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Sample records for svalbard tsp norway

  1. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  2. Rock glaciers from Norway and Svalbard, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A complete inventory of rock glaciers on mainland Norway and Svalbard has only been carried out in connection with coarse geomorphological mapping. The data...

  3. Climatology of aerosol optical properties in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Stamnes, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    We present comparisons between estimates of the aerosol optical thickness and the Ångström exponent in Northern Norway and Svalbard based on data from AERONET stations at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, 379 m altitude) and Hornsund (77° N, 15° E, 10 m altitude) for the period 2008-2010. The three-year annual mean values for the aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm τ(500) at Andenes and Hornsund were 0.11 and 0.10, respectively. At Hornsund, there was less variation of the monthly mean value of τ(500) than at Andenes. The annual mean values of the Ångström exponent α at Andenes and Hornsund were 1.18 and 1.37, respectively. At Andenes and Hornsund α was found to be larger than 1.0 in 68% and 93% of the observations, respectively, indicating that fine-mode particles were dominating at both sites. Both sites had a similar seasonal variation of the aerosol size distribution although one site is in an Arctic area while the other site is in a sub-arctic area.

  4. Aerosol optical properties in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hamre, B.; Frette, Ø.; Blindheim, S.; Stebel, K.; Sobolewski, P.; Toledano, C.; Stamnes, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    We present comparisons between estimates of the aerosol optical thickness and the Ångström exponent in Northern Norway and Svalbard based on data from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) stations at Andenes (69.28° N, 16.01° E, 379 m altitude) and Hornsund (77.00° N, 15.56° E, 10 m altitude) for the period 2008-2011. The four-year annual mean values for the aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm τ(500) at Andenes and Hornsund both were 0.10. At Hornsund, there was less variation of the monthly mean value of τ(500) than at Andenes. The annual mean values of the Ångström exponent α at Andenes and Hornsund were 1.25 and 1.37, respectively. At Andenes and Hornsund α was found to be larger than 1.1 in 64% and 86% of the observations, respectively, indicating that fine-mode particles were dominating at both sites. Both sites had a similar seasonal variation of the aerosol size distribution although one site is in an arctic area while the other site is in a sub-arctic area.

  5. The Svalbard REU Program: Undergraduates Pursuing Arctic Climate Change Research on Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Werner, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program sponsored by the Arctic Natural Sciences Program of the National Science Foundation has been successfully providing international field research experiences since 2004. Each year, 7-9 undergraduate students have participated in 4-5 weeks of glacial geology and climate change fieldwork on Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago in the North Atlantic (76- 80° N lat.). While we continue to learn new and better ways to run our program, we have learned specific management and pedagogical strategies that allow us to streamline our logistics and to provide genuine, meaningful research opportunities to undergraduate students. We select student participants after extensive nationwide advertising and recruiting. Even before applying to the program, students understand that they will be doing meaningful climate change science, will take charge of their own project, and will be expected to continue their research at their home institution. We look for a strong commitment of support from a student's advisor at their home institution before accepting students into our program. We present clear information, including participant responsibilities, potential risks and hazards, application procedures, equipment needed, etc on our program website. The website also provides relevant research papers and data and results from previous years, so potential participants can see how their efforts will contribute to growing body of knowledge. New participants meet with the previous years' participants at a professional meeting (our "REUnion") before they start their field experience. During fieldwork, students are expected to develop research questions and test their own hypotheses while providing and responding to peer feedback. Professional assessment by an independent expert provides us with feedback that helps us improve logistical procedures and shape our educational strategies. The assessment also shows us how

  6. Historic PCB congener profiles in an ice core from Svalbard, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.; Matthews, K.A. [Pennsylvania Univ, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, G.W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Inst., Tromso (Norway); Teixeira, C.; Muir, D.C.G. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada); Van Wal, R.S.W. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    This study identified historic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels and congener patterns in an ice core from Svalbard, Norway in order to identify types of sources and characteristic PCB congeners that remain in ice over time. A 60 meter ice core was drilled near the summit of the highest ice cap in Eurasia. Two snow/firn samples were also taken from the top meter of ice in order to determine PCB characteristics from the previous 2 years. The core was analyzed for electrical conductivity and density in the field, which resulted in estimates of water equivalent deposition. The upper 38 meters of the core were divided into 6 separate samples. PCBs were separated from polar compounds by elution through silica-gel with hexane. Fuzzy c means (FCM) was used to identify and map 2 different congener patterns. FCM cluster centroid compositions were then compared to Aroclor mixtures in order to identify parent materials or mixes. Results showed that peak PCB concentrations occurred over 3 core layers between 1972 and 1998. More recent layers had lower concentrations. However, the 2 snow samples had PCB concentrations similar to peak values observed in earlier layers. FCM of the congener profile results indicated a binary system with little gradation between them. All samples were dominated by pentachlorobiphenyls. It was concluded that lower molecular mass congeners had a tendency to remain in the gas phase at the Svalbard location. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Marie Leclerc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata tissue (mainly blubber was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of the minke whale samples from the sharks that had DNA of sufficient quality to perform individual identifications were traceable to the whaling DNA register. During whaling operations, the blubber is stripped from the carcass and thrown overboard. The blubber strips float on the surface and are available for surface-feeding predators. This study revealed that Greenland sharks are scavenging this material; additionally, it demonstrates the capacity of this ‘benthic-feeding’ shark to utilize the whole water column for foraging.

  8. Cryogenic Origin for Mars Analog Carbonates in the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex Svalbard (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, H. E. F.; Benning, L.; Blake, D. F.; Fogel, M.; Ming, D.; Skidmore, M.; Steele, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Sverrefjell and Sigurdfjell eruptive centers in the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex (BVC) on Svalbard (Norway) formed by subglacial eruptions ca. 1 Ma ago. These eruptive centers carry ubiquitous magnesian carbonate deposits including dolomitemagnesite globules similar to those in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Carbonates in mantle xenoliths are dominated by ALH84001 type carbonate globules that formed during quenching of CO2-rich mantle fluids. Lava hosted carbonates include ALH84001 type carbonate globules occurring throughout lava vesicles and microfractures and massive carbonate deposits associated with vertical volcanic vents. Massive carbonates include < or equal 5 cm thick magnesite deposits protruding downwards into clear blue ice within volcanic vents and carbonate cemented lava breccias associated with volcanic vents. Carbonate cements comprise layered deposits of calcite, dolomite, huntite, magnesite and aragonite associated with ALH84001 type carbonate globules lining lava vesicles. Combined Mossbauer, XRD and VNIR data show that breccia carbonate cements at Sverrefjell are analog to Comanche carbonates at Gusev crater.

  9. Tracing the Origins of Organic Matter in the Ice of Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, J. E.; Bowden, R.; Benning, L. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the origin of organic matter (OM) in Arctic ice is of key importance in understanding the nature and origin of life in both modern and ancient ice. In turn, knowledge of this OM is important for studying biosignatures of ice, necessary for the search for life on Mars. In a study of samples from Svalbard, Norway, both stable isotope analysis and the presence of a unique UV-absorbing pigment (scytonemin) serve as a means of tracing potential sources of organic matter to glacial ice. Possible sources for glacial OM include the following: 1) aeolian sources including black carbon or local soils, creating "dirty snow", 2) plant sources from surrounding areas including higher plants, lichens, and mosses, 3) microbial sources from on the ice itself , i.e., snow algae and cryoconites, and 4) microbial biofilms and endoliths from nearby habitats.. The UV-sunscreen pigment scytonemin is prevalent in many of the sources, particularly snow algae, cryoconites, lichens and microbial biofilms, as determined by spectrophotometry and ultra-performance LCMS analysis. These same methods also revealed the presence of scytonemin in various ice cores and surface runoff samples, suggesting that these plant and microbial sources are indeed tied to the introduction of OM to the ice of Svalbard. Supporting pigment signature tracing, stable isotope analysis of 13C and 15N shows a clear trend confirming the origin of OM from regional organic matter, as both ice cores and runoff have an isotopic signature comparable to Svalbard plants, snow algae, cryconites, and lichen. These two lines of evidence conclude in tandem that the OM found in Svalbard's glaciers have an origin in the surrounding ecosystem. This finding suggests that traces of life can both be transported and preserved in ice for extended periods of time. This has especial meaning in the pursuit of biosignatures on Mars, as well as the study of paleoclimate on Earth. Future studies can focus on further tracing of

  10. Raman and SEM analysis of a biocolonised hot spring travertine terrace in Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Villar Susana E

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A profile across 8 layers from a fossil travertine terrace from a low temperature geothermal spring located in Svalbard, Norway has been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques to identify minerals and organic life signals. Results Calcite, anatase, quartz, haematite, magnetite and graphite as well as scytonemin, three different carotenoids, chlorophyll and a chlorophyll-like compound were identified as geo- and biosignatures respectively, using 785 and/or 514 nm Raman laser excitation wavelengths. No morphological biosignatures representing remnant microbial signals were detected by high-resolution imaging, although spectral analyses indicated the presence of organics. In contrast, in all layers, Raman spectra identified a series of different organic pigments indicating little to no degradation or change of the organic signatures and thus indicating the preservation of fossil biomarker compounds throughout the life time of the springs despite the lack of remnant morphological indicators. Conclusion With a view towards planetary exploration we discuss the implications of the differences in Raman band intensities observed when spectra were collected with the different laser excitations. We show that these differences, as well as the different detection capability of the 785 and 514 nm laser, could lead to ambiguous compound identification. We show that the identification of bio and geosignatures, as well as fossil organic pigments, using Raman spectroscopy is possible. These results are relevant since both lasers have been considered for miniaturized Raman spectrometers for planetary exploration.

  11. A New Ophthalmosaurid (Ichthyosauria) from Svalbard, Norway, and Evolution of the Ichthyopterygian Pelvic Girdle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsett, Lene Liebe; Roberts, Aubrey J.; Druckenmiller, Patrick S.; Hurum, Jørn H.

    2017-01-01

    In spite of a fossil record spanning over 150 million years, pelvic girdle evolution in Ichthyopterygia is poorly known. Here, we examine pelvic girdle size relationships using quantitative methods and new ophthalmosaurid material from the Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte of Svalbard, Norway. One of these new specimens, which preserves the most complete ichthyosaur pelvic girdle from the Cretaceous, is described herein as a new taxon, Keilhauia nui gen. et sp. nov. It represents the most complete Berriasian ichthyosaur known and the youngest yet described from the Slottsmøya Member. It is diagnosed on the basis of two autapomorphies from the pelvic girdle, including an ilium that is anteroposteriorly expanded at its dorsal end and an ischiopubis that is shorter or subequal in length to the femur, as well as a unique character combination. The Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte ichthyosaurs are significant in that they represent a diverse assemblage of ophthalmosaurids that existed immediately preceding and across the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary. They also exhibit considerable variation in pelvic girdle morphology, and expand the known range in size variation of pelvic girdle elements in the clade. PMID:28121995

  12. Isolation and Physiological Characterization of Psychrophilic Denitrifying Bacteria from Permanently Cold Arctic Fjord Sediments (Svalbard, Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canion, Andy; Prakash, Om; Green, Stefan J.; Jahnke, Linda; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    A large proportion of reactive nitrogen loss from polar sediments is mediated by denitrification, but microorganisms mediating denitrification in polar environments remain poorly characterized. A combined approach of most-probable-number (MPN) enumeration, cultivation and physiological characterization was used to describe psychrophilic denitrifying bacterial communities in sediments of three Arctic fjords in Svalbard (Norway). A MPN assay showed the presence of 10(sup 3)-10(sup 6) cells of psychrophilic nitrate-respiring bacteria g(sup -1) of sediment. Fifteen strains within the Proteobacteria were isolated using a systematic enrichment approach with organic acids as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Isolates belonged to five genera, including Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Arcobacter (Epsilonproteobacteria) and Herminiimonas (Betaproteobacteria). All isolates were denitrifiers, except Shewanella, which exhibited the capacity for dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Growth from 0 to 40 degC demonstrated that all genera except Shewanella were psychrophiles with optimal growth below 15 degC, and adaptation to low temperature was demonstrated as a shift from primarily C16:0 saturated fatty acids to C16:1 monounsaturated fatty acids at lower temperatures. This study provides the first targeted enrichment and characterization of psychrophilic denitrifying bacteria from polar sediments, and two genera, Arcobacter and Herminiimonas, are isolated for the first time from permanently cold marine sediments.

  13. A white humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae in the Atlantic Ocean, Svalbard, Norway, August 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A white humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae was observed on several occasions off Svalbard, Norway, during August 2012. The animal was completely white, except for a few small dark patches on the ventral side of its fluke. The baleen plates were light-coloured, but the animal's eyes had normal (dark colouration. This latter characteristic indicates that the animal was not an albino; it was a leucistic individual. The animal was a full-sized adult and was engaged in “bubble-feeding”, together with 15–20 other humpback whales, each time it was seen. Subsequent to these sightings, polling of the marine mammal science community has resulted in the discovery of two other observations of white humpback whales in the Barents Sea area, one in 2004 and another in 2006; in both cases the observed individuals were adult animals. It is likely that all of these sightings are of the same individual, but there is no genetic or photographic evidence to confirm this suggestion. The rarity of observations of such white individuals suggests that they are born at very low frequencies or that the ontogenetic survival rates of the colour morph are low.

  14. Growth chronology of Greenland Cockles (Serripes groenlandicus) from Bear Island, Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Ambrose, William; Locke, William; Wanamaker, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is occurring rapidly in the Arctic, and observing the links between environmental drivers and biological effects can provide key information on the ecosystem consequences of climate change. Analysis of shell-based records of mollusks (sclerochronology) provides an effective and expanding approach to reconstructing environmental-ecological linkages. In particular, annually resolved archives can be key indicators of how climate change manifests in the marine ecosystem. We developed a master growth chronology of the Greenland Cockle (Serripes groenlandicus) from Bear Island (Bjørnøya), Svalbard, Norway (74°41'N, 18°56'E) from analysis of annual shell increments. The chronology was developed from 20 individuals ranging in age from 24 to 45 years old (the oldest known individuals of this species to date). The chronology, expressed as a standardized growth index (SGI), extended from 1968 to 2012 and exhibited a cyclical pattern, with decadal periods of high growth, alternating with slower growth intervals. We also identified significant relationships between large-scale climate regimes (e.g. NAO, AMO), local environmental conditions (e.g. sea temperature, sea ice), and shell growth. Additionally, growth chronologies, and environmental linkages were compared from this, near the southern extent of the Barents Sea polar front, with other Arctic locations influenced by different water masses to examine the nature of the environmental regulation on shell growth of this species in the Barents Sea and Arctic Ocean. We conclude that the Greenland Cockle is quite sensitive to environmental changes over annual to decadal scales and therefore can serve as a proxy of climate change effects on ecosystem processes in the Arctic.

  15. The Globalization of the Arctic: Negotiating Sovereignty and Building Communities in Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehøj

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic archipelago of Svalbard has been under Norwegian sovereignty since 1920 yet remains subject to international law. Until recently, the islands’ only major economic activities were unprofitable Russian – and Norwegian – funded mining operations aimed at maintaining continuous settlement. Now, however, Norway’s top-down governance of the territory has been complicated by the emergence of economic diversity, multinationalism, and local democracy in the town of Longyearbyen. Simultaneously, China and other states are promoting their Arctic interests by exploiting the preoccupation with Russia that characterizes Norway’s Svalbard policy. By interpreting Svalbard’s local communities through the prism of international relations, this article highlights the practical challenges to creating genuinely international territories.

  16. Climate change impacts on wildlife in a High Arctic archipelago - Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Aars, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian; Pavlova, Olga; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Ravolainen, Virve; Strøm, Hallvard

    2017-02-01

    The Arctic is warming more rapidly than other region on the planet, and the northern Barents Sea, including the Svalbard Archipelago, is experiencing the fastest temperature increases within the circumpolar Arctic, along with the highest rate of sea ice loss. These physical changes are affecting a broad array of resident Arctic organisms as well as some migrants that occupy the region seasonally. Herein, evidence of climate change impacts on terrestrial and marine wildlife in Svalbard is reviewed, with a focus on bird and mammal species. In the terrestrial ecosystem, increased winter air temperatures and concomitant increases in the frequency of 'rain-on-snow' events are one of the most important facets of climate change with respect to impacts on flora and fauna. Winter rain creates ice that blocks access to food for herbivores and synchronizes the population dynamics of the herbivore-predator guild. In the marine ecosystem, increases in sea temperature and reductions in sea ice are influencing the entire food web. These changes are affecting the foraging and breeding ecology of most marine birds and mammals and are associated with an increase in abundance of several temperate fish, seabird and marine mammal species. Our review indicates that even though a few species are benefiting from a warming climate, most Arctic endemic species in Svalbard are experiencing negative consequences induced by the warming environment. Our review emphasizes the tight relationships between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems in this High Arctic archipelago. Detecting changes in trophic relationships within and between these ecosystems requires long-term (multidecadal) demographic, population- and ecosystem-based monitoring, the results of which are necessary to set appropriate conservation priorities in relation to climate warming. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The importance of tidewater glaciers for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Christian; Assmy, Philipp; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Kohler, Jack; Kovacs, Kit M.; Reigstad, Marit; Steen, Harald; Strøm, Hallvard; Sundfjord, Arild; Varpe, Øystein; Walczowski, Waldek; Weslawski, Jan Marcin; Zajaczkowski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of Svalbard's land areas are glaciated at the present time. The Archipelago has more than 1100 glaciers (> 1 km2) and 163 of these are “tidewater glaciers” - that is glaciers that terminate (with their calving front) at the sea. It has been known for a long time that these glacier front areas are important feeding areas for seabirds and marine mammals. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding the importance of these areas for these animals and reflect upon the processes that create these apparent “hotspots”. Kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla, routinely dominate avian assemblages in front of glaciers in Svalbard, but fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea and glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus also contribute to aggregations, which can sometimes comprise many thousands of individuals. The birds are often found in the so-called “brown zone”, which is an area in front of tidewater glaciers that is ice-free due to currents and muddy due to suspended sediments. Animals at these sites typically have their stomachs full of large zooplankton or fish. These brown zones are also foraging hotspots for Svalbard's ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Prime breeding habitat for ringed seals in Svalbard occurs deep in the fjords where ice pieces calved from the glacier fronts become frozen into land-fast sea-ice, promoting the accumulation of snow to a depth suitable for ringed seal females to dig out birth lairs above breathing holes in the ice. These pupping areas are important hunting areas for polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in spring, especially female bears with cubs of the year during the period following emergence from the winter/birthing den. Glacier-ice pieces floating in coastal areas are also important for all seal species in the region as dry platforms during moulting and also as general resting platforms for both birds and seals. During the last decade there have been several years with a

  18. Isotopic and geochemical investigation of two distinct Mars analog environments using evolved gas techniques in Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stern, J.C.; McAdam, A.C.; Kate, I.L. ten; Bish, D.L.; Blake, D.F.; Morris, R.V.; Bowden, R.; Fogel, M.L.; Glamoclija, M.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Steele, A.; Amundsen, H.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The 2010 Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) investigated two distinct geologic settings on Svalbard, using methodologies and techniques to be deployed on Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). AMASE-related research comprises both analyses conducted during the expedition and further analyses of

  19. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    This background note for Norway by the U.S. State Department describes the geography, people, history, government, politics, and foreign relations of this newly oil-rich Scandinavian nation. Norwegians number 4.1 million, growing only at 0.3% per year, of Germanic origin, with 20,000 Laplanders. Infant mortality is 9/1000; life expectancy is 73 and 80 years. The government is a constitutional monarchy, with socialized medicine, education through university and social security. Norway became independent of Sweden in 1905, was a non-belligerent in both world wars, but was occupied by Nazi Germany. Subsequently Norway has required military service and is a member of NATO. Norway is a wealthy developed nation, with a positive foreign trade balance, a per capita income of $14,000, resources of oil, fish, timber, hydroelectric power, ores, and an industrial economy. Norway sends out about $471 million in foreign aid.

  20. Sea ice-associated decline in body condition leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-01-15

    Global climate changes are magnified in the Arctic and are having an especially dramatic effect on the spatial and temporal distribution and the thickness traits of sea ice. Decline of Arctic sea ice may lead to qualitative and/or quantitative changes in diet and reduced body condition (i.e. adipose tissue stores) of ice-associated apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). This may further affect their tissue concentrations of lipophilic pollutants. We determined how variations in adipose tissue stores associated to both breeding status and spatial changes in sea ice conditions and diet influence concentrations and biotransformation of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We collected 112 blood and fat samples from female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of different breeding status (alone, with cubs of the year, or with yearlings) during two seasons (April and September) in 2012 and 2013 at three locations of Svalbard, Norway, with contrasted sea ice conditions. We inferred diet from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. Relative to diet, body condition, which was negatively related to sea ice extent at both temporal and spatial scales, was the most important predictor for concentrations of POPs in plasma and fat, whereas diet showed a minor influence. Additionally, fatter females were more efficient at biotransforming PCBs than were leaner ones. Breeding status influenced the concentrations of less lipophilic compounds such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, which were lower in females with yearlings, probably due to excretion into milk and subsequent offloading to young. In conclusion, our results indicate that declining sea ice indirectly leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears mediated through reduced feeding opportunities and declining body condition rather than changes in diet composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Norway with a territory of 386,000 sq. km or 150,000 sq. miles is slightly larger than New Mexico. In 1991 the population was estimated at 4.3 million with an annual growth rate of .5% and a literacy rate of 100%. The infant mortality rate is 7/1000 live births, and lie expectancy is 73 years for men and 80 years for women. Norway's government is a hereditary constitutional monarchy since independence n 1905. Ethnically, Norwegians are predominantly Germanic, but there are indigenous communities of Sami (Lapps) in the north, and in recent years almost 150,000 immigrants, foreign workers, and asylum-seekers have settled there. Norway's health system includes free hospital care, physicians compensation, cash benefits during illness and pregnancy, and other medical and dental plans. Until the 1981 election, Norway has been governed by Labor Party governments since 1935, except for 3 periods (1963, 1965-71, and 1972-73). Gro Harlem Brundtland is again the prime minister after forming her 3rd government in 10 years. Norway holds national elections in September 1993. Norway's large shipping fleet is modern; metals, pulp and paper products, chemicals, shipbuilding, and fishing are traditional industries, and major oil and gas discoveries in the mid-1970s transformed the economy. High oil prices in the 1983-85 period raised consumer spending, wages, and inflation. Norway is aspiring to restructure its nonoil economy in favor of efficient, nontraditional industry. The prime minister has indicated that Norway may apply for European Community (EC) membership before the end of 1992. Its main trading partners are the EC countries and its Scandinavian neighbors with the US in 5th place.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability in the Onset of the Growing Season on Svalbard, Arctic Norway — Measured by MODIS-NDVI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Rune Karlsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is among the regions with the most rapid changes in climate and has the expected highest increase in temperature. Changes in the timing of phenological phases, such as onset of the growing season observed from remote sensing, are among the most sensitive bio-indicators of climate change. The study area here is the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, located between 76°30ʹ and 80°50ʹN. The goal of this study was to use MODIS Terra data (the MOD09Q1 and MOD09A1 surface reflectance products, both with 8-day temporal composites to map the onset of the growing season on Svalbard for the 2000–2013 period interpreted from field observations. Due to a short and intense period with greening-up and frequent cloud cover, all the cloud free data is needed, which requires reliable cloud masks. We used a combination of three cloud removing methods (State QA values, own algorithms, and manual removal. This worked well, but is time-consuming as it requires manual interpretation of cloud cover. The onset of the growing season was then mapped by a NDVI threshold method, which showed high correlation (r2 = 0.60, n = 25, p < 0.001 with field observations of flowering of Salix polaris (polar willow. However, large bias was found between NDVI-based mapped onset and field observations in bryophyte-dominated areas, which indicates that the results in these parts must be interpreted with care. On average for the 14-year period, the onset of the growing season occurs after July 1st in 68.4% of the vegetated areas of Svalbard. The mapping revealed large variability between years. The years 2000 and 2008 were extreme in terms of late onset of the growing season, and 2002 and 2013 had early onset. Overall, no clear trend in onset of the growing season for the 2000–2013 period was found.

  3. Sea ice and polar bear den ecology at Hopen Island, Svalbard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. E. Derocher; M. Andersen; Ø. Wiig; J. Aars; E. Hansen; M. Biuw

    2011-01-01

    The maternity denning of polar bears was studied at Hopen Island, Svalbard, Norway, using information collected by direct observation and live-capture of females and cubs during den emergence in spring of 1994 to 2008...

  4. Monitoring of greenhouse gases and aerosols at Svalbard and Birkenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, C.L.; Hermansen, O.; Fjaeraa, A.M.; Lunder, C.; Fiebig, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Krognes, T.; Stebel, K.

    2012-07-01

    The report summaries the activities and results of the greenhouse gas monitoring at the Zeppelin and observatory situated on Svalbard in Arctic Norway during the period 2001-2010 and the greenhouse gas monitoring and aerosol observations from Birkenes for 2010. The monitoring programme is performed by the NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research and funded by the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (SFT) (now Climate and Pollution Agency) and NILU - Norwegian Institute for Air Research.(Author)

  5. Science as national belonging: The construction of Svalbard as a Norwegian space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peder; Paglia, Eric

    2016-12-01

    This article examines how science has been employed to establish, maintain, and contest senses of belonging on Svalbard, an Arctic archipelago administered by Norway since 1925 under an international treaty. Our central argument is that the process of constructing Svalbard as a space belonging to Norway has long been intertwined with the processes of describing and representing the archipelago and that participating in those processes has also permitted other states to articulate their own narratives of belonging - on Svalbard in particular and in the Arctic more generally. We deploy the concept of belonging to capture a sense of legitimate presence and stakeholdership that we do not believe can be adequately captured by narrow concepts of sovereignty. Norway's historic and current use of science validates (and even naturalizes) its rule over Svalbard. At the same time, other states use science on Svalbard to articulate geopolitical scripts that portray them as stakeholders in an Arctic that is of transregional relevance due to the effects of climate change.

