the two grape cultivars, especially in the sample collected at 60 days after grape harvest. This is not reflected in the volatile composition of the vine leaf infusion made from this two cultivars, the more important being the harvesting date for the volatile profile of vine leaf infusion than the vine leaves grape cultivar.

  16. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porceddu, Pier Riccardo; Rosati, Laura; Dionigi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    .... The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning...

  17. A method to identify potential cold-climate vine growing sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard; Olesen, Asger; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A method for surveying the suitability of cold climate vine growing sites in Denmark is presented with focus on limiting growth parameters. The four most important parameters are identified on the basis of literary studies and discussions with approximately 150 vine growers in Denmark. These are: i......) Sum of growing degree days (SDD), ii) Risk of frost damage, iii) Number of sunshine hours during growth season, and iv) Soil drainage. A two-step method based on GIS and already existing climate, soil, and topographic data was implemented. First the most suitable areas in Denmark for vine growing were...... located on the basis of nation-wide climatic data on the sum of degree days and risk of frost. Within the most suitable areas a detailed survey of the amount of sunshine, topography, drainage and soil was carried out on the Røsnæs peninsula in north western Zealand, and eight well-suited vine growing...

  18. Pinot Noir wine composition from different vine vigour zones classified by remote imaging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianqiang; Smart, Richard E; Dambergs, Robert G; Sparrow, Angela M; Wells, Reuben B; Wang, Hua; Qian, Michael C

    2014-06-15

    The relationship between grapevine vigour and grape and wine composition was investigated in this study. Own-rooted Pinot Noir grapevines were grown in a commercial vineyard in Tasmania, Australia, with uniform vineyard management practices. Vine vigours were determined by plant cell density (PCD) obtained from aerial photography. As vine vigour decreased, total soluble solid in grapes, total phenolics and anthocyanins in wines increased, while titratable acidity and yield decreased. Wines from the ultra low vine vigour zone had the highest concentrations of esters and alcohols. Higher level of linalool, nerol, geraniol, vitispirane, and β-ionone were observed in ultra low vigour and low vigour zones, but there was no obvious trend for citronellol and β-damascenone. Principal component analysis and discriminant analysis of the volatiles illustrated the differences among wines from the four vine vigour zones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  20. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential...

  1. Sweetpotato vine management for confined food production in a space life-support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Mitchell, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweetpotato (Ipomea batatas L.) 'Whatley-Loretan' was developed for space life support by researchers at Tuskegee University for its highly productive, nutritious storage roots. This promising candidate space life-support crop has a sprawling habit and aggressive growth rate in favorable environments that demands substantial growing area. Shoot pruning is not a viable option for vine control because removal of the main shoot apex drastically inhibits storage-root initiation and development, and chemical growth retardants typically are not cleared for use with food crops. As part of a large effort by the NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support to reduce equivalent system mass (ESM) for food production in space, the dilemma of vine management for sweetpotato was addressed in effort to conserve growth area without compromising root yield. Root yields from unbranched vines trained spirally around wire frames configured either in the shapes of cones or cylinders were similar to those from vines trained horizontally along the bench, but occupying only a small fraction of the bench area. This finding indicates that sweetpotato is highly adaptable to a variety of vine-training architectures. Planting a second plant in the growth container and training the two vines in opposite directions around frames enhanced root yield and number, but had little effect on average length of each vine or bench area occupied. Once again, root yields were similar for both configurations of wire support frames. The 3-4-month crop-production cycles for sweetpotato in the greenhouse spanned all seasons of multiple years during the course of the study, and although electric lighting was used for photoperiod control and to supplement photosynthetic light during low-light seasons, there still were differences in total light available across seasons. Light variations and other environmental differences among experiments in the greenhouse had more effects on vine

  2. Short-term Effects of Remedial Surgery to Restore Productivity to Eutypa lata Infected Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Creaser

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Eutypa dieback, caused by the wood infecting fungus Eutypa lata, causes a gradual decline in vineyard production. Many growers renew infected vines by removing infected wood. Here we report on the short-term effects of the procedure on 28-year-old own-rooted Shiraz vines. In spring 1999, all vines in six adjacent rows were examined for foliar symptoms of Eutypa dieback. The following winter, cuts were made through both cordons and the trunk of each vine to determine the extent of wood discolouration, a symptom of E. lata infection. Foliar symptoms were recorded on 35% of the 141 vines, yet discoloured wood was observed in all cuts made through the cordons and in 71% of cuts made through the trunk. However, no association was found between the foliar symptoms observed in the spring prior to surgery and the extent of wood discolouration, i.e. discolouration that was visible on the cut surface of the trunk (P=0.20. Furthermore, discoloured wood remaining in the trunk had no effect on the production of watershoots (P=0.74, which were produced by 63% of vines in 2000. When re-examined in spring 2001 and 2002, watershoots were observed on 61 and 76% of vines respectively. As in the previous year, no association was observed between the discoloured wood remaining in the trunk and the production of watershoots (P=1.00 in 2001, P=0.21 in 2002. Foliar symptoms were not observed in 2000, 2001 nor in 2002. Infection with E. lata was confirmed by isolation of the pathogen from 92% of discoloured wood samples taken from 14 vines.

  3. First Report of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum fioriniae on Chinese Matrimony Vine in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, May Moe; Tweneboah, Solomon; Oh, Sang-Keun

    2016-12-01

    A fungus, Colletotrichum fioriniae, was isolated for the first time from fruits of Chinese matrimony vine (Lycium chinense Mill.) in Korea. It was classified as C. fioriniae based on the morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and β-tubulin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fioriniae causing anthracnose of Chinese matrimony vine in Korea.

  4. A functional-structural kiwifruit vine model integrating architecture, carbon dynamics and effects of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Mikolaj; Seleznyova, Alla N; Hanan, Jim

    2011-04-01

    Functional-structural modelling can be used to increase our understanding of how different aspects of plant structure and function interact, identify knowledge gaps and guide priorities for future experimentation. By integrating existing knowledge of the different aspects of the kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) vine's architecture and physiology, our aim is to develop conceptual and mathematical hypotheses on several of the vine's features: (a) plasticity of the vine's architecture; (b) effects of organ position within the canopy on its size; (c) effects of environment and horticultural management on shoot growth, light distribution and organ size; and (d) role of carbon reserves in early shoot growth. Using the L-system modelling platform, a functional-structural plant model of a kiwifruit vine was created that integrates architectural development, mechanistic modelling of carbon transport and allocation, and environmental and management effects on vine and fruit growth. The branching pattern was captured at the individual shoot level by modelling axillary shoot development using a discrete-time Markov chain. An existing carbon transport resistance model was extended to account for several source/sink components of individual plant elements. A quasi-Monte Carlo path-tracing algorithm was used to estimate the absorbed irradiance of each leaf. Several simulations were performed to illustrate the model's potential to reproduce the major features of the vine's behaviour. The model simulated vine growth responses that were qualitatively similar to those observed in experiments, including the plastic response of shoot growth to local carbon supply, the branching patterns of two Actinidia species, the effect of carbon limitation and topological distance on fruit size and the complex behaviour of sink competition for carbon. The model is able to reproduce differences in vine and fruit growth arising from various experimental treatments. This implies it will be a valuable

  5. Nutritive value of red vine husks and pips for sheep | Ferreira | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of red vine husks and pips as a component of animal feed was investigated. Twenty-five Dohne Merino ram lambs (mean live weight + s.d. = 41.4 + 2.3 kg) were used. A completely randomised design was used and the animals were assigned to five diets including 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% vine husks and ...

  6. Self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica is mediated by physiological connection

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Yuya; Yamawo, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Although self-discrimination has been well documented, especially in animals, self-discrimination in plants has been identified in only a few cases, such as self-incompatibility in flowers and root discrimination. Here, we report a new form of self-discrimination in plants: discrimination by vine tendrils. We found that tendrils of the perennial vine Cayratia japonica were more likely to coil around neighbouring non-self plants than neighbouring self plants in both experimental and natural se...

  7. Intake, digestibility and toxic effects of vine husks and pips fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veekunde

    Abstract. The potential of red vine husks and pips as a component of animal feed was investigated. Twenty-five. Dohne Merino ram lambs (mean live weight ± s.d. = 41.4 ± 2.3 kg) were used. A completely randomised design was used and the animals were assigned to five diets including 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50% vine ...

  8. Antioxidant Properties of a Dihydromyricetin-Rich Extract from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) in Menhaden Oil

    OpenAIRE

    N Baek AP; Nielson WN Eigel; SF O'Keefe

    2015-01-01

    Preventing oxidative deterioration of fish oil is a significant challenge for the food industry. Natural antioxidants are widely incorporated into foods to prevent oxidation and extend shelf life. Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) extract has been shown to have antioxidant activity in vegetable oils, but the efficacy in fish oil is unknown. The goal of our study was to test the antioxidant activity of vine tea extract (VTE) and compare it with other natural antioxidants (rosemary extract - ...

  9. R-vine models for spatial time series with an application to daily mean temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Tobias Michael; Czado, Claudia; Schepsmeier, Ulf

    2015-06-01

    We introduce an extension of R-vine copula models to allow for spatial dependencies and model based prediction at unobserved locations. The proposed spatial R-vine model combines the flexibility of vine copulas with the classical geostatistical idea of modeling spatial dependencies using the distances between the variable locations. In particular, the model is able to capture non-Gaussian spatial dependencies. To develop and illustrate our approach, we consider daily mean temperature data observed at 54 monitoring stations in Germany. We identify relationships between the vine copula parameters and the station distances and exploit these in order to reduce the huge number of parameters needed to parametrize a 54-dimensional R-vine model fitted to the data. The new distance based model parametrization results in a distinct reduction in the number of parameters and makes parameter estimation and prediction at unobserved locations feasible. The prediction capabilities are validated using adequate scoring techniques, showing a better performance of the spatial R-vine copula model compared to a Gaussian spatial model. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Chinese markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Zong, Nan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    A total of 56 dried vine fruits, including 31 sultanas and 25 currants, were selected from Chinese markets in 2012. All samples were analysed for Ochratoxin A (OTA) using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. It turned out that 58.9% of the samples were positive and the OTA amount ranged from <0.07 to 12.83 μg/kg, with a mean level of 0.99 μg/kg. Only one sample exceeded the European Union (EU) maximum level of 10 μg/kg. Meanwhile, it was shown that OTA contamination increased among north-western, northern and southern China, which showed OTA means of 0.08, 0.99 and 2.01 μg/kg, respectively. Moreover, in samples of products sold in sealed plastic bags, i.e. consumer-size packages (n = 19, mean = 0.30 μg/kg) less OTA was detected when compared with sampled bulk packages (n = 37, mean = 1.67 μg/kg). In addition, sultanas (mean = 0.92 μg/kg) had less OTA contamination than currants (mean = 1.22 μg/kg).

  11. Vine Trimming Shoots as Substrate for Ferulic Acid Esterases Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; Outeiriño, D; Torrado Agrasar, A; Domínguez, J M

    2017-02-01

    Ferulic acid esterases (FAE) possess a large variety of biotechnological applications mainly based on their ability to release ferulic acid from lignocellulosic matrixes. The use of vine trimming shoots (VTS), an agricultural waste, as substrate for the generation of this kind of esterases represents an attractive alternative to change the consideration of VTS from residue to resource. Furthermore, xylanase, cellobiase, and cellulase activities were quantified. Six microorganisms were screened for FAE production by solid-state fermentation, and the effects of the additional supplementation and substrate size were also tested. Finally, the process was scaled-up to a horizontal bioreactor where the influence of aeration in enzymatic activities was evaluated. Thus, the optimal FAE activity (0.44 U/g dry VTS) was attained by Aspergillus terreus CECT 2808, in non-additional supplementation media, using the larger particles size of substrate (≤ 5 mm) and at a flow rate of 0.7 L/min.

  12. Retracing recurring vine mortality patterns over a long duration: case study of a Mediterranean viticultural estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed at performing both long term historical and spatial tracing, focusing on the vine mortality patterns and their temporal repetition, across a 6 ha-farm, "Domaine des Chauvets", mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley in France. In this estate of long-standing wine-growing history, were mortality patterns randomly distributed or were they related to soil or historical management? Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected in the field at a total of 112 sampling locations. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947-2010 period, of which 7 were retained for further rectification and processing. This dataset was used to retrace the landuse and planting history for each plot, and then extract the frequency of missing vines. Within-field terroir units were demarcated using support vector machine classification of a set of present-day very high resolution data, including soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 maps and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images of May 2014 and July 2015. Field and recent data revealed important soil erosion rates which are likely to ruin terroir sustainability and pointed out those units for which soil restoration practices are urgently needed, while the temporal dataset exhibited a repeated spatial pattern of missing vines, throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements. The frequency of missing vines was related to within-field terroir units and also to past landuse, particularly forest or orchard dating back the 1940s, and current soil organic carbon content. This brings renewed questions about the determinism of vine decline, suggesting contribution of soil degradation processes.

  13. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) and wine proanthocyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2005-07-13

    The relationships between variations in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir) growth and resulting fruit and wine phenolic composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved monitoring soil, vine growth, yield components, and fruit composition (soluble solids, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymers) on a georeferenced grid pattern to assess patterns in growth and development. Vine vigor parameters (trunk cross-sectional area, average shoot length, and leaf chlorophyll) were used to delineate zones within both blocks to produce research wines to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. There was no significant influence of vine vigor on the amount of proanthocyanidin per seed and only minimal differences in seed proanthocyanidin composition. However, significant increases were found in skin proanthocyanidin (mg/berry), proportion of (-)-epigallocatechin, average molecular mass of proanthocyanidins, and pigmented polymer content in fruit from zones with a reduction in vine vigor. In the wines produced from low-vigor zones, there was a large increase in the proportion of skin tannin extracted into the wine, whereas little change occurred in seed proanthocyanidin extraction. The level of pigmented polymers and proanthocyanidin molecular mass were higher in wines made from low-vigor fruit compared to wines made from high-vigor fruit, whereas the flavan-3-ol monomer concentration was lower.

  14. Vineyard Detection and Vine Variety Discrimination from Very High Resolution Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Karakizi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to exploit remote sensing data operationally for precision agriculture applications, efficient and automated methods are required for the accurate detection of vegetation, crops and different crop varieties. To this end, we have designed, developed and evaluated an object-based classification framework towards the detection of vineyards, the vine canopy extraction and the vine variety discrimination from very high resolution multispectral data. A novel set of spectral, spatial and textural features, as well as rules, segmentation scales and a set of parameters are proposed based on object-based image analysis. The validation of the developed methodology was carried out on multitemporal WorldView-2 satellite data at four different viticulture regions in Greece. Concurrent in situ canopy reflectance observations were acquired from a portable spectroradiometer during the field campaigns. The performed quantitative evaluation indicated that the developed approach managed in all cases to detect vineyards with high completeness and correctness detection rates, i.e., over 89%. The vine canopy extraction methodology was validated with overall accuracy (OA rates of above 96%. The quantitative evaluation regarding the vine variety discrimination task, including experiments with up to six different varieties, reached OA rates above 85% at the parcel level. The combined analysis of the experimental results with the spectral signatures from the in situ reflectance data indicated that certain vine varieties (e.g., Merlot presented distinct spectral patterns across the VNIR spectrum.

  15. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2017-04-01

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH 3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Comparative profiling analysis of woody flavouring from vine-shoots and oak chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M Pilar; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, M Dolores

    2014-02-01

    Woody liquid flavourings extracted from different varieties of vine shoots and oak chips have been characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to compare the profile of compounds as potential contributors to the organoleptical properties of wine and spirits aged in oak barrels. Oak chips are frequently added to barrels to accelerate the ageing process, while vine shoots are produced in high amounts in wine-producing countries. The extracts were isolated by superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) after optimization of extraction variables. The SHLE protocol was performed using ethanol-water mixtures (pH 3) at 220 °C for 60 min. Compounds were identified using NIST databases, and the resulting profile was used as a dataset for qualitative and semi-quantitative comparison between extracts obtained from different varieties of vine shoots and oak chips. Statistical analysis enabled demonstration of the similarity among extracts from vine shoots and oak wood, providing the first study on this subject. The special role of phenols and furanic derivatives has been described. This study is the first stage for characterization of vine shoots as a by-product with potential for use in the oenological field. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Quality parameters of wine grape varieties under the influence of different vine spacing and training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tkachenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical and biochemical indices, which characterize quality of white wine grape varieties Zagrey and Aromatnyi of selection of NNC «IV&W named after V. Ye. Tairov», (harvest of 2016 were determined. The field trial which includes various variants of planting density and vine training systems, made it possible to study the influence of viticulture practices on the criteria of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complex, oxidative enzyme system of grapes. Low-density plantings of Aromatnyi variety (2222 vines per ha were characterized by harvest that slightly exceeded the grapes obtained from dense plantations (4000 vines per ha in terms of carbohydrate-acid and phenolic complexes. The most optimal in terms of the mass concentration of sugars, phenolic substances, polymer forms, macerating ability of must, activity of oxidizing enzyme system was cultivation of this variety on a 160 cm – high trunk. Growing grapes of Zagrey variety with vine spacing, corresponding to 4000 plants per ha, contributed to obtaining harvest with optimal parameters of carbohydrate-acid complex, low technological reserve and mass concentration of phenolic compounds, moderate macerating ability and activity of monophenol monooxygenase in must. Training vines of this variety on a 40 cm high trunk with vertical shoot positioning led to significant deterioration of grape quality due to increased content of phenolic substances and their polymer forms, high macerating capacity of must.

  18. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 – 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experiments were set in order to evaluate this parameter during winter pruning in relation to three variables: vine type; branch size; pruning time. The results show how the cutting resistance of vine branches during vegetative rest depends on vine variety (Trebbiano 675 N Cabernet 1175 N, on the diameter of the canes (increase of force from 56 % to 86 % between the classes of diameter and on the pruning date (26% decrease of the cutting force in the latest period for Trebbiano and Sangiovese, and 32 % for Cabernet Sauvignon. Such variations, which can be considerable, affect directly the pruning results. High values of cutting force can generate tiring of operator in manual pruning or cutting damages on the vegetation during mechanical pruning.

  20. Protective activity of kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) vine on chemically-induced hepatotoxicity: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Lee, Dong-Sung; Lee, Jun-Kyoung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2016-01-29

    Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) root has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, the vine of the kudzu plant has been considered waste material. This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective properties of the kudzu vine. We created 0 %, 30 %, 70 %, and 95 % ethanolic kudzu vine extracts. The isoflavone contents of kudzu vine extract were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) was added to human liver-derived HepG2 cells, and the production of reactive oxygen species was measured in the presence and absence of kudzu vine extract. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in all kudzu vine extracts using a hydroxyradical scavenging assay. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups (n = 5); two groups were not given any extract or drug, one group was treated with 50 mg/kg silymarin orally for 5 days, and the remaining four groups were respectively treated with 100 mg/kg of 0%, 30%, 70%, or 95% ethanolic extract of kudzu vine orally once daily for 5 days. On day 5 the treatment groups and one untreated group were fed 0.75 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to induce liver damage. Blood and liver tissue samples were collected 24 h after CCl4 administration for measurement of plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, and concentration of malondialdehyde and glutathione in liver tissue. Puerarin was the most abundant isoflavone in kudzu vine extract. Kudzu vine extract significantly reduced the cytotoxicity and production of reactive oxygen species induced by t-BHP in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 0 % and 30 % ethanolic extracts of kudzu vine significantly lowered the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in a CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity rat model (P vine is potentially highly beneficial in treating liver damage, as it scavenges reactive free radicals and boosts the endogenous antioxidant system.

  1. Association between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the vine mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in table-grape vineyards in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrà, Aleixandre; Navarro-Campos, Cristina; Calabuig, Altea; Estopà, Luis; Wäckers, Felix L; Pekas, Apostolos; Soto, Antonia

    2017-12-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a key pest of grapevine in the Mediterranean Basin. Some honeydew collecting ant species are known to increase mealybug populations in other grape-growing regions. However, there is scarce information on either the ant species present in Mediterranean vineyards or their impact on mealybugs. We conducted a study in four commercial vineyards in Eastern Spain in order to i) identify the ant species foraging on the vine canopies, ii) study the association among ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage, and iii) test a novel method for ant management, distracting ants from guarding vine mealybugs by providing sugar dispensers. We recorded three ant species native to the Mediterranean foraging on the vine canopies: Lasius grandis (Forel), Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) and Plagiolepis schmitzii (Forel). The mean percentage of damaged fruits per vine was positively correlated with the number of vine mealybugs captured in traps placed at the trunk. We detected a positive but weak relationship between ant activity, vine mealybug abundance and fruit damage. The provisioning of sugar dispensers reduced the number of ants foraging on the vines by 23.4% although this reduction was not statistically significant. Vine mealybug abundance was significantly reduced (72%) after sugar provisioning. Our results suggest that the ant species native to vineyards in eastern Spain induce population increases of the vine mealybug. Moreover, the provisioning of sugars can be a valuable tool for ant management and mealybug control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrequieta, Augusto; Abriata, Luciano A; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2013-10-16

    The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19) and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15) showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  3. Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-07-15

    Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. N, P, and K supply to Pinot noir grapevines. I. Impact on vine nutrient status, growth, physiology, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot noir grapevines (self-rooted, Pommard clone) were grown in a pot-in-pot sand culture vineyard to examine the impact of low N, P, and K supply on vine growth and physiology. Four-year-old vines were given either full nutrition (Control) or reduced levels of each N, P, and K supplied at 50%, 20...

  5. Analysis of Grape Polyamines from Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) Infected Vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report comparing the free polyamine content of 'Pinot noir' grapes from vines infected with Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV) -2 or -3, with samples taken from healthy vines. Berries were collected from three different rootstock/scion combinations, and all samples were ...

  6. The Effect of Water Management and Land Use Practices on the Restoration of Lee Vining and Rush Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vorster; G. Mathias Kondolf

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes water management and land use practices in the Rush and Lee Vining Creek watersheds and evaluates the effect they have had on the stream environment. The management practices will continue to have effects on the flow regime and consequently habitat conditions on lower Lee Vining and Rush Creeks. The implications of existing and potential management...

  7. Changes in the herbaceous and vine communities at the Bisley Experimental Watersheds, Puerto Rico, following Hurricane Hugo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus D. Chinea

    1999-01-01

    While herbaceous species and vines constitute a minor portion of the biomass in tropical closed forest ecosystems, they account for a substantial portion of the diversity of these ecosystems and become more conspicuous after natural disturbances. This study describes the changes in abundance and diversity of the herbs and vines during 5 years following Hurricane Hugo...

  8. Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 by the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C-W; Chau, J; Fernandez, L; Bosco, D; Daane, K M; Almeida, R P P

    2008-10-01

    Grapevine leafroll disease is caused by grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaVs). Within this virus complex, GLRaV-3 is the predominant species in the world. Several GLRaVs have been shown to be transmitted from vine to vine by mealybugs although a detailed characterization of transmission biology is lacking. The introduction of the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus) in California and other regions of the world may result in increasing disease incidence of established GLRaVs. We studied the characteristics of GLRaV-3 transmission by the vine mealybug. Our results indicate that the vine mealybug transmits GLRaV-3 in a semipersistent manner. First instars were more efficient vectors than adult mealybugs. GLRaV-3 transmission lacked a latent period in the vector. Virus transmission occurred with a 1-h acquisition access period (AAP) and peaked with a 24-h AAP. Mealybugs inoculated GLRaV-3 with a 1-h inoculation access period (IAP), and transmission efficiency increased with longer plant access period up to 24 h, after which transmission rate remained constant. After an AAP of 24 h, mealybugs lost GLRaV-3 and infectivity 4 days after virus acquisition. In addition, GLRaV-3 was not transovarially transmitted from infected females to their progeny as detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In summary, we systematically analyzed transmission parameters of GLRaV-3 by the vine mealybug and showed that transmission of this virus occurs in a semipersistent manner. This research fills in important gaps in knowledge of leafroll virus transmission, which is critical for development of leafroll disease management practices.

  9. Modelling nitrate transport under row intercropping system: Vines and grass cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournebize, J.; Gregoire, C.; Coupe, R. H.; Ackerer, P.

    2012-05-01

    SummaryIn the context of reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution, an associated crop system often presents several advantages. The difficulty resides in the characterisation of each species' contribution (dominant and dominated). This paper deals with the particular case of voluntary grass cover management between rows in a vine plot. We evaluate the spatial and temporal changes in the development of both crops: vine/grass cover system, in their ecological functioning and in the influences on water and nitrogen balances. We modify the SWMS_3D model to incorporate separate distribution of water and nitrogen demands for the two coexisting plant species. The parameterized model is then assessed using the measured data (water content, matrix potential and nitrogen content of the soil solution at depths of 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm) acquired from two monitored vine plots (vine "Tockay-Pinot Gris" plot grass covered every second row compared to a control plot that was chemically weeded vine "Riesling" plot, France, Alsace, Rouffach) between October 1998 and September 2000. The main results are the following. The vine's mean total transpiration over the two growing seasons of 1998/1999 and 1999/2000 is simulated of 355 ± 9 mm per season. The matrix potential is reproduced accurately especially improving with depth and under the interrow. Despite a high variability due to soil heterogeneity, the nitrogen mass variations between measurements and simulations with the adapted model are coherent. Nevertheless we note that the model slightly underestimates the nitrogen mass for both types of observed cropping patterns, however the ratio between the two itineraries remains similar, yielding a reduction in nitrogen loss by at least 4-fold in favour of grass cover every second row plot during the period observed from 10/01/1998 to 09/30/2000.

  10. Typical Vine or International Taste: Wine Consumers' Dilemma Between Beliefs and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Boncinelli, Fabio; Contini, Caterina; Romano, Caterina; Gerini, Francesca; Casini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The wine-growing sector is probably one of the agricultural areas where the ties between product quality and territory are most evident. Geographical indication is a key element in this context, and previous literature has focused on demonstrating how certification of origin influences the wine purchaser's behavior. However, less attention has been devoted to understanding how the value of a given name of origin may or may not be determined by the various elements that characterize the typicality of the wine product on that territory: vines, production techniques, etc. It thus seems interesting, in this framework, to evaluate the impacts of several characteristic attributes on the preferences of consumers. This paper will analyze, in particular, the role of the presence of autochthonous vines in consumers' choices. The connection between name of origin and autochthonous vines appears to be particularly important in achieving product "recognisability", while introducing "international" vines in considerable measure into blends might result in the loss of the peculiarity of certain characteristic and typical local productions. A standardization of taste could thus risk compromising the reputation of traditional production areas. The objective of this study is to estimate, through an experimental auction on the case study of Chianti, the differences in willingness to pay for wines produced with different shares of typical vines. The results show that consumers have a willingness to pay for wine produced with typical blends 34% greater than for wines with international blends. However, this difference is not confirmed by blind tasting, raising the issue of the relationship between exante expectations about vine typicality and real wine sensorial characteristics. Finally, some recent patents related to wine testing and wine packaging are reviewed.

  11. Evaluating sex pheromone monitoring as a tool in the integrated management of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (signoret) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) / M.J. Kotze

    OpenAIRE

    Kotze, Maria Johanna

    2006-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a pest with significant economic impact on the grape growing industry in South Africa and other parts of the world. With the isolation and synthesizing of the vine mealybug sex pheromone in 2001, new control options for the integrated management of the vine mealybug have been created. The status of sex pheromone monitoring as a tool in the integrated management of the vine mealybug has been evaluated from...

  12. Study on the Possibility of Using Vine Stalk Waste ( Vitis Vinifera) for Producing Gypsum Particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangavar, H.; Khosro, S. Kh.; Payan, M. H.; Soltani, A.

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was the production of gypsum particleboards with vine stalk waste and the investigation of some physical and mechanical properties of the boards. For this purpose, boards were made from gypsum, oven-dried mass of vine stalk waste, and the white portland cement in various ratios. The thickness swelling and water absorption after 2 and 24 hours of immersion in water, the modulus of rupture, the modulus of elasticity, and the internal bond strength of the boards were determined according to the European Norms standard. The results show that, by selecting proper ratios between the constituents, particleboards with good physicomechanical properties can be produced.

  13. Vineyard floor management influences 'Pinot noir' vine growth and productivity more than cluster thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigor and crop level management are important practices for premium wine grape production. The implications of crop thinning ‘Pinot noir’ (Vitis vinifera L.) vines of varying vigor were investigated in the Willamette Valley of Oregon in 2011 to 2013, to better understand the relationship between can...

  14. Intake, digestibility and toxic effects of vine husks and pips fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veekunde

    Vine husks and pips, after pressing four red wine cultivars (Merlot, Shiraz, ... level close to maintenance (40-45 g DM/kg LW0.75 per day) as recommended by Van Es ... Table 1 Physical (on an air dry basis) composition and chemical (on a dry ...

  15. Effect of different vine lengths on the growth and yield of orange ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiment was conducted in 2014 cropping season at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Agricultural Education Department, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe to investigate the effect of different vine lengths on the growth and yield of orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomea batatas(L) Lam) in ultisols of ...

  16. Hydraulic responses of whole vines and individual roots of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) following root severance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Marykate Z; Patterson, Kevin J; Minchin, Peter E H; Gould, Kevin S; Clearwater, Michael J

    2011-05-01

    Whole vine (K(plant)) and individual root (K(root)) hydraulic conductances were measured in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. var. chinensis 'Hort16A') vines to observe hydraulic responses following partial root system excision. Heat dissipation and compensation heat pulse techniques were used to measure sap flow in trunks and individual roots, respectively. Sap flux and measurements of xylem pressure potential (Ψ) were used to calculate K(plant) and K(root) in vines with zero and ∼80% of roots severed. Whole vine transpiration (E), Ψ and K(plant) were significantly reduced within 24 h of root pruning, and did not recover within 6 weeks. Sap flux in intact roots increased within 24 h of root pruning, driven by an increase in the pressure gradient between the soil and canopy and without any change in root hydraulic conductance. Photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) were reduced, without significant effects on leaf internal CO(2) concentration (c(i)). Shoot growth rates were maintained; fruit growth and dry matter content were increased following pruning. The woody roots of kiwifruit did not demonstrate a rapid dynamic response to root system damage as has been observed previously in monocot seedlings. Increased sap flux in intact roots with no change in K(root) and only a moderate decline in shoot A suggests that under normal growing conditions root hydraulic conductance greatly exceeds requirements for adequate shoot hydration. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Vine Deloria Jr. as a Philosopher of Education: An Essay of Remembrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2007-01-01

    This essay engages the concepts of maturity, relationality, and responsibility in the writings of Vine Deloria Jr. as foundational to a Native philosophy of education. After situating Deloria and these Native philosophic concepts as a moment of difference in the colonial-modern world, I explore how these concepts of maturity, relationships, and…

  18. The Lives and Work of Beatrice Medicine and Vine Deloria Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones; Lomawaima, K. Tsianina; Villegas, Malia

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we offer a tribute to the memories of Dr. Beatrice Medicine and Dr. Vine Deloria Jr., two of the most revered and celebrated Indigenous educators. We describe the legacy these scholars leave as one that calls on Indigenous communities to survive by both fighting against ongoing colonization and pursuing individual and communal…

  19. Are We Making a Difference? Lessons Learned from VINE Program Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollweg, Karen S.

    The Volunteer-led Investigations of Neighborhood Ecology, or VINE Program, gives children opportunities to discover and investigate the plants, animals, and ecological relationships that exist right in their own neighborhoods through hands-on natural science investigations. It was established by Denver Audubon Society members as an urban education…

  20. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  1. Vine Water Deficit Impacts Aging Bouquet in Fine Red Bordeaux Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guyon, François; Gaillard, Laetitia; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth) in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C-values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed correlations between δ13C-values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  2. Olfactory antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to a broad range of volatile plant compounds. The response profile is restricted to a small number of volatiles that evoke substantial EAGs. Large EAG responses were particularly found

  3. Influence of leaf number and nodes on the rooting of semiwoody cuttings of flame vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Milani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flame vine (Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl. Miers is a semihardwood vine, vigorous, native, native, occurring in all Brazilian biomes and ornamental potential. Technical information about the propagation of this species will contribute to the production of seedlings and with that, their greatest use in landscaping. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the number of leaves and nodes in rooting intermediate flame vine. The experiment was conducted under conditions of intermittent mist. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial 2 x 3, being respectively cuttings with one or two nodes, and zero, one or two leaflets. We used four replicates with plots consisting of 12 cuttings placed in substrate of rice hulls in polystyrene trays with 72 cells. We evaluated at 84 days the porcentage of rooted cuttings, length of shoots, dry weight of shoots and, per cutting, average: number of roots - first order; maximum length of each root of the first order, volume and dry weight of roots. It was observed that cuttings with two leaflets enabled 66% of rooting, greater length and dry mass of shoots. The higher quality of the root system occurs with stakes with two leaflets and two nodes. The spread of flame vine is efficient with semi-hardwood cuttings with two nodes and two leaflets, kept in a greenhouse under intermittent mist.

  4. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid as an alternative auxin for rooting of vine rootstock cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Brasil Dias Tofanelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important agricultural activity in semiarid northeastern Brazil, and the quality and ease of vine propagation are very important in this context. This study evaluated the use of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D as an alternative to indolebutyric acid (IBA in the rooting of vine rootstock cuttings. The trial was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe (São Cristóvão-SE between January and March 2010 with cuttings of the rootstocks of 'IAC-766', 'IAC-572', and 'Paulsen 1103' treated with 2,4-D or IBA applied at concentrations of 0, 1000, 2000, or 3000 rng-L-1 for 5 s and planted in a field on washed sand. At 56 days after planting, the percentages of rooted, sprouted, callused, and dead cuttings were evaluated, and also the average number and length of the rooted cuttings. The results showed that 2,4-D was not superior to IBA in the characteristics wanted for the rooting process of the vine rootstock cuttings. The vine rootstocks showed potential for propagation by cutting without auxin application. It was observed that the high concentrations were the worst for the rooting of the cuttings.

  5. Etiology, development and reaction of muskmelon to vine decline under arid conditions of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Saif Al-MAWAALI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muskmelon vine decline is considered the most important factor limiting muskmelon production in Oman. This study was conducted to characterize incidence, development, causal agents and response of muskmelon cultivars to this disease. A survey showed that incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 15% (mean 5% in spring 2011, 1 to 80% (mean 18% in autumn 2011 and 0 to15% (mean 10% in spring 2012. Isolations from 168 affected plants yielded Pythium aphanidermatum (56% of diseased plants sampled, Fusarium spp. (46%, Monosporascus cannonballus (27%, Rhizoctonia solani (22% and Macrophomina phaseolina (1%. In pathogenicity tests, R. solani, M. cannonballus and P. aphanidermatum were found to be pathogenic to muskmelon. In another experiment over three seasons, M. cannonballus, P. aphanidermatum and R. solani were consistently isolated from muskmelon plants on a weekly basis from 14 days after sowing until the end of the season. However, symptom development only began with the onset of fruiting, which suggests that fruiting stress may be a factor in vine decline disease development. Field assessment of 11 muskmelon cultivars showed that ‘Shahd F1’ was one of the cultivars least susceptible to vine decline and was relatively high yielding. This is the first record of M. cannonballus as a causal agent of muskmelon vine decline in Oman.

  6. Rooting of jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray cuttings treated with indolbutiric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rezende Muniz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The jade vine (Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Gray, is native plant from Philippines. It has long blue-green pseudoracemes inflorescence, which makes it unique and incomparable. It is considered one of the most admired and sought vines, although rare in gardens. This study evaluated the effect of indolbutiric acid (IBA on the stalks rooting of this ornamental specie. Stem cuttings without leaves and with a couple of leaves cut in half, were collected from branches of a well developed jade vine plant and were immerged into dipping solutions with a concentration range of IBA (0, 500, 1.000, 2.000 and 4.000 mg L-1 for 15 seconds. Subsequently, the bases of the cuttings was planted in polystyrene trays containing vermiculite (one cutting per cell and maintained in an intermittent water mist chamber for a 80 days period. Then the percentage of stem rooting was assessed as well as the number of roots and the length of the main root. Jade vine plants can be produced byr stem cutting treated in a dipping solution containing an IBA concentration of 2.000 mg L-1.

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on young vines in copper-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Vítor Gabriel; Voges, Joana Gerent; Canton, Ludiana; Couto, Rafael da Rosa; Ferreira, Paulo Ademar Avelar; Comin, Jucinei José; de Melo, George Wellington Bastos; Brunetto, Gustavo; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2015-01-01

    High copper (Cu) levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P) absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis) and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM), height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels.

  8. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on young vines in copper-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Gabriel Ambrosini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High copper (Cu levels in uprooted old vineyard soils may cause toxicity in transplanted young vines, although such toxicity may be reduced by inoculating plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of AMF on the plant growth, chlorophyll contents, mycorrhizal colonization, and Cu and phosphorus (P absorption in young vines cultivated in a vineyard soil contaminated by Cu. Commercial vineyard soil with high Cu levels was placed in plastic tubes and transplanted with young vines, which were inoculated with six AMF species (Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora morrowiae, A. colombiana, Rhizophagus clarus, R. irregularis and a control treatment on randomized blocks with 12 replicates. After 130 days, the mycorrhizal colonization, root and shoot dry matter (DM, height increment, P and Cu absorption, and chlorophyll contents were evaluated. The height increment, shoot DM and chlorophyll contents were not promoted by AMF, although the root DM was increased by R. clarus and R. irregularis, which had the greatest mycorrhizal colonization and P uptake. AMF increased Cu absorption but decreased its transport to shoots. Thus, AMF species, particularly R. clarus and R. irregularis, contribute to the establishment of young vines exposed to high Cu levels.

  9. Vine water deficit impacts aging bouquet in fine red Bordeaux wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Magali; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Guyon, François; Gaillard, Laetitia; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vine water status on bouquet typicality, revealed after aging, and the perception of three aromatic notes (mint, truffle, and undergrowth) in bottled fine red Bordeaux wines. To address the issue of the role of vine water deficit in the overall quality of fine aged wines, a large set of wines from four Bordeaux appellations were subjected to sensory analysis. As vine water status can be characterized by carbon isotope discrimination (δ13C), this ratio was quantified for each wine studied. Statistical analyses combining δ13C and sensory data highlighted that δ13C values discriminated effectively between the most- and least-typical wines. In addition, Principal Component Analysis revealed correlations between δ13C values and truffle, undergrowth, and mint aromatic notes, three characteristics of the red Bordeaux wine aging bouquet. These correlations were confirmed to be significant using a Spearman statistical test. This study highlighted for the first time that vine water deficit positively relates to the perception of aging bouquet typicality, as well as the expression of its key aromatic nuances.

  10. Olfactory responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to tree odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    A Y-tube olfactometer and a still-air olfactometer were developed to determine the attractiveness of several host plants for the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.); Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Odours of weevil-damaged yew (Taxus baccata) and spindle trees (Euonymus fortunei) are attractive to

  11. Long-term persisting hybrid swarm and geographic difference in hybridization pattern: genetic consequences of secondary contact between two Vincetoxicum species (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Tada, Fumito; Yamashiro, Tadashi; Maki, Masayuki

    2016-01-22

    During glacial periods, glacial advances caused temperate plant extirpation or retreat into localized warmer areas, and subsequent postglacial glacial retreats resulted in range expansions, which facilitated secondary contact of previously allopatric isolated lineages. The evolutionary outcomes of secondary contact, including hybrid zones, dynamic hybrid swarm, and resultant hybrid speciation, depends on the strengths of reproductive barriers that have arisen through epistatic and pleiotropic effects during allopatric isolation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate refugia isolation and subsequent secondary contact between two perennial Asclepioid species and to assess the genetic consequences of the secondary contact. We modeled the range shift of two ecologically distinct Vincetoxicum species using the species distribution model (SDM) and assessed the genetic consequences of secondary contact by combining morphological and genetic approaches. We performed morphometric analysis (592 individuals) and examined 10 nuclear microsatellites (671 individuals) in V. atratum, V. japonicum, and putative hybrid populations. Multivariate analysis, model-based Bayesian analysis, and non-model-based discriminant analysis of principal components confirmed the hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum. High pollen fertility and a lack of linkage disequilibrium suggested that the hybrid populations may be self-sustaining and have persisted since V. atratum and V. japonicum came into contact during the post-glacial period. Moreover, our findings show that the pattern of hybridization between V. atratum and V. japonicum is unidirectional and differs among populations. Geographically-isolated hybrid populations exist as genetically distinct hybrid swarms that consist of V. atratum-like genotypes, V. japonicum-like genotypes, or admixed genotypes. In addition, Bayesian-based clustering analysis and coalescent-based estimates of long-term gene flow showed patterns of

  12. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  13. The effect of Vine Kill Method on Vine Kill, Tuber Skinning Injury, Tuber yield and size distribution, and tuber nutrients and phytonutrients in two potato cultivars grown for early potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixteen vine kill programs were tested on Bintje and Ciklamen potato cultivars grown for early potato production over a three year period near Paterson, Washington. Mechanical (flail chopping, flail chopping and undercutting), chemical (glufosinate, diquat, sulfuric acid, carfentrazone, pyraflufen-...

  14. Fumonisin contamination and fumonisin producing black Aspergilli in dried vine fruits of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, J; Kocsubé, S; Suri, K; Szigeti, Gy; Szekeres, A; Varga, M; Tóth, B; Bartók, T

    2010-10-15

    Aspergillus niger isolates are able to produce fumonisins in high quantities on agar media with a low water activity. Several agricultural products fit this criterion, including dried vine fruits, dates and figs. Data on the occurrence and role of this species in fumonisin contamination of agricultural products with high sugar content are needed to clarify the importance of A. niger in human health. The mycobiota and fumonisin contamination of various dried vine fruit samples collected from different countries were examined to clarify the role of black Aspergilli in fumonisin contamination of such products. All except two of the examined samples were contaminated with black Aspergilli. Species assignment of the isolates was carried out using sequence analysis of part of the calmodulin gene. The range of fumonisin isomers present in the raisins samples, and produced by A. niger isolates collected from dried vine fruits was also examined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/ESI-ITMS). Among the 30 A. niger/A. awamori isolates identified, 20 were found to be able to produce fumonisins (average contamination: 5.16 mg/kg; range: 0.017-19.6 mg/kg). The average fumonisin content of the 7 dried vine fruit samples which were found to be contaminated by potential fumonisin producing black Aspergilli was 7.22 mg/kg (range: 4.55-35.49 mg/kg). The isolates produced several fumonisin isomers also present in the dried vine fruit samples, including fumonisins B(1-4), 3-epi-FB(3), 3-epi-FB(4), iso-FB(1), and two iso-FB(2,3) forms. Fumonisin B(1) was detected for the first time in A. niger cultures. Most of these isomers have previously only been identified in Fusarium species. Our data indicate that A. niger and A. awamori are responsible for fumonisin contamination of dried vine fruits worldwide. The observed levels of contamination are alarming and pose a new threat for food safety. Copyright

  15. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: Do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Delord

    2015-06-01

    In summary, the main argument put forward by the European Commission to justify canceling vine planting rights is not adapted to the case of France because it considers wine as a single product sold at a single price.

  16. Measuring Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall of crude oil portfolio using extreme value theory and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhua; Yang, Kun; Wei, Yu; Lei, Likun

    2018-01-01

    Volatilities of crude oil price have important impacts on the steady and sustainable development of world real economy. Thus it is of great academic and practical significance to model and measure the volatility and risk of crude oil markets accurately. This paper aims to measure the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of a portfolio consists of four crude oil assets by using GARCH-type models, extreme value theory (EVT) and vine copulas. The backtesting results show that the combination of GARCH-type-EVT models and vine copula methods can produce accurate risk measures of the oil portfolio. Mixed R-vine copula is more flexible and superior to other vine copulas. Different GARCH-type models, which can depict the long-memory and/or leverage effect of oil price volatilities, however offer similar marginal distributions of the oil returns.

  17. Evolution of the stability parameters composting two-phase olive mill waste with grape marc and vine branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gallego, A.; Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Rato, J. M.; Barreto, C.; Cabrera, D.; Prieto, M. H.; Munoz, A.; Almendro, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    Modern olive-oil extraction technology generates a large amount of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in Mediterranean countries, with composting being a viable alternative to the traditional disposal of these residues. Vine branches and grape marc also constitute abundant organic residues in these countries. TPOMW was composted with vine branches and grape mar as bulking agents for use as organic amendment. (Author)

  18. Self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica is mediated by physiological connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, Yuya; Yamawo, Akira

    2015-09-07

    Although self-discrimination has been well documented, especially in animals, self-discrimination in plants has been identified in only a few cases, such as self-incompatibility in flowers and root discrimination. Here, were port a new form of self-discrimination in plants: discrimination by vine tendrils. We found that tendrils of the perennial vine Cayratia japonica were more likely to coil around neighbouring non-self plants than neighbouring self plants in both experimental and natural settings. The higher level of coiling around a physiologically severed self plant compared with that around a physiologically connected self plant suggested that self-discrimination was mediated by physiological coordination between the tendril and the touched plant as reported for self-discrimination in roots. The results highlight the importance of self-discrimination for plant competition not only underground,but also above-ground.

