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Sample records for swainsonine locoweed oxytropis

  1. Identification of a new locoweed (Oxytropis serioopetala) and its clinical and pathological features in poisoned rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin-Fan; Hao, Cai-Ju; Xu, Yong-Ping; Liang, Jie; Yang, Kai; Cui, Zhong-Hua

    2012-08-01

    By a series of experiments, we identified a new member of the locoweed family, Oxytropis serioopetala, that produces swainsonine, a phytotoxin harmful to livestock. In order to evaluate the toxicity of Oxytropis serioopetala, its extract was administered to ten rabbits by gavage at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg body weight as swainsonine once daily. After the 20th day, the rabbits appeared depressive and anorexic. In addition, intention tremors were apparent upon movement. Their eyes were dull. The rear limbs were severely weak and even progressed to partial paresis. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and urea nitrogen (BUN) levels in the poisoned rabbits increased significantly. Serum α-mannosidase (AMA) activity decreased markedly. Pathomorphological lesions in the locoweed-poisoned rabbits developed severe microvacuolation of visceral and neurological tissue. Extensive vacuolation was observed in the liver, kidney and brain. These clinical and pathological features are similar to the symptoms of locoism.

  2. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The filamentous Ascomycete fungus Undifilum oxytropis is an endophyte of locoweed plants of the genera Oxytropis that produces a toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine, an alpha-mannosidase inhibitor causes a general toxicosis and neurological problems (locoism) when consumed by grazing animals. Swainsonine ...

  3. De novo transcriptome assembly of a Chinese locoweed (Oxytropis ochrocephala species provides insights into genes associated with drought, salinity and cold tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eHe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Locoweeds (toxic Oxytropis and Astraglus species, containing the toxic agent swainsonine, pose serious threats to animal husbandry on grasslands in both China and the US. Some locoweeds have evolved adaptations in order to resist various stress conditions such as drought, salt and cold. As a result they replace other plants in their communities and become an ecological problem. Currently very limited genetic information of locoweeds is available and this hinders our understanding in the molecular basis of their environmental plasticity, and the interaction between locoweeds and their symbiotic swainsonine producing endophytes. Next-generation sequencing provides a means of obtaining transcriptomic sequences in a timely manner, which is particularly useful for non-model plants. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of Oxytropis ochrocephala plants followed by a de nove assembly. Our primary aim was to provide an enriched pool of genetic sequences of an Oxytropis sp. for further locoweed research. Results: Transcriptomes of four different O. ochrocephala samples, from control (CK plants, and those that had experienced either drought (20% PEG, salt (150 mM NaCl or cold (4 °C stress were sequenced using an Illumina Hiseq 2000 platform. From 232,209,506 clean reads 23,220,950,600 (~23 G nucleotides, 182,430 transcripts and 88,942 unigenes were retrieved, with an N50 value of 1,237. Differential expression analysis revealed putative genes encoding heat shock proteins (HSPs and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins, enzymes in secondary metabolite and plant hormone biosyntheses, and transcription factors which are involved in stress tolerance in O. ochrocephala. In order to validate our sequencing results, we further analyzed the expression profiles of nine genes by quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanism of O. ochrocephala’s adaptations to stress environment. Conclusion: Our

  4. Fetotoxicity of Astragalus lentiginosus (locoweed) in Spanish goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locoweeds (plant species of Astragalus and Oxytropis containing swainsonine) cause large economic losses to the livestock industry in the western United States and in other regions of the world. Embryo and fetal loss is commonly reported when pregnant animals grazed locoweeds. Pregnant Spanish goa...

  5. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lh

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... transcriptomics of the model entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum. PLoS Genet. 7(1): e1001264. Gardner DR, Molyneux RJ, Ralph MH (2001). Analysis of swainsonine extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populaions of locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.). J. Agric Food ...

  6. Swainsonine biosynthesis genes in diverse symbiotic and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...

  7. Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endosymbiont of the Ascomycete order Chaetothyriales in the host Ipomoea carnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Daniel; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Mott, Ivan W; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Gardner, Dale R; Grum, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Clay, Keith; Marcolongo-Pereira, Clairton

    2013-04-24

    Some plant species within the Convolvulaceae (morning glory family) from South America, Africa, and Australia cause a neurologic disease in grazing livestock caused by swainsonine. These convolvulaceous species including Ipomoea carnea contain the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, an inhibitor of α-mannosidase and mannosidase II, and polyhydroxy nortropane alkaloids, the calystegines which are glycosidase inhibitors. Swainsonine has been shown to be produced by a fungal endosymbiont in legumes of the Astragalus and Oxytropis genera, where it causes a similar neurologic disease in grazing livestock called locoism. Here we demonstrate that I. carnea plants are infected with a fungal endosymbiont that was cultured from its seeds and which produced swainsonine in pure culture but not the calystegines. The same fungal endosymbiont was detected by PCR and by culturing in I. carnea plants containing swainsonine. The fungal endosymbiont belongs to the Ascomycete order Chaetothyriales. Plants derived from fungicide-treated seeds lacked swainsonine, but calystegine concentrations were unaltered.

  8. Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes in Diverse Symbiotic and Pathogenic Fungi

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    Daniel Cook

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine—a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug—is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glory symbiont belonging to order Chaetothyriales. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi share orthologous gene clusters, designated “SWN,” which included a multifunctional swnK gene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains. The role of swnK was demonstrated by inactivating it in M. robertsii through homologous gene replacement to give a ∆swnK mutant that produced no detectable swainsonine, then complementing the mutant with the wild-type gene to restore swainsonine biosynthesis. Other SWN cluster genes were predicted to encode two putative hydroxylases and two reductases, as expected to complete biosynthesis of swainsonine from the predicted SwnK product. SWN gene clusters were identified in six out of seven sequenced genomes of Metarhzium species, and in all 15 sequenced genomes of Arthrodermataceae, a family of fungi that cause athlete’s foot and ringworm diseases in humans and other mammals. Representative isolates of all of these species were cultured, and all Metarhizium spp. with SWN clusters, as well as all but one of the Arthrodermataceae, produced swainsonine. These results suggest a new biosynthetic hypothesis for this alkaloid, extending the known taxonomic breadth of swainsonine producers to at least four orders of Ascomycota, and suggest that swainsonine has roles in mutualistic symbioses and diseases of plants and animals.

  9. Selection of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge using transcriptome datasets under abiotic stress treatments

    OpenAIRE

    huihui ezhuang; Yanping eFu; Wei eHe; Lin eWang; Yahui eWei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge, an indigenous locoweed species in China, poses great threats to livestock on grasslands. There is a need for further genetic study in the plants per se, for understanding the basis of its acclimation mechanism in various unfavorable environmental conditions and to implement effective control measures. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for gene expression analysis. To facil...

  10. Dihydrochalcone glycosides from Oxytropis myriophylla

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    She Gaimei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemical investigations of the 70% alcohol extract of Oxytropis myriophylla (Pall. DC. (Leguminosae have afforded the new natural product neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (1 and the known phloretin-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, which was the first reported from the genus Oxytropis. This paper reports the isolation and full spectroscopic characterization of compounds 1 and 2 by NMR, UV, IR and MS data.

  11. Degradation of Swainsonine by the NADP-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenase A1R6C3 in Arthrobacter sp. HW08

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    Yan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine is an indolizidine alkaloid that has been found in locoweeds and some fungi. Our previous study demonstrated that Arthrobacter sp. HW08 or its crude enzyme extract could degrade swainsonie efficiently. However, the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we used label-free quantitative proteomics method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry to dissect the mechanism of swainsonine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. HW08. The results showed that 129 differentially expressed proteins were relevant to swainsonine degradation. These differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to the biological process of metabolism and the molecular function of catalytic activity. Among the 129 differentially expressed proteins, putative sugar phosphate isomerase/epimerase A1R5X7, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase A0JZ95, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase A1R6C3 were found to contribute to the swainsonine degradation. Notably, NADP-dependent alcohol dehyrodgenase A1R6C3 appeared to play a major role in degrading swainsonine, but not as much as Arthrobacter sp. HW08 did. Collectively, our findings here provide insights to understand the mechanism of swainsonine degradation in bacteria.

  12. Swainsonine promotes apoptosis in human oesophageal squamous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swainsonine, a natural indolizidine alkaloid, has been reported to have antitumour effects, and can induce apoptosis in human gastric and lung cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumour effects of swainsonine on several oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and investigated relative molecular ...