  6. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of Pink-Footed Geese: 2014 progress summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest-management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60 thousand) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark.  Specifically, this report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information and its implications for the harvest management strategy.

  7. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)–Null and TSP2-Null Mice Exhibit Lower Intraocular Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Haddadin, Ramez I.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Kang, Min Hyung; Villarreal, Guadalupe; Kang, Ja-Heon; Jin, Rui; Gong, Haiyan; Rhee, Douglas J.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) and TSP2 are matricellular proteins expressed in the trabecular meshwork. TSP1-null and TSP2-null mice have lower intraocular pressures than their wild-type counterparts. Aqueous humor turnover studies suggest that the mechanism is enhanced outflow resistance.

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.305 - Must my agency notify the TSP of any adjustment to the TSP's bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the TSP of any adjustment to the TSP's bill? 102-118.305 Section 102-118.305 Public Contracts and... Agency Requirements for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.305 Must my agency notify the TSP of any adjustment to the TSP's bill? Yes, your agency must notify the TSP of any adjustment to the TSP's bill either...

  9. Naturressursene og verdenspolitikken på Svalbard 1596-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roald Berg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of Spitsbergen/Svalbard has been characterized by a combination of masculine heroism and continuous struggle for the natural resources at the islands. In the beginning, from the 16th century, it was an international struggle for the harvesting of the whale and walrus; its value was so great that international conflicts led to the development of such doctrines as mare clausum and mare liberum ininternational law. The competition for the utilization of the coal resources led the Americans near annexation during the first decade of the 20th century before Norway received sovereignty over the islands after the first world war and the services of the Norwegian merchant fleet during that war. After the cold war the oil deposits in the Barents Sea might trigger another period of resource struggle at the islands and the oceans around them.

  10. Generalized Geology of Svalbard (geo_sval)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age of surface outcrops of bedrock of Svalbard. It also includes...

  11. On approximating the TSP with intersecting neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbassioni, Khaled; Fishkin, Aleksei V.; Sitters, René

    2006-01-01

    In the TSP with neighborhoods problem we are given a set of n regions (neighborhoods) in the plane, and seek to find a minimum length TSP tour that goes through all the regions. We give two approximation algorithms for the case when the regions are allowed to intersect: We give the first O(1)-factor

  12. On approximating multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP), whose performances are independent of the number $k$ of criteria and come close to the approximation ratios obtained for TSP with a single objective function. We present randomized

  13. Approximation algorithms for Euclidean group TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbassioni, Khaled; Fishkin, Aleksei V.; Mustafa, Nabil H.; Sitters, René

    2005-01-01

    In the Euclidean group Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), we are given a set of points P in the plane and a set of m connected regions, each containing at least one point of P. We want to find a tour of minimum length that visits at least one point in each region. This unifies the TSP with

  14. On approximating multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    We present approximation algorithms for almost all variants of the multicriteria traveling salesman problem (TSP). First, we devise randomized approximation algorithms for multicriteria maximum traveling salesman problems (Max-TSP). For multicriteria Max-STSP where the edge weights have to be

  15. Deterministic algorithms for multi-criteria TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Tarui, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present deterministic approximation algorithms for the multi-criteria traveling salesman problem (TSP). Our algorithms are faster and simpler than the existing randomized algorithms. First, we devise algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric multi-criteria Max-TSP that achieve ratios of

  16. Video cascade accumulation of the total solar eclipse on Svalbard 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigernes, Fred; Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Partamies, Noora; Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Brekke, Pål; Eriksen Holmen, Silje; Danielsen, Arne; Olsen, Bernt; Chen, Xiangcai; Dyrland, Margit; Baddeley, Lisa; Lorentzen, Dag Arne; Aleksander Krogtoft, Marcus; Dragland, Torstein; Mortensson, Hans; Smistad, Lisbeth; Heinselman, Craig J.; Habbal, Shadia

    2017-01-01

    This work presents a novel image accumulation filter technique that reveals small-scale features and details from intense luminosity or high dynamic range (HDR) video recordings. It was discovered and developed from the analyses of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) film of the total solar eclipse that occurred Friday 20 March 2015 in Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E) on Svalbard, Norway. The result of the filter is fused with a HDR image of the corona and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) image of the solar disk.

  17. The red-sky enigma over Svalbard in December 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sigernes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available On 6 December 2002, during winter darkness, an extraordinary event occurred in the sky, as viewed from Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E, Svalbard, Norway. At 07:30 UT the southeast sky was surprisingly lit up in a deep red colour. The light increased in intensity and spread out across the sky, and at 10:00 UT the illumination was observed to reach the zenith. The event died out at about 12:30 UT. Spectral measurements from the Auroral Station in Adventdalen confirm that the light was scattered sunlight. Even though the Sun was between 11.8 and 14.6deg below the horizon during the event, the measured intensities of scattered light on the southern horizon from the scanning photometers coincided with the rise and setting of the Sun. Calculations of actual heights, including refraction and atmospheric screening, indicate that the event most likely was scattered solar light from a target below the horizon. This is also confirmed by the OSIRIS instrument on board the Odin satellite. The deduced height profile indicates that the scattering target is located 18–23km up in the stratosphere at a latitude close to 73–75° N, southeast of Longyearbyen. The temperatures in this region were found to be low enough for Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC to be formed. The target was also identified as PSC by the LIDAR systems at the Koldewey Station in Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E. The event was most likely caused by solar illuminated type II Polar Stratospheric Clouds that scattered light towards Svalbard. Two types of scenarios are presented to explain how light is scattered. Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (Transmissions and scattering of radiation; Middle atmospherecomposition and chemistry; Instruments and techniques – History of geophysics (Atmospheric Sciences; The red-sky phenomena

  18. Modern Process Studies in Kongsfjord, Svalbard: Arctic Geoscience Research Experience for U.S. Undergraduates (Svalbard REU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. D.; Brigham-Grette, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Svalbard REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) program focuses on understanding how high latitude glaciers, meltwater streams, and sedimentation in lakes and fjords respond to changing climate. Since summer of 2004, six under-graduate students have been selected to participate in the summer field program. Students work on individual projects and in close conjunction with faculty advisors and other student researchers. They formulate their own research questions, develop their project, and complete their field research during a five-week program on Svalbard, Norway. Following the summer program, students complete their projects at their home institution during the following academic year as a senior thesis. A spring symposium brings all participants back together again with their final results. The most recent field season was completed in Kongsfjord (79N) showing that the contemporary studies of tidewater glacier margins provide an unparalleled opportunity for introducing motivated third year undergraduate students to the challenges and rewards of polar geoscientific field research. Rates of rapid change in this high-latitude Arctic environment emphasize the complexity of the Earth System at the interface of the ocean, atmosphere and cryosphere. Given background information in glacial and marine geology, glaciology, hydrology, climatology and fjord oceanography not routinely offered in undergraduate curricula, students develop the science questions to be addressed and establish a field plan for instrumentation and sampling. Working together in small boats in one of the most challenging natural environments, the students expand their leadership skills, learn the value of teamwork and collaborative data sharing while maintaining a strong sense of ownership over their individual science projects. The rigors of studying an actively calving tidewater glacier also builds on their outdoor skills, especially when it is necessary to improvise and become

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.575 - If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal? 102-118.575 Section 102-118.575 Public Contracts and... Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.575 If a TSP disagrees...

  20. Difficulties in HAM/TSP diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Sena Andrade Slater

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends the use of Osame's criterion (1990 for the diagnosis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP. In 2006, a group of neurologists developed a Brazilian criterion that can diagnose HAM/TSP from its onset. OBJECTIVE: It was to test the agreement between both criteria. METHODS: The study included evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of 35 patients. The ELISA, Western blot and/or polymerase chain reaction was used to search for anti-HTLV-I antibodies. The analysis of agreement was based on the calculation of Kappa. RESULTS: Concordance of 100% (Kappa=1 occurred in cases of "defined" HAM/TSP, but not in patients with "probable" diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian criteria was as effective as Osame's criteria for the diagnosis of "defined" HAM/TSP. However, both require more specific biological markers in cerebrospinal fluid for the laboratory diagnosis of probable cases.

  1. WCET and Multicores with TSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Julien; Vigeant, Fabien; Perraud, Laurent; Crespo, Alfons; Masmano, Miguel; Carrascosa, ELena; Brocal, Vincent; Balbastre, Patricia; Quartier, Fernand; Milhorat, Fabrice

    2014-08-01

    In the real-time embedded systems, switching to multicores is a step that most of domains delay as much as possible. This is due to the fact that proving real time requirements in such a undeterministic context is not trivial and requires methods and tools that are not yet mature. This paper addresses the issues related to the qualification of an OBSW on multicores, dealing specifically with its new sources of indeterminism and its impact on the schedulability analysis. It proposes a method to achieve a schedulability analysis that takes into account HW interferences between the concurrent execution of the cores, taking advantage of several SW architecture properties brought by TSP. Several tools have been adapted to ease the use of this method and achieve a scalability of applications qualified in monocore context to a multicore context. Last, this paper highlights the benefits and limitations of this method on LVCUGEN used in a payload management computer based on the GR712RC bicore processor.

  2. Late Mesozoic magmatism in Svalbard: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senger, Kim; Tveranger, Jan; Ogata, Kei; Braathen, Alvar; Planke, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Late Mesozoic mafic igneous rocks are widespread across the Arctic region, and are collectively referred to as the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP). In Svalbard the HALIP is represented by the Diabasodden Suite, an extensive system of predominantly basic intrusive doleritic rocks.

  3. The Lack of Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) Dictates the Course of Wound Healing in Double-TSP1/TSP2-Null Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Agah, Azin; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Lawler, Jack; Bornstein, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP) 1 and 2, share the same overall structure and interact with a number of the same cell-surface receptors. In an attempt to elucidate their biological roles more clearly, we generated double-TSP1/TSP2-null animals and compared their phenotype to those of TSP1- and TSP2-null mice. Double-null mice exhibited an apparent phenotype that primarily represented the sum of the abnormalities observed in the single-null mice. However, surprisingly, the wound-healing response in doubl...

  4. Considerations on HAM/TSP: rediscovering Tumaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Yasuda

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerations are made on the role of HTL.V-I in the etiopathogeny of HAM/ TSP. Neuroepidemiologic data reported in the literature are revisited for this purpose. Among results of this evaluation it is pointed-out that the Gkinawan Community of Brazil presents ethnographic and demographic characteristics which are ideal for designining new studies. For instance, analyses on HTLV-I and on HAM/TSP in face of the cohort of such community classified according to time and direction of the migration (Japan-Brazil and vice-versa, will ensure promising results for the understanding of etiopathogeny of HAM/TSP. They can also be paths towards clarifying the simultaneous generating, of geographical foci of the disease distant one the other, as that of Tumaco and that of south Japan.

  5. Leveraging TSP Solver Complementarity through Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschke, Pascal; Kotthoff, Lars; Bossek, Jakob; Hoos, Holger H; Trautmann, Heike

    2017-08-24

    The Travelling Salesperson Problem (TSP) is one of the best-studied NP-hard problems. Over the years, many different solution approaches and solvers have been developed. For the first time, we directly compare five state-of-the-art inexact solvers-namely, LKH, EAX, restart variants of those, and MAOS-on a large set of well-known benchmark instances and demonstrate complementary performance, in that different instances may be solved most effectively by different algorithms. We leverage this complementarity to build an algorithm selector, which selects the best TSP solver on a per-instance basis and thus achieves significantly improved performance compared to the single best solver, representing an advance in the state of the art in solving the Euclidean TSP. Our in-depth analysis of the selectors provides insight into what drives this performance improvement.

  6. Multi-criteria TSP: Min and max combined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    We present randomized approximation algorithms for multi-criteria traveling salesman problems (TSP), where some objective functions should be minimized while others should be maximized. For the symmetric multi-criteria TSP (STSP), we present an algorithm that computes

  7. SEMPR: The TSP Software Engineering Measured Performance Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University SEMPR: The TSP Software Engineering Measured Performance Repository TSP Symposium, Pittsburgh Nov 4, 2014...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SEMPR: The TSP Software Engineering Measured Performance Repository 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Team Software Process ( TSP -2014) Symposium, 3-6 Nov

  8. Structure and changing dynamics of a polythermal valley glacier on a centennial timescale: Midre Lovenbreen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hambrey, M. J.; Murray, T.; Glasser, N. F.

    2005-01-01

    structural glaciology, polythermal glacier, Svalbard, ground-penetrating radar, numerical modeling......structural glaciology, polythermal glacier, Svalbard, ground-penetrating radar, numerical modeling...

  9. 5 CFR 1620.42 - Processing TSP contribution elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing TSP contribution elections... Military Service § 1620.42 Processing TSP contribution elections. (a) Current contribution election. If the... contributions. An employee's right to make retroactive TSP contributions will expire if an election is not made...

  10. 5 CFR 1650.2 - Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. 1650.2... FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.2 Eligibility for a TSP withdrawal. (a) A participant... described in subpart B of this part. (b) A post-employment withdrawal will not be paid unless TSP records...

  11. 5 CFR 1640.5 - TSP Fund information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false TSP Fund information. 1640.5 Section 1640... STATEMENTS § 1640.5 TSP Fund information. The Board will provide to each participant four (4) times each calendar year a statement concerning each of the TSP Funds. This statement will contain the following...

  12. 75 FR 68169 - Participants' Choices of TSP Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Part 1601 Participants' Choices of TSP Funds AGENCY: Federal Retirement Thrift Investment Board. ACTION.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Agency administers the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP), which was established by the Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986 (FERSA), Public Law 99-335, 100 Stat. 514. The TSP...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.570 - If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? 102-118.570 Section 102-118.570... Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.570 If my agency denies the TSP's challenge to the statement of difference, may the TSP appeal? Yes...

  14. Seismic surveys test on Innerhytta Pingo, Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Rossi, Giuliana; Petronio, Lorenzo; Accaino, Flavio; Romeo, Roberto; Wheeler, Walter

    2015-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of an experimental full-wave seismic survey test conducted on the Innnerhytta a Pingo, located in the Adventdalen, Svalbard Islands, Norway. Several seismic surveys were adopted in order to study a Pingo inner structure, from classical reflection/refraction arrays to seismic tomography and surface waves analysis. The aim of the project IMPERVIA, funded by Italian PNRA, was the evaluation of the permafrost characteristics beneath this open-system Pingo by the use of seismic investigation, evaluating the best practice in terms of logistic deployment. The survey was done in April-May 2014: we collected 3 seismic lines with different spacing between receivers (from 2.5m to 5m), for a total length of more than 1 km. We collected data with different vertical geophones (with natural frequency of 4.5 Hz and 14 Hz) as well as with a seismic snow-streamer. We tested different seismic sources (hammer, seismic gun, fire crackers and heavy weight drop), and we verified accurately geophone coupling in order to evaluate the different responses. In such peculiar conditions we noted as fire-crackers allow the best signal to noise ratio for refraction/reflection surveys. To ensure the best geophones coupling with the frozen soil, we dug snow pits, to remove the snow-cover effect. On the other hand, for the surface wave methods, the very high velocity of the permafrost strongly limits the generation of long wavelengths both with these explosive sources as with the common sledgehammer. The only source capable of generating low frequencies was a heavy drop weight system, which allows to analyze surface wave dispersion below 10 Hz. Preliminary data analysis results evidence marked velocity inversions and strong velocity contrasts in depth. The combined use of surface and body waves highlights the presence of a heterogeneous soil deposit level beneath a thick layer of permafrost. This is the level that hosts the water circulation from depth controlling

  15. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE......), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma.......57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen...

  16. Characterization of the tail-specific protease (Tsp) from Legionella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Amba; K Nicholls, Simon; H Stansfield, Scott; M Huston, Wilhelmina

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial tail-specific proteases (Tsps) have been attributed a wide variety of functions including intracellular virulence, cell wall morphology, proteolytic signal cascades and stress response. This study tested the hypothesis that Tsp has a key function for the transmissive form of Legionella pneumophila. A tsp mutant was generated in Legionella pneumophila 130b and the characteristics of this strain and the isogenic wild-type were examined using a range of growth and proteomic analyses. Recombinant Tsp protein was also produced and analyzed. The L. pneumophila tsp mutant showed no defect in growth on rich media or during thermo-osmotic stress conditions. In addition, no defects in cellular morphology were observed when the cells were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Purified recombinant Tsp was found to be an active protease with a narrow substrate range. Proteome analysis using iTRAQ (5% coverage of the proteome) found that, of those proteins detected, only 5 had different levels in the tsp mutant compared to the wild type. ACP (Acyl Carrier Protein), which has a key role for Legionella differentiation to the infectious form, was reduced in the tsp mutant; however, tsp(-) was able to infect and replicate inside macrophages to the same extent as the wild type. Combined, these data demonstrate that Tsp is a protease but is not essential for Legionella growth or cell infection. Thus, Tsp may have functional redundancy in Legionella.

  17. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0320 EXPLOITING ELEMENTARY LANDSCAPES FOR TSP , VEHICLE ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Darrell Whitley COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP , Vehicle Routing and Scheduling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0088...Traveling Salesman Problem ( TSP ) and Graph Coloring are elementary. Problems such as MAX-kSAT are a superposition of k elementary landscapes. This

  18. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  19. Home-based exercise program in TSP/HAM individuals: a feasibility and effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Lívia D; Araújo, Abelardo Q; Silva, Marcus Tt; Leite, Ana Claudia C; Azevedo, Mariana F; Chequer, Gisele L; Oliveira, Raquel Vc; Ferreira, Arthur S; Lima, Marco Antonio

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based exercise program in TSP/HAM individuals. Twenty-three TSP/HAM individuals divided in two groups according to Timed Up and Go (TUG) score (TSP/HAM.

  20. Go, surf Norway

    OpenAIRE

    L'orange, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    How can a digital service encourage surfers in Norway to catch more Norwegian waves? Through a design ethnographic approach I have explored the surf community and daily life of surfers in Norway. Long travel distances, few surf friends and unpredictable surf conditions are amongst the challenges many surfers face. By applying these insights I have designed a solution that aims to lower the threshold to go surfing in Norway. The design proposal, Bølgen is a digital service provided by the Norw...

  1. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    During spring migration, Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus stop in mid Norway to refuel before their onward flight to the Svalbard breeding grounds. In mid Norway, geese feed on pastures, stubble as well as newly sown grain fields. The aim of the paper is to describe diurnal variations...... diurnal variation in resting and alertness. The observed diurnal variation differed from what has been found on the wintering grounds indicating that during spring, birds increase their foraging intensity in order to meet energetic and nutritional demands in a short time. Seasonal availability of habitats...

  2. Synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns controlling avalanche activity in central Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Holt; Prokop, Alexander; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Hendrikx, Jordy

    2017-04-01

    Central Svalbard's avalanche activity is primarily controlled by the local and synoptic scale meteorological conditions characterizing the region's winter storms. Previous work has described Svalbard's direct-action snow climate as High-Arctic maritime based on the unique meteorological conditions and resulting snowpack stratigraphy observed in the region. To gain a better understanding of the broad-scale spatial controls on regional avalanche activity in Svalbard, this work investigates synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns associated with observed avalanche cycles during the 2007/2008 to 2015/2016 winter seasons. We use avalanche observations systematically recorded as part of the Cryoslope Svalbard project from 2007-2010 in combination with additional observations from notable avalanche events from 2010-2016 to develop a regional avalanche cycle history. We then compare the timing of these avalanche cycles to an existing daily calendar of synoptic types and NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis datasets to characterize the synoptic atmospheric circulation patterns influencing this avalanche activity. Our results indicate regional avalanche cycles are driven by cyclonic activity in the seas surrounding Svalbard under synoptic circulation patterns associated with warm air advection and moisture transport from lower latitudes to Svalbard. The character and spatial distribution of observed avalanche activity can be differentiated by atmospheric circulation type: mid-winter slushflow and wet slab avalanche cycles, for example, are typically associated with meridional southerly flow over the North Atlantic bringing warm air and heavy precipitation to Svalbard. Such analyses can provide a foundation upon which to improve the understanding of central Svalbard's snow climate to facilitate regional avalanche forecasting efforts.

  3. Triassic conodonts from Svalbard and their Boreal correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Nakrem, Hans Arne; Orchard, Michael J.; Weitschat, Wolfgang; Hounslow, Mark W; Beatty, Tyler W.; Mørk, Atle

    2008-01-01

    Conodont faunas are described from Triassic sections of Svalbard, and their occurrences are locally correlated with established ammonoid zones. With a synthesis of previous conodont-based publications, the current work presents a taxonomically up-to-date compilation of conodont data for the Triassic of Svalbard that is used to construct a conodont-based biochronology, indexed to the current lithostratigraphic nomenclature. Twenty-eight taxa spanning the earliest Griesbachian to the earliest C...

  4. Multi-criteria TSP: Min and Max combined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo; Bampis, Evripidis; Jansen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We present randomized approximation algorithms for multi-criteria traveling salesman problems (TSP), where some objective functions should be minimized while others should be maximized. For the symmetric multi-criteria TSP (STSP), we present an algorithm that computes (2/3 − ε, 4 + ε) approximate

  5. On approximately fair cost allocation in Euclidean TSP games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faigle, U.; Fekete, Sándor P.; Hochstättler, Winfried; Kern, Walter

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of allocating the cost of an optimal traveling salesman tour in a fair way among the nodes visited; in particular, we focus on the case where the distance matrix of the underlying TSP problem satisfies the triangle inequality. We thereby use the model of TSP games in the

  6. Deterministic algorithms for multi-criteria Max-TSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manthey, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    We present deterministic approximation algorithms for the multi-criteria maximum traveling salesman problem (Max-TSP). Our algorithms are faster and simpler than the existing randomized algorithms. We devise algorithms for the symmetric and asymmetric multi-criteria Max-TSP that achieve ratios of

  7. Columnar aerosol characterization over Scandinavia and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Bennouna, Y.; Berjón, A.; Torres, B.; Fuertes, D.; González, R.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    An overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard was provided by Toledano et al. (2012) thanks to the collaborative effort of various research groups from different countries that maintain a number of observation sites in the European Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. The spatial coverage of this kind of data has remarkably improved in the last years, thanks, among other things, to projects carried out within the framework of the International Polar Year 2007-08. The data from a set of operational sun photometer sites belonging either to national or international measurement networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) were evaluated. The direct sun observations provided spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE), that are parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first characterization at all sites. At the AERONET sites, microphysical properties derived from inversion of sun-sky radiance data were also examined. AOD (500nm) ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites whereas the aerosol load was higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (average AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols showed larger mean size than in continental areas. Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters were used to evaluate aerosol volume efficiencies. The aerosol optical depth characterization revealed that the seasonal patterns in the high Arctic (with the typical hazy spring), in the sub-Arctic region and Southern Scandinavia are all different. The clean continental, polluted continental and maritime aerosols constitute the three main aerosol types, although persistent (Asian) dust was also detected in Svalbard.

  8. Modelling the snow distribution at two high arctic sites at Svalbard, Norway, and at an alpine site in central Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruland, Oddbjørn; Liston, Glen E.; Vonk, Jorien; Sand, Knut; Killingtveit, Anund

    2004-01-01

    In Arctic regions snow cover has a major influence on the environment both in a hydrological and ecological context. Due to strong winds and open terrain the snow is heavily redistributed and the snow depth is quite variable. This has a significant influence on the snow cover depletion and the

  9. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in Arctic Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glad, Trine; Bernhardsen, Pål; Nielsen, Kaare M; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Andersen, Magnus; Aars, Jon; Sundset, Monica A

    2010-01-14

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81 degrees N, 10-33 degrees E). In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr) were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70%) were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 x 10(4) to 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units (cfu)/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 x 10(3) to 1.0 x 10(5) cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic beta-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  10. Bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bear (Ursus maritimus in Arctic Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brusetti Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus are major predators in the Arctic marine ecosystem, feeding mainly on seals, and living closely associated with sea ice. Little is known of their gut microbial ecology and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity in faeces of polar bears in Svalbard, Norway (74-81°N, 10-33°E. In addition the level of blaTEM alleles, encoding ampicillin resistance (ampr were determined. In total, ten samples were collected from ten individual bears, rectum swabs from five individuals in 2004 and faeces samples from five individuals in 2006. Results A 16S rRNA gene clone library was constructed, and all sequences obtained from 161 clones showed affiliation with the phylum Firmicutes, with 160 sequences identified as Clostridiales and one sequence identified as unclassified Firmicutes. The majority of the sequences (70% were affiliated with the genus Clostridium. Aerobic heterotrophic cell counts on chocolate agar ranged between 5.0 × 104 to 1.6 × 106 colony forming units (cfu/ml for the rectum swabs and 4.0 × 103 to 1.0 × 105 cfu/g for the faeces samples. The proportion of ampr bacteria ranged from 0% to 44%. All of 144 randomly selected ampr isolates tested positive for enzymatic β-lactamase activity. Three % of the ampr isolates from the rectal samples yielded positive results when screened for the presence of blaTEM genes by PCR. BlaTEM alleles were also detected by PCR in two out of three total faecal DNA samples from polar bears. Conclusion The bacterial diversity in faeces from polar bears in their natural environment in Svalbard is low compared to other animal species, with all obtained clones affiliating to Firmicutes. Furthermore, only low levels of blaTEM alleles were detected in contrast to their increasing prevalence in some clinical and commensal bacterial populations.