  19. Comparative environmental Life Cycle Assessment of integral revalorization of vine shoots from a biorefinery perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Patricia; Gullón, Beatriz; Dávila, Izaskun; Labidi, Jalel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara

    2017-12-15

    The use of vine shoots as feedstock in biorefining activities to obtain bioproducts under efficient and optimized conditions could be crucial to make future high added value compounds and processes more sustainable. In this study, five different potential valorization scenarios from vine shoots differing on diverse extraction and delignification steps were assessed from an environmental perspective using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology to identify the most sustainable biorefining route. The main findings from this study reported that an increment on the number of valorization steps involved higher energy and chemical requirements deriving on worse environmental profiles. Scenarios incorporating fermentation of the glucose liquors or organosolv delignification performed the worst profiles. Autohydrolysis, concentration and freeze drying and enzymatic hydrolysis were the main responsible stages of the environmental burdens. Further research should be focused on optimizing chemicals and electricity requirements to develop greener systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; He, Yan-Nan; Chen, Wei-Kai; He, Fei; Chen, Wu; Cai, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chang-Qing; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-15

    Cluster thinning is a common practice for regulating vine yield and grape quality. The effects of cluster thinning on vine photosynthesis, berry ripeness and flavonoid composition of V. vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon were evaluated during two seasons. Half of the clusters were removed at pea-size and veraison relative to two controls, respectively. Both cluster thinning treatments significantly increased pruning weight and decreased yield. No effects of cluster thinning on berry growth, ripeness and flavonol composition were observed. Early cluster thinning decreased the photosynthetic rate at pea-size, but the effect diminished at post-veraison. Early cluster thinning significantly promoted the biosynthesis of anthocyanins but decreased the proportion of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins at veraison. Late cluster thinning decreased the proportions of 3'5'-hydroxylated and acylated anthocyanins. Additionally, Cluster thinning showed inconsistent effects on flavan-3-ol composition over the two seasons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wine and the vine in Upper Moesia archaeological and epigraphic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilipović Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vine-growing and winemaking in the area of the Roman province of Upper Moesia are looked at based on the information supplied by the ancient sources, and the archaeological and epigraphic evidence (inscriptions, artistic depictions, vinedressing and winemaking implements, drinking and transport vessels. Viniculture is associated with the Greco-Roman cultural orbit, while the native central-Balkan tribes typically consumed alcoholic beverages made from cereals. Therefore the goal of the research is to shed as much light as currently possible on the significance of vine-growing and wine in the life of the inhabitants of Upper Moesia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177012: Society, spiritual and material culture and communications in prehistory and early history of the Balkans

  2. Effect of sweet potato vines on performance parameters and some carcass characteristics of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, A C K; da Silva, L P; de Toledo, G S P; Galarreta, B; Goulart, F

    2018-02-01

    Conventional feedstuffs in Brazil are expensive, which has led to the search for less conventional cheaper and locally available feedstuffs. Thus, this study was carried out to determine the dietary effect of dry sweet potato vines (SPV) on the performance and some carcass characteristics of rabbits. A total of twenty-seven weaned White New Zealand rabbits (14 male and 13 female) 35 days old with an average initial weight of 755 g were allocated into three treatments. Nine rabbits were assigned to each treatment in a completely randomized design. Three diets were formulated to similar protein and energy levels: 0SPV - diet without inclusion of dry sweet potato vines; 10SPV - diet with 10% alfalfa hay replaced by dry sweet potato vines; and 15SPV - diet with 15% of alfalfa hay replaced by dry sweet potato vines. The experiment lasted for 49 days during which data for feed intake and body weight were recorded. The daily feed intake ranged from 73.17 to 78.02 g; daily weight gain from 22.32 to 23.17 g; feed conversion ratio (FCR) from 3.16 to 3.49 and final live weight ranged from 1839.44 to 1880.55 g. None of the evaluated performance parameters as well as carcass weight, heart weight and percentages of fat and protein in meat were significantly affected by any of the tested dietary treatments. However, the liver weight was statistically lower in animals fed the diets containing 10% of SPV, mainly due to lower glucose content. Glycogen within the tissue, did not differ significantly among treatments. It was therefore concluded that up to 15% of SPV can successfully be included in the diet of rabbits as a cheaper replacement for alfalfa hay without adversely affecting performance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. A Bayesian Framework for Exploring Drought-Heat Wave Relationships via Vine Copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a framework for exploring contributions of underlying factors to extreme weather and climate events via vine copulas. In particular, this framework features a quantitative way for evaluating the importance of conditional relationships between variables and processes that capture underlying physical factors involved in their interdependence. Specifically, a variety of bivariate copulas is incorporated to construct a wide range of joint dependence structures for climate-related extreme events, e.g. building distributions for describing the statistics of heat waves. Underlying factors relevant for the extreme event are then taken into account via the conditioning sets of vine copulas. These quantify changes in the occurrence and severity of the extreme event owing to the co-action of various factors, e.g. conditioning the distribution of heat waves upon soil moisture deficits, precipitation deficits etc. A Bayesian inference approach is integrated into the multi-dimensional vine copulas, which facilitate parameter inference, uncertainty assessments, and the incorporation of various levels of conditioning sets in the vine copula. To illustrate, the proposed framework is applied to explore the relationship between droughts and heat waves over various regions of the contiguous United States that are distinguished by so-called energy-limited versus water-limited climatologies. We use data from large ensembles of CESM1 transient simulations and compare changes in the severity and likelihood of heat waves in response to soil moisture deficits relative to the climatology of the historical, current and future climate states, respectively. We explore whether the sensitivity of heat waves to soil moisture conditions is different for the climate regions mentioned above, and whether each region has unique attributes of sensitivity to human-induced climate change.

  4. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oganesyants Lev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties cultivated in the Rostov region of Russia. Cold winters are considered to be the major stress for the grape plants. Under these conditions, leaves accumulate large amount of biologically active substances, including trans-resveratrol, which provide significant advantage compared with the harvest from grapes cultivated in areas where the plants are not protected during winter. Comparative studies on the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous and European varieties were conducted, including on the use of bioassay systems in vitro. It was found that extracts of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties have a marked effect on the rate of glutathione reductase and pyruvate kinase reactions that are demonstrating their angioprotective and energizing properties. The increase in the rate of the catalase reaction indicates the manifestation of antioxidant properties. The technology of CO2 – and highly concentrated hydrophilic extracts production from red vine leaves that preserves biologically active compounds to the maximum extent possible. The extracts are used for the manufacture of soft drinks that have the venomotor action and may be applied in the process of the manufacture of fat products with extended shelf life, as well as the main raw material for the preparations with the pronounced angioprotective effect.

  5. Mobile Application Development for Optimal and Rapid Diagnosis of Vine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lucia TOMOIAGĂ

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments in the field of machine learning (Ghahramani, 2015, breakthroughs in computer vision (Krizhevsky et al., 2012 and the availability of cheap computational hardware has led us to look for a way to automatically detect and classify a disease just by having a computer or a mobile phone process a picture of an affected plant. Given the widespread availability of mobile devices, we believe we can help the vine growers further.

  6. Stress Testing German Industry Sectors: Results from a Vine Copula Based Quantile Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Matthias; Kraus, Daniel; Pfeuffer, Marius; Czado, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Measuring interdependence between probabilities of default (PDs) in different industry sectors of an economy plays a crucial role in financial stress testing. Thereby, regression approaches may be employed to model the impact of stressed industry sectors as covariates on other response sectors. We identify vine copula based quantile regression as an eligible tool for conducting such stress tests as this method has good robustness properties, takes into account potential nonlinearities of cond...

  7. Study of features of the biochemical composition of red vine leaves of autochthonous varieties in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Oganesyants Lev; Panasyuk Alexander; Kuzmina Helen

    2015-01-01

    One of the fields of processing industries’ activities is the use of secondary resources. The use the vegetative parts of grape plants may become an important component in solving this task. Such vegetative parts, first of all, include red grape leaves, which provide a large reserve of antioxidants and other biologically useful substances. The Russian Research Institute of Brewing and Wine Industry has carried out the detailed study of the features of the biochemical composition of red vine l...

  8. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo Min; Zemei Guo; Kai Wang; Ang Zhang; Hua Li; Yulin Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was si...

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and vine (Vitis vinifera leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Smole Možina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of rosemary extracts were compared to those of vine leaf extracts. The phenolics were quantified by HPLC. Rosemary extracts were stronger in reducing power than vine leaf extracts but possessed weaker superoxide anion radical (O2•− scavenging capability. The antimicrobial activity was confirmed by the broth microdilution test using minimal inhibitory (MIC concentrations against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and gram-negative bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Infantis, Escherichia coli O157:H7. The kinetics of survival was assessed using the broth macrodilution method. The study confirmed the stronger antibacterial activity of rosemary extracts, especially against gram-positive bacteria and C. jejuni. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of vine leaf extracts did not correlate with their contents of flavan-3-ols and flavonols. For rosemary extracts the absence of a correlation between their activities and the content of carnosic acid suggests that protective efficiency is achieved through interactions among phenolic constituents.

  10. O vine e o diálogo audiovisual na cultura participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheron Neves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No atual ambiente midiático, a audiência possui ferramentas não apenas para consumir mas para produzir e distribuir conteúdo. Em um mercado onde as fronteiras entre entretenimento e publicidade se tornam cada vez menos claras, o conteúdo audiovisual e as comunidades formadas ao seu redor se tornam temas de estudo relevantes. Dominado pelo YouTube na primeira década do milênio, o mercado do vídeo online vem se ampliando em função da tecnologia mobile, e aplicativos para rápida produção e consumo de vídeo, como o Vine, que se destaca pelo seu caráter social e colaborativo. A proposta deste trabalho é examinar o potencial do Vine na publicidade – não aquela tradicionalmente interruptiva e unilateral, mas sim uma publicidade que entretém, envolve e convida a participar. Para isto, o caso da campanha Hollywood and Vines, da Airbnb, será analisado.

  11. Moscatel vine-shoot extracts as a grapevine biostimulant to enhance wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Zalacain, A; Pardo, F; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2017-08-01

    Non-aromatic vine-shoot extracts (Airén) has been recently proposed as "viticultural biostimulants" when applied to grapevine. In this paper, the application of extracts from non-toasted (MVS) and toasted (MVSToasted) vine-shoots from the well-known aromatic variety such Moscatel were applied on Airén grapevine leaves, observing an increased for grape yield and wines with a lower alcohol degree. All wines at the end of the alcoholic fermentation were characterized by their fruity and floral descriptors, especially MVS wines; and 4 months later, MSV and MVSToasted wines surprised by their higher spicy notes, which correspond with the highest OAVs values for compounds such as norisoprenoids (β-damascenone), vanillin derivatives (vanillin, acetovanillone) and volatile phenols (guaiacol, syringol), compared to control wine. Wine phenolic composition was affected positively over all by MVS in case of phenolic acids. These results confirm that Moscatel vine-shoot extracts foliar application into Airén non-aromatic grapevines produce an interesting enhance on wine quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. β-Cyclodextrin-assisted extraction of polyphenols from vine shoot cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajha, Hiba N; Chacar, Stephanie; Afif, Charbel; Vorobiev, Eugene; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G

    2015-04-08

    This work optimized the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-assisted extraction process of polyphenols from vine shoots. The efficiency of β-CD was compared to that of ethanol in terms of the quantity and antioxidant capacity (AC) of the extracted polyphenols. Response surface methodology permitted the optimization of the β-CD concentration, time, and temperature. The optimal polyphenol content (PC) [5.8 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry matter (DM)] and AC [3146 micromolar trolox equivalent per milliliter (μMTE)] were initially obtained with Syrah cultivar after an extraction of 48 h at 66.6 °C with a 37.7 mg/mL aqueous β-CD solvent. The same PC (5.8 mg of GAE/g of DM) was reached with 50% ethanol/water solvent after 1.65 h. However, a lower AC was found with ethanol (2000 μMTE) compared to β-CD. A comparison of the PC and AC of four different vine shoot cultivars was realized. Our results clearly show the capacity of β-CD to amplify polyphenol extraction from vine shoots.

  13. Antioxidant effects of grape vine cane extracts from different Chinese grape varieties on edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Zhuo; Guo, Zemei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Ang; Li, Hua; Fang, Yulin

    2014-09-23

    This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV) as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC), which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  14. Deconvoluting effects of vine and soil properties on grape berry composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerihun, Ayalsew; McClymont, Lexie; Lanyon, Dean; Goodwin, Ian; Gibberd, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition is influenced by several factors including grapevine and soil properties and their interactions. Understanding how these factors interact to determine berry composition is integral to producing berries with desired composition. Here we used extensive spatio-temporal data to identify significant vine and soil features that influence Shiraz berry composition. The concentrations of berry flavonoids (anthocyanins, tannin and total phenolics), total soluble solids and pH were typically negatively associated with canopy, crop and berry size factors whereas titratable acidity was positively associated. The strengths of the associations, however, were generally greater with the crop and berry size factors than with the canopy size factor. The analyses also resolved separate influences of berry and crop size on berry composition. Soil properties had significant influences on berry composition; however, when influences of soil factors on vine-attributes were accounted for, the apparent effects of soil factors on berry composition were largely non-existent. At each site, variations in berry composition were more strongly associated with crop and berry size than with canopy size factors. Apparent influences of soil properties on berry composition are indirect, being mediated via their effects on vine attributes (canopy, crop and berry sizes). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Antioxidant Effects of Grape Vine Cane Extracts from Different Chinese Grape Varieties on Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study involved the determination of the peroxide value (POV as a measure of the resistance of the oxidation of edible oil with grape vine cane additives to assess their antioxidation potential. The study demonstrated that grape extracts of canes could effectively inhibit the lipid oxidation of edible oils and that this ability varied significantly due to the different extraction solvents employed, as well as to the different varieties of canes used. Lipid oxidation of edible oils was significantly reduced under an accelerated storage condition of 70 ± 1 °C in the presence of Vitamin C (VC, which was chosen as a synergist of grape vine cane extract. A 4:1 ratio of Victoria Blanc-ethyl acetate fraction (EAF and VC led to a significant lowering of the peroxide value and indicated a better antioxidant effect. Thus, these results indicated that some varieties of grape vine cane extracts could be applied as natural antioxidants for elevation of the quality of edible oils in the food industry.

  16. Lucania as the heart of III vine domestication center: The rediscovery of autochthonous vines / Lucania fulcro del III Centro di domesticazione della vite: La riscoperta dei vitigni autoctoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Lungo Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Basilicata, where it sees a vineyard dominated by mountains and not far from the ruins of the Roman city and Early Medieval Grumentum (Val d'Agri PZ, it's obvious to think of its existence at all times. The landscape scenery stimulates the visitor to sense an ancient feeling underlined by producers wisdom with the winemaking art documented for centuries. Genetic and historical-archaeological research confirm it by carving a real substratum of autochthonous varieties in a context, the Enotria, which is now better understood also in the material culture. When talking about Enotria and conventionally we think an indefinite wine land, which later became Italia, it is easy to slip into the rhetoric. The situation has changed. The Enotria, land recognizable to the Greeks through the vineyards planted with the support of poles (oinòtra, is becoming a reality perceptible and tangible thanks to a research done not only in the laboratory but also in the historical archives and especially in field. The grapevine germplasm research in Basilicata, financed by Region and local authorities, developed by CREA-UTV and CNR-IBAM, exploring the areas of Val d'Agri, Pollino, Matera, Vulture and High Basento and enhanced by an anthropological study, is bringing to public attention varieties so far only imagined in the abundance of grape names which tradition has bequeathed. About the 154 varieties spread in the Lucan towns surveyed in “Statistics of the Naples Kingdom” disposed by G. Murat in 1811, about the 63 wine varieties and 29 to dual purpose (wine and table, cataloged in Ampelographic Bulletins of the Ministry of Agriculture of 1881, or about the 30 vines from which it has been produced wines presented at the first wine exhibition of 1887 which was held in Potenza, mostly have unfortunately gone missing along with the memory of those who died or emigrated elsewhere abandoning the vines. In archives, remain some ephemeral relationships of those who

  17. Hierarchical vine-tree-like carbon nanotube architectures: In-situ CVD self-assembly and their use as robust scaffolds for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Peng, Hong-Jie; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Tang, Cheng; Wei, Fei

    2014-11-05

    Hierarchical vine-tree-like carbon nanotube architectures composed of vine-like single-walled carbon nanotubes wrapping around the tree-like multi-walled carbon nanotubes are fabricated through in-situ chemical vapor deposition self-assembly. The vine-tree-like nanoarchitectures exhibit excellent cycling stability and rate performance when employed as the cathode scaffolds for lithium-sulfur batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Caspers, Jana; Buckingham, Lauren; Anderson-Shelton, Gail Denise; Ridgway, Carrie; Buffington, C A Tony; Schulz, Stefan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2017-03-16

    Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried

  19. Effect of biostimulant sprays on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and esca proper infected vines under greenhouse and fi eld conditions

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    S. Di Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are compounds that infl uence physiological processes in plants, producing better growth and enhancing stress tolerance. The effect of some biostimulants on vines was investigated over a number of years to assess their effect both on the incidence of esca leaf symptoms in the vineyard and on the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora artifi cially inoculated into potted vines. Field trials were carried out for 4–7 years in fi ve 15-20-yearold vineyards infected with esca proper. Potted plants were sprayed with biostimulants, after which the vine trunks were inoculated with P. chlamydospora, and then the vines were sprayed again with biostimulants in the following 2 or 3 growing seasons. On the whole, biostimulants in the fi eld did not reduce foliar symptoms. The percentage of symptomatic vines that had shown symptoms in previous years was higher in the biostimulant-sprayed plots. In the greenhouse, a certain reduction of internal necrosis caused by P. chlamydospora was seen with three of the four biostimulants tested. Prospects for biostimulants as a means control esca are discussed.

  20. Effects of hot water treatments on dormant grapevine propagation materials used for grafted vine production

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    Soltekin Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium vitis is responsible for the crown gall disease of grapevine which breaks the grapevine trunk vascular system. Nutrient flow is prevented by crown gall and it leads to weak growth and death of the plants. It can be destructive disease often encountered in vineyards and it can be spread in cuttings for propagation. Thermotherapy treatment is an alternative method for eradicating A. vitis from grapevine cuttings but effects of thermotherapy treatments on dormant vine tissue, bud vitality, rooting and shooting of the propagation materials are not yet fully understood. In this research, it is aimed to determine the effects of thermotherapy treatment (Hot water treatment on callus formation (at the basal part and grafting point, grafted vine quality (shoot length, shoot width, root number, shooting and rooting development, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots and final take in the grafted vine production. Experiment was conducted in the nursery of Manisa Viticultural Research Institute. Rootstocks (Kober 5BB, Couderc 1613 and 41B and scions (Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanı were hot-water treated at 50°C for 30 minutes which is the most common technique against Agrobacterium vitis. After thermotherapy treatment, all rootstocks were grafted with Sultan 7 and Manisa sultanıvarieties. They were kept for 22 days in callusing room for callus development and then they were planted in polyethlyene bags for rooting. At the end of the study, significant treatment x rootstock interaction were observed for the final take of Sultan 7 variety. Thermotherapy treated of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had more final take than the control (untreated group. For instance, hot water treated cuttings of 1613C/Sultan 7 combinations had 75% final take while the control group had the 70%. Also there were not observed any adverse effects of HWT on bud and tissue vitality.

  1. Effects of delayed mating on the reproductive biology of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, A; Mura, A; Muscas, E; Nuvoli, M T; Cocco, A

    2017-08-14

    The effect of increasing mating delay on the reproductive performance and population growth rates of the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), was investigated under laboratory conditions. Virgin females were mated at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after emergence and reproductive and life table parameters were estimated. The pre-oviposition period (number of days between mating and the onset of oviposition) significantly decreased in females mated within 7 days, whereas females mated at older ages showed equivalent pre-oviposition periods (7 days, as shorter delays in mating did not reduce the population growth rates.

  2. The age of vines as a controlling factor of soil erosion processes in Mediterranean vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Brevik, Eric C; Cerdà, Artemi

    2018-03-01

    Vineyards incur the highest soil and water losses among all Mediterranean agricultural fields. The state-of-the-art shows that soil erosion in vineyards has been primarily surveyed with topographical methods, soil erosion plots and rainfall simulations, but these techniques do not typically assess temporal changes in soil erosion. When vines are planted they are about 30cm high×1cm diameter without leaves, the root system varies from 2 to over 40cm depth, and sometimes the lack of care used during transplanting can result in a field with highly erodible bare soils. This means that the time since vine plantation plays a key role in soil erosion rates, but very little attention has been paid to this by the scientific community. Thus, the main goal of this research was to estimate soil losses and assess soil erosion processes in two paired vineyard plantations of different ages. To achieve this goal, the improved stock unearthing method (ISUM) was applied to vineyards on colluvial parent materials with similar soil properties, topographical characteristics and land managements in the Les Alcusses Valley, southwestern Valencia province, Spain. Our findings suggested that the old vineyards showed lower erosion rates (-1.61Mgha -1 yr -1 ) than those that were recently planted (-8.16Mgha -1 yr -1 ). This is because of the damage that the plantation of the vines causes to soil. Tillage after planting (4 times per year) resulted in changes in the inter-row and row morphology, promoting the development of a ridge underneath the vines that disconnected the inter-rows and reduced soil losses with time. After the second year and until the 25th year after plantation, soil erosion was approximately 1Mgha -1 y -1 , which means that most of the erosion took place during the first two years after the plantation. Soil conservation strategies should be applied immediately after the plantation works to allow sustainable grape production. That is when soil erosion most needs to be

  3. A vine copula mixed effect model for trivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies accounting for disease prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K

    2017-10-01

    A bivariate copula mixed model has been recently proposed to synthesize diagnostic test accuracy studies and it has been shown that it is superior to the standard generalized linear mixed model in this context. Here, we call trivariate vine copulas to extend the bivariate meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies by accounting for disease prevalence. Our vine copula mixed model includes the trivariate generalized linear mixed model as a special case and can also operate on the original scale of sensitivity, specificity, and disease prevalence. Our general methodology is illustrated by re-analyzing the data of two published meta-analyses. Our study suggests that there can be an improvement on trivariate generalized linear mixed model in fit to data and makes the argument for moving to vine copula random effects models especially because of their richness, including reflection asymmetric tail dependence, and computational feasibility despite their three dimensionality.

  4. Investigation of fungal root colonizers of the invasive plant Vincetoxicum rossicum and co-occurring local native plants in a field and woodland area in Southern Ontario

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    Cindy Bongard

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal communities forming associations with plant roots have generally been described as ranging from symbiotic to parasitic. Disruptions to these associations consequently can have significant impacts on native plant communities. We examined how invasion by Vincetoxicum rossicum, a plant native to Europe, can alter both the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, as well as the general fungal communities associating with native plant roots in both field and woodland sites in Southern Ontario. In two different sites in the Greater Toronto Area, we took advantage of invasion by V. rossicum and neighbouring uninvaded sites to investigate the fungal communities associating with local plant roots, including goldenrod (Solidago spp., wild red raspberry (Rubus idaeus, Canada anemone (Anemone canadensis, meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum, and wild ginger (Asarum canadense. Fungi colonizing roots were characterized with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of amplified total fungal (TF and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF ribosomal fragments. We saw a significant effect of the presence of this invader on the diversity of TF phylotypes colonizing native plant roots, and a composition shift of both the TF and AMF community in native roots in both sites. In native communities invaded by V. rossicum, a significant increase in richness and colonization density of TF suggests that invaders such as V. rossicum may be able to influence the composition of soil fungi available to natives, possibly via mechanisms such as increased carbon provision or antibiosis attributable to unique root exudates.

  5. AN ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA ON THE SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS OF "VINE CITY"--A NEGRO SLUM GHETTO WITHIN THE CITY OF ATLANTA, GEORGIA. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALVORSEN, MARCIA L.

    IN THIS REPORT DATA DESCRIBING THE SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS OF "VINE CITY," A NEGRO SLUM IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA, ARE STATISTICALLY SUMMARIZED AND ANALYZED. ONE HUNDRED AND THIRTY-SIX PERSONS, MOSTLY WOMEN, REPRESENTING 11 PERCENT OF "VINE CITY'S" FAMILY POPULATION, WERE INTERVIEWED BY STUDENTS AT A NEARBY COLLEGE. THE…

  6. Systemic insecticides for control of black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in container- and field-grown nursery crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Persad, Anand B

    2009-06-01

    Black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. We tested several new systemic insecticides for efficacy against black vine weevil in container-grown Sedum spp. and field-grown Taxus spp. In 2006 and 2007, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole were applied as surface drenches to containerized Sedum plants, and suppression of larval densities and adult feeding were evaluated. Sedum leaf bioassays were used to further examine the influence of clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole on adult feeding. In 2006, pots were infested with adult black vine weevil 1 d after treating, and in 2007 pots were infested 1 or 43 d after treating. All three insecticides significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in 2006, but not in 2007, because of low numbers of larvae in the untreated control plants. Dinotefuran and clothianidin reduced feeding by adult black vine weevil on containerized Sedum plants, resulting in more blossoms, fewer damaged leaves, and a lower percentage of leaves damaged compared with control plants. In bioassays with detached leaves, all three insecticides reduced feeding compared with control plants. Efficacy and timing of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and acephate soil drenches and imidacloprid and acephate soil injections were evaluated for black vine weevil control over a 1-yr period in field-grown Taxus plants. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in field-grown Taxus plants compared with control plants; and all but the spring acephate drench improved the appearance of the Taxus (foliar rating) plants compared with untreated plants. All of the tested insecticides showed potential for preventing infestations of black vine weevil larvae and reducing feeding by the adults in ornamental plants.

  7. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CLAVATA3-like genes are differentially expressed in grape vine (Vitis vinifera) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga-Wada, Rumi; Nukumizu, Yuka; Wada, Takuji; Sawa, Shinichiro; Tetsumura, Takuya

    2013-10-15

    The CLAVATA3 (CLV3)/endosperm surrounding region [(ESR) CLE] peptides function as intercellular signaling molecules that regulate various physiological and developmental processes in diverse plant species. We identified five CLV3-like genes from grape vine (Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir): VvCLE 6, VvCLE 25-1, VvCLE 25-2, VvCLE 43 and VvCLE TDIF. These CLV3-like genes encode short proteins containing 43-128 amino acids. Except VvCLE TDIF, grape vine CLV3-like proteins possess a consensus amino acid sequence known as the CLE domain. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the VvCLE 6, VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE43 genes have evolved from a single common ancestor to the Arabidopsis CLV3 gene. Expression analyses showed that the five grape CLV3-like genes are expressed in leaves, stems, roots and axillary buds with significant differences in their levels of expression. For example, while all of them were strongly expressed in axillary buds, VvCLE6 and VvCLE43 expression prevailed in roots, and VvCLE25-1, VvCLE25-2 and VvCLE TDIF expression in stems. The differential expression of the five grape CLV3-like peptides suggests that they play different roles in different organs and developmental stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Grape aroma precursors in cv. Nebbiolo as affected by vine microclimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproudi, Andriani; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Cavalletto, Silvia; Guidoni, Silvia

    2016-11-15

    The influence exerted by bunch microclimate on some C13-norisoprenoid precursors content was investigated for the first time in Nebbiolo grapes during ripening. Samples were collected, during two consecutive seasons, from two vineyards, which are characterized by different microclimatic conditions caused by vine vigour heterogeneity and different vineyard aspects. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosides extracted from the grapes, and subsequent GC-MS determination of the aglycones, highlighted that the majority of norisoprenoid glycosides accumulated in Nebbiolo berries from pre-veraison until 3-4weeks post-veraison. Vineyard aspect and vine vigour affected the timing of the maximum concentration of norisoprenoid precursors and their subsequent decrease at harvest. Low light in the vigorous blocks penalized norisoprenoids peak concentration. In the south less vigorous blocks, a decline of total norisoprenoids content during the pre-harvest period was observed. This decline appeared mainly regulated by the temperature. Vintage and/or microclimatic conditions affected the final content of some important norisoprenoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of suitability of vine shoots for hemicellulosic oligosaccharides production through aqueous processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Izaskun; Gordobil, Oihana; Labidi, Jalel; Gullón, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    Vine shoots were subjected to non-isothermal aqueous processing. A range of severities (S0) from 3.20 to 4.65 was assayed and their effects in terms of solubilization, composition, molar mass distribution, structural characterization and thermal stability of the liquors were studied using HPLC, HPSEC, TGA and FTIR. The spent solids were characterized by HPLC and FTIR. When autohydrolysis was carried out at S0=4.01, the substrate solubilization achieved a 38.7% of the raw material and 83.1% of the initial xylan was converted into xylooligosaccharides (XOS). The amount of TOS (total oligosaccharides) in the hydrolysates was 28.4g/L while the other non volatile compounds (ONVC) were 0.08g/g NVC. The spent solid from the treatment at S0=4.01 was composed about 90% of cellulose and lignin. Therefore, it can be concluded that autohydrolysis is a suitable pretreatment of vine shoots such as a first stage of a biomass refinery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed response to ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) feeding on grape roots linked to vine carbohydrate reserves and nematode feeding pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic impact of ring nematode (Mesocriconema xenoplax) feeding on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) was studied under controlled conditions. 'Pinot noir' grapevines were exposed to ring nematode or kept nematode-free for three growing seasons, and vines were either grown in full sunlight, 15% of full...

  12. Free Amino Acid Profiles from 'Pinot Noir' Grapes are Influenced by Vine N-status and Sample Preparation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the impact of extraction method on ammonia, free amino acids, and YAN (yeast assimilable nitrogen) concentrations in 'Pinot noir' berries obtained from a vine nutrition study (altered supply of N, P, or K). Berries were either juiced or exhaustively extracted as whole berries pri...

  13. Fruit fate, seed germination and growth of an invasive vine - an experimental test of 'sit and wait' strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Lindsay M. Smith; Douglas J. Levey

    2001-01-01

    Oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculutus Thunb.) is a non-indigenous, invasive woody vine in North America that proliferates in disturbed open sites. Unlike most invasive species, C. orbiculatus exhibits a `sit and wait' strategy by establishing and persisting indefinitely in undisturbed, closed canopy forest and...

  14. Education, Traditional Knowledge and the Indian Future: An Interview with Native American Educator, Author and Philosopher, Vine Deloria, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Richard

    1999-01-01

    An interview with Native American educator, Vine Deloria, Jr., discusses changes in the state of higher education for American Indians over the past 30 years, focusing on pitfalls for Indian students entering higher education, suggestions regarding how to improve training for teachers of Indian students, the place of traditional knowledge in…

  15. Potential carry-over of seeds from 11 common shrub and vine competitors of loblolly and shortleaf pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Shelton; Michael D. Cain

    2002-01-01

    Many of the competitors of the regeneration of loblolly and shortleaf pines (Pinus taeda, L. and Pinus echinata Mill., respectively) develop from seed disseminated on the site after reproduction cutting or from the seed bank. To evaluate the potential carry-over of the seeds from 11 shrub and vine competitors of these two...

  16. EFFECTS OF SOME CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENTS ON SOME PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURED FROM VINE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün GÜNTEKİN, Samim YAŞAR, Beyhan KARAKUŞ, Mustafa Burak ARSLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of some pre-treatments on some physical and mechanical properties of particleboard manufactured from vine pruning. Chips that were produced from vine pruning were subjected to some pre-treatments namely cold water, 1 % sodium hydroxide, and 1 % acetic acid in order to improve their performance in particleboard manufacturing. One-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.5 g/cm3 were manufactured from vine pruning using 6,8,10 % percent of urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, internal bond strength (IB, thickness swelling (TS and water absorption properties of the boards were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate effects of pre-treatments on physical and mechanical properties. The results have shown that pre-treatments increase bending and internal bond strength of the boards while no significant effects has been observed on modulus of elasticity. The results also indicate that pre-treatments have significant effects on water absorption values of the boards but not on thickness swelling of the boards. This study demonstrates that vine pruning can be more efficiently used in particleboard manufacturing.

  17. Behavioural responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to semiochemicals from conspecifics, Otiorhynchus salicicola, and host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus is a parthenogenetic reproducing species which forages for suitable host plants at night, but is found congregated in dark places during the day. Frass of this weevil species is suspected to contain attractive compounds that are host-plant related. Using a

  18. Effect of toasting on non-volatile and volatile vine-shoots low molecular weight phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2016-08-01

    Low molecular weight phenolic compounds (LMWPC), including non-volatile and volatile, of Airén and Moscatel vine-shoot cultivars waste submitted to different toasting conditions (light, 180°/15min; medium, 180°/30min; high 180°/45min) were studied in order to exploit them with oenological purposes. The LMWPC differences were mainly due to the toasting times rather than vine-shoot variety. In non-volatile LMWPC fraction, flavanols and almost all phenolic acids decreased by toasting. The presence of trans-resveratrol has a special relevance at light toasting: 14 times more concentrated in Airén and 6 times in Moscatel vine-shoots, than their respective non-toasted samples. The volatile LMWPC showed a significant increment with toasting, being vanillin the one with the highest difference respect to non-toasted samples at high conditions: more than 15 times in Airén and 11 in Moscatel. Although toasting reduced some LMWPC, particular characteristics of these vine-shoots must be taken into account when considering its future use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coproduction of lignin and glucose from vine shoots by eco-friendly strategies: Toward the development of an integrated biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Izaskun; Gullón, Patricia; Andrés, María A; Labidi, Jalel

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the suitability of the pretreated vine shoots as a source of lignin and to determine its structural features. The best conditions to achieve the aim of this work were 12% NaOH, 124°C and 105min, as they permitted a removal of 67.7% of the lignin present in the pretreated vine shoots and the obtaining of a solid with a 69.4% of glucan. This delignified solid was subjected to an enzymatic hydrolysis achieving a conversion of glucan to glucose close to 100%. The characterization of lignins extracted from pretreated vine shoots was carried out for the first time and the following techniques were employed: a quantitative acid hydrolysis, HPSEC, TGA, FTIR and Pyrolysis-GC/MS. With this proposal, products from the main fractions of the vine shoots (hemicellulosic oligosaccharides, lignin fragments and cellulosic substrates) could be obtained separately, being potentially suitable for further applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rare Earth and other Chemical Elements Accumulation in Vines of Fogo Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, Maria Isabel; Rocha, Fernando; Dias, Maria Isabel; Franco, Dulce

    2017-04-01

    The Fogo Island is the fourth bigger island of the Cape Verde (central Atlantic Ocean). This archipelago is located 570 kilometres off the coast of West Africa, and is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The volcanic soils of the caldera of this island, with an active volcanism during historical times, have been used for viticulture. The study of uptake of chemical elements by vines - absorption and translocation to grapes - grown in soils developed on alkaline pyroclasts is the main goal of this work. The concentrations of 27 chemical elements in bark, leafs and grapes of two vines, as well as in the corresponding soils ( 50). The bioavailable fraction of Cr and As in these soils may be due to the low percentage of iron oxides (particularly in the form of nanoparticles), which play an important role in the retention of these elements. The factors responsible for the phytoavailability of Sb in soils and its uptake by plants it's still poorly known. Although the Sb concentrations in earth's crust are low, higher concentrations of this element in soils may be related with hydrothermal and volcanic processes. Also, the temperature may influence the accumulation of Sb in plants, with an increase of the Sb uptake by plants at higher temperatures, due to an increased desorption rate of Sb from soil particles. Concerning U, its mobility and dispersion in soils is controlled by its oxidation state, its adsorption capacity in clay minerals or iron oxides, and the ability to form more or less soluble complexes. Although U concentrations in these volcanic soils are low, there is a fraction available for absorption and accumulation by grapes. Concerning the rare earth elements (REE), it should be noted that the light REE are not enriched in any part of the vines studied, and only the heavy REE are enriched in grapes (EF = 20-50); this can be explained by the preferential uptake of the heavy REE, after primary minerals breakdown and the formation of more soluble compounds

  1. Overwintering of vineyard yeasts: survival of interacting yeast communities in grapes mummified on vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eSipiczki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of grape must into wine involves the development and succession of yeast populations differing in species composition. The initial population is formed by vineyard strains which are washed into the must from the crushed grapes and then completed with yeasts coming from the cellar environment. As the origin and natural habitat of the vineyard yeasts are not fully understood, this study addresses the possibility that grape yeasts can be preserved in berries left behind on vines at harvest until the spring of the next year. These berries become mummified during the winter on the vines. To investigate whether yeasts can survive in these overwintering grapes, mummified berries were collected in 16 localities in the Tokaj wine region (Hungary-Slovakia in early March. The collected berries were rehydrated to recover viable yeasts by plating samples onto agar plates. For the detection of minority species which would not be detected by direct plating, an enrichment step repressing the propagation of alcohol-sensitive yeasts was also included in the process. The morphological, physiological and molecular analysis identified 13 basidiomycetous and 23 ascomycetous species including fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance among the 3879 isolates. The presence of viable strains of these species demonstrates that the grapes mummified on the vine can serve as a safe reservoir of yeasts, and may contribute to the maintenance of grape-colonizing yeast populations in the vineyard over years, parallel with other vectors and habitats. All basidiomycetous species were known phylloplane yeasts. Three Hanseniaspora species and pigmented Metschnikowia strains were the most frequent ascomycetes. Other fermentative yeasts of wine-making relevance were detected only in the enrichment cultures. Saccharomyces (S. paradoxus, S. cerevisiae and S. uvarum were recovered from 13 % of the samples. No Candida zemplinina was found. The isolates with Aureobasidium

  2. ETHEPHON SPRAYS AS A DEFOLIANT IN ‘NIAGARA ROSADA’ VINE SUBJECTED TO TWO CROP PRODUCTION PER YEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO VIEIRA DA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In climate region Cwa of the State of São Paulo the technique of double cropping the grapevine is possible, however, when it is time for the second pruning of the crop, most of the vine’s leaves are still in the plant, posing the problem that the use of ethephon as a defoliant could increase leaf senescence and improve the vine management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethephon spray as a defoliant in the development and production of the ‘Niagara Rosada’ vine when subjected to double cropping, and the influence this bioactivator may have on carbohydrate reserves in the branch. The experiments were conducted in a commercial, non-irrigated area in agricultural years of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The length, diameter and total carbohydrate reserves of the branches, as well as bud break, number of clusters, crop production, length, width and mass of cluster, berry diameter, soluble solids and titratable acidity were evaluated. Ethephon treatments were applied at a concentration of 1,440 mg L-1 and 2,160 mg L-1 at 20 and 15 days before pruning. As a control, the vines were defoliated by hand at the time of pruning. A randomized block experimental design was used. Data was subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% significance level. In conclusion, we propose that ethephon sprays promoted vine defoliation and improved the bud break, altered plant development and crop production. This was not due to increases in concentration of carbohydrate reserves in the branches, but due to a higher induction stimulus of bud break, which allowed the vines to express their higher yield capacity.

  3. Pulp and paper from vine shoots: neural fuzzy modeling of ethylene glycol pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Angulo, V; Rodríguez, A; Sánchez, R; Ferrer, A

    2009-01-01

    The influence of operational variables in the pulping of vine shoots by use of ethylene glycol [viz. temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (30-90 min) and ethylene glycol concentration (50-70% v/v)] on the properties of the resulting pulp (viz. yield, kappa number and viscosity) and paper sheets (breaking length, stretch, burst index, tear index and brightness) was studied. A central composite factorial design was used in conjunction with the software ANFIS Edit Matlab 6.5 to develop fuzzy neural model that reproduced the experimental results of the dependent variables with errors less than 5%. The model is therefore effective with a view to simulating the ethylene glycol pulping process.

  4. Application of biochar amendments to Mediterranean soils: effects on vine growth and grape quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel Ubalde, Josep; Payan, Esmeralda; Sort, Xavier; Guillermo Rosas, José; Gómez, Natalia; Sánchez, Marta Elena; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Introduction: Biochar is intended to be applied to soil, as a mean to sequester carbon and improve soil properties. To present, studies on the use of biochar in Mediterranean soils are still scarce. In this study different biochar and compost amendments were applied to a vineyard in Tarragona (Spain) in order to determine their effects on vine growth and grape quality so that the suitability of biochar amendments as an alternative to conventional organic compost could be evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out from 2011 to 2013 in an experimental vineyard of 1050 m2, located in Poblet (Catalonia, Spain). The climate type is Mediterranean, with 500 mm of annual precipitation and 13.6 oC of annual mean temperature. The soil type is a Fluvic Cambisol, very deep (>120 cm), pH of 7, high coarse fragment content, low organic matter content (1.5 %) and without calcium carbonate. The studied plots were 20-year-old vines of Grenache, trained to an espalier-type canopy system, dry-land farmed and weeds controlled by ploughing. Repeated applications of soil amendments took place in spring 2012 and 2013, following a randomized block design with three replicates per treatment. The treatments considered were biochar, compost and mixture compost x biochar. A control treatment without any organic amendment was also included. The biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis (550 oC of average temperature) of grapevine trunks from a vineyard close to the experimental plot. The compost was commercial certified organic compost. The application doses were 5 tons C · ha-1 per treatment. The petiole analysis and leaf architecture sampling were undertaken during the veraison period (August). During grape ripening, berry composition was measured on a weekly basis (September). At the harvest date, yield parameters were also determined. It is worth noting that in 2013 these harvest data were highly perturbed by millerandage. Finally, in early winter, vegetative development

  5. THE INTEGRATION OF PIGMEAT MARKETS IN THE EU. EVIDENCE FROM A REGULAR MIXED VINE COPULA

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    Vasilis GRIGORIADIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the degree of integration of national pigmeat markets in the EU. This is pursued using monthly wholesale prices from seven major markets and the statistical tool of mixed R-vine copulas. The empirical results suggest that the markets considered do not constitute a great pool in which prices move, boom, and crash together. The markets of Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands exhibit a higher degree of integration relative to the others, whereas the Italian market exhibits a lower degree of integration. Also, there is an indication that, in certain cases, the benefits of free trade may be unequally distributed between the trading partners.

  6. Effects of Pratylenchus vulnus and Xiphinema index singly and combined on vine growth of Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, J; Raski, D J; Goheen, A C

    1976-10-01

    Inoculation of 'Thompson Seedless' grapevines with 500 Xiphinerna index or 1,000 Pratylenchus vulnus alone or in combination suppressed vine shoot and root growth under greenhouse conditions. Pratytenchus vulnus caused greater stunting of roots than X. index. Each nematode species inhibited top growth about equally. Concomitant inoculations caused greater stunting of tops and roots than did inoculations of either nematode species alone. Differences in growth between inoculated and control plants increased with exposure time. Pratylenchus vulnus competed with and gradually superseded in numbers an established population of X. index. Both species reproduced on 'Thompson Seedless' roots, but P. vulnus increased to a much higher level than did X. index. The increase of P. vulnus, together with extensive damage, proves its pathogenicity to grapevines.

  7. Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine

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    Jutamas Saengsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumericin, an iridoid lactone, was isolated with relatively high yield from Momordica charantia vine using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and the separation box (Sepbox comprising dual combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. This compound showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values better than cloxacillin. Plumericin potently inhibited proliferation of two leukemic cancer cell lines: they were acute and chronic leukemic cancer cell lines, NB4 and K562, with the effective doses (ED50 of 4.35 ± 0.21 and 5.58 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the mechanism of growth inhibition in both cell lines was induced by apoptosis, together with G2/M arrest in K562 cells.

  8. Diversity of black Aspergilli and mycotoxin risks in grape, wine and dried vine fruits

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    Stefania SOMMA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin risk in the grape product chain is primarily due to ochratoxin A (OTA occurrence in wine and dried vine fruits. Aspergillus carbonarius and the A. niger group are the main agents of Aspergillus bunch rot of grape, and they, especially A. carbonarius, are responsible for OTA contamination worldwide. Fumonisin B2 (FB2 represents an additional potential mycotoxin risk in the grape-wine product chain and A. niger/A. awamori were recently reported as the FB2 producers in grapes. A deeper understanding of the species diversity of black Aspergilli, together with specific knowledge of their ecology and epidemiology, can help to predict their occurrence. From this perspective several studies have been done regarding prevention and control of black Aspergilli and reduction of mycotoxin risk at all stages, from vineyard management to wine-making procedures. In this review a comprehensive overview of all these aspects is presented.

  9. Emprêgo de desfolhantes na cultura da batatinha The use of potato vine killers

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    O. J. Boock

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das medidas que se impõem para a melhoria do estado de sanidade dos tubérculos de batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L., tanto para o consumo como principalmente para o plantio, é a destruição da folhagem com alguma antecedência à colheita normal Além dessa melhoria, tal prática permite colocar o produto no mercado antes das épocas das maiores safras obtendo-se maiores lucros. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados obtidos com o emprêgo de desfolhantes físicos, químicos e mecânicos, para determinação dos mais eficientes nas condições locais. Tal prática, em relação ao estado de sanidade, principalmente quanto às moléstias de vírus e apodrecimentos devidos à requeima (Phytophthora infestans e pinta preta (Alternaria solani, será objeto de novos experimentos, utilizando-se como desfolhante aquêles que, neste trabalho, se mostraram mais eficientes e econômicos, como foi o casododinitro-orto-secundário-butil-fenol e do dínitro-cresol.This paper discusses the results of preliminary tests for determining the best way to kill the potato vine under the conditions of the State of São Paulo. Of the methods compared (cutting or flaming the vines, or spraying them with sodium chlorate, sodium arsenite, dinitro cresol or dinitro-o-sec-butyl phenol, spraying with the dinitro derivatives seemed to be the best. Further experiments are needed to observe the incidence of virus diseases and rots caused by Phytophthora infstans and Alternaria solani in the seed potatoes coming from fields treated with the latter products.

  10. Insecticidal activity of plant essential oils against the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Alphantonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos; Papatsakona, Panagiota; Tsora, Eleanna

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3(rd) instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used.

  11. Influence of hydropedology on viticulture and oenology of Sangiovese vine in the Chianti area (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Pellegrini, S.; Bucelli, P.; Storchi, P.; Vignozzi, N.; Barbetti, R.; Campagnolo, S.