  13. Swainsonine promotes apoptosis in human oesophageal squamous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-24

    Oct 24, 2012 ... The ultrastructural morphology changes were observed un- der a transmission electron microscope. After swainsonine treatment, the cells were fixed with 4% glutaraldehyde, and post-fixed with 1% OsO4. Then samples were dehydrated in graded ethanol solutions, followed by embedment and sec- tion.

  14. Ochrocephalamine A, a new quinolizidine alkaloid from Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Ran, Jian-Qiang; Li, Li-Jun; Zhao, Yu; Goto, Masuo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Zhao, Bao-Yu; Tan, Cheng-Jian

    2016-11-16

    One dimeric matrine-type alkaloid, ochrocephalamine A (1), was isolated from the poisonous plant Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of 1 were evaluated.

  15. Selection of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge using transcriptome datasets under abiotic stress treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huihui; Fu, Yanping; He, Wei; Wang, Lin; Wei, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge, an indigenous locoweed species in China, poses great threats to livestock on grasslands. There is a need for further genetic study in the plants per se, for understanding the basis of its acclimation mechanism in various unfavorable environmental conditions and to implement effective control measures. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for gene expression analysis. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. The aim of this study was to select the most stable reference genes for transcriptional analysis in O. ochrocephala. We selected 12 candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA), actin2/7 (ACT7), β-actin (ACTB), actin101 (ACT101), actin11 (ACT11), β-tubulin (TUB), α-tubulin (TUA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 (GAPDH1), GAPDH2, metallothionein-like protein (MET), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and histone H3 (HIS), from the transcriptome datasets of O. ochrocephala and determined the suitability by analyzing their expression levels when exposed to a range of abiotic stress conditions. By employing software packages including geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, HIS, ACT7, and ACT101 were assessed as the most suitable set for normalization in all samples. When normalized with the most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of the three target genes were in accordance with those in the transcriptome data, indicating that the reference genes selected in this study are suitable. The study provided appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in O. ochrocephala and emphasized the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under specific experimental condition. The usage of inappropriate reference gene would cause misinterpretation.

  16. Selection of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge using transcriptome datasets under abiotic stress treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    huihui ezhuang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge, an indigenous locoweed species in China, poses great threats to livestock on grasslands. There is a need for further genetic study in the plants per se, for understanding the basis of its acclimation mechanism in various unfavorable environmental conditions and to implement effective control measures. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is the most commonly used method for gene expression analysis. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. The aim of this study was to select the most stable reference genes for transcriptional analysis in O. ochrocephala. Results: We selected 12 candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA, actin2/7 (ACT7, β-actin (ACTB, actin101 (ACT101, actin11 (ACT11, β-tubulin (TUB, α-tubulin (TUA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 (GAPDH1, GAPDH2, metallothionein-like protein (MET, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA and histone H3 (HIS, from the transcriptome datasets of O. ochrocephala and determined the suitability by analyzing their expression levels when exposed to a range of abiotic stress conditions. By employing software packages including geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, HIS, ACT7 and ACT101 were assessed as the most suitable set for normalization in all samples. When normalized with the most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of the three target genes were in accordance with those in the transcriptome data, indicating that the reference genes selected in this study are suitable. Conclusions: The study provided appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in O. ochrocephala and emphasized the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under specific experimental condition. The usage of inappropriate reference gene would cause misinterpretation.

  17. Screening for fractions of Oxytropis falcata Bunge with antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Hu, J R; Zhan, W Q; Liu, X

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies with the four extracts of Oxytropis falcate Bunge exhibited that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed stronger antibacterial activities against the nine tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The HPLC-scanned and bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of the main flavonoid compounds, i.e. rhamnocitrin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4',beta-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcon. Except 2',4',beta-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcon, four other compounds had good antibacterial activities. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the four compounds ranged between 125 and 515 microg mL(-1). Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to these compounds, with MIC and MBC values from 125 to 130 microg mL(-1). This is the first report of antibacterial activity in O. falcate Bunge. In this study, evidence to evaluate the biological functions of O. falcate Bunge is provided, which promote the rational use of this herb.

  18. Reduced progesterone and altered cotyledonary prostaglandin values induced by locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus) in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.C.; James, L.F.; McMullen, R.W.; Panter, K.E.

    1985-09-01

    Feeding 300 or 400 g of dried spotted locoweed, Astragalus lentiginosus per day to 11 pregnant Columbia ewes from the 20th to the 50th days of their gestations resulted in dead and edematous fetuses. Aspartate aminotransferase values were increased, whereas serum progesterone values were significantly diminished in a dose-dependent manner by locoweed ingestion. Cotyledonary 6-keto-prostaglandin (PG)F1 alpha (400 g/day only) and PGF2 alpha (300 and 400 g/day) values were significantly increased, whereas PGE values were not affected by the treatment. Alterations in PG values in these sheep may be a mechanism for altering corpus luteum function and inducing fetal death, which would ultimately result in abortion.

  19. Liver biopsy as diagnostic method for poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the aim to investigate the use of hepatic biopsies for the diagnosis of poisoning by swainsonine-containing plants, dry leaves of Ipomoea marcellia containing 0.02% of swainsonine were administered to goats. Group I, with six goats, ingested 4g/kg of dry plant (0.8mg of swainsonina/kg) until th...

  20. Swainsonine promotes apoptosis in human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo through activation of mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaocal; Huang, Yong; Dong, Feng; Li, Wei; Ding, Li; Yu, Gaoshui; Xu, Dan; Yang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Xingang; Tong, Dewen

    2012-12-01

    Swainsonine, a natural indolizidine alkaloid, has been reported to have antitumour effects, and can induce apoptosis in human gastric and lung cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumour effects of swainsonine on several oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and investigated relative molecular mechanisms. Swainsonine treatment inhibited the growth of Eca-109, TE-1 and TE-10 cells in a concentration-dependent manner as measured by MTT assay. Morphological observation, DNA laddering detection and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that swainsonine treatment induced Eca-109 cell apoptosis in vitro. Further results showed that swainsonine treatment up-regulated Bax, downregulated Bcl-2 expression, triggered Bax translocation to mitochondria, destructed mitochondria integrity and activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by the release of cytochrome c, which in turn activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, promoted the cleavage of PARP, resulting in Eca-109 cell apoptosis. Moreover, swainsonine treatment inhibited Bcl-2 expression, promoted Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in xenograft tumour cells, resulting in a significant decrease of tumour volume and tumour weight in the swainsoninetreated xenograft mice groups compared with that in the control group. Taken together, this study demonstrated that swainsonine inhibited Eca-109 cells growth through activation of mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent pathway.

  1. Bacillus radicibacter sp. nov., a new bacterium isolated from root nodule of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiu Li; Lin, Yan Bing; Xu, Lin; Han, Meng Sha; Dong, Dan Hong; Chen, Wei Min; Wang, Li; Wei, Ge Hong

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, and endospore-forming strain, designated 53-2(T) was isolated from the root nodule of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge growing on Qilian mountain, China. The strain can grow at pH 7.0-8.0, 10-50 °C and tolerate up to 11% NaCl. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.2 and 37 °C. The result of BLASTn search based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain 53-2(T) , being closest related to Bacillus acidicola 105-2(T) , possessed remote similarity (less than 95.64%) to the species within genus Bacillus. The DNA G + C content was 37.8%. Chemotaxonomic data (major quinone is MK-7; major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, unknown phospholipid, and aminoglycophospholipid; fatty acids are anteiso-C15: 0 , iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17: 0 ) supported the affiliation of the isolate to the genus Bacillus. On the basis of physiological, phylogenetic, and biochemical properties, strain 53-2(T) represents a novel species within genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus radicibacter is proposed. The type strain is 53-2(T) (=DSM27302(T) =ACCC06115(T) =CCNWQLS5(T) ). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. POISONING BY THE SWAINSONINE-CONTAINING PLANT SIDA CARPINIFOLIA IN CAPTIVE SAMBAR DEER (CERVUS UNICOLOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Bruno L; Peixoto, Paulo V; Caldas, Saulo A; Bhaltazar, Daniel; França, Ticiana N; Armién, Aníbal G

    2016-09-01

    Plant intoxications in wildlife are difficult to diagnose, are overlooked, or are sometimes even neglected. Hence, factors that induce wild animals to ingest poisonous plants have not been sufficiently documented. An outbreak of glycoprotein storage disease in sambar deer ( Cervus unicolor ), induced by ingestion of the swainsonine-containing plant, common wireweed (Sida carpinifolia), is reported. Nine out of 55 deer held by a zoo in Brazil were affected. The poisoning was characterized by emaciation and neurologic signs followed by unexpected death in some of the animals. Animals presented abnormal consciousness, posterior paresis, and musculoskeletal weakness; less evident were vestibulo-cerebellar signs. Histologically, there was vacuolation of neurons and epithelial cells of the pancreatic acines, thyroid follicules, and renal tubules. Furthermore, in the central nervous system were axonal degeneration, necrosis, and loss of neurons. Three factors may lead to the ingestion of S. carpinifolia by sambar deer: 1) A grazing field with only S. carpinifolia as a source of forage; 2) a large number of animals kept in this field; and 3) a hierarchy within a cervid group in which dominant males isolated and displaced juvenile and weaker adult males, leaving them with access to only S. carpinifolia.