  11. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Solveig; Kerhervé, Philippe; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Many, Gaël; Morata, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    With climate change, the strong seasonality and tight pelagic-benthic coupling in the Arctic is expected to change in the next few decades. It is currently unclear how the benthos will be affected by changes of environmental conditions such as supplies of organic matter (OM) from the water column. In the last decade, Kongsfjorden (79°N), a high Arctic fjord in Svalbard influenced by several glaciers and Atlantic water inflow, has been a site of great interest owing to its high sensitivity to climate change, evidenced by a reduction in ice cover and an increase in melting freshwater. To investigate how spatial and seasonal changes in vertical fluxes can impact the benthic compartment of Kongsfjorden, we studied the organic matter characteristics (in terms of quantity and quality) and prokaryotic distribution in sediments from 3 stations along a transect extending from the glacier into the outer fjord in 4 different seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in 2012-2013. The biochemical parameters used to describe the sedimentary organic matter were organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen, bulk stable isotope ratios, pigments (chorophyll-a and phaeopigments) and biopolymeric carbon (BPC), which is the sum of the main macromolecules, i.e. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Prokaryotic abundance and distribution were estimated by 4‧,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. This study identifies a well-marked quantitative gradient of biogenic compounds throughout all seasons and also highlights a discrepancy between the quantity and quality of sedimentary organic matter within the fjord. The sediments near the glacier were organic-poor (Norway, Svalbard, Kongsfjorden.

  12. TETRAHEURÍSTICA SISTÉMICA (THS PARA EL TSP SYSTEMIC TETRAHEURISTIC FOR THE TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván Pérez Rave

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un novedoso método, basado en elementos del pensamiento sistémico, para solucionar instancias del problema del vendedor viajero (TSP, el cual es comparado en términos de eficacia y eficiencia con "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-wwy exchange improvement" y "branch and bound". El primer apartado introduce la optimización combinatoria, el segundo ofrece un marco de referencia, el tercero presenta la metodología empleada, el cuarto apartado presenta el desarrollo de la tetraheurística sistémica, seguido del análisis de varianza y de rangos de Duncan para los factores: método y cantidad de ciudades; este apartado finaliza con el análisis del comportamiento de la proporción de "fracasos" del algoritmo propuesto a medida que aumenta la complejidad del TSP. Como resultado se obtiene un método para resolver instancias del TSP, conformado por tres heurísticas misionales: 1."vecino más cercano", 2. "sacrificio cortoplacista" y 3. "traslado LIFO", y una de apoyo llamada "búsqueda derecha 4P4". El diseño de la heurística denominada "sacrificio cortoplacista" es inspirado en el análisis sistémico del "vecino más cercano", al cual se le identifica el arquetipo de "soluciones rápidas que fallan", con aplicación a decisiones cotidianas. La tetraheurística sistémica se destaca, respecto a las demás, en solución arrojada y en tiempo computacional consumido, especialmente cuando incrementa la complejidad del TSP.This paper presents a novel method to solve instances of the TSP. This method is comparable in effectiveness and efficiency with "nearest neighbour", "cheapest insertion", "two-way exchange improvement" and "branch and bound". The first section provides a literature review of the combinatorial optimization, the second provides a reference frame, the third the methodology used and the fourth contains, inter alia, system thinking, AxB factorial design and management tool CAP-DO. The fourth

  13. The role of thrombospondin (TSP)-1 in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ping; Cavalera, Michele; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2014-01-01

    Matricellular proteins are extracellular macromolecules that do not serve a structural role, but when incorporated into the matrix, modulate cell:cell and cell:matrix interactions. The matricellular protein thrombospondin (TSP)-1, a potent angiostatic mediator and activator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, is upregulated in diabetes and obesity and may be involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic dysregulation and organ dysfunction. This manuscript discusses recently published observations on the role of TSP-1 in metabolic disease. In obesity models induced by a high-fat diet, adipose tissue TSP-1 upregulation induces inflammation and promotes weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. TSP-1 may have direct effects on adipocyte proliferation and fatty acid uptake. In diabetic subjects, TSP-1 upregulation in kidney, myocardium, and vascular tissue may promote dysfunction. In the myocardium, TSP-1 upregulation may transduce angiostatic signals inducing vascular rarefaction. Dissection of the functional domains involved in TSP-1 actions may lead to the development of peptide-based strategies for treatment of diabetes and its complications.

  14. HAM/TSP and major depression: the role of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa-Sorte, Ney; Galvão-Castro, Ana Verena; Borba, Danilo; Lima, Renan Barbalho Nunes de Castro; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of demographic variables in the relationship between the presence of HAM/TSP and current major depression. It is a cross-sectional study of 108 HTLV-1 infected patients (47 with TSP/HAM) resident of Salvador, Brazil. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Brazilian Version 5 was used to evaluate the presence of depression. Prevalence ratios were used to describe relationship between HAM/TSP and depression. The HAM/TSP classification was carried out according to the criteria proposed by Castro-Costa et al. Prevalence of depression was 37.96%. No association was observed between presence of HAM/TSP and diagnosis of current major depression in the global analysis of patients (PR: 0.94; CI 95%: 0.57-1.55). In the stratified analysis, however, greater prevalence of depression was observed amongst individuals with HAM/TSP in the 18-39 age group (PR: 2.59; CI 95%: 1.36-4.95). Our findings suggest that age is an effect modifier in the relationship between HAM/TSP and depression, and this aspect should be considered in future studies on the topic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. 5 CFR 1650.33 - Contributing to the TSP after an in-service withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contributing to the TSP after an in... Contributing to the TSP after an in-service withdrawal. (a) A participant's TSP contribution election will not be affected by an age-based in-service withdrawal; therefore, his or her TSP contributions will...

  16. 5 CFR 839.1119 - How is the actuarial reduction for TSP computed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How is the actuarial reduction for TSP... actuarial reduction for TSP computed? (a) The part of your TSP account on the date you retired that is... survivor benefit is not reduced for TSP if the retiree's rate was reduced. Survivor Benefits ...

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.275 - What performance must I expect from a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expect from a TSP? 102-117.275 Section 102-117.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.275 What performance must I expect from a TSP? You must expect the TSP to provide consistent and satisfactory service to meet your...

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.555 - Can a TSP file a supplemental administrative claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP file a... 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Claims and Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) Filing Requirements § 102-118.555 Can a TSP file a supplemental administrative claim? Yes, a TSP may file...

  19. SMALL AND LARGE TSP - 2 POLYNOMIALLY SOLVABLE CASES OF THE TRAVELING SALESMAN PROBLEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDAL, R; VANDERVEEN, JAA; SIERKSMA, G

    1993-01-01

    The problem of minimizing and maximizing the objective function of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is discussed. In particular, we consider two special cases of the TSP, namely the small TSP and the large TSP, for which both a minimum and a maximum of the objective function can be obtained in

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.545 - What information must a TSP claim include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TSP claim include? 102-118.545 Section 102-118.545 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Claims and Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) Filing Requirements § 102-118.545 What information must a TSP claim include? Transportation service provider (TSP...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.480 - How does my agency settle disputes with a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... settle disputes with a TSP? 102-118.480 Section 102-118.480 Public Contracts and Property Management... Claims § 102-118.480 How does my agency settle disputes with a TSP? As a part of the prepayment audit program, your agency must have a plan to resolve disputes with a TSP. This program must allow a TSP to...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.450 - Can a TSP file a transportation claim against my agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP file a... Claims § 102-118.450 Can a TSP file a transportation claim against my agency? Yes, a TSP may file a... original billing; (b) Amounts deducted or set off by an agency that are disputed by the TSP; (c) Requests...

  3. 5 CFR 1601.12 - Investing future deposits in the TSP Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investing future deposits in the TSP... PARTICIPANTS' CHOICES OF TSP FUNDS Investing Future Deposits § 1601.12 Investing future deposits in the TSP Funds. (a) Allocation. Future deposits in the TSP, including contributions, loan payments, and transfers...

  4. 5 CFR 1600.32 - Methods for transferring eligible rollover distribution to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rollover distribution to TSP. 1600.32 Section 1600.32 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT... Retirement Plans § 1600.32 Methods for transferring eligible rollover distribution to TSP. (a) Trustee-to... plan transfer any or all of their account directly to the TSP by executing and submitting a Form TSP-60...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.605 - What if a TSP disagrees with the Notice of Indebtedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What if a TSP disagrees... (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.605 What if a TSP disagrees with the Notice of Indebtedness? If a TSP disagrees with an ordinary debt, as shown on a Notice of...

  6. 41 CFR 102-117.280 - What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What aspects of the TSP... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.280 What aspects of the TSP's performance are important to measure? Important TSP performance...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.645 - Can a TSP file an administrative claim on collection actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP file an... (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.645 Can a TSP file an administrative claim on collection actions? Yes, a TSP may file an administrative claim involving collection...

  8. Current use and legacy pesticide deposition to ice caps on Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruggirello, Rachel M.; Hermanson, Mark H.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Camilla; Forsstrom, Sanja; Muir, Derek C. G.; Pohjola, Veijo; van de Wal, Roderik; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Transport and deposition of current use (CUP) and legacy pesticides (LP) and residual products to the Arctic have been documented in abiotic matrices. These observations show that some "low-persistence" pesticides with high OH center dot reaction rates are stable enough to accumulate in a polar

  9. The first magnetotelluric image of the lithospheric-scale geological architecture in central Svalbard, Arctic Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas I. Beka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotelluric data, collected from 30 stations on Spitsbergen as part of a reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment along a profile with 0.5–3-km spacing in 0.003–1000-s period range, were used to develop a lithospheric-scale two-dimensional (2D resistivity model, heretofore unavailable for the region. Inverting the determinant of the impedance tensor in 2D, we found the smoothest model fitting the data within a specified tolerance level. We justified the model by perturbing it, performing sensitivity analysis and re-running the inversion with a different algorithm and starting models. From our final model, we constructed a crustal-scale stratigraphic framework, using it to estimate the depth of major geological features and to locate structural deformations. The 2D resistivity model indicates a shallow low resistive (1000 Ωm east of the Billefjorden Fault Zone. Underneath, a (possibly Devonian basin is imaged as a thick conductive anomaly stretching >15 km downwards. Beneath a deformed Paleozoic–Mesozoic successions, an uplifted pre-Devonian shallow basement (>3000 Ωm is revealed. We estimated a thin lithosphere, in the range of ca. 55–100 km thick, that could explain the area's elevated surface heat flow (ca. 60–90 mW/m2, consistent with the calculated depth of thermal lithosphere heat-base boundaries for a partially melting mantle. The model indicates a possible replenishment pathway of upward heat transport from the shallow convective mantle to the composite crustal conductive units. This is encouraging for low-enthalpy geothermal development.

  10. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  11. 76 FR 32980 - Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... SECURITY Telecommunications Service Priority (TSP) System AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... telecommunications vendors to provide priority provisioning and restoration of telecommunications services supporting..., National Communications System. Title: Telecommunications Service Priority System. OMB Number: 1670-0005...

  12. Wind tunnel evaluation of Hi-Vol TSP effectiveness data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wind tunnel evaluation of EPA's Hi-Vol TSP sampler for sampling effectiveness with regards to aerodynamic particle diameter (5 to 35 microns), wind speed (2, 8, 24...

  13. Plasma density over Svalbard during the ISBJØRN campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available In 1997, reliable operation of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR was achieved and a rocket launching facility at Ny Ålesund on Svalbard (79°N, 12°E (SVALRAK was established. On 20 November, 1977, the first instrumented payload was launched from SVALRAK. Although the payload configuration had been flown many times previously from Andøya Rocket Range on the Norwegian mainland, this presented an unprecedented in situ determination of positive ion density over Svalbard. Simultaneously, ESR measured similar density profiles but in a higher altitude regime. We have combined the ESR measurements with ionosonde data to establish a calibration and subsequently combined the ground-based and in situ determined profiles to give a composite positive ion density profile from the mesosphere to the thermosphere.

    Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere; instruments and techniques

  14. Plasma density over Svalbard during the ISBJØRN campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, reliable operation of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR was achieved and a rocket launching facility at Ny Ålesund on Svalbard (79°N, 12°E (SVALRAK was established. On 20 November, 1977, the first instrumented payload was launched from SVALRAK. Although the payload configuration had been flown many times previously from Andøya Rocket Range on the Norwegian mainland, this presented an unprecedented in situ determination of positive ion density over Svalbard. Simultaneously, ESR measured similar density profiles but in a higher altitude regime. We have combined the ESR measurements with ionosonde data to establish a calibration and subsequently combined the ground-based and in situ determined profiles to give a composite positive ion density profile from the mesosphere to the thermosphere.Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere; instruments and techniques

  15. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ehrgott, Matthias

    that minimizes the total transportation cost (ignoring the cost of transporting the container between the depots of the two trips) given that the container cannot be repacked at any stage. In this paper we present an exact solution method based on matching k-best TSP solutions for each of the separate pickup...... and delivery TSP problems and show that previously unsolved instances can be solved within seconds using this approach....

  16. An Exact Method for the Double TSP with Multiple Stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    that minimizes the total transportation cost (ignoring the cost of transporting the container between the depots of the two trips) given that the container cannot be repacked at any stage. In this paper we present an exact solution method based on matching k-best TSP solutions for each of the separate pickup...... and delivery TSP problems and show that previously unsolved instances can be solved within seconds using this approach....

  17. TSP – Infrastructure for the Traveling Salesperson Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hahsler

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The traveling salesperson (or, salesman problem (TSP is a well known and important combinatorial optimization problem. The goal is to find the shortest tour that visits each city in a given list exactly once and then returns to the starting city. Despite this simple problem statement, solving the TSP is difficult since it belongs to the class of NP-complete problems. The importance of the TSP arises besides from its theoretical appeal from the variety of its applications. Typical applications in operations research include vehicle routing, computer wiring, cutting wallpaper and job sequencing. The main application in statistics is combinatorial data analysis, e.g., reordering rows and columns of data matrices or identifying clusters. In this paper, we introduce the R package TSP which provides a basic infrastructure for handling and solving the traveling salesperson problem. The package features S3 classes for specifying a TSP and its (possibly optimal solution as well as several heuristics to find good solutions. In addition, it provides an interface to Concorde, one of the best exact TSP solvers currently available.

  18. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  19. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988?2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Einar Eythórsson; Jesper Madsen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vester...

  20. Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System - A New Coordinated Foundation for Environmental Services in and around Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is an international infrastructure project. There were 28 partners from Europe and Asia involved in the preparatory phase of this ESFRI project. The essential objectives are to establish a mechanism for integration among the existing research institutions in Svalbard to create a joint state-of-the-art observing system in Earth System Science, and better coordinated services for the International Research community with respect to access, data and knowledge management, logistics and training. In addition to the SIOS members various data services, SIOS itself will provide a few new services such as processed satellite data (from Copernicus' Sentinels as well as others) and combined in-situ and satellite data. All in all SIOS represent a new capacity and foundation for more Earth System Science, including climate and environment, data services in and around Svalbard. A presentation of SIOS including time schedule for implementation of the basic services will be given.

  1. A historical review of gravimetric observations in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnvald Pettersen, Bjørn

    2016-10-01

    climate change. The viscoelastic postglacial land uplift of Fennoscandia has been detected by terrestrial gravity time series as well as by satellite gravimetry. Corrections for local effects of snow load, hydrology, and ocean loading at coastal stations have been improved. The elastic adjustment of present-day melting of glaciers at Svalbard and in mainland Norway has been detected. Gravimetry is extensively employed at offshore oil facilities to monitor the subsidence of the ocean floor during oil and gas extraction.

  2. Characterization of the thrombospondin (TSP)-II gene in Penaeus monodon and a novel role of TSP-like proteins in an induction of shrimp sperm acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerd, Sirilug; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2013-05-01

    We have recently shown that water-soluble materials from the egg extracellular cortical rods (wsCRs) exert the ability to induce the sperm acrosome reaction in Penaeus monodon. In this study, we further demonstrated that the thrombospondin protein family (TSP) existed in wsCRs, and that their mRNA transcripts were detected in developing oocytes as early as stage I. Full sequence analysis revealed that our pmTSP sequence was considerably different from the recently reported pmTSP in the 5' nonconserved region and in many TSP signature domains, hence, the name pmTSP-II was given to our variant. The transcripts of pmTSP-II were detected only in early developing oocytes (stage-I and -II) while TSP-like proteins were detected in all developing oocytes, particularly at the outer rim of cortical rods situated in the extracellular crypts of the mature, stage-IV oocytes. In addition, wsCRs contained anti-TSP-reactive proteins, suggesting that TSP-like proteins are dissolved in and are part of the egg water during spawning. The functional importance of TSP-like proteins was evident by the interference of a wsCR-induced acrosome reaction response with anti-TSP in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, we found that pmTSP-II transcripts were present in the developing oocytes and pmTSP-II protein accumulated in cortical rods, which are partly secreted and thus solubilized to produce dissolved TSP-like proteins that participate in induction of the sperm acrosome reaction-a novel reproductive role for TSP protein family. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Malthus on norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M

    1966-11-01

    Abstract Malthus visited Norway in 1799 and his impression of the country's demographic experience was important in determining the character of the second edition of his Essay on the Principle of Population. He relied for the most part on non-statistical sources. This led him to exaggerate, e.g. the size of households, the number of unmarried farm servants and to miss important features, e.g. differences in marital age patterns, regional variations in fertility and nuptiality. The bias of his itinerary and of his main informants is also apparent. Statistical material not available to Malthus indicates that he was right to stress the late age at marriage in Norway but wrong to ignore the operation of the positive check. Mortality was frequently high in late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century Norway, much higher than Malthus ever realized. This destroys the symmetry, as well as the morality, of Malthus's exposition.

  4. Cytotoxicity of TSP in 3D Agarose Gel Cultured Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Song-I; Mun, Chi-Woong

    2015-01-01

    A reference reagent, 3-(trimethylsilyl) propionic-2, 2, 3, 3-d4 acid sodium (TSP), has been used frequently in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as an internal reference to identify cell and tissue metabolites, and determine chemical and protein structures. This reference material has been exploited for the quantitative and dynamic analyses of metabolite spectra acquired from cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of TSP on three-dimensionally, agarose gel, cultured cells. A human osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63) was selected, and cells were three dimensionally cultured for two weeks in an agarose gel. The culture system contained a mixture of conventional culture medium and various concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20 30 mM) of TSP. A DNA quantification assay was conducted to assess cell proliferation using Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA reagent and kit, and cell viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity kit. Both examinations were performed simultaneously at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days from cell seeding. In this study, the cytotoxicity of TSP in the 3D culture of MG-63 cells was evaluated by quantifying DNA (cell proliferation) and cell viability. High concentrations of TSP (from 10 to 30 mM) reduced both cell proliferation and viability (to 30% of the control after one week of exposure), but no such effects were found using low concentrations of TSP (0-10 mM). This study shows that low concentrations of TSP in 3D cell culture medium can be used for quantitative NMR or MRS examinations for up to two weeks post exposure.

  5. Sports Diplomacy of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.

  6. Applying a mesoscale atmospheric model to Svalbard glaciers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claremar, B.; Obleitner, F.; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; Pohjola, V.; Waxegard, A.; Karner, F.; Rutgersson, A.

    2012-01-01

    The mesoscale atmospheric model WRF is used over three Svalbard glaciers. The simulations are done with a setup of the model corresponding to the state-of-the-art model for polar conditions, Polar WRF, and it was validated using surface observations. The ERA-Interim reanalysis was used for boundary

  7. Multidecadal climate and seasonal snow conditions in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, W. J.J.; Kohler, J.; Liston, G. E.; Hagen, J. O.; Luks, B.; Reijmer, C. H.; Pohjola, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard climate is undergoing amplified change with respect to the global mean. Changing climate conditions directly affect the evolution of the seasonal snowpack, through its impact on accumulation, melt, and moisture exchange. We analyze long-term trends and spatial patterns of seasonal snow

  8. Papposphaera heldalii sp nov (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Egge, Jorun Karin

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to establish a taxonomy for the polar contingent of lightly calcified coccolithophores, we are currently dealing with species of Papposphaera. Here we describe a new species, Papposphaera heldalii sp. nov., based on material from Svalbard. The species is unique in terms of calyx...

  9. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kääb, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ... third of the total observed global sea level rise. It is therefore important to quantify glacier volume changes for the various glaciated regions in the world, both to estimate glacial sea level contribution and to link such contributions to regional climatic changes. In this paper we estimate the contribution of Svalbard glaciers to sea level rise. Various m...

  10. Improved Approximation Lower Bounds for TSP with Distances One and Two

    OpenAIRE

    Hirade, Ryo; Itoh, Toshiya

    2002-01-01

    The metric travelling salesman problem Δ-Tsp is the traveling salesman problem in which the distances among cities satisfy the triangle inequality. In this paper, we consider the matric traveling salesman problem Δ(1,2)-Tsp with distances one and two and Δ(1,2,3)-Tsp with distances one, two, and three as the special cases of Δ-Tsp. Since Δ(1,2)-Tsp is NP-complete, it is NP-hard to find an optimal solution for Δ(1,2)-Tsp. So in polynomial time, we with to find an approximate solution for Δ(1,2...

  11. Levels and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard in relation to dietary habits and food availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Martin S. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Fuglei, Eva; König, Max [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Lipasti, Inka [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pedersen, Åshild Ø. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway); Polder, Anuschka [Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, NO-1432 Ås (Norway); Yoccoz, Nigel G. [Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, NO-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, NO-9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2015-04-01

    Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard, Norway, were investigated in relation to feeding habits and seasonal food availability. Arctic foxes from Svalbard forage in both marine and terrestrial ecosystems and the availability of their food items are impacted by climatic variability. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers [PBDEs] and hexabromocyclododecane [HBCDD]) were analyzed in the liver of 141 arctic foxes collected between 1997 and 2013. Stable carbon isotope values (δ{sup 13}C) were used as a proxy for feeding on marine versus terrestrial prey. The annual number of recovered reindeer carcasses and sea ice cover were used as proxies for climate influenced food availability (reindeers, seals). Linear models revealed that concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year, while no trends were observed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) or β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Positive relationships between POP concentrations and δ{sup 13}C indicate that concentrations of all compounds increase with increasing marine dietary input. Increasing reindeer mortality was related to lower HCB concentrations in the foxes based on the linear models. This suggests that concentrations of HCB in arctic foxes may be influenced by high mortality levels of Svalbard reindeer. Further, β-HCH concentrations showed a positive association with sea ice cover. These results in addition to the strong effect of δ{sup 13}C on all POP concentrations suggest that climate-related changes in arctic fox diet are likely to influence contaminant concentrations in arctic foxes from Svalbard. - Highlights: • POPs were analyzed in the arctic foxes' liver (n = 141) from Svalbard collected in 1997–2013. • PCBs, chlordanes, p,p′-DDE, mirex and PBDEs decreased 4–11% per year.

  12. Teachers, Researchers, and Students Collaborating in Arctic Climate Change Research: The Partnership Between the Svalbard REU and ARCUS PolarTREC programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, S.; Warburton, J.; Oddo, B.; Kane, M.

    2007-12-01

    Since 2004, the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) "TREC" program (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, now "PolarTREC") has sent four K-12 teachers to Svalbard, Norway to work alongside researchers and undergraduate students conducting climate change research as part of the Svalbard Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program. The benefits of this scientist/educator/student partnership are many. Researchers benefit from teacher participation as it increases their understanding of student learning and the roles and responsibilities of K-12 teachers. The TREC teacher contributes to the research by making observations, analyzing data, and carrying heavy loads of equipment. In collaborating with K- 12 teachers, undergraduate student participants discover the importance of teamwork in science and the need for effective communication of scientific results to a broad audience. The questions that K-12 teachers ask require the scientists and students in our program to explain their work in terms that non-specialists can understand and appreciate. The K-12 teacher provides a positive career role model and several Svalbard REU undergraduate students have pursued K-12 teaching careers after graduating. TREC teachers benefit from working alongside the researchers and by experiencing the adventures of real scientific research in a remote arctic environment. They return to their schools with a heightened status that allows them to share the excitement and importance of scientific research with their students. Together, all parties contribute to greatly enhance public outreach. With ARCUS logistical support, TREC teachers and researchers do live web conferences from the field, reaching hundreds of students and dozens of school administrators and even local politicians. Teachers maintain web journals, describing the daily activities and progress of the researcher team. Online readers from around the world write in to ask questions, which the

  13. An entropy-based improved k-top scoring pairs (TSP) method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We compared Ik-TSP classifiers with 5 different machine learning methods and the k-TSP method based on 3 different feature selection methods on 9 binary class gene expression datasets and 10 multi-class gene expression datasets involving human cancers. Experimental results showed that the Ik-TSP method had ...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.610 - Is a TSP notified when GSA allows a claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is a TSP notified when...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Claims and Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.610 Is a TSP notified when GSA allows a claim? Yes...

  15. 5 CFR 1645.4 - Administrative expenses attributable to each TSP Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each TSP Fund. 1645.4 Section 1645.4 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CALCULATION OF SHARE PRICES § 1645.4 Administrative expenses attributable to each TSP Fund. A portion of the administrative expenses accrued during each business day will be charged to each TSP Fund...

  16. 5 CFR 1645.3 - Calculation of total net earnings for each TSP Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... each TSP Fund. 1645.3 Section 1645.3 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CALCULATION OF SHARE PRICES § 1645.3 Calculation of total net earnings for each TSP Fund. (a) Each business day, net earnings will be calculated separately for each TSP Fund. (b) Net earnings for each fund...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.630 - How must a TSP refund amounts due to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must a TSP refund...-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Claims and Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.630 How must a TSP refund amounts due to GSA? (a) TSPs...