    2009-02-01

    The adoption of precision agriculture in viticulture requires the knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of available soil water. A three-years trial was carried out in Chianti (central Italy) on Sangiovese vine to test the prediction capacity of selected hydropedological models for two soil series cultivated with grape and for delineating hydrological functional units within two vineyards. The soils of the vineyards differentiated in structure, porosity and related hydropedological characteristics, as well as in salinity. Soils were mapped with a geophysical survey and six plots were selected in different morphological positions: summit, backslope and footslope. Water content, redox processes and temperature were monitored, and yield, phenological phases, and chemical analysis of grapes were determined. The isotopic ratio δ13C was measured in the wine ethanol upon harvesting to evaluate the degree of water stress suffered by vines. The grapes in each plot were collected for wine making in small barrels. The wines obtained were analysed and submitted to a blind organoleptic testing. The results demonstrated that the tested hydropedological models can be used for the prevision of the moisture status of soils cultivated with grape during summertime in Mediterranean climate. As foreseen by the models, the amount of mean daily transpirable soil water differed considerably between the vineyards and increased significantly along the three positions on slope in both vineyards and in every year, even during the very dry 2006. However, both the response of Sangiovese to water stress and the quality of wine were influenced by the interaction between transpirable water and salinity. The installation of IRIS tubes allowed confirmation of the occurrence of redox processes, although discoloration was influenced more by soil temperature, rather than by moisture. The map produced by once only geophysical survey mirrored only partially the seasonal hydropedology of

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Plant Essential Oils Against the Vine Mealybug, Planococcus ficus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamaouna, Filitsa; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Michaelakis, Αntonios; Papachristos, Dimitrios; Polissiou, Moschos

    2013-01-01

    The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a pest in grape vine growing areas worldwide. The essential oils from the following aromatic plants were tested for their insecticidal activity against P. ficus: peppermint, Mentha piperita L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), thyme-leaved savory, Satureja thymbra L., lavender, Lavandula angustifolia Mill, and basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Essential oils from peels of the following fruits were also tested: lemon, Citrus limon L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae), and orange, C. sinensis L. The reference product was paraffin oil. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory by using spray applications on grape leaves bearing clusters of P. ficus of one size class, which mainly represented either 3rd instar nymphs or pre-ovipositing adult females. The LC50 values for each essential oil varied depending on the P. ficus life stage but did not significantly differ between 3rd instar nymphs and adult females. The LC50 values of the citrus, peppermint, and thyme-leaved savory essential oils ranged from 2.7 to 8.1 mg/mL, and the LC50 values of lavender and basil oil ranged from 19.8 to 22.5 and 44.1 to 46.8 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oils from citrus, peppermint and thymeleaved savory were more or equally toxic compared to the reference product, whereas the lavender and basil essential oils were less toxic than the paraffin oil. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed on grape leaves treated with the citrus essential oils, and low phytotoxicity was caused by the essential oils of lavender, thyme-leaved savory, and mint, whereas the highest phytotoxicity was observed when basil oil was used. PMID:24766523

  13. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FRESH, DRIED (HAY AND ENSILED VINES OF FOUR SWEET POTATO (Ipomoea batatas VARIETIES GROWN IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

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    Gebreegziabher Zereu Hadgu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD of fresh, dried (hay and ensiled vines of two early maturing (Belela and Temesgen and two medium maturing varieties (Beletech and Tulla were investigated. Hay was made by sun drying for 3 days. Silages were S1: vine alone, S2: vine+2%molasses, S3: vine+4% molasses, S4: vine+10% sweet potato root (SPR, % of wilted vine weight, S5: vine+20%SPR and S6: vine+30%SPR. They were ensiled in plastic buckets (8 liter with airtight press cape in triplicate for 90 days in a lab at room temperature of 220C. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Hay of Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla had 17.5, 13.9 and 15.2 %CP (%DM; 36.3, 35.6, 40.5 and 38.8% NDF (%DM and 81.1, 82.2, 75.0 and 76.7% IVTDMD, respectively, were found. There was a  decrease in pH of silages (p<0.05, with increasing levels of both molasses and SPR, respectively (3.91-3.66 and 3.91-3.64 in Belela; 3.92-3.72 and 3.92-3.68 in Temesgen; 3.99-3.81 and 3.99-3.75 in Beletech; 4.02-3.92 and 4.02-3.74 in Tulla; CP (19.8-15.8 and 9.8-13.9 in Belela;  20.0-14.2 and 20.0-12.3 in Temesgen; 17.2-11.2 and 17.2-10.9 in Beletech; 17.9-14.3 and17.9-11.6 inTulla; NDF (29.9-27.7 and 29.9-22.9 in Belela; 26.4-25.0 and  26.4.0-20.8 in Temesgen;36.1-29.3 and 36.1-25.4 in Beletech; 34.5-29.0 and 34.5-24.4 in Tulla; ADF (26.7-18.2 and 26.7-15.5 in Belela; 25.5-17.1 and 25.5-14.7 in Temesgen;30.0-20.2 and 30.0-16.0 in Beletech;29.3-19.1 and 29.3-16.2 in Tulla; and ADL (7.1-4.6 and 7.1-3.5 in Belela; 6.9-4.1 and 6.9-2.7 in Temesgen;9.1- 5.1 and 9.1-4.9 in Beletech; 7.9-5.0 and 7.9-4.1 in Tulla but increased IVTDMD ( 82.5-85.7 and 82.5-87.4, in Belela; 82.1-86.1 and 82.1-88.2 in Temesgen; 79.1-84.1 and 79.1-86.1 in Beletech; 78.9-84.0 and 78.9-85.6 in Tulla. Silages at all additive levels had acceptable pH and good IVTDMD, but 4% molasses, 20 and 30% SPR gave higher IVTDMD. Hay had lower nutrient content and IVTDMD than fresh vine and

  14. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extract applied as foliar fertilizer to grapevines: Effect on amino acids and fermentative volatile content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, R; Garde-Cerdán, T; Zalacain, A; Garcia, R; Cabrita, M J; Salinas, M R

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar applications of different wood aqueous extracts on the amino acid content of musts and wines from Airén variety; and to study their relationship with the volatile compounds formed during alcoholic fermentation. For this purpose, the foliar treatments proposed were a vine-shoot aqueous extract applied in one and two times, and an oak extract which was only applied once. Results obtained show the potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as foliar fertilizer, enhancing the wine amino acid content especially when they were applied once. Similar results were observed with the aqueous oak extract. Regarding wine fermentative volatile compounds, there is a close relationship between musts and their wines amino acid content allowing us to discuss about the role of proline during the alcoholic fermentation and the generation of certain volatiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Systemic insecticides reduce feeding, survival, and fecundity of adult black vine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a variety of ornamental nursery crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Systemic activity of the neonicotinoids clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam and the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole was tested against adult black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Astilbe, Euonymus, Heuchera, Rhododendron, Sedum, and Taxus. Insecticide treatments were applied to the soilless substrate of containerized plants. Bioassays were conducted 12 or 13, 26, and 42 d after treatment (DAT) and ran for 7 d; and feeding, mortality, and weight gain or loss by weevils were evaluated. Foliage was removed from test plants and then placed in arenas with adult black vine weevils. The neonicotinoids reduced feeding and weight gain by adult black vine weevils on most plant species with residual activity 42 DAT on some plant species. At 12 DAT, mortality was caused by the three neonicotinoids on Astilbe and by thiamethoxam on Sedum; and at 26 DAT dinotefuran caused mortality on Astilbe. Chlorantraniliprole reduced feeding on Taxus at 12 DAT, with no activity detected in other bioassays. Another set of bioassays was conducted to examine survival and fecundity of adult black vine weevils during prolonged feeding on Heuchera and Taxus systemically treated with dinotefuran or thiamethoxam. Bioassay procedures were similar to those described above, except they ran continuously for 56 d. Prolonged feeding on dinotefuran and thiamethoxam treated Heuchera and Taxus resulted in high mortality of adult black vine weevils and reduced fecundity. These studies show that the systemic activity of neonicotinoids is influenced by plant species and that systemic neonicotinoids have the potential to suppress black vine weevil populations in containerized nursery crops.

  16. Within-Vineyard, Within-Vine, and Within-Bunch Variability of the Rotundone Concentration in Berries of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pangzhen; Barlow, Snow; Krstic, Mark; Herderich, Markus; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Howell, Kate

    2015-05-06

    This study characterizes the environmental factors driving rotundone concentrations in grape berries by quantifying rotundone variability and correlating it with viticultural parameters. Dissection of the vineyard into distinct zones (on the basis of vigor, electrical soil conductivity, and slope), vine into orientations to sun (shaded/unshaded), and grape bunches into sectors (upper and lower and front and back) shows the influence of vine vigor, sunlight, and temperature. Occurrence of the highest rotundone concentration was observed in shaded bunch sectors and vines and from higher vigor vines in the southern-facing areas of the vineyard. The highest concentration of rotundone is consistently found at the top and in shaded sectors of bunches, and this correlates to lower grape surface temperatures. Modeling showed that berry temperature exceeding 25 °C negatively affects the rotundone concentration in Shiraz. Both natural and artificial shading modulated the grape surface and air temperature at the bunch zone and increased the rotundone concentration, without affecting other grape berry quality parameters. Thus, temperature and possibly sunlight interception are the main determinants of rotundone in grape berries. Vineyard topography, vine vigor, vine row, and grape bunch orientation influence the level of berry shading and can, therefore, adjust bunch surface and zone temperatures and influence the berry rotundone concentration.

  17. Deep-C Drilling: Carbon Sequestration at Depth under Vine Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Allister; Mueller, Karin; Clothier, Brent; Deurer, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Management practices designed to increase carbon sequestration via perennial tree crops, are potential tools to mitigate the consequences of climate change. Changes in orchard management could enable growers to meet eco-verification market demands for products with a low carbon footprint, and potentially exploit the emerging business opportunity in carbon storage, whilst enhancing the delivery of ecosystem services that depend on soil carbon stocks. However, there is no standard methodology to verify any potential claims of carbon storage by perennial vine crops. We developed a robust methodology to quantify carbon storage in kiwifruit orchards. Soil carbon stocks (SCS) were determined in six depth increments to 1 m depth in two adjacent kiwifruit blocks, which had been established 10 ('young') and 25 ('old') years earlier. We used a 'space-for-time' analysis. Our key results were: • The 'young' and 'old' kiwifruit block stored about 139 and 145 t C/ha to 1 m depth. Between 80-90% of the SCS were stored in the top 0.5 m, and 89-95% in the top 0.7 m. • There was no significant difference between the SCS in row and alley to a depth of 0.5 m. • A CV of 5-15% indicates that 4-10 cores are needed for 80% confidence in the estimated SCS. • We recommend separating each core into the depths 0-0.1, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-0.5 and 0.5-1 m to allow the assessment of SCS dynamics. • We detected a weak spatial pattern of the SCS only for the 'old' kiwifruit block with a range of about 3 m. A sampling bay along a vine-row should have a maximum length of 3 m. We then assessed SCS in over 60 kiwifruit orchards throughout New Zealand. They stored on average 174.9 ± 3 t C ha-1 to 1 m depth. On average, 51% of the SCS down to 1 m depth were stored in the top 0.3 m, which is the standard depth according to the Kyoto protocol. About 72% of the SCS to 1 m depth were captured when increasing the sampling depth to 0.5 m. These results underscore the necessity to analyze SCS in an orchard

  18. Vesicular aggregate-based solventless microextraction of Ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits prior to liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Casero, Noelia; García-Fonseca, Sergio; Rubio, Soledad

    2012-01-30

    A solventless microextraction was proposed for the development of a simple, fast, low-cost and environmental friendly sample treatment for the determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in dried vine fruits. The objective was to offer an alternative to conventional sample treatments, which invariably involve extractions with large solvent volumes followed by clean-up with expensive, not recyclable and limited storage stability immunoaffinity sorbents. The method involved the stirring of 300 mg of dried vine fruit subsamples with 400 μL of a supramolecular solvent (SUPRAS) made up of decanoico acid/tetrabutylammonium decanoate vesicles. Then, the sample was centrifuged for 15 min and OTA was quantified in the extract by liquid chromatography/fluorescence detection against solvent-based calibration curves. Neither dilution nor further clean-up steps of extracts were needed. Quantitation of OTA was interference-free and recoveries ranged between 95% and 101%. The precision of the method, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was about 3%. The limit of quantification (5.3 μg kg(-1)) was below the threshold limit established for OTA in dried vine fruits by EU directives (10 μg kg(-1)). Representativity of subsamples was proven. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of several dried vine fruits (sultanas and muscatels) purchased in local supermarkets in Córdoba (South of Spain). OTA was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. This solventless sample treatment allows quick and simple microextraction of OTA, while delivering accurate and precise data, and extends the range of eco-friendly methods in labs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selected mild strains of Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV fail to protect pre-immunized vines in Brazil

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    Novaes Quelmo Silva de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Passion fruit woodiness virus (PWV is the most important virus affecting passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. crops in Brazil. The main purpose of this work was to select mild strains of PWV and to evaluate their protective effect against a severe strain of the virus. Three mild strains were selected from outstanding plants found in orchards severely affected by the virus (F-101, F-102 and F-103 and three others were obtained from blisters formed in passion fruit vine leaves showing mosaic (F-99, F-144 and F-145. The protective effect of the mild strains was evaluated for vines under greenhouse and field conditions. Plants pre-immunized with mild strains F-101, F-102 and F-144, in a greenhouse, had partial protection against the severe strain PWV-SP. In a first field experiment, all passion fruit vines pre-immunized with the six selected mild strains showed severe symptoms of the disease, approximately four months after the challenge inoculation with the PWV-SP strain. Results from a second field experiment, with vines pre-immunized with strains F-101 and F-144, followed by a quantitative evaluation of the mild strains in different leaves of the protected plants, indicated that breakdown in protection seems to be related to the low concentration and/or irregular distribution of the mild strains in leaves, which allows the existence of infection sites available for the establishment of the severe strain. Pre-immunization was not an appropriate alternative for the control of the passion fruit woodiness disease.

  20. Vine nitrogen status and volatile thiols and their precursors from plot to transcriptome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwi, Pierre; Guillaumie, Sabine; Thibon, Cécile; Keime, Céline; Habran, Aude; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Gomes, Eric; Darriet, Philippe; Delrot, Serge; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2016-08-08

    Volatile thiols largely contribute to the organoleptic characteristics and typicity of Sauvignon blanc wines. Among this family of odorous compounds, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one (4MSP) have a major impact on wine flavor. These thiols are formed during alcoholic fermentation by the yeast from odorless, non-volatile precursors found in the berries and the must. The present study investigates the effects of vine nitrogen (N) status on 3SH and 4MSP content in Sauvignon blanc wine and on the glutathionylated and cysteinylated precursors of 3SH (Glut-3SH and Cys-3SH) in the berries and the must. This is paralleled by a RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in the berries. The impact of N supply on the expression of the glutathione-S-transferase 3 and 4 (VviGST3 and VviGST4) and the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (VviGGT), considered as key genes in their biosynthesis, was also evaluated. N supply (N100 treatment) increased the 3SH content in wine while no effect was noticed on 4MSP level. Furthermore, N supply increased Glut-3SH levels in grape berries at late berry ripening stages, and this effect was highly significant in must at harvest. No significant effect of N addition was noticed on Cys-3SH concentration. The transcript abundance of the glutathione-S-transferases VviGST3 and VviGST4 and the γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (VviGGT), were similar between the control and the N100 treatment. New candidate genes which might be implicated in the biosynthetic pathway of 3SH precursors were identified by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq). High vine N status has a positive effect on 3SH content in wine through an increase of Glut-3SH levels in grape berries and must. Candidate GSTs and glutathione-S-conjugates type transporters involved in this stimulation were identified by RNA-seq analysis.

  1. Construction and identification of a D-Vine model applied to the probability distribution of modal parameters in structural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, S.; Salaün, M.; Rodriguez, E.; Petitjean, F.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the construction and identification of the probability distribution of random modal parameters (natural frequencies and effective parameters) in structural dynamics. As these parameters present various types of dependence structures, the retained approach is based on pair copula construction (PCC). A literature review leads us to choose a D-Vine model for the construction of modal parameters probability distributions. Identification of this model is based on likelihood maximization which makes it sensitive to the dimension of the distribution, namely the number of considered modes in our context. To this respect, a mode selection preprocessing step is proposed. It allows the selection of the relevant random modes for a given transfer function. The second point, addressed in this study, concerns the choice of the D-Vine model. Indeed, D-Vine model is not uniquely defined. Two strategies are proposed and compared. The first one is based on the context of the study whereas the second one is purely based on statistical considerations. Finally, the proposed approaches are numerically studied and compared with respect to their capabilities, first in the identification of the probability distribution of random modal parameters and second in the estimation of the 99 % quantiles of some transfer functions.

  2. Vine Nitrogen Status Does Not Have a Direct Impact on 2-Methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Grape Berries and Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwi, Pierre; Habran, Aude; Guillaumie, Sabine; Thibon, Cécile; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Gomes, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Darriet, Philippe; van Leeuwen, Cornelis

    2015-11-11

    Methoxypyrazines (MP) constitute a large family of compounds that contribute to the vegetative varietal aroma of many grapevine varieties and wines. The berry content in 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP), a major MP reminiscent of green-pepper aroma, can be influenced by environmental factors or cultural practices such as water status or mineral nutrition. To date, no study has investigated a possible direct effect of nitrogen (N) on IBMP synthesis without possible interference from water status and vigor variations. In this study, only vine nitrogen status was significantly different among treatments. Water status was controlled during the season, and vine vigor was similar among treatments. IBMP level was maximal at bunch closure and decreased during the season. There was no significant effect of nitrogen nutrition on this metabolite. Moreover, the expression profiles of VvOMT3 and VvOMT4, key genes in the IBMP biosynthetic pathway, were similar between treatments. This result indicates that when an effect of N on IBMP was found in previous studies, it was likely mediated through the modification of bunch-zone microclimate, induced by the higher vigor of high N-status vines.

  3. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  4. Comparison of polynomial and neural fuzzy models as applied to the ethanolamine pulping of vine shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Angulo, V; Caparrós, S; Ariza, J

    2007-12-01

    The influence of operational variables in the pulping of vine shoots by use of ethanolamine [viz. temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (30-90min) and ethanolamine concentration (50-70% v/v)] on the properties of the resulting pulp (viz. yield, kappa index, viscosity and drainability) was studied. A central composite factorial design was used in conjunction with the software BMDP and ANFIS Edit Matlab 6.5 to develop polynomial and fuzzy neural models that reproduced the experimental results of the dependent variables with errors less than 10%. Both types of models are therefore effective with a view to simulating the ethanolamine pulping process. Based on the proposed equations, the best choice is to use values of the operational valuables resulting in near-optimal pulp properties while saving energy and immobilized capital on industrial facilities by using lower temperatures and shorter processing times. One combination leading to near-optimal properties with reduced costs is using a temperature of 180 degrees C and an ethanolamine concentration of 60% for 60min, to obtain pulp with a viscosity of 6.13% lower than the maximum value (932.8ml/g) and a drainability of 5.49% lower than the maximum value (71 (o)SR).

  5. Species Distribution Model for Management of an Invasive Vine in Forestlands of Eastern Texas

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    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants decrease biodiversity, modify vegetation structure, and inhibit growth and reproduction of native species. Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb. is the most prevalent invasive vine in the forestlands of eastern Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor, and test possible management strategies. We analyzed an extensive dataset collected as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Forest Service to quantify the range expansion of Japanese honeysuckle in the forestlands of eastern Texas from 2006 to 2011. We then identified potential factors influencing the likelihood of presence of Japanese honeysuckle using boosted regression trees. Our results indicated that the presence of Japanese honeysuckle on sampled plots almost doubled during this period (from 352 to 616 plots, spreading extensively, geographically. The probability of invasion was correlated with variables representing landscape conditions, climatic conditions, forest features, disturbance factors, and forest management activities. Habitats most at risk to invasion under current conditions occurred primarily in northeastern Texas, with a few invasion hotspots in the south. Estimated probabilities of invasion were reduced most by artificial site regeneration, with habitats most at risk again occurring primarily in northeastern Texas.

  6. Rootstock on vine performance and wine quality of ‘Syrah’ under double pruning management

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    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian Southeast, the production of high quality wines is attained by a new management approach called double pruning. This management changes the harvesting of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. from wet summer to dry winter through a two pruning procedures carried out during the year. The first pruning is done during the winter to induce a vegetative cycle (all clusters are removed and a second pruning is done during the summer to induce the reproductive cycle. In this study, ten different rootstocks were compared in order to optimize yield and wine quality of Syrah vines conducted under autumn-winter season by double pruning approach. Syrah grapevines grafted onto ‘Rupestris du Lot’ and ‘IAC 766’ showed the highest pruning weight, while ‘110 Richter’ and ‘161-49 Courdec’ induced the lowest cane vigor. The average production of two seasons identified ‘IAC 766’, ‘Kober 5BB’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’ as the most productive rootstocks. In both seasons, the grape quality was more influenced by the plant development status than by rootstocks. ‘Syrah’ wine from vigorous and high yielding rootstocks, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’, showed satisfactory wine phenolic composition and alcohol/acidity balance. This study showed that vigorous rootstock increased yield without compromising grape and winter wine quality of Syrah grapevines subjected to double pruning management in the Brazilian Southeast.

  7. Garlic and H2O2 in overcoming dormancy on the vine “Cabernet Sauvignon”

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    Saavedra del Aguila Juan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of garlic extract, H2O2 and hydrogen cyanamide on dormancy break, budding and maturation of “Cabernet Sauvignon” in the Campaign Region – Brazil. In late winter 2014 and after drought pruning were performed spraying in the bud: T1 – distilled water (control; T2 – 3.0% of hydrogen cyanamide; T3 – 18.0% H2O2; and T4 – 3.0% garlic extract. It was evaluated in the field: the number of sprouted buds per plant, number of bunches per plant and weight of bunches per plant; and laboratory: on ripening, performed weekly from the color change of 360 berries per treatment for analyzes solids soluble – SS (Brix pH and titratable acidity – TA (% tartaric acid. It was observed that the vines of treatment T4 (3.0% garlic extract, showed higher percentage of buds sprouting (63 shoots plant−1. Already at the number of clusters and weight per plant, there were no statistical differences between all treatments. The results obtained in the laboratory to SS, pH and TA did not differ statistically for the four tested treatments.

  8. Optimizing the Maximum Recovery of Dihydromyricetin from Chinese Vine Tea, Ampelopsis grossedentata, Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umair; Lu, Hedong; Wang, Juan; Han, Jinzhi; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Lu, Zhaoxin; Tayyaba, Sultana; Hassan, Yousef I

    2017-12-18

    This work provides an optimized extraction approach intended to maximize the recovery of dihydromyricetin (DHM) from Chinese vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) leaves. The presented work adopts a Box-Behnken design as a response surface methodology to understand the role and influence of specific extraction parameters including: time, temperature, and solvent composition/ethanol (%) on DHM final yields. Initially, single factor experiments were used to delineate the role of above factors (temperature, time, and solvent composition) before proceeding with three factors-three levels Box-Behnken design with 17 separate runs to assess the effect of multifactorial treatments on DHM recovery rates. The collected data shows that independent variables (solvent composition, time, and temperature) can significantly affect DHM recovery rates with maximum yields resulting from a combined 60 °C, 60% aqueous ethanol, and 180 min treatment. From the empirical point of view, the above optimized extraction protocol can substantially enhance processing and profitability margins with a minimum need of interventions or associated costs.

  9. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Fourie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity. Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  10. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Markaki, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six samples of dried vine fruits from Athens and Thebes (Central Greece) market were simultaneously extracted and cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns and analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). A combination of ELISA and HPLC methods was applied for the determination of AFB1. Recovery was 97.6%, RSD 6.46%, while the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 μg kg(-1) and 0.09 μg kg(-1), respectively. OTA concentrations were only estimated by ELISA. Results revealed the presence of AFB1 in 23% of the samples (mean 1.4 μg AFB1 kg(-1)), but none exceeded the EU limit (2 μg AFB1 kg(-1)). However, OTA was detected in 100% of the samples (mean 47.2 μg OTA kg(-1)). Six samples were found to be contaminated at high levels (median 120.6 μg OTA kg(-1)) and 18 exceeded the EU limit (10 μg OTA kg(-1)).

  12. Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opedal, Øystein H; Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen; Albertsen, Elena; Armbruster, W Scott; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Stenøien, Hans K; Pélabon, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates among populations. To assess bee-mediated pollen dispersal on a smaller scale, we conducted paternity analyses within a focal population, and quantified within-population spatial genetic structure in four populations. Gene flow was limited to certain nearby populations within continuous forest blocks, whereas drift appeared to dominate on larger scales. Limited long-distance gene flow was supported by within-population patterns; gene flow was biased towards nearby plants, and significant small-scale spatial genetic structure was detected within populations. These findings suggest that, although female euglossine bees might be effective at moving pollen within populations, and perhaps within forest blocks, their contribution to gene flow on the regional scale seems too limited to counteract genetic drift in patchily distributed tropical plants. Among-population gene flow might have been reduced following habitat fragmentation. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate induces glycerol to be an effective substrate for lipid production of Trichosporon fermentans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhan, Jumei; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-05-01

    By co-fermented with sweetpotato vines hydrolysate (SVH), glycerol can be used as an effective substrate for Trichosporon fermentans to produce lipids. Submerged fermentation results showed that T. fermentans exhibited a maximum lipid yield of 7.45 g l(-1) with a biomass of 17.95 g l(-1) on 10% SVH added glycerol mineral medium (Glycerol MM-10% SVH), which was 4.34-fold higher than that on glycerol mineral medium. Lipids produced on glycerol based media exhibited a significantly different fatty acid composition profile from that produced on sugar based media accompanying by a sharp increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids content. Biochemical behaviors characterization further demonstrated that SVH has a remarkable promoting effect on the biomass formation and glycerol uptake. The extremely high lipid yield on Glycerol MM-10% SVH was mainly attributed to the enhancement of SVH on biomass, although SVH is an excellent nutrient supplier for lipid accumulation due to its low nitrogen availability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling raindrop strike performance on copper wash-off from vine leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P; Soto-Gómez, D; López-Periago, J E; Paradelo, M

    2015-03-01

    Copper lost in foliar wash-off from vine leaves treated with Cu-based fungicides was analyzed with a single-drop rainfall simulator. The temporal losses of the particulate Cu (CuP) and the solution Cu (CuS) from raindrop strikes on leaves were modeled using a Poisson point process. This model estimated maximum detachment rates of 0.82 ng CuP and 0.033 ng CuS per raindrop. The total amount of Cu (CuT) in the leaves before rainfall ranged between 0.4 and 4.4 g Cu kg(-1) dry weight. Wash-off reduced the amount of CuT present in the leaves by 0.6 g kg(-1). Particulate losses of CuT ranged from 75 to 90%, while soluble losses of CuT ranged from 10 to 25%. The kinetic energy of the raindrops influenced the loss of CuS but not the loss of CuP. The Poisson point approach can provide an interesting starting point to model non-point source pollution produced from agricultural chemicals washed-off by rain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Semi-selective media for the isolation of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora from soil and vine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Tello

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Two semi-selective culture media, F10S (PDA + folpet 10 ppm + streptomycin sulphate 1 g l-1 and RB150S (PDA + rose bengal 150 ppm + streptomycin sulphate 1 g l-1, were developed for the isolation of the phytopathogenic fungus Phaeomoniella chlamydospora from soil samples and vine tissues. The media were selected so that they would allow proper growth of the pathogen and would partially inhibit eleven other common fungal genera. Eight antifungal agents were tested: Folpan (a.i. folpet, Captazel (a.i. captan, Benlate (a.i. benomyl, Chipco (a.i. iprodione, Switch (a.i. cyprodinil + fl udioxonil, rose bengal, and the bactericidal antibiotic streptomycin sulphate at several doses. Recovery of Pa. chlamydospora from wood samples was 40% better on RB150S and 50% better on F10S than on PDA, while the contaminants were reduced by 42% with RB150S, and by 48% with F10S. Pathogen reisolation from artificially contaminated soil samples was improved with F10S, while RB150S facilitated pathogen detection in samples containing moderate amounts of Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Alternaria or Trichoderma or in soils heavily contaminated with bacteria. F10S and RB150S improved the isolation of Pa. chlamydospora from wood and soil and can be used as alternatives to current culture media.

  16. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Fourie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity.Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  17. Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and fruiting of Cabernet Sauvignon vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawker, J.S.; Walker, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium chloride was supplied to rooted cuttings of Vitis vinifera cv Cabernet Sauvignon grown in a porous growth medium at concentrations of 0, 20, 50 and 75 mM. Shoot and leaf growth and berry set and development were reduced by NaCl, the severity of the effects depending on both NaCl concentration and the age of the plants receiving the treatment. Shoots were not affected by 20 mM NaCl supplied 10 days after flowering but 50 and 75 mM NaCl caused severe stunting of shoots and 75 mM NaCl had a marked effect on berry growth and development. When NaCl was supplied to vines 10 days before flowering, 20, 50 and 75 mM NaCl inhibited shoot growth and reduced berry size and sugar content. Although NaCl caused a decrease in the rate of growth of both leaves and berries, no changes in invertase or pectin methylesterase activities were found in these organs from plants supplied with NaCl.

  18. Analysis of vineyard differential management zones and relation to vine development, grape maturity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Casanovas, J. A.; Agelet-Fernandez, J.; Arno, J.; Ramos, M. C.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of research was to analyse the potential of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps from satellite images, yield maps and grapevine fertility and load variables to delineate zones with different wine grape properties for selective harvesting. Two vineyard blocks located in NE Spain (Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah) were analysed. The NDVI was computed from a Quickbird-2 multi-spectral image at veraison (July 2005). Yield data was acquired by means of a yield monitor during September 2005. Other variables, such as the number of buds, number of shoots, number of wine grape clusters and weight of 100 berries were sampled in a 10 rows × 5 vines pattern and used as input variables, in combination with the NDVI, to define the clusters as alternative to yield maps. Two days prior to the harvesting, grape samples were taken. The analysed variables were probable alcoholic degree, pH of the juice, total acidity, total phenolics, colour, anthocyanins and tannins. The input variables, alone or in combination, were clustered (2 and 3 Clusters) by using the ISODATA algorithm, and an analysis of variance and a multiple rang test were performed. The results show that the zones derived from the NDVI maps are more effective to differentiate grape maturity and quality variables than the zones derived from the yield maps. The inclusion of other grapevine fertility and load variables did not improve the results. (Author) 36 refs.

  19. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  20. Development of activated carbon using vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) and its use for wine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B; Olivares-Marín, M; Valdes-Sánchez, E; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2005-02-09

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste such as vine shoots (Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) with a view to develop a new fining agent for white wines. A commercial activated carbon, S5X-Agrovin, was used for comparison purposes. From VS size-reduced pieces, AC was prepared using phosphoric acid as activating agent. The concentration of the H(3)PO(4) solution, the impregnation temperature, and the carbonization conditions were controlled. The carbons were texturally characterized by gas adsorption (N(2), -196 degrees C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used in the analysis of the surface functional groups and structures of the carbons. Three varieties of white wine (i.e., cv. Cayetana, cv. Macabeo, and cv. Sauvignon Blanc) were treated with the activated carbons. Color changes were monitored by UV-vis spectrometry. Significant differences in the degree of uptake of polyphenols were observed depending on the wine variety and on the method of preparation of activated carbon. The carbon prepared by first impregnation of VS with the 60 vol% H(3)PO(4) solution at 50 degrees C and by then carbonization of the resultant product at 400 degrees C for 2 h presents a higher ability to discolor the white wines. The action of this carbon is comparable to that shown by the commercial product. Both carbons possess a well-developed porosity in the macropore range.

  1. Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal habitats in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shahid; Tad, Sonnur; Onen, Huseyin; Gunal, Hikmet; Caldiran, Ugur; Ozaslan, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm-1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm-1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

  2. Coordination and plasticity in leaf anatomical traits of invasive and native vine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkoya, Olusegun O; Boyne, Richard; Scharaschkin, Tanya

    2014-09-01

    • Plant invasiveness can be promoted by higher values of adaptive traits (e.g., photosynthetic capacity, biomass accumulation), greater plasticity and coordination of these traits, and by higher and positive relative influence of these functionalities on fitness, such as increasing reproductive output. However, the data set for this premise rarely includes linkages between epidermal-stomatal traits, leaf internal anatomy, and physiological performance.• Three ecological pairs of invasive vs. noninvasive (native) woody vine species of South-East Queensland, Australia were investigated for trait differences in leaf morphology and anatomy under varying light intensity. The linkages of these traits with physiological performance (e.g., water-use efficiency, photosynthesis, and leaf construction cost) and plant adaptive traits of specific leaf area, biomass, and relative growth rates were also explored.• Except for stomatal size, mean leaf anatomical traits differed significantly between the two groups. Plasticity of traits and, to a very limited extent, their phenotypic integration were higher in the invasive relative to the native species. ANOVA, ordination, and analysis of similarity suggest that for leaf morphology and anatomy, the three functional strategies contribute to the differences between the two groups in the order phenotypic plasticity > trait means > phenotypic integration.• The linkages demonstrated in the study between stomatal complex/gross anatomy and physiology are scarce in the ecological literature of plant invasiveness, but the findings suggest that leaf anatomical traits need to be considered routinely as part of weed species assessment and in the worldwide leaf economic spectrum. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. Analysis of viral (zucchini yellow mosaic virus) genetic diversity during systemic movement through a Cucurbita pepo vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J P; Simmons, H E; Holmes, E C; Stephenson, A G

    2014-10-13

    Determining the extent and structure of intra-host genetic diversity and the magnitude and impact of population bottlenecks is central to understanding the mechanisms of viral evolution. To determine the nature of viral evolution following systemic movement through a plant, we performed deep sequencing of 23 leaves that grew sequentially along a single Cucurbita pepo vine that was infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and on a leaf that grew in on a side branch. Strikingly, of 112 genetic (i.e. sub-consensus) variants observed in the data set as a whole, only 22 were found in multiple leaves. Similarly, only three of the 13 variants present in the inoculating population were found in the subsequent leaves on the vine. Hence, it appears that systemic movement is characterized by sequential population bottlenecks, although not sufficient to reduce the population to a single virion as multiple variants were consistently transmitted between leaves. In addition, the number of variants within a leaf increases as a function of distance from the inoculated (source) leaf, suggesting that the circulating sap may serve as a continual source of virus. Notably, multiple mutational variants were observed in the cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein (known to be involved in both cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus) that were present in multiple (19/24) leaf samples. These mutations resulted in a conformational change, suggesting that they might confer a selective advantage in systemic movement within the vine. Overall, these data reveal that bottlenecks occur during systemic movement, that variants circulate in the phloem sap throughout the infection process, and that important conformational changes in CI protein may arise during individual infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Field studies to determine mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M; Kemmitt, G

    2005-01-01

    Mancozeb is an ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicide with contact activity against a wide range of economically important fungal diseases. Its multi-site mode of action means that to date there have been no recorded incidences of resistance developing despite many years of use on high risk diseases. One such disease, Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) has developed resistance to a number of important oomycete specific fungicides following their introduction onto the market. The role of Mancozeb either as a mixing or alternation partner in helping to manage these resistance situations remains critically important. Historical use patterns for mancozeb in tree and vine crops involved many applications of product at high use rates. Although this gave excellent disease control, a negative impact on predatory mites has been reported by researchers. This has lead to the development of mancozeb spray programmes in vines and other crops with a much reduced impact on predatory mites. A range of field studies was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain where either 2 or 4 applications of mancozeb containing products were made per season at different spray timings. These trials covered the representative range of uses, agronomic practices, mite species and geographical locations in Europe. In this paper findings from ten field studies in five different vine growing regions in Europe indicated that two to four applications of mancozeb at 1.6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites.

  5. STUDY OF SOIL TYPES AROUND THE VILLAGE OF SUSAM-HASKOVSKI MINERALNI BANI FOR THE PURPOSE OF VINE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADA POPOVA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Five soil types in the region of the village of Susam-Haskovski mineralni bani were studied. The soil indexes pH, humus content, active carbonates, physical clay, and clay fraction were studied, and the soil texture coeffi cient was determined. The soil reserves with respect to the basic nutritive elements – N, P, K – were also determined. The soil types were defi ned as eluviated chromic luvisols and in combination with the climatic characteristics of the region they proved suitable for vine growing and red table wines production, in case of application of appropriate agrotechnical measures and fertilization norms.

  6. Chirality recognition of winding vine-shaped heterobiaryls with molecular asymmetry. Kinetic and dynamic kinetic resolution by Shi's asymmetric epoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruhashi, Kazuki; Okayama, Yoichi; Inoue, Ryo; Ashida, Shiomi; Toyomori, Yuka; Okano, Kentaro; Mori, Atsunori

    2018-01-26

    The chirality of winding vine-shaped heterobiaryls with molecular asymmetry is recognized by a sugar-based chiral oxidant. Kinetic resolution of (±)-bisbenzoimidazole bearing an olefin moiety takes place with Shi's asymmetric epoxidation to observe krel value up to ca. 35 affording the corresponding epoxide. The reaction of a (±)-bithiophene derivative also recognized the chirality to give the corresponding epoxide with er of 96:4 at 39% conversion. Dynamic kinetic resolution is found to take place when unsymmetrical biaryl composed of benzoimidazole/thiophene is subjected to Shi's epoxidation, whose conversion of the racemic substrate exceeds to 50%.

  7. Mark LeVine, Heavy Metal Islam: Rock, Resistance, and the Struggle for the Soul of Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Pieslak, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Few people could carry out such a study as this. Among negotiating the different countries, the different practices of Islam, the languages, finding and interviewing the musicians, and not getting into serious trouble with the local governments along the way, Mark LeVine has written a book that few could indeed compose. LeVine’s Heavy Metal Islam is a valuable insiders guide to metal in the Muslim world, representing what I wish would happen in more studies of music. Namely, an in-depth engag...

  8. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE BUD-BREAK AND GROWTH OF CUTTINGS OF 420 A AND 5 BB AMERICAN VINE ROOTSTOCKS IRRADIATED WITH DIFFERENT GAMMA DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper DARDENIZ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Viticulture is an important and intensive agricultural branch in Çanakkale province and also in Turkey. Different American vine rootstocks are widely used against phylloxera in our country. Plant breeders have been using gamma radiation for creating new varieties of crops and for obtaining broad genetic diversity for years. In this study, four different doses of gamma rays were applied to 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks when the buds on the cuttings were at the dormant stage. Then, effects of different gamma radiation doses on the cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB American vine rootstocks were investigated. The aim of the research was to study the effect of different gamma radiation doses on some growth parameters of cuttings of 420 A and 5 BB, and to determine the GR50 dose. The results obtained were statistically elaborated by TARIST.

  9. Diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts associated to spontaneously fermenting grapes from an Italian "heroic vine-growing area".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, A; Romaniello, R; Siesto, G; Romano, P

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this work was to analyse the diversity of wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from spontaneous fermentations of grapes collected from heroic vine-growing area. A first screening based on several technological traits was used to select 39 strains among 132 isolates. By using three molecular typing techniques (evaluation of cell wall gene polymorphisms, mtDNA restriction analysis, inter-delta amplification analysis) a significant genetic variability was found. The analysis of principal aromatic compounds produced during inoculated fermentation of two grape musts demonstrated the strain impact on wine flavour and a significant influence of grape must on strain metabolic behavior. One selected strain was used in fermentation at cellar level and the analysis of inter-delta region on yeast colonies isolated during the process revealed the high-implantation ability of this strain. The obtained results demonstrate the usefulness of different molecular and technological markers for the evaluation of natural biodiversity among S. cerevisiae strains. This study represents an essential step towards the exploitation and the preservation of biodiversity of strains isolated from heroic vine-growing area. Selected S. cerevisiae strains could represent starter cultures available for winemakers addressed to production of quality premium wines maintaining differential properties of their own area. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of Vine-Trimming Wastes as Carrier for Amycolatopsis sp. to Produce Vanillin, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Vanillic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañón-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Rodríguez, Noelia; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro; Aguilar-Uscanga, María Guadalupe; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Raw vine-trimming wastes or the solid residues obtained after different fractionation treatments were evaluated for their suitability as Amycolatopsis sp. immobilization carriers during the bioconversion of ferulic acid into valuable phenolic compounds such as vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, and vanillic acid, the main flavor components of vanilla pods. Previously, physical-chemical characteristics of the materials were determined by quantitative acid hydrolysis and water absorption index (WAI), and microbiological characteristics by calculating the cell retention in the carrier (λ). Additionally, micrographics of carrier surface were obtained by field emission-scanning electron microscopy to study the influence of morphological changes during pretreatments in the adhesion of cells immobilized. The results point out that in spite of showing the lowest WAI and intermediate λ, raw material was the most appropriated substrate to conduct the bioconversion, achieving up to 262.9 mg/L phenolic compounds after 24 h, corresponding to 42.9 mg/L vanillin, 115.6 mg/L vanillyl alcohol, and 104.4 mg/L vanillic acid. The results showed the potential of this process to be applied for biotechnological production of vanillin from ferulic acid solutions; however, further studies must be carried out to increase vanillin yield. Additionally, the liquors obtained after treatment of vine-trimming wastes could be assayed to replace synthetic ferulic acid.

  11. Changes in pH, acids, sugars and other quality parameters during extended vine holding of ripe processing tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthon, Gordon E; LeStrange, Michelle; Barrett, Diane M

    2011-05-01

    Two important quality attributes of processing tomatoes are pH and titratable acidity. These and other quality attributes can be affected by tomato fruit maturity and over-maturity. We have determined the magnitude of these maturity effects in four processing tomato cultivars commonly grown in California. Allowing tomatoes to remain on the vine for up to 4 weeks after ripening resulted in an increase in fruit pH of between 0.01 and 0.02 unit per day for the four cultivars examined. The increase in pH was paralleled by a decrease in titratable acidity, due to a loss of citric acid. Glucose and fructose concentrations also declined with increasing maturity after ripening. Other quality parameters (color, lycopene, total pectin, pectin solubility, and Bostwick consistency) all showed little change. Vine holding of ripe fruit adversely affects quality, especially pH and titratable acidity. Recent problems with high tomato juice pH encountered by tomato processors in California could be the result of increased average fruit maturity at harvest. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Retrospective 70 y-spatial analysis of repeated vine mortality patterns using ancient aerial time series, Pléiades images and multi-source spatial and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Leclercq, L.; Gilliot, J. M.; Chaignon, B.

    2017-06-01

    For any wine estate, there is a need to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones ('terroirs') so as to manage grape production, which depends on vine biological condition. Until now, the studies performing digital zoning of terroirs have relied on recent spatial data and scant attention has been paid to ancient geoinformation likely to retrace past biological condition of vines and especially occurrence of vine mortality. Is vine mortality characterized by recurrent and specific patterns and if so, are these patterns related to terroir units and/or past landuse? This study aimed at performing a historical and spatial tracing of vine mortality patterns using a long time-series of aerial survey images (1947-2010), in combination with recent data: soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 measurements, very high resolution Pléiades satellite images, and a detailed field survey. Within a 6 ha-estate in the Southern Rhone Valley, landuse and planting history were retraced and the map of missing vines frequency was constructed from the whole time series including a 2015-Pléiades panchromatic band. Within-field terroir units were obtained from a support vector machine classifier computed on the spectral bands and NDVI of Pléiades images, EM38 data and morphometric data. Repeated spatial patterns of missing vines were highlighted throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements, and appeared to match some within-field terroir units, being explained by their specific soil characteristics, vine/soil management choices and the past landuse of the 1940s. Missing vines frequency was spatially correlated with topsoil CaCO3 content, and negatively correlated with topsoil iron, clay, total N, organic C contents and NDVI. A retrospective spatio-temporal assessment of terroir therefore brings a renewed focus on some key parameters for maintaining a sustainable grape production.