  3. Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov., a novel species isolated from root nodule of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yong; Deng, Zheng Shan; Zhao, Liang; Wei, Xiu Li; Wei, Ge Hong

    2013-03-01

    During a study of the diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia isolated from root nodules of Oxytropis ochrocephala grown in the northwest of China, four strains were classified in the genus Rhizobium on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. These strains have identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, which showed a mean similarity of 94.4 % with the most closely related species, Rhizobium oryzae. Analysis of recA and glnA sequences showed that these strains have less than 88.1 and 88.7 % similarity with the defined species of Rhizobium, respectively. The genetic diversity revealed by ERIC-PCR fingerprinting indicated that the isolates correspond to different strains. Strain CCNWQLS01(T) contains Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone. The major fatty acids were identified as feature 8 (C18: 1ω7c and/or C18: 1ω6c; 67.2 %). Therefore, a novel species Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov. is proposed, and CCNWQLS01(T) (= ACCC 05747(T) = JCM 18337(T)) is designated as the type strain.

  4. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. The effect of swainsonine on post-translational processing of aminopeptidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Norén, Ove

    1983-01-01

    The post-translational processing of pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was studied in organ-cultured mucosal explants. Exposure of the explants to swainsonine, an inhibitor of Golgi mannosidase II, resulted in the formation of a Mr-160000 polypeptide, still sensitive to endo...... of the Mr-160000 polypeptide with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H only decreased its apparent Mr by 15000. The susceptibility of the mature Mr-166000 polypeptide, but not the Mr-140000 polypeptide, to mild alkaline hydrolysis suggests that aminopeptidase N becomes glycosylated with O...

  5. Developmental and loco-like effects of a swainsonine-induced inhibition of α-mannosidase in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedd, Laura; Ashby, Regan; Foret, Sylvain; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2017-01-01

    Deficiencies in lysosomal a-mannosidase (LAM) activity in animals, caused either by mutations or by consuming toxic alkaloids, lead to severe phenotypic and behavioural consequences. Yet, epialleles adversely affecting LAM expression exist in the honey bee population suggesting that they might be beneficial in certain contexts and cannot be eliminated by natural selection. We have used a combination of enzymology, molecular biology and metabolomics to characterise the catalytic properties of honey bee LAM (AmLAM) and then used an indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine to inhibit its activity in vitro and in vivo. We show that AmLAM is inhibited in vitro by swainsonine albeit at slightly higher concentrations than in other animals. Dietary exposure of growing larvae to swainsonine leads to pronounced metabolic changes affecting not only saccharides, but also amino acids, polyols and polyamines. Interestingly, the abundance of two fatty acids implicated in epigenetic regulation is significantly reduced in treated individuals. Additionally, swainsonie causes loco-like symptoms, increased mortality and a subtle decrease in the rate of larval growth resulting in a subsequent developmental delay in pupal metamorphosis. We consider our findings in the context of cellular LAM function, larval development, environmental toxicity and colony-level impacts. The observed developmental heterochrony in swainsonine-treated larvae with lower LAM activity offer a plausible explanation for the existence of epialleles with impaired LAM expression. Individuals carrying such epialleles provide an additional level of epigenetic diversity that could be beneficial for the functioning of a colony whereby more flexibility in timing of adult emergence might be useful for task allocation.

  6. A lysosomal storage disease induced by Ipomoea carnea in goats in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Balogh, K K; Dimande, A P; van der Lugt, J J; Molyneux, R J; Naudé, T W; Welman, W G

    1999-05-01

    A novel plant-induced lysosomal storage disease was observed in goats from a village in Mozambique. Affected animals were ataxic, with head tremors and nystagmus. Because of a lack of suitable feed, the animals consumed an exotic hedge plant growing in the village that was identified as Ipomoea carnea (shrubby morning glory, Convolvulaceae). The toxicosis was reproduced by feeding I. carnea plant material to goats. In acute cases, histologic changes in the brain and spinal cord comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons and glial cells in association with axonal spheroid formation. Ultrastructurally, cytoplasmic storage vacuoles in neurons were membrane bound and consistent with lysosomes. Cytoplasmic vacuolation was also found in neurons in the submucosal and mesenteric plexuses in the small intestine, in renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophage-phagocytic cells in the spleen and lymph nodes in acute cases. Residual alterations in the brain in chronic cases revealed predominantly cerebellar lesions characterized by loss of Purkinje neurons and gliosis of the Purkinje cell layer. Analysis of I. carnea plant material by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry established the presence of the mannosidase inhibitor swainsonine and 2 glycosidase inhibitors, calystegine B2 and calystegine C1, consistent with a plant-induced alpha-mannosidosis in the goats. The described storage disorder is analogous to the lysosomal storage diseases induced by ingestion of locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis) and poison peas (Swainsona).

  7. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Gardner, D R; Medeiros, R M T; Barros, S S; Anjos, B L; Lucena, R B

    2007-01-01

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with grain. Clinical signs were observed after the ingestion of 62 and 106 g/kg body weight in 28 and 54 days, respectively. The concentration of swainsonine in the plant varied from less than 0.001% to 0.14% (dry weight). Clinical signs of natural and experimental cases included difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, intention tremors, spastic paresis mainly in the hind legs, nystagmus, abnormal postural reactions, head tilting, and falling. Diffuse vacuolation of neurons, epithelial cells of pancreas, thyroids, and renal tubules were observed on the histology. From the electron microscopy of Purkinje cells the vacuoles represented dilated lysosomes. These findings demonstrated that T. cordata causes an acquired glycoprotein lysosomal storage disease. The intoxication occurs at least in an area of 27,000 km2 causing severe losses in goats, and some farmers report the disease also in cattle.

  8. Total Flavonoids Extracted from Oxytropis falcata Bunge Improve Insulin Resistance through Regulation on the IKKβ/NF-κB Inflammatory Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is the main etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. It has been known that total flavonoid extracts can markedly improve the hypoglycemic symptoms caused by IR. Nevertheless, the relevant molecular mechanism remains unclarified. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the total flavonoid extract from Oxytropis falcata Bunge. Methods. STZ-induced T2DM rats (n=35 were divided into 5 groups: model, low-, medium-, and high-dose total flavonoids, and pioglitazone groups. Ten healthy rats were used as controls. The serum insulin and inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 level was measured by ELISA. The concentration of IRS-1, p-IRS-1, PKB p-PKB, PI3Kp85, and p-PI3K in skeletal muscles was determined by Western blot. The mRNA level of GLUT4, IκB, and NF-κB in skeletal muscle was detected by qRT-PCR. Results. The treatment of medium- and high-dose total flavonoids significantly reduced the FPG and P2hPG and enhanced insulin level in T2DM rats (P<0.05. When compared with controls, the serum level of MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, IRS-1, and p-IRS-1 was significantly increased in T2DM rats, but the level of PKB, p-PKB, PI3Kp85, and p-PI3K expression was reduced (P<0.05. The GLUT4 and IκB mRNA expression were significantly decreased, and NF-κB mRNA level was increased (P<0.05. The treatment of low-, medium-, or high-dose total flavonoids markedly reversed the changes above (P<0.05. Conclusion. Our study has confirmed the therapeutic effects of total flavonoids from Oxytropis falcata Bunge on IR. The flavonoids might reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines through downregulation of NF-κB expression in inflammatory pathway and regulate the IRS-1-PI3-K-PKB/Akt insulin pathway and thereby increased the GLUT4 expression.