  18. Temporal constraints on hydrate-controlled methane seepage off Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, C; Feseker, T; Treude, T; Krastel, S; Liebetrau, V; Niemann, H; Bertics, V J; Dumke, I; Dünnbier, K; Ferré, B; Graves, C; Gross, F; Hissmann, K; Hühnerbach, V; Krause, S; Lieser, K; Schauer, J; Steinle, L

    2014-01-17

    Methane hydrate is an icelike substance that is stable at high pressure and low temperature in continental margin sediments. Since the discovery of a large number of gas flares at the landward termination of the gas hydrate stability zone off Svalbard, there has been concern that warming bottom waters have started to dissociate large amounts of gas hydrate and that the resulting methane release may possibly accelerate global warming. Here, we corroborate that hydrates play a role in the observed seepage of gas, but we present evidence that seepage off Svalbard has been ongoing for at least 3000 years and that seasonal fluctuations of 1° to 2°C in the bottom-water temperature cause periodic gas hydrate formation and dissociation, which focus seepage at the observed sites.

  19. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  20. Effect of wind on Svalbard reindeer fur insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer through Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus fur samples was studied with respect to wind velocity, season and animal age. A total of 33 dorsal fur sections were investigated using a wind tunnel. Insulation varied with season (calving, summer, autumn and winter. At zero wind velocity, fur insulation was significantly different between seasons for both calf and adult fur samples. At the same time, there was no significant difference between calf and adult insulation for the summer, autumn and winter seasons. Calf fur insulated as well as adult fur. Winter insulation of Svalbard reindeer was approximately 3 times that of summer. Increasing wind veloci¬ty increased heat loss, however, the increase was not dramatic. When wind coefficients (slope of the heat transfer regression lines were compared, between season and between calf and adult, no significant differences were reported. All fur samples showed similar increases in heat transfer for wind velocities between 0 and 10 m.s-1. The conductance of winter fur of Svalbard reindeer was almost half that of caribou fur. Also, conductance was not as greatly influenced by wind as caribou fur

  1. Status and biology of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals in Svalbard are the northernmost population of this species. This small population is comprised of ca. 1,000 individuals, most of which reside along the west coast of Prins Karls Forland (78°20’N. Satellite tracking studies have shown that adults are resident. Birthing occurs in the latter half of June. Newborns weigh about 11 kg and gain an average of 0.7 kg/d during the nursing period. Haulout patterns in Svalbard harbour seals are influenced by date (season, time of day, tidal cycle and temperature. Moulting takes place in early fall, first among juveniles, then in adult females and finally in adult males. Feeding studies show that polar cod (Boreogadus saida is the dominant prey in terms of numbers, while Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is the dominant prey based on biomass, at least during the early autumn. Growth curves display significant sexual dimorphism with asymptotic values for standard length and body mass being greater formales. Testosterone levels inmales showed an abrupt increase at 6 years of age, while estradiol levels in females increased abruptly from age 4 years. The reproductive rate for adult females was 0.93. Longevity of Svalbard harbour seals is very short compared with populations from other areas.

  2. Using a TSP heuristic for routing order pickers in warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theys, Christophe; Bräysy, Olli; Dullaert, Wout; Raa, Birger

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the sequencing and routing problem of order pickers in conventional multi-parallel-aisle warehouse systems. For this NP-hard Steiner travelling salesman problem (TSP), exact algorithms only exist for warehouses with at most three cross aisles, while for other warehouse

  3. Improved exact method for the double TSP with multiple stacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The Double TSP with Multiple Stacks is a logistics problem where one must, using a container, transport a given number of orders from a set of pickup customers to a set of delivery customers at minimum cost. Each order corresponds to the movement of one pallet, all pickups must be completed before...

  4. Diet and metabolic state are the main factors determining concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances in female polar bears from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Lone, Karen; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Torget, Vidar; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in organisms worldwide, including Polar Regions. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus), the top predator of Arctic marine ecosystems, accumulates high concentrations of PFASs, which may be harmful to their health. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors (habitat quality, season, year, diet, metabolic state [i.e. feeding/fasting], breeding status and age) predict PFAS concentrations in female polar bears captured on Svalbard (Norway). We analysed two perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs: PFHxS and PFOS) and C 8 -C 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in 112 plasma samples obtained in April and September 2012-2013. Nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) in red blood cells and plasma, and fatty acid profiles in adipose tissue were used as proxies for diet. We determined habitat quality based on movement patterns, capture position and resource selection functions, which are models that predict the probability of use of a resource unit. Plasma urea to creatinine ratios were used as proxies for metabolic state (i.e. feeding or fasting state). Results were obtained from a conditional model averaging of 42 general linear mixed models. Diet was the most important predictor of PFAS concentrations. PFAS concentrations were positively related to trophic level and marine diet input. High PFAS concentrations in females feeding on the eastern part of Svalbard, where the habitat quality was higher than on the western coast, were likely related to diet and possibly to abiotic factors. Concentrations of PFSAs and C 8 -C 10 PFCAs were higher in fasting than in feeding polar bears and PFOS was higher in females with cubs of the year than in solitary females. Our findings suggest that female polar bears that are exposed to the highest levels of PFAS are those 1) feeding on high trophic level sea ice-associated prey, 2) fasting and 3) with small cubs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.580 - May a TSP appeal a prepayment audit decision of the GSA Audit Division?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a TSP appeal a... Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.580 May a TSP appeal a prepayment audit decision of the GSA Audit Division? (a) Yes, the TSP may appeal to the Civilian Board of...

  6. 41 CFR 102-117.255 - What actions may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.255 Section 102-117.255 Public Contracts and... may I take if the TSP's performance is not satisfactory? If the TSP's performance is not satisfactory, you may place a TSP in temporary nonuse, suspended status, or debarred status. For more information on...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.550 - How does a TSP file an administrative claim using EDI or other electronic means?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a TSP file an... Service Provider (tsp) Filing Requirements § 102-118.550 How does a TSP file an administrative claim using.... The TSP must be able to locate, identify, and reproduce the records in readable form without loss of...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.620 - How will a TSP know if the GSA Audit Division disallows a claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will a TSP know if... Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.620 How will a TSP..., Settlement Certificate, to the TSP explaining the disallowance. ...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.585 - May a TSP appeal a prepayment audit decision of the CBCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a TSP appeal a... (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Prepayment Audits § 102-118.585 May a TSP appeal a prepayment... the TSP has no statutory right of appeal. This subpart governs administrative actions only and does...

  10. 47 CFR 73.9002 - Sale or distribution of demodulators, covered demodulator products, and peripheral TSP products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... demodulator products, and peripheral TSP products. 73.9002 Section 73.9002 Telecommunication FEDERAL... products, and peripheral TSP products. (a) Demodulators. No party that manufactures or imports a...) Peripheral TSP products. No party that manufactures or imports a peripheral TSP product shall sell or...

  11. 41 CFR 102-117.285 - What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TSP's performance is not satisfactory? 102-117.285 Section 102-117.285 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.285 What are my choices if a TSP's performance is not satisfactory? You may choose to place a TSP in temporary...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.615 - Will GSA notify a TSP if they internally offset a payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will GSA notify a TSP if... (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.615 Will GSA notify a TSP if they internally offset a payment? Yes, the GSA Audit Division will inform the TSP if they internally offset a...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.660 - May a TSP appeal a postpayment audit decision of the CBCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a TSP appeal a... (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.660 May a TSP appeal a postpayment audit decision of the CBCA? No, a ruling by the CBCA is the final administrative remedy and the TSP has...

  14. Porphyrias in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykletun, Mira; Aarsand, Aasne Karine; Støle, Egil; Villanger, Jørild Haugen; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Baravelli, Carl; Sandberg, Sverre

    2014-04-29

    Porphyria is an umbrella term for a group of largely hereditary diseases that are due to defective haem synthesis. The diseases have a varied and partly overlapping range of symptoms and presentations. The commonest forms of porphyria are porphyria cutanea tarda, acute intermittent porphyria and erythropoietic protoporphyria. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the prevalence and pathological manifestations of porphyrias in Norway. Information on all patients registered with the Norwegian Porphyria Centre (NAPOS) up to 2012 was used to estimate the prevalence and incidence of porphyrias in Norway. Figures on symptoms, precipitating factors and follow-up routines were obtained from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry, which includes 70% of Norwegians registered with NAPOS as having porphyria. The prevalence of porphyria cutanea tarda was approximately 10 : 100,000 and that of acute intermittent porphyria approximately 4 : 100,000. The total incidence of all porphyrias was approximately 0.5-1 : 100,000 per year. Diagnostic delay, i.e. the time passing between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis, varied from 1-17 years depending on the type of porphyria. There was wide variation in the frequency with which patients with the various types of porphyria went for medical check-ups. The prevalence of acute intermittent porphyria and porphyria cutanea tarda appears to be higher in Norway than in most other countries. Data from the Norwegian Porphyria Registry makes it possible to demonstrate differences in treatment and follow-up of porphyria patients and may be used to initiate necessary measures.

  15. 1st Science-Industry platform on expedition cruise tourism in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.A.J.; Olsen, J.; Hovelsrud, G.; Lang, I.; Jorgensen, F.

    2014-01-01

    The interest in Svalbard as a cruise tourism destination has increased gradually over the past decades, leading to a range of opportunities and challenges for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, communities, and regulatory systems on Svalbard and elsewhere in the Arctic (e.g. Greenland, Iceland,

  16. Relationships between POPs, biometrics and circulating steroids in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Hansen, Ingunn Tjelta; Bytingsvik, Jenny; Hansen, Martin; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma. Subsequently, associations between hormone concentrations (9 steroids), POPs (21 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 8 OH-PCBs, 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and OCP metabolites, and 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) and biological variables (age, head length, body mass, girth, body condition index), capture date, location (latitude and longitude), lipid content and cholesterol levels were examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) modelling. Average concentrations of androgens, estrogens and progestagens were in the range of 0.57-83.7 (0.57-12.4 for subadults, 1.02-83.7 for adults), 0.09-2.69 and 0.57-2.44 nmol/L, respectively. The steroid profiles suggest that sex steroids were mainly synthesized through the Δ-4 pathway in male polar bears. The ratio between androgens and estrogens significantly depended on sexual maturity with androgen/estrogen ratios being approximately 60 times higher in adult males than in subadult males. PCA plots and OPLS models indicated that TS was positively related to biometrics, such as body condition index in male polar bears. A negative relationship was also observed between POPs and DHT. Consequently, POPs and body condition may potentially affect the endocrinological function of steroids, including development of reproductive tissues and sex organs and the

  17. Re-evaluation of the 1950–1962 total ozone record from Longyearbyen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vogler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The historical total ozone measurements taken with Dobson Spectrophotometer #8 at Longyearbyen (78.2° N, 15.6° E, Svalbard, Norway, in the period 1950–1962 have been re-analyzed and homogenized based on the original measurement logs, using present-day procedures. In lack of sufficient calibration information, an empirical quality assessment was performed, based on a climatological comparison with ozone measurements in Tromsø, using TOMS data at both sites in the period 1979–2001, and ground-based Dobson data in the period 1950–1962. The assessment revealed that the C wavelength pair direct-sun (DS measurements are most trustworthy (and most frequent, while the WMO standard reference mode AD direct-sun has a systematic bias. Zenith-blue (ZB measurements at solar zenith angles (SZA <78° were adjusted to DS data using different empirical functions before and after 1957 (the start of the International Geophysical Year. ZB measurements at larger SZAs were homogenized by means of a normalization function derived from days with measurements over a wide range of SZAs. Zenith-cloudy measurements, which are particularly frequent during the summer months, were homogenized by applying correction factors depending on the cloud type (high thin clouds and medium to low thick clouds. The combination of all measurements yields a total of 4685 single values, covering 1637 days from September 1950 to September 1962; moon measurements during the polar night add another 137 daily means. The re-evaluated data show a convincing consistence with measurements since 1979 (TOMS, SAOZ, Dobson as well as with the 1957–1962 data stored at the World Ozone and UV Data Centre (WOUDC.

  18. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  19. Enterobacter cloacae with a novel variant of ACT AmpC beta-lactamase originating from glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) in Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literak, Ivan; Manga, Ivan; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chroma, Magdalena; Jamborova, Ivana; Dobiasova, Hana; Sedlakova, Miroslava Htoutou; Cizek, Alois

    2014-07-16

    We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n=215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n=15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146 bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arctic security and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamnes, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    Global warming is one of the most serious threats facing mankind. Many regions and countries will be affected, and there will be many losers. The earliest and most intense climatic changes are being experienced in the Arctic region. Arctic average temperature has risen at twice the rate of the global average in the past half century. These changes provide an early indication for the world of the environmental and societal significance of global warming. For that reason, the Arctic presents itself as an important scientific laboratory for improving our understanding of the causes and patterns of climate changes. The rapidly rising temperature threatens the Arctic ecosystem, but the human consequences seem to be far less dramatic there than in many other places in the world. According to the U.S. National Intelligence Council, Russia has the potential to gain the most from increasingly temperate weather, because its petroleum reserves become more accessible and because the opening of an Arctic waterway could provide economic and commercial advantages. Norway might also be fortunate. Some years ago, the Financial Times asked: #Left Double Quotation Mark#What should Norway do about the fact that global warming will make their climate more hospitable and enhance their financial situation, even as it inflicts damage on other parts of the world?#Right Double Quotation Mark#(Author)

  1. Characteristics of Arctic winds at CANDAC-PEARL (80° N, 86° W and Svalbard (78° N, 16° E for 2006–2009: radar observations and comparisons with the model CMAM-DAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Operation of a Meteor Wind Radar (MWR at Eureka, Ellesmere Island (80° N, 86° W began in February 2006; this is the location of the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, operated by the "Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change" (CANDAC. The first 36 months of wind data (82–97 km are here combined with contemporaneous winds from the Meteor Wind Radar at Adventdalen, Svalbard (78° N, 16° E, to provide the first evidence for substantial interannual variability (IAV of longitudinally spaced observations of mean/background winds and waves at such High Arctic latitudes. The influences of "Sudden Stratospheric Warmings" (SSW are also apparent. Monthly meridional (north-south, NS 3-year means for each location/radar demonstrate that winds (82–97 km differ significantly between Canada and Norway, with winter-equinox values generally northward over Eureka and southward over Svalbard. Using January 2008 as case study, these oppositely directed meridional winds are related to mean positions of the Arctic mesospheric vortex. The vortex is from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model, with its Data Assimilation System (CMAM-DAS. The characteristics of "Sudden stratospheric Warmings" SSW in each of the three winters are noted, as well as their uniquely distinctive short-term mesospheric wind disturbances. Comparisons of the mean winds over 36 months at 78 and 80° N, with those within CMAM-DAS, are featured. E.g. for 2007, while both monthly mean EW and NS winds from CMAM/radar are quite similar over Eureka (82–88 km, the modeled autumn-winter NS winds over Svalbard (73–88 km differ significantly from observations. The latter are southward, and the modeled winds over Svalbard are predominately northward. The mean positions of the winter polar vortex are related to these differences.

  2. Childhood-onset HAM/TSP with progressive cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Giovanna; Mancuso, Roberta; Nardocci, Nardo; Farina, Laura; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Ferrante, Pasquale

    2010-04-01

    HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy, usually with adult-onset. Very few cases of childhood-onset have been described, most presenting with progressive paraparesis and sphincteric disturbances as in the adult form. Here we report a young male with childhood-onset of HAM/TSP and progressive cognitive and behavioral disturbances. A serological screening revealed HTLV-I infection, confirmed by Western Immunoblotting analysis. Molecular characterization of amplified HTLV-I proviral DNA has been performed both in the patient and his mother by LTR sequence analysis, and HLA genotype inheritance was evaluated. Our case indicates the possibility that cognitive dysfunctions may be one manifestation of HTLV-I infection in childhood.

  3. Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; van Woert, M. L.; Neumann, G.

    2005-11-01

    Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (˜1-2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called "the Svalbard sea ice barrier," spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard. The secret of its formation appears to lie in the bottom of the sea: A comparison between bathymetry from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean data and the pattern of sea ice formation from scatterometer data reveals that the sea ice barrier conforms well with and stretches above a deep elongated channel connecting the Franz Josef-Victoria Trough to the Hinlopen Basin between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Historic hydrographic data from this area indicate that this sea channel contains cold Arctic water less than 50 m below the surface. Strong and persistent cold northerly winds force strong heat loss from this shallow surface layer, leading to the rapid formation of the sea ice barrier. Heat transfer rates estimated from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and wind data over this region suggest that the surface water along the deep channel can be rapidly cooled to the freezing point. Scatterometer results in 1999-2003 show that sea ice forms in this area between October and December. Understanding the ice formation mechanisms helps to select appropriate locations for deployment of buoys measuring wind and air-sea temperature profile and to facilitate ice monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  4. Team Software Process (TSP) Body of Knowledge (BOK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Structure and Dynamics of Organizations and Groups. New York: Grove Press, 1966. [ Burns 1978 ] Burns , James MacGregor . Leadership. New York...spectrum between transactional leadership at one extreme to transformational leadership at the other [ Burns 1978 ]. TSP teams are modeled on the...Bradley Hodgins, James McHale, Said Nurhan, James Over, and Alan Willett. viii | CMU/SEI-2010-TR-020 ix | CMU/SEI-2010-TR-020 Executive

  5. Multiagent optimization system for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Jiming

    2009-04-01

    The multiagent optimization system (MAOS) is a nature-inspired method, which supports cooperative search by the self-organization of a group of compact agents situated in an environment with certain sharing public knowledge. Moreover, each agent in MAOS is an autonomous entity with personal declarative memory and behavioral components. In this paper, MAOS is refined for solving the traveling salesman problem (TSP), which is a classic hard computational problem. Based on a simplified MAOS version, in which each agent manipulates on extremely limited declarative knowledge, some simple and efficient components for solving TSP, including two improving heuristics based on a generalized edge assembly recombination, are implemented. Compared with metaheuristics in adaptive memory programming, MAOS is particularly suitable for supporting cooperative search. The experimental results on two TSP benchmark data sets show that MAOS is competitive as compared with some state-of-the-art algorithms, including the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun, IBGLK, PHGA, etc., although MAOS does not use any explicit local search during the runtime. The contributions of MAOS components are investigated. It indicates that certain clues can be positive for making suitable selections before time-consuming computation. More importantly, it shows that the cooperative search of agents can achieve an overall good performance with a macro rule in the switch mode, which deploys certain alternate search rules with the offline performance in negative correlations. Using simple alternate rules may prevent the high difficulty of seeking an omnipotent rule that is efficient for a large data set.

  6. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    the game-theoretic model empirically. Testing the model rigorously is difficult, mainly because some of the relevant variables are not reliably measured and are endogenous. Two models were developed: one to identify sources of changes in the rate of violations, one to identify sources of changes......This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...... and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...

  7. Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Tanajura Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  8. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Pearson

    Full Text Available The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1 and IgG(3 from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1, suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  9. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; McSorley, Henry J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Tribolet, Leon; Dougall, Annette M; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1) and IgG(3) from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1), suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic.

  10. TSP-1 Deficiency Alters Ocular Microbiota: Implications for Sjögren's Syndrome Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzulli, Marielle; Contreras-Ruiz, Laura; Ruiz, Laura Contreras; Kugadas, Abirami; Masli, Sharmila; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2015-09-01

    The potential role of commensals as triggering factors that promote inflammation in dry eye disease has not been explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ocular microbiota changes with the onset of dry eye disease in thrombospondin-1-deficient (TSP-1(-/-)) mice, a strain that develops Sjögren's syndrome-like disease. Conjunctival swabs were collected from TSP-1(-/-) and C57BL/6 mice and analyzed for bacterial presence. Opsonophagocytosis of the bacterial conjunctival isolates derived from the aged TSP-1(-/-) mice by neutrophils derived from either TSP-1(-/-) or C57BL/6 bone marrow was evaluated. The bactericidal activities of TSP-1-derived peptide were examined. We found that in TSP-1(-/-) mice, the conjunctival colonization with Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci sp (CNS) species was significantly increased with aging and preceded that of the wild-type C57BL/6 control mice. This correlated with increased neutrophil infiltration into the conjunctiva of the TSP-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that TSP-1 plays a significant role in regulating immunity to commensals. Accordingly, the TSP-1(-/-) PMNs opsonophagocytozed the ocular commensals less efficiently than the TSP-1-sufficient neutrophils. Furthermore, a TSP-1-derived peptide, 4N1K, exhibited significant antimicrobial activity when compared to a control peptide against commensal sp. These studies illustrate that alterations in the commensal frequency occur in the early stages of development of Sjögren's-like pathology and suggest that interventions that limit commensal outgrowth such as the use of TSP-1-derived peptides could be used for treatment during the early stages of the disease to reduce the commensal burden and ensuing inflammation.

  11. Status and biology of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lydersen

    1998-06-01

    water prior to weaning. They are capable of diving for up to 12min and dive to the bottom of the study areas (max. 89 m. Nursing females spend more than 80% of their time in the water. Maximum recorded dive duration for mothers was 21.2 min. In order to produce a weaned pup, the net energy expenditure for a ringed seal mother is 1,073 MJ. This energy value corresponds to the consumption of 185 kg of polar cod or 282 kg of P. libellula. The annual gross energy consumption for adult males and females is calculated to be 5,600 MJ and 7,300 MJ, respectively. The main predators of ringed seals in Svalbard are polar bears (Ursus maritimus and Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus. In addition, both glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus and walruses (Odobenus rosmarus are documented as predators of ringed seals in this area. Heavy predation pressure is probably the main factor explaining why pups of this species start diving at such a young age, why they have access to so many breathing holes (8.7 on average and why they keep their white coat long after its thermoregulatory properties have vanished. Pollution levels in ringed seals from Svalbard are, generally speaking, similar to levels in other areas of the Arctic.

  12. Low virus to prokaryote ratios in the cold: benthic viruses and prokaryotes in a subpolar marine ecosystem (Hornsund, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Borys; Filippini, Manuela; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Kedra, Monika; Kuliński, Karol; Middelboe, Mathias

    2013-03-01

    The density and spatial distribution of benthic viruses and prokaryotes in relation to biotic and abiotic factors were investigated in sediment cores collected in Hornsund, a permanently cold fjord on the West coast of Svalbard, Norway. The cores were obtained from the mouth of the fjord to the central basin, along a longitudinal transect. The results of our analyses showed lower densities of viruses (0.2 x 10(8) to 5.4 x 10(8) virus-like particles/g) and lower virus-to-prokaryote ratios (0.2-0.6, with the exception of the uppermost layer in the central basin, where the ratio was about 1.2) at the study site than generally found in the temperate areas, despite the relatively high organic matter content in subpolar sediments. Variations in benthic viral and prokaryote abundances along gradients of particle sedimentation rates, phytopigment concentrations, and macrobenthic species composition together suggested the influence of particle sedimentation and macrobenthic bioturbation on the abundance and spatial distribution ofprokaryotes and viruses in cold habitats.

  13. Eruption age of the Sverrefjellet volcano, Spitsbergen Island, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Treiman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sverrefjellet is a Pleistocene-age basaltic volcanic construct on north-western Spitsbergen Island (Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Published ages for the Sverrefjellet eruption range between 6000 years and ca. 1 million years before present. The age of eruption is dated here as 1.05±0.07 (1σ My, consistent with Ar–Ar isochron and plateau ages of several analysed samples. Radiogenic Ar represents a small proportion of the released Ar, <15% in nearly all samples. Non-radiogenic Ar components include air, excess 40Ar (seen as inverse isochron intercept values >40Ar/36Ar = 295.5, low-temperature alterations (Ar release at low temperature, with high Cl/K, carbonates and zeolites (Ar release at intermediate temperature and xenolithic material (Ar release at high temperature, high Ca/K. The effects of the largely non-radiogenic argon sources are also seen in the total-gas Ar–Ar “ages”, which range from 1.3 to 10.3 My, significantly larger than the inferred eruption age. It is likely that total-gas Ar–Ar “ages” and whole-rock K–Ar “ages” of similar basalts also exceed their true eruption ages.To access the supplementary material to this article please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  14. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Stimulates Expression of Integrin alpha6 in Human Breast Carcinoma Cells: A Downstream Modulator of TSP-1-Induced Cellular Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anitha S; Rothman, Vicki L; Tuszynski, George P

    2010-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is involved in a variety of different cellular processes including cell adhesion, tumor progression, and angiogenesis. This paper reports the novel finding that TSP-1 upregulates integrin alpha6 subunit in human keratinocytes and human breast cancer cells resulting in increased cell adhesion and tumor cell invasion. The effect of TSP-1 on alpha6 subunit expression was examined in human keratinocytes and breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MDA-MB-231) treated with TSP-1 and in TSP-1 stably transfected breast cancer cells. TSP-1 upregulated alpha6 message and protein in these cells as revealed by differential display, Northern and Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical localization studies. The increased expression of alpha6 was shown to mediate adhesion and invasion of these cells to laminin, a major component of the basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM). These data suggest that TSP-1 plays an integral role in the attachment of cells to the ECM facilitating cell motility and angiogenesis.

  15. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  16. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  17. Glacier inputs influence organic matter composition and prokaryotic distribution in a high Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard)

    KAUST Repository

    Bourgeois, Solveig

    2016-08-23

    in BPC (~ 0.2–0.3 mg C g DW) by 4.5 and 9 times compared to sediments from the inner and outer stations. δC values in sedimentary organic matter of Kongsfjorden varied between − 23.8 and − 19.3‰ and reflected distinct sources of organic matter between basins. Bacterial total cell numbers in sediments of Kongsfjorden were < 2 × 10 cells ml and the prokaryotic community structure was strongly influenced by the marked environmental biogenic gradients. Overall, the spatial variability prevailed over the seasonal variability in sediments of Kongsfjorden suggesting that glacier inputs prominently control the functioning of this benthic ecosystem and its communities. Regional index terms: Norway, Svalbard, Kongsfjorden.