  13. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese large white Mong Cai pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Le, N.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White¿Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred

  14. Insights on the stilbenes in Raboso Piave grape (Vitis vinifera L.) as a consequence of postharvest vs on-vine dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillante, Luca; De Rosso, Mirko; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Maoz, Itay; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2017-09-15

    Grape withering is a process used to produce reinforced wines and raisins. Dehydration is usually carried out postharvest by keeping ripe grapes in special warehouses in controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity (RH) and air flow. Alternatively, grape clusters can be left on the vines after the canes have been pruned. In general, dehydration increases stilbenes in grape, but there are few studies on the effects of on-vine withering. The stilbene profiles of Raboso Piave grape during postharvest and on-vine dehydration were studied here. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify 19 stilbenes, including resveratrol monomers, dimers (viniferins), oligomers and glucoside derivatives. The two dehydration methods generally had different effects on the above nutraceuticals in grape. The samples kept in warehouses revealed significant increases in Z-ω-viniferin, E-ϵ-viniferin, δ-viniferin and another resveratrol dimer which were not observed in the plants. Trans-Resveratrol increased significantly only in samples dehydrated in the warehouse at 21 °C and 60-70% RH. The findings increase knowledge of stilbene composition in grapes subjected to withering on-vine. The choice of dehydration method affects the contents of these nutraceuticals in the grape and consequently in wines. Reasonably, it could also affect other secondary metabolites important for wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) for burn wound healing process on albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniarti, Wiwik Misaco; Lukiswanto, Bambang Sektiari

    2017-07-01

    Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis), or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (pvine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis) has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  16. The Microvine, A Plant Model to Study the Effect of Vine-Shoot Extract on the Accumulation of Glycosylated Aroma Precursors in Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Torregrosa, Laurent; Zalacain, Amaya; Ojeda, Hernán; Bouckenooghe, Virginie; Schneider, Rémi; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2017-11-30

    Microvine plant model displays an unique reproductive organ behaviors and is suitable for grapevine fruit physiological studies: allow to undertake studies until 5 times more rapidly than the current situation with grapevines. Recently, vine-shoot aqueous extracts, which have an interesting phenolic and aroma composition, have been proposed as viticultural biostimulants, since their post-veraison foliar application to grapevines impacts on wine aroma profile. Using Microvines, the aim of this study was to determine the vine-shoot extract foliar application effect on twenty-one stages of grapes development. The application was carried out from BBCH 53 (inflorescences clearly visible) to BBCH 85 (softening of berries), to reveal stage-specific responses of the accumulation of glycosylated aroma precursors at BBCH 89 (berries ripe for harvest), phenological stage selected to study the treatment effect. Microvines use made possible to take fifteen sampling time points on eighty-six days of experiment, which were established by cumulative degree days parameter. Results confirmed that vine-shoot treatment had a positive impact on total glycosylated compounds, especially on alcohols, terpenes and C13 -norisoprenoids aglycones, with a higher effect when treatment was applied during ripening. The results extrapolation to grapevines suggests that vine-shoot treatment could modulate the synthesis of grape glycosylated aroma precursors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant profiling of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata): Off-line coupling heart-cutting HSCCC with HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qingping; Ma, Ruyi; Chen, Lin; Shi, Shuyun; Cai, Ping; Zhang, Shuihan; Xiang, Haiyan

    2017-06-15

    Vine tea with strong antioxidant activity is commonly consumed as healthy tea/beverage. However, detailed information about its antioxidants is incomplete. Here, off-line hyphenation of heart-cutting high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) were described for systematic profiling antioxidants in vine tea. At first, antioxidants were rapidly screened by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC). Subsequently, stepwise HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:9:4:9, v/v/v/v) and (4:9:5:8, v/v/v/v) as solvent systems was optimized to fractionate and enrich antioxidants from ethyl acetate fraction of vine tea. Finally, heart-cutting mode was used to collect five interesting HSCCC fractions for HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS analysis. Desirable orthogonality between HSCCC and HPLC led to identification of fifteen antioxidant flavonoids, while four minor flavonoids were first reported in vine tea. Results showed that the developed system is efficient to comprehensively explore antioxidants from complex natural herbs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon-13 composition of bulk dry wines by irm-EA/MS and irm-13C NMR: An indicator of vine water status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyon Francois

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements performed on a set of 32 authentic wines (not submitted to any oenological treatment and their ethanol, recovered by distillation, show high correlation between δ13C of bulk wine and its ethanol. These measurements were performed by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyzer (irm-EA/MS. Then a series of wines produced by vines of which water status was assessed during the growing season with predawn leaf water potential measurements, was studied by irm-EA/MS. As expected δ13C is correlated to vine water status conditions, as a result of stomatal closure. The ethanol of these specific wines was also analyzed by isotope ratio monitoring and by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-13C NMR to determine carbon-13 composition on the two specific sites of the ethanol skeleton. If these measurements confirm the correlation between 13C composition and vine growth conditions, the 13C stereospecific information does not make vine water status assessment more precise.

  19. Influence of lime, peat and cation exchanger on the heavy-metal-uptake of vine (Vitis vinifera L. ) from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, H.D.

    1980-10-01

    In pot experiments with heavy-metal-contaminated soils, the influence of different soil admixtures on growth and heavy-metal-uptake of vine cuttings was investigated. The following results were obtained: 1. The heavy metal uptake of vines from mixtures of soil and garbage-sewage-compost was strongly reduced by a cation exchanger. The heavy metal content of the roots decreased as follows: Cu68-77%; Zn36-74%; Cd29-81%; Mn20-45%; Pb13-52%; Cr7-58%. The Mn-, Zn- and Cu-content of wood, tendrils and leaves also decreased considerably. 2. Vine cuttings, which were cultivated on an acid, artificially Cd-contaminated soil, showed heavy damages and high Cd-contents. Admixtures of lime, cation exchanger or garbage-sewage-sludge-compost strongly reduced the injury of vines and their Cd-content. A combined addition of lime and cation exchanger was most effectful. On the contrary, the toxic effect of Cd was intensified by the acid reaction of peat.

  20. Assessing Efficiency of D-Vine Copula ARMA-GARCH Method in Value at Risk Forecasting: Evidence from PSE Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Klepáč

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out the possibilities of using static D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model for estimation of 1 day ahead market Value at Risk. For the illustration we use data of the four companies listed on Prague Stock Exchange in range from 2010 to 2014. Vine copula approach allows us to construct high-dimensional copula from both elliptical and Archimedean bivariate copulas, i.e. multivariate probability distribution, created from process innovations. Due to a deeper shortage of existing domestic results or comparison studies with advanced volatility governed VaR forecasts we backtested D-Vine copula ARMA-GARCH model against the VaR rolling out of sample forecast from October 2012 to April 2014 of chosen benchmark models, e.g. multivariate VAR-GO-GARCH, VAR-DCC-GARCH and univariate ARMA-GARCH type models. Common backtesting via Kupiec and Christoffersen procedures offer generalization that technological superiority of model supports accuracy only in case of an univariate modeling – working with non-basic GARCH models and innovations with leptokurtic distributions. Multivariate VAR governed type models and static Copula Vines performed in stated backtesting comparison worse than selected univariate ARMA-GARCH, i.e. it have overestimated the level of actual market risk, probably due to hardly tractable time-varying dependence structure.

  1. A high-density genetic map for anchoring genome sequences and identifying QTLs associated with dwarf vine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Jia, Zhangcai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong; Li, Haizhen

    2015-12-24

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is an economically important crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, very few genomic and genetic resources are available for this species. As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence the pumpkin genome, high-density genetic map is essential for anchoring and orienting the assembled scaffolds. In addition, a saturated genetic map can facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 186 F2 plants derived from the cross of pumpkin inbred lines Rimu and SQ026 were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Using the SNPs we identified, a high-density genetic map containing 458 bin-markers was constructed, spanning a total genetic distance of 2,566.8 cM across the 20 linkage groups of C. maxima with a mean marker density of 5.60 cM. Using this map we were able to anchor 58 assembled scaffolds that covered about 194.5 Mb (71.7%) of the 271.4 Mb assembled pumpkin genome, of which 44 (183.0 Mb; 67.4%) were oriented. Furthermore, the high-density genetic map was used to identify genomic regions highly associated with an important agronomic trait, dwarf vine. Three QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 3 and 4, respectively, were recovered. One QTL, qCmB2, which was located in an interval of 0.42 Mb on LG 3, explained 21.4% phenotypic variations. Within qCmB2, one gene, Cma_004516, encoding the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase in the GA biosynthesis pathway, had a 1249-bp deletion in its promoter in bush type lines, and its expression level was significantly increased during the vine growth and higher in vine type lines than bush type lines, supporting Cma_004516 as a possible candidate gene controlling vine growth in pumpkin. A high-density pumpkin genetic map was constructed, which was used to successfully anchor and orient the assembled genome scaffolds, and to identify QTLs highly associated with pumpkin vine length. The map provided a valuable resource for gene cloning and marker assisted breeding in pumpkin and

  2. Phenological monitoring of vine using MODIS imagery in the vineyard of Saumur-Angers (Loire Valley area, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Corgne, S.; Planchon, O.; Bonnefoy, C.; Quénol, H.; Lecerf, R.

    2012-04-01

    The present study focuses on the phenological monitoring of vine with MODIS multitemporal data. It takes part of two programs which deal with global change and agricultural adaptations: TERADCLIM (2011-2013) for wine makers and CLIMASTER (2008-2011) about agricultural resources in four administrative regions of Western France. Numerous studies use very high resolution remotely sensed data to monitor vineyard, despite their low acquisition frequency. Here we investigate the potential of images with moderate resolution (250-500m) but high temporal resolution to detect changes in phenology of vine. The investigated area, called the AOC (Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée) vineyard of Anjou-Saumur - AOC-SA (47°13'N-0°26'E), covers an area of 33,840 hectares and is located in West-Central France. In this monoculture area, the observed changes in biophysical variables strongly depend on temperature and precipitation variability, and, thus, represent an interesting opportunity to study relationships between climate change and evolution of vine phenology. We use a MODIS images dataset from 2000 to 2011 with a temporal resolution of one image every 10 days. Our workflow builds regular series of reflectance images from which biophysic variables (like fCOVER, vegetation cover fraction) are calculated. Thanks to the TERVICLIM (ANR-JC 07-194103) program, 13 weather stations were set up within the AOC-SA, between 2008 and 2011. The average climatic data (temperature, rainfall) from this network are linked to Modis data. The monthly records of the biophysical variables over the studied period clearly show annual oscillations including a seasonal and monthly variability of the fCOVER associated with climatic features. Furthermore, the remarkably mild and wet winters of 2000-2001 and 2006-2007 were favourable to an increase of photosynthetic activity and vegetation coverage ratio. The strong and long-term rainfall deficit (until autumn) in 2005 and the associated hydric stress

  3. Effects of herbal ointment containing the leaf extracts of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis for burn wound healing process on albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Skin burn is a health problem that requires fast and accurate treatment. If not well-treated, the burn will cause various damaging conditions for the patient. The leaf extract of Madeira vine (Anredera cordifolia (Ten. Steenis, or popularly known as Binahong in Indonesia, has been used to treat various diseases. The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of leaf extracts of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten. Steenis on skin burn healing process in rats as an animal model. Materials and Methods: In this research, there were four treatment groups: G0, G1, G2, and G3, each consisting of five rats. All these rats were given skin burns, using hot metal plates. Then, sulfadiazine was given to G0, 2.5% leaf extract of Madeira vine was given to G1, 5% extract was given to G2, and 10% extract was given to G3, for straight 14 days topically, 3 times a day. At the end of the treatment period, skin excisions were conducted, and histopathological examination was carried out. Results: Microscopic observation on the wound healing process on the collagen deposition, polymorphonuclear infiltration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis showed that G2 had a significant difference with G0, G1, and G3 (p<0.05, while group G0 was significantly different from G1 and G3 (p<0.05. The better burn healing process on G2 allegedly because of the activity of flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, contained in the Madeira vine, which have the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. Conclusion: The ointment from the 5% leaf extract of Madeira vine (A. cordifolia (Ten. Steenis has been proven to be effective to be used for topical burn therapy.

  4. Nitrogen fertilization in the growth phase of 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot Noir' vines and nitrogen forms in sandy soil of the Pampa Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Information on nitrogen fertilization in growing vines is still a very limited subject, especially for crops on sandy soils in the Pampa Biome in Rio Grande do Sul, where viticulture has expanded considerably in the last decade. This study aimed to assess the impact of N doses on growth of young plants of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines and N forms present in sandy soil in the Pampa Biome. The experiment was conducted from October 2011 to December 2012 in a vineyard in Santana do Livramento, in Southern Rio Grande do Sul State, in soil with 82 g kg-1 clay in the 0-20 cm layer. Vines of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir varieties were subjected to applications of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg N ha-1 year-1. Total N in leaves, SPAD readings, stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of the pruned material were evaluated in two growth cycles and three times. Soil samples were collected at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depths at four crop growth stages, in which N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and total N were analyzed and the mineral N was calculated. The N levels applied to young vines, although they did not provide relevant changes in the N-NH4 +, N-NO3 -, and mineral N contents in the soil, were able to increase the N content in the leaves, increasing plant vigor. because the reason is that there was an increase in stem diameter, plant height, and dry matter of pruned material in most evaluation periods. These parameters suggest better growth patterns and uniformity of young grapevines with possible positive effects in anticipation of production, demonstrating the importance of nitrogen fertilization strategies to the growing vines in the sandy soil conditions of the Pampa Biome.

  5. Tissue Distribution, Excretion, and Metabolic Profile of Dihydromyricetin, a Flavonoid from Vine Tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) after Oral Administration in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Tong, Qing; Dong, Weiwei; Yang, Guangjie; Hou, Xiaolong; Xiong, Wei; Shi, Chunyang; Fang, Jianguo; Wang, Wenqing

    2017-06-14

    Dihydromyricetin (DMY), a flavanonol compound found as the most abundant and bioactive constituent in vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata), possesses numerous biological activities. In the present study, an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of DMY in tissues, urine, and feces was developed and applied to the tissue distribution and excretion study after oral administration in rats, and the metabolic profile of DMY was further investigated using UPLC-QTOF-MS. The results indicated that DMY could be distributed rapidly in various tissues and highly in the gastrointestinal tract. The elimination of DMY occurred rapidly as well, and most unconverted forms were excreted in feces. A total of eight metabolites were identified in urine and feces, while metabolites were barely found in plasma. The predicted metabolic pathways including reduction, dehydroxylation, methylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation were proposed. The present findings may provide the theoretical basis for evaluating the biological activities of DMY and will be helpful for its future development and application.

  6. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on corn cob and vine trimming shoots for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, N; García-Bernet, D; Domínguez, J M

    2016-12-01

    Due to their lignocellulosic nature, corn cob and vine trimming shoots (VTS) could be valorized by anaerobic digestion for biogas production. To enhance the digestibility of substrates, pretreatments of lignocellulosic materials are recommended. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasounds pretreatments (US) and the combination of both was assayed in lignocellulosic composition, methane, and biogas yields. The pretreatments leaded to a reduction in lignin and an increase in neutral detergent soluble compounds making corn cob and VTS more amendable for biogas conversion. The US were negative for biogas production from both substrates and in particular strongly detrimental for VTS. On the opposite side, the enzymatic hydrolysis was certainly beneficial increasing 59.8% and 14.6% the methane production from VTS and corn cob, respectively. The prior application of US did not potentiate (or not sufficiently) the improvement in the methane production reflected by the enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of VTS and corn cob. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψstem). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500–800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψstem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψstem were between 0.56–0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψstem with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE) of −9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26–0.27 MPa, 0.32–0.34 MPa and −24.2–25.6%, respectively. PMID:29084169

  8. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Bardeen, Matthew

    2017-10-30

    Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψ stem ). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500-800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψ stem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R²) obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψ stem were between 0.56-0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψ stem with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE) of -9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26-0.27 MPa, 0.32-0.34 MPa and -24.2-25.6%, respectively.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF VINES AND ROOTS OF FOUR SWEET POTATO (ipomoea batatas VARIETIES GROWN IN SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebreegziabher Zereu Hadgu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDMD of vine and its fractions (leaf, petiole and stem and roots of two early maturing (Belela and Temesgen and two medium maturing varieties (Beletech and Tulla were investigated. Vine and root samples from each variety were harvested from triplicate plots (5.1m x 4.8m. Vine samples were partitioned in two equal parts: one part analyzed as whole vine and the second part was fractionated into leaf, petiole and stem. Differences in chemical composition and IVTDMD between vine and its fractions (leaf, petiole and stem were significant (p<0.05. Leaf had crude protein (CP content of 26.1, 22.3, 20.5 and 28.4%DM; Neutral detergent fiber (NDF 25.4, 25.3, 30.7 and 30.2%DM and IVTDMD 90.7, 90.6, 87.5 and 90.1%; petiole had CP of 7.9, 12.1, 7.7and 10.0%DM; NDF 27.8, 29.4, 28.5 and 27.9%DM and IVTDMD 93.4, 93.4, 91.4 and 91.5% and stem had CP of 8.2, 10.9, 8.3 and 10.3%DM; NDF 38.5, 37.5, 40.4%DM and 40.2 and IVTDMD 78.2, 77.8, 74.4 and 76.3%, respectively, for Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla. In vine CP of 18.7, 18.1, 15.5 and 17.3%DM; NDF 32.7, 31.4, 38.3%DM and 36.9 and IVTDMD 86.2, 86.3, 83.1 and 83.5%, respectively, for Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla were found. There was also significant (p<0.05 variations in CP and NDF but not (p<0.05 in IVTDMD of roots between varieties. Root CP of 6.9, 7.7, 6.8 and 6.3 % DM; NDF 7.2, 6.0, 6.5 and 6.3 %DM and IVTDMD 94.3, 94.5, 94.9 and 94.6%, respectively, for Belela, Temesgen, Beletech and Tulla were found. In conclusion, Belela and Temesgen had better quality than Beletech and Tulla in most measured parameters.

  10. Thysanoptera (Thrips) Within Citrus Orchards in Florida: Species Distribution, Relative and Seasonal Abundance Within Trees, and Species on Vines and Ground Cover Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Carl C.; Nakahara, Sueo

    2006-01-01

    Seven citrus orchards on reduced to no pesticide spray programs were sampled for Thysanoptera in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruits, twigs, trunk scrapings, vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between January 1995 and January 1996. Thirty-six species of thrips were identified from 2,979 specimens collected from within citrus tree canopies and 18,266 specimens from vines and ground cover plants within the seven citrus orchards. The thrips species included seven predators [Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin), Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones), K. melaleucus (Bagnall), Leptothrips cassiae (Watson), L. macroocellatus (Watson), L. pini (Watson), and Scolothrips sexmaculatus (Pergande)] 21 plant feeding species [Anaphothrips n. sp., Arorathrips mexicanus (Crawford), Aurantothrips orchidaceous (Bagnall), Baileyothrips limbatus (Hood), Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton), Danothrips trifasciatus (Sakimura), Echinothrips americanus (Morgan), Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), F. cephalica (Crawford), F. fusca (Hinds), F. gossypiana (Hood), Frankliniella sp. (runneri group), Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin), Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché), Leucothrips piercei (Morgan), Microcephalothrips abdominalis (Crawford), Neohydatothrips floridanus (Watson), N. portoricensis (Morgan), Pseudothrips inequalis (Beach), Scirtothrips sp., and Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan)]; and eight fungivorous feeding species [Adraneothrips decorus (Hood), Hoplandrothrips pergandei (Hinds), Idolothripinae sp., Merothrips floridensis (Watson), M. morgani (Hood), Neurothrips magnafemoralis (Hinds), Stephanothrips occidentalis Hood and Williams, and Symphyothrips sp.]. Only F. bispinosa, C. orchidii, D. trifasciatus, and H. haemorrhoidalis have been considered economic pests on Florida citrus. Scirtothrips sp. and T. hawaiiensis were recovered in low numbers within Florida citrus orchards. Both are potential pest species to citrus and possibly other

  11. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  12. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) in Ethiopia’s Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine) in Ethiopia’s Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80) and the final model (test AUC = 0.96). Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local ecological

  13. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 2. Anthocyanins and pigmented polymers in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting wine anthocyanin concentration and composition and pigmented polymer formation were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. Vine vigor parameters were used to designate vigor zones within two vineyard sites (A and B) to produce research wines (2003 and 2004) and conduct a model extraction experiment (2004 only) to investigate the vine-fruit-wine continuum. Wines and model extracts were analyzed by HPLC and UV-vis spectrophotometry. For the model extractions, there were no differences between sites for pomace weight, whereas juice volume was higher for site A. This was not related to a larger berry size. Site A had a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) in the model extracts than site B specifically for the medium- and low-vigor zones. For anthocyanin composition in the model extraction, site B had a greater proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and less of the remaining anthocyanin glucosides (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, and peonidin) compared to site A. In the wines, there was a vintage effect, with the 2003 wines having a higher anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per liter) than the 2004 wines. This appears to have been primarily due to a greater accumulation of anthocyanins in the fruit. In general, the medium-vigor zone wines had higher anthocyanin concentrations than either the high- or low-vigor zone wines. There was also vintage variation related to anthocyanin composition, with the 2003 wines having a higher proportion of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside compared to 2004. In both years, there were higher proportions of delphinidin and petunidin glucosides in wines made from low-vigor-zone fruit. Wines made from low-vigor zones showed a greater propensity to form vitisin A as well as pigmented polymers. Low

  14. The effect of soil and foliar applications of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of vine (Vitis vinifera, L. grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zatloukalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A one-year field trial was established with the vine variety Ryzlink vlašský (Riesling italico to evaluate the effect of spring soil applications and 5x repeated foliar application of magnesium fertilisers on yields and quality of grapes. On light soil of the experimental locality Žabčice (ca 25 km south of Brno visual symptoms of Mg deficiency on vine leaves had been monitored in the past. The experiment involved 4 treatments: 1 unfertilised control; 2 spring soil application of Kieserite – 20 kg Mg.ha−1; 3 5x foliar application of a 5% solution of Epso Combitop – Mg, S, Mn, Zn; 11.8 kg Mg.ha−1; 4 5x foliar applications of a 5% solution of Epso Top – Mg, S; 14.8 kg Mg.ha−1.No significant differences among the treatments were detected in the contents of K (1.40–1.67% and Ca (1.63–1.91% in leaves sampled after the applications. After foliar applications the contents of Mg and S significantly increased in treatments 3–4 to 0.42–0.49% and 0.34–0.40 %, respectively compared to treatments 1–2 (0.29–0.30% and 0.22%, respectively. The content of Zn (173–380 mg.kg−1 and Mn (90–551 mg.kg−1 increased significantly in treatment 3 compared to the other treatments. The chlorophyll index did not differ among the treatments. Grape yields (t.ha−1 in treatments 1–4 were the following: 7.04–8.16–7.51–7.26 t.ha−1, respectively. Only the soil-applied treatment 2 differed significantly from the other treatments. The content of sugar (16.5–17.9 °NM, titratable acids (12.78–13.25 g.l−1 and the pH of must (3.02–3.11 did not differ among the treatments.

  15. Sensory, olfactometry and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography analyses as appropriate tools to characterize the effects of vine management on wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolli, Karine P; Biasoto, Aline C T; Souza-Silva, Érica A; Guerra, Celito C; Dos Santos, Henrique P; Welke, Juliane E; Zini, Cláudia A

    2018-03-15

    For the first time, the influence of different vine management was evaluated in relation to volatile profile and sensory perception through GC×GC/TOFMS, QDA, GC-FID, GC/MS, and GC-O. GC×GC/TOFMS analyses and QDA have shown that a larger spacing between vine rows (2 rather than 1m), attachment of shoots upwards, and irrigation did not result in wine improvement. Conversely, wines elaborated with grapes from a vine with a lower bud load (20 per plant; sample M1) stood out among the other procedures, rendering the most promising wine aroma. GC×GC/TOFMS allowed identification of 220 compounds including 26 aroma active compounds also distinguished by GC-O. Among them, eight volatiles were important to differentiate M1 from other wines, and five out of those eight compounds could only be correctly identified and quantified after separation in second dimension. Higher levels of three volatiles may explain the relation of M1 wine with red and dry fruits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  17. Effects of Lactobacillus formosensis S215T and Lactobacillus buchneri on quality and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in sweet potato vines silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangwe, M C; Rangubhet, K T; Mlambo, V; Yu, B; Chiang, H I

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of two microbial inoculants; Lactobacillus formosensis and Lactobacillus buchneri on fermentation quality, chemical composition, aerobic stability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in sweet potato vines silage. Sweet potato vines were ensiled for 28 and 60 days; without inoculant (CON), with Lact. buchneri (LB) or with Lact. formosensis (LF), both inoculants applied to achieve 1 × 106  CFU g-1 fresh forage. Lactobacillus formosensis silage had lower pH and higher lactic acid than all treatments. Yeasts and moulds were not detected in LB silage after ensiling. Lactobacillus buchneri silage was more aerobically stable than all treatments, whereas LF was more stable than CON silage. In vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins was lower in microbial-inoculated silages than CON after ensiling. Lactobacillus formosensis improved fermentability by reducing silage pH and improved aerobic stability by producing more propionate, which inhibited yeast activity. Lactobacillus buchneri improved aerobic stability of the silage by producing more acetate. Both strains effectively reduced the antinutritional effect of condensed tannins after ensiling. Lactobacillus formosensis has the potential to be used as a silage inoculant because of its ability to improve fermentability and aerobic stability in sweet potato vines silage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Results from two years of field studies to determine Mancozeb based spray programmes with minimal impact on predatory mites in European vine cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M; Kemmitt, G; Valverde, P

    2006-01-01

    Mancozeb is a dithiocarbamate fungicide with contact activity against a wide range of economically important fungal diseases. Its multi-site mode of action means that to date there have been no recorded incidences of resistance developing despite many years of use on high risk diseases. One such disease, Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) has developed resistance to a wide range of important oomycete specific fungicides following their introduction onto the market. The role of Mancozeb either as a mixing or alternation partner in helping to manage these resistance situations remains critically important. Historical use patterns for mancozeb in tree and vine crops involved many applications of product at high use rates. Although this gave excellent disease control, a negative impact on predatory mites was often reported by researchers. This has lead to the development of mancozeb spray programmes in vines and other crops with a much reduced impact on predatory mites. A range of field studies was conducted over two years in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain where 2, 3 or 4 applications of mancozeb containing products were made per season at different spray timings. In this paper findings from field studies over two years in five different vine growing regions in Europe indicated that two to four applications of mancozeb at 1.6 kg a.i./ha as part of a spray programme caused minimal impact on naturally occurring populations of predatory mites which in turn was compatible with Integrated Pest Management programmes and the conservation of predatory mites.

  19. Influence of vine vigor on grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cv. Pinot Noir) anthocyanins. 1. Anthocyanin concentration and composition in fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortell, Jessica M; Halbleib, Michael; Gallagher, Andrew V; Righetti, Timothy L; Kennedy, James A

    2007-08-08

    The relationships between grapevine (Vitis vinifera) vigor variation and resulting fruit anthocyanin accumulation and composition were investigated. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard consisting of the same clone, rootstock, age, and vineyard management practices. The experimental design involved assigning vigor zones in two vineyard sites based upon differences in vine growth. Fruits and wines were analyzed by HPLC from designated vigor zones in 2003 and 2004. Average berry weight (grams), average dry skin weight (milligrams), degrees Brix, and pH were higher and titratable acidity (grams per liter) was lower in 2003 compared to 2004. In 2003, only the highest and lowest vigor zones had differences in berry weight, whereas there were no differences in 2004. In both years, high vigor zones had lower degrees Brix and higher titratable acidity (milligrams per liter). Accumulation of anthocyanins (milligrams per berry) was greater in 2003 compared to 2004. There was a trend for lower anthocyanin concentration (milligrams per berry) in high vigor zones in both years. In 2004 compared to 2003, there was a higher proportion of malvidin-3-O-glucoside and lower proportions of the other four anthocyanins (delphinidin-, cyanidin-, petunidin-, and peonidin-3-O-glucosides) found in Pinot Noir. In both years, site A had proportionally higher peonidin-3-O-glucoside and lower malvidin-3-O-glucoside than site B. Some of these differences may be related to the higher exposure and temperatures found in site B compared to site A and also in the low vigor zones.

  20. Effect on the Aroma Profile of Graciano and Tempranillo Red Wines of the Application of Two Antifungal Treatments onto Vines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Noguerol-Pato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two antifungals (boscalid + kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous. Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note. The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes.

  1. Ambient mass spectrometry: Direct analysis of dimethoate, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin on olive and vine leaves by desorption electrospray ionization interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainero Rocca, Lucia; Cecca, Juri; L'Episcopo, Nunziata; Fabrizi, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    A new field of application for a relatively new mass-spectrometric interface such as desorption electrospray ionization was evaluated. For this purpose, its behavior was tested versus quantitative analysis of dimethoate, trifloxystrobin, and tebuconazole directly on olive and vine leaves surface. The goal was workers exposure assessment during field re-entry operations since evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to some agrochemicals and severe adverse effects. Desorption electrospray ionization gave good response working in positive ionization mode, while numerous test were necessary for the choice of a unique blend of spray solvents suitable for all 3 substances. The best compromise, in terms of signal to noise ratios, was obtained with the CH3 OH/H2 O (80:20) mixture. The obvious difficulties related to the impossibility to use the internal standard were overcome through an accurate validation. Limits of detection and quantitation, dynamic ranges, matrix effects, and intraday precisions were calculated, and a small monitoring campaign was arranged to test method applicability and to evaluate potential dermal exposure. This protocol was developed in work safety field, but after a brief investigation, it was find to be suitable also for food residue evaluation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The emergence of the hyperinvasive vine, Mikania micrantha (Asteraceae), via admixture and founder events inferred from population transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; He, Ziwen; Huang, Yelin; Lu, Lu; Yan, Yubin; Hong, Lan; Shen, Hao; Liu, Ying; Guo, Qiang; Jiang, Lu; Zhang, Yanwu; Greenberg, Anthony J; Zhou, Renchao; Ge, Xuejun; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua

    2017-07-01

    Biological invasions that involve well-documented rapid adaptations to new environments provide unequalled opportunities for testing evolutionary hypotheses. Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asteraceae), a perennial herbaceous vine native to tropical Central and South America, successfully invaded tropical Asia in the early 20th century. It is regarded as one of the most aggressive weeds in the world. To elucidate the molecular and evolutionary processes underlying this invasion, we extensively sampled this weed throughout its invaded range in South-East and South Asia and surveyed its genetic structure using variants detected from population transcriptomics. Clustering results suggest that more than one source population contributed to this invasion. Computer simulations using genomewide genetic variation support a scenario of admixture and founder events during invasion. The genes differentially expressed between native and invasive populations were found to be involved in oxidative and high light intensity stress responses, pointing to a possible ecological mechanism of adaptation. Our results provide a foundation for further detailed mechanistic and population studies of this ecologically and economically important invasion. This line of research promises to provide new mitigation strategies for invasive species as well as insights into mechanisms of adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Application of methanol and sweet potato vine hydrolysate as enhancers of citric acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Daobing; Shi, Yanke; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yuhua

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural waste is as an alternative low-cost carbon source or beneficial additives which catch most people's eyes. In addition, methanol and sweet potato vine hydrolysate (SVH) have been reported as the efficient enhancers of fermentation according to some reports. The objective of the present study was to confirm SVH as an efficient additive in CA production and explore the synergistic effects of methanol and SVH in fermentation reactions. The optimal fermentation conditions resulted in a maximum citric acid concentration of 3.729 g/L. The final citric acid concentration under the optimized conditions was increased by 3.6-fold over the original conditions, 0.49-fold over the optimized conditions without methanol, and 1.8-fold over the optimized conditions in the absence of SVH. Kinetic analysis showed that Qp, Yp/s, and Yx/s in the optimized systems were significantly improved compared with those obtained in the absence of methanol or SVH. Further, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that methanol stress promoted the formation of conidiophores, while SVH could neutralize the effect and prolong Aspergillus niger vegetative growth. Cell viability analysis also showed that SVH might eliminate the harmful effects of methanol and enhance cell membrane integrity. SVH was a superior additive for organic acid fermentation, and the combination of methanol and SVH displayed a significant synergistic effect. The research provides a preliminary theoretical basis for SVH practical application in the fermentation industry.

  4. Sweetpotato vines hydrolysate promotes single cell oils production of Trichosporon fermentans in high-density molasses fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Fan, Xiaoping; Yang, Yuyi; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the co-fermentation of molasses and sweetpotato vine hydrolysate (SVH) by Trichosporon fermentans. T. fermentans showed low lipid accumulation on pure molasses; however, its lipid content increased by 35% when 10% SVH was added. The strong influence of SVH on lipid production was further demonstrated by the result of sensitivity analysis on effects of factors based on an artificial neural network model because the relative importance value of SVH dosage for lipid production was only lower than that of fermentation time. Scanning electron microscope observation and flow cytometry of yeast cells grown in culture with and without SVH showed that less deformation cells were involved in the culture with SVH. The activity of malic enzyme, which plays a key role in fatty acid synthesis, increased from 2.4U/mg to 3.7U/mg after SVH added. All results indicated SVH is a good supplement for lipid fermentation on molasses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of NIR Spectral Data Management for Quality Control of Grape Bunches during On-Vine Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Teresa Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available NIR spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive technique for the assessment of chemical changes in the main internal quality properties of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. during on-vine ripening and at harvest. A total of 363 samples from 25 white and red grape varieties were used to construct quality-prediction models based on reference data and on NIR spectral data obtained using a commercially-available diode-array spectrophotometer (380–1,700 nm. The feasibility of testing bunches of intact grapes was investigated and compared with the more traditional must-based method. Two regression approaches (MPLS and LOCAL algorithms were tested for the quantification of changes in soluble solid content (SSC, reducing sugar content, pH-value, titratable acidity, tartaric acid, malic acid and potassium content. Cross-validation results indicated that NIRS technology provided excellent precision for sugar-related parameters (r2 = 0.94 for SSC and reducing sugar content and good precision for acidity-related parameters (r2 ranging between 0.73 and 0.87 for the bunch-analysis mode assayed using MPLS regression. At validation level, comparison of LOCAL and MPLS algorithms showed that the non-linear strategy improved the predictive capacity of the models for all study parameters, with particularly good results for acidity-related parameters and potassium content.

  6. Vine vigor and cluster uniformity on Vitis vinifera L. seed procyanidin composition in a warm Mediterranean climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Edo-Roca

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed procyanidin composition of Vitis vinifera L. var. ˈCarignanˈ and ˈGrenacheˈ was analyzed to assess the impact of vintage climatology, plant vigor and bunch variability on the quality of grapes. This study was carried out over 2007 and 2008 vintages in Terra Alta denomination of origin (DO. This region is located in northeastern Spain and characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a continental tendency. Procyanidin composition of seeds from four vineyards was analyzed by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC-DAD-TOF/MS. Vintage, vigor and ripeness uniformity had an influence on the procyanidin concentration in seeds. Flavan-3-ol polymerization increased during the warm year, together with a notable dependence on the variety and vine vigor. In warmer years and low vigor, ˈGrenacheˈ seed composition is likely to be more vulnerable than ˈCarignanˈ. High levels of flavan-3-ol monomers and low polymerization characterized the seeds of the temperate year.

  7. Determination of Vine Growers’ Tendency, Problems and Solution Offers for Agricultural Insurance Applications in Viticulture Business in Trakya Region

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    Mehmet Ali KİRACI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to provide informative data for improvement of agricultural insurance sector by determination of awareness of vine-growers in Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli and Çanakkale provinces about agricultural insurance, their tendencies about the insurance, the reasons for taking out or not taking out an insurance policy and the problems faced and solution offers.. Questionnaire studies were made with a total of 289 growers within the research area, of which 60 had an active insurance policy, and the data obtained were analyzed and evaluated. Hail and frost are the most important agricultural uncertainties in the research area. According to the data and observations, government contribution of 50% appeared to be important for increasing prevalency of agricultural insurance policies. Although attendance to introductory contact meetings was low (18%, majority of the growers (75,4% reported that they were aware of scope and conditions of partially government subsidized agricultural insurance. Eighty-eight percent of surveyed growers defined agricultural insurance correctly. The most important reason that account for the insufficient adoption of agricultural insurance by growers is the small size and low-income of the vineyards. The other causes are insufficient insurance coverage, the lack of entrances of land shareholders into the farmer registration system and the lack of confidence for payment of a full cover indemnity. The problems of insured growers are inaccurate damage assessment process, high exemption amount in indemnity payments and neglectance of declerations of growers during insurance process about determination of product yield and price

  8. The preservation of genetic resources of the vine requires cohabitation between institutional clonal selection, mass selection and private clonal selection

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    Roby Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clonal selection allows control of virus diseases and selection of genotypes on agronomic, viticultural or enological criteria. Clonal selection has the major drawback that it impoverishes genetic diversity and exposes growers to environmental instability of clones (genotype X environment interaction. Clonal selection has become the almost unique way of propagating plant material for vineyards, hence threatening the genetic diversity of the grapevine. For major grapevine varieties, some genetic diversity is maintained in institutional collections. However, this way of conservation is insufficiently developed, it is expensive and remains fragile. A cost effective way to preserve intra-varietal diversity is to maintain a limited proportion of mass selection in vine propagation. Private clonal selection can also contribute, in a more limited way, in maintaining genetic resources. Another approach to carry out conservation and selection of grapevine is the methodology followed in Portugal. This strategy is exemplified with the conservation/selection of an ancient Portuguese variety. The work begins with the “ex situ” conservation of a representative sample of the intravarietal diversity of the variety, which, in practice, corresponds to a large field trial with hundreds of clones under an experimental design suitable for reducing random variation of quantitative traits. From evaluating those traits (yield and must quality traits, the intravarietal diversity is quantified and the range of the predicted genotypic effects for each of those traits is analyzed. Different mass selections (polyclonal selections are carried out for distribution and planting of new vineyards. These different mass selections provide high economic gains and also the preservation of diversity in a complementary manner to that which started the work on-farm conservation.

  9. Evaluation of the composition of vine shoots and oak chips for oenological purposes by superheated liquid extraction and high-resolution liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado de la Torre, M Pilar; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2012-04-04

    Vine shoots are characterized in this research and compared to oak chips, frequently employed in the aging of wine or spirits. For this purpose, liquid chromatography-diode array detection and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) analyses of hydroalcoholic extracts from vine shoots pertaining to 18 different vine varieties and from five varieties of oak chips have been carried out. The concentrations of a representative panel of interesting compounds from an oenological point of view have been compared in the extracts, finding similarity patterns for many of them. The analysis by LC-TOF/MS in high accuracy mode has led to the identification of numerous compounds in the hydroalcoholic extracts. The statistical analysis has enabled identification of the vine-shoot varieties providing extracts with more similar composition to that given by extracts from oak chips. Therefore, these vine-shoots varieties are suitable to be presented as an alternative to the use of oak barrels or oak chips in the aging process of wine and spirits.

  10. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant capacity of ten autochthonous vines grown in southern Italy / Caratterizzazione fenolica e potere antiossidante di dieci vitigni autoctoni allevati nel Sud Italia

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    Milella Rosa Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant foods are naturally present some bioactive compounds, that are compounds having or not nutritional value and with biological activity that is expressed in reducing the risk of developing many chronic diseases, therefore leading a key protective effect on our health. Within this group of compounds the antioxidants are included. The importance of antioxidants contained in food is associated with their ability to exert in vivo, in the human body, beneficial effects against chronical- degenerative diseases induced by oxidative stress and age. It has been attributed a positive role to grape polyphenols in terms of increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses, thanks to regulation of genes coding for key enzymes of antioxidant system. For the polyphenols it has also been recognized a specific action of tumor growth inhibition, linked to the modulation of enzymes involved in carcinogenesis or to the inhibition of growth factors and cell proliferation activation. After carbohydrates and acids, the phenolic compounds represent the largest group among grape constituents. The synthesis of these secondary metabolites takes place in two distinct phases of vine growth cycle: fruit set and maturation. The polyphenolic composition contributes to grapes and wine sensory properties, such as color, flavor, astringency, and determines the antioxidant capacity of the extract. These metabolites are mainly related to the variety and their content is influenced by climatic and environmental factors. Among the polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxicinnamiltartaric acids, flavonols, flavans, stilbene and resveratrol are of particular interest. Despite numerous studies in the vine-wine industry on polyphenols quantification and qualification, we don't know much about the environmental conditions that affect their synthesis in grapes and how they are extracted from it in wine production. Therefore, the aim of this work has been the study of antioxidant property and

  11. Effects of Ethephon and Abscisic Acid Application on Ripening-Related Genes in ‘Kohi’ Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis on the Vine

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    Kongsuwan Ampa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ethephon and abscisic acid (ABA application on ripening-related genes of pre-harvest ‘Kohi’ kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis were studied to clarify the possibility of the fruit ripening on the vine. The fruits were treated on the vine at mature stage with 250 µL⋅L−1 ethephon or 100 µmol⋅L−1 ABA, and the expression levels of chlorophyll synthase (AcCLS, chlorophyllase1 (AcCLH1, polygalacturonase (AcPG, expansin (AcEXP, β-amylase (Acβ-AM, sucrose synthase (AcSUSY, MADS-box SEPALLATA4/RIPENING INHIBITOR-like (AcSEP4/RIN and FRUITFUL-like (AcTDR4/FUL genes were analyzed. The expression levels of AcPG, AcEXP, Acβ-AM, and AcSUSY increased in the ethephon-treated fruit, but those of AcCLH1 at 6 and 9 days after treatment and AcCLS decreased. Moreover, the expression levels of AcSEP4/RIN and AcTDR4/FUL, the latter of which is associated with ethylene biosynthesis, were higher in the ethephon-treated fruit. The expression level of each gene in ABA-treated fruit was not significantly different from that of the untreated control. The results suggest that ethephon application increases the expression levels of AcPG, AcEXP, Acβ-AM, AcSUSY, AcSEP4/RIN, and AcTDR4/FUL in ‘Kohi’ kiwifruit on the vine.

  12. Small scale characterization of vine plant root zone via 3D electrical resistivity tomography and Mise-à-la-Masse method: a case study in a Bordeaux Vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Benjamin; Peruzzo, Luca; Boaga, Jacopo; Schmutz, Myriam; Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan S.; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, best viticulture practices require the joint interpretation of climate and soils data. However, information about the soil structure and subsoil processes is often lacking, as point measurements, albeit precise, cannot ensure sufficient spatial coverage and resolution. Non-invasive methods can provide spatially extensive, high resolution information that, supported by traditional point-like data, help complete the complex picture of subsoil static and dynamic reality. So far very little emphasis has been given to investigating the role of soil properties and even less of roots activity on winegrapes. Vine plant's root systems play an important role in providing the minerals to the plants, but also control the water uptake and thus the water state of the vines, which is a key factor determining the grape quality potential. In this contribution we report about the measurements conducted since June 2016 in a vineyard near Bordeaux (France, Pessac Leognan Chateau). Two neighbor plants of different sizes have been selected. In order to spot small scale soil variations and root zone physical structure at the vicinity of the vine plants, we applied a methodology using longitudinal 2D tomography, 3D borehole-based electrical resistivity tomography and a variation of the mise-à-la-masse method (MALM) to assess the effect of plant roots on the current injection in the ground. Time-lapse measurements are particularly informative about the plant dynamics, and the focus is particularly applied on this approach. The time-lapse 3D ERT and MALM results are presented, and the potential to assimilate these data into a hydrological model that can account for the root water uptake as a function of atmospheric conditions is discussed.

  13. Switching from a mechanistic model to a continuous model to study at different scales the effect of vine growth on the dynamic of a powdery mildew epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burie, Jean-Baptiste; Langlais, Michel; Calonnec, Agnès

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiological simulation models coupling plant growth with the dispersal and disease dynamics of an airborne plant pathogen were devised for a better understanding of host-pathogen dynamic interactions and of the capacity of grapevine development to modify the progress of powdery mildew epidemics. The first model is a complex discrete mechanistic model (M-model) that explicitly incorporates the dynamics of host growth and the development and dispersion of the pathogen at the vine stock scale. The second model is a simpler ordinary differential equations (ODEs) compartmental SEIRT model (C-model) handling host growth (foliar surface) and the ontogenic resistance of the leaves. With the M-model various levels of vine development are simulated under three contrasting climatic scenarios and the relationship between host and disease variables are examined at key periods in the epidemic process. The ability of the C-model to retrieve the main dynamics of the disease for a range of vine growth given by the M-model is investigated. The M-model strengthens experimental results observed regarding the effect of the rate of leaf emergence and of the number of leaves at flowering on the severity of the disease. However, it also underlines strong variations of the dynamics of disease depending on the vigour and indirectly on the climatic scenarios. The C-model could be calibrated by using the M-model provided that different parameters before and after shoot topping and for various vigour levels and inoculation time are used. Biologically relevant estimations of the parameters that could be used for its extension to the vineyard scale are obtained. The M-model is able to generate a wide range of growth scenarios with a strong impact on disease evolution. The C-model is a promising tool to be used at a larger scale.

  14. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine Presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Duguay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ people. Applying an Actor Network Theory lens, two popular visual media apps, Instagram and Vine, are examined through a comparative walkthrough method. This reveals platform elements, or mediators, that can influence the conversational capacity of selfies in terms of the following: range, the variety of discourses addressed within a selfie; reach, circulation within and across publics; and salience, the strength and clarity of discourses communicated through a selfie. These mediators are illustrated through LGBTQ celebrity Ruby Rose’s Instagram selfies and Vine videos. Instagram’s use expectations encourage selfies focused on mainstream discourses of normative beauty and conspicuous consumption with an emphasis on appearance, extending through features constraining selfies’ reach and salience. In contrast, Vine’s broader use expectations enable a variety of discourses to be communicated across publics with an emphasis on creative, first-person sharing. These findings are reflected in Rose’s Instagram selfies, which mute alternative discourses of gender and sexuality through desexualized and aesthetically appealing self-representations, while Vines display her personal side, enabling both LGBTQ and heterosexual, cisgender people to identify with her without minimizing non-normative aspects of her gender and sexuality. These findings demonstrate the relevance of platforms in shaping selfies’ conversational capacity, as mediators can influence whether selfies feature in conversations reinforcing dominant discourses or in counterpublic conversations, contributing to everyday activism that challenges normative gender and sexual discourses.