  9. Total Flavonoids Extracted from Oxytropis falcata Bunge Improve Insulin Resistance through Regulation on the IKKβ/NF-κB Inflammatory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixia; Wang, Zhicheng; Jiang, Liangen; Sun, Wen; Fan, Qiang; Liu, Tonghua

    2017-01-01

    Background. Insulin resistance (IR) is the main etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been known that total flavonoid extracts can markedly improve the hypoglycemic symptoms caused by IR. Nevertheless, the relevant molecular mechanism remains unclarified. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the total flavonoid extract from Oxytropis falcata Bunge. Methods. STZ-induced T2DM rats (n = 35) were divided into 5 groups: model, low-, medium-, and high-dose total flavonoids, and pioglitazone groups. Ten healthy rats were used as controls. The serum insulin and inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) level was measured by ELISA. The concentration of IRS-1, p-IRS-1, PKB p-PKB, PI3Kp85, and p-PI3K in skeletal muscles was determined by Western blot. The mRNA level of GLUT4, IκB, and NF-κB in skeletal muscle was detected by qRT-PCR. Results. The treatment of medium- and high-dose total flavonoids significantly reduced the FPG and P2hPG and enhanced insulin level in T2DM rats (P Bunge on IR. The flavonoids might reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines through downregulation of NF-κB expression in inflammatory pathway and regulate the IRS-1-PI3-K-PKB/Akt insulin pathway and thereby increased the GLUT4 expression.

  10. Распространение, охрана Oxytropis baschkirensis в Республике Башкортостан и его характеристика

    OpenAIRE

    КУВАТОВА Д.Н.; Маслова, Н. В.

    2015-01-01

    В данной статье приводится литературный обзор распространенности редкого сосудистого растения Oxytropis baschkirensis (сем. Fabaceae) в Республике Башкортостан. Также описывается внешнее морфологическое строение. Растение имеет до 30 см высоту, с несколькими вегетативными и генеративными побегами, соцветия с цветками до 20 штук. Oxytropis baschkirensis включен в Красную книгу Республике Башкортостан, 3 категория – редкий вид. Охраняется только в одном памятнике природы на горе Тратау (Ишимбай...

  11. Locoweed Poisoning in a Northern New Mexico Elk Herd

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gary J. Wolfe; William R. Lance

    1984-01-01

    ...) from northern New Mexico over a 5-year period, 1977-81. Clinical signs consistently seen were emaciation, weakness, incoordination, muscular trembling, posterior ataxia, lethargy, and visual impairment...

  12. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lh

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Linear ion trap Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The peptides were infused into a hybrid linear ion trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer (LTQ-FT, Thermo, San Jose, CA) through a micro electrospray ion source from an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC ...

  13. PR-10, defensin and cold dehydrin genes are among those over expressed in Oxytropis (Fabaceae) species adapted to the arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Archambault, Annie; Strömvik, Martina V.

    2011-01-01

    In many studied plants, typical responses to cold treatment include up-regulating the hydrophilic COR/LEA genes and down-regulating photosynthesis-related genes, carbohydrate metabolism, GDSL-motif lipase, hormone metabolism and oxidative regulation genes. However, next to nothing is known about gene expression in arctic plants, which are actually adapted to a harsh, cold environment. The molecular mechanisms behind the many specific adaptations of arctic plants, such as slow growth, well-dev...

  14. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Sida rodrigoi Monteiro in North-western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheloud, Juan Francisco; Marin, Raúl; Colque-Caro, Luis Adrián; Martínez, Olga Gladys; Gardner, Dale; Gimeno, Eduardo Juan

    2017-03-15

    There are numerous poisonous plants that can induce intralysosomal accumulation of glycoproteins and neurologic syndromes. Here we describe for the first time, a disease caused by ingesting Sida rodrigoi Monteiro in goats in North-western Argentina. The animals showed weight loss, indifference to the environment, unsteady gait and ataxia. Histopathologic studies showed vacuolization in cells of various organs, mainly in the CNS. The material deposited in the cells was positive for LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin), WGA (Triticum vulgaris agglutinin), sWGA (succinyl-Triticum vulgaris agglutinin) and Con-A (Concanavalia ensiformis agglutinin) lectins. Finally, toxic levels of swansonine were identified in the plant. The present investigation allowed to recognize S. rodrigoi Monteiro poisoning as a plant induced α-mannosidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The biogeochemistry of selenium in Sunan grassland, Gansu, Northwest China, casts doubt on the belief that Marco Polo reported selenosis for the first time in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuxun; Zheng, Baoshan

    2008-08-01

    In order to clarify the historic academic problem of whether or not livestock poisoning in ancient Suzhou of Northwest China, recorded by Marco Polo in 1295, was selenosis, this study deals with the biogeochemistry of selenium in Sunan County in the Hexi Corridor, which is part of ancient Suzhou in China. It was found that quite a number of farm animals had suffered from intoxication and died as a result of grazing poisonous grasses, mostly Oxytropis DC, Stellera chamaejasme, and Achnatheru inebrians. Toxic symptoms of livestock grazing on Oxytropis DC are similar to those of selenium toxicity, for instance, hair loss and hoof lesions as described by Marco Polo. Therefore, we thought that toxic grass, probably Oxytropis DC, led to the intoxication of livestock recorded by Marco Polo. Average Se concentrations in two members of this species were 0.112 +/- 0.038 mg/kg for the root of Oxytropis glabra, 0.102 +/- 0.027 mg/kg for the stem and leaf of Oxytropis glabra, and 0.066 +/- 0.009 mg/kg for Oxytropis ochrocephala. The average soil selenium concentration was 0.205 +/- 0.127 mg/kg on grassland producing Oxytropis glabra and 0.152 +/- 0.024 mg/kg on grassland producing Oxytropis ochrocephala. The average Se concentration in other plants was 0.076 mg/kg in the root of Ephedra monosperma Mey, 0.029 mg/kg in the root of Rheum palmatum, 0.031 mg/kg in the root of Stellera chamaejasme, 0.037 mg/kg in Achnatherum inebrians, and 0.067 mg/kg in forage grass (Achnatherum splendens ohwi). Selenium concentrations in soils and plants in Sunan County are far less than the thresholds causing selenium toxicity in livestock. As a result, this study concludes that the livestock poisoning recorded by Marco Polo in 1295 might not have been selenosis.

  16. An Ecological Land Survey for Fort Greely, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-02-01

    signifies >60% frequency within ecotype.) a. Alpine. Diapensia lapponica 0 1 Trisetum spicatum 0 0 0 Artemisia arctica 0 1 1 Saxifraga tricuspidata 1 0 0...Racomitrium lanuginosum 3 1 1 Rhytidium rugosum 1 1 1 Calamagrostis purpurascens 3 1 Stereocaulon spp. 1 4 2 Saxifraga punctata 0 0 Oxytropis nigrescens

  17. Environmental Assessment for Buckley Air Force Base Air Traffic Control Tower and Fire Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Oxytropis sp.), prickly pear cactus ( Opuntia macrorhiza), yucca (Yucca glauca), and many wildflower species including blazingstar (Nuttallia nuda...CONTACTED Gene Backhaus Natural Resources Conservation Service Denver CO 303-236-2886 X27 Chris Barnes 140th SPTG/CECC 303-677-9996 John

  18. Archaeological and Osteological Analysis of Two Burial Sites Along Harlan County Lake, Nebraska: Chronological and Evolutionary Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Ratibida columnifera, Echinacea angustifolia, Psoralia argophylla, Gaura coccinea, and members of Astragalus, Petalostemon, Oxytropis, and Opuntia ...then further investigations might attempt to explain this as a result of changes in climate, dietary habits, gene flow or a combination of these. Such...such as prickly pear ( Opuntia ). As stated in Tieszen et al. (1979:352): One of the characteristics which distinguishes C3 froin[C4 plants is the

  19. The use of ultrasonography to study teratogenicity in ruminants: Evaluation of Ipomoea carnea in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a poisonous plant found in Brazil and other tropical countries that often poison livestock. The plant contains calystegines and swainsonine, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perinatal effects...

  20. Toxic plants affecting the nervous system of ruminants and horses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review updates information about neurotoxic plants affecting ruminants and equidae in Brazil. Currently in the country, there are at least 131 toxic plants belonging to 79 genera. Thirty one of these poisonous plants affect the nervous system. Swainsonine-containing plants (Ipomoea spp., Turbin...