  18. New particle formation in the Svalbard region 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzenberg, Jost; Tunved, Peter; Galí, Martí; Leck, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Events of new particle formation (NPF) were analyzed in a 10-year data set of hourly particle size distributions recorded on Mt. Zeppelin, Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Three different types of NPF events were identified through objective search algorithms. The first and simplest algorithm utilizes short-term increases in particle concentrations below 25 nm (PCT (percentiles) events). The second one builds on the growth of the sub-50 nm diameter median (DGR (diameter growth) events) and is most closely related to the classical banana type of event. The third and most complex, multiple-size approach to identifying NPF events builds on a hypothesis suggesting the concurrent production of polymer gel particles at several sizes below ca. 60 nm (MEV (multi-size growth) events). As a first and general conclusion, we can state that NPF events are a summer phenomenon and not related to Arctic haze, which is a late winter to early spring feature. The occurrence of NPF events appears to be somewhat sensitive to the available data on precipitation. The seasonal distribution of solar flux suggests some photochemical control that may affect marine biological processes generating particle precursors and/or atmospheric photochemical processes that generate condensable vapors from precursor gases. Notably, the seasonal distribution of the biogenic methanesulfonate (MSA) follows that of the solar flux although it peaks before the maxima in NPF occurrence. A host of ancillary data and findings point to varying and rather complex marine biological source processes. The potential source regions for all types of new particle formation appear to be restricted to the marginal-ice and open-water areas between northeastern Greenland and eastern Svalbard. Depending on conditions, yet to be clarified new particle formation may become visible as short bursts of particles around 20 nm (PCT events), longer events involving condensation growth (DGR events), or extended events with elevated

  19. Holocene environmental changes from Dicksonfjorden sediments of western Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ji; Nam, Seung-Il; Son, Yeong Ju; Forwick, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The last deglaciation of the Svalbard-Barents ice sheet, initiated since 13000 yrs BP, and subsequent warming through the Holocene prompted dramatic climate changes in the Svalbard fjords. Consequently, significant changes are expected in processes that determine the nature of sediments delivered (often en masse) to the steep fjords system, including sediment weathering, primary production in fjords and terrestrial realms, and the main domain of sediment transport (i.e. a shift from ice-rafting to glaciofluvial). This study investigates paleoenvironmental changes in the western Svalbard region using the Holocene glaciomarine sediments from Dicksonfjorden of the west Spitsbergen. We examine geochemical composition of organic (carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes) and inorganic (major and trace elements concentrations) components of core sediments from the inner part of Dicksonfjorden, where sediments are mainly derived from the late Paleozoic mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentary sequences distributed on the western Spitsbergen. Based on our preliminary result, carbon isotope data exhibits an overall 2 ‰ positive shift since the last deglaciation, suggesting a major change in the nature of organic matter. We posit that a shift of the major source of organic matter from terrestrial plant to aquatic algae. The rising temperature likely promoted chemical weathering and thus enhanced nutrient supply for algal growth, since the early Holocene climate optimum. It is corroborated by the organic C/N ratio showing an antithetic relationship with the 13Corg result. Principal component analysis is applied to major and trace element data, obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning measurements, in order to uncover main controls on inorganic geochemistry of sediments. The result indicates that there are at least two periods marked with major changes in the inorganic sediment geochemistry, one in 13000 yrs BP and the other one in 5000 yrs BP. We will further test

  20. The alteration of Id-1 and TSP-1 expression in mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with its clinical features and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Guo, L-J; Tang, X-F; Tan, K; Gong, R-G; Li, A; Yu, T; Gao, Q-H; Xuan, M; Wen, Y-M; Wang, C-M; Wang, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    Expression of Id-1 (inhibitors of DNA binding/differentiation protein 1) and TSP-1 (thrombospondin-1) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and their relationship to pathological features and prognosis was studied. Moderately and poorly differentiated groups had significantly higher Id-1 positive expression rate (pTSP-1 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma was negative (pTSP-1 positive expression rate than well differentiated groups (pTSP-1 positive expression were detected with clinical stage. TSP-1 positive expression was significantly lower in patients with cervical lymph node metastasis or relapse at 5 years (pTSP-1 expression had significantly higher tumor-free survival than patients with negative TSP-1. Positive Id-1 expression is associated with high malignancy/poor prognosis; positive TSP-1 expression is associated with low malignancy/good prognosis. Protein expression status may help assess tumor malignancy and patient prognosis. Copyright 2009 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. General k-opt submoves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    2009-01-01

    Local search with k-exchange neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This paper presents an effective implementation of k-opt in LKH-2, a variant of the Lin–Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation...

  2. An Effective Implementation of K-opt Moves for the Lin-Kernighan TSP Heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    Local search with k-change neighborhoods, k-opt, is the most widely used heuristic method for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). This report presents an effective implementation of k-opt for the Lin- Kernighan TSP heuristic. The effectiveness of the implementation is demonstrated with extensive...

  3. 41 CFR 102-118.535 - Are there principles governing my agency's TSP debt collection procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are there principles governing my agency's TSP debt collection procedures? 102-118.535 Section 102-118.535 Public Contracts and... Information for All Claims § 102-118.535 Are there principles governing my agency's TSP debt collection...

  4. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Strozzi

    2017-02-01

    and synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  5. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  6. The threonine protease activity of testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50 is essential for its function in cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yin Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testes-specific protease 50 (TSP50, a newly discovered threonine enzyme, has similar amino acid sequences and enzymatic structures to those of many serine proteases. It may be an oncogene. TSP50 is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelial cells, and ectopic expression of TSP50 in TSP50-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells has been found to promote cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms by which TSP50 exerts its growth-promoting effects are not yet fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To delineate whether the threonine protease activity of TSP50 is essential to its function in cell proliferation, we constructed and characterized a mutant TSP50, called TSP50 T310A, which was identified as a protease-dead mutant of TSP50. By a series of proliferation analyses, colony formation assays and apoptosis analyses, we showed that T310A mutation significantly depresses TSP50-induced cell proliferation in vitro. Next, the CHO stable cell line expressing either wild-type or T310A mutant TSP50 was injected subcutaneously into nude mice. We found that the T310A mutation could abolish the tumorigenicity of TSP50 in vivo. A mechanism investigation revealed that the T310A mutation prevented interaction between TSP50 and the NF-κBIκBα complex, which is necessary for TSP50 to perform its function in cell proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our data highlight the importance of threonine 310, the most critical protease catalytic site in TSP50, to TSP50-induced cell proliferation and tumor formation.

  7. [Pathophysiology, treatment and biomarkers for HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Yoshihisa; Sato, Tomoo

    2013-05-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system caused by infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1). HAM/TSP is characterized by chronic inflammation in spinal cord, leading to neurodegeneration and consequently the patients with HAM/TSP suffer from unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. In the past quarter century since the discovery of this disease, significant advances have been made in the field of HAM/TSP research. Here we summarize current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  8. TSP-1 promotes glomerular mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion in Thy-1 nephritis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen; Li, Yan; Zhou, Jianbo; Zhao, Chenhui; Zhang, Jing; Shan, Kai; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Yingwei

    2011-11-01

    The proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) and secretion of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat with Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) resembling human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis have been explored for many years; however, the molecular mechanisms of GMC proliferation and ECM production remain unclear. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gene was involved in mediating rat GMC proliferation and ECM synthesis induced by sublytic C5b-9 in vitro. In the present study, the roles of the TSP-1 gene in GMC proliferation, ECM production, and urinary protein secretion in Thy-1N rats were determined by using TSP-1 small hairpin RNA, and the results revealed that silencing of the TSP-1 gene in rat renal tissues could diminish GMC proliferation (P TSP-1 gene expression was required for GMC proliferation and ECM production in Thy-1N rats.

  9. The fast-ice growth and freezing of the bottom in the Braganzavagen Gulf (Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey; Pnyushkov, Andrey; Filchuk, Kirill; Morozov, Yevgenii; Ryzhov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The results of oceanographic and sea ice studies in the shallow Braganzavågen Gulf (Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard) in March 2016 are presented. These studies are a continuation of observational efforts initiated by UNIS (Svalbard, Norway) in 2014. 2016 field campaign includes instrumental measurements of snow and ice properties in the fjord (e.g., ice thicknesses, temperatures, and salinities), as well as high-resolution CTD measurements within the under-ice water column. Collected observations were accompanied by freezing simulations of adjacent water and bottom ground layers performed with a one-dimensional thermodynamic model (Bogorodskii and Pnyushkov, 2015). The model uses two methods to reproduce phase transition areas - a "classic" (frontal) method for the fast ice, and transition in the continuous media (mushy zone) for the bottom sediments. Meteorological observations during the winter 2015-16 at Sveagruva (northwest coast) were used in these simulations as the atmospheric forcing. Numerical experiments were carried out for the initial salinity of 35 psu and 2 m water depth. The simulations start with the beginning of water freezing determined by a steady air temperature transition through the freezing point. The start of freezing was also verified by comparison with sea ice charts available for the Van Mijenfjorden for the period of simulations. Model simulations showed that the growth of sea ice in shallow (salinity in the under-ice layer. For instance, at a 0.5 m depth the salinity in the under ice water layer exceeds 160 psu, which corresponds to the freezing temperature below -9C. In fact, the water salinity does not reach high values because of the horizontal mixing. However, available hydrological observations showed relatively small (0.2-0.5 m) amplitudes of tides - the major contributor to the horizontal exchange in this area. These small amplitudes likely suggest small advective salt fluxes induced by tides, and thus their little effect on the

  10. Tonsillectomy and steroid pulse (TSP) therapy for patients with IgA nephropathy: a nationwide survey of TSP therapy in Japan and an analysis of the predictive factors for resistance to TSP therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoto; Imai, Hirokazu; Kikuchi, Shogo; Hayashi, Shogo; Endoh, Masayuki; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Moriwaki, Kumiko; Kiyomoto, Hideyasu; Kohagura, Kentaro; Nakazawa, Eiko; Kusano, Eiji; Mochizuki, Toshio; Nomura, Shinsuke; Sasaki, Tamaki; Kashihara, Naoki; Soma, Jun; Tomo, Tadashi; Nakabayashi, Iwao; Yoshida, Masaharu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    Tonsillectomy and steroid pulse (TSP) therapy was proposed as a curative treatment for IgA nephropathy by Hotta et al. (Am J Kidney Dis 38:736-742, 2001) based on data that about 50% of patients achieved clinical remission (CR) of urinary abnormalities. As a primary survey, we sent a questionnaire and letter to 848 hospitals in Japan, each of which employed a Fellow of the Japanese Society of Nephrology between October and December of 2006, in order to gather information about the prevalence and efficacy of TSP therapy for patients with IgA nephropathy. As a secondary survey, we collected data from both low- and high-CR-rate groups to determine which factors predicted resistance to TSP therapy. A total of 2,746 patients received TSP therapy between 2000 and 2006. The CR rates, calculated by measuring urinary criteria 6 and 12 months after TSP therapy, were 32.0% (347/1,085) and 45.6% (452/991), respectively. Analysis of the 30 hospitals in which TSP therapy had been performed on at least ten patients revealed that the CR rates varied from below 10% to 100%. A secondary survey of ten hospitals revealed that, after correction of the CR rate from each hospital, patients could be categorized into three groups: those with a low CR rate (122 patients in four hospitals), a middle CR rate (78 patients in four hospitals), and a high CR rate (103 patients in two hospitals). The CR rate of all patients (N = 303) was 54.1%. A comparison of patient data between the low- and high-CR-rate groups showed a significant difference in age at onset (years; P = 0.05), amount of proteinuria (g/day; P = 0.02), total protein (g/dl; P = 0.02), pathological grade (P = 0.009), and prognostic score as described by Wakai et al. [Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:2800-2808, 2006, (P = 0.04)]. Univariate analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between non-CR and CR subgroups in duration from diagnosis until TSP therapy (6.9 +/- 6.8 versus 5.3 +/- 5.2 years; P = 0.02), amount of

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.465 - Must my agency pay interest on a disputed amount claimed by a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interest on a disputed amount claimed by a TSP? 102-118.465 Section 102-118.465 Public Contracts and... Information for All Claims § 102-118.465 Must my agency pay interest on a disputed amount claimed by a TSP? No... is delayed because of a dispute between an agency and a TSP. ...

  12. 5 CFR 839.1118 - Will my annuity be actuarially reduced because I had Government contributions in my TSP account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... because I had Government contributions in my TSP account? 839.1118 Section 839.1118 Administrative... contributions in my TSP account? Retirees and survivors of deceased employees who received a Government contribution to their TSP account after being corrected to FERS and who later elect CSRS Offset under the...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.195 - What documents must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? 102-118.195 Section... must a transportation service provider (TSP) send to receive payment for a transportation billing? For shipments bought on a TD, the TSP must submit an original properly certified GBL, PPGBL, or bill of lading...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.45 - How does a transportation service provider (TSP) bill my agency for transportation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation service provider (TSP) bill my agency for transportation and transportation services? 102-118.45... provider (TSP) bill my agency for transportation and transportation services? The manner in which your agency orders transportation and transportation services determines the manner in which a TSP bills for...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.315 - Who must I notify on suspension or debarment of a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspension or debarment of a TSP? 102-117.315 Section 102-117.315 Public Contracts and Property Management... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.315 Who must I notify on suspension or debarment of a TSP? Agencies must report monthly any suspension or...

  16. 5 CFR 1605.22 - Claims for correction of Board or TSP record keeper errors; time limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims for correction of Board or TSP... RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CORRECTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE ERRORS Board or TSP Record Keeper Errors § 1605.22 Claims for correction of Board or TSP record keeper errors; time limitations. (a) Filing claims...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.165 - What must my agency do if it finds an error on a TSP bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if it finds an error on a TSP bill? 102-118.165 Section 102-118.165 Public Contracts and Property... Services § 102-118.165 What must my agency do if it finds an error on a TSP bill? Your agency must advise the TSP via statement of difference of any adjustment that you make either electronically or in...

  18. 5 CFR 1620.45 - Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspending TSP loans, restoring post... Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA)-Covered Military Service § 1620.45 Suspending TSP loans, restoring post-employment withdrawals, and reversing taxable distributions. (a) Suspending TSP loans during...

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.635 - Can the Government charge interest on an amount due from a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... charge interest on an amount due from a TSP? 102-118.635 Section 102-118.635 Public Contracts and... Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.635 Can the Government charge interest on an amount due from a TSP? Yes, the Government can charge interest on an amount...

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.310 - What records must I keep on temporary nonuse, suspension or debarment of a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on temporary nonuse, suspension or debarment of a TSP? 102-117.310 Section 102-117.310 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.310 What records must I keep on temporary nonuse, suspension or debarment of a TSP? (a...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.260 - Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA? 102-118.260 Section 102-118.260 Public Contracts and..., Tenders Or Contracts § 102-118.260 Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to... submitted with the tender: (1) Issuing TSP, Bureau, Agency or Conference. (2) Tender number. (3) Standard...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.530 - Will GSA instruct my agency's disbursing offices to offset unpaid TSP billings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency's disbursing offices to offset unpaid TSP billings? 102-118.530 Section 102-118.530 Public... to offset unpaid TSP billings? Yes, GSA will instruct one or more of your agency's disbursing offices to deduct the amount due from an unpaid TSP's bill. A 3-year limitation applies on the deduction of...

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.125 - How detailed must I describe property for shipment when communicating to a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How detailed must I describe property for shipment when communicating to a TSP? 102-117.125 Section 102-117.125 Public... communicating to a TSP? You must describe property in enough detail for the TSP to determine the type of...

  4. Resonance scattering by auroral N2+: steady state theory and observations from Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jokiaho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of auroral energy input at high latitudes often depend on observations of emissions from the first negative band of ionised nitrogen. However, these emissions are affected by solar resonance scattering, which makes photometric and spectrographic measurements difficult to interpret. This work is a statistical study from Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway, during the solar minimum between January and March 2007, providing a good coverage in shadow height position and precipitation conditions. The High Throughput Imaging Echelle Spectrograph (HiTIES measured three bands of N2+ 1N (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3, and one N2 2P band (0,3 in the magnetic zenith. The brightness ratios of the N2+ bands are compared with a theoretical treatment with excellent results. Balance equations for all important vibrational levels of the three lowest electronic states of the N2+ molecule are solved for steady-state, and the results combined with ion chemistry modelling. Brightnesses of the (0,1, (1,2 and (2,3 bands of N2+ 1N are calculated for a range of auroral electron energies, and different values of shadow heights. It is shown that in sunlit aurora, the brightness of the (0,1 band is enhanced, with the scattered contribution increasing with decreasing energy of precipitation (10-fold enhancements for energies of 100 eV. The higher vibrational bands are enhanced even more significantly. In sunlit aurora the observed 1N (1,2/(0,1 and (2,3/(0,1 ratios increase as a function of decreasing precipitation energy, as predicted by theory. In non-sunlit aurora the N2+ species have a constant proportionality to neutral N2. The ratio of 2P(0,3/1N(0,1 in the morning hours shows a pronounced decrease, indicating enhancement of N2+ 1N emission. Finally we study the relationship of all emissions and their ratios to rotational temperatures. A clear effect is observed on rotational development of the bands. It is possible that greatly enhanced rotational temperatures may be a

  5. Biomagnification of polybrominated diphenyl ether and hexabromocyclododecane flame retardants in the polar bear food chain in Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørmo, Eugen Gravningen; Salmer, Maria Pettersvik; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Hop, Haakon; Baek, Kine; Kovacs, Kit Maureen; Lydersen, Christian; Falk-Petersen, Stig; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Lie, Elisabeth; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were investigated in an arctic marine food chain consisting of four invertebrate species: polar cod (Boreogadus saida), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The most abundant BFR, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47, was found in detectable concentrations even in zooplankton, the lowest trophic level examined in this study. Most of the investigated BFRs biomagnified as function of tropic level in the food chain. A noticeable exception occurred at the highest trophic level, the polar bear, in which only BDE-153 was found to increase from its main prey, the ringed seal, indicating that polar bears appear to be able to metabolize and biodegrade most BFRs. In contrast, lower-brominated PBDEs, particularly BDE-47, showed clear signs of bioaccumulation in zooplankton, polar cod, and ringed seals. We suggest that this discrepancy in the fate of BFRs among the different species may be related to greater induction of oxidative detoxification activities in the polar bear. Absorption and debromination rates may be more important for bioaccumulation rates of BFRs in zooplankton, polar cod, and ringed seals. Lipid weight-based concentrations (LWCs) and whole body-based concentrations (WBCs) of BFRs were used to assess biomagnification factors (BMFs). Whole-body concentrations gave the most realistic BMFs, as BMFs derived from LWCs seem to be confounded by the large variability in lipid content of tissues from the investigated species. This study demonstrates that PBDEs and HBCD have reached measurable concentrations even in the lower trophic levels (invertebrates and fish) in the Arctic and biomagnifies in the polar bear food chain.

  6. Impacts of coal dust from an active mine on the spectral reflectance of Arctic surface snow in Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alia L.; Dierssen, Heidi; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Schmitt, Carl; Chlus, Adam; Hermanson, Mark; Painter, Thomas H.; McKnight, Diane M.

    2017-02-01

    Light-absorbing particles (LAPs) in snow such as dust and black carbon influence the radiative forcing at the Earth's surface, which has major implications for global climate models. LAPs also significantly influence the melting of glaciers, sea ice, and seasonal snow. Here we present an in situ study of surface snow near an active coal mine in the Norwegian Arctic. We couple measurements of spectral hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF) with measurements of LAPs characterized in two ways, as refractory black carbon using a Single Particle Soot Photometer and the total light absorption of LAPs measured with the Light Absorption Heating Method. The Snow Ice and Aerosol Radiation model was constrained by LAP measurements. Results were compared to observed spectral albedo measurements. Modeled and observed albedos were similar at the cleaner and more remote sites. However, the modeled spectral albedos do not fully account for the low spectral albedo measured next to the mine. LAP measurements also showed a large variation in particle sizes (tenths to tens of microns) related to transport distance of the particles from the mine. Here we find that LAPs from coal dust reduce the spectral HDRF by up to 84% next to the mine and 55% 0.5 km downwind of the mine. The coupling of extreme LAP observations (1 ng g-1 to 4863 ng g-1) with HDRF measurements from 350 to 2500 nm has facilitated the development of spectral band pairs, which could be used in the future to remotely assess LAPs in Arctic snow.

  7. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese: 2016 progress summary: Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, No. 86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink‐footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60,000) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark. This report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information (1991-2015) and its implications for the harvest management strategy. By combining varying hypotheses about survival and reproduction, a suite of nine models have been developed that represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent. These results suggest that the pink‐footed goose population may have recently experienced a release from density‐dependent mechanisms, corresponding to the period of most rapid growth in population size. Beginning with the 2016 hunting season, harvest quotas will be prescribed on an annual basis rather than every three years because of the potential to better meet population management objectives. Based on updated model weights, the recent observations of population size (74,800), the proportion of the population comprised of one-year-old birds (0.138), and temperature days in Svalbard (20), the optimal harvest quota for the 2016 hunting season is 25,000. The large increase in quota compared to that during first three years of AHM reflects stakeholders’ desire to reduce population size to the goal of 60,000, recognizing that population size remains relatively high and above-average production is expected in 2016 due to a warm spring.

  8. KANDUNGAN TSP DAN PM-10 DI UDARA JAKARTA DAN SEKITARNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Martono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A survey was performed to assess the quality of ambient air in Jakarta, Bogor,Depok,  Tangerang  and Bekasi.  Ambient air samples were collected from 33 sampling points at a distance of 0meter and 120 meters from each main roads respectively. The highest average content of TSP in ambientair at 0 meter was found in West Jakarta (652.02 p.g/cu.m and that of 120 meters from the main road was in Bekasi (445.46µg/cu.m . The highest difference of the TSP content between the two sampling pointswas in Kebon  Jeruk, West Jakarta (96.62 %,  and the lowest one was inCikarang, Bekasi (1.63 %.  Furthermore, the highest difference of the PM-10 content between the two sampling points was inJalan  Raya Bogor, Depok  (96.86 %,  and the lowest one was in Cikarang,  Bekasi (17.26%. In the whole areasof study, the average content of TSP  was 522.44.tg/cu.m  (0 meter, and178.09µg/cu.m (120 meters,  so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 65.91%. Meanwhile, theaverage content of PM-10 was 326.25µg/cu.m  (0 meter, and97.09µg/cu.m (120 meters, so the difference of the pollutant content between the two sampling points was 70.24 %. The difference of the means ofboth TSP  and PM-10 content levels between the two sampling sites were significant. The percentages ofsampling points complying withTSP level standard were 9.52 %  (0 meter and 75.76% (120 meters from the road sides. While that of PM-10 were 18.18%  (road side sampling and 78.79% (120 meters from theroad sides.Crusial  measure for controlling theTSP  and PM-10 pollution should also be addressed tomobile sources, such as reducing diesel motorized-vehicles and providing proper mass transportation.

  9. Alteration of HGF and TSP-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma associated with clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) with the clinical pathological factors in ovarian cancer, and the correlation between HGF and TSP-1 expression at the protein level. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the location and expression of HGF and TSP-1 protein in ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumor tissue. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to detect HGF and TSP-1 gene mRNA expression in ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumor tissue. The level and positive expression rate of HGF mRNA in ovarian cancer tissue was significantly higher than in ovarian adenoma tissues. The positive expression of HGF protein in ovarian cancer was related with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and lymph node metastasis. The level and positive expression rate of TSP-1 mRNA in ovarian cancer tissue was lower than in ovarian adenoma. The absence expression of TSP-1 protein in ovarian cancer was significantly related with FIGO stage and histological grade. The intensity of these positive expressions in ovarian cancer tissues were significant negatively associated with each other. Abnormal expression of HGF and TSP-1 may be related to malignant progression of ovarian cancer and associated in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  11. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) - a megakaryocyte-derived biomarker which largely discriminates PMF from essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Michaela; Engelhardt, Bianca M; Kröger, Nicolaus; Hussein, Kais; Schlué, Jérôme; Büsche, Guntram; Kreipe, Hans H; Bock, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm showing aberrant bone marrow remodeling with increased angiogenesis, progressive matrix accumulation, and fibrosis development. Thrombospondins (TSP) are factors sharing pro-fibrotic and anti-angiogenic properties, and have not been addressed in PMF before. We investigated the expression of TSP-1 and TSP-2 in PMF related to the stage of myelofibrosis (n = 51) and in individual follow-up biopsies by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TSP-1 was significantly overexpressed (p TSP-1 during progressive myelofibrosis. TSP-2 was barely detectable but 40% of cases with advanced myelofibrosis showed a strong expression. Megakaryocytes and interstitial proplatelet formations were shown to be the relevant source for TSP-1 in PMF. Stroma cells like endothelial cells and fibroblasts showed no TSP-1 labeling when double-immunofluorescence staining and CLSM were applied. Based on its dual function, TSP-1 in PMF is likely to be a mediator within a pro-fibrotic environment which discriminates from ET cases. On the other hand, TSP-1 is a factor acting (ineffectively) against exaggerated angiogenesis. Both features suggest TSP-1 to be a biomarker for monitoring a PMF-targeted therapy.