  15. At-line hyphenation of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography for bioassay-guided separation of antioxidants from vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruyi; Zhou, Rongrong; Tong, Runna; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata), a widely used healthy tea, beverage and herbal medicine, exhibited strong antioxidant activity. However, systematic purification of antioxidants, especially for those with similar structures or polarities, is a challenging work. Here, we present a novel at-line hyphenation of high-speed countercurrent chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography (HSCCC-Sephadex LH-20 CC) for rapid and efficient separation of antioxidants from vine tea target-guided by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical-high performance liquid chromatography (DPPH-HPLC) experiment. A makeup pump, a six-port switching valve and a trapping column were served as interface. The configuration had no operational time and mobile phase limitations between two dimensional chromatography and showed great flexibility without tedious sample-handling procedure. Seven targeted antioxidants were firstly separated by stepwise HSCCC using petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (4:9:4:9, v/v/v/v) and (4:9:5:8, v/v/v/v) as solvent systems, and then co-eluted antioxidants were on-line trapped, concentrated and desorbed to Sephadex LH-20 column for further off-line purification by methanol. It is noted that six elucidated antioxidants with purity over 95% exhibited stronger activity than ascorbic acid (VC). More importantly, this at-line hyphenated strategy could sever as a rapid and efficient pathway for systematic purification of bioactive components from complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hygienization and control of Diplodia seriata fungus in vine pruning waste composting and its seasonal variability in open and closed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Petruta M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Martín-Villullas, M Teresa; García-González, M Cruz; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    After the ban on sodium arsenite, waste management alternatives to the prevalent burning method, such as the hygienization and biodegradation in solid phase by composting, are required for the pruned material from grapevines affected by various fungi. In this work the dynamics of a fungus associated with vine decay (Diplodia seriata) during the composting process of a mixture of laying hen manure and vine pruning waste (2:1w/w) have been investigated in an open pile and a discontinuous closed biodigester. Through the optimization of the various physical-chemical parameters, hygienization of the infected waste materials was attained, yielding class-A organo-mineral fertilizers. Nevertheless, important differences in the efficiency of each system were observed: whereas in the open pile it took 10days to control D. seriata and 35 additional composting days to achieve full inactivation, in the discontinuous biodigester the fungus was entirely inactivated within the first 3-7days. Finally, the impact of seasonal variability was assessed and summer temperatures shown to have greater significance in the open pile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of mineral content (Nutrients and Trace elements) in vine leaf and 4 weed species included in the vegetal cover in a Spanish vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Bravo, Sandra; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García-Navarro, Francisco; Higueras, Pablo; Campos, Juan Antonio; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The content of some mineral elements (Na, Ca, Mg, K, P, S, Fe, Mn, Si, Al, V, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sr, Ba, Zn, Pb, Ce, La and Nd) has been studied in vine leaf and four weed species (Mendicago lupulina L.; Malva sylvestris L., Hordeum murinum L. and Scandix pecten-veneris L.) included in the natural vegetal cover of a vineyard sited in Ciudad Real province (Central Spain). Samples were taken in May 2015, dried and milled in order to analyze them using the X Ray Fluorescence Technique. The results obtained have been compared with those measured in a vineyard located in a different site and with those suggested by the literature consulted for plants in general all around the world. The results indicate that some differences in mineral content among the weed species can be drafted. Great differences have been found in K, Si, Ca and Zn, although other elements, such as Mg, P, S, Ba and Nd, remained almost constant despite of the species. Moreover, the influence of the type of soil (different site) can give a different composition of the vine leaf in some elements. This last point is especially evident in the case of the Sr (more present in calcareous soils and leaves of plants grown on them, reaching 377 mg kg-1 versus less than 86 mg kg-1 in the non-calcareous studied soil).

  18. Photosynthesis and growth of young “Niágara Branca” vines (Vitis labrusca L. cultivated in soil with high levels of copper and liming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Daniel José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the photosynthetic response and growth of young grape “Niagara Branca” vines grown in soil with high content of Cu and liming. The experiment was conducted in controlled environment with soil subjected to three levels of liming, with 0, 1.5 and 3.0 Mg ha−1 of lime. The effect of additional 50 mg kg−1 Cu in half of soil treatments was evaluated. The CO2 measurements, assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration were carried out in the tenth cultivation week using the IRGA equipment (Infrared Gaz Analyzer. Plant height, fresh weight and dry weight, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids were measured. For most variables, the Cu had damaging effect on 0 and 1.5 Mg ha−1 liming treatments however, there was no significant damage in the 3.0 Mg ha−1 treatment. Rates of CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and transpiration were increased with the addition of 50 mg kg−1 Cu. Liming to raise the pH of the soil is an effective practice to reduce the effects of Cu toxicity in young “Niagara Branca” grape vines.

  19. Withering on the Vine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Official government statements of priorities for teacher education in England and Wales made in the early 1970s are compared with what actually took place in teacher education there during the past decade. The failure to expand inservice teacher education is stressed, as are still-needed improvements in preservice teacher education. (PP)

  20. Tempranillo vine & wine.

    OpenAIRE

    Lissarrague Garcia-Gutierrez, Jose Ramon

    2013-01-01

    La variedad Tempranillo es originaria de la zona limítrofe entre La Rioja y Burgos, se ha extendido siguiendo la ruta de los monasterios Cirtescienses por toda España, llegando así a Madrid, Valdepeñas, Cataluña, Extremadura y toda la ribera del río Duero, donde se ha extendido desde su nacimiento hasta Portugal. •La variedad Tempranillo es la variedad por excelencia dedicada en España a la producción de vinos de crianza y reserva. Actualmente es importante además de en España en Portugal ...

  1. The effect of nitrogen rate on vine kill, tuber skinning injury, tuber yield and size distribution, and tuber nutrients and phytonutrients in two potato cultivars grown for early potato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early potatoes are typically produced using less nitrogen than a full season potato crop as high rates of nitrogen may delay tuber set and lead to excessive vine growth that is difficult to terminate prior to harvest. Bintje and Ciklamen potato cultivars were grown with preplant soil nitrogen levels...

  2. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of ochratoxin A and relative metabolites in Aspergillus species and dried vine fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Jingming; Cheng, Zhan; Zhou, Ziying; Ma, Liyan

    2016-08-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable quantification and identification method was developed for simultaneous analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) and its related metabolites ochratoxin alpha (OTα), ochratoxin B (OTB) and mellein. The method was assessed by spiking analytes into blank culture media and dried vine fruits. Performance was tested in terms of accuracy, selectivity and repeatability. The method involves an ultrasonic extraction step for culture samples using methanol aqueous solution (7:3, v/v); the mycotoxin is quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The recoveries were 74.5-108.8%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.4-8.4% for fungal culture. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.03-0.87 μg l(-)(1), and the limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.07 to 2.90 μg l(-)(1). In addition, the extraction solutions and clean-up columns were optimised specifically for dried vine fruit samples to improve the performance of the method. Methanol-1% sodium bicarbonate extraction solution (6:4, v/v) was determined to be the most efficient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed as a clean-up step prior to HPLC-MS/MS analysis to reduce matrix effects. Recoveries ranged from 80.1% to 110.8%. RSDs ranged from 0.1% to 3.6%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 0.06 to 0.40 μg kg(-)(1) and from 0.19 to 1.20 μg kg(-)(1), respectively. The analytical method was established and used to identify and quantify OTA and related compounds from Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in cultures and dried vine fruits. The results showed that A. carbonarius produced OTα, OTB and OTA, whereas A. ochraceus produced OTB, OTA and mellein after 7 days of cultivation. Of 30 commercial samples analysed, 10 were contaminated with ochratoxins; OTB, OTα and mellein were also detected in different samples.

  3. Detection and Segmentation of Vine Canopy in Ultra-High Spatial Resolution RGB Imagery Obtained from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV: A Case Study in a Commercial Vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs in viticulture permits the capture of aerial Red-Green-Blue (RGB images with an ultra-high spatial resolution. Recent studies have demonstrated that RGB images can be used to monitor spatial variability of vine biophysical parameters. However, for estimating these parameters, accurate and automated segmentation methods are required to extract relevant information from RGB images. Manual segmentation of aerial images is a laborious and time-consuming process. Traditional classification methods have shown satisfactory results in the segmentation of RGB images for diverse applications and surfaces, however, in the case of commercial vineyards, it is necessary to consider some particularities inherent to canopy size in the vertical trellis systems (VSP such as shadow effect and different soil conditions in inter-rows (mixed information of soil and weeds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of four classification methods (K-means, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN, Random Forest (RForest and Spectral Indices (SI to detect canopy in a vineyard trained on VSP. Six flights were carried out from post-flowering to harvest in a commercial vineyard cv. Carménère using a low-cost UAV equipped with a conventional RGB camera. The results show that the ANN and the simple SI method complemented with the Otsu method for thresholding presented the best performance for the detection of the vine canopy with high overall accuracy values for all study days. Spectral indices presented the best performance in the detection of Plant class (Vine canopy with an overall accuracy of around 0.99. However, considering the performance pixel by pixel, the Spectral indices are not able to discriminate between Soil and Shadow class. The best performance in the classification of three classes (Plant, Soil, and Shadow of vineyard RGB images, was obtained when the SI values were used as input data in trained

  4. Intra-session absolute and relative reliability of pressure pain thresholds in the low back region of vine-workers: ffect of the number of trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2016-08-18

    Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) are commonly used to quantify mechanical pain sensitivity of deep structures. Excellent PPT reliability has been previously reported among the low back of healthy subjects. However, there is a lack of studies assessing PPT over the low back of workers exposed to biomechanical risk factors of low back pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to evaluate the intra-session absolute and relative reliability as well as minimal detectable change (MDC) values of PPT within 14 locations covering the low back region of vine-workers and (2) to determine the number of trial required to ensure reliable PPT assessments and (3) to assess the effect of modifier factors such as gender, age, body mass index (BMI) and pain intensity on PPT reliability. Twenty-nine vine-workers voluntarily participated in this study. Twenty-two reported low intensity of low-back pain while seven were pain-free. PPTs were assessed among 14 anatomical locations in the lower back region. Three trials were performed on each location with an interval time of at least one minute. Reliability was assessed computing intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) for all possible combinations between trials. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to assess potential bias in the dataset. Finally, a repeated measure analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) with the number of trials used as within subject factor was performed on (1) PPT, (2) ICC and (3) SEM values. ICC ranged from 0.86 to 0.99 for all anatomical locations and for all possible combinations between trials. SEM for comparison between trial 1-2, 2-3, 1-3 and, 1-2-3 ranged from respectively, 36.7-77.5, 27.8-77.7, 50-95.2 and, 39.3-80.8 kPa. ICC and SEM remained similar to the ones obtained for the entire population when taking modifier factors in consideration. The visual analysis of Bland-Altman plots suggested small measurement errors for all anatomical locations and for all

  5. Essential Oil from Sweet Potato Vines, a Potential New Natural Preservative, and an Antioxidant on Sweet Potato Tubers: Assessment of the Activity and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Xue, Ling-Wei; Zhang, Qiu-Yue; Kong, Wan-Wan; Peng, Jun; Kou, Meng; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2016-10-12

    Pathogenic fungi and oxidation are the major factors that cause the deterioration of sweet potatoes and also cause the loss of quality that makes consumption unsafe. In the present study, the in vitro results demonstrate that the essential oil from sweet potato vines exhibits significantly enhanced activity compared to that of the control. Furthermore, the essential oil can actively inhibit the growth of some common microorganisms inducing pathogenic bacteria and fungi (inhibition rates above 50% at low concentrations). A total of 31 constituents were identified using GC-MS and confirmed that linalool and p-hydroxybenzoic acid are the major active ingredients. The experiment involving actual tubers showed that the essential oil could retains its quality and effectiveness again the fungus disease. This suggests that it could be used in the food industry to increase the shelf life of stored produce (tubers) to ensure food safety without the use of additives or preservatives.

  6. A combined approach for characterisation of fresh and brined vine leaves by X-ray powder diffraction, NMR spectroscopy and direct infusion high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuti, Antonino; Caliandro, Rocco; Gallo, Vito; Mastrorilli, Piero; Chita, Giuseppe; Latronico, Mario

    2013-12-01

    X-ray powder diffraction was combined, for the first time, with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and direct infusion mass spectrometry to characterise fresh and brined grape leaves. Covariance analysis of data generated by the three techniques was performed with the aim to correlate information deriving from the solid part with those obtained for soluble metabolites. The results obtained indicate that crystalline components can be correlated to the metabolites contained in the grape leaves, paving the way to the use of X-ray diffraction analysis for food fingerprinting purposes. Moreover it was ascertained that, differently from most of the metabolites present in the fresh vine leaves, linolenic acid (an omega-3-fatty acid) and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (a polyphenol metabolite) do not undergo sensible degradation during the brining process, which is used as preservative method for the grape leaves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An experimental 392-year documentary-based multi-proxy (vine and grain) reconstruction of May-July temperatures for Kőszeg, West-Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea; Wilson, Rob; Bariska, István

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we present a 392-year-long preliminary temperature reconstruction for western Hungary. The reconstructed series is based on five vine- and grain-related historical phenological series from the town of Kőszeg. We apply dendrochronological methods for both signal assessment of the phenological series and the resultant temperature reconstruction. As a proof of concept, the present reconstruction explains 57% of the temperature variance of May-July Budapest mean temperatures and is well verified with coefficient of efficiency values in excess of 0.45. The developed temperature reconstruction portrays warm conditions during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries with a period of cooling until the coldest reconstructed period centred around 1815, which was followed by a period of warming until the 1860s. The phenological evidence analysed here represent an important data source from which non-biased estimates of past climate can be derived that may provide information at all possible time-scales.

  8. The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide generation and decreases oxidative stress in endothelial and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Marijke; Bölck, Birgit; Bizjak, Daniel Alexander; Stabenow, Christina Julia Annika; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-02-01

    The red-vine-leaf extract AS195 improves cutaneous oxygen supply and the microcirculation in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency. Regulation of blood flow was associated to nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO (nitric oxide) production, and endothelial and red blood cells (RBC) have been shown to possess respective NOS isoforms. It was hypothesized that AS195 positively affects NOS activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and RBC. Because patients with microvascular disorders show increased oxidative stress which limits NO bioavailability, it was further hypothesized that AS195 increases NO bioavailability by decreasing the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing antioxidant capacity. Cultured HUVECs and RBCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with AS195 (100 μmol/L), tert-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP, 1 mmol/L) to induce oxidative stress and with both AS195 and TBHP. Endothelial and red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase (RBC-NOS) activation significantly increased after AS195 incubation. Nitrite concentration, a marker for NO production, increased in HUVEC but decreased in RBC after AS195 application possibly due to nitrite scavenging potential of flavonoids. S-nitrosylation of RBC cytoskeletal spectrins and RBC deformability were increased after AS195 incubation. TBHP-induced ROS were decreased by AS195, and antioxidative capacity was significantly increased in AS195-treated cells. TBHP also reduced RBC deformability, but reduction was attenuated by parallel incubation with AS195. Adhesion of HUVEC was also reduced after AS195 treatment. Red-vine-leaf extract AS195 increases NOS activation and decreases oxidative stress. Both mechanisms increase NO bioavailability, improve cell function, and may thus account for enhanced microcirculation in both health and disease.

  9. The impact of soil erosion on soil fertility and vine vigor. A multidisciplinary approach based on field, laboratory and remote sensing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Pisciotta, Antonino; Minacapilli, Mario; Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Cerdà, Artemi; Gristina, Luciano

    2018-05-01

    Soil erosion processes in vineyards, beyond surface runoff and sediment transport, have a strong effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) loss and redistribution along the slope. Variation in SOC across the landscape can determine differences in soil fertility and vine vigor. The goal of this research was to analyze the interactions among vines vigor, sediment delivery and SOC in a sloping vineyard located in Sicily. Six pedons were studied along the slope by digging 6 pits up to 60cm depth. Soil was sampled every 10cm and SOC, water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) were analyzed. Erosion rates, detachment and deposition areas were measured by the pole height method which allowed mapping of the soil redistribution. The vigor of vegetation, expressed as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), derived from high-resolution satellite multispectral data, was compared with measured pruning weight. Results confirmed that soil erosion, sediment redistribution and SOC across the slope was strongly affected by topographic features, slope and curvature. The erosion rate was 16Mgha -1 y -1 since the time of planting (6years). SOC redistribution was strongly correlated with the detachment or deposition areas as highlighted by pole height measurements. The off-farm SOC loss over six years amounted to 1.2MgCha -1 . SUVA 254 values, which indicate hydrophobic material rich in aromatic constituents of WEOC, decreased significantly along the slope, demonstrating that WEOC in the detachment site is more stable in comparison to deposition sites. The plant vigor was strongly correlated with WEOC constituents. Results demonstrated that high resolution passive remote sensing data combined with soil and plant analyses can survey areas with contrasting SOC, soil fertility, soil erosion and plant vigor. This will allow monitoring of soil erosion and degradation risk areas and support decision-makers in developing measures for friendly

  10. Leaf trait co-ordination in relation to construction cost, carbon gain and resource-use efficiency in exotic invasive and native woody vine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkoya, Olusegun O; Bayliss, Deanna; Panetta, F Dane; Vivian-Smith, Gabrielle

    2010-08-01

    Success of invasive plant species is thought to be linked with their higher leaf carbon fixation strategy, enabling them to capture and utilize resources better than native species, and thus pre-empt and maintain space. However, these traits are not well-defined for invasive woody vines. In a glass house setting, experiments were conducted to examine how leaf carbon gain strategies differ between non-indigenous invasive and native woody vines of south-eastern Australia, by investigating their biomass gain, leaf structural, nutrient and physiological traits under changing light and moisture regimes. Leaf construction cost (CC), calorific value and carbon : nitrogen (C : N) ratio were lower in the invasive group, while ash content, N, maximum photosynthesis, light-use efficiency, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) and specific leaf area (SLA) were higher in this group relative to the native group. Trait plasticity, relative growth rate (RGR), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency and water-use efficiency did not differ significantly between the groups. However, across light resource, regression analyses indicated that at a common (same) leaf CC and PEUE, a higher biomass RGR resulted for the invasive group; also at a common SLA, a lower CC but higher N resulted for the invasive group. Overall, trait co-ordination (using pair-wise correlation analyses) was better in the invasive group. Ordination using 16 leaf traits indicated that the major axis of invasive-native dichotomy is primarily driven by SLA and CC (including its components and/or derivative of PEUE) and was significantly linked with RGR. These results demonstrated that while not all measures of leaf resource traits may differ between the two groups, the higher level of trait correlation and higher revenue returned (RGR) per unit of major resource need (CC) and use (PEUE) in the invasive group is in line with their rapid spread where introduced.

  11. Leaf trait co-ordination in relation to construction cost, carbon gain and resource-use efficiency in exotic invasive and native woody vine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunkoya, Olusegun O.; Bayliss, Deanna; Panetta, F. Dane; Vivian-Smith, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Success of invasive plant species is thought to be linked with their higher leaf carbon fixation strategy, enabling them to capture and utilize resources better than native species, and thus pre-empt and maintain space. However, these traits are not well-defined for invasive woody vines. Methods In a glass house setting, experiments were conducted to examine how leaf carbon gain strategies differ between non-indigenous invasive and native woody vines of south-eastern Australia, by investigating their biomass gain, leaf structural, nutrient and physiological traits under changing light and moisture regimes. Key Results Leaf construction cost (CC), calorific value and carbon : nitrogen (C : N) ratio were lower in the invasive group, while ash content, N, maximum photosynthesis, light-use efficiency, photosynthetic energy-use efficiency (PEUE) and specific leaf area (SLA) were higher in this group relative to the native group. Trait plasticity, relative growth rate (RGR), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency and water-use efficiency did not differ significantly between the groups. However, across light resource, regression analyses indicated that at a common (same) leaf CC and PEUE, a higher biomass RGR resulted for the invasive group; also at a common SLA, a lower CC but higher N resulted for the invasive group. Overall, trait co-ordination (using pair-wise correlation analyses) was better in the invasive group. Ordination using 16 leaf traits indicated that the major axis of invasive-native dichotomy is primarily driven by SLA and CC (including its components and/or derivative of PEUE) and was significantly linked with RGR. Conclusions These results demonstrated that while not all measures of leaf resource traits may differ between the two groups, the higher level of trait correlation and higher revenue returned (RGR) per unit of major resource need (CC) and use (PEUE) in the invasive group is in line with their rapid spread where introduced

  12. Comparison of water soil erosion on Spanish Mediterannean abandoned land and agricultural fields under vine, almond, olives and citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Martínez-Hernández, Carlos; Iserloh, Thomas; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands is considered as a global dynamic with on- and off-site consequences on the soil mostly ignored (Vanmaercke et al., 2011), which enhance land degradation processes by increasing water soil erosion (Cammeraat et al., 2010; Keesstra et al., 2012) and by decreasing biodiversity (Brevik et al., 2015; Smith et al., 2015). However, there is a lack of information at pedon scale about the assessment and quantification of which environmental elements activate or avoid water soil erosion after its respective abandonment. Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as useful tool for measuring interrelated soil erosion processes such as splash, initial rainfall-runoff processes, infiltration, sediment yield, water turbidity or nutrient suspensions (Cerdà, 1999; Iserloh et al., 2013; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2016). 105 experiments were conducted with a small portable rainfall simulator (rainfall intensity of 40 mm h-1 in 30 minutes) in four different land uses and their respective abandoned land: i) citrus and olives (Valencia), almonds (Murcia) and vines (Málaga). We studied the main environmental factors that may determine water soil erosion during the performed experiments: slope, vegetation cover, rock fragment cover, soil properties (texture) and hydrological responses (time to runoff and infiltration generation). REFERENCES Brevik, E.C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J.N., Six, J., Van Oost, K., 2015. The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL. SOIL 1, 117-129. doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015 Cammeraat, E.L.H., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semi-arid environment. Ecohydrology 3, 421-430. doi:10.1002/eco.161 Cerdà, A., 1999. Simuladores de lluvia y su aplicación a la Geomorfología: Estado de la cuestión. Cuad. Investig. Geográfica 45-84. Iserloh, T., Ries, J.B., Arnáez, J., Boix-Fayos, C., Butzen, V., Cerdà, A., Echeverría, M.T., Fern

  13. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  14. Comparative study of ¹³C composition in ethanol and bulk dry wine using isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry and by nuclear magnetic resonance as an indicator of vine water status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Francois; van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Gaillard, Laetitia; Grand, Mathilde; Akoka, Serge; Remaud, Gérald S; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The potential of wine (13)C isotope composition (δ(13)C) is presented to assess vine water status during grape ripening. Measurements of δ(13)C have been performed on a set of 32 authentic wines and their ethanol recovered after distillation. The data, obtained by isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry coupled to an elemental analyser (irm-EA/MS), show a high correlation between δ(13)C of the bulk wine and its ethanol, indicating that the distillation step is not necessary when the wine has not been submitted to any oenological treatment. Therefore, the ethanol/wine δ(13)C correlation can be used as an indicator of possible enrichment of the grape must or the wine with exogenous organic compounds. Wine ethanol δ(13)C is correlated to predawn leaf water potential (R(2) = 0.69), indicating that this parameter can be used as an indicator of vine water status. Position-specific (13)C analysis (PSIA) of ethanol extracted from wine, performed by isotope ratio monitoring by nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR), confirmed the non-homogenous repartition of (13)C on ethanol skeleton. It is the δ(13)C of the methylene group of ethanol, compared to the methyl moiety, which is the most correlated to predawn leaf water potential, indicating that a phase of photorespiration of the vine during water stress period is most probably occurring due to stomata closure. However, position-specific (13)C analysis by irm-(13)C NMR does not offer a greater precision in the assessment of vine water status compared to direct measurement of δ(13)C on bulk wine by irm-EA/MS.

  15. Comparision of Uptake Models for Strontium (Sr) and Barium (Ba) in Vine (Vitis vinifera L.) in Castilla-La Mancha (spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Bravo, Sandra; Higueras, Pablo; Moreno, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Castilla-La Mancha is the biggest vine-growing region in the world (about 500,000 ha) and one of the most important in terms of production of wine. The soils diversity should induce differences in the uptake of mineral elements by the vineyard. Of over the regional vine extension, 101 plots were selected and analyzed soil samples from each of them, following the description by FAO procedures. Samples of leaves were also taken from each soil plot. We analyzed the contents of mineral elements in both soil and leaf, using the FRX technique. This paper is focused on the elements strontium and barium because they are the trace elements having a higher concentration in the soils of the region, with values in soil range from 22.3 mg•kg-1-3602.7 mg•kg-1 in strontium and from 65.4 mg•kg-1 to 469.3 mg•kg-1 in barium. The contents of both elements in leaves have ranged from 23.3 mg•kg-1 y 1084.5 mg•kg-1 for strontium, and between 3.86 mg•kg-1 and 235.0 mg•kg-1 for barium. The aim of this work is state the behaviour in the soil-plant system for both elements. For this study, different statistical adjustment models have been tested (linear, multiplicative, exponential and logarithmic). The results show that the values of "R" for strontium are higher than barium in all models. Samples have also been studied by soil order (classified according to the FAO criteria). In this case, significant correlation from strontium have been found in all soil orders, except in calcisols. Significant correlations for barium appear only in entisols and luvisols. In conclusion it can be seen how these two elements differ in their behaviour in the soil-plant system. In general, the concentration of strontium in the soil is better correlated with leaf content than barium in the same soil. We can suggest a greater facility for the absorption of strontium by the grapevine. In calcisols, bearing in mind the interference of calcium, this uptake does not present such a high correlation

  16. Genetically different wine yeasts isolated from Austrian vine-growing regions influence wine aroma differently and contain putative hybrids between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopandic, Ksenija; Gangl, Helmut; Wallner, Erich; Tscheik, Gabriele; Leitner, Gerhard; Querol, Amparo; Borth, Nicole; Breitenbach, Michael; Prillinger, Hansjörg; Tiefenbrunner, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of the genomic properties of yeasts on the formation of wine flavour, genotypic diversity among natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains originating from grapes collected in four localities of three Austrian vine-growing areas (Thermenregion: locations Perchtoldsdorf and Pfaffstätten, Neusiedlersee-Hügelland: location Eisenstadt, Neusiedlersee: location Halbturn) was investigated and the aroma compounds produced during fermentation of the grape must of 'Grüner Veltliner' were identified. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis (AFLP) showed that the yeast strains cluster in four groups corresponding to their geographical origin. The genotypic analysis and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA encoding gene and ITS1/ITS2 regions indicated that the Perchtoldsdorf strains were putative interspecies hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces kudriavzevii. Analysis of the aroma compounds by GS/MS indicated a region-specific influence of the yeasts on the chemical composition of the wines. The aroma compound profiles generated by the Perchtoldsdorf strains were more related to those produced by the Pfaffstätten strains than by the Eisenstadt and Halbturn strains. Similar to the Pfaffstätten yeasts, the putative hybrid strains were good ester producers, suggesting that they may influence the wine quality favourably.

  17. Effect of replacing alfalfa hay with a mixture of cassava foliage silage and sweet potato vine silage on ruminal and intestinal digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hoang Lam; Lv, Renlong; Obitsu, Taketo; Sugino, Toshihisa

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of replacing alfalfa hay (AH) with a mixture of cassava foliage silage and sweet potato vine silage (CSP) (1:1 on a dry matter (DM) basis) on ruminal and intestinal nutrient digestion in sheep. Four wethers were fed a control diet containing 35% of AH and two treatment diets containing 15% and 30% of the CSP as substitute for AH at 1.5 times the metabolizable energy required for maintenance. Replacing AH with the CSP silage did not affect DM intake, whereas it linearly increased (P < 0.05) the intake of ether extract and acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN). Increasing the CSP substitution linearly decreased (P < 0.05) ruminal DM and neutral detergent fiber (aNDFom) digestibility; however, it did not affect total tract aNDFom digestibility. The CSP substitution did not affect nitrogen (N) intake and duodenal total N flow, whereas it linearly increased duodenal ADIN flow (P < 0.01) and decreased ruminal ammonia-N concentration (P < 0.01), and intestinal (P = 0.08) and total N digestibility (P < 0.01). These results indicate that replacing AH with the CSP reduced the ruminal N degradation as well as the digestion of ruminal aNDFom and intestinal N. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Celastrofurans A-G: Dihydro-β-agarofurans from the Australian Rainforest Vine Celastrus subspicata and Their Inhibitory Effect on Leucine Transport in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Mario; Wang, Qian; Holst, Jeff; White, Jonathan M; Hofmann, Andreas; Davis, Rohan A

    2017-06-23

    Seven new dihydro-β-agarofurans, celastrofurans A-G (1-7), along with two known secondary metabolites, 9β-benzoyloxy-1α-furoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (8) and (1R,2R,4R,5S,7R,9S,10R)-2-acetoxy-9-benzoyloxy-1-furoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran (9), were obtained from the leaves of the Australian rainforest vine, Celastrus subspicata. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic (1D/2D NMR) and MS data analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1-4 were defined by ECD and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. All compounds were found to exhibit inhibitory activity on leucine transport in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP with IC50 values ranging from 7.0 to 98.9 μM. Dihydro-β-agarofurans 1-9 showed better potency than the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family inhibitor, 2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH).

  19. Preparation and textural characterisation of activated carbon from vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) by H 3PO 4—Chemical activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcho-Corral, B.; Olivares-Marín, M.; Fernández-González, C.; Gómez-Serrano, V.; Macías-García, A.

    2006-06-01

    An abundant and low-cost agricultural waste as vine shoots ( Vitis vinifera) (VS), which is generated by the annual pruning of vineyards, has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon (AC) by the method of chemical activation with phosphoric acid. After size reduction, VS were impregnated for 2 h with 60 wt.% H 3PO 4 solution at room temperature, 50 and 85 °C. The three impregnated products were carbonised at 400 °C. The product impregnated at 50 °C was heated either first at 150-250 °C and then at 400 °C or simply at 350-550 °C in N 2 atmosphere. The time of isothermal treatment after each dynamic heating was 2 h. The carbons were texturally characterised by gas adsorption (N 2, -196 °C), mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was also applied. Better developments of surface area and microporosity are obtained when the impregnation of VS with the H 3PO 4 solution is effected at 50 °C and for the products heated isothermally at 200 and 450 °C. The mesopore volume is also usually higher for the products impregnated and heated at intermediate temperatures.

  20. Canopy physiology, vine performance and host-pathogen interaction in a fungi resistant cv. Sangiovese x Bianca accession vs. a susceptible clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poni, S; Chiari, G; Caffi, T; Bove, F; Tombesi, S; Moncalvo, A; Gatti, M

    2017-07-20

    The present study compares the physiological and cropping response of the new fungi-resistant grapevine Accession 72-096 ('Sangiovese' x 'Bianca' hybrid) against a susceptible 'Sangiovese' clone which was either fully (FS-SG) or partially sprayed (PS-SG). Data logged on Accession 72-096 indicate that while two early season sprays were enough to avoid major downy mildew (DM) and powdery mildew (PM) outbreaks, Accession 72-096 also showed concurrent desirable features such as moderate cropping, loose clusters, fast sugar accumulation coupled with sufficient acidity even at peak total soluble solids (TSS) concentration (around 24 °Brix), good color and higher flavonols prompting co-pigmentation. Conversely, FS-SG showed final lower acidity despite the notably lower sugar concentration (≅18 °Brix), as well as larger clusters and berries that resulted in more compact bunches. From a methodological viewpoint, end of season single-leaf readings appeared to overestimate the limitation of leaf function due to PM and DM infections in SG-PS vines which, when assessed via a whole-canopy approach, did not show significant differences vs. Accession 72-096, a result likely due to counteracting effects linked to a compensation mechanism by healthy tissues. Our data also suggest that a PM infection can lead to a decoupling in sugar-color accumulation patterns.

  1. Determination of ochratoxin A in grapes, dried vine fruits, and winery byproducts by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection (HPLC-FLD) and immunoaffinity cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solfrizzo, Michele; Panzarini, Giuseppe; Visconti, Angelo

    2008-12-10

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of ochratoxin A in grapes, dried vine fruits, and winery byproducts was developed. A mixture of either acetonitrile/water or acetonitrile/water/methanol was used as an extraction solvent mixture. After immunoaffinity column cleanup, the final extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a fluorometric detector (FLD). Mean recoveries from grapes, grape pomace, and lees samples spiked in the range of 1-200 microg/kg were 78, 86, and 88%, respectively, with a detection limit of 0.1 microg/kg and within-laboratory repeatability ranging from 6 to 15%. Tested on naturally contaminated samples of grapes, grape pomace, and sultanas, the method showed better performances as compared to two other methods also based on immunoaffinity cleanup and HPLC/FLD determination. Ochratoxin A was detected in samples of grape pomace (levels ranging from 34.2 to 456.8 microg/kg) and lees (levels ranging from 48.3 to 602.5 microg/kg) derived from the wine making of red grapes of 2004 and 2005 vintages in southern Italy. After distillation of contaminated grape pomace in a pilot-scale equipment to produce grappa, the toxin remained unchanged in the exhausted pomace and was not detected in any of the distilled fractions (detection limit of 0.02 microg/L).

  2. Quantitating Volatile Phenols in Cabernet Franc Berries and Wine after On-Vine Exposure to Smoke from a Simulated Forest Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noestheden, Matthew; Dennis, Eric G; Zandberg, Wesley F

    2018-01-24

    Smoke-taint is a wine defect linked to organoleptic volatile phenols (VPs) in Vitis vinifera L. berries that have been exposed to smoke from wildland fires. Herein, the levels of smoke-taint-associated VPs are reported in Cabernet Franc berries from veraison to commercial maturity and in wine after primary fermentation following on-vine exposure to simulated wildland fire smoke. VPs increased after smoke exposure were rapidly stored as acid-labile conjugates, and the levels of both free VPs and conjugated forms remained constant through ripening to commercial maturity. An increase in total VPs after primary fermentation suggested the existence of VP-conjugates other than the acid-labile VP-glycosides already reported. This conclusion was supported with base hydrolysis on the same samples. Relative to published results, the data suggested a multifactorial regional identity for smoke-taint and they inform efforts to produce a predictive model for perceptible smoke-taint in wine based on the chemical composition of smoke-exposed berries.

  3. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp. / Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos César Durigan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado manejo exploratório. Assim, alguns governos estaduais regulamentaram a conduta de manejo e exploração de cipós produtores de fibra, visando a sua manutenção e regeneração de suas raízes aéreas. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho buscou, na literatura geral e científica, as informações sobre o marco legal da exploração e o plano de manejo, a ecologia das espécies, as etapas ligadas ao manejo florestal, inventário, intensidade e ciclo de corte bem como os procedimentos de coleta e beneficiamento dessas plantas, que são conhecimentos atualmente consolidados com normatização em poucos estados da Amazônia. Apesar disso, as áreas que foram intensamente exploradas se fazem necessário o desenvolvimento da produção sustentável com novos estudos, visando recuperação dessas populações por meio de técnicas de multiplicação vegetativa, plantio e nutrição vegetal, agregando-os ao manejo ecológico dos indivíduos remanescentes na floresta.AbstractThe hemiepiphytes species of the genus Heteropsis produces aerial roots that are known in the Brazilian Amazon as “cipó-titica and titicão or timbó-açu, and are a source of fiber of considerable commercial value used primarily to manufacture handicrafts and furniture. This raw material has been heavily exploited and mismanaged. As the consequent depletion and regional extinction of the plant vines has greatly reduced its availability likely a forest resource. This

  4. Metabolomics reveals that vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) prevents high-fat-diet-induced metabolism disorder by improving glucose homeostasis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenting; Jiang, Baoping; Sun, Le; Xu, Lijia; Xiao, Peigen

    2017-01-01

    Vine tea (VT), derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD) in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups: a group given normal rat chow and water (control group); a group given an HFD and water (HFD group); a group given an HFD and Pioglitazone (PIO group), 5 mg /kg; and groups given an HFD and one of two doses of VT: 500 mg/L or 2000 mg/L. After 8 weeks, changes in food intake, tea consumption, body weight, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were determined. Moreover, liver samples were isolated for pathology histology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomic research. VT reduced the serum levels of glucose and total cholesterol, decreased glucose area under the curve in the insulin tolerance test and visibly impaired hepatic lipid accumulation. Metabolomics showed that VT treatment modulated the contents of metabolic intermediates linked to glucose metabolism (including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis), the TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism. The current results demonstrate that VT may prevent metabolic impairments induced by the consumption of an HFD. These effects may be caused by improved energy-related metabolism (including gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and TCA cycle), purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and reduced lipid levels in the HFD-fed rats.

  5. Assessing the impacts of climate change on future water resources: a methodological approach based on equiratio CDF-matching and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh Tu; Vernieuwe, Hilde; De Baets, Bernard; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the impacts of climate change on future river discharge are evaluated using equiratio CDF-matching and a stochastic copula-based evapotranspiration generator. In recent years, much effort has been dedicated to improve the performances of RCMs outputs, i.e. the downscaled precipitation and temperature, to use in regional studies. However, these outputs usually suffer from bias due to the fact that many important small-scale processes, e.g. the representations of clouds and convection, are not represented explicitly within the models. To solve this problem, several bias correction techniques are developed. In this study, an advanced quantile bias approach called equiratio cumulative distribution function matching (EQCDF) is applied for the outputs from three RCMs for central Belgium, i.e. daily precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration, for the current (1961-1990) and future climate (2071-2100). The rescaled precipitation and temperature are then used to simulate evapotranspiration via a stochastic copula-based model in which the statistical dependence between evapotranspiration, temperature and precipitation is described by a three-dimensional vine copula. The simulated precipitation and stochastic evapotranspiration are then used to model discharge under present and future climate. To validate, the observations of daily precipitation, temperature and evapotranspiration during 1961 - 1990 in Uccle, Belgium are used. It is found that under current climate, the basic properties of discharge, e.g. mean and frequency distribution, are well modelled; however there is an overestimation of the extreme discharges with return periods higher than 10 years. For the future climate change, compared with historical events, a considerable increase of the discharge magnitude and the number of extreme events is estimated for the studied area in the time period of 2071-2100.

  6. Metabolomics reveals that vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata prevents high-fat-diet-induced metabolism disorder by improving glucose homeostasis in rats.

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    Wenting Wan

    Full Text Available Vine tea (VT, derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz. W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved.Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into five groups: a group given normal rat chow and water (control group; a group given an HFD and water (HFD group; a group given an HFD and Pioglitazone (PIO group, 5 mg /kg; and groups given an HFD and one of two doses of VT: 500 mg/L or 2000 mg/L. After 8 weeks, changes in food intake, tea consumption, body weight, serum and hepatic biochemical parameters were determined. Moreover, liver samples were isolated for pathology histology and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based metabolomic research.VT reduced the serum levels of glucose and total cholesterol, decreased glucose area under the curve in the insulin tolerance test and visibly impaired hepatic lipid accumulation. Metabolomics showed that VT treatment modulated the contents of metabolic intermediates linked to glucose metabolism (including gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, the TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism.The current results demonstrate that VT may prevent metabolic impairments induced by the consumption of an HFD. These effects may be caused by improved energy-related metabolism (including gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and TCA cycle, purine metabolism and amino acid metabolism, and reduced lipid levels in the HFD-fed rats.

  7. Influence of ph in the Uptake and Accumulation of Mineral Elements on Vine Leaf (Vitis vinifera L.) from Castilla-La Mancha (SPAIN.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Sandra; Amorós, José Angel; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; García-Navarro, Francisco J.; Higueras, Pablo; Sanchez-Ormeño, Mónica

    2015-04-01

    Each soil-plant system has specific parameters on the uptake of different minerals in the soil, depending on several factors. One of these factors, perhaps the most important, is the pH. 101 Vineyard plots have been selected in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and have been analysed (pH among other parameters) by the methods described by FAO. Leaf samples have also been taken in each plot. We analysed the content of 25 mineral elements in both soil and leaf through FRX technique. In addition, we calculated the BAC (bioaccumulation coefficient, calculated as the ratio between the concentration of element in the plant and soil) to stablish if the soil pH influences the accumulation of mineral elements for the plant. As a result we have observed a different behavior of groups of elements for acids or alkaline soils. Thus, the alkaline elements (Na, K, Rb) have a higher BAC value in alkaline soils except cesium (Cs) that has a similar value; while the alkaline-earth elements (Ca, Mg, Sr) present lower BAC in alkaline soils except for barium (Ba) that shows similar value in both cases. Rare Earths (Y, La, Ce, Th and Nd) have very similar values in bioaccumulation for acidic and alkaline soils, while metals (Fe, Al, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Rb and Pb) show a higher bioaccumulation in alkaline soils. Instead Mn, Zn and Ga are preferently bioaccumulated in acid soils. The values obtained for the sulfur (S) are superior in acid soils. We conclude that certain mineral elements accumulate in the leaves of vines depending on the soil pH. The pH will influence the ionic form in which the element is present in the soil and plants preferentially uptake mineral elements in certain ionic forms.

  8. Hummingbird Ecstasy footprint and cultural guide for vine and wine. The case of "Marqués of Villa de Leyva"

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    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article reflecting on viticulture in Boyacá, is analyzed from the project and its product Ain Karim wine Marqués de Villa de Leyva, located in the Valley of Zaquencipá, a structured system of meanings that this type of agriculture does unite in place where it is installed. Historically, viticultural practices have managed to involve substantial elements of cultural dynamics: belief systems, identity, health and disease, and ways to socialize economy ingesting fermented beverages. The wine "Marquis of Villa de Leyva" emerges in a context of climate, soil and subsoil, with potential for development characteristics, which however must be certified with specialized studies of tropical modern winemaking. In this Zaquencipá Valley, as it was called ancestrally, the religious geosmbólica was irradiated by Iguaquemountains, sacred space Muiscas. The conquest and colonization transformed it by the Christian geosimbólica, economic (production of wheat and military. Currently the town of Villa de Leyva and his environment is attractive to tourists, middle-class residents and significant capital, in this context arises the Vineyard founded in the early eighties by Mr. Pablo Toro, originally imported strains Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. This replicates the culture of the vine and wine, which is also supported by a constant of aesthetics, hygiene and ethno-specific technical. its process leaves substantial perceive elements of cultural globalization, internationalization and localities need to analyze the ethno-regional production techniques.

  9. Times of prunning and budbreaking in Niagara Rosada vines/ Época de poda e quebra de dormência em videiras cv. Niagara Rosada

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    Renato V. Botelho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as the aim of verifying the efficiency of five combined concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide (CH in four consecutive pruning times of sprouting vine and harvest anticipation of ‘Niagara Rosada’ in the county of Ponta Grossa, PR. The experiment had a factorial design (4 x 5 with 3 replications and 3 plants per parcel. The analysis were sprouting percentage, number of clusters per plant, rate of production and average weight per cluster. The effect of CH was shown only at the first pruned time when sprouting but the occurrence of frosting decreased the yield. The delay in the process of pruning showed a higher number of cluster per plant, which consequently resulted in yield increase. O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a eficiência da combinação de cinco concentrações de cianamida hidrogenada (CH e quatro épocas de poda, na quebra da dormência e antecipação da colheita da videira ‘Niagara Rosada’ no município de Ponta Grossa – PR. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados no esquema fatorial 4 x 5 (épocas de poda x concentrações de CH , com 3 repetições e 3 plantas por parcela. Foram analisados a porcentagem de brotação, o número de cachos por planta, a produção por planta e a massa média dos cachos. Houve efeito da aplicação de cianamida hidrogenada no aumento da brotação das gemas apenas para a primeira época de poda (06/08/2007. A primeira época de poda antecipou em uma semana a colheita, embora a ocorrência de geadas tenha prejudicado a produção. O atraso na época de poda proporcionou um maior número de cachos por planta e a maior produção.

  10. The geography of vine and wine industry in Brazil: Territory, culture and heritage / Géographie de la vigne et du vin Brésilien : territoire, culture et patrimoine

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    Falcade Ivanira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Portuguese started in the sixteenth century, but the colonial system did encourage neither their growth nor the establishment of territories. The organization of regions where the grape and wine formed the economic dynamic is related to the nineteenth century colonization projects, especially Italians from 1875. These regions including the Serra Gaúcha of Rio Grande do Sul and other small areas. In the twentieth century, most of these regions have had important territorial transformations, however, viticulture elements remain in culture and regional identity. In recent years, the growing of vines expanded to other regions and also in other States. The cultivation of the vine and winemaking built a brand, both for the actors and for the regional society, whose viticultural landscape distinguishes and identifies regions, and the cultural expression of the grape and wine is present in numerous material and intangible elements. The material and the intangible cultural complex of the wine-growing regions are a diverse and dynamic heritage, more concentrated in Rio Grande do Sul, which contributes to the enhancement and preservation of cultural heritage and territorial wine in this State. The wine culture valued in the actions of patrimonialization depends on the importance that give them the actors involved.