  1. Glucosidase trimming inhibitors preferentially perturb T cell activation induced by CD2 mAb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kemenade, F. J.; Rotteveel, F. T.; van den Broek, L. A.; Baars, P. A.; van Lier, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1994-01-01

    Glycosidase trimming inhibitors may be used to study contribution of N-linked glycan moieties in T cell function. We have studied the effects of castanospermine (Cas), swainsonine (Swain), 1-deoxynojirimycin (dNM), and 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dMM) on T cell activation and differentiation. Our

  2. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of a melanin polyketide synthase (pks1) gene in the fungus Slafractonia leguminicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Slafractonia leguminicola, the causal agent of blackpatch disease of legumes produces two mycotoxins slaframine and swainsonine, causing slobbers’ symptoms and locoism of grazing animals, respectively. The genetics of this important fungus is poorly understood. This work aimed to develop ...

  3. Native grass, sedge and legume establishment and legume-grass competition at a coal mine in the Rocky Mountains of southeastern British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.R. [Myosotis Ecological Consulting, Blairmore, AB (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Seed establishment and seedling persistence of seven native high elevation legume, twelve grass and two sedge species on coal mine spoil were studied over a period of five years. Three separate direct seeding experiments were established: (1) native legume, (2) native grass and sedge and (3) native legume - agronomic grass competition. In the legume experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 41-65%. At the end of the recording period, survivorship ranged from 20% (Hedysarum sulphurescens) to 58% (Oxytropis podocarpa and Oxytropis sericea). Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 10-38% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed was small for each species (n{lt} 15). In the grass/sedge experiment, field seed germination percentages ranged from 5-61%. At the end of the recording period, abundances ranged from 3% (Festuca scabrella) to 74% (festuca brachyphylla). Seedling mortality varied with species but, in general, declined after three years. Percent cover increased each year for all species and ranged from 5-48% at the end of the fifth growing season. Recruitment from seed ranged from 4% (Festuca scabrella) to 24% (Festuca brachyphylla) individuals. Competitive dominance or exclusion of the native legumes by agronomic grasses was also studied. Legume co-existence was not constrained in the agronomic bunchgrass - native legume sward but was constrained in the rhizomatous grass sward - native legume sward. The amount of above-ground biomass production constrained the growth of the lower relative growth rate (RGR) native legumes. Oxytropis sericea, Astragalus alpinus, Astragalus bourgovii and Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus were least constrained by the higher densities of grasses. 70 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gotardo, André T.; Pfister,James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C. F.; Górniak,Silvana L.

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fres...

  5. Blackpatch of clover, cause of slobbers syndrome: a review of the disease and the pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Ann Kagan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and E.S. Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.. This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota, morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals, and their biosynthetic pathways, have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested.

  6. Selection of native legume species for reclamation in the Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smreciu, A. [Wild Rose Consulting, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    In 1990, Wild Rose Consulting, Inc. (Edmonton) and Alberta Environmental Centre (Vegreville) began a four year project to collect, evaluate, and select native legume species for use in reclamation seed mixtures for the mountains and foothills of the Rocky Mountains. In 1990 and 1991, seeds of fourteen legume species were collected from 41 sites in the mountains and foothills of Alberta. Seeds were sown in the greenhouse, and transplanted to an evaluation field nursery. Plants were observed for three seasons. Data concerning survival, growth and development, and yield were analysed and combined with distribution data and legumes were ranked. Astragalus alpinus had the best potential for use in reclamation on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains up to an elevation of 2000 m. It will be useful for establishing a rapid cover on sites but should be used in mixtures with longer lived legumes, as it is short-lived. Both Oxytropis monticola and O. splendens were also recommended for use in reclamation mixtures. Astragalus vexilliflexus, Hedysarum boreale, Oxytropis sericeus and Ol cusickii display desirable qualities but require further study. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of a melanin polyketide synthase (pks1) gene in the fungus Slafractonia leguminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhawatema, Mohammad S; Gebril, Sayed; Cook, Daniel; Creamer, Rebecca

    2017-09-20

    The fungus Slafractonia leguminicola, the causal agent of blackpatch disease of legumes produces two mycotoxins slaframine and swainsonine, causing slobbers' symptoms and locoism of grazing animals, respectively. The genetics of this important fungus is poorly understood. This work aimed to develop a genetic transformation system and evaluate the efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi) in S. leguminicola. In this study, S. leguminicola was transformed using a PEG-mediated method with a fungal construct that carries a hygromycin resistance cassette. To assess the use of RNAi, a silencing construct pSilentPKS1-AS was constructed which includes inverted repeat transgenes of the polyketide synthase gene (pks1) that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. Transformation of S. leguminicola with the IRT pks1 vector decreased pks1 transcripts levels 82-92% in knockdown mutants when compared with the wild type and was accompanied with a reduction in melanin and swainsonine production. These results demonstrate that RNAi can be a useful tool for studying gene function in S. leguminicola.

  8. Urinary oligosaccharides: a peripheral marker for Sida carpinifolia exposure or poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, Marisete; Colodel, Edson M; Giugliani, Roberto; Zlotwski, Priscila; Cruz, Cláudio E F; Driemeier, David

    2009-04-01

    Poisoning by Sida carpinifolia belongs to a group of plant-induced phenotype which resembles lysosomal storage diseases. Saanen goats were fed aerial parts of green S. carpinifolia for up to 3 months. Concentrates complemented the nutritional requirements. Urine and blood samples were collected for oligosaccharide study (by thin layer chromatography-TLC) and hemogram analysis, respectively. Abnormal excretion of oligosaccharides was observed from the 2nd day of S. carpinifolia ingestion until one day after withdrawal of the plant from the diet. There were no changes in hemogram. Clinical signs were typical of poisoning caused by plants of this group and were seen from the 37th day on S. carpinifolia diet until seven days after withdrawal of the plant, when signs gradually became scarce and less evident. Results presented here suggest that detection of urinary oligosaccharides by TLC may be an useful method to assess swainsonine-containing plants exposure or an early diagnostic tool for poisoning by these plants.

  9. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-12-11

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  10. [Stereoselective synthesis of polyhydroxylated amines using (S)-pyroglutamic acid derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikota, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring polyhydroxylated amines such as (+)-1-deoxynojirimycin, polyoxamic acid, anisomycin, (-)swainsonine, and alexine stereoisomers, which have interesting biological activities including glucosidase- and mannosidase-inhibitory activity, immunoregulatory activity, and antibacterial effects, were synthesized stereoselectively starting from (S)-pyroglutamic acid derivatives. α,β-Unsaturated lactams ((S)-5-hydroxymethyl-2-oxo-3-pyrroline derivatives), α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone ((S)-4-amino-2-penten-5-olide derivative), and E-olefin ((S,E)-methyl-4-amino-5-hydroxypent-2-enoate derivative) from (S)-pyroglutamic acid derivatives were dihydroxylated using OsO4 in the presence of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMO) to afford various chiral building blocks with different configurations. The stereoselectivity of cis-dihydroxylation for α,β-unsaturated lactams and α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone was very high, while the stereoselectivity was low for E-olefin. Therefore, the double asymmetric induction of E-olefin using K2OsO4 with chiral ligands was successively applied to yield high stereoselectivity. (2R,3S)-2-Hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxypyrrolidine and Gaissman-Weiss lactone, important intermediates for the preparation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, were synthesized from a (3R,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-2-pyrrolidinone derivative derived from α,β-unsatulated lactam. (+)-1-Deoxynojirimycin was synthesized from a (2S,3R,4R)-methyl 4-amino-2,3,5-trihydroxypentanoate derivative of E-olefin. (-)-Swainsonine and its stereoisomers were synthesized from (2R,3S,4R)- or (2R,3R,4R)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine derivatives of α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone or α,β-unsaturated lactam. The key reaction was diastereoselective allylation of the aldehyde derived from the corresponding 2-hydroxymethylpyrrolidine derivatives with various allylation reagents. The high diastereoselectivity could be explained by cyclic chelate formation between metals and the

  11. Находки редких видов сосудистых растений в Амурской области

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Stupnikova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Для территории Амурской обл. приводятся данные о новых местонахождениях семи редких видов сосудистых растений. Для Нижне-Зейского флористического района впервые указан Oxytropis muricata. Подтверждены произрастание Androsace incana в Амурской обл. и местонахождение Saxifraga korshinskii в устье р. Домикан, описанное В.Л. Комаровым в 1895 г.