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.560 - What is the required format that a TSP must use to file an administrative claim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... format that a TSP must use to file an administrative claim? 102-118.560 Section 102-118.560 Public... Transportation Service Provider (tsp) Filing Requirements § 102-118.560 What is the required format that a TSP must use to file an administrative claim? A TSP must bill for charges claimed on a SF 1113, Public...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.670 - If a TSP cannot immediately pay a debt, can they make other arrangements for payment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a TSP cannot... Transportation Service Provider (tsp) Non-Payment of A Claim § 102-118.670 If a TSP cannot immediately pay a debt, can they make other arrangements for payment? Yes, if a TSP is unable to pay the debt promptly, the...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.675 - What recourse does my agency have if a TSP does not pay a transportation debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agency have if a TSP does not pay a transportation debt? 102-118.675 Section 102-118.675 Public Contracts... Service Provider (tsp) Non-Payment of A Claim § 102-118.675 What recourse does my agency have if a TSP does not pay a transportation debt? If a TSP does not pay a transportation debt, GSA may refer...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.625 - Can a TSP request a reconsideration of a settlement action by the GSA Audit Division?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP request a... Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.625 Can a TSP request a reconsideration of a settlement action by the GSA Audit Division? Yes, a TSP desiring a...

  16. 5 CFR 839.213 - May I make a retirement coverage election if I withdrew all or part of my TSP account after I was...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... if I withdrew all or part of my TSP account after I was corrected to FERS? 839.213 Section 839.213... of my TSP account after I was corrected to FERS? (a) You may not make a retirement coverage election... one of the following TSP withdrawals: (1) A TSP annuity after separation from service, but before...

  17. Temperature switch PCR (TSP): Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabone, Tania; Mather, Diane E; Hayden, Matthew J

    2009-12-03

    Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP), a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  18. Temperature Switch PCR (TSP: Robust assay design for reliable amplification and genotyping of SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mather Diane E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many research and diagnostic applications rely upon the assay of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Thus, methods to improve the speed and efficiency for single-marker SNP genotyping are highly desirable. Here, we describe the method of temperature-switch PCR (TSP, a biphasic four-primer PCR system with a universal primer design that permits amplification of the target locus in the first phase of thermal cycling before switching to the detection of the alleles. TSP can simplify assay design for a range of commonly used single-marker SNP genotyping methods, and reduce the requirement for individual assay optimization and operator expertise in the deployment of SNP assays. Results We demonstrate the utility of TSP for the rapid construction of robust and convenient endpoint SNP genotyping assays based on allele-specific PCR and high resolution melt analysis by generating a total of 11,232 data points. The TSP assays were performed under standardised reaction conditions, requiring minimal optimization of individual assays. High genotyping accuracy was verified by 100% concordance of TSP genotypes in a blinded study with an independent genotyping method. Conclusion Theoretically, TSP can be directly incorporated into the design of assays for most current single-marker SNP genotyping methods. TSP provides several technological advances for single-marker SNP genotyping including simplified assay design and development, increased assay specificity and genotyping accuracy, and opportunities for assay automation. By reducing the requirement for operator expertise, TSP provides opportunities to deploy a wider range of single-marker SNP genotyping methods in the laboratory. TSP has broad applications and can be deployed in any animal and plant species.

  19. Cornice dynamics and meteorological control at Gruvefjellet, Central Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vogel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cornice fall avalanches endanger life and infrastructure in Nybyen, a part of Svalbard's main settlement Longyearbyen, located at 78° N in the High Arctic. Thus, cornice dynamics – accretion, cracking and eventual failure – and their controlling meteorological factors were studied along the ridgeline of the Gruvefjellet plateau mountain above Nybyen in the period 2008–2010. Using two automatic time-lapse cameras and hourly meteorological data in combination with intensive field observations on the Gruvefjellet plateau, cornice process dynamics were investigated in larger detail than previously possible. Cornice accretion starts directly following the first snowfall in late September and October, and proceeds throughout the entire snow season under a wide range of air temperature conditions that the maritime winter climate of Svalbard provides. Cornice accretion is particularly controlled by distinct storm events, with a prevailing wind direction perpendicular to the ridge line and average wind speeds from 12 m s−1. Particularly high wind speeds in excess of 30 m s−1 towards the plateau ridgeline lead to cornice scouring and reduce the cornice mass both vertically and horizontally. Induced by pronounced air temperature fluctuations which might reach above freezing and lead to midwinter rainfall events, tension cracks develop between the cornice mass and the plateau. Our measurements indicate a linear crack opening due to snow creep and tilt of the cornice around a pivot point. Four to five weeks elapsed between the first observations of a cornice crack until cornice failure. Throughout the two snow seasons studied, 180 cornice failures were recorded, of which 70 failures were categorized as distinctive cornice fall avalanches. A clear temporal pattern with the majority of cornice failures in June was found. Thus only daily air temperature could determine avalanche from non-avalanche days. Seven large cornice fall

  20. Comparison of meteorological conditions in Svalbard fjords: Hornsund and Kongsfjorden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cisek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a comparison of basic meteorological parameters in two Arctic fjords situated on the west coast of Spitsbergen, the main island of the Svalbard archipelago. Air temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity and cloud cover from the period 2005 to 2016 are described and compared with previous (from 1975 analyses of meteorological conditions in the investigated region. Such a choice of dates coincides with the time the GAME project measurements were carried out. The main goal of this study was to compare meteorological conditions in two fjords: Hornsund and Kongsfjorden, during the time of rapid climate changes. The results are collated with research results available in literature from previous years. We discovered that in the investigated period the climate of the Hornsund region is more oceanic than in Kongsfjorden. The stable level of the difference in climate elements is manifested and is evident mainly through greater amplitudes in air temperatures in Kongsfjorden, and in stronger winds in Hornsund.

  1. Seasonal patterns in Arctic planktonic metabolism (Fram Strait - Svalbard region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, R.; Duarte, C. M.; Holding, J.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; García-Corral, L. S.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.

    2012-06-01

    The metabolism of the Arctic Ocean is marked by extreme pronounced seasonality and spatial heterogeneity associated with light conditions, ice cover, water masses and nutrient availability. Here we report the marine planktonic metabolic rates (Net Community Production, Gross Primary Production and Community Respiration) along three different seasons of the year for a total of eight cruises along the western sector of the European Arctic (Fram Strait - Svalbard region) in the Arctic Ocean margin: one at the end of 2006 (fall/winter), two in 2007 (early spring and summer), two in 2008 (early spring and summer), one in 2009 (late spring-early summer) and one in 2010 (spring). The results show that metabolisms of the western sector of the European Arctic varies throughout the year, depending mostly on the stage of bloom, which is mainly determined by availability of light and nutrients. Here we report metabolic rates for the different periods, including the spring bloom, summer and the dark period, increasing considerably the empirical basis on metabolic rates in the Artic Ocean, and especially in the European Arctic corridor. We also report a rough annual metabolic balance for this area of the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a Net Community Production of 108 g C m-2 yr-1.

  2. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  3. An imaging interferometry capability for the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric imaging (aperture synthesis imaging is a technique used by radio astronomers to achieve angular resolution that far surpasses what is possible with a single large aperture. A similar technique has been used for radar imaging studies of equatorial ionospheric phenomena at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We present plans for adding an interferometric imaging capability to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, a capability which will contribute significantly to several areas of active research, including naturally and artificially enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and their detailed relation in space and time to optical phenomena, polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE, and meteor studies. Interferometry using the two antennas of the ESR has demonstrated the existence of extremely narrow, field-aligned scattering structures, but having only a single baseline is a severe limitation for such studies. Building additional IS-class antennas at the ESR is not a trivial task. However, the very high scattering levels in enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and PMSE means that a passive receiver antenna of more modest gain should still be capable of detecting these echoes. In this paper we present simulations of what an imaging interferometer will be capable of observing for different antenna configurations and brightness distributions, under ideal conditions, using two different image inversion algorithms. We also discuss different antenna and receiver technologies.

  4. An imaging interferometry capability for the EISCAT Svalbard Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric imaging (aperture synthesis imaging is a technique used by radio astronomers to achieve angular resolution that far surpasses what is possible with a single large aperture. A similar technique has been used for radar imaging studies of equatorial ionospheric phenomena at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. We present plans for adding an interferometric imaging capability to the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, a capability which will contribute significantly to several areas of active research, including naturally and artificially enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and their detailed relation in space and time to optical phenomena, polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSE, and meteor studies.

    Interferometry using the two antennas of the ESR has demonstrated the existence of extremely narrow, field-aligned scattering structures, but having only a single baseline is a severe limitation for such studies. Building additional IS-class antennas at the ESR is not a trivial task. However, the very high scattering levels in enhanced ion-acoustic echoes and PMSE means that a passive receiver antenna of more modest gain should still be capable of detecting these echoes.

    In this paper we present simulations of what an imaging interferometer will be capable of observing for different antenna configurations and brightness distributions, under ideal conditions, using two different image inversion algorithms. We also discuss different antenna and receiver technologies.

  5. Autonomous detection of calving-related seismicity at Kronebreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Köhler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We detect and cluster waveforms of seismic signals recorded close to the calving front of Kronebreen, Svalbard, to identify glacier-related seismic events and to investigate their relation to calving processes. Single-channel geophone data recorded over several months in 2009 and 2010 are combined with eleven days of direct visual observations of the glacier front. We apply a processing scheme which combines conventional seismic event detection using a sensitive trigger algorithm and unsupervised clustering of all detected signals based on their waveform characteristics by means of Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs. About 10% of the directly observed calving events close to the geophone (<1 km can be correlated with seismic detections. We are able to distinguish between false detections, instrumental artifacts, and three classes of signals which are, with different degrees of uncertainty, emitted by calving or glacier activity in general. By extrapolating the interpretation of seismic event classes beyond the time period of visual observations, the temporal distribution of glacier-related events shows an increase in event rate in autumn, particularly for the class which is related to iceberg calving. Using the seismic event distribution in this class as a proxy for the calving rate and measurements of glacier velocity and glacier front position, we discuss the possible relationship between glacier dynamics and calving processes at Kronebreen.

  6. Monitoring and forecasting local landslide hazard in the area of Longyearbyen, Svalbard - early progress and experiences from the Autumn 2016 events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Thea; Krøgli, Ingeborg; Boje, Søren; Colleuille, Hervé

    2017-04-01

    Since 2013 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has operated a landslide early warning system (LEWS) for mainland Norway. The Svalbard islands, situated 800 km north of the Norwegian mainland, and 1200 km from the North Pole, are not part of the conventional early warning service. However, following the fatal snow avalanche event 19 Dec. 2015 in the settlement of Longyearbyen (78° north latitude), local authorities and the NVE have initiated monitoring of the hydro-meteorological conditions for the area of Longyearbyen, as an extraordinary precaution. Two operational forecasting teams from the NVE; the snow avalanche and the landslide hazard forecasters, perform hazard assessment related to snow avalanches, slush flows, debris flows, shallow slides and local flooding. This abstract will focus on recent experiences made by the landslide hazard team during the autumn 2016 landslide events, caused by a record setting wet and warm summer and autumn of 2016. The general concept of the Norwegian LEWS is based on frequency intervals of extreme hydro-meteorological conditions. This general concept has been transposed to the Longyearbyen area. Although the climate is considerably colder and drier than mainland Norway, experiences so far are positive and seem useful to the local authorities. Initially, the landslide hazard evaluation was intended to consider only slush flow hazard during the snow covered season. However, due to the extraordinary warm and wet summer and autumn 2016, the landslide hazard forecasters unexpectedly had to issue warnings for the local authorities due to increased risk of shallow landslides and debris flows. This was done in close cooperation with the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, who provided weather forecasts from the recently developed weather prediction model, AROME-Arctic. Two examples, from 14-15 Oct and 8-9 Nov 2016, will be given to demonstrate how the landslide hazard assessment for the Longyearbyen area is

  7. The U. S. Army Reactive Topical Skin Protectant (rTSP): Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    tested include organic polymers, organic/inorganic hybrid materials, polyoxometallates (POM’s), enzymes, inorganic oxides, metal alloys and small...metal alloys (TiFeMn, MgNi, CaNi), Nanoscale metal oxides (MgO, CaO, TiQ2). Polyoxometallates Dendrimers, Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes, XE-555 resin...from in vitro and in vivo rTSP evaluation. Reactive Component TSP S330 IBDA Dendrimer Polysilsesquioxane Polyoxometalate Penetration Cell (ng

  8. Therapeutic Role for TSP-2 Antibody in a Murine Asthma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Huang, En Ping; Su, Jin; Zhu, Ping; Lin, Jun; Luo, Shen Qiu; Yang, Cui Lan

    2018-01-27

    Specific immunotherapy, including agonists for Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), have been shown to protect from allergies and to have a high immunomodulatory capacity. A new antibody, TSP-2, reactive against an epitope of the extracellular domain of TLR2, was identified. The effect of the antibody on dendritic cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and flow cytometric analysis. The effect of TSP-2 in a murine asthma model induced with ovalbumin (OVA) was assessed. The model is a form of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and was analyzed by whole-body plethysmography, the measurement of Th1/Th2 cytokines in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum by ELISA, and the CCK-8 assay for lymphocyte proliferation. The effect of TSP-2 on the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. TSP-2 promoted the maturation of dendritic cells and the proliferation of lymphocyte in vitro and in vivo. The effect of TSP-2 on T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine secretion was slightly more powerful than that of Pam3CSK4. TSP-2 antibody reduced AHR and OVA-specific IgE levels in allergic asthma. TSP-2 antibody also reduced lung inflammation and decreased leukocyte numbers in an OVA-sensitized and challenged asthma model. TSP-2 antibody increased OVA-stimulated I-A, CD80, CD86, and MHC-II levels on BMDCs. This study identifies a novel therapeutic strategy for AHR, which uses antibodies reactive against TLR2. It also provides theoretical evidence for the control of allergic asthma by targeting TLR2. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Therapeutic strategies in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Nishiura, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-06-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is chronic progressive myelopathy characterized by bilateral pyramidal tracts involvement with sphincteric disturbances. HTLV-I infects approximately 10-20 million people worldwide. There are large endemic areas in southern Japan, the Caribbean, Central and South America, the Middle East, Melanesia, and equatorial regions of Africa. Since the primary neuropathological feature of HAM/TSP is chronic inflammation caused by HTLV-I infection in the spinal cord, various treatments focusing on immunomodulatory or anti-viral effects were performed for HAM/TSP patients until now. However, there are still many of problems, such as insufficient effects, side effects and expensive costs in long-term treatments, etc., in these treatments. Therefore, an ideal therapeutic strategy against HAM/TSP is still not established yet. Although only a small proportion of HTLV-I-infected individuals develops HAM/TSP, neurological symptoms are certainly progressive once myelopathy develops, leading to deterioration of the quality of life. Therefore, we now need the therapeutic regimens to protect the development, or be able to commence the treatments as soon as possible after the development safely and inexpensively even in long-term course or lifelong course of treatment. As HTLV-I-infected CD4(+) T cells are the first responders in the immunopathogenesis of HAM/TSP, the ideal treatment is the elimination of HTLV-I-infected cells from the peripheral blood. In this article, we will review the therapeutic strategies against HAM/TSP up to now and will introduce our new therapeutic approach focusing on the targeting of HTLV-I-infected cells in HAM/TSP patients.

  10. Role of HTLV-1 Tax and HBZ in the Pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Vellucci, Ashley; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can lead to development of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) or HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in a subset of infected subjects. Understanding the interaction between host and HTLV-1 and the molecular mechanisms associated with disease pathogenesis is critical for development efficient therapies. Two HTLV-1 genes, tax and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ), have been demonstrated to play important roles in HTLV-1 infectivity and the growth and survival of leukemic cells. Increased HTLV-1 Tax expression induces the expression of various cellular genes such as IL-2 and IL-15, which directly contributes to lymphocyte activation and immunopathogenesis in HAM/TSP patients. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanism of HBZ in development of HAM/TSP. It has been reported that HBZ mRNA expression was detected in HAM/TSP patients higher than in asymptomatic carriers and correlated with proviral load and disease severity. Unlike HTLV-1 tax, HBZ escapes efficient anti-viral immune responses and therefore these reactivities are difficult to detect. Thus, it is important to focus on understanding the function and the role of HTLV-1 tax and HBZ in disease development of HAM/TSP and discuss the potential use of these HTLV-1 viral gene products as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for HAM/TSP.

  11. Perindopril Induces TSP-1 Expression in Hypertensive Patients with Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buda, Valentina; Andor, Minodora; Petrescu, Lucian; Cristescu, Carmen; Baibata, Dana Emilia; Voicu, Mirela; Munteanu, Melania; Citu, Ioana; Muntean, Calin; Cretu, Octavian; Tomescu, Mirela Cleopatra

    2017-02-07

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a potent endogenous inhibitor of both physiological and pathological angiogenesis, widely studied as a target in drug development for treating cancer. Several studies performed in the cardiovascular field on TSP-1 are contradictory, the role of TSP-1 in the physiopathology of cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) being, for the moment, incompletely understood and may be due to the presence of several domains in its structure which can stimulate many cellular receptors. It has been reported to inhibit NO-mediated signaling and to act on the angiogenesis, tissue perfusion, endothelial cell proliferation, and homeostasis, so we aimed to quantify the effect Perindopril has on TSP-1 plasma levels in hypertensive patients with endothelial dysfunction in comparison with other antihypertensive drugs, such as beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics, in a chronic treatment. As a conclusion, patients under treatment with Perindopril had increased plasma levels of TSP-1 compared with other hypertensive patients and with the control group. The results of this study confirms the pleiotropic properties of Perindopril: anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, with effects showed by quantifying a single biomarker: TSP-1.

  12. Application of a minimal glacier model to Hansbreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oerlemans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hansbreen is a well studied tidewater glacier in the southwestern part of Svalbard, currently about 16 km long. Since the end of the 19th century it has been retreating over a distance of 2.7 km. In this paper the global dynamics of Hansbreen are studied with a minimal glacier model, in which the ice mechanics are strongly parameterised and a simple law for iceberg calving is used. The model is calibrated by reconstructing a climate history in such a way that observed and simulated glacier length match. In addition, the calving law is tuned to reproduce the observed mean calving flux for the period 2000–2008.

    Equilibrium states are studied for a wide range of values of the equilibrium line altitude. The dynamics of the glacier are strongly nonlinear. The height-mass balance feedback and the water depth-calving flux feedback give rise to cusp catastrophes in the system.

    For the present climatic conditions Hansbreen cannot survive. Depending on the imposed climate change scenario, in AD 2100 Hansbreen is predicted to have a length between 10 and 12 km. The corresponding decrease in ice volume (relative to the volume in AD 2000 is 45 to 65%.

    Finally the late-Holocene history of Hansbreen is considered. We quote evidence from dated peat samples that Hansbreen did not exist during the Holocene Climatic Optimum. We speculate that at the end of the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum Hansbreen could advance because the glacier bed was at least 50 m higher than today, and because the tributary glaciers on the western side may have supplied a significant amount of mass to the main stream. The excavation of the overdeepening and the formation of the shoal at the glacier terminus probably took place during the Little Ice Age.

  13. Tetraspanin (TSP-17 protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Masoudi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, is linked to the gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Disease loci causing hereditary forms of PD are known, but most cases are attributable to a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Increased incidence of PD is associated with rural living and pesticide exposure, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration can be triggered by neurotoxins such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA. In C. elegans, this drug is taken up by the presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT-1 and causes selective death of the eight dopaminergic neurons of the adult hermaphrodite. Using a forward genetic approach to find genes that protect against 6-OHDA-mediated neurodegeneration, we identified tsp-17, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin family of membrane proteins. We show that TSP-17 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and provide genetic, pharmacological and biochemical evidence that it inhibits DAT-1, thus leading to increased 6-OHDA uptake in tsp-17 loss-of-function mutants. TSP-17 also protects against toxicity conferred by excessive intracellular dopamine. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that TSP-17 acts partly via the DOP-2 dopamine receptor to negatively regulate DAT-1. tsp-17 mutants also have subtle behavioral phenotypes, some of which are conferred by aberrant dopamine signaling. Incubating mutant worms in liquid medium leads to swimming-induced paralysis. In the L1 larval stage, this phenotype is linked to lethality and cannot be rescued by a dop-3 null mutant. In contrast, mild paralysis occurring in the L4 larval stage is suppressed by dop-3, suggesting defects in dopaminergic signaling. In summary, we show that TSP-17 protects against neurodegeneration and has a role in modulating behaviors linked to dopamine signaling.

  14. Extraction and Characterization of Tamarind (Tamarind indica L. Seed Polysaccharides (TSP from Three Difference Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanittha Chawananorasest

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP, a natural polysaccharide extracted from tamarind seeds is used in the pharmaceutical, textile and food industries as a mucoadhesive polymer. This work aimed to extract TSP from tamarind seeds from three sources with two methods and characterized its physical and chemical properties. Kernel powder of tamarind seeds was slurried into a clear solution, set aside overnight and then centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 20 min to separate all foreign matter. The supernatant was separated and poured into excess 95% ethanol with continuous stirring. The precipitate obtained was collected and dried in the oven and then the dried TSP polymer was stored in a desiccator. The dried TSP was analyzed by 1H-NMR, FT-IR and XRD. The results showed TSP from tamarind seeds taken from paddy farmland (A, a waste from the export tamarind juice industry (B and the export tamarind powder industry(C gave yields of 31.55%, 26.95% and 17.30%, respectively, using method 1 and 11.15%, 53.65% and 54.65%, with method 2, respectively, but method 2 gave purer TSP than method 1. The FT-IR spectra displayed peaks at 3351.95 cm−1, 2920.76 cm−1, 1018.85 cm−1 and 555.16 cm−1. The 1H-NMR showed polysaccharide peaks between δ 3.50–4.20 ppm and XRD diagrams indicated their amorphous nature. Future works will focus on the quantitative analysis, biological activity and possible use of TSP as a drug delivery system.

  15. Correlation between clinical symptoms and peripheral immune response in HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dias, George Alberto; Sousa, Rita Catarina Medeiros; Gomes, Letícia Figueiredo; Caldas, Cezar Augusto Muniz; Nassiri, Reza; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Fuzii, Hellen Thais

    2016-03-01

    HTLV-1 infects principally CD4+ T cells that are the main reservoirs of the virus in vivo, which play an important role in the immunological response. Most of the infected patients are asymptomatic. However, 2-3% of patients will develop HAM/TSP or Adult T lymphoma. HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, which is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms. Studies have shown that cytokines levels alterations (IFN-γ and TNF-α) were associated with tissue injury in HAM/TSP. The aims of this study were to compare the gene expression of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 of asymptomatic and HAM/TSP HTLV-1 infected patients, and to correlate the gene expression with those of clinical symptoms. 28 subjects were included, 20 asymptomatic HTLV-1 and 8 with HAM/TSP. Spasticity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the degree of walking aid was classified on a progressive scale. The relative gene expression of IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 was measured by Real-Time PCR. Results showed high gene expression of IFN-γ for all patients, but it was higher among HAM/TSP. A significant correlation was observed between IFN-γ gene expression and the degree of walking aid, and IFN-γ gene expression was higher among wheelchair users compared to non-wheelchair users. No association was found with IL-4 and IL-10. These findings indicate that HAM/TSP patients express higher amounts of IFN-γ than asymptomatic patients, and more importantly, the expression of this cytokine was strongly correlated with the need of walking aid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tetraspanin (TSP-17) protects dopaminergic neurons against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Neda; Ibanez-Cruceyra, Pablo; Offenburger, Sarah-Lena; Holmes, Alexander; Gartner, Anton

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, is linked to the gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Disease loci causing hereditary forms of PD are known, but most cases are attributable to a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Increased incidence of PD is associated with rural living and pesticide exposure, and dopaminergic neurodegeneration can be triggered by neurotoxins such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). In C. elegans, this drug is taken up by the presynaptic dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT-1) and causes selective death of the eight dopaminergic neurons of the adult hermaphrodite. Using a forward genetic approach to find genes that protect against 6-OHDA-mediated neurodegeneration, we identified tsp-17, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin family of membrane proteins. We show that TSP-17 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons and provide genetic, pharmacological and biochemical evidence that it inhibits DAT-1, thus leading to increased 6-OHDA uptake in tsp-17 loss-of-function mutants. TSP-17 also protects against toxicity conferred by excessive intracellular dopamine. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence that TSP-17 acts partly via the DOP-2 dopamine receptor to negatively regulate DAT-1. tsp-17 mutants also have subtle behavioral phenotypes, some of which are conferred by aberrant dopamine signaling. Incubating mutant worms in liquid medium leads to swimming-induced paralysis. In the L1 larval stage, this phenotype is linked to lethality and cannot be rescued by a dop-3 null mutant. In contrast, mild paralysis occurring in the L4 larval stage is suppressed by dop-3, suggesting defects in dopaminergic signaling. In summary, we show that TSP-17 protects against neurodegeneration and has a role in modulating behaviors linked to dopamine signaling.

  17. Effect of periodic melting on geochemical and isotopic signals in an ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Isaksson, E.; Jauhiainen, T.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Martma, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Vaikmäe, R.

    2002-01-01

    [1] We examine the quality of atmospherically deposited ion and isotope signals in an ice core taken from a periodically melting ice field, Lomonosovfonna in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The aim is to determine the degree to which the signals are altered by periodic melting of the ice. We use

  18. Elevation changes measured on Svalbard glaciers and ice caps from airborne laser data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.; Raper, V.; Dowdeswell, J.A.