  11. The Career Development Vine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladish, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Based on a philosophy of self-direction, Urbana College's program teaches students to create their own futures. The seven levels and associated processes include: (1) growing; (2) thinking; (3) deciding; (4) self-marketing; (5) first job (risk); (6) lifetime career patterns (commitment); and (7) retirement. (Author)

  12. Evaluation of a new vine trellis system called Ramé / Evaluación de un nuevo sistema de conducción de la Vid denominado Ramé

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    Valeria Bergas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You should leave 10 mm of space above the abstract and 15 mm after the abstract. The heading Abstract should be typed in bold 9-point Arial. The body of the abstract should be typed in normal 9-point Times in a single paragraph, immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words. Under this problematic context, several growers in our area proposed alternatives to conduction systems. An innovation was the system of divided canopy “Ramé”, developed by the local viticulture Luis Alberto Ramero. This system was attempted to combine high yield with high quality grape, machanize harvest and good cinditions of canopy microclimate. It's a system of vertical shoot position, with its canopy divided into two planes. These systems are characterized, in our region, by a low foliar surface exposed per hectare, a relatively low productivity (in the case of the VSP or difficulty to mechanize the harvest (in the case of the Parral. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ecophysiology of Rame system, determining if it behaves differently when it is planted with one or two plants by post (Rame single and double. Also the two modalities of Rame were compared with the trellis in VSP. Since this latter system is not included in the statistical, but planted design on the side of the test, the comparison kept a descriptive character. For the Rame we established an experimental trial with statistical design, with two treatments in trellis-training system. A treatment consisted in planting one vine per post, called simple Rame (RS and two vines per post, called double Rame (RD, leaving in this way different number of plants per unit area (1600 plantas / has and 3200 plantas / has respectively. Nevertheless, regardless of the number of plants per hectare, Rame system

  13. EFEITOS DE PODA DE RAMA NA PRODUÇÃO DE ABOBRINHA (Curcubita moschata CV. “MENINA BRASILEIRA” INFLUENCE OF VINE PRUMING ON THE YIELD OF SQUASH (Cucurbita moschata CV. ‘MENINA BRASILEIRA’

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    João Batista Duarte

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Alguns produtores hortícolas goianos cortam a ponta da rama principal da aboboreira para estimular a ramificação lateral e aumentar e/ou antecipar a produção. Em experimento, realizado na área experimental da Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, avaliaram-se os efeitos deste tipo de poda na produção de abobrinha da cultivar ‘Menina Brasileira' . Em doze colheitas, feitas entre 17/11 e 23/12/93, determinou-se o número e o peso de frutos. O tratamento não influenciou significativamente a produção de frutos nem sua distribuição ao longo das colheitas. A produção das plantas podadas, porém, foi ligeiramente mais precoce, fato que exige maior investigação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Abobrinha; Cucurbita moschata; poda de rama.

    Some squash producers in the region of Goiânia (Brazil prune the top of the main vine in order to increase and/or anticipate production by stimulating lateral branching. In this trial, carried out at the Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, vine pruning was tested on the cv. ‘Menina Brasileira’. Fruits were harvested twice a week, from November 17 to December 23 (1993. Significant differences between treatment and control were found neither in number and weight of fruits nor in distribution of the yield over the harvest period. The pruned plants however were slightly earlier in production. This should be investigated with more accuracy.

    KEY-WORDS: Squash; vine pruning.

  14. Fenologia e exigência térmica da videira 'Benitaka' cultivada no norte de Minas Gerais Phenology and thermal requirement of the vine 'Benitaka' grown in the north of Minas Gerais

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    Danilo Pereira Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de índices biometeorológicos para a previsão dos estádios fenológicos tem sido amplamente utilizado no planejamento dos tratos culturais na viticultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e comparar entre dois ciclos consecutivos, a duração em dias e as exigências térmicas em graus-dia de doze estádios do ciclo fenológico da videira 'Benitaka'. O estudo foi conduzido num vinhedo comercial localizado no município de Janaúba, região semiárida de Minas Gerais. As plantas, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto IAC 572 'Jales', foram conduzidas no sistema de latada e irrigadas por microaspersão. O acúmulo em dias e a exigência térmica (graus-dia foram determinados em duas safras consecutivas, da data da poda até a colheita, adotando-se a temperatura de 10°C como temperatura de base. O acúmulo em dias, da poda à colheita, foi de 120 para a poda realizada em janeiro e de 131 dias para a poda em julho. Na poda de janeiro, as plantas acumularam 1.914 graus-dias, enquanto na poda de julho o acúmulo foi de 1.930 graus- dia.The use of biometeorological indices for the prediction of phenological stages has been widely used in the planning of cultural practices in tropical vines. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare the duration (in days and thermal requirements in degree-day of twelve stages of the phenological cycle of the vine 'Benitaka'. The study was carried out in the vineyard Santa Catarina, in the city of Janaúba, north of the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil. Grapevines grafted on the rootstock IAC 572 'Jales' were irrigated by microaspersion. The accumulation of days and thermal requirement were determined in the same plants on two consecutive pruning dates. The base temperature used for the study was 10° C. The total length of the cycle ranged from 120 days for the vines pruned in January to 131 days for those pruned in July. The total amount of degree days for the grape pruning in January

  15. Utilización de piensos criollos con harina de Albizia lebbeck para la ceba de conejos alimentados con bejuco de boniato Use of home-made concentrate feed with Albizia lebbeck meal for fattening rabbits fed sweet potato vines

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    I. L Montejo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento durante 40 días en el módulo de animales menores de la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", con el objetivo de evaluar la inclusión de la harina de Albizia lebbeck en un pienso criollo con diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos, para la alimentación de conejos de ceba. Se utilizaron 26 animales mestizos sanos, de 60 días de edad y 0,94 (± 0,10 kg de peso, en un diseño completamente aleatorizado con dos tratamientos (13 animales por cada uno; estos fueron: A 100% bejuco de boniato (Ipomoea batata y B 70% bejuco de boniato más 30% de pienso criollo elaborado con harina de A. lebbeck y diferentes suplementos energético-proteicos. El alimento se ofreció en los horarios de la mañana (9:00-10:00 a.m. y la tarde (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en el peso final de los animales (A-1,47 kg y B-1,62 kg. Las mejores ganancias de peso vivo se observaron en el tratamiento suplementado B (16,3 g/animal/día, que fueron superiores (PA trial was conducted for 40 days in the small animal facility of the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", with the objective of evaluating the inclusion of Albizia lebbeck meal in a home-made concentrate feed with different energy-protein supplements, to feed fattening rabbits. Twenty-six healthy crossbred animals, 60 days old and with 0,94 (±0,10 kg of weight, were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments (13 animals each; they were: A 100% sweet potato (Ipomoea batata vines and B 70% sweet potato vines + 30% home-made concentrate feed elaborated with A. lebbeck meal and different energy-protein supplements. The feed was supplied in the morning (9:00-10:00 a.m. and the afternoon (3:00-4:00 p.m.. Significant differences were found in the final weight of the animals (A-1,47 kg and B-1,62 kg. The best live weight gains were observed in the supplemented treatment B (16,3 g/animal/day, which were

  16. Efeito do sistema de condução em algumas características ecofisiológicas da videira (Vitis labrusca L. Effect of the conduction system in some ecophysiological features of vine

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    Paulo Márcio Norberto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da interação entre a forma do dossel vegetativo e os fatores ambientais locais resultam no microclima que determinará alterações em alguns aspectos fisiológicos da videira, podendo afetar significativamente o crescimento vegetativo, a produtividade do vinhedo, bem como a qualidade da uva e do vinho. Objetivando-se avaliar o efeito do sistema de condução, sobre algumas características ecofisiológicas da videira (Vitis labrusca L. foi desenvolvido experimento no Núcleo Tecnológico Epamig Uva e Vinho, na fazenda experimental "Retiro" no município de Caldas, MG, durante as safras 2003, 2004 e 2005. As variedades utilizadas no experimento foram Niágara Rosada para mesa e Folha de Figo, para produção de vinhos. Como porta - enxerto utilizou-se o "420-A". O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x2, e os sistemas de condução adotados foram: cordão simples, latada, espaldeira e lira. Determinaram-se as seguintes variáveis: superfície foliar exposta, potencial hídrico e trocas gasosas. Verificou-se que tanto o sistema espaldeira quanto o cordão simples conferiram a menor superfície foliar exposta, em ambas as variedades e os sistemas lira e latada os maiores valores de (SFE. Verificou-se também que os sistemas cordão simples e latada conferiram os maiores valores de potencial hídrico para as duas variedades, nas diferentes fases fenológicas. Em ambas as variedades e fases fenológicas estudadas, verificou-se um comportamento semelhante entre os tratamentos em que os resultados da taxa de assimilação fotossintética das folhas, não permite evidenciar o efeito dos sistemas de condução, sobre as trocas gasosas das plantas estudadas.The effects of the interaction between the form of the canopy and the local environmental factors result in the microclimate that will determine some physiologic aspects of the grapevine, which could significantly affect the vegetative growth of the vine

  17. Foliar carbohydrates content and invertase activity in vines at São Francisco River Valley - Brazil Teores foliares de carboidratos e atividade de invertases em videiras no Vale do Rio São Francisco- Brasil

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    Barbara França Dantas

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The irrigated agriculture at the São Francisco River Valley, Northeast Brazil, shows an increasing production of grapes for winery. Among the wines produced there the one obtained from Vitis vinifera L., cultivar Syrah, stands out due to its adaptation to the climatic conditions of the region. However, little is known about carbohydrates metabolism of vines cultivated in this region. The objective of this work was to evaluate sugar and starch contents and the invertase activity in vines leaves during two consecutive growing seasons. The experiment was carried out at Embrapa Semi-Árido and at Santa Maria Winery, respectively located in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, Pernambuco-Brazil. Leaves were collected weekly from January to December of 2003 and assessed for reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents, as well as for acid (AI and neutral invertases (NI. The results showed that reducing sugars, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased during fruit maturation and are influenced by temperature, radiation and insolation variations. The second growing season showed higher reducing sugars and total soluble sugars content and lower starch content in the leaves than the first one. AI activity was higher than NI activity and these also varied according to weather conditions. During berries ripening, leaves showed higher sugar content and invertase activity, suggesting a higher sugar metabolism and transport during this phase.O pólo de agricultura irrigada do Vale do Rio São Francisco apresenta um crescente aumento na produção de uvas para vinificação. Entre os vinhos finos produzidos na região, destaca-se aquele obtido da cultivar Syrah, que se adaptou bem às condições climáticas da região. Pouco se conhece, no entanto, sobre o metabolismo de carboidratos das videiras nessa região. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os teores de açúcares e de amido, bem como a atividade de invertases durante dois ciclos de

  18. Produção extemporânea da videira, cultivar Syrah, nas condições do sul de Minas Gerais Extemporaneous production of vines, cultivar Syrah, in the climatic conditions of the south of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Angelucci de Amorim

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção extemporânea da videira, através de uma segunda poda anual, nas condições climáticas do sul de Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo não-irrigado, da cultivar Syrah, clone 747 ENTAV-INRA, enxertada sobre o '3309 C' e conduzido no sistema de espaldeira, com espaçamento de 2,50 x 1,50 metros. A primeira poda de formação das plantas foi realizada em agosto de 2002, enquanto a poda de produção foi realizada no mês de janeiro, em ramos totalmente lignificados. O ciclo completo de produção foi de 164 dias e a precipitação pluviométrica acumulada neste período, de 480 mm, sendo que, nos últimos 15 dias que antecederam a colheita, não foi registrada nenhuma precipitação. Os valores do potencial hídrico de base permaneceram bastante baixos (valores absolutos durante todo o ciclo, ao mesmo tempo que a transpiração das folhas e a assimilação do carbono se mantiveram em níveis elevados, caracterizando a ausência de estresse hídrico durante o ciclo de produção. A produção atingiu 8,45 t.ha-1 com 21,75º brix e 100 Meq.l-1 de acidez total na colheita, permitindo concluir que, nas condições de estudo, é possível a obtenção de um ciclo de outono para a videira com bons índices de produção sem o emprego da irrigação.The extemporaneous production of vines was evaluated, through a second annual prune, in the climatic conditions of the South of Minas Gerais. The experiment was carried out in a non irrigated vineyard, of the cultivar Syrah, clone 747 ENTAV-INRA, grafted on 3309 C and conducted in the vertical system, with spacing of 2,50 x 1,50 meters. The first pruning of plant's formation was accomplished in August of 2002, while the production pruning was in the month of January in branches completely lignified. The complete cycle of production was of 164 days and the precipitation accumulated in this period was 480 mm, being that wasn't registered any precipitation on the last 15

  19. Características produtivas e qualitativas de ramas e raízes de batata-doce Productive and qualitative characteristics of the vines and roots of sweet potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter C de Andrade Júnior

    2012-12-01

    by family farmers. The objective of this research was to evaluate production of fresh and dry mass of vines for animal nutrition and productivity and storage quality of roots for human food of sweet potato clones. The experimental design was randomized blocks, containing twelve clones and four replications. Sweet potato clones from UFVJM germplasm bank were tested along with the control cultivars Brazlândia Rosada and Brazlândia Roxa, harvested six months after planting date. We evaluated the productivity of fresh and dry matter of vines and yield and quality of roots. The best clone was BD-45 with a high yield of fresh mass, dry matter and total and commercial roots, with values of 19.7; 3.3; 32.9 and 29.5 t ha-1, respectively. Most genotypes presented roots near the ideal format for the market and good resistance to soil insects, with values near to grade 2.0. Significant differences were observed among genotypes for the content of starch, total and reducing sugars. The genotypes showed similar chemical composition, except for the ash content. Clones BD-67 and BD-56 showed higher levels of ash than Cambraia, and similar to other clones.

  20. Correção das falhas de brotação em videiras da variedade Niágara Rosada Effect of correction prunning on yield of old Niagara Rosada vines

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    Hélio José Scaranari

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento levado a efeito na Estação Experimental de Jundiaí, procurou-se verificar a conveniência ou não de corrigirem-se as falhas de brotação comumente observadas em videira da variedade Niágara Rosada, quando conduzida em espaldeira, no sistema denominado cordão esporonado. Consideraram-se quatro casos: plantas que apresentavam 5, 4, 3 e 2 esporões, as quais foram corrigidas para 6 esporões, número médio observado em videiras adultas, quando o espaçamento entre plantas é de 1 metro. Nos cinco biênios estudados, as produções médias das plantas corrigidas para 6 esporões superaram as das não corrigidas, que apresentavam 5, 4, 3 e 2 esporões, em 12, 26, 60 e 158 por cento, respectivamente.In the present paper, studies carried out to evaluate the effect of correction of prunning on the yield of old Niagara Rosada vines trained on unilateral horizontal cordon are reported. In a ten years old vineyard, a survey was made to check the number of spurs per plant. It was found that the number of living spurs varied from 2 to 5. In 1960, part of the plants was prunned in order to establish 6 two-bud spurs on each one. An equal number of plants was kept with the original number of spurs. The yield was recorded for ten years. The data obtained indicated that plants with 6 two-bud spurs produced 12, 26, 60 and 158 per cent more than plants with 5, 4, 3 and 2 two-bud spurs respectively.

  1. The vintage effect overcomes the terroir effect: a three year survey on the wine yeast biodiversity in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese, two northern Italian vine-growing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigentini, Ileana; De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Fabrizio, Vincenzo; Valdetara, Federica; Faccincani, Monica; Panont, Carlo Alberto; Picozzi, Claudia; Imazio, Serena; Failla, Osvaldo; Foschino, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A three year survey on the dominant yeast populations in samples of air, must and wine in different vineyards and cellars of two northern Italian vine-growing territories (six sites in Franciacorta and eight sites in Oltrepò Pavese areas) was carried out. A total of 505 isolates were ascribed to 31 different species by RFLP analysis of the ITS1-5.8SrRNA-ITS2 region and partial sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene. The most commonly found species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae (frequency, F' = 58.7%; incidence, I' = 53.5%), Hanseniaspora uvarum (F' = 14.3%; I' = 5.3%), Metschnikowia fructicola (F' = 11.1%; I' = 5.0%) and Torulaspora delbrueckii (F' = 10.3%; I' = 3.8%). Among 270 S. cerevisiae new isolates, 156 (57.8%) revealed a different genetic pattern through polymorphism analysis of the interdelta regions by capillary electrophoresis, while 47 isolates (17.4 %) were clones of starter cultures. By considering the Shannon-Wiener index and results of principal component analysis (PCA) analyses, the year of isolation (vintage) proved to be a factor that significantly affected the biodiversity of the yeast species, whereas the geographical site (terroir) was not. Seventy-five per cent of S. cerevisiae isolates gathered in a unique cluster at a similarity level of 82%, while the remaining 25% were separated into minor groups without any evident relationship between δ-PCR profile and territory, year or source of isolation. However, in six cases a similar strain appeared at the harvesting time both in Franciacorta and Oltrepò Pavese areas, whereas surprisingly no strain was reisolated in the same vineyard or cellar for consecutive years. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Produção e vigor da videira 'Niágara Rosada' relacionados com o porta-enxerto Yield and plant vigor of 'Niágara Rosada' grape vine related to the rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dário Pauletto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção e o vigor da videira 'Niágara Rosada' sobre os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', 'Kober 5BB', 'Traviú'(106-8 Mgt e 'Schwarzmann', no período de 1990 a 1998, em Taubaté,SP. As maiores produções médias foram obtidas quando se utilizaram os porta enxertos 'IAC 313' e 'IAC 766', totalizando 2,69 kg/planta e 2,59 kg/planta, respectivamente. As produções alcançadas com os porta-enxertos 'Kober5BB' e 'Schwarzmann' foram, em média, 110% menores que os anteriores, enquanto o 'Traviú' apresentou comportamento intermediário. Os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313' e 'IAC 766' também induziram maior vigor à copa, representado pela maior massa de ramos podados e maior diâmetro das plantas. Para a formação de um vinhedo com 'Niágara Rosada', recomenda-se, para a região, os porta-enxertos 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766' ou 'Traviú'.The yield and plant vigor of 'Niágara Rosada' grafted on the 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766', 'Kober 5BB', 'Traviú' (106-8 Mgt and 'Schwarzmann' rootstocks were evaluated from 1990 to 1998, in Taubaté,SP, Brazil. The highest average yields were obtained on the 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' rootstocks, reaching 2.69 kg/plant and 2.59 kg/plant, respectively. Yields on 'Kober 5BB' and 'Schwarzmann' were 110% smaller than on the previous ones, while 'Traviú' showed intermediary behavior. 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' also induced higher vigor in the vine, represented by higher mass of pruned branches and higher diameter of plant. 'Niágara Rosada' cultivation in the region is recommended on the 'IAC 313', 'IAC 766' or 'Traviú' rootstocks.

  3. To Swing a Wild Grape Vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facklam, Margery

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the tendency to treat nature and outdoor education as museum pieces - something not a part of man's life. Several outdoor education programs that the Buffalo Museum of Science developed to prevent this are presented. (KM)

  4. The Vine City Domed Stadium Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Katie

    1988-01-01

    Describes an oral history project in which ninth graders interviewed residents of an Atlanta neighborhood facing disruption by urban development and prepared transcriptions and scrapbooks for presentation to the local historical society. (SV)

  5. Are Children's Magazines Dying on the Vine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ada Campbell

    1976-01-01

    The field of children's magazines has followed the trend of adult magazines in becoming so specialized that ninety-five percent of them are no longer "magazines", rather they have become "storehouses" of varied materials. (Author)

  6. Istina v vine. Tshjei? / Aleksandr Ikonnikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ikonnikov, Aleksandr

    2006-01-01

    Araabia Ühendemiraatides vanglasse sattunud rahukaitseväelane Andrei Korol on taas kodus, toimub ametkondlik juurdlus juhtunu selgitamiseks. Küsimustele vastab Kaitsejõudude peastaabi pressiteenistuse ülem Peeter Tali

  7. Indija v Afrike / Alex Vines, Gareth Price

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vines, Alex

    2007-01-01

    India majandusliku aktiivsuse suurenemisest Aafrikas. Autorid leiavad, et India ei peaks vaatama Aafrikat kui loodusressursside allikat, selle asemel peaks ta investeerima inimkapitali ja jagama oma oskusteavet

  8. Trocas gasosas de mudas de videira, obtidas por dois porta-enxertos, submetidas à deficiência hídrica Gas exchange of vine cuttings obtained from two graftings submitted to water deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da deficiência hídrica e de dois porta-enxertos nas trocas gasosas de mudas de videira cultivadas em vasos, nas condições de casa de vegetação. Utilizou-se como copa a 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca, e como porta-enxertos, o 101-14 (V. riparia e o 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri. Doze dias após a suspensão da rega, o potencial hídrico foliar da combinação 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 apresentou os menores valores (-2,80 MPa em relação à 'Niágara Rosada'/1103 Paulsen (-2,10 MPa nas plantas não-irrigadas, enquanto o teor relativo de água variou apenas entre os tratamentos hídricos. Com a evolução do estresse hídrico, houve uma sensível redução nas trocas gasosas da cultivar 'Niágara Rosada', que apresentaram valores próximos de zero, devido ao fechamento dos estômatos, sem diferenças entre os porta-enxertos. Somente após 12 dias sem rega, os porta-enxertos influenciaram a eficiência no uso da água e eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II, onde a 'Niágara Rosada' enxertada sobre o 101-14 apresentou valores inferiores ao 1103 Paulsen. Entretanto, durante o período de suspensão da rega, os porta-enxertos não influenciaram as trocas gasosas da cultivar 'Niágara Rosada', e apresentaram comportamento semelhante em condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica.The present work aimed to evaluate the water deficiency effect and two graftings on the gas exchange of vine cuttings under greenhouse conditions. 'Niágara Rosada' (Vitis labrusca was used as scion, and 101-14 (V. riparia x V. rupestris and 1103 Paulsen (V. rupestris x V. berlandieri were used as rootstocks. Twelve days after watering suspension, the leaf water potential of the combination 'Niágara Rosada'/101-14 showed lower (-2.80 MPa in relation to 'Niágara Rosada'/1103 Paulsen (-2.10 MPa in the non-irrigated plants, while relative water content altered only among watering levels. With the

  9. The use of a hydrological physically based model to evaluate the vine adaptability to future climate: the case study of a Protected Designation of Origin area (DOC and DOCG) of Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Antonello; Basile, Angelo; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Manna, Piero; Langella, Giuliano; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The quality of grape and wine is variety-specific and depends significantly on the pedoclimatic conditions, thus from the terroir characteristics. In viticulture the concept of terroir is known to be very complex. At present some changes are occurring in the studies of terroir. Their spatial analysis is improving by means of studies that account for the spatial distribution of solar radiation and of bioclimatic indexes. Moreover, simulation models are used to study the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system in order to determine the water balance of vines as a function of i) soil physical properties, ii) climatic regime and iii) agro-ecosystems characteristics. The future climate evolution may endanger not only yield production (IPCC, 2007), but also its quality. The effects on quality may be relevant for grape production, since they can affect the sustainability of the cultivation of grape varieties in the areas where they are currently grown. This study addresses this question by evaluating the adaptive capacity of grape's cultivars in a 20000 ha viticultural area in the "Valle Telesina" (Campania Region, Southern Italy). This area has a long tradition in the production of high quality wines (DOC and DOCG) and it is characterized by a complex geomorphology with a large variability of soils and micro-climate. Two climate scenarios were considered: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050), the latter constructed applying statistical downscaling to GCMs scenarios. For each climate scenario the moisture regime of the soils of the study area was calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the entire area (47 soil units); the soil hydraulic properties were estimated (by means of pedo-transfer function HYPRES) and measured. Upper boundary conditions were derived from the climate scenarios. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower

  10. Influência do sistema de condução na produção e na qualidade dos frutos das videiras 'Folha de Figo' e 'Niagara Rosada' em Caldas, MG Influence of the training system in the yield and in the quality of vine fruits 'Folha de Figo' and 'Niagara Rosada' in Caldas, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Márcio Norberto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na Estação de Viticultura e Enologia da EPAMIG em Caldas-MG, e objetivou avaliar a influência do sistema de condução na produção e na qualidade dos frutos das videiras 'Folha de Figo' e 'Niagara Rosada' durante as safras 2003, 2004 e 2005. Como cultivares copa utilizou-se 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Folha de Figo', enxertadas no porta-enxerto '420-A'. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x2. Os sistemas de condução adotados foram cordão simples, pérgula, espaldeira e lira. Avaliaram-se as variáveis: massa e número médio de ramos; crescimento dos ramos; número de cachos; produção/planta; produtividade estimada/ha; análise química dos frutos; teor de sólidos solúveis totais (ºBrix; acidez total titulável (meq.L-1 e pH. Verificou-se que os sistemas espaldeira, lira e pérgula promoveram as maiores médias de massa e número de ramos em ambas variedades. Os sistemas de condução pérgula e cordão simples propiciaram uma certa precocidade em ambas cultivares. O porte descendente promovido pelo cordão simples induziu um menor crescimento de ramos. Os sistemas de condução foram semelhantes para a variável produção/planta para a cultivar 'Niagara Rosada' enquanto que para 'Folha de Figo' a lira foi superior. Os sistemas de condução lira e espaldeira apresentaram videiras com maiores produtividades para as cultivares estudadas. E as videiras conduzidas nos sistemas cordão simples e pérgula produzem frutos com melhor qualidade para ambas cultivares.The present work was developed in the Station of Viticulture and Enology of Caldas EPAMIG, Caldas, MG, and it aimed to evaluate the influence of the conduction system in the production and in the quality of the fruits of the vines 'Folha de Figo' and 'Niagara Rosada' during the crops 2003, 2004 and 2005. As you cultivate cup it was used Rosy Niagara and Leaf of Fig, grafted in the door-graft ' 420-TO '. The

  11. Lysimeter experiments on root uptake of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 from soil into vine and apple trees and on the transfer into grapes and apples; Lysimeterversuche zur Wurzelaufnahme von Co-60, Sr-90 und Cs-137 aus dem Boden bei Weinreben und Apfelbaeumen sowie zum Transfer in Weintrauben und Aepfel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Radioagronomie; Foerstel, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Radioagronomie; Mittelstaedt, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Radioagronomie

    1993-12-31

    In lysimeters filled with two different soil types (Parabraunerde and Podzol) the transfer of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from soil into vine and apple trees was investigated over a time period of 5 years (1988-1992). The soil was contaminated in 1978, so that at the beginning of the experiment the radionuclides were already aged. Due to the low availability for root uptake, the transfer of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs into vine and apple trees was very low. {sup 90}Sr was fairly available for root uptake which caused a considerable uptake and translocation into vegetative plant parts. The physiological behaviour of the radionuclides investigated determined generally a low transfer into must and apples. This was confirmed by the transfer factors variing between 0.001 and 0.029 for {sup 60}Co, 0.01 and 0.036 for {sup 90}Sr and 0.001 and 0.109 for {sup 137}Cs, respectively. The corresponding values in apples were in the same order of magnitude. The influence of the soil type is shown by the higher incorporation of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs into the single plant organs and by the higher transfer factors in must and apples grown on the podzolic soil. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Transfer von {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr und {sup 137}Cs vom Boden in Weinreben und Apfelbaeume wurde ueber einen Zeitraum von 5 Jahren (1988-1992) in Lysimetern, die mit zwei verschiedenen Bodentypen (Parabraunerde aus Loess und Podsol) gefuellt waren, untersucht. Die Kontamination erfolgte bereits 1978, so dass die Radionuklide in gealterter Form vorlagen. Fuer {sup 60}Co und {sup 137}Cs wurde aufgrund der geringen Verfuegbarkeit im Boden eine niedrige, fuer das leichter verfuegbare {sup 90}Sr eine hohe Aufnahme und Einlagerung in Weinreben und Apfelbaeumen festgestellt. In Weinmost und Aepfeln wurde aufgrund des physiologischen Verhaltens der eingesetzten Radionuklide eine vergleichsweise geringe Einlagerung beobachtet. Darauf weisen auch die niedrigen Transferfaktoren hin, die in

  12. Resistência de cultivares de videira ao ácaro-rajado Tetranychus urticae na região de Jales, estado de São Paulo Vine cultivars resistance to twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae koch in the region of Jales, state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Santos Valadão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As videiras da região de Jales, Estado de São Paulo, têm sido intensamente atacadas pelo ácaro-rajado, Tetranychus urticae Koch. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar cultivares de uva quanto à adequação como hospedeiras da espécie. Em experimento de campo, naquele local, a ocorrência da praga, ao longo de 12 meses, foi acompanhada nas cultivares de uvas finas, Itália e Benitaka, e na cultivar de uva rústica, Niagara Rosada. No laboratório, a biologia de T. urticae foi estudada nessas três cultivares e na 'Redimeire'. Na cultivar Niagara Rosada, o ácaro-rajado apresentou menor fecundidade e menor sobrevivência, indicando a presença de mecanismos de resistência por antibiose. Além disso, houve maior tentativa de fuga dessa cultivar, sugerindo resistência por não preferência.In the region of Jales, the vines has been heavily attacked by the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. The objective of this study was to compare grape cultivars for suitability as hosts of the species. In field experiment at that location, the pest occurrence, over 12 months, was accompanied on fine grape cultivars, Italy and Benitaka, and rustic grape cultivar, Niagara Rosada. In the laboratory, the T. urticae biology was carried out on these three cultivars and in the 'Redimeire'. Twospotted spider mite presented lower fertility and lower survival on Niagara Rosada cultivar indicating the presence of antibiosis resistance mechanisms. In addition, there was a greater attempt to escape in this cultivar, suggesting a resistance for non-preference.

  13. Exploring the feasibility of Sclerotium rolfsii VrNY as a potential bioherbicide for control of Swallowworts (Vincetoxicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (PSW) and black swallowwort (BSW) are two viney milkweeds native to Europe that have increasingly become problematic and noxious weeds in eastern North America. An indigenous fungal isolate, Sclerotium rolfsii VrNY, was discovered causing significant mortality in a dense stand of PS...

  14. Sensory attributes, microbial quality and aroma profiles of off vine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post harvest ripening changes in the quality characteristic of ripe mangoes were correlated among treatments and compared with similar changes in other mango varieties. The results showed insignificant differences in sensory attributes among the employed techniques. Microbial quality was significantly different ...

  15. Oregon geology - parent of the soil, foundation for the vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes USGS geologic mapping in western Oregon, geologic map products, a thumbnail sketch of geologic history, a discussion of new mapping in progress in northwest Oregon, a tour of northwest Oregon geologic units, their relation to new American Viticultural Areas, and online sources of information.

  16. Farm Crisis and Suicide: Dying on the Vine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, John D.; Berman, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between farm economic crisis and farmer suicide rates using data from 15 states from 1980 to 1985. Found suicide rates for farmers were greater than truck drivers but no different from forestry workers. (Author/ABL)

  17. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures.

  18. The evolution of chemical defenses in passion vine butterflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinheiro de Castro, Érika Cristina

    The bright and colorful Neotropical butterflies of the Heliconius genus are avoided by most insectivorous predators. Inexperienced birds and lizards may bite Heliconius butterflies, but immediately release them due to their toxic taste. The distastefulness of these butterflies is associated...... with the presence of defense compounds called cyanogenic glucosides (CNglcs), which deter predators because of their bitterness and the release of hydrogen cyanide upon degradation. Heliconius butterflies and basal heliconiines biosynthesize the aliphatic CNglcs linamarin and lotaustralin. Additionally, Heliconius...... heliconiine subfamily. Despite sequestration of these compounds being an older adaptation than expected, biosynthesis of aliphatic CNglcs is hypothesized to be even more ancient, arising in lepidopterans before butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor. In addition, this study shows...

  19. Problems presented by geographical variation in the African vine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . i-v. PITMAN, C.R.S. 1974. A guide to the snakes of Uganda. Revised edition. Wheldon & Wesley, Codicote. SCHMIDT, K.P. 1923. Contributions to the herpetology of the Belgian. Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo.

  20. Combinations of organic and inorganic fertilizers for vine, carotene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of 2.5 t/ha poultry manure + 200 kg NPK also produced significantly higher average storage root yield of 29.1 t/ha than no fertilizer or agrolyser application, and also gave higher carotenoid level than application of NPK or the control. Umuspo 1 suppressed weeds more and significantly produced 598% higher ...

  1. Report of Investigation: Jill Vines Loftus, Senior Executive Service (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-16

    By memor.lln~lum dmed Decemb¢r3, 2009, the.Aclmi,lllstrativc Aicle to i:he Secretary 9f the Navy.appointed Ms. Lol \\11s as ii travelpn.1grar11...82171ower fare option, .Pltll\\se mt1dify ors or CQtitact 1 The lol !lltmris-.Atlantio 1•ou6d•ldp po1tio11 cost $1,46:1.60, whi<!h in.cl\\i~~d $9l);/;O

  2. Vector identification, prevalence and anemia of bo- vine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of anemia was 19.67% (95%CI: 16.24-23.48) and not significantly affected by the different risk factors considered (P>0.05) with the exception of Geri (Peasant as- sociation) which have shown the lowest anemia prevalence (P<0.05).The relative ... savanna, riverine and forest types (Hippenheit et al., 2013). In Ethiopia, there.

  3. Trace metals transfer during vine cultivation and winemaking processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Zaichenko, L.; Klimenko, N.; Rätsep, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 13 (2017), s. 4520-4525 ISSN 0022-5142 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : white wine * Chardonnay * Vitis * Ukraine * vineyard * trace metals Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.463, year: 2016

  4. Vine-cacti pitayas: the new crops of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Mizrahi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 1994, only scarce research existed on these plants; however the worldwide interest in this novel fruit crop is evident, as numbers of pitaya-related publications have grown rapidly, especially during the past decade .There is a big confusion about both botanical and commercial names and there is a need to clear this point. Herein, we attempt to review existing knowledge on the taxonomy, breeding and other horticultural characteristics of this unique crop. This paper comments abou taxonomy,breeding,physiology and horticultura e chatera ristics,postsharvest and uses.

  5. Influence of vine vigor and crop level on ‘Pinot noir’ vine growth, nutrition, fruitfulness, and fruit composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon ‘Pinot noir’ vineyards are characterized as having high vegetative vigor and low yields, resulting in low crop loads, which is exacerbated by cluster thinning. A study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 to evaluate the impacts of vegetative vigor and crop level on growth and fruit composition of...

  6. Do Organic Cherry Vine Tomatoes Taste Better Than Conventional Cherry Vine Tomatoes? A Sensory and Instrumental Comparative Study from Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Gilsenan, Clare; Burke, Roisin; Barry-Ryan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A consumer panel was able to distinguish a perceptible difference between organically farmed and conventionally produced tomatoes, and preferred the taste of the conventional tomatoes. The sensory evaluation results of the trained panel revealed that the conventional tomatoes were sweeter and less sour than the organic tomatoes. In addition to this, the conventional tomatoes showed significant differences for oBrix, reducing sugars and electrical conductivity. No significant differences were ...

  7. Efeitos de reguladores vegetais na propagação vegetativa do porta-enxerto de videira '43-43' (Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia Effects of plant regulators on the vegetative propagation of vine rootstock '43-43' (Vitis vinifera x V. rotundifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia para a propagação vegetativa do porta-enxerto de videira '43-43'. Estacas lenhosas retiradas em agosto, herbáceas retiradas em janeiro e semilenhosas retiradas em março foram imersas, por 10 segundos, em soluções contendo diferentes doses dos fitorreguladores paclobutrazol (0; 100 e 200 mg.L-1 e ácido indolilbutírico (0; 500 e 1.000 mg.L-1, combinados ou não, totalizando nove tratamentos para cada tipo de estaca. Após 60 dias do plantio das estacas, foram avaliadas as variáveis porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes, massa fresca de raízes e porcentagem de estacas com brotações. Estacas lenhosas apresentaram 100% de brotação das gemas, mas não foi constatado enraizamento, independentemente da utilização de reguladores vegetais. Estacas herbáceas que não foram tratadas com reguladores vegetais apresentaram 92,0% de enraizamento e 84,0% de brotação. Para este tipo de estaca, o AIB a 1.000 mg.L-1 aumentou o número de raízes. Estacas semilenhosas apresentaram a maior porcentagem de enraizamento (23,5% quando se utilizou AIB a 1.000 mg.L-1. Este tratamento também propiciou maior massa e número de raízes; no entanto, estes valores foram inferiores àqueles verificados para estacas herbáceas.This work aimed to develop a methodology of vegetative propagation for the vine rootstock '43-43'. Hardwood cuttings collected in August, softwood cuttings collected in January and semi-hardwood cuttings collected in March were immersed in solutions, by 10 minutes, containing different doses of the plant regulators paclobutrazol (0, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 and indole butyric acid (0, 500 and 1,000 mg.L-1, combined or not, totalizing nine treatments for each kind of cutting. Sixty days after planting the cuttings, the following variables were evaluated: percentage of rooted cuttings, number of roots, fresh weight of roots and percentage of sprouted cuttings. The

  8. Physiological responses and production of 'Syrah' vines as a function of training systems Resposta fisiológica e produção do vinhedo de 'Syrah' em função dos sistemas de condução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Favero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture and its interaction with agricultural practices and environmental constraints is determinant for grapevine canopy structure, which is related to carbon assimilation, bud fertility and fruit quality. In this context, this study evaluated the performance of field-grown 'Syrah' grapevines conducted by two management systems: Vertical Shoot Position (VSP or a modified Geneva Double Curtain (GDC, in Pirapora, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during the winters of 2007 and 2008. The evaluations of leaf area, water relations and net CO2 assimilation were made at the end of the ripening period. Yield per vine and per hectare were estimated and mean berry weight and diameter, total soluble solids, pH and titratable acidity were evaluated during berry ripening. The grapevines trained in VSP had higher water status as compared to GDC, shown by differences in pre-dawn leaf water potential (ψpd and stem water potential (ψstem. However, the CO2 assimilation was similar in both training systems. Fruit exposure was higher in VSP than in GDC, which contributed to increasing berry temperature. At harvest, the berries in GDC reached values near to 23 ºBrix whereas berries in VSP showed values near 21 ºBrix.A arquitetura da planta e sua interação com práticas agronômicas e variáveis ambientais determinam a estrutura do dossel vegetal, que está envolvida na assimilação de carbono, fertilidade das gemas e qualidade da fruta. Neste contexto, avaliou-se o comportamento de um vinhedo de 'Syrah' conduzido nos sistemas espaldeira (VSP e Dupla Cortina de Geneva modificado (GDC. As avaliações da superfície foliar primária, relações hídricas e assimilação líquida de carbono foram realizadas no final do período de maturação da uva. Foi feita estimativa da produção por planta e por hectare e avaliados o peso e diâmetro das bagas e teores de sólidos solúveis, pH e acidez titulável durante o amadurecimento das bagas. As plantas

  9. "No vine para acompañarme, vine para trabajar". O como las mujeres centroamericanas organizan sus hogares transnacionales en Belice City

    OpenAIRE

    Nanneke Winters

    2009-01-01

    A pesar del creciente interés que ha suscitado el estudio de los procesos de migración internacional desde una perspectiva de género, la mayoría de los estudios solamente describe la migración de hombres y mujeres por separado sin tener en cuenta sus interacciones, o reflexiona sobre la cuestión del empoderamiento de la mujer a través de la migración. Sin embargo, la transformación de familias, hogares y comunidades derivada de la migración es mucho más compleja y requiere de un enfoque relac...

  10. "No vine para acompañarme, vine para trabajar". O como las mujeres centroamericanas organizan sus hogares transnacionales en Belice City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanneke Winters

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del creciente interés que ha suscitado el estudio de los procesos de migración internacional desde una perspectiva de género, la mayoría de los estudios solamente describe la migración de hombres y mujeres por separado sin tener en cuenta sus interacciones, o reflexiona sobre la cuestión del empoderamiento de la mujer a través de la migración. Sin embargo, la transformación de familias, hogares y comunidades derivada de la migración es mucho más compleja y requiere de un enfoque relacional más detallado y profundo.En este artículo intento contribuir al estudio de este tema a través del análisis de un componente fundamental de la migración internacional, que es la organización de hogares transnacionales. Con objeto de poder aplicar una perspectiva de género en el análisis de la organización de hogares transnacionales, aplicaré el marco teórico gendered geographies of power desarrollado por Sarah Mahlery Patricia Pessar. El presente estudio está basado en un trabajo de campo sobre las diferentes estrategias que utilizan las mujeres (y hombres centroamericanos que emigran a Belice City para ‘salir adelante’. Sus historias muestran cómo las mujeres migrantes intentan utilizar su condición de mujer transnacional a su favor. A partir de sus experiencias y perspectivas, argumento que el discurso mundial de la migración internacional necesita de un replanteamiento que tomeen cuenta la interacción de hombres y mujeres y las geometrías de poder en que se encuentran los migrantes.

  11. Influence of the farming system and vine variety on yeast communities associated with grape berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Arroyo, Teresa; Serrano, Ana; Tello, Javier; Aporta, Irene; Vélez, María Dolores; Valero, Eva

    2011-01-31

    Wine production in most countries is based on the use of commercial strains leading to the colonisation of the wineries by these strains with the consequent reduction of autochthonous biodiversity. This implies that wine styles could therefore become standardised. The vineyard could be an important source of native yeasts of oenological interest. For this reason the objective of this study was to compare two agronomic conditions with the aim of preserving yeast biodiversity in the vineyard. A three year sampling plan was designed to evaluate the influence of different agronomic parameters on the biodiversity of fermentative grape yeasts. Thus two vineyards, one organic and one conventional, with three different grape varieties (Shiraz, Grenache and Barbera) were chosen. In total, 27 samples were collected from both vineyards. Of these, 1080 colonies were isolated and a total of 9 species were identified. The strains identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were genotyped by microsatellite analysis obtaining nine different electrophoretic patterns. Classical ecology indexes were used to obtain the richness (S), the biodiversity (H') and the dominance (D) of the species studied. The results indicated a clear influence on grape associated yeast diversity of the phytosanitary treatment used in the vineyard. This is the first time that classical ecology indexes have been used to study the ecology of the spontaneous fermentation of grape musts and the species Candida sorbosa and Pichia toletana have been described in vineyards of the Madrid winegrowing region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kasahstani nafta : närvide mäng / Steve LeVine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    LeVine, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Nafta ja gaasi väljaveost Kasahstanist ja Kesk-Aasiast. USA naftakompanii Chevroni naftaekspordile on tõkkeid seadnud Venemaa pidevad jõudemonstratsioonid ning kohalike riikide soov Venemaale mitte vastu astuda, samuti 2008. aasta suvel toimunud Vene-Gruusia sõda, mis raskendas nafta jõudmist Euroopasse. Kaart

  13. Pinot noir wine volatile and anthocyanin composition under different levels of vine fruit zone leaf removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hui; Skinkis, Patricia A; Qian, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of fruit zone leaf removal on volatile and anthocyanin compositions of Pinot noir wine were investigated over two growing seasons. Wine volatiles were analyzed by multiple techniques, including headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS (HS-SPME-GC-MS), headspace-GC-FID (HS-GC-FID) and stir bar sorptive extraction-GC-MS (SBSE-GC-MS). Fruit zone leaf removal affected the concentration of many grape-derived volatile compounds such as terpene alcohols and C13-norisoprenoids in wine, although the degree of impact depended on the vintage year and severity of leaf removal. Fruit zone leaf removal resulted in greater concentrations of linalool, α-terpineol and β-damascenone but had no impact on other terpene alcohols or β-ionone. Fruit zone leaf removal had no consistent impact on C6 alcohols, volatile phenols, lactones, fermentation-derived alcohols, acids, or most esters. Fruit zone leaf removal increased anthocyanins in final wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Remote sensing based water-use efficiency evaluation in sub-surface irrigated wine grape vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Carlos Espinoza; Khot, Lav R.; Jacoby, Pete; Sankaran, Sindhuja

    2016-05-01

    Increased water demands have forced agriculture industry to investigate better irrigation management strategies in crop production. Efficient irrigation systems, improved irrigation scheduling, and selection of crop varieties with better water-use efficiencies can aid towards conserving water. In an ongoing experiment carried on in Red Mountain American Viticulture area near Benton City, Washington, subsurface drip irrigation treatments at 30, 60 and 90 cm depth, and 15, 30 and 60% irrigation were applied to satisfy evapotranspiration demand using pulse and continuous irrigation. These treatments were compared to continuous surface irrigation applied at 100% evapotranspiration demand. Thermal infrared and multispectral images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle during the growing season. Obtained results indicated no difference in yield among treatments (p<0.05), however there was statistical difference in leaf temperature comparing surface and subsurface irrigation (p<0.05). Normalized vegetation index obtained from the analysis of multispectral images showed statistical difference among treatments when surface and subsurface irrigation methods were compared. Similar differences in vegetation index values were observed, when irrigation rates were compared. Obtained results show the applicability of aerial thermal infrared and multispectral images to characterize plant responses to different irrigation treatments and use of such information in irrigation scheduling or high-throughput selection of water-use efficient crop varieties in plant breeding.

  15. Effect of harvest time on table grape quality during on-vine storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzolla, Francesca; Pati, Sandra; Amodio, Maria Luisa; Colelli, Giancarlo

    2016-01-15

    Postponing the harvest of grapes is a common practice in southern Italy, in order to delay harvest up to Christmas and make higher income from their sale. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of harvest time (over almost 3 months) on the quality of table grapes (cv. Italia). The experiment was repeated for two years (2010 and 2011). In 2010, grapes were harvested starting from 8 October and after 11, 27 and 48 days. In 2011, five harvest times were compared over a period of 56 days. Respiration rate, firmness, colour, sensory attributes, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), phenols and antioxidant activity were measured. In addition, in the second year, volatile compounds were evaluated. For both years, harvest time influenced most parameters, which indicated that metabolic changes took place in the plants. In 2010, harvest time influenced respiration rate, cluster and berry appearance scores, colour attributes, crunchiness, pH, TA, total phenol content and antioxidant activity. In 2011, harvest time influenced respiration rate, colour attributes, most sensory attributes, TSS and TA. Generally, late harvested grapes showed higher firmness, berry appearance score, sweetness, fruity taste, overall sensory evaluation score and TSS. Regarding volatile compounds, terpene content decreased during ripening, while C6 compounds showed a nonlinear trend. The results showed that table grape sensory quality could be increased by delaying harvest up to a certain time of the season, while excessive delay could reduce final grape quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Antagonism of Bacillus subtilis strain AG1 against vine wood fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alfonzo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic substances produced by a Bacillus subtilis strain (AG1, which were previously found to slow down the growth of esca fungi in vitro, were produced in an artificial medium, isolated from the cell-free medium by precipitation and acidification (to less than pH 2.5 and extracted from the precipitate with 96% ethanol. The crude extract employed in antibiotic assays confirmed, in vitro, the antagonism of B. subtilis against Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, and also showed an antifungal activity toward Verticillium dahliae and Botryosphaeria rhodina.