  12. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Mukhtar, Anam; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Jahan, Sarwat

    2016-05-26

    There is very limited information regarding medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Pakistan, for treating wide-ranging diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in Pakistan and the pharmacological importance of herbal drinks, especially in the discovery of new drugs. The current ethnomedicinal field study was conducted from various traditional communities of Pakistan to document usage of medicinal plants as herbal drinks. Data was collected through field interviews from local people and using semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using quantitative indices such as UV (use value), RFC (Relative frequency of citation), and FL (Fidelity level). The present study recorded 217 plant species belonging to 174 genera and 69 families used in herbal drinks preparations. Major herbal preparations include decoctions, infusions and juice. According to use reports, significant species were Aloe vera, Artemisia fragrans, Allium cepa, Senegalia catechu, Alternanthera sessilis, Malva ludwigii, Arnebia benthamii, Cichorium intybus, Coccinia grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Major ailment treated with herbal drinks include heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, and others. Use value (UV) varies from 0.23 to 0.02, with Mentha arvensis (0.23) having the highest value of UV followed by Mentha longifolia (0.22), Plantago lanceolate (0.19), Achillea millefolium (0.18), Coriandrum sativum (0.18), Justicia adhatoda and Malva sylvestris (0.17). Values of RFC varies from 0.28 to 0.09 while Fidelity level (FL) among plants varies from 37.5 to 100. Alternanthera sessilis, Oxytropis lapponica, Millettia pinnata and Salvia bucharica had the highest FL value (100). The use of medicinal plants is prevalent in traditional communities of Pakistan. Different herbal preparations are in common practice including various herbal drinks a common tradition and much favoured herbal preparation in terms

  13. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T; Pfister, James A; Raspantini, Paulo C F; Górniak, Silvana L

    2016-03-16

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids' ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival.

  14. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André T. Gotardo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group, 1.0 (IC1, 3.0 (IC3, and 5.0 (IC5 from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival.

  15. The use of ultrasonography to study teratogenicity in ruminants: evaluation of Ipomoea carnea in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotardo, André T; Schumaher, Breno H; Pfister, James A; Traldi, Anneliese S; Maiorka, Paulo C; Spinosa, Helenice S; Górniak, Silvana L

    2012-08-01

    Ipomoea carnea (I. carnea) is a poisonous plant found in Brazil and other tropical countries that often poison livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids calystegines and mainly swainsonine, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perinatal effects of I. carnea in goats. Forty-seven pregnant goats were randomly allocated into 5 treatment groups and given the following doses (g/kg BW) of I. carnea: 0 (IC0), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), 5.0 (IC5) and 7.5 (IC7). The treatment animals were given fresh I. carnea from day 27 of gestation to parturition. Weight gains and serum biochemistry were evaluated. Fetuses were evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements. Goats from the IC7 group showed clinical signs of poisoning. Ultrasound examination revealed that I. carnea feeding in all treatment groups reduced fetal movement compared to the controls. There was an increase in the total number of birth defects (retrognathia and arthrogyposis) in the IC7 and IC5 groups compared to the controls. The results show that I. carnea has teratogenic potential in goats. In addition, ultrasounds were useful in evaluating fetotoxicity and teratogenicity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The CD3-zeta chimeric antigen receptor overcomes TCR Hypo-responsiveness of human terminal late-stage T cells.

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    Gunter Rappl

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy of malignant diseases with tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells showed remarkable efficacy in recent trials. Repetitive T cell receptor (TCR engagement of target antigen, however, inevitably ends up in hypo-responsive cells with terminally differentiated KLRG-1(+ CD57(+ CD7(- phenotype limiting their therapeutic efficacy. We here revealed that hypo-responsiveness of CMV-specific late-stage CD8(+ T cells is due to reduced TCR synapse formation compared to younger cells. Membrane anchoring of TCR components contributes to T cell hypo-responsiveness since dislocation of galectin-3 from the synapse by swainsonine restored both TCR synapse formation and T cell response. Transgenic expression of a CD3-zeta signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR recovered hypo-responsive T cells to full effector functions indicating that the defect is restricted to TCR membrane components while synapse formation of the transgenic CAR was not blocked. CAR engineered late-stage T cells released cytokines and mediated redirected cytotoxicity as efficiently as younger effector T cells. Our data provide a rationale for TCR independent, CAR mediated activation in the adoptive cell therapy to avoid hypo-responsiveness of late-stage T cells upon repetitive antigen encounter.

  17. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran

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    KOUROSH KAVOUSI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Kavousi K, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, Ejtehadi H, Khavari-Nejad RA. 2016. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 17: 11-15. Extensive investigation in subnival-nival area around Khersan glacier moraine introduced 71 vascular plant species. From this list 43 species have been listed in Noroozi (2001 in “ subnival-nival vascular plant species of Iran : a unique high mountain flora and its threat from climate warming ” and the others are new for subnival- nival area of Iran. Among this plant list 31 species had introduced with Kotschy (1861a,b, Bornmuller (1904, Melchior (1937, Klein (1982, european researchers and the other is named for the first time from Khersan glacier territory. Many species such as Astragalus macrosemius, Pseudocamelina kleinii, Crepis multicaulis subsp. congesta, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana and Draba melanopus due to glacier condition have very sensitive habitat, vulnerable and only gathered from restrict area with conservation value. Vegetation change happened in many nival and subnival area with upward movement in the same habitat and movement from lower altitude at alpine towards summit in subnival and nival. Carex oreophila, Campanula stevenii, Bromus barchystachyus, Oxytropis immersa, Erigeron uniflorus,Trachydium pauciradiatum, Scorzonera radicosa and some other species are surprisingly movement to subnival area and many nival and subnival species such as Didymophysa aucheri, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana, Dracocephalum aucheri and Arabis caucasica have come significantly upward in nival. The movement is different in all side of Khersan glacier moraine in north, south and the east (beside moraine tongue slops and limited with presence of soil natural generation and other ecological remarks. Limitation for soil generation starts at different altitude in northern, southern and eastern slopes of Khersan glacier valley. This study examined

  18. Identificação de princípios ativos presentes na Ipomoea carnea brasileira Identification of Brazilian Ipomoea carnea toxic compounds

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    Aline Schwarz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as espécies pertencentes à família das Convolvulaceae destacam-se as Ipomoeas, amplamente distribuídas por todo o mundo, bastante conhecidas e cultivadas devido ao aspecto ornamental que suas flores campanuladas e de cores vibrantes oferecem. É sabido porém que espécies de Ipomoeas são tóxicas. A Ipomoea carnea, espécie de nosso estudo, provoca emagrecimento, apatia, incoordenção motora, fraqueza progressiva e até mesmo a morte em animais de produção, se ingerida por período prolongado. Os alcalóides suainsonina e calisteginas presentes nesta planta são certamente responsáveis por tais efeitos tóxicos, já que inibem a ação das manosidases e glicosidases, enzimas fundamentais para um adequado metabolismo de carboidratos pelo organismo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar e caracterizar os constituintes químicos da I. carneabrasileira. Assim, empregando-se as cromatografias de camada delgada e líquida acoplada a detector de massas, além da ressonância nuclear de prótons e carbono, foram detectados no extrato aquoso obtido das folhas da planta, 0,09% de suainsonina, 0,11% de calistegina B2, 0,14% de calistegina B1, 0,06% de calistegina C1 e o aminoácido não protéico N-metil-trans-4-hidroxi-L-prolina.In the Convolvulaceae family, the Ipomoeas species are cultivated and found in all regions of the world because of their ornamental bright coloured flowers. It is well known that some Ipomoeas species are toxic. Ipomoea carnea, species of this study, causes depression, general weakness, loss of body weight, stagering gait and death of animals after prolonged periods of plant intake. These toxic effects are attributed to the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines present in the plant, wich promotes inhibition of galactosidases and manosidases, important enzymes for an adequate metabolism of carbohydrates in the organism. The objective of the present study was to detect and characterize the chemical

  19. Reduction in Golgi apparatus dimension in the absence of a residential protein, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V.

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    Dong, Zhizhong; Zuber, Christian; Pierce, Michael; Stanley, Pamela; Roth, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Various proteins are involved in the generation and maintenance of the membrane complex known as the Golgi apparatus. We have used mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines Lec4 and Lec4A lacking N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GlcNAcT-V, MGAT5) activity and protein in the Golgi apparatus to study the effects of the absence of a single glycosyltransferase on the Golgi apparatus dimension. Quantification of immunofluorescence in serial confocal sections for Golgi α-mannosidase II and electron microscopic morphometry revealed a reduction in Golgi volume density up to 49 % in CHO Lec4 and CHO Lec4A cells compared to parental CHO cells. This reduction in Golgi volume density could be reversed by stable transfection of Lec4 cells with a cDNA encoding Mgat5. Inhibition of the synthesis of β1,6-branched N-glycans by swainsonine had no effect on Golgi volume density. In addition, no effect on Golgi volume density was observed in CHO Lec1 cells that contain enzymatically active GlcNAcT-V, but cannot synthesize β1,6-branched glycans due to an inactive GlcNAcT-I in their Golgi apparatus. These results indicate that it may be the absence of the GlcNAcT-V protein that is the determining factor in reducing Golgi volume density. No dimensional differences existed in cross-sectioned cisternal stacks between Lec4 and control CHO cells, but significantly reduced Golgi stack hits were observed in cross-sectioned Lec4 cells. Therefore, the Golgi apparatus dimensional change in Lec4 and Lec4A cells may be due to a compaction of the organelle.