    Precise airborne laser surveys were conducted during spring in 1996 and 2002 on 17 ice caps and glaciers in the Svalbard archipelago covering the islands of Spitsbergen and Nordaustlandet. We present the derived elevation changes. Lower-elevation glaciers in south Spitsbergen show the largest

  19. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN POLAR BEARS (URSUS MARITIMUS) FROM SVALBARD AND EAST GREENLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum samples from 419 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard and the Barents Sea (collected 1990 - 2000) and 108 polar bears from East Greenland (collected 1999 - 2004) were assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibody prevalences were ...

  20. Catching up: the state and potential of historical catch data from Svalbard in the European Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    Svalbard in the European Arctic has a well-documented history of natural-resource exploitation. Since its discovery in 1596, the archipelago has witnessed phases of commercial whaling, sealing, fur-hunting, and fishing. Scientific expeditions, mass tourism, and mining have also added to the

  1. Sensitivity to long-term climate change of subpermafrost groundwater systems in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haldorsen, S.; Heim, M.; Dale, A.; Landvik, J.Y.; Ploeg, van der M.J.; Leijnse, A.; Salvigsen, O.; Ove Hagen, J.; Banks, D.

    2010-01-01

    Deep subpermafrost aquifers are highly climate-dependent, with the permafrost as an aquitard preventing groundwater recharge and discharge. A study from the high-arctic island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, shows that during a glacial to interglacial phase, both the permafrost and the glacier regime will

  2. The invertebrate fauna of anthropogenic soils in the High-Arctic settlement of Barentsburg, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstein Solhøy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial environment of the High Arctic consists of a mosaic of habitat types. In addition to the natural habitat diversity, various human-influenced types may occur. For the resident invertebrate fauna, these anthropogenic habitats may be either unusually favourable or detrimental. In the town of Barentsburg, Svalbard, soils were imported for the greenhouses from southern Russia. These soils were subsequently discarded outside the greenhouses and have become augmented with manure from the cowsheds. Both the greenhouse and the cowsheds are now derelict. This site represents an unusually nutrient-rich location with considerable development of organic soils, in stark contrast to the naturally forming organic soils in Svalbard, which are typically thin and nutrient poor. Few previous studies have examined the soil invertebrate communities of human-disturbed or -created habitats in the Arctic. In an often nutrient-poor terrestrial environment, it is unclear how the invertebrate fauna will react to such nutrient enhancement. In these soils, 46 species of invertebrates were determined. Eleven species have not been recorded from other habitats in Svalbard and are hence likely to have been introduced. The native species assemblage in the anthropogenic soils was not atypical for many natural sites in Svalbard. Despite the enriched organic soils and highly ameliorated winter temperature conditions, the soil invertebrate fauna biodiversity does not appear to be enhanced beyond the presence of certain probably introduced species.

  3. The use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in the investigation of historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Benjamin; Kruse, Frigga

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates historical quarry abandonment in Svalbard in the European High Arctic. A short-lived British marble quarry in Kongsfjorden lay deserted after 1920. We ask why this attempt at the large-scale development of High Arctic marble was unproductive; whether there are structural

  4. The lichen genus Caloplaca (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) on Svalbard. Notes and additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søchting, Ulrik; Lorentsen, Line Balschmidt; Arup, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    23 species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard are described and/or discussed. The descriptions are natural language descriptions based on characters for each species coded into LIAS (Global Information System for Lichenized and Non-Lichenized Ascomycetes). A total of 37 Caloplaca species...

  5. Sources of 137Cs to an Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata

    2017-12-01

    Although primary sources of anthropogenic 137Cs have decreased nowadays, the Arctic is exposed to a variety of secondary sources. These include riverine run-off, oceanic currents, drifting sea ice, melting glaciers and permafrost. Recent reports underline the role of glaciers, specifically cryoconite holes, in radionuclide accumulation. Therefore, this study investigates the hypothesis that melting glaciers are an important means of delivering 137Cs for Arctic fjord (Hornsund, Svalbard). As marine sediments are the final sink for most contaminants, seven 30-40 cm long sediment cores collected in 2016 were investigated for 137Cs activity concentration. Five were collected in a transect from the central to the outer part of the fjord while two were collected within one km of the different melting tidewater glaciers. Sediment layers were dated using 210Pb to reveal the history of 137Cs accumulation. The measured 137Cs activity concentrations ranged from <0.1 to 7.7 Bq kg-1. The activity concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 3.1 Bq kg-1 were measured in surface (0-2 cm) sediments. The total 137Cs inventories were calculated for five station and ranged from 322 to 908 Bq m-2, of which 29-34 Bq m-2 were deposited within the last decade. At two stations characterized by largest sediment accumulation rates only the last decade inventories were calculated and they ranged from 13 to 444 Bq·m-2. The mean of 137Cs fluxes calculated for last decade ranged from 2.7 to 44.1 Bq m-2yr-1. The history of 137Cs environmental inputs was well revealed in the sediments as the 137Cs penetration depth agreed with the time of its introduction to the Arctic and the most pronounced 137Cs activity concentration peak was found in sediments dated for circa 1963. Although 137Cs fluxes and inventories were largest in the glacial bay (Brepollen), the 137Cs was diluted in a large amount of sedimenting material. Based on the results in this study, the glaciers do not appear to act as

  6. Geomorphological investigation of multiphase glacitectonic composite ridge systems in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Harold; Benn, Douglas I.; Lukas, Sven; Spagnolo, Matteo; Cook, Simon J.; Swift, Darrel A.; Clark, Chris D.; Yde, Jacob C.; Watts, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Some surge-type glaciers on the High-Arctic archipelago of Svalbard have large glacitectonic composite ridge systems at their terrestrial margins. These have formed by rapid glacier advance into proglacial sediments during the active surge phase, creating multicrested moraine complexes. Such complexes can be formed during single surge advances or multiple surges to successively less-extensive positions. The few existing studies of composite ridge systems have largely relied on detailed information on internal structure and sedimentology to reconstruct their formation and links to surge processes. However, natural exposures of internal structure are commonly unavailable, and the creation of artificial exposures is often problematic in fragile Arctic environments. To compensate for these issues, we investigate the potential for reconstructing composite ridge system formation based on geomorphological evidence alone, focusing on clear morphostratigraphic relationships between ridges within the moraine complex and relict meltwater channels/outwash fans. Based on mapping at the margins of Finsterwalderbreen (in Van Keulenfjorden) and Grønfjordbreen (in Grønfjorden), we show that relict meltwater channels that breach outer parts of the composite ridge systems are in most cases truncated upstream within the ridge complex by an inner pushed ridge or ridges at their ice-proximal extents. Our interpretation of this relationship is that the entire composite ridge system is unlikely to have formed during the same glacier advance but is instead the product of multiple advances to successively less-extensive positions, whereby younger ridges are emplaced on the ice-proximal side of older ridges. This indicates that the Finsterwalderbreen composite ridge system has been formed by multiple separate advances, consistent with the cyclicity of surges. Being able to identify the frequency and magnitude of former surges is important as it provides insight into the past behaviour of

  7. The Mice Drawer System Tissue Sharing Program (MDS-TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biticchi, Roberta; Cancedda, Ranieri; Cilli, Michele; Cotronei, Vittorio; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Pignataro, Salvatore; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tasso, Roberta; Tavella, Sara

    obtain from the animals sent to the ISS as much as possible information including also microgravity induced modifications of tissues other than bone, we associated to the MDS experiment several international group from Italian, American, Japanese Universities and from NASA and JAXA labs and we created a Tissue Sharing Program (TSP). In total 17 groups from 6 countries were involved in the program. The MDS payload containing three PTN-transgenic mice (Tg) and three wild type (Wt) mice was launched with the Shuttle STS-128, on August, 28 2009 and the MDS transferred to the ISS for three months. The payload re-entry was with the Shuttle STS-129 on November, 27 2009 in Florida. Unfortunately during this period 3 mice (two Wt and one Tg) died due to a spinal cord lesion probably occurred during the shuttle lift off, a liver pathology and a failure of the food delivery system respectively. All the three dead mice were however frozen for subsequent skeletal analysis. The remaining 3 mice had a normal behavior during the flight and appeared in excellent health conditions at the time of landing. During the MDS stay at the ISS several physical parameters were under daily check. With regard to the animal health status checking, the daily water consumption for each individual mouse revealed to be one of the most important parameter. Immediately after landing the mice were sacrificed, blood parameter were measured and all different tissues were dissected. Samples from almost the entire organism are now under investigation by the TSP team. A ground replica of the flight experiment ("ground control") was performed at the University of Genova from November 2009 to the second week of February 2010. Some of the initial results from the flight and the ground control experiments are presented in the individual abstracts.

  8. Alternative Education and Home Schooling in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christian W.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the issue of balance between community rules and personal freedom as it relates to who should control the education of children in Norway. Reviews the historical development of alternative education in Norway, including the growth of private schools and home schooling. Comments on future educational needs and the provision of good…

  9. INOPS Survey data report for Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Holt, Steffen

    This data report provides statistics on the organization, management and performance of different ways of providing maintenance services within the municipal park and road sector(s) in Norway. The statistics relies on data collected in the period from April 2015 to October 2015 through an online...... survey send to managers in all 428 municipalities in Norway....

  10. IMPLEMENTASI ALGORITMA TSP DALAM PENYELESAIAN TRACKING PAKET PADA UNIT PROCESSING CENTER POS INDONESIA KOTA LHOKSEUMAWE ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richki Hardi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traveling salesperson problem-TSP problem is an optimization problem to find the optimal way for the traveling salesman who wants to visit several cities, and returned to the original departure city. TSP is a difficult problem when viewed from the point of computing. Several methods have been used to solve these problems but until now not been found mangkus algorithms to solve them. The easiest way to solve TSP is to try all possible routes and find the optimal route. However, at the time of the very practical now required to complete an algorithm that quickly so that the TSP solution obtained near optimal solutions.TSP is very precise algorithm used for solving complex optimization problems and solved difficult conventional methods. Route and distance data used to determine the optimal route in the system is obtained from the survey results at the post office Lhokseumawe. The results showed that the algorithm is the shortest route from the post office to post office Lhokseumawe, Meulaboh, Lhokseumawe is through the route - Bireun-Simpang Tiga-Takengon-Meulaboh with a total distance of 326 kilometers. The implementation of this system using the programming language PHP, MySQL, and Macromedia Flash.

  11. Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-1-assoaciated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzii, Hellen Thais; da Silva Dias, George Alberto; de Barros, Rodrigo Jose Saraiva; Falcão, Luiz Fabio Magno; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

    2014-05-28

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only a limited percentage of infected individuals develop disease in response to the virus while the majority remain asymptomatic, and HAM/TSP is the most common clinical manifestation of the virus. HAM/TSP is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS); however, the mechanism by which HTLV-1 induces HAM/TSP is not yet clear. CD4(+) T lymphocytes are the main reservoirs of HTLV-1 in vivo and perform an important role in the immunological response to this retrovirus. This virus-host interaction may provoke changes in the immunological response, such as the enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines and the spontaneous proliferation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinal cord anteroposterior atrophy in HAM/TSP: Magnetic resonance imaging and neuropathological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Akitoshi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Shiomi, Kazutaka; Asada, Yujiro; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the spinal cord atrophy that occurs in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), we conducted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological analyses. In the MRI study, 15 patients with HAM/TSP and 20 age-matched normal control subjects were enrolled. Anteroposterior and transverse distances and cross-sectional areas were measured and calculated at the C2, C4, C6, T2, and T6 vertebral levels. In the pathological study, spinal cord autopsy specimens were compared between a HAM/TSP case and an adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma case. In both the MRI and pathological studies, HAM/TSP spinal cords demonstrated more severe atrophy in the anteroposterior direction than those of controls. The spinal cord atrophy and pathological changes in HAM/TSP occurred predominantly in the white matter, especially in the lateral columns. This is the first report indicating spinal cord atrophy in the anteroposterior direction using MRI. In pathological analysis, atrophy and pathological changes were prominent in areas of the spinal cord with slow blood flow. Hemodynamic and anatomical factors are speculated to be among the main mechanisms of atrophy in the anteroposterior direction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  14. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  15. Decreased TSP-1 following percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with major adverse cardiac events in ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Ralf; Grotemeyer, Katharina; Kälsch, Thorsten; Gräber, Stefan; Wilkens, Heinrike; Elmas, Elif

    2013-01-01

    TSP-1 is a vasoconstrictive protein, which is released from both endothelium and cardiomyocytes during ischemia and promotes platelet aggregation and adhesion to subendothelial layers in atherosclerotic lesions. During myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, TSP-1 disturbs local microcirculation by disrupting both NO-signaling as well as VEGF-pathways by activation of CD47 and CD36. Furthermore, activation of TGF-ß might induce excessive fibrosis after infarction. It was assumed that TSP-1 is washed out after successful coronary reperfusion. In this study, we examined circulating TSP-1 post emergency PCI as a risk factor for major adverse cardiac events after STEMI with and without ventricular fibrillation. TSP-1 levels in platelet poor plasma were measured in 54 patients after ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Major adverse cardiac events were monitored for 426 days. Patients with decreased TSP levels after coronary stenting showed a significantly higher risk for MACE than patient with higher TSP levels (TSP-1[d0]: n = 46, no MACE = 16.38 ± 1.98 ug/mL vs. MACE 7.11 ± 1.54 ug/mL; p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meyer-analysis for MACE showed a better outcome above 10 ug/mL (p = 0.02). For MACE later than 3 months post-STEMI, the corresponding Kaplan-Meier-analysis yielded a p-value of 0.01. The number needed to diagnose for late MACE was 2.158. Low plasma levels of TSP1 after PCI are associated with MACE. Due to its procoagulant effects and dysregulation of microvascular tone, adequately powered prospective studies are warranted to test the impact of TSP-1 on cardiac microcirculation, endothelial function and remodeling. TSP-1 might serve as a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach in cardiovascular disease.

  16. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Tannus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  17. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  18. 41 CFR 102-118.500 - How does my agency handle a volunary refund submitted by a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does my agency handle a volunary refund submitted by a TSP? 102-118.500 Section 102-118.500 Public Contracts and... Information for All Claims § 102-118.500 How does my agency handle a volunary refund submitted by a TSP? (a...

  19. Clinical features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeibi, Ali; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Mokhber, Naghme; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Amin; Hashemi, Peyman; Foroghipour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Reza Farid; Bazarbachi, Ali; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to introduce clinical manifestations of patients in northeast Iran with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and describe the epidemiological features, as well as risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of HTLV-1 infected cases and HAM/TSP patients referred by outpatient neurology clinics as well as Mashhad Blood Transfusion Center from 2005 to 2010. The study comprises 513 cases, including 358 healthy carriers (HCs) and 145 HAM/TSP patients. The majority of carriers were male (73.5%), whereas 67.6% of HAM/TSP sufferers were female (P TSP patients and HCs was 45.9 ± 13.6 and 39.5 ± 11.58 years, respectively (P TSP patients than the HCs (P TSP patients (72.4%). This research develops an HTLV-1 data registry in an endemic area such as Mashhad which can serve useful purposes, including evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients and epidemiological data of HTLV-1-infected cases.

  20. Desarrollo y aplicación del algoritmo PSO al problema TSP

    OpenAIRE

    Morán Bermúdez, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    En la vida cotidiana nos enfrentamos a varios problemas. Uno de los más comunes se da cuando debemos realizar varias actividades o ir a varios lugares y tenemos que decidir el orden para realizarlo, de manera que nos suponga el menor coste posible ya sea en tiempo, energía, distancia, dinero… Esta situación se puede representar mediante el problema de Optimización del Agente Viajero (TSP). En este documento se va a desarrollar e implementar al TSP (práctica y teóricamente mediante la progr...

  1. Influence of Small Furnaces Construction Type on TSP Emissions During Wood and Brown Coal Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří HORÁK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid fuel burning household heat sources are considered to be significant producers of total suspended particulates (TSP. In the year 2005, c. 35% of the total particulate matter emissions PM10 (in The Czech Republic came out from household heating [1]. However, low-power combustion devices cannot be considered as identical pollution sources because they can operate on different combustion principles and feature dramatically different emission factors. The article presents results of an experimental determination of particulate matter emissions including TSP dividing into PM10 and PM2.5 fractions from wood and brown coal combustion in five types of combustion devices.

  2. [Application of spatial autocorrelation analysis to the COD, SO2 and TSP emission in Jiangsu province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Feng; Huang, Xian-Jin; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Zhu, De-Ming; Lai, Li; Zhong, Tai-Yang

    2009-06-15

    Spatial autocorrelation is an effective tool of spatial statistics, which is used to disclose the spatial structure of regional disparity. There are two different scales to measure regional spatial dependence: global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial autocorrelation. Based on environmental data of 13 cities in Jiangsu province from 1990 to 2006, the regional disparity of COD, SO2 and TSP emission was discussed by using spatial autocorrelation analysis methods. The results show that total emission of COD and TSP decreased respectively from 596 353 t and 1 101 404 t in 1990 to 291 762 t and 704734 t in 2006, while total emission of SO2 kept steady. In 2006, Global Moran's I of COD, SO2 and TSP emission was 0.465 7, 0.214 2 and 0.510 1 respectively. It is identified that positive spatial autocorrelation is presented and spatial aggregation pattern of COD, SO2 and TSP emission are appeared. However, spatial aggregation pattern of COD emission appears earlier than that of SO2 and TSP, and spatial aggregation degree of COD is also higher than that of SO2 and TSP. There are different spatial patterns between southern and northern Jiangsu. In southern Jiangsu, Global Moran's I of COD, SO2 and TSP emission had increased to 0.499 7, 0.320 2 and 0.298 3 up to 2006, and spatial aggregation pattern appeared remarkably. In northern Jiangsu, most of the Global Moran's I were less than -0.2, and spatial aggregation pattern disappeared accordingly. High cluster region of COD emission is Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou, and high cluster region of SO2 emission is Suzhou and Wuxi. However, spatial pattern of TSP emission does not change much and five cities of southern Jiangsu (Suzhou, Wuxi, Changzhou, Zhenjiang, Nanjing) are still the high cluster region. The last, the research provides an important cognition to regional environment disparity and macro-environmental strategy, and a significant means to harmonious society and eco-province construction in Jiangsu province.

  3. The TSP-approach to approximate solving the m-Cycles Cover Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimadi, Edward Kh.; Rykov, Ivan; Tsidulko, Oxana

    2016-10-01

    In the m-Cycles Cover problem it is required to find a collection of m vertex-disjoint cycles that covers all vertices of the graph and the total weight of edges in the cover is minimum (or maximum). The problem is a generalization of the Traveling salesmen problem. It is strongly NP-hard. We discuss a TSP-approach that gives polynomial approximate solutions for this problem. It transforms an approximation TSP algorithm into an approximation m-CCP algorithm. In this paper we present a number of successful transformations with proven performance guarantees for the obtained solutions.

  4. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  5. 5 CFR 839.1001 - Does the FERCCA allow me to increase my TSP account if I was in CSRS during my qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TSP account if I was in CSRS during my qualifying retirement coverage error and my correct coverage... ERRONEOUS RETIREMENT COVERAGE CORRECTIONS ACT Lost Earnings for Certain Make-up Contributions to the TSP § 839.1001 Does the FERCCA allow me to increase my TSP account if I was in CSRS during my qualifying...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.455 - What is the time limit for a TSP to file a transportation claim against my agency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for a TSP to file a transportation claim against my agency? 102-118.455 Section 102-118.455 Public... General Agency Information for All Claims § 102-118.455 What is the time limit for a TSP to file a transportation claim against my agency? The time limits on a TSP transportation claim against the Government...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.305 - Where do I go for information on the process for suspending or debarring a TSP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information on the process for suspending or debarring a TSP? 102-117.305 Section 102-117.305 Public Contracts... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Performance § 102-117.305 Where do I go for information on the process for suspending or debarring a TSP? Refer to...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.265 - Are there time limits that affect filing a claim with a TSP for loss or damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that affect filing a claim with a TSP for loss or damage? 102-117.265 Section 102-117.265 Public... there time limits that affect filing a claim with a TSP for loss or damage? Yes, several statutes limit the time for filing claims or taking other administrative or judicial action against a TSP. Refer to...

  9. 41 CFR 102-118.470 - Are there statutory time limits for a TSP on filing an administrative claim with the GSA Audit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limits for a TSP on filing an administrative claim with the GSA Audit Division? 102-118.470 Section 102... for a TSP on filing an administrative claim with the GSA Audit Division? Yes, an administrative claim... overpayment of those charges; or (d) Deductions made to a TSP claim by the Government under 31 U.S.C. 3726. ...

  10. A motif within the N-terminal domain of TSP-1 specifically promotes the proangiogenic activity of endothelial colony-forming cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Juliana Vieira; Benslimane-Ahmim, Zahia; Egot, Marion; Lokajczyk, Anna; Grelac, Françoise; Galy-Fauroux, Isabelle; Juliano, Luiz; Le-Bonniec, Bernard; Takiya, Cristina Maeda; Fischer, Anne-Marie; Blanc-Brude, Olivier; Morandi, Verônica; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine

    2012-10-15

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) gives rise to fragments that have both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. The TSP-HepI peptide (2.3 kDa), located in the N-terminal domain of TSP-1, has proangiogenic effects on endothelial cells. We have previously shown that TSP-1 itself exhibits a dual effect on endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) by enhancing their adhesion through its TSP-HepI fragment while reducing their proliferation and differentiation into vascular tubes (tubulogenesis) in vitro. This effect is likely mediated through CD47 binding to the TSP-1 C-terminal domain. Here we investigated the effect of TSP-HepI peptide on the angiogenic properties of ECFC in vitro and in vivo. TSP-HepI peptide potentiated FGF-2-induced neovascularisation by enhancing ECFC chemotaxis and tubulogenesis in a Matrigel plug assay. ECFC exposure to 20 μg/mL of TSP-HepI peptide for 18 h enhanced cell migration (p TSP-HepI peptide with a modified heparin-binding site (S/TSP-HepI) nor when the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) moieties were removed from the ECFC surface by enzymatic treatment. Ex vivo TSP-HepI priming could potentially serve to enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic neovascularisation with ECFC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.200 - Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP demand advance... (gbl) Or Government Transportation Request (gtr) (until Form Retirement) § 102-118.200 Can a TSP demand advance payment for the transportation charges submitted on a bill of lading (including GBL)? No, a TSP...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.650 - Can a TSP request a review of a settlement action by the Administrator of General Services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a TSP request a... Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.650 Can a TSP request a review of a settlement action by the Administrator of General Services...

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.260 - What are my responsibilities to employees regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities to employees regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims? 102-117.260 Section 102-117...-117.260 What are my responsibilities to employees regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims? Regarding the TSP's liability for loss or damage claims, you must: (a) Advise employees on the...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.315 - What must my agency do if the TSP disputes the findings and my agency cannot resolve the dispute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... if the TSP disputes the findings and my agency cannot resolve the dispute? 102-118.315 Section 102... agency do if the TSP disputes the findings and my agency cannot resolve the dispute? (a) If your agency is unable to resolve the disputed amount with the TSP, your agency should forward all relevant...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.655 - Are there time limits on a TSP request for an administrative review by the CBCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a TSP request for an administrative review by the CBCA? 102-118.655 Section 102-118.655 Public... Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.655 Are there time limits on a TSP request for an administrative review by the CBCA? (a) Yes, the CBCA must receive a...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.310 - Must my agency prepayment audit program establish appeal procedures whereby a TSP may appeal any...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prepayment audit program establish appeal procedures whereby a TSP may appeal any reduction in the amount... § 102-118.310 Must my agency prepayment audit program establish appeal procedures whereby a TSP may... TSP appeals to an agency official who is able to provide adequate consideration and review of the...

  17. 41 CFR 102-118.220 - If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property, does my agency report it to GSA....220 If a transportation debt is owed to my agency by a TSP because of loss or damage to property, does my agency report it to GSA? No, if your agency has administratively determined that a TSP owes a debt...

  18. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) up-regulates tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in human tumor cells: exploring the functional significance in tumor cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anitha S; Hu, Xioulong; Rothman, Vicki L; Tuszynski, George P

    2009-12-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matrix-bound adhesive glycoprotein, has been shown to modulate tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that TSP-1 up-regulates matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our studies suggested that the balance between MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is a key determinant in tumor cell invasion. We now report that TSP-1 up-regulates TIMP-1 expression in both human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of TSP-1 on TIMP-1 expression was examined in human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MDA-MB-231) and human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3-NI and PC3-ML) treated with exogenous TSP-1. TIMP-1 expression was also examined in TSP-1 stably transfected breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-435). Northern and western blot analysis revealed TIMP-1 mRNA and TIMP-1 protein expression increased with increasing concentrations of TSP-1. This effect was inhibited by antibodies against the type I repeat domain of TSP-1 further suggesting that TSP-1 mediates TIMP-1 secretion. Inhibition of TSP-1 induced TIMP-1 levels increased tumor cell invasion. We conclude that TSP-1 is involved in influencing the critical balance between MMPs and their inhibitors, maintaining the controlled degradation of the extracellular matrix needed to support metastasis and our results may provide an explanation for the divergent activities reported for TSP-1 in tumor progression.

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.205 - May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing service under the bill of lading? 102....205 May my agency pay a subcontractor or agent functioning as a warehouseman for the TSP providing service under the bill of lading? No, your agency may only pay the TSP with whom it has a contract. The...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.600 - When a TSP disagrees with a Notice of Overcharge resulting from a postpayment audit, what are the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When a TSP disagrees... AUDIT Claims and Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.600 When a TSP disagrees with a Notice of Overcharge resulting from a...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.155 - How does my agency handle supplemental billings from the TSP after payment of the original bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handle supplemental billings from the TSP after payment of the original bill? 102-118.155 Section 102-118... TSP after payment of the original bill? Your agency must process, review, and verify supplemental billings using the same procedures as on an original billing. If the TSP disputes the findings, your agency...