  17. Genetic characterization of hybridization between native and invasive bittersweet vines (Celastrus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaya, David N.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.; Feldheim, Kevin A.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization associated with species introductions can accelerate the decline of native species. The main objective of this study was to determine if the decline of a North American liana (American bittersweet, Celastrus scandens) in the eastern portion of its range is related to hybridization with an introduced congener (oriental bittersweet, C. orbiculatus). We used newly characterized microsatellite loci, a maternally-inherited chloroplast DNA marker, and field observation to survey individuals across the USA to determine the prevalence of hybrids, their importance in the invasion of C. orbiculatus, and the predominant direction of hybridization. We found that only 8.4 % of non-native genotypes were hybrids (20 of 239), and these hybrids were geographically widespread. Hybrids showed reduced seed set (decline of >98 %) and small, likely inviable pollen. Genetic analysis of a maternally inherited chloroplast marker showed that all 20 identified hybrids came from C. scandens seed parents. The strong asymmetry in pollen flow that favors fecundity in introduced males has the potential to greatly accelerate the decline of native species by wasting limited female reproductive effort.

  18. Effects of CO2 at 1-MCP treated tomato on the vine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de H.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can inhibit ethylene effects. The mechanism of this inhibition is not exactly known. It was investigated whether competition with ethylene at the receptor binding-site is involved. The receptor binding-site was blocked by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). In this case CO2 can not have an

  19. Rainfall-induced removal of copper-based spray residues from vines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P.; Soto-Gómez, D.; De La Calle, I.

    2016-01-01

    The continuoususeofcopperagainstfungaldiseasesandoff-targeteffectscausesmajorenvironmental and agronomicproblems.However,therain-inducedremovalofCu-basedresiduesisknownonlyfora limited numberofcrops.Wepresenttheresultsofrain-inducedremovaloffungicidesfromtwomon- itoredvineyardplotswhichwerespraye...

  20. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  1. N-Terminaali laevandusäri hävines / Tanel Raig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raig, Tanel, 1975-

    1999-01-01

    N-Terminaal kaotas 14 milj. kr. Tallinna-Kieli laevaliini operaatori Eesti Euroopa Liin ja tütarfirma Travend müügist Saksamaa partenri tasumata võlgade tõttu. Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 2. juuni 1999, lk. 20

  2. Researchers and stakeholders shape advances in management of tree and vine trunk-disease complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grapevine trunk-disease complex limits grape production and vineyard longevity worldwide. Every vineyard in California eventually is infected by one or more trunk diseases. The causal fungi, which are taxonomically unrelated Ascomycetes, infect and then degrade the permanent woody structure of t...

  3. Matrimony vine and potato psyllid in the Pacific Northwest: a worrisome marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing zebra chip disease in the potato growing regions of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is complicated by confusion about the source of the insect vector (potato psyllid) as it colonizes potato fields in these growing regions. Not knowing where the psyllid is before arriving in Washington potato...

  4. Effects of Biosolids Application on Pasture and Grape Vines in South-Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids were applied to a pasture and a vineyard in south-eastern Australia. At both sites, soil Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations linearly increased with biosolids application rates although not to the extent of exceeding soil quality guidelines. Biosolids marginally increased soil C and N concentrations at the pasture site but significantly increased P concentrations. With lower overall soil fertility at the vineyard, biosolids increased C, N, and P concentrations. At neither site did biosolids application affect soil microbial endpoints. Biosolids increased pasture production compared to the unfertilised control but had little effect on grape production or quality. Interestingly, over the 3-year trial, there was no difference in pasture production between the biosolids treated plots and plots receiving inorganic fertiliser. These results suggest that biosolids could be used as a fertiliser to stimulate pasture production and as a soil conditioner to improve vineyard soils in this region.

  5. The role of endogenous cytokinins and environmental factors in flowering in the vine cactus Hylocereus undatus

    OpenAIRE

    Khaimov-Armoza, A.; Novák, O.; Strnad, M; Mizrahi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It has been found that application of exogenous cytokinins at a specific time induced flower induction in Hylocereus undatus (Haw.) Britt. & Rose. The aim of the present paper is to explore the role of cytokinins in flower induction in the cacti. Since endogenous cytokinins have never been analyzed in any cactus species, the initial step was to analyze endogenous cytokinins the year-round, and especially during the flowering period, when flower bud induction occurs. We found that the areoles ...

  6. Experiences of encounters with ayahuasca--"the vine of the soul".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Anette; Eriksson, Anders; Norlander, Torsten

    2009-12-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive brew used by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The aim of this qualitative study was to gain insight into the experiences of western users of ayahuasca, as well as to ascertain the experienced meaning that participants felt by their participation. Twenty-five people from Northern Europe with experiences of group sessions with ayahuasca wrote anonymous descriptions of their experiences. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method was used for this analysis. The analysis resulted in 33 categories which were assembled into six general themes: (a) motivation and aim, (b) contractile frightening state (c) sudden transformation of the experience, (d) limitless expansive states with transcendental experiences, (f) reflections, and (g) changed worldview and new orientation to life. These themes provided a new structure, called the transcendental circle. Participants reported many positive psychological and physical improvements that indicate that ayahuasca could be of potential interest in the development of new medicines and therapies.

  7. Evolution of marginal populations of an invasive vine increases the likelihood of future spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis F. Kilkenny; Laura F. Galloway

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of invasion patterns may require an understanding of intraspecific differentiation in invasive species and its interaction with climate change. We compare Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica) plants from the core (100-150 yr old) and northern margin (evolution...

  8. Self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica is mediated by physiological connection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fukano, Yuya; Yamawo, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Although self-discrimination has been well documented, especially in animals, self-discrimination in plants has been identified in only a few cases, such as self-incompatibility in flowers and root discrimination...

  9. Expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Russian national security strategy : compatible consepts? / Lisa Vining

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vining, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Venemaa julgeolekustrateegiad ja sõjaline doktriin, Venemaa riikliku julgeoleku suurimad ohustajad - Tšetšeenia, Dagestan, Kesk-Aasia ja Kaug-Ida. Võimalused, et Venemaa muudab oma seisukohti NATO laienemise suhtes

  10. Irrigation of grapevines with saline water. II. Mathematical simulation of vine growth and yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Asher, J.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.; Jhorar, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Soil, water, atmosphere and plant (SWAP) model simulates deterministic transport of water and solutes, incorporating a semi-analytical sink function. It enables one to simulate detailed (SAWPd) or simple (SWAPs) crop growth patterns in response to flow patterns in the root zone. The objectives of

  11. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant) with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    OpenAIRE

    V. T. Antufyev; M.A. Ivanova; A. A. Ponedelchenko

    2016-01-01

    The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing b...

  12. Research results on productivity stabilization by ultrasonic camera (plant with membrane ceramic elements during vine processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Antufyev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes solutions to the problems of declining productivity of ceramic membrane elements for wine processing on the final manufacturing phase. A relative stabilization of filtration velocity, venting efficiency and wine lightening were experimentally confirmed during contacts with oscillation waves of ultrasonic transmitter on the ceramic filter. Which significantly reduced the cost of various preservatives to increase periods storage. To study the processes of wine processing by the proposed method it was made an experimental installation on the basis of pilot machine MRp-1/2 for bottling of quiet liquids and an ultrasonic device "Volna– M" UZTA-1/22-OM with a firmly, waveguide which transmits sound, fixed filter frame on the ultrasound emitter. To stabilize the performance of ultrasonic units with ceramic membrane elements without quality deterioration of wines it was empirically determined rational parameters of power of ultrasound input and pressure in the system. The given derived dependencies and graphs allow to define the time of relatively stable operating filter regime. It was revealed a significant cost reduction on filtration, as it allows escape from the contamination of the product by various preservatives, and increasing of storage duration in a sealed container during aseptic filling without a thermal sterilization. Ultrasonic emitter contact by superposition wave vibrations on the ceramic filter increases not only the efficiency of gas removal, but also improves the organoleptic characteristics, stabilizes the filters, improves their productivity. Gas removal creates unfavorable conditions for development of the yeast, which in turn increases the shelf life of semisweet wine.

  13. In vitro interaction studies between Glomus intraradices and Armillaria mellea in vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogales, A.; Camprubi, A.; Estaun, V.; Marfa, V.; Calvet, C.

    2010-07-01

    An interaction study was performed with mycorrhizal plants of the grapevine rootstock Richter 110 (Vitis berlandieri Planch x Vitis rupestris Scheele) and the root pathogenic fungus Armillaria mellea (Vahl:Fr.) P. Kumm using an autotrophic in vitro culture system. Micro propagated plant lets were transferred to Petri plates with MSR medium lacking sugar and vitamins. Inocula of Glomus intraradices (BEG 72) and of Armillaria mellea obtained from a root organ culture and from a mycelium colony grown in malt agar respectively, were added to the plates according to each treatment: non-inoculated, inoculated with G. intra radices, inoculated with A. mellea, and dual-inoculated plants. There were ten replicates per treatment. Fourteen weeks later, the pathogen's mycelium occupied most of the surface/volume of the plate and had produced rhizomorphs. In dual inoculated plates, A. mellea's growth was not affected by the presence of G. intraradices, but the latter produced a lower number of spores and its extra radical phase showed granulation, vacuolation and tip swelling. The pathogen induced necrosis and growth decrease in the root. Glomus intra radices alleviated these symptoms and there were no differences in root biomass between non-inoculated plants and plants inoculated with both fungi. There were no symptoms of the disease in shoots and G. intra radices stimulated shoot growth both, although mycorrhizal colonization was lower when A. mellea was present. No direct antagonism or antibiosis against the pathogen was observed, thus the protective effect exerted by the symbiotic fungus in grapevines must be indirect, mediated through the host plant physiology. (Author) 38 refs.

  14. EFFECTS OF ROOTSTOCK-SCION COMBINATIONS ON MACROELEMENTS AVAILABILITY OF THE VINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna CSIKÁSZ-KRIZSICS

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates macroelement contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and their quality relations of 4 scion grape varieties (Italian Riesling, White Riesling, Chardonnay, Cabernet sauvignon on 6 rootstock varieties (5C, 5BB, 125AA, 140Ru, 110R, Fercal between 2001 and 2005. A field experiment was set up at Szentmiklós Hill (on the border of the town of Pécs in southern part of Hungary in 1999. The investigated rootstocks had no statistically proven effect on the nitrogen levels of the leaves, but the scion varieties had. Phosphorus content of the leaves on rootstocks with Berlandieri x Riparia genetic background (5C, 5BB, 125AA was lower at blooming than that on other investigated rootstocks. We found statistically significant differences in the calcium and magnesium content of leaves regarding rootstock and scion varieties too.

  15. Soil biotic and abiotic responses to dimethyl disulfide spot drip fumigation in established grape vines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a soil fumigant used in agricultural systems as an alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for the control of soilborne pests and pathogens. However, fumigants including DMDS that have broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target organisms in soil. Many bio...

  16. Honey bees are the dominant diurnal pollinator of native milkweed in a large urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, James Scott; Roberto, Adriano N; Sodhi, Darwin S; Onuferko, Thomas M; Cadotte, Marc W

    2017-10-01

    In eastern North America, the field milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. (Asclepiadaceae), is used in planting schemes to promote biodiversity conservation for numerous insects including the endangered monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Nymphalidae). Less is known about its pollinators, and especially in urban habitats where it is planted often despite being under increasing pressure from invasive plant species, such as the related milkweed, the dog-strangling vine (DSV), Vincetoxicum rossicum (Kleopow) Barbar. (Asclepiadaceae). During the A. syriaca flowering period in July 2016, we surveyed bees in open habitats along a DSV invasion gradient and inspected 433 individuals of 25 bee species in 12 genera for pollinia: these were affixed to bees that visited A. syriaca for nectar and contain pollen packets that are vectored (e.g., transferred) between flowers. Of all bees sampled, pollinia were found only on the nonindigenous honeybee, Apis mellifera (43% of all bees identified), as well as one individual bumblebee, Bombus impatiens Cresson. Pollinia were recorded from 45.2% of all honeybees collected. We found no relationship between biomass of DSV and biomass of A. syriaca per site. There was a significant positive correlation between A. syriaca biomass and the number of pollinia, and the proportion vectored. No relationship with DSV biomass was detected for the number of pollinia collected by bees but the proportion of vectored pollinia declined with increasing DSV biomass. Although we find no evidence of DSV flowers attracting potential pollinators away from A. syriaca and other flowering plants, the impacts on native plant-pollinator mutualisms relate to its ability to outcompete native plants. As wild bees do not appear to visit DSV flowers, it could be altering the landscape to one which honeybees are more tolerant than native wild bees.

  17. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This paper aims to make a sustainability assessment of different wine-growing scenarios located in Calabria (Southern Italy that combines conflicting insights, i.e., environmental and economic ones, by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC to identify the main hotspots and select the alternative scenarios closest to the ideal solution through the VIKOR multicriteria method. In particular, the latter allowed us to obtain synthetic indices for a two-dimensional sustainability assessment. Conventional practices associated to the espalier training system represent the best compromise from both environmental and economic points of view, due to the higher yield per hectare. The choices regarding Functional Unit (FU and indicators were shown to have a high influence on results.

  18. Vineatrol and cardiovascular disease: beneficial effects of a vine-shoot phenolic extract in a hamster atherosclerosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cindy; Gaillet, Sylvie; Carillon, Julie; Vidé, Joris; Ramos, Jeanne; Izard, Jean-Claude; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-11-07

    We evaluated the effect of the intake of a grapevine-shoot phenolic extract (Vineatrol 30) on early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed a hyperlipidic diet. Golden Syrian hamsters received for 13 weeks either a standard diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or the HF diet plus Vineatrol 30 at 0.04, 0.2, or 1.0 mg/(kg body weight/d). We measured plasma lipids and glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin, as well as liver TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring plasma paraoxonase activity (PON) and liver superoxide anion production (O(2)(•-)). The aortic fatty streak area (AFSA) was also determined. In comparison with HF group, we demonstrated that the highest dose of Vineatrol 30 was capable of decreasing AFSA (67%), insulinemia (40%), and leptinemia (8.7%), which were increased by the HF diet. We also showed increased O(2)(•-) production (35%) and a rise in levels of the liver proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α (22%) and IL-6 (21%), accompanied by a fall in PON activity (56%) due to the HF diet versus the standard diet. In contrast, except plasma adiponectin levels that are not changed, Vineatrol 30 treatment lowered AFSA (67%), O(2)(•-) production (36%), insulin resistance (42%), leptinemia (9%), liver TNF-α (18%) and IL-6 (15%), while it rose PON activity (29%). These findings demonstrate the preventive effects of polyphenols present in Vineatrol 30 in managing cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors.

  19. Soil, vine and other quality cultures: “terroir” and “zonazione” concepts introduction and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo A.C. Costantini

    Full Text Available The research of the cultural vocation is one of the most effective means for quality and typicality protection of the productions and, at the same time, to limit soil degradation. In particular, the study of “terroir”, i.e. the relationships between environment and product quality, highlights a local positivity of the resources, strongly linked to the specificity of origin environments. It must be fairly protect. The valorisation of terroir is mostly considered one of the greatest prospects of success for national agriculture within global market, because very often the quality crops become also reference crops and driving imaging for a territory. Actually the term “total quality of territory” is very useful; it means the territory managed in function of crops quality, soil and ecosystem conservation, environment healthiness and landscape beauty. The reconnaissance of the territory vocation needs the research of its peculiarities witch determine the uniqueness of that production area. Therefore the uniqueness of a terroir is a value added to the quality and it may be determining for the success of a cultivation. The “zoning” technique started from the introduction of terroir concept. It is the division of a territory in function of its ecopedological and geographic characteristics and checking the qualitative result of different species and varieties. In short, the climatic, pedological and crop information interact with productivity and quality of crops.Through the zoning, the constituents of terroir and the verification

  20. Chemometric Analysis of the Volatile Compounds Generated by Aspergillus carbonarius Strains Isolated from Grapes and Dried Vine Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA contamination in grape production is an important problem worldwide. Microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs have been demonstrated as useful tools to identify different toxigenic strains. In this study, Aspergillus carbonarius strains were classified into two groups, moderate toxigenic strains (MT and high toxigenic strains (HT, according to OTA-forming ability. The MVOCs were analyzed by GC-MS and the data processing was based on untargeted profiling using XCMS Online software. Orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA was performed using extract ion chromatogram GC-MS datasets. For contrast, quantitative analysis was also performed. Results demonstrated that the performance of the OPLS-DA model of untargeted profiling was better than the quantitative method. Potential markers were successfully discovered by variable importance on projection (VIP and t-test. (E-2-octen-1-ol, octanal, 1-octen-3-one, styrene, limonene, methyl-2-phenylacetate and 3 unknown compounds were selected as potential markers for the MT group. Cuparene, (Z-thujopsene, methyl octanoate and 1 unknown compound were identified as potential markers for the HT groups. Finally, the selected markers were used to construct a supported vector machine classification (SVM-C model to check classification ability. The models showed good performance with the accuracy of cross-validation and test prediction of 87.93% and 92.00%, respectively.

  1. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle G Beckman

    Full Text Available Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  2. Using multiple traits to assess the potential of introduced and native vines to proliferate in a tropical region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delgado, Diana L; Figueroa, Josimar; Restrepo, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the invasive potential of introduced species remains an ongoing challenge due to the multiple interacting regional and global processes that facilitate the introduction and proliferation of alien species...

  3. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Falcone; Anna Irene De Luca; Teodora Stillitano; Alfio Strano; Giuseppa Romeo; Giovanni Gulisano

    2016-01-01

    The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This pap...

  4. A Mechanistic Model of Botrytis cinerea on Grapevines That Includes Weather, Vine Growth Stage, and the Main Infection Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Elisa; Caffi, Tito; Ciliberti, Nicola; Rossi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    A mechanistic model for Botrytis cinerea on grapevine was developed. The model, which accounts for conidia production on various inoculum sources and for multiple infection pathways, considers two infection periods. During the first period (“inflorescences clearly visible” to “berries groat-sized”), the model calculates: i) infection severity on inflorescences and young clusters caused by conidia (SEV1). During the second period (“majority of berries touching” to “berries ripe for harvest”), the model calculates: ii) infection severity of ripening berries by conidia (SEV2); and iii) severity of berry-to-berry infection caused by mycelium (SEV3). The model was validated in 21 epidemics (vineyard × year combinations) between 2009 and 2014 in Italy and France. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to: i) evaluate the ability of the model to predict mild, intermediate, and severe epidemics; and ii) assess how SEV1, SEV2, and SEV3 contribute to epidemics. The model correctly classified the severity of 17 of 21 epidemics. Results from DFA were also used to calculate the daily probabilities that an ongoing epidemic would be mild, intermediate, or severe. SEV1 was the most influential variable in discriminating between mild and intermediate epidemics, whereas SEV2 and SEV3 were relevant for discriminating between intermediate and severe epidemics. The model represents an improvement of previous B. cinerea models in viticulture and could be useful for making decisions about Botrytis bunch rot control. PMID:26457808

  5. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    .... To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the...

  6. Effect of trellising system on grape and wine composition of Syrah vines grown in the cerrado region of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da Mota

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the concept that the trellising system affects not only sunlight interception and carbon assimilation, but also the fruitzone microclimate, which has a great impact on fruit composition and consequently on wine quality, the effect of two trellising systems - Vertical Shoot Position (VSP and modified Geneva Double Curtain (GDC - on wine and berry composition of Syrah grapes grown in João Pinheiro, Northeast region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil was investigated. The parameters such as pH, berry size and weight, and seeds total phenolic contents were not affected by the training system. The GDC system produced fruits with the highest Brix and lowest titratable acidity. Berries from the VSP system presented lower anthocyanin concentration than those from the GDC system. Similar results were found for the total phenolic content of the skin of grape berries from the VSP system. GDC wines were characterized by high anthocyanin content and red color, resulting in wines with high color intensity. These data suggest that in the tropical region of Minas Gerais state, with high temperature and high sunlight intensity, the trellising system, which protects bunches against excessive radiation, should be chosen.

  7. Functional homogeneous zones (fHZs) in viticultural zoning procedure: an Italian case study on Aglianico vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at farm scale that is strongly rooted in hydropedology and aims to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirements and wine production. The physics of our approach are defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models, applying physically based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solve soil-plant water status. This study (part of the ZOVISA project) was conducted on a farm devoted to production of high-quality wines (Aglianico DOC), located in southern Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano, AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two homogeneous zones (HZs) were identified; in each one a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional homogeneous zones (fHZs). For the second process, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, leaf area index (LAI) measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). This experiment proved the usefulness of the physically based approach, also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  8. A mixed C-vine copula model for hedging price and volumetric risk in wind power trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pircalabu, Anca; Jung, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    When energy trading companies enter into long-term agreements with wind power producers, where a fixed price is paid for the fluctuating production, they are facing a joint price and volumetric risk. Since the pay-off of such agreements is non-linear, a hedging portfolio would ideally consist of ...

  9. Dying on the Vine: Air Combat Command’s Struggle to Provide Combat-Ready Aircrews with Limited Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    orders, ACC annually releases a RAP Tasking Message ( RTM ) for each major weapons system (MWS) under its Operational Control (OPCON). The RTM ...and “meet DOC tasked requirements.”3 In simpler terms, the RTM explains what aircrews will do to meet the readiness level specified in both the DOC...utilization, the RTM prioritizes the mission types that aircrew will train to execute. For instance, the B-1 RTM specifies that B-1 aircrew will primarily

  10. The distribution of fruit and seed toxicity during development for eleven neotropical trees and vines in Central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Noelle G

    2013-01-01

    Secondary compounds in fruit mediate interactions with natural enemies and seed dispersers, influencing plant survival and species distributions. The functions of secondary metabolites in plant defenses have been well-studied in green tissues, but not in reproductive structures of plants. In this study, the distribution of toxicity within plants was quantified and its influence on seed survival was determined in Central Panama. To investigate patterns of allocation to chemical defenses and shifts in allocation with fruit development, I quantified variation in toxicity between immature and mature fruit and between the seed and pericarp for eleven species. Toxicity of seed and pericarp was compared to leaf toxicity for five species. Toxicity was measured as reduced hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens, Phoma sp. and Fusarium sp., and reduced survivorship of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, across a range of concentrations of crude extract. I used these measures of potential toxicity against generalist natural enemies to examine the effect of fruit toxicity on reductions of fruit development and seed survival by vertebrates, invertebrates, and pathogens measured for seven species in a natural enemy removal experiment. The seed or pericarp of all vertebrate- and wind-dispersed species reduced Artemia survivorship and hyphal growth of Fusarium during the immature and mature stages. Only mature fruit of two vertebrate-dispersed species reduced hyphal growth of Phoma. Predispersal seed survival increased with toxicity of immature fruit to Artemia during germination and decreased with toxicity to fungi during fruit development. This study suggests that fruit toxicity against generalist natural enemies may be common in Central Panama. These results support the hypothesis that secondary metabolites in fruit have adaptive value and are important in the evolution of fruit-frugivore interactions.

  11. The marginal product value of irrigation water for potato and vine cultivation in the Sandveld region, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Lange, Willem J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The advent of grid electrification in the Sandveld region of South Africa in the 1980s increased the utilisation of groundwater resources for commercial irrigation purposes. In the wake of the consequent increased pressure on the resource...

  12. (Ipomoea batatas L.) AS INFLUENCED BY PROPAGULE LENGTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vines, vine girth and number of leaves increased significantly with increase in propagule length. Cattle dung application rates of 225 and 450 kg N ha. −1 had statistically at par number of vines, vine girth, vine length, number of nodes and leaves and leaf area index but significantly higher than unfertilized plants. The highest.

  13. 76 FR 34031 - United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... third sub-type, ``Vine-dried (without the application of drying chemicals or materials)'' and change the existing sub-type for ``Dipped, Vine-dried or similarly processed raisins'' to ``Dipped, Vine-dried...

  14. Vine vigor, yield and grape quality assessment by airborne remote sensing over three years: Analysis of unexpected relationships in cv. Tempranillo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla, I.; Martinez de Toda, F.; Martínez-Casasnovas, J.A.

    2015-07-01

    The prediction of grape composition is becoming more important due to the need of reducing the current levels of alcohol and pH of the wines, a problem that is exacerbated by climate change. This work presents a 3-year study of the spatial variability of grape composition in a rainfed Tempranillo vineyard located in Rioja (Spain). It is based on the acquisition of multispectral imagery at véraison (start of the ripening process); and zoning based on NDVI, to assess its performance for zonal management. The results reveal a high spatial variability within the plot, with a stable pattern over the years, even with very different climate conditions. NDVI was a good predictor of vegetative growth variables. However, the prediction of grape composition was more complex. Unexpectedly, anthocyanins were found to be higher in the highest vigor zone, which is probably related to the effects of climate change. This unexpected relationship is particularly discussed in the article. (Author)

  15. The Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Amplified from Grapevine Roots (Vitis vinifera L.) in Oregon Vineyards is Seasonally Stable and Influenced by Soil and Vine Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of grapevines in 10 commercial Oregon vineyards was assessed by examining spores in soil and by amplifying mycorrhizal DNA from ‘Pinot noir’ root extracts. Seventeen spore morphotypes were found in the soil beneath the vin...

  16. Effect of Two Anti-Fungal Treatments (Metrafenone and Boscalid Plus Kresoxim-methyl) Applied to Vines on the Color and Phenol Profile of Different Red Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to ...

  17. Effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid plus kresoxim-methyl) applied to vines on the color and phenol profile of different red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-06-16

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines.

  18. Effect of Two Anti-Fungal Treatments (Metrafenone and Boscalid Plus Kresoxim-methyl Applied to Vines on the Color and Phenol Profile of Different Red Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Briz-Cid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines.

  19. Effects and Modes od Action of Canopy Management Practices on Vine Physiology and Berry Composition in Organically-Cultivated cv. Sangiovese (Vitis Vinifera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tessarin, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In organic and biodynamic vineyards, canopy management practices should be carefully and timely modulated, particularly in a context of climate change, for successfully achieving balanced plants, ventilated and exposed berries, elevated grape and wine quality. In 2013 and 2014, characterized by contrasting climatic conditions, the implications of post-veraison (late) or pea-size trimming, post-veraison or pre-harvest late defoliations and shoot-positioning (post-veraison) were assessed agains...

  20. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, and Queer Visibility Through Selfies: Comparing Platform Mediators Across Ruby Rose’s Instagram and Vine Presence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duguay, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between social media platforms and the production and dissemination of selfies in light of its implications for the visibility of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and queer (LGBTQ) people...

  1. BiodivERsA project VineDivers: Analysing interlinkages between soil biota and biodiversity-based ecosystem services in vineyards across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Winter, Silvia; Strauss, Peter; Querner, Pascal; Kriechbaum, Monika; Pachinger, Bärbel; Gómez, José A.; Campos, Mercedes; Landa, Blanca; Popescu, Daniela; Comsa, Maria; Iliescu, Maria; Tomoiaga, Liliana; Bunea, Claudiu-Ioan; Hoble, Adela; Marghitas, Liviu; Rusu, Teodor; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Bergmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Essential ecosystem services provided by viticultural landscapes result from diverse communities of above- and belowground organisms and their interactions. For centuries traditional viticulture was part of a multifunctional agricultural system including low-input grasslands and fruit trees resulting in a high functional biodiversity. However, in the last decades intensification and mechanisation of vineyard management caused a separation of production and conservation areas. As a result of management intensification including frequent tilling and/or use of pesticides several ecosystem services are affected leading to high rates of soil erosion, degradation of soil structure and fertility, contamination of groundwater and high levels of agricultural inputs. In this transdisciplinary BiodivERsA project we will examine to what extent differently intensive managed vineyards affect the activity and diversity of soil biota (e.g. earthworms, collembola, soil microorganisms) and how this feed back on aboveground biodiversity (e.g. weeds, pollinators). We will also investigate ecosystem services associated with soil faunal activity and biodiversity such as soil structure, the formation of stable soil aggregates, water infiltration, soil erosion as well as grape quality. These effects will become increasingly important as more extreme precipitation events are predicted with climate change. The socio-economic part of the project will investigate the role of diversely structured, species-rich viticultural landscapes as a cultural heritage providing aesthetic values for human well-being and recreation. The project objectives will be analysed at plot, field (vineyard) and landscape scales in vineyards located in Spain, France, Romania and Austria. A detailed engagement and dissemination plan for stakeholder at the different governance levels will accompany scientific research and will contribute to the implementation of best-practice recommendations for policy and farmers.

  2. Spectra evolution over on-vine holding of Italia table grapes: prediction of maturity and discrimination for harvest times using a Vis-NIR hyperspectral device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piazzolla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of certain grape quality parameters (sugars, acidity, and pH-value is essential for the determination of the optimum harvest time. Non-destructive analytical techniques, including near infrared (NIR spectroscopy, can be valid alternatives to traditional analytical methods for the determination of maturity indexes, enabling the possibility of on-field applications. This work aims to study the reliability to monitor spectra changes related with ripening of table grapes and to select optimal wavelengths for the discrimination of bunches from different harvests, in addition to the prediction of total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, phenols and antioxidant activity of table grapes. Grapes were harvested four times from the same plants at day 0 (I HT, and after 11 (II HT, 27 (III HT and 48 (IV HT days. Spectra were acquired from the images obtained using a spectral scanner Vis-NIR (ver 1.4.; DV Srl, Padova, Italy, with a detector in the region between 400-1000 nm principal component analysis was used to remove outliers followed by spectra pre-treatment. The best prediction model was achieved for soluble solids with the regression coefficient values of 0.91 for calibration and 0.88 for validation followed by titratable acidity (0.71 and 0.78 and antioxidant activity (0.68 and 0.62. In addition an excellent correlation was observed between spectra and days before harvest (R2 of 0.98 for calibration and prediction models indicating that is possible to relate spectra changes with ripening, leading also to the effective discrimination of the fruits from the different harvest times. The results showed that this technique may be a valid support to select the optimal harvest time also based on the prediction of the maturity related constituents.

  3. IMPACT OF PESTICIDES USED IN THE CULTURE OF THE VINE ON THE VIABILITY OF THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE WINE IN CHRONOLOGICAL AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Owsiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides, used in culture, may induce oxidative stress by stimulation of free radicals production, what may result in lipid peroxidation, proteome damage, changes in DNA and RNA structures and disturbance of total antioxidative capacity in organisms’ cells. In disturbances caused by increase synthesis ROS (reactive oxygen species or lack antioxidative defense that is in oxidative stress it is seen one of all causes of aging process. Chronological aging of baker’s and wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in liquid stationary culture is used as model of research on the aging process. As a result of aging changes take place in yeast cells which have physiological, genetic, metabolic and morphological character, what cause their death in consequence. Some scientists treat chronological yeast aging as analogy of fibroblasts aging of multicellular organisms, skeletal muscles or nerve cells. The aim of the experiment was to obtain the answer on question connected with toxicity effect two widely available pesticides in shape of trade preparation, used among other things in culture of grapevine Miedzian 50 WP (Cu 50WP and Siarkol Extra 80 WP (S 80WP on vitality of wine yeast in chronological aging. During research cells of wine yeast Tokay, which are used in production of white wines, and cells of Malaga strain, used in production of white and red wines, were applied. Yeast culture with pesticides supplementation in determined concentrations was conducted through seven days in YPG medium. At that time vitality of yeast cells was determined by the percentage of cells surviving, percentage of dead cells and culture density. Considerable influence on decreasing vitality of yeast cells in the process of aging showed S 80WP, what correlate with the increase of applied concentration in both example of Malaga and Tokay. Obtained results in application of Cu 50WP indicated lower toxicity in culture of both studied strains in comparison to the control. Our studies suggest that studied pesticides may cause the intensity of processes connected with cells aging.

  4. Farm Crop Production Technology: Field and Forage Crop and Fruit and Vine Production Options. A Suggested 2-Year Post High School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division of Vocational and Technical Education, BAVT.

    Prepared by a junior college under contract with the Office of Education, the curriculum materials are designed to assist school administrators, advisory committees, supervisors, and teachers in developing or evaluating postsecondary programs in farm crop production technology. Information was gathered by visits to the important farm regions and…

  5. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  6. A study on accumulation of volatile organic compounds during ochratoxin a biosynthesis and characterization of the correlation in Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from grape and dried vine fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxu; Cheng, Zhan; Ma, Liyan; Li, Jingming

    2017-07-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were detected in Aspergillus carbonarius strains (AF, SD26 and SD27) during a 7-day growing period, using HS-SPME-GC-MS and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Results showed that 33 VOCs were detected in these strains. The AF strain showed the different sesquiterpene profile compared with the other strains. Principal component analysis revealed that the AF strain was segregated from the other two strains regarding the VOC profile, especially the sesquiterpene profile. Ester metabolites were produced more at the beginning of the strain growth period, whereas extension of the strain incubation resulted in an intense accumulation of hydrocarbon compounds. The prediction models on the correlation between OTA and VOCs were established using partial least squares regression analysis. This analysis indicated that C-8 alcohols, ketones, and trans-nerolidol showed a close relation with the OTA synthesis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Results of two consecutive years on mould prevention in viticulture by means of UV C application of vines (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkelmann-Löhnertz Beate

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, impacts of climate change on cool climate viticulture were most obvious concerning cluster infections caused by Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould. The control of primary and secondary fungal pathogens is economically most important since bunch rot may severely affect the annual harvest with regard to quality and quantity. Trials with UV C applications, a new approach to control bunch rot, were conducted in 2013 and 2014, representing years with intensive bunch rot epidemics. UV C irradiation was applied by a prototype at an experimental site of Hochschule Geisenheim University. At both canopy sides, leaves and cluster zones were irradiated repeatedly at a dose of ≤160 mWs/cm2 alone or in combination with chemical control. The results of our experiments indicated that irradiation with UV C, in addition to fungicide treatments at reduced number of applications, was able to significantly decrease infection with grey mould to a degree of efficiency of 82% compared to standard chemical treatment that achieved 51% efficiency in 2014. Accordingly, the new technology is suitable for reducing cluster infection with mould fungi allowing a prolonged grape ripening time, which leads to a better harvest quality and a decreased yield loss.

  8. Identifying indicators of the spatial variations of agricultural practices by a tree partitioning methods: the case of weed control practices in vine growing catchment

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments of agricultural practices on a regional scale may be computed by running spatially distributed biophysical models using mapped input data on agricultural practices. In cases of hydrological impact assessments, such as herbicide pollution through run-off, methods for generating these data over the entire water resource catchment and at the plot resolution are needed. In this study, we aimed to identify indicators for simulating the spatial distribution of weed ...

  9. Identifying indicators of the spatial variation of agricultural practices by a tree partitioning method : the case of weed control practices in a vine growing catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Biarnès, Anne; J. S. Bailly; Boissieux, Yannick

    2009-01-01

    Environmental impact assessments of agricultural practices on a regional scale may be computed by running spatially distributed biophysical models using mapped input data on agricultural practices. In cases of hydrological impact assessments, Such as herbicide pollution through runoff, methods for generating these data over the entire water resource catchment and at the plot resolution are needed. In this study, we aimed to identify indicators for simulating the spatial distribution of weed c...

  10. «Yo vine a crearlo todo»: Carlos Pellicer y la Asociación de Estudiantes de Bogotá 1918-1920

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Jaramillo, José Abelardo; Corporación Universitaria del MEta

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el papel del mexicanoCarlos Pellicer en la creación de la Asociaciónde Estudiantes de Bogotá en 1919. Seargumenta que su presencia en la ciudad, ademásde enriquecer los ideales de organizaciónde los estudiantes que se abrían camino en supretensión de incidir en los destinos del país,posibilitó una aprehensión mediada de la RevoluciónMexicana, que se plasmó en representacionessobre la política, la educación y lacultura de ese país, las cuales circularon a travésde c...

  11. Chemosuppressive activities in in vivo studies of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mice using isolated oil of Stigmaphyllon ovatum (Amazon vine Cav.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyekowa Osaro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem: In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria remains one of the leading health problems. This situation has been aggravated by the increasing spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains. The study was conducted to determine the chemosuppressive activities in in vivo studies of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mice with isolated oil of Stigmaphyllon ovatum leaves used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Nigeria. Methodology: The plant leaves were collected, dried, pulverized and extracted in Soxhlet extractor with hexane solvent. The crude extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator and phytochemical screening performed using standard methods. Isolation of oil from hexane extract was done using vacuum liquid chromatography while characterization was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Chemosuppressive activities were conducted along with quinine to determine the antimalarial potency in Plasmodium falciparum- infected BALB/c albino mice. Findings: Glycosides, saponins, phenolics, and alkaloids among others were present. Components detected from the isolated yellow oil of S. ovatum were 9-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid (Rt:20.0, 19.37%, an unsaturated fatty acid, squalene (Rt:25.6, 4.58%, a terpene; 7-tetradecenal (Rt:22.6, 2.40%, an aldehyde and alicyclic compounds like bicycle (3,10 hexan-3-one (Rt:16.7, 0.22%. Quinine-treated mice exhibited the lowest parasite counts of 0.27±0.01 (83.82% mean chemosuppression at day 4 of therapy while the lowest parasite counts for the isolated oil was 0.95±0.05 (42.92% mean chemosuppression at day 4 of therapy. Conclusion: The chemosuppressive activities revealed that the isolated oil exhibit significant suppression (P<0.05 of Plasmodium falciparum when compared with the standard, quinine which was evident by the photomicrograph results. This work corroborates the local use of the plants for the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria.

  12. Growth history and crown vine coverage are principal factors influencing growth and mortality rates of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Grogan; R. Matthew Landis

    2009-01-01

    1. Current efforts to model population dynamics of high-value tropical timber species largely assume that individual growth history is unimportant to population dynamics, yet growth autocorrelation is known to adversely affect model predictions. In this study, we analyse a decade of annual census data from a natural population of big-leaf mahogany Swietenia macrophylla...

  13. Anaerobic Degradation of Marine Algae, Seagrass and Tropical Climbing Vines to Produce a Renewable Energy Source and the Analysis of Their Anaerobic Microbial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Resumen La necesidad energética requerida por la sociedad y el consumo excesivo de combustible fósil ha impulsado la investigación e implementación de ...Inés Sastre de Jesús, Ph.D. Date Member of Graduate Committee...sistemas de energía renovable. Actualmente se ha propuesto el uso de biocombustibles generados de la degradación de materia orgánica, entre los

  14. A Vine-Copula Model for Time Series of Significant Wave Heights and Mean Zero-Crossing Periods in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jäger, W.S.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic descriptions and simulations of oceanographic variables are essential for coastal and marine engineering applications. In the past decade, copula-based approaches have become increasingly popular for estimating the multivariate distribution of some variables at the peak of a storm along

  15. Current knowledge of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) as a medicinal plant species: a review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Radosław; Ekiert, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis Turcz. (Baill.) is a plant species whose fruits have been well known in Far Eastern medicine for a long time. However, schisandra seems to be a plant still underestimated in contemporary therapy still in the countries of East Asia. The article presents latest available information on the chemical composition of this plant species. Special attention is given to dibenzo cyclooctadiene lignans. In addition, recent studies of the biological activity of dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans and schisandra fruit extracts are recapitulated. The paper gives a short resume of their beneficial effects in biological systems in vitro, in animals, and in humans, thus underlining their medicinal potential. The cosmetic properties are depicted, too. The analytical methods used for assaying schisandra lignans in the scientific studies and also in industry are also presented. Moreover, special attention is given to the information on the latest biotechnological studies of this plant species. The intention of this review is to contribute to a better understanding of the huge potential of the pharmacological relevance of S. chinensis.

  16. Double maturation raisonnée: the impact of on-vine berry dehydration on the berry and wine composition of Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusjan, Denis; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2017-11-01

    Double maturation raisonnée (DMR) is a potential canopy measure that affects grape and wine composition. The aim of this work was to study for the first time the DMR impact on the physical, biochemical and sensorial characteristics of the berries and wines of Merlot, one of the world's fastest-expanding grapevine varieties. DMR significantly increased the content of soluble solids (1.2-fold), free amino nitrogen (1.8-fold) and acidity in berries but decreased the weight of 100 berries on harvest (approx. 28%). Irrespective of the vintage, DMR-treated grapes had a significantly higher content of non-astringent tannins (0.73-0.78 mg L(-1) ) and anthocyanin extractability (34.7-36.4%) but a lower index of astringency (31.2-33.7) when compared to the control. Consequently, the DMR wines achieved higher alcohol, total acidity and extract, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanol and flavonol contents, whereas the content of anthocyanins was similar to that of the control. Sensorial evaluation showed that DMR wines were not rated higher and would not be appreciated more than control wines. Changes in berries during DMR altered the wine characteristics only in terms of primary metabolites. A reduced accumulation of phenolics, especially anthocyanin content, in the berry skin of DMR-treated grapes was not reflected in their presence in wines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that has reported an impact of DMR on the grape and wine composition of Merlot, as one of the most promising red varieties. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Exploração e manejo do cipó-titica (Heteropsis spp.)Exploitation and management of the vine Heteropsis spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Scipioni, Marcelo Callegari; Serviço Florestal Brasileiro; Alves, Cristina Galvão; Serviço Florestal Brasileiro; Durigan, Carlos César; Fundação Vitória Amazônica; Soares Morais, Maria de Lourdes da Costa; Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA

    2012-01-01

    ResumoAs espécies hemiepífitas do gênero Heteropsis produzem raízes aéreas que são conhecidas na Amazônia brasileira como cipó-titica e titicão ou cipó timbó-açu, sendo fonte produtora de fibra de alto valor comercial, principalmente na fabricação de artesanatos e móveis. Essa matéria-prima é intensamente explorada de forma insustentável, tendo grande redução da disponibilidade desse recurso florestal, devido à diminuição ou extinção regional das plantas de cipó provocadas pelo inadequado man...

  18. Homologs of FT, CEN and FD respond to developmental and environmental signals affecting growth and flowering in the perennial vine kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Moss, Sarah M A; Voogd, Charlotte; Wang, Tianchi; Putterill, Joanna; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-05-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) homologs have been implicated in regulation of growth, determinacy and flowering. The roles of kiwifruit FT and CEN were explored using a combination of expression analysis, protein interactions, response to temperature in high-chill and low-chill kiwifruit cultivars and ectopic expression in Arabidopsis and Actinidia. The expression and activity of FT was opposite from that of CEN and incorporated an interaction with a FLOWERING LOCUS D (FD)-like bZIP transcription factor. Accumulation of FT transcript was associated with plant maturity and particular stages of leaf, flower and fruit development, but could be detected irrespective of the flowering process and failed to induce precocious flowering in transgenic kiwifruit. Instead, transgenic plants demonstrated reduced growth and survival rate. Accumulation of FT transcript was detected in dormant buds and stem in response to winter chilling. In contrast, FD in buds was reduced by exposure to cold. CEN transcript accumulated in developing latent buds, but declined before the onset of dormancy and delayed flowering when ectopically expressed in kiwifruit. Our results suggest roles for FT, CEN and FD in integration of developmental and environmental cues that affect dormancy, budbreak and flowering in kiwifruit. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. 7 CFR 989.156 - Raisin diversion program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the vines, spur-prune the vines, remove the bunches or take other means to preclude grapes from being... next diversion program. For spur-pruned vines, this date may be extended 2 weeks from the date of the inspection of a producer's vineyard if more than 4 bunches on spur-pruned vines are present at the time of...

  20. The vegetative method of propagating Adenia cissampeloides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetative method of propagation was used for the experiments: cuttings from vines in an active growth phase and those from aged vines were made from the mother plant. The former cuttings were classified according to the thickness of the vines as 1 cm and 2 cm thick vines and the latter cuttings were 3 cm thick.

  1. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P....

  2. Seed bank dynamics of invasive swallowworts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pale swallowwort (SW) (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallowwort (V. nigrum; Apocynaceae, subfamily Asclepiadoideae) are European viny milkweeds that have become invasive in many habitats in the northeastern U.S.A. and southeastern Canada. A multi-year seed bank study was initiated in fall 2011 t...

  3. Effect of Esca on the Quality of Berries, Musts and Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Calzarano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the composition of berries, musts and wines in three groups of vines: 1. vines with foliar esca symptoms; 2. asymptomatic esca diseased vines; and 3. healthy vines, were studied in 2001 and 2002 in two “Trebbiano d’Abruzzo” vineyards in the Abruzzi region, Italy, to determine the effect of esca. Vines were grouped by foliar symptoms that had been recorded in annual inspections for 10 years: symptomatic vines by definition showed foliar symptoms in the sampling years (2001 and 2002; asymptomatic esca diseased vines showed no symptoms during the sampling years though they were known to be diseased because they had had foliar symptoms in at least one previous annual inspections; healthy vines were those with no symptoms at any time during the 10-year survey. The quality of berries, musts and wines obtained from vines with trunk renewal that had been restored, and of healthy unrenewed vines was compared in another vineyard of the same cultivar. Fairly similar results were obtained over the two sampling years, with a strong reduction in sugar levels of the must from symptomatic vines, leading to a lower ethanol content in the wine made from that must. These findings confirmed those of the preliminary investigation carried out in 2000. The yield pressed from symptomatic vines also had significantly higher levels of malic acid (causing higher total acidity, and of total nitrogen, potassium and total polyphenols. Berries from symptomatic vines had much higher levels of trans-resveratrol, possibly because of the spots on the leaves and berries. Small and non-significant differences between the yields of healthy vines and asymptomatic diseased vines were found, suggesting a slight loss in the quality of musts and wines from asymptomatic diseased vines. The yield of trunk-renewed vines was similar to that of healthy unrenewed vines, despite an increase of trans-resveratrol in the berries and of total nitrogen in the must of the trunk

  4. Variations in phytosanitary and other management practices in Australian grapevine nurseries

    OpenAIRE

    Helen WAITE; May, Peter; Bossinger, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic and costly failure of newly planted vines is an ongoing problem in the Australian wine industry. Failed vines are frequently infected with wood pathogens, including the fungi associated with Young Vine Decline. Hot water treatment (HWT) and other nursery practices have also been implicated in vine failure. We undertook a survey of Australian grapevine nurseries to develop an understanding of current propagation practices and to facilitate the development of reliable propagation proce...