  20. Effects of prepartum ingestion of Ipomoea carnea on postpartum maternal and neonate behavior in goats.

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    Gotardo, Andre T; Pfister, James A; Ferreira, Marcos Barbosa; Górniak, Silvana Lima

    2011-04-01

    Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant that grows in tropical areas, and is readily consumed by grazing goats. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects on dams and kids of prenatal ingestion of this plant. Freshly harvested leaves of I. carnea (10 g/kg body weight) were fed daily to nine pregnant goats from the fifth to the 16th week of gestation; five pregnant goats were controls. Dam and kid behavior were evaluated during 2-hr postpartum. Further evaluation of the offspring was performed using various tests after birth: (1) reaching and discriminating their dam from an alien doe (two tests at 12-hr postpartum), and (2) navigating a progressive maze (2, 4, and 6 days postpartum). Postnatal (n = 2) and fetal (n = 2) mortality were observed in the treated group. Intoxicated kids had difficulty in standing at birth, and only one was able to suckle within 2 hr of birth. Treated kids were slower than controls to arrive at their dam in the discrimination test; treated kids often (seven of nine completed tests) incorrectly chose the alien dam (controls: 0/10 tests). During some runs on days 2, 4, and 6 postpartum, treated kids were slower to leave the starting point of the maze, and were slower to arrive at the dam on all test days. This study suggests that the offspring of pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Purification and properties of glucosidase I from mung bean seedlings.

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    Szumilo, T; Kaushal, G P; Elbein, A D

    1986-06-01

    The microsomal enzyme fraction from mung bean seedlings was found to contain glucosidase activity capable of releasing [3H]glucose from the glucose-labeled Glc3Man9GlcNAc. The enzymatic activity could be released in a soluble form by treating the microsomal particles with 1.5% Triton X-100. When the solubilized enzyme fraction was chromatographed on DE-52, it was possible to resolve glucosidase I activity (measured by the release of [3H]glucose from Glc3Man9GlcNAc) from glucosidase II (measured by release of [3H]glucose from Glc2Man9GlcNAc). The glucosidase I was purified about 200-fold by chromatography on hydroxylapatite, Sephadex G-200, dextran-Sepharose, and concanavalin A-Sepharose. The purified enzyme was free of glucosidase II and aryl-glucosidase activities. Only a single glucose residue could be released from the Glc3Man9GlcNAc by this purified enzyme and the other product was the Glc2Man9GlcNAc. Furthermore, this enzyme was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by kojibiose, an alpha-1,2-linked glucose disaccharide, but not by other alpha-linked glucose disaccharides. These data indicate that this glucosidase is a specific alpha-1,2-glucosidase. The pH optimum for the glucosidase I was about 6.3 to 6.5, and no requirements for divalent cations were observed. The enzyme was inhibited strongly by the glucosidase processing inhibitors, castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin, and less strongly by the plant pyrrolidine alkaloid, 2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine. However, the enzyme was not inhibited by the mannosidase processing inhibitors, swainsonine, deoxymannojirimycin or 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-mannitol. The stability of the enzyme under various conditions and other properties of the enzyme were determined.

  2. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P

    2016-01-01

    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  3. Characterization of plasma membrane associated type II α-D-mannosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase of Aquarius remigis sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Kimberly; Thaler, Catherine D; Cardullo, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    For successful fertilization to occur, molecules on the surface of male and female gametes must recognize each other in a complementary manner. In some organisms, sperm possess a glycosidase on the plasma membrane overlying the head while eggs have glycoproteins that are recognized by those glycosidases resulting in sperm-egg recognition. In this study, two glycosidases, mannosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, were identified and biochemically characterized in Aquarius remigis sperm. The mannosidase had a Km of 2.36 ± 0.19 mM, a Vmax of 27.49 ± 0.88 pmol/min and a Hill coefficient of 0.94 ± 0.18 at its optimal pH of 7.0. The mannosidase was extracted most efficiently with CHAPSO but was also efficiently extracted with sodium chloride. Mannosidase activity was effectively inhibited by swainsonine, but not by kifunesine, and was significantly reduced in the presence of Mn(2+) and Mg(2+), but not Zn(2+). N-acetylglucosaminidase had a Km of 0.093 ± 0.01 mM, a Vmax of 153.80 ± 2.97 pmol/min and a Hill coefficient of 0.96 ± 0.63 at its optimal pH of 7.0. N-acetylglucosaminidase was extracted most efficiently with potassium iodide but was also efficiently extracted with Triton X-100 and Zn(2+), but not Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mn(2+) or Mg(2+), significantly inhibited its activity. Taken together, these results indicate that the A. remigis sperm surface contains at least two glycosidases that may recognize complementary glycoconjugates on the surface of water strider eggs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alpha-mannosidase activity in goats fed with Sida carpinifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, Marisete; Moleta Colodel, Edson; Viapiana, Marli; Matte, Ursula; Driemeier, David; Giugliani, Roberto

    2010-03-01

    Human alpha-mannosidosis results from alpha-mannosidase deficiency and progressive accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in lysosomes. Two days before Saanen goats were fed with Sida carpinifolia, alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes was 128+/-28 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein (first trial) and 104+/-6 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein (second trial). At day 5, after the introduction of S. carpinifolia diet, the alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes was significantly increased, both in the first (288+/-13 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein) and in the second trial (303+/-45 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein), and it returned to normal levels 2 days after the withdrawal of the plant from the diet (114+/-7 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein in first trial, and 108+/-25 nmoles4-MU/h/mgprotein in the second one). Plasma alpha-mannosidase activity decreased significantly 4 days after animal exposure to the S. carpinifolia diet (769+/-167 nmoles4-MU/h/ml) and returned to normal values 10 days after the withdrawal of the plant from the diet (1289+/-163 nmoles4-MU/h/ml). Thin-layer chromatography showed an abnormal excretion of oligosaccharides in urine as of day 2 after diet exposure, which persisted until one day after the withdrawal of the plant. Animals presented neurological clinical signs beginning at day 37 (in the first trial) and at day 25 (in the second trial) after being fed with the plant. The results obtained herein suggest that oligosaccharides observed in urine are a result of a decrease in alpha-mannosidase activity in plasma. S. carpinifolia seems to have other compounds that act on alpha-mannosidase enzyme in leukocytes in a competitive manner with swainsonine. The increase in alpha-mannosidase enzyme in leukocytes could be attributed to one of these compounds present in S. carpinifolia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary cilia detect features of the

  6. Nutritional and functional characteristics of Erophaca baetica seeds, a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region

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    Cortés-Giraldo, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Erophaca baetica is a legume endemic to the Mediterranean region. Although the fruits and seeds are large, the presence of the “locoism” which produces the alkaloid, swainsonine has prevented its use as animal feed or for human nutrition. Their protein content and chromatographic profile, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, and polyphenol contents have been determined in order to explore the potential of the E. baetica seeds as a source of dietary protein with functional components. The protein content was found to be 36% (w/w, and an amino acid analysis revealed a deficiency in sulphur amino acids, tryptophane, and lysine. The low lysine content is probably due to the abundance of alkaloids metabolically derived from this amino acid. Oleic and linoleic acids are the major fatty acids in the seeds. The antioxidant activity of polyphenol extracts was higher than the activity of the polyphenols extracted from most edible legume seeds. Hence, E. baetica seeds represent a promising source of functional and nutritional components on the condition that the anti-nutritional alkaloids are previously removed.Erophaca baetica es una leguminosa endémica de la región mediterránea. Aunque los frutos y las semillas son grandes, la presencia del alcaloide swainsonina causante de locoismo, ha impedido su uso como alimento para animales o para nutrición humana. El contenido proteico y su perfil cromatográfico, la composición de aminoácidos, de ácidos grasos, y contenido de polifenoles se han determinado con el fin de explorar el potencial de las semillas de E. baetica como una fuente de proteínas y de componentes funcionales de la dieta. El contenido de proteínas es del 36% (w / w, y el análisis de aminoácidos reveló deficiencia en aminoácidos azufrados, triptófano y lisina. El contenido de lisina bajo es probablemente debido a la abundancia de alcaloides metabólicamente derivados de este aminoácido. Los ácidos oleicos y

  7. Primary cilia utilize glycoprotein-dependent adhesion mechanisms to stabilize long-lasting cilia-cilia contacts

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    Ott Carolyn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central tenet of cilia function is sensing and transmitting information. The capacity to directly contact extracellular surfaces would empower primary cilia to probe the environment for information about the nature and location of nearby surfaces. It has been well established that flagella and other motile cilia perform diverse cellular functions through adhesion. We hypothesized that mammalian primary cilia also interact with the extracellular environment through direct physical contact. Methods We identified cilia in rod photoreceptors and cholangiocytes in fixed mouse tissues and examined the structures that these cilia contact in vivo. We then utilized an MDCK cell culture model to characterize the nature of the contacts we observed. Results In retina and liver tissue, we observed that cilia from nearby cells touch one another. Using MDCK cells, we found compelling evidence that these contacts are stable adhesions that form bridges between two cells, or networks between many cells. We examined the nature and duration of the cilia-cilia contacts and discovered primary cilia movements that facilitate cilia-cilia encounters. Stable adhesions form as the area of contact expands from a single point to a stretch of tightly bound, adjacent cilia membranes. The cilia-cilia contacts persisted for hours and were resistant to several harsh treatments such as proteases and DTT. Unlike many other cell adhesion mechanisms, calcium was not required for the formation or maintenance of cilia adhesion. However, swainsonine, which blocks maturation of N-linked glycoproteins, reduced contact formation. We propose that cellular control of adhesion maintenance is active because cilia adhesion did not prevent cell division; rather, contacts dissolved during mitosis as cilia were resorbed. Conclusions The demonstration that mammalian primary cilia formed prolonged, direct, physical contacts supports a novel paradigm: that mammalian primary

  8. Structure and kinetic investigation of Streptococcus pyogenes family GH38 alpha-mannosidase.

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    Michael D L Suits

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of alpha-mannosides is catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GH, termed alpha-mannosidases. These enzymes are found in different GH sequence-based families. Considerable research has probed the role of higher eukaryotic "GH38" alpha-mannosides that play a key role in the modification and diversification of hybrid N-glycans; processes with strong cellular links to cancer and autoimmune disease. The most extensively studied of these enzymes is the Drosophila GH38 alpha-mannosidase II, which has been shown to be a retaining alpha-mannosidase that targets both alpha-1,3 and alpha-1,6 mannosyl linkages, an activity that enables the enzyme to process GlcNAc(Man(5(GlcNAc(2 hybrid N-glycans to GlcNAc(Man(3(GlcNAc(2. Far less well understood is the observation that many bacterial species, predominantly but not exclusively pathogens and symbionts, also possess putative GH38 alpha-mannosidases whose activity and specificity is unknown.Here we show that the Streptococcus pyogenes (M1 GAS SF370 GH38 enzyme (Spy1604; hereafter SpGH38 is an alpha-mannosidase with specificity for alpha-1,3 mannosidic linkages. The 3D X-ray structure of SpGH38, obtained in native form at 1.9 A resolution and in complex with the inhibitor swainsonine (K(i 18 microM at 2.6 A, reveals a canonical GH38 five-domain structure in which the catalytic "-1" subsite shows high similarity with the Drosophila enzyme, including the catalytic Zn(2+ ion. In contrast, the "leaving group" subsites of SpGH38 display considerable differences to the higher eukaryotic GH38s; features that contribute to their apparent specificity.Although the in vivo function of this streptococcal GH38 alpha-mannosidase remains unknown, it is shown to be an alpha-mannosidase active on N-glycans. SpGH38 lies on an operon that also contains the GH84 hexosaminidase (Spy1600 and an additional putative glycosidase. The activity of SpGH38, together with its genomic context, strongly hints at a function

  9. Insect midgut α-mannosidases from family 38 and 47 with emphasis on those of Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Nathalia R; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clelia; Terra, Walter R

    2015-12-01

    α-Mannosidases are enzymes which remove non-reducing terminal residues from glycoconjugates. Data on both GH47 and GH38 (Golgi and lysosomal) enzymes are available. Data on insect midgut α-mannosidases acting in digestion are preliminary and do not include enzyme sequences. Tenebrio molitor midgut α-mannosidases were separated by chromatography into two activity peaks: a major (Man1) and a minor (Man2). An antibody generated against a synthetic peptide corresponding to a sequence of α-mannosidase fragment recognizes Man2 but not Man1. That fragment was later found to correspond to TmMan2 (GenBank access KP892646), showing that the cDNA coding for Man2 is actually TmMan2. TmMan2 codes for a mature α-mannosidase with 107.5 kDa. Purified Man2 originates after SDS-PAGE one band of about 72 kDa and another of 51 kDa, which sums 123 kDa, in agreement with gel filtration (123 kDa) data. These results suggest that Man2 is processed into peptides that remain noncovalently linked within the functional enzyme. The physical and kinetical properties of purified Man1 and Man2 are similar. They have a molecular mass of 123 kDa (gel filtration), pH optimum (5.6) and response to inhibitors like swainsonine (Man1 Ki, 68 nM; Man2 Ki, 63 nM) and deoxymannojirimycin (Man1 Ki, 0.12 mM; Man2 Ki, 0.15 mM). Their substrate specificities are a little different as Man2 hydrolyzes α-1,3 and α-1,6 bonds better than α-1,2, whereas the contrary is true for Man1. Thus, they pertain to Class II (GH38 α-mannosidases), that are catabolic α-mannosidases similar to lysosomal α-mannosidase. However, Man2, in contrast to true lysosomal α-mannosidase, is secreted (immunocytolocalization data) into the midgut contents. There, Man2 may participate in digestion of fungal cell walls, known to have α-mannosides in their outermost layer. The amount of family 38 α-mannosidase sequences found in the transcriptome (454 pyrosequencing) of the midgut of 9 insects pertaining to 5 orders is

  10. Alternaria redefined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    combinations - Alternaria abundans (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria alternariae (Cooke) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria atra (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria bornmuelleri (Magnus) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botrytis (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caespitosa (de Hoog & C. Rubio) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cantlous (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caricis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cinerea (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria didymospora (Munt.-Cvetk.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria fulva (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria hyacinthi (de Hoog & P.J. Mull. bis) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria indefessa (E.G. Simmons) Woudenberg & Crous, Alternaria leptinellae (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria lolii (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria multiformis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obclavata (Crous & U. Braun) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obovoidea (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oudemansii (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oxytropis (Q. Wang, Nagao & Kakish.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria penicillata (Corda) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria planifunda (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria proteae (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpinfestans (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpivora (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria septospora (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria slovaca (Svob.-Pol., L. Chmel & Bojan.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria subcucurbitae (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tellustris (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tumida (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella salina (G.K. Sutherl.) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella arenariae (Nicot) Woudenb. & Crous. New names - Alternaria aspera Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botryospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria brassicae-pekinensis Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria

  11. Intoxicação por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em caprinos na Ilha do Marajó, Pará Poisoning by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa in goats in the Marajó island, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    . fistulosa is a swainsonine-containing plant causing a glycoprotein storage diseases in ruminants, mainly in goats in northeastern Brazil. Seven farms were visited on the Marajo Island, state of Pará, northern Brazil, six in the municipality of Cachoeira do Arari and one in the municipality of Soure. In all farms native pastures had shortage of forage and were largely invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa. On the three farms goats presented difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, lateral gait, intention tremors, spastic paresis or weakness, abnormal postural reactions, nystagmus, loss of equilibrium and falling to the side or backward. On two farms the prevalence was of 32% (23/71 and 100% (32/32. On another farm one goat out of 19 had severe clinical signs, but the others of the flock were not examined clinically. Cattle, sheep and buffaloes were not affected. Six goats were euthanized and necropsied. No gross lesions were observed. Upon histological examination the main lesion was the vacuolization of the perikaryon of neurons and cytoplasm of epithelial cells of thyroid, liver, kidney, pancreas and macrophages of different organs. In the central nervous system the vacuolization of the perikaria was more severe in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in nuclei of the brain stem, mainly the cerebellar nuclei. Wallerian degeneration of axons and gliosis was also observed. The high frequency of the disease on the three farms suggests that poisoning by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa is very important for goats on Marajó Island where there are large amounts of the plant in the pastures.