  5. Growth response of fluted pumpkin ( Telfairia occidentalis Hook . F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that there were significant differences in growth parameters such as vine length, number of leaves, leaf area, number of branches, vine fresh weight and total shoot yield across the treatment variants. The combination of 7 days irrigation interval and 20 t/ha SMS gave the highest mean vine length of 1.99 cm, ...

  6. Initiation and growth of shoots of Gongronema latifolia Benth stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant reduction in number of days to shoot initiation and growth in sawdust medium in the wet season. Sawdust and soil gave a better performance of the cuttings in opening of apical buds, initiation of shoots, percentage of rooted cuttings, number of vines, vine length and number of opposite leaves on vines ...

  7. Effects of bud loading levels and nitrogen doses on yield, physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several bud loading levels in winter pruning and nitrogen doses on yield and physical and chemical properties of fresh vine-leaves of grape cultivar “Narince”. Vines trained with bilateral cordon system was pruned to yield 35000 to 53000 buds/ha (16 or 24 buds/vine) ...

  8. Daily mapping of 30m LAI and NDVI for grape yield prediction in California vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wine grape quality and quantity are affected by vine growing conditions during critical phenological stages. Field observations of vine growth stages are normally very sparse and cannot capture the spatial variability of vine conditions. Remote sensing data acquired from visible and near infrared ba...

  9. Anelamento e reguladores de crescimento: efeitos sobre as medidas biométricas e qualidade de cachos da videira 'Superior Seedless' Girdling and growth regulators: effects on the biometric measurements and quality of bunches of vine 'Superior Sedless'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Coelho de Souza Leão

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se obter maior tamanho de baga, peso médio de cacho e produtividade, os cachos da variedade Superior Seedless foram pulverizados com ácido giberélico (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bioestimulante Crop Set® nas doses de 0,1 e 0,2% e com ou sem anelamento no caule. Esses tratamentos foram aplicados de forma isolada ou combinados entre si. O trabalho foi conduzido durante o período 2001-2002 (dois ciclos de produção, no Campo Experimental de Bebedouro da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina-PE. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições, sendo duas plantas por parcela. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos nos dois ciclos de produção. Entretanto, quando o ácido giberélico foi associado ao Crop Set® 0,1% e anelamento, observou-se uma tendência de aumento no peso de cachos, bem como no peso e tamanho de bagas na safra de 2001. Os cachos tratados com ácido giberélico apresentaram engaços mais grossos e pesados, embora não se observem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos. Algumas plantas submetidas ao anelamento apresentaram problemas de cicatrização, o que provocou a morte das mesmas, recomendando-se evitar a realização desta prática nas condições em que se realizou este trabalho.Aiming to increase the berry size, weight of bunches and yield, the bunches of the cv. Superior Seedless was powdered with gibberelic acid (1 + 20 mg.L-1, bio-stimulant Crop Set® in the dosis of 0.1 and 0.2%. In adition was used the treatment known as girdling. Those treatments were applied in an isolated way or combined to each other. The work was carried out during 2001-2002 (two harvest seasons, in the Experimental Station of Bebedouro, Semi-arid Embrapa in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design were in randomized blocks with 12 treatments and three replications. The differences among the treatments were not statistical significant in the two evaluated seasons. However, when the gibberelic acid was associated with Crop Set® 0.1% and girdling, it was observed a tendency to increase the weight of bunches, as well as, the weight and berry size in the 2001 season. The bunches treated with gibberelic acid presented stronger rachis, although significant differences are not observed among the treatments. Some plants submited to the girdling presented problems with cicatrization, that caused death of them, recomending to avoid this practice in the conditions of this work.

  10. Delimitação da aptidão agroclimática para videira sob irrigação no Nordeste Brasileiro Delimitation of Agro-climatic aptitude for vine crop under irrigation in the Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dados climáticos médios foram usados em conjunto com modelos simples de regressão que relacionam o coeficiente de cultura (Kc, a evapotranspiração de referência (ET0 e os graus dias acumulados (GDac para quantificar o requerimento hídrico de videiras (RHV para mesa e para vinho no Nordeste brasileiro. O RHV juntamente com dados de precipitação permitiu o desenvolvimento de um índice hídrico para videiras (IHV, o qual foi aplicado com dados médios de temperatura do ar para os ciclos produtivos na caracterização de diferentes graus de aptidão sob irrigação, variando-se as datas de poda. Para produção de uvas de mesa constatou-se que não há limitação térmica na região, entretanto maiores teores de açúcar, bem como maior produção, podem ser obtidos nos locais com valores de temperatura do ar mais elevados. Com relação a videiras para vinho, ocorre alguma limitação térmica para a elaboração de vinhos de boa qualidade, dependendo da data de poda, com altos teores de álcool e baixa acidez obtidos nas condições de elevados valores de temperatura do ar. A melhor época de poda para videiras de mesa é de julho a setembro, destacando-se as áreas ao oeste dos estados da Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba e quase todas as áreas dos estados do Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí e Maranhão. Considerando-se videiras para vinho o período com melhor aptidão climática é quando a poda é realizada entre maio e junho, destacando-se os estados da Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Alagoas, e Sergipe, e ainda a parte sudoeste do Estado do Maranhão.Long term weather data were used together with simple regression models involving crop coefficient (Kc, reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and accumulated degree days (DDac to quantify the vineyard water requirement (VWR of table and wine grapes in the Brazilian Northeast. VWR joined with precipitation, allowed the development of a vineyard water indicator (VWI, which was applied together with average values of air temperature for a growing season to characterize the agro-climatic aptitude. For table grapes it was observed that the region has no thermal limitation, however higher both sugar contents and grape yield would be obtained in the areas with higher values of air temperature. In relation to wine grape, it was observed that there are some thermal limitations for the wine quality, depending on the pruning date, being higher the alcohol content and lower acidity, in wines elaborated under conditions with higher values of air temperature. In relation to table grapes, the best pruning dates are between June and September, being highlighted the west areas of Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba and almost all areas of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceará, Piauí and Maranhão. Considering wine grapes, the best agro-climatic aptitude is for pruning dates from May to June, with highlights for the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Alagoas and Sergipe, and a southeast area of Maranhão state.

  11. High degree of clonal reproduction and lack of large-scale geographic patterning mark the introduced range of the invasive vine, kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata), in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kerin E; Mauricio, Rodney

    2016-08-01

    Pueraria montana var. lobata, or kudzu, is an invasive species whose invasion in North America is not genetically well characterized. The clonality of kudzu introduces challenges to population genetic analyses that can bias the assessment of spatial patterns of genotypes. Assessing patterns of genetic diversity while considering clonality is necessary to understand the invasion and spread of kudzu in its invasive range. We screened 1747 individuals from 87 populations across the invasive range with 15 microsatellite markers and a 789 bp chloroplast region. We performed detailed clonal analyses and tested levels of genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogeographic relationships. Kudzu exhibited a clonal rate of 80%, and was more heterozygous than other long-lived perennials. We detected only 353 distinct clonal lineages, with over 60% sharing a maternal haplotype. Populations were established with few genotypes, many consisting of only a single clone. We found no isolation by distance. Despite high genetic diversity, we found little geographic patterning. Kudzu is highly clonal with few genetically distinct lineages and haplotypes existing in the introduced range. Our data are consistent with a large single introduction, or a few at most. Introduced lineages are geographically randomly distributed but isolated, suggesting that genotypes rarely expand into already established populations. No route of expansion was detectable from an original introduction. The invasion of kudzu does not seem to have been dominated by a single genotype, thus standing genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity are more likely mechanisms explaining kudzu's invasion success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. Resistência induzida em frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis Labrusca e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade pós-colheita Induced resistance in fruits of 'Isabel' vine (Vitis labrusca and its effects on post-harvest quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedma Maria Silva Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A indução de resistência tem sido apontada como alternativa sustentável para o manejo de doenças, mas pouco se sabe sobre a interferência de tais produtos na qualidade pós-colheita dos frutos. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar a produção e a maturação de frutos de videira 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca, oriundos de plantas tratadas com elicitores de resistência, em Natuba-PB. Os experimentos foram realizados nos períodos de setembro de 2009 a janeiro de 2010 (safra 1 e de fevereiro a junho de 2010 (safra 2. Foram utilizados oito tratamentos (Testemunha; Fungicida (Metiram + Piraclostrobina; Fosfito de potássio; Agro-Mós®; Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio; Fungicida + Agro-Mós®; Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e Fungicida + Fosfito de potássio + Agro-Mós® e quatro repetições de 5 plantas. As aplicações foram realizadas a cada 10 dias, iniciando-se 20 dias após a poda, totalizando 12 aplicações. As coletas de frutos foram realizadas aos 45; 60;90 e 120 dias após a poda. As variáveis analisadas foram: massa dos cachos, comprimento e diâmetro dos cachos, rendimento de polpa, sólidos solúveis (SS, pH, acidez titulável (AT e relação SS/AT. O tratamento com fosfito de potássio promoveu o aumento de 24% no comprimento dos cachos, em relação à testemunha, na primeira safra. O rendimento de polpa e a relação SS/AT não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, e o teor de sólidos solúveis foi influenciado positivamente pela aplicação de fosfito de potássio, com incrementos superiores a 60%, em ambas as safras avaliadas.Induction of resistance has been identified as a sustainable alternative for disease management, but little information is known about the interference of such products in the postharvest fruit. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the production and ripening of grapes 'Isabel' (Vitis labrusca from plants treated with resistance elicitors in Natuba-PB, Brazil. The experiments were carried in two seasons, between September 2009 and January 2010 (season 1 and February to June 2010 (season 2. It was used eight treatments (Control; Fungicide (Metiram + Pyraclostrobin; Potassium phosphite; Agro-Mos®, Fungicide + Potassium phosphite; Fungicide + Agro-Mos®, Potassium phosphite + Agro-Mos® and Fungicide + Potassium phosphite + Agro-Mos® with four replications of five plants. The pulverizations were made every 10 days, beginning 20 days after pruning in total of 12 applications. The collected fruits were held at 45, 60, 90 and 120 days after pruning. The variables evaluated were: bunch weight, length and diameter of the clusters, and pulp yield, soluble solids (SS, pH, total acidity (TA and SS/TA ratio. The treatment with Potassium phosphite promoted a 24% increase on bunches length, compared to control at season 1. The pulp yield and harvest index were not affected by treatments and soluble solids content was positively influenced by the application of potassium phosphite, with increases exceeding 60% in both seasons.

  13. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Rivera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze residues, broiler litter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ≤ 0.05. No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos de té (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos sólidos de té; orujo de uva y guano de pollo seco. Estas enmiendas fueron aplicadas a principio de primavera, tanto en cobertera como incorporadas al suelo, considerando además un testigo químico fenamiphos y un testigo absoluto. Se determinó la población de nematodos de segundo estado juvenil (estado infestivo de Meloidogyne spp., la cantidad de nódulos, huevos por gramo de raíz y el índice reproductivo, determinando de esta manera la tasa de reproducción de los nematodos. Además se evaluó el peso fresco de la parte aérea y de la masa radical. El testigo químico fue el tratamiento que obtuvo menor población final de Meloidogyne spp., y al evaluar la actividad nematicida de las enmiendas orgánicas, el Compost A incorporado al suelo, orujo de uva en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera obtuvieron índices reproductivos bajos, que no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del testigo químico. En el peso fresco de la parte aérea no hubo diferencias significativas. El peso fresco de la masa radical del testigo químico presentó el valor más bajo comparado con los tratamientos de Compost B en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera.

  14. Biologically active traditional medicinal herbs from Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mudassir A; Crow, Sidney A

    2005-01-04

    The biological activities of the following four important medicinal plants of Balochistan, Pakistan were checked; Grewia erythraea Schwein f. (Tiliaceae), Hymenocrater sessilifolius Fisch. and C.A. Mey (Lamiaceae), Vincetoxicum stocksii Ali and Khatoon (Asclepiadaceae) and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae). The methanolic extracts were fractionated into hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and water. The antifungal and antibacterial activities of these plants were determined against 12 fungal and 12 bacterial strains by agar well diffusion and disk diffusion assays. The extract of Zygophyllum fabago was found to be highly effective against Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. The extract of Vincetoxicum stocksii was also found to be significantly active against Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Extracts of Hymenocrater sessilifolius and Grewia erythraea showed good activity only against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  15. Preliminary Anti-Fungal Activity of the Aqueous Bark Extract of Calotropis procera (ASCLEPIADACEAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Olatunde James; Wasagu, S U Rabiu; Adepoju-Bello, Aderonke Ayinke; Nwaeze, Kenneth Uzoma; Olufunsho, Awodele

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a species of flowering plant which belongs to the Asclepiadaceous family. Its other names are Apple of Sodom, Giant Milkweed and Swallow-wort. It's native to Africa and Asian countries where they exist as a spreading shrub or small tree with height of about 4m. They. exude copious milky sap when cut or broken. It has a broad grey-green leaves with a pointed tip, two rounded basal lobes and no leaf stalk. Their flowers are waxy white. The different part of this plant has been used for different medicinal purposes such as cure of leprosy, eczema, inflammation, cutaneous infections, syphilis, malarial and low hectic fevers, and as abortifacient. The extract of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera used locally by people in Sokoto to treat ringworm infection was investigated for the claimed activity by subjecting the extract collected to both phytochemical and antifungal screening. The extracts of water, n-hexane, petroleum ether and chloroform of the bark of the plant Calotropis procera were evaluated for the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, steroids and flavonoids. And the water extract which is often used by the local people was tested for antifungal activity using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) in Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method developed by Kirby et al. Fulcin tablet was used as a standard and two petridishes that does not contain the extracts were used as control. In the phytochemical study using extracts of n-hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform and water, the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and steroids (cardiac glycoside) were confirmed. Also, for the antifungal activity of the plant, there was a complete inhibition of Microsporum specie and Trichophyton specie in the sample after 10 days of inoculation when water extract at different concentrations (i.e. 20 mg/L, 30 mg/L and 40 mg/L) were applied. The tablet only completely inhibited Trichophyton specie. Epidermophyton specie was not found in the sample

  16. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study inve...

  17. Effet du statut azoté de la vigne sur le potentiel aromatique de la baie de raisin et l'arôme du vin : Approches agronomique, analytique et transcriptomique

    OpenAIRE

    Helwi, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Soil is a major component of the viticultural terroir. Its mineral composition influences vine physiology, berry quality potential and wine quality. Among the elements that vines pick up from the soil, nitrogen (N) has the strongest impact on vine physiology, berry composition and the synthesis of compounds that have an important sensory impact. This study has investigated a possible direct effect of N on the synthesis of volatile thiols i.e. 3SH (3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) responsible for grapefr...

  18. Contribuição para o estudo da vinha e do vinho dos Açores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Medeiros

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available VINE GROWING AND WINE PRODUCTION IN THE AZORES - The cultivation of vines in the Azores dates back to the first settlers. It was particularly significant in Pico and São Jorge where better quality wine was produced; however the wine exported from the archipelago was generally not of financial importance. On the islands of Faial, Flores and Corvo the wine was always a minor or absent culture.This paper focuses the evolution of the vines from early times to the present day, its significance in rural landscape and in the economy of the Azores. From mid-nineteenth century the vines, proceeding from Europe, were attacked by plagues of oidium and phylloxera. The European vines were subsequently replaced in nearly all the areas by the american variety called "Isabela" (Vitis labrusca, L.. The "vinho de cheiro" (known as foxy to the Americans which was produced, was of inferior quality; however it was easily assimilated into the diet of the islanders. The E.C. legislation foresees a progressive replacement of the "Isabela". This replacement process will be slow and dificult. Nowadays the area of vine cultivation (very parcelled does not exceed 2500 or 3000 hactares. The main vine area is located on the island of Pico (more than 900 hectares; this is the only island on which grows a significant amount of European vine. On the island of São Miguel (the largest island only the American vine is grown.

  19. Potato Bean: Potential Forage/Dietary Supplement for Small Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato bean (Apios americana Medikus) is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, leguminous vine indigenous to the eastern half of the United States. This vine climbs on plants and objects making its foliage accessible to browsing animals. We have observed deer eating potato bean foliage. Both deer and goa...

  20. Why the Government Needs a Little History Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The decision by ex-Secretary of State for Education Michael Gove to send his daughter to a state school caused much press comment and was discussed in a widely read article by Gove's spouse, the "Daily Mail" columnist Sarah Vine. In this piece, Vine praised non selective state education, drawing on her own personal experience and that of…

  1. Nutrient uptake and use in young ‘Pinot noir’ grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient uptake and allocation patterns were determined in four-year-old grapevines (‘Pinot noir’ clone 115 on 3309C rootstock) by destructively harvesting entire vines at major phenological stages over two years. In addition, half of the vines were irrigated less frequently between veraison and fru...

  2. Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot Noir: Free Amino Acids, Sugars, and Organic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual free amino acids, yeast assimilable amino acid (YAN) content, ammonium, organic acids, and simple sugars of berries from GLRaV-2 or GLRaV-3 infected vines were compared with paired vines free of these viruses. Samples were taken from two commercial vineyards during two growing seasons (20...

  3. Nutrient uptake and distribution in young Pinot noir grapevines over two seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seasonal timing of biomass and nutrient uptake and distribution among different vine organs was determined over two growing seasons in 4-year-old Pinot noir grapevines carrying their first full crop and grown in field microplots. Vines were fertilized in spring and the biomass and nutrient conte...

  4. Influence of Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-2 and -3) on the Fruit Composition of Oregon Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinot noir: Phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the ten known Grapevine leafroll associated viruses (GLRaVs) have negative impacts upon vine productivity and grape quality, though these negative influences are dependent on factors such as GLRaV, cultivar, clone, rootstock, and vine age. This is the first study to report on GLRaV-2 and GLR...

  5. Low N Supply, but Not Low P or K supply, Alters Pinot noir growth, yield, and berry aroma profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand how nutrients influence the growth, physiology, and berry quality attributes of Pinot noir, the supply of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) to vines grown in a sand-culture vineyard were each independently manipulated from 2006-2008. Vines received complete nutrition duri...

  6. Leaf blade versus petiole nutrient tests as predictors of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium status of ‘Pinot noir’ grapevines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grape growers rely on tissues tests of leaf blades or petioles for routine monitoring of vine nutritional health and for diagnosing potential nutrient deficiency or toxicity. There has been a long standing debate as to which tissue better reflects the nutrient status of vines. A comparison of leaf b...

  7. Fine genetic mapping of a locus controlling short internode length in melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compact and dwarfing vining habits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) may have commercial importance since they can contribute to the promotion of concentrated fruit set and can be planted in higher plant densities than standard vining types. A diminutive (dwarf) melon mutant line (PNU-D1) wi...

  8. Hybridization of two biotypes of Lilioceris cheni will not hinder biological control of air potato, Dioscorea bulbifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreales: Dioscoreaceae), air potato, is a perennial vine native to Asia and Africa that is invasive in Florida and other parts of the southeastern United States. Air potato vines can grow more than 20 meters long and outcompete native vegetation in a variety of habitats....

  9. Evaluation of neural network modeing to calculate well-watered leaf temperature of wine grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild to moderate water stress is desirable in wine grape for controlling vine vigor and optimizing fruit yield and quality, but precision irrigation management is hindered by the lack of a reliable method to easily quantify and monitor vine water status. The crop water stress index (CWSI) that effec...

  10. Evaluation of neural network modeling to predict non-water-stressed leaf temperature in wine grape for calculation of crop water stress index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management in wine grape production is hindered by the lack of a reliable method to easily quantify and monitor vine water status. Mild to moderate water stress is desirable in wine grape for controlling vine vigor and optimizing fruit yield and quality. A crop water stress ind...

  11. Short-term dynamics of second-growth mixed mesophytic forest strata in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia C. Huebner; Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2007-01-01

    The short-term dynamics of mixed mesophytic forest strata in West Virginia were examined using similarity analysis and linear correlation of shared ordination space. The overstory tree, understory tree, shrub/vine, and herb strata were stable over a six year interval, whereas the tree seedling and sapling strata were unstable. All strata but the shrub/vine and tree...

  12. 77 FR 5874 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... loss of vision in his left eye due to a traumatic injury sustained in 2008. The best corrected visual... violations in a CMV. Gary Vines Mr. Vines, 47, has had complete loss of vision in his left eye due to a... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision...

  13. Boy George Helsingi-Tallinna geikruiisil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Angel Café & Gayclub ja firmade Tallink ja Madrenalin Ltd korraldatavast geikruiisist Lovebot 2006 (30. apr.-1. mai), kus show-programmi peaesinejateks briti laulja Boy Gerry ja ameerika laulja Sherry Vine (Sherry Vine kontsert ka 29. apr. Tallinnas Angeli klubis)

  14. Genetic variability, correlation and path analysis in sponge gourd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, genetic variability, heritability, genetic advance, correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters namely total yield per vine (kg), number of fruits per vine, average weight of fruit (g), average length of fruit (cm), average diameter of fruit (cm), days to anthesis of first male flower, days to ...

  15. Effects of tuber protion and time of harvesting on accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that portions of tuber planted had no significant effect on dry matter accumulation within leaves, vines, roots and tuber. Early in the season (i.e. 90 DAP), leaves, vines and roots collectively accounted for 67, 62 and 57% of the total plant dry matter for the head, middle, and tail portions, respectively; ...

  16. Evaluation of slips of white yam ( Dioscorea rotundata poir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Landrace Hembamkwase had the longest vine (163.3cm), followed by hybrid TDr 89/02665 while Ame produced the shortest vine. Hembamkwase also out-yielded other genotypes except Ame in 2011 and Nwopoko in 2012. Generally, slips of the hybrid varieties, especially TDr 89/02665 and TDr 97/19177 performed ...

  17. Statistical analysis of grapevine mortality associated with esca or Eutypa dieback foliar expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia GUERIN-DUBRANA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Esca and Eutypa dieback are two major wood diseases of grapevine in France. Their widespread distribution in vineyards leads to vine decline and to a loss in productivity. However, little is known either about the temporal dynamics of these diseases at plant level, and equally, the relationships between foliar expression of the diseases and vine death is relatively unknown too.  To investigate this last question, the vines of six vineyards cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in the Bordeaux region were surveyed, by recording foliar symptoms, dead arms and dead plants from 2004 to 2010. In 2008, 2009 and 2010, approximately five percent of the asymptomatic vines died but the percentage of dead vines which had previously expressed esca foliar symptoms was higher, and varied between vineyards. A logistic regression model was used to determine the previous years of symptomatic expression associated with vine mortality. The mortality of esca is always associated with the foliar symptom expression of the year preceding vine death. One or two other earlier years of expression frequently represented additional risk factors. The Eutypa dieback symptom was also a risk factor of death, superior or equal to that of esca. The study of the internal necroses of vines expressing esca or Eutypa dieback is discussed in the light of these statistical results.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cluster I gave the highest number of days to first male anthesis and number of leaves per vine length of 40 cm. Cluster II gave the shortest number of ... food chain of West Africa, particularly Nigeria. (Chukwudi and Agbo, 2014). The leaf is .... At 5 and 9 WAT, Ob-L gave the highest value for vine diameter that was significantly ...

  19. effects of bud loading levels and different nitrogen doses on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of several bud loading levels in winter pruning and nitrogen doses on yield and physical and chemical properties of fresh vine-leaves of grape cultivar. “Narince”. Vines trained with bilateral cordon system was pruned to yield 35000 to 53000 buds/ha (16 or.

  20. 78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... ppm; fruit, small vine climbing, except fuzzy kiwifruit, subgroup 13-07F at 5.0 ppm; and vegetable..., non-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and....0 ppm; fruit, pome, group 11-10 at 5.0 ppm; fruit, small vine climbing, except fuzzy kiwifruit...

  1. 76 FR 20537 - Etoxazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...; Subgroup 13-07F: Small fruit vine climbing subgroup except fuzzy kiwi at 0.50 ppm; Subgroup 13-07G: Low... Subtropical Fruits (Inedible Peel); Caneberry Subgroup 13-07A; Small Fruit Vine Climbing, Except Kiwifruit...-dietary exposure (e.g., for lawn and garden pest control, indoor pest control, termiticides, and flea and...

  2. Kudzu Pueraria montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Plant: Twining and trailing semi-woody vine, 10-30 m (35-100 ft) long, with rope-like vines covering mature trees and forming dense patches, having 3-leaflet leaves on hairy pctioles and stems, deciduous and dying with first frost, yielding fragrant red-purple flowers in mid- summer. and hairy flat capsules with few seeds in fall. Large, semi-...

  3. Juvenile morphological markers for maleness in fluted pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The frequency distribution with respect to the length of vine showed skewness to the right in favour of the females indicating that the females grew faster thereby producing longer vines than the males. The early and profused production of tendrils are phenotypic markers that distinguish the male from the female plants at the ...

  4. Whole-Genome Sequence and Classification of 11 Endophytic Bacteria from Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong N.; Tan, Nicholas E. H.; Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Polter, Steven J.; Dailey, Lucas K.; Hudson, Andr? O.; Savka, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 11 endophytic bacteria from poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) vine tissue. Five bacteria belong to the genus Pseudomonas, and six single members from other genera were found present in interior vine tissue of poison ivy.

  5. Whole-Genome Sequence and Classification of 11 Endophytic Bacteria from Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong N; Tan, Nicholas E H; Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Polter, Steven J; Dailey, Lucas K; Hudson, André O; Savka, Michael A

    2015-11-19

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 11 endophytic bacteria from poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) vine tissue. Five bacteria belong to the genus Pseudomonas, and six single members from other genera were found present in interior vine tissue of poison ivy. Copyright © 2015 Tran et al.

  6. 76 FR 7119 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... for management and compliance expenses. The $10,000 research project is for a new vine study proposed.... The $10,000 research project is a for a new vine study proposed by the University of California... reviewed to reduce information requirements and duplication by industry and public sector agencies. AMS is...

  7. 77 FR 39184 - Grapes Grown in Designated Area of Southeastern California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... management and compliance expenses. The $15,500 research project is a for a new vine study proposed by the...,500 research project is for a new vine study proposed by the University of California Riverside. In..., reports and forms are periodically reviewed to reduce information requirements and duplication by industry...

  8. Grapevine dynamics after manual tending of juvenile stands on the Hoosier National Forest, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Morrissey; Martin-Michel Gauthier; John A., Jr. Kershaw; Douglass F. Jacobs; Burnell C. Fischer; John R. Siefert

    2008-01-01

    Large woody vines, most notably grapevines, are a source of great concern for forest and wildlife managers in many parts of the Central Hardwood Forest Region of the United States. We examined grapevine dynamics in stands aged 21 - 35 years. The plots, located in regenerated clearcuts in the Hoosier National Forest (HNF), were evaluated for vine control, site, and tree...

  9. Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi J Alabi

    Full Text Available Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD is an economically important virus disease affecting wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L., but little is known about its effect on wine chemistry and sensory composition of wines. In this study, impacts of GLD on fruit yield, berry quality and wine chemistry and sensory features were investigated in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard. Own-rooted Merlot vines showing GLD symptoms and tested positive for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and adjacent non-symptomatic vines that tested negative for the virus were compared during three consecutive seasons. Number and total weight of clusters per vine were significantly less in symptomatic relative to non-symptomatic vines. In contrast to previous studies, a time-course analysis of juice from grapes harvested at different stages of berry development from symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines indicated more prominent negative impacts of GLD on total soluble solids (TSS and berry skin anthocyanins than in juice pH and titratable acidity. Differences in TSS between grapes of symptomatic and non-symptomatic vines were more pronounced after the onset of véraison, with significantly lower concentrations of TSS in grapes from symptomatic vines throughout berry ripening until harvest. Wines made from grapes of GLD-affected vines had significantly lower alcohol, polymeric pigments, and anthocyanins compared to corresponding wines from grapes of non-symptomatic vines. Sensory descriptive analysis of 2010 wines indicated significant differences in color, aroma and astringency between wines made from grapes harvested from GLD-affected and unaffected vines. The impacts of GLD on yield and fruit and wine quality traits were variable between the seasons, with greater impacts observed during a cooler season, suggesting the influence of host plant × environment interactions on overall impacts of the disease.

  10. Desfolha parcial em videiras e seus efeitos em uvas e vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon da região da Campanha do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Partial de foliation on vines and its effects on Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Hermann Pötter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A desfolha no vinhedo tem como principais objetivos aumentar a radiação solar e a aeração na região dos frutos, para melhorar a coloração e a maturação das uvas tintas, além de reduzir a incidência de podridões, visando, com isso, obter vinhos de qualidade superior. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da desfolha nos parâmetros físico-químicos das uvas e dos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon de Dom Pedrito, região da Campanha, Rio Grande do Sul (RS. As uvas foram colhidas em março de 2008, sendo provenientes de um vinhedo comercial cultivado em espaldeira. A desfolha foi realizada na base dos ramos, somente no lado que recebe o sol da manhã, com intensidade de aproximadamente 20%, no estádio fenológico grão "ervilha". As microvinificações foram feitas com controle de temperatura, em tanques de vidro em triplicata, com oito dias de maceração. Os resultados mostraram que o tratamento com desfolha apresentou mostos com pH significativamente mais baixo e maior acidez total. As cascas das uvas e os vinhos do tratamento com desfolha apresentaram aumento significativo no teor de polifenóis totais. A desfolha também propiciou vinhos com maior intensidade de cor, antocianinas totais, extrato seco e açúcar redutor, e menor teor de nitrogênio. Nos vinhos, não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos para acidez total e volátil, pH, álcool, densidade, extrato seco reduzido e teor de potássio. Conclui-se que a prática da desfolha em vinhedos da região da Campanha melhora a qualidade dos vinhos.The practice of partial defoliation in vineyards has as main objectives increase sunlight and ventilation for the fruit, aiming to improve color and maturity in red grapes and helping to reduce fungal diseases, which should result in better wine quality. The main aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of partial defoliation on the quality of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wines from Dom Pedrito, on the southwest of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The grapes were harvested in March 2008 from a commercial vineyard planted in the trellis system. The defoliation intensity was of 20% and performed only on the side of the vineyard that received the morning sun and when the berry was in the pea-size. The musts were fermented in small lots, in triplicate, with temperature control and remained on the skins for eight days. The results showed that musts of the treatment with defoliation had lower values of pH and higher total acidity. The phenolic content of grape skins and wines was significantly higher for those submitted to defoliation. The defoliation also resulted in wines with greater color intensity, anthocyanins, extract content and reducing sugar, and lower nitrogen content. In wines, there were no significant differences between treatments for total and volatile acidity, pH, alcohol, density, reducing extract and potassium content. As a conclusion, these results might suggest that partial defoliation, as it was done in this vineyard, improves wine quality.

  11. Uso da poda seca e da poda verde para obtenção de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo em três cultivares de videira Use of winter pruning and green pruning for obtaining two harvests by vegetative cicle of three vine cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas épocas de poda seca e de poda verde visando ao alcance de duas safras por ciclo vegetativo nas videiras 'Niagara Branca', 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord', cultivadas em sistema de espaldeira. O experimento foi realizado na Estação Experimental da UFRG, em Eldorado do Sul - RS, na safra de 2007/2008. As plantas foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: T1 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, T2 (poda seca em 20-07-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07; T3 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 15-11-07, e T4 (poda seca em 22-08-07 e poda verde em 17-12-07, sendo a poda de inverno feita em cordão esporonado, e a poda verde, mediante desponte do sarmento a partir da quarta gema acima do último cacho. Avaliaram-se a produção por planta, a massa dos cachos, os sólidos solúveis totais (SST, a acidez total titulável (ATT, a relação SST/ATT, o potencial da água na folha e a relação folha:fruto, de ambas as safras. Os resultados demonstraram que a execução de uma poda seca associada a uma poda verde permitiu obter duas safras de uva por ciclo vegetativo em 'Niagara Branca', Niagara Rosada e 'Concord', sendo mais eficiente quando a poda seca foi realizada em agosto, associada à poda verde em novembro. A 'Niagara Branca' apresentou maior potencial para produzir uma segunda colheita, comparativamente à 'Niagara Rosada' e 'Concord'. Os frutos oriundos da poda verde apresentaram menor valor de SST, maior ATT e menor relação SST/ATT em relação aos obtidos na safra normal.This study aimed to evaluate the effects of winter and green pruning for obtaining two harvests per vegetative cycle for Niagara Branca, Niagara Rosada and Concord grapevine cultivars conducted by cordon training. The experiment was performed at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, during the 2007/2008 harvest. Grapevines were submitted to the following treatments: T1 (winter pruning on 07/20/07 and green pruning on 11/15/07, T2 (winter pruning on 07/20/07 and green pruning on 12/17/07, T3 (winter pruning on 08/22/07 and green pruning on 11/15/07 and T4 (winter pruning on 08/22/07 and green pruning on 12/17/07. The winter pruning was performed by means of a short pruning, while the green pruning was performed by pruning the shoot, starting from the fourth bud above the last grape cluster. The grapevine production, cluster weight, total soluble solids (SST, total titratable acidity (ATT, SST/ATT ratio, water potential in the leaf and leaf/fruit ratio were evaluated for the two crops. Results demonstrated that a winter pruning associated to a green pruning permitted to obtain two harvests of 'Niagara Branca', 'Niagara Rosada' and 'Concord' cultivars per vegetative cycle. The treatment T3 was the most efficient to obtain a second harvest in the same vegetative cycle. The Niagara Branca showed high potential for a second harvest when compared to the Niagara Rosada and Concord grapevines cultivars. Grapes under the green pruning had lower SST, larger ATT and smaller SST/ATT ratio compared to grapes from regular harvest.

  12. EFEITO DO ETHEPHON EM VIDEIRA 'RUBI' (Vitis vinifera L., CULTIVADA NA REGIÃO NOROESTE DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO EFFECT OF INCREASING ETHEPHON IN VINE 'RUBI' (Vitis vinifera L., CULTIVATED IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF SÃO PAULO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO AUGUSTO FRACARO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em vinhedo comercial da cv. Rubi, localizado na região Noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Teve, como objetivo, verificar o efeito do ethephon, aplicado antes da poda de produção, na porcentagem de desfolhamento, tempo de realização da poda, brotação dos ramos, produção da videira, tentando reduzir os custos, melhorando a produtividade e a qualidade. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de 7500ppm de ethephon, 20 dias antes da poda, foi o tratamento que proporcionou maior porcentagem de desfolhamento, menor tempo de realização da poda, maior porcentagem de gemas brotadas e maior produção.The experiment was carried in commercial vineyard of cultivar Ruby, located in the region northwest of São Paulo State. Had as objective, evaluating the effect of ethephon, applied before the pruning the production, in the percentage of defoliation, time of accomplishment of the pruning, shooting of the branches, production of the grapevine, tempt to reduce costs improving the productivity and the quality. It was concluded that the 7500 ppm the ethephon application, 20 days before the pruning, it was the treatment provide larger percentage of it defoliates, smaller time of accomplishment of the pruning, larger percentage of sprouted bud and larger production.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion related to a notification from the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) on ovalbumin/egg white to be used in the manufacture of wine as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    as clarification processing aids pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 11 of Directive 2000/13/EC – for permanent exemption from labelling. In earlier assessments, the Panel concluded that wines fined with egg products and albumin (egg white) may trigger adverse reactions in susceptible individuals under the proposed...

  14. Effects of Mesocriconema xenoplax on Vitis vinifera and Associated Mycorrhizal Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, J N; Schreiner, R P; Ivors, K L; Vasconcelos, M C

    2004-09-01

    Previous surveys of vineyards had indicated that Mesocriconema xenoplax was present in 85% of vineyards in western Oregon, but yields were not depressed in established vines. Microplot studies were initiated in 1997 in a Willamette Valley vineyard to determine the impact of M. xenoplax on vine establishment. Plots were infested with 0.03, 0.6, and 3.0 M. xenoplax g(-1) soil and planted with self-rooted Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines. In November 2000, four growing seasons after planting, pruning weights, fine root weights, and fruit yield of vines planted in infested soil were reduced by 58%, 75%, and 33%, respectively, relative to control vines (planted in noninfested soil). In 1998 with ca 2000 degree-day base 9 degrees C accumulation, population densities increased 32-fold and 44-fold on 1-year-old Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vines, respectively. Nematode population dynamics and pruning data suggested that the carrying capacity of vines in microplots was 5 to 8 M. xenoplax g(-1) soil. In November 2000, more than 80% of the fine root length was colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in all treatments. The frequency of fine roots containing arbuscules (the site of nutrient transfer between plant and fungus), however, was depressed from 5% to 65% in plants infested initially with M. xenoplax as compared to controls. Competition for photosynthate within the root system is proposed as a possible mechanism by which nematodes suppressed arbuscule frequency.

  15. Leaf mimicry in a climbing plant protects against herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Carrasco-Urra, Fernando

    2014-05-05

    Mimicry refers to adaptive similarity between a mimic organism and a model. Mimicry in animals is rather common, whereas documented cases in plants are rare, and the associated benefits are seldom elucidated [1, 2]. We show the occurrence of leaf mimicry in a climbing plant endemic to a temperate rainforest. The woody vine Boquila trifoliolata mimics the leaves of its supporting trees in terms of size, shape, color, orientation, petiole length, and/or tip spininess. Moreover, sequential leaf mimicry occurs when a single individual vine is associated with different tree species. Leaves of unsupported vines differed from leaves of climbing plants closely associated with tree foliage but did not differ from those of vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Consistent with an herbivory-avoidance hypothesis, leaf herbivory on unsupported vines was greater than that on vines climbing on trees but was greatest on vines climbing onto leafless trunks. Thus, B. trifoliolata gains protection against herbivory not merely by climbing and thus avoiding ground herbivores [3] but also by climbing onto trees whose leaves are mimicked. Unlike earlier cases of plant mimicry or crypsis, in which the plant roughly resembles a background or color pattern [4-7] or mimics a single host [8, 9], B. trifoliolata is able to mimic several hosts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill.

  17. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food - A review of EU occurrence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    A brief review on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in commodities and processed food on the European market (meat and meat products, cereal and cereal products, spices, beer, cocoa and derived products, coffee, wine, dried vine fruits, grape juice) is given in an historical perspective based on two...... exist, e.g. possible year-to-year variations for wine, dried vine fruits and grape juice are not well investigated. In addition, a follow-up on possible improvements in agricultural and processing practices is needed for some of the commodities recently discovered as being contaminated with ochratoxin A......, such as coffee, wine, dried vine fruits and grape juice....

  18. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  19. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences - Vol 2, No 2 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VARIATION OF RICE YIELD WITH TEMPERATURE AND RAINFALL AT OGOJA, NIGERIA · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... PRESENCE OF AXILLARY BUD AND APPLICATION OF PLANT GROWTH HORMONES ON ROOTING AND TUBERIZATION OF YAM (DIOSCOREA SP.) VINE CUTTINGS ...

  20. Vigne des Nations

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995 the Vineyard of Nations has honoured an international organisation. On 7 May, Robert Cramer, the Council of State, removed leaves from the vine at the side of Robert Aymar, Director of CERN (1 paragraph)

  1. Popmuusika / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest The Vines "Vision Valley", Layo & Bushwacka "Feels Closer", Secret Machines "Ten Silver Drops", Novikov-Unt-Melvin "Painting", Sugababes "Taller In More Ways", The Ipanemas "Samba Is Our Gift", Dynamite Vikings "Seach For Happiness"

  2. Host Plant Effects on the Development, Survival, and Reproduction of Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Grapevines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Bertin; L. C. Bortoli; M. Botton; J.R.P. Parra

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is one of the most frequent and abundant mealybugs in Brazilian vineyards, where it causes direct and indirect damage to the vines...

  3. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Herbs at a Glance Share: © Steven Foster Herbs at ... Thunder God Vine Turmeric Valerian Yohimbe How might herbs interact with medicines? Learn about herb-drug interactions. ...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-14 Specific Leaf Area and Phenology, km 67 Site, Para, Brazil: 2001-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of specific leaf area and monthly phenological observations for selected tree and vine species at the km 67 Seca Floresta site,...

  5. LBA-ECO LC-14 Specific Leaf Area and Phenology, km 67 Site, Para, Brazil: 2001-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides measurements of specific leaf area and monthly phenological observations for selected tree and vine species at the km 67 Seca...

  6. LBA-ECO ND-11 Pre-harvest Forest Tree and Liana Biomass, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Tree and liana (vine) measurements were collected in a logging concession at the Fazenda Rohsamar in the municipality of Jurena in northwestern Mato...

  7. LBA-ECO ND-11 Pre-harvest Forest Tree and Liana Biomass, NW Mato Grosso, Brazil: 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tree and liana (vine) measurements were collected in a logging concession at the Fazenda Rohsamar in the municipality of Jurena in northwestern Mato Grosso. Tree...

  8. genetic evaluation of polycross hybrids of sweet potatoes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-06-14

    Received 14 June ... sweet potato to Identify tuber bearing progenies was conducted at PNG University of Technology farm, ... Heritability values for tuber yield, tuber number and vine weight were OÜO, 0.62 and 0.10, respectively.

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network · Manas Mukul Vinee .... Forecasting ozone concentrations in the east of Croatia using nonparametric Neural Network Models.

  10. Poison Ivy Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an allergic reaction ( allergic contact dermatitis ) to the oily coating that covers of these plants. The resinous ... leafless stems and vines can cause the familiar skin rash. No one is born with sensitivity to ...

  11. Zygosaccharomyces gambellarensis sp. nov., an ascosporogenous yeast isolated from an Italian 'passito' style wine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Torriani, Sandra; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Salvetti, Elisa; Felis, Giovanna E

    2011-01-01

    Yeast strains were isolated from Vin Santo of Gambellara, a sweet white wine with the specificity of Controlled Designation of Origin produced from off-vine overripened grapes in the Veneto region (Italy...

  12. Effect of commercial enzymes on berry cell wall deconstruction in the context of intravineyard ripeness variation under winemaking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yu; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2016-01-01

    Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking. The vin......Significant intravineyard variation in grape berry ripening occurs within vines and between vines. However, no cell wall data are available on such variation. Here we used a checkerboard panel design to investigate ripening variation in pooled grape bunches for enzyme-assisted winemaking...... at the berry cell wall polymer level and occurred within the experimental vineyard block. Furthemore, all enzyme treatments reduced cell wall variation via depectination. Interestingly, cell wall esterification levels were unaffected by enzyme treatments. This study provides clear evidence that enzymes can...... positively influence the consistency of winemaking and provides a foundation for further research into the relationship between grape berry cell wall architecture and enzyme formulations....

  13. 78 FR 23558 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... correspondence to the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) (7511P) or the Registration Division... (head and leaf); Small Fruit Vine Climbing, Subgroup 13-07F; Low growing Berry, Subgroup 13-07G; and...

  14. 76 FR 4723 - Notice of Lodging of a Consent Decree Modification Pursuant to The Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... to perform a SEP valued at $230,000, which is designed to abate stormwater runoff pollution to an... Eastern District of Kentucky, 110 West Vine Street, Suite 400, Lexington KY 40507-1671, and at the Region...

  15. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  16. About one of the constant of the five-aspect analysis of professional argots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т И Ретинская

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the model for describing professional argots; the specific elements of the tropological space typical of the French vine-growers and wine-makers' argot are also analyzed.

  17. Plant architecture and growth response of kudzu (fabaceae: Fabaceae) to simulated insect herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, M J; Hough-Goldstein, J

    2013-10-01

    Kudzu [Pueraria montana variety lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. M. Almeida] plant architecture and growth were compared for plants subjected to 4 wk of simulated herbivory (75% leaf cutting) and no damage. Simulated herbivory reduced above-ground and root biomass by 40 and 47%, respectively, whereas total vine length and average length of the 10 longest vines were reduced by 48 and 43%, respectively, compared with control plants. Plant architecture was also affected, with damaged plants showing a significantly reduced proportion of primary vines, shorter secondary vines, and reduced average internode distances compared with the control plants. In natural situations, these changes would reduce the ability of kudzu to compete for light and other resources by affecting the plant's climbing habit.

  18. Effects of poultry manure supplemented by NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OKECHUKWU ADINDU

    2012-06-07

    , respectively. ... gestation crop that requires fast release of nutrients in the ... supplemented by NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer on cucumber vine length for wet season crops. (cm). Treatment. 2 WAP. 4 WAP. 6 WAP. 8 WAP. Control.

  19. 7 CFR 319.37-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the British Isles, Iceland, the Azores, and the islands in the Mediterranean Sea. From. An article is..., including a tree, a tissue culture, a plantlet culture, pollen, a shrub, a vine, a cutting, a graft, a scion...

  20. jfewr ©2017 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr. E

    2017-12-04

    Poultry droppings and Cow dung), with three cutting ... different fertilizer types and cutting frequency, poultry dropping exerted higher effect on the number of leaves, vine length, leaf ..... (1960). Enzymes and pigments. Introduction.