  2. 41 CFR 102-118.640 - If a TSP fails to pay or to appeal an overcharge, what actions will GSA pursue to collect the debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a TSP fails to pay or... Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider (tsp) and Agency Appeal Procedures for Postpayment Audits § 102-118.640 If a TSP fails to pay or to appeal an overcharge, what actions will GSA pursue to...

  3. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M T T; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araújo, A Q-C

    2003-08-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological manifestations of HTLV-1.

  4. Modelling the regional climate and isotopic composition of Svalbard precipitation using REMOiso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Divine..[], D.V.; Sjolte, Jesper; Isaksson, E.

    2011-01-01

    on Svalbard ice caps in 1997 (Lomonosovfonna, 1250 m asl) and 2005 (Holtedahlfonna, 1150 m asl) and the GNIP series from Ny-angstrom lesund and Isfjord Radio. The surface air temperature (SAT) and precipitation data from Longyearbyen and Ny-angstrom lesund are used to assess the skill of the model......Simulations of a regional (approx. 50 km resolution) circulation model REMOiso with embedded stable water isotope module covering the period 1958-2001 are compared with the two instrumental climate and four isotope series (d18O) from western Svalbard. We examine the data from ice cores drilled...... than summer. The simulated and measured Holtedahlfonna d18O series agree reasonably well, whereas no significant correlation has been observed between the modelled and measured Lomonosovfonna ice core isotopic series. It is shown that sporadic nature as well as variability in the amount inherent...

  5. Two rare coprophilous ascomycetes from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelen, van J.; Kristiansen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Two uncommon coprophilous ascomycetes, Ascobolus cervinus and Caccobius minusculus, only recorded once, each from two different continents, are reported for the first time from Norway. Both are provided with new descriptions and compared with authentic material.

  6. The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval, NE Svalbard:Chemostratigraphy and genesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fairchild, Ian J.; Bonnand, Pierre; Davies, Tesni; Fleming, Edward J.; Grassineau, Nathalie; Halverson, Galen P.; Hambrey, Michael J.; McMillan, Emily M.; McKay, Elizabeth; Parkinson, Ian J.; Stevenson, Carl T. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Late Cryogenian Warm Interval (LCWI) refers to a non-glacial interval that separates presumed representatives of the Sturtian and Marinoan panglaciations. Its duration is poorly constrained radiometrically and its deposits are relatively poorly known in most geographic regions. This paper aims to constrain the duration, palaeoenvironments and petrogenesis of such deposits in the classic region of NE Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The succession comprises a 200–205 m dolomitic shale (Macdonaldrygg...

  7. The geomorphic imprint of glacier surges into open-marine waters: Examples from eastern Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, D.; Dowdeswell, Julian Andrew; Bellec, VK; Bjarnadóttir, LR

    2017-01-01

    Seafloor morphology beyond nine tidewater glaciers terminating in open-marine settings in eastern Svalbard has been investigated using multibeam swath-bathymetry. Historical information on tidewater glacier fluctuations over the past century or so shows that the seafloor offshore has been exposed only recently. Most glaciers have been observed to surge or have looped surface moraines indicating past surges. During these ice advances and subsequent retreat, a well-preserved submarine landform ...

  8. Sandstone Provenance of the De Geerdalen Formation, Svalbard - Emphasis on Petrography and Chromium Spinel Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Harstad, Trond Svånå

    2016-01-01

    Detrital chromium spinel mineral-chemical analyses, in combination with sandstone petrography, were conducted on samples from the Upper Triassic De Geerdalen Formation from several locations on Svalbard, in order to interpret sandstone provenance. Petrographic identification of detrital minerals and lithic fragments was used to identify source rock lithology. The accessory mineral chromium spinel was used as a petrogenetic marker to distinguish tectonic setting of mafic and ultra- mafic sourc...

  9. Three-dimensional structure of TspO by electron cryomicroscopy of helical crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkhov, Vladimir M; Sachse, Carsten; Short, Judith M; Tate, Christopher G

    2010-06-09

    The 18 kDa TSPO protein is a polytopic mitochondrial outer membrane protein involved in a wide range of physiological functions and pathologies, including neurodegeneration and cancer. The pharmacology of TSPO has been extensively studied, but little is known about its biochemistry, oligomeric state, and structure. We have expressed, purified, and characterized a homologous protein, TspO from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and reconstituted it as helical crystals. Using electron cryomicroscopy and single-particle helical reconstruction, we have determined a three-dimensional structure of TspO at 10 A resolution. The structure suggests that monomeric TspO comprises five transmembrane alpha helices that form a homodimer, which is consistent with the dimeric state observed in detergent solution. Furthermore, the arrangement of transmembrane domains of individual TspO subunits indicates a possibility of two substrate translocation pathways per dimer. The structure provides the first insight into the molecular architecture of TSPO/PBR protein family that will serve as a framework for future studies.

  10. Heuristics for Comparing the Lengths of Completed E-TSP Tours: Crossings and Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.

    2017-01-01

    The article reports three experiments designed to explore heuristics used in comparing the lengths of completed Euclidean Traveling Salesman Problem (E-TSP) tours. The experiments used paired comparisons in which participants judged which of two completed tours of the same point set was shorter. The first experiment manipulated two factors, the…

  11. Simultaneous PSP and TSP measurements of transient flow in a long-duration hypersonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Jiao, Lingrui; Sun, Zhijun; Gu, Yunsong; Liu, Yingzheng

    2016-12-01

    The current work presents simultaneous measurements of transient flow using fast-responding pressure- and temperature-sensitive paints in a long-duration hypersonic tunnel; the pressure, temperature and heat flux fields were obtained on a standard model (HB-2) at Ma = 5. Fast PSP and TSP were applied symmetrically on the model with low thermal conductivity. Both coatings were illuminated by a UV-LED, and unsteady pressure and temperature data were recorded at 500 Hz using a high-speed camera. Time-dependent temperature correction was applied on the PSP data based on the TSP results, while the heat flux was calculated from the time-resolved temperature fields using a 1D semi-finite heat conduction model. The temperature-induced errors in PSP data were effectively removed by the current compensation method. The pressure and heat flux results showed good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. The key events throughout the hypersonic tunnel run were captured by the unsteady PSP/TSP data, including the tunnel start-up, the flow build-up, the steady flow period and the tunnel shutdown. The differences caused by the change of attack angle were also clearly recognized. The current PSP/TSP system has shown great potential for unsteady flow diagnostics in hypersonic flows.

  12. Polynomial Approximation Algorithms for the TSP and the QAP with a Factorial Domination Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutin, Gregory; Yeo, Anders

    2002-01-01

    Glover and Punnen (J. Oper. Res. Soc. 48 (1997) 502) asked whether there exists a polynomial time algorithm that always produces a tour which is not worse than at least n!/p(n) tours for some polynomial p(n) for every TSP instance on n cities. They conjectured that, unless P = NP, the answer to t...

  13. Indoor Spatial Monitoring of Combustion Generated Pollutants (TSP, CO, and BaP) by Indian Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    contribution from cooking. TSP concentrations were obtained gravimetrically . Future studies might determine dust and soot separately. Part of the BaP analysis...Monograph, # 98. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa. Smith, K.R., 1987: Biofuels , Air Pollution, and Health: A Global review. Plenum

  14. Cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans and captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Kazunari; Segawa, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Murata, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Preservation of indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota is deemed to be critical for successful captive breeding of endangered wild animals, yet its biology is poorly understood. Here, we investigated cecal bacterial communities in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus muta japonica) and compared them with those in Svalbard rock ptarmigans (L. m. hyperborea) in captivity. Ultra-deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated that the community structure of cecal microbiota in wild rock ptarmigans was remarkably different from that in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Fundamental differences between bacterial communities in the two groups of birds were detected at the phylum level. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Synergistetes were the major phyla detected in wild Japanese rock ptarmigans, whereas Firmicutes alone occupied more than 80% of abundance in captive Svalbard rock ptarmigans. Furthermore, unclassified genera of Coriobacteriaceae, Synergistaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Actinomycetaceae, Veillonellaceae and Clostridiales were the major taxa detected in wild individuals, whereas in zoo-reared birds, major genera were Ruminococcus, Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Akkermansia. Zoo-reared birds seemed to lack almost all rock ptarmigan-specific bacteria in their intestine, which may explain the relatively high rate of pathogenic infections affecting them. We show evidence that preservation and reconstitution of indigenous cecal microflora are critical for successful ex situ conservation and future re-introduction plan for the Japanese rock ptarmigan.

  15. Population genetics of purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia) in the high Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietiläinen, Maria; Korpelainen, Helena

    2013-01-01

    We investigated patterns of genetic variability in Saxifraga oppositifolia in the isolated Arctic Svalbard archipelago. The genetic analysis included genotyping using nine polymorphic microsatellite markers and sequencing of the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region. Among populations, mean allele numbers per microsatellite locus ranged from 2.0 to 2.6, and 9 % of alleles were unique. Observed (H O) and expected (H E) heterozygosities averaged 0.522 and 0.445, respectively. Typically negative but non-significant F IS values (mean -0.173) were found in S. oppositifolia populations. F ST values were relatively low (mean 0.123). The Bayesian structure analysis provided additional information on population genetic structures. Seven out of 11 studied populations, including populations located both near each other and far apart (distances 5-210 km), showed relatively homogeneous clustering patterns, while one population located on a slope in the main settlement of Longyearbyen possessed a unique genetic structure. The Mantel test proved that there is no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances. Different growth habits (compact, trailing and intermediate) did not possess distinct genetic compositions based on microsatellite variation. Internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed 12 polymorphic sites. Among 24 sequenced Svalbard samples, eight haplotypes were detected, none shared by the mainland samples. Population genetic structures of S. oppositifolia in Svalbard show that both genetic variation and differentiation levels are modest, outcrossing is the main mating system, and dispersal and gene flow are important, probably attributable to strong winds and human and animal vectors.

  16. Seasonal differences in jump performance in the Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Lees

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fat storage is essential to the survival of many bird species, providing energy reserves, but can have an effect on locomotor performance with an associated potential increase in predation risk. In particular, the ability to initiate flight through jumping is critical to predator avoidance and may be influenced by changes in body mass (Mb. Here we investigate seasonal differences in the jump take-off performance of high Arctic Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea resulting from around a 50% increase in Mb during winter as a result of fat deposition. Using force-plate data and videography, we reveal that, in the absence of alterations to take-off angle, winter Svalbard rock ptarmigan are unable to increase hind-limb power output during jumping to compensate for their increased Mb. As a result, peak take-off velocity is reduced by 42% and jump duration is also extended during winter. The consequences of reduced jumping performance upon Svalbard ptarmigan during winter may be relatively small given their low risk of predation during this season. It may be, however, that the observed reduction in jumping performance when fat may contribute to the sub-maximal pattern of fat acquisition observed in other bird species.

  17. Svalbard as a study model of future High Arctic coastal environments in a warming world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piskozub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard archipelago, a high latitude area in a region undergoing rapid climate change, is relatively easily accessible for field research. This makes the fjords of Spitsbergen, its largest island, some of the best studied Arctic coastal areas. This paper aims at answering the question of how climatically diverse the fjords are, and how representative they are for the expected future Arctic diminishing range of seasonal sea-ice. This study uses a meteorological reanalysis, sea surface temperature climatology, and the results of a recent one-year meteorological campaign in Spitsbergen to determine the seasonal differences between different Spitsbergen fjords, as well as the sea water temperature and ice ranges around Svalbard in recent years. The results show that Spitsbergen fjords have diverse seasonal patterns of air temperature due to differences in the SST of the adjacent ocean, and different cloudiness. The sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around Svalbard in recent years are similar to what is expected most of the Arctic coastal areas in the second half of this century. This makes Spitsbergen a unique field study model of the conditions expected in future warmer High Arctic.

  18. Reduced metabolic cost of locomotion in Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea during winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lees

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Svalbard rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta hyperborea experiences extreme photoperiodic and climatic conditions on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. This species, however, is highly adapted to live in this harsh environment. One of the most striking adaptations found in these birds is the deposition, prior to onset of winter, of fat stores which may comprise up to 32% of body mass and are located primarily around the sternum and abdominal region. This fat, while crucial to the birds' survival, also presents a challenge in that the bird must maintain normal physiological function with this additional mass. In particular these stores are likely to constrain the respiratory system, as the sternum and pelvic region must be moved during ventilation and carrying this extra load may also impact upon the energetic cost of locomotion. Here we demonstrate that winter birds have a reduced cost of locomotion when compared to summer birds. A remarkable finding given that during winter these birds have almost twice the body mass of those in summer. These results suggest that Svalbard ptarmigan are able to carry the additional winter fat without incurring any energetic cost. As energy conservation is paramount to these birds, minimising the costs of moving around when resources are limited would appear to be a key adaptation crucial for their survival in the barren Arctic environment.

  19. Epigenetic modification of the FoxP3 TSDR in HAM/TSP decreases the functional suppression of Tregs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique R; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Massoud, Raya; Ngouth, Nyater; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Oh, Unsong; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-01-01

    HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is associated with the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/ tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In these patients, HTLV-1 is primarily found in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset (Regulatory T cells:Tregs), which is responsible for peripheral immune tolerance and is known to be dysfunctional in HAM/TSP. Recent evidence suggests that FoxP3 expression and function is determined epigenetically through DNA demethylation in the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR). We analyzed the methylation of the TSDR in PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, and CD4+CD25+ T cells from normal healthy donors (NDs) and HAM/TSP patients. We demonstrated that there is decreased demethylation in analyzed PBMCs and CD4+CD25+ T cells from HAM/TSP patients as compared to NDs. Furthermore, decreased TSDR demethylation was associated with decreased functional suppression by Tregs. Additionally, increased HTLV-1 Tax expression in HAM/TSP PBMC culture correlated with a concomitant decline in FoxP3 TSDR demethylation. Overall, we suggest that HTLV-1 infection decreases Treg functional suppressive capacity in HAM/TSP through modification of FoxP3 TSDR demethylation and that dysregulated Treg function may contribute to HAM/TSP disease pathogenesis. PMID:24845974

  20. Epigenetic modification of the FoxP3 TSDR in HAM/TSP decreases the functional suppression of Tregs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique R; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Massoud, Raya; Ngouth, Nyater; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Oh, Unsong; Jacobson, Steven

    2014-09-01

    HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus that is associated with the neuroinflammatory disorder HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In these patients, HTLV-1 is primarily found in the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell subset (Regulatory T cells:Tregs), which is responsible for peripheral immune tolerance and is known to be dysfunctional in HAM/TSP. Recent evidence suggests that FoxP3 expression and function is determined epigenetically through DNA demethylation in the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR). We analyzed the methylation of the TSDR in PBMCs, CD4(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from normal healthy donors (NDs) and HAM/TSP patients. We demonstrated that there is decreased demethylation in analyzed PBMCs and CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from HAM/TSP patients as compared to NDs. Furthermore, decreased TSDR demethylation was associated with decreased functional suppression by Tregs. Additionally, increased HTLV-1 Tax expression in HAM/TSP PBMC culture correlated with a concomitant decline in FoxP3 TSDR demethylation. Overall, we suggest that HTLV-1 infection decreases Treg functional suppressive capacity in HAM/TSP through modification of FoxP3 TSDR demethylation and that dysregulated Treg function may contribute to HAM/TSP disease pathogenesis.

  1. Secondary side TSP deposit buildup: lab test investigation focused on electrokinetic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barale, M.; Guillodo, M.; Foucault, M., E-mail: Morgan.Barale@areva.com [AREVA NP SAS, Technical Centre, Le Creusot (France); Ryckelynck, N.; Clinard, M-H.; Chahma, F.; Brun, C. [AREVA NP SAS, Chemistry and Radiochemistry Group, Paris (France); Corredera, G. [Electricite de France, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les domaines de la Realisation et de l' Exploitation, Saint-Denis (France)

    2010-07-01

    Deposit buildup which caused the clogging of the 'foils' of the upper tube-support-plates (TSP) inside a PWR steam generator of French NPPs in 2006 presents certain similarities with deposits observed in lab tests performed in secondary coolant chemistry at the Technical Centre of AREVA NP in 2002. The mechanism of TSP clogging seems not to present obvious phenomenological links with the fouling of the free span of SG since deposits buildup is quite uniform and is currently related to a surface boiling effect due to the surface heat flux. A specific mechanism could account for TSP clogging. In particular, electrokinetic effects were investigated by EDF-CEIDRE and AREVA NP SAS in the framework of a lab test program started in 2007. The electrokinetic approach is to consider that the coupling of local hydrodynamic and surface electrochemistry could lead to the formation of a very localized and heterogeneous deposit at the leading edge between both TSP and SG tubing material. Electrokinetic effects can lead to the oxidation and/or the precipitation of ferrous ions and to a variation of the electrokinetic potential which can produce strong attraction of iron oxide colloids. These electrokinetic effects are dependent of the T/H and local hydrodynamic conditions and surface electrochemistry explaining. The objective of this EDF-AREVA lab test program is to investigate the role of secondary chemistry coolant (pH, DH, N{sub 2}H{sub 4}, amine, redox) and of the nature of materials (SS, Ni base alloy) on deposit buildup. Properties of oxide surface and zeta potential of oxidized metallic materials have been also determined at temperature to understand their potential contribution on mechanism of TSP clogging in secondary side chemistry coolant. In this paper, a set of specific experiments carried out in this frame have been presented and discussed, paying particular attention to the effects of electrokinetic considerations and surface charges at oxide

  2. Altered expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 and their ligands in HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Felegari, Mehdi; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Rajaei, Taraneh; Hampson, Ian; Hassanshahi, Golmahossein; Valizadeh, Narges; Gerayli, Sina; Hamid, Farajifard; Zamanian, Shadi; MollaHosseini, Farzad; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim

    2017-08-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes by chemokines and chemokine receptors to CNS plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In the present study, chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to the CNS were measured in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls. The PVL, CCR6, and CXCR3 mRNA expression, and CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels were measured in all subjects. The PVL of HAM/TSP patients was higher than that of ACs (P = 0.02). CCR6 expression was higher in HAM/TSP patients and in ACs compared to the healthy controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively). A significant difference was observed in CCR6 expression when a combination of HAM/TSP patients and ACs were compared to the healthy individuals (P = 0.005). Furthermore, there was a significantly lower CXCR3 expression between HAM/TSP and control groups (P = 0.001), and between the ACs and healthy controls (P = 0.001). However, the increased CXCR3 expression in ACs compared to HAM/TSP patients was not significant. Furthermore, the CXCL10 protein levels in HAM/TSP patients was higher than in controls (P = 0.012), and CXCL9 protein levels was also higher in the HAM/TSP and ACs groups than in the controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, it seems that decreased expression of CXCR3 and higher expression of CCR6 were associated with HTLV-1 infection, what indicate that these alterations may favor virus dissemination but not disease manifestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  4. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients according to new diagnostic criteria of HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Kruschewsky, Ramon de Almeida; Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Dourado, Inês; Correia, Luis C L; de Castro-Costa, Carlos Maurício; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2011-07-01

    A high human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load is described in HTLV-1-associated diseases, especially HAM/TSP. However, the cut-off value to define high levels of HTLV-1 proviral load is not well established. 281 HTLV-1-infected patients from the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil, were followed from 2005 to 2008. Patients were classified as asymptomatic, possible-, probable-, and definite-HAM/TSP, in accordance with diagnostic criteria proposed by De Castro-Costa et al. (2006): AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:931-935. HTLV-1 proviral load was determined using real-time PCR. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed using only asymptomatic individuals and definite-HAM/TSP patients. The ROC curve was used to predict the proviral load level that differentiates these two groups. Out of 281 patients, 189 were asymptomatic and 92 were diagnosed with HAM/TSP (22 possible, 23 probable, 47 definite). The mean HTLV-1 proviral load was higher in possible- (89,104 ± 93,006 copies/106 PBMC), -probable (175,854 ± 128,083 copies/106 PBMC), and definite-HAM/TSP patients (150,667 ± 122,320 copies/106 PBMC),when compared to asymptomatic individuals (27,178 ± 41,155 copies/106 PBMC) (P TSP groups showed the highest proviral loads in probable-HAM/TSP patients, yet the differences in mean values were not statistically significant. The ROC curve suggested a value of 49,865 copies/106 PBMC, with 87% sensitivity (95% CI ¼ 74-95) and 81% specificity (95% CI ¼ 75-86), as the best proviral load cut-off point to differentiate definite HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic individuals. HTLV-1 proviral loads are higher in groups of infected patients with eurological symptoms and may represent a relevant biological marker of disease progression.

  5. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement on the 2-D slice for boric acid and TSP solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.M. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Nuclear and Quantum Eng., Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, S.; Song, C. [Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Nuclear Engineering and Technology Inst., Nuclear Engineering and Tech. Inst. (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Y.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Nuclear and Quantum Eng., Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel external wall was measured using the small scale two-dimensional slice test section. The radius of the curvature and the channel area of the test section were 0.15 m and 0.03 mx0.03 m, respectively. The objectives are to assess the effects of additives (TSP, boric acid) and heated material (SA508) in inclination angle 90° and to investigate flow boiling CHF enhancement resulting from various working fluids of 5000 ppm tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}∙12H{sub 2}O) solution, 4000 ppm boric acid solution and mixture solution of TSP and boric acid. Boric acid solution didn't show CHF enhancement and TSP and mixture solution showed CHF enhancement (20~34%). (author)

  6. Cyclosporine for the treatment of HLTV-1-induced HAM/TSP: an experience from a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Salvador, Fernando; Caballero, Estrella; Molina, Israel

    2015-01-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) remains a challenging disease. Treatment options are scarce, and their safety and efficacy are currently a matter of concern.We present a case report describing our experience using cyclosporine in a patient with early HAM/TSP who started with a gait disturbance at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona) from August 2012 to October 2013. After 62 weeks of treatment, clinical improvement was observed and proviral load diminished. No safety concerns were observed.Cyclosporine seems to be effective in new-onset HAM/TSP or in chronic HAM/TSP that develops a relapse. However, the duration and safety profile of this steroid-sparing therapy remain unknown and should be further investigated.

  7. Language Policy and Corporate Law in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper explores the relationship between national language policies and corporate law in Norwegian business. By adopting a legal perspective on the national language policy of Norway as it has been stipulated by the Norwegian Ministry of Church and Culture (2008) and The Language Council...... of Norway (2005) the paper investigates how the 500 largest companies in Norway comply with the language requirement of the Norwegian Accounting Act for the financial year of 2015. The results show that 44.9 % of the companies presented their financial statements in one or more foreign language in addition...... to the Norwegian language version, 36.2 % of the companies presented their financial statements in Norwegian only, while 18.9 % of the companies had been granted dispensation from the Norwegian Directorate of Taxes to deviate from the language requirement of the Accounting Act and presented their financial...

  8. EPB41L3, TSP-1 and RASSF2 as new clinically relevant prognostic biomarkers in diffuse gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Janices, N; Blanco-Luquin, I; Tuñón, M T; Barba-Ramos, E; Ibáñez, B; Zazpe-Cenoz, I; Martinez-Aguillo, M; Hernandez, B; Martínez-Lopez, E; Fernández, A F; Mercado, M R; Cabada, T; Escors, D; Megias, D; Guerrero-Setas, D

    2015-01-01

    Hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is one of the hallmarks in the progression of brain tumors. Our objectives were to analyze the presence of the hypermethylation of EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes in 132 diffuse gliomas (astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors) and in 10 cases of normal brain, and to establish their association with the patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Gene hypermethylation was analyzed by methylation-specific-PCR and confirmed by pyrosequencing (for EPB41L3 and TSP-1) and bisulfite-sequencing (for RASSF2). EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes were hypermethylated only in tumors (29%, 10.6%, and 50%, respectively), confirming their cancer-specific role. Treatment of cells with the DNA-demethylating-agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restores their transcription, as confirmed by quantitative-reverse-transcription-PCR and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry for EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 was performed to analyze protein expression; p53, ki-67, and CD31 expression and 1p/19q co-deletion were considered to better characterize the tumors. EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation was associated with worse (p = 0.047) and better (p = 0.037) prognosis, respectively. This observation was confirmed after adjusting the results for age and tumor grade, the role of TSP-1 being most pronounced in oligodendrogliomas (p = 0.001). We conclude that EPB41L3, RASSF2 and TSP-1 genes are involved in the pathogenesis of diffuse gliomas, and that EPB41L3 and TSP-1 hypermethylation are of prognostic significance.

  9. Elemental and carbonaceous characterization of TSP and PM10 during Middle Eastern dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Southwestern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavani, Abbas; Yarahmadi, Maryam; Hadei, Mostafa; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Naddafi, Kazem

    2017-08-21

    Middle Eastern dust (MED) storms carry large amounts of dust particles to the Southern and Western cities of Iran. This study aimed to characterize the elemental and carbonaceous composition of total suspended particles (TSP) and PM10 in Ahvaz, Iran. TSP and PM10 samples were collected using two separate high-volume air samplers. The sampling program was performed according to EPA guidelines and resulted in 72 samples. Twenty-eight elements and two carbonaceous components in TSP and PM10 were measured. Over the entire study period, the mean concentration (SD) of TSP and PM10 was 1548.72 μg/m3 (1965.11 μg/m3) and 1152.35 μg/m3 (1510.34 μg/m3), respectively. The order of concentrations of major species were Si > Al > Ca > OC > Na > B > Zn > Mn > K > Mg and Si > Ca > Al > Na > OC > B > K > Mn > Cu > Mg for TSP and PM10, respectively. Almost all elements (except for Cd, Cr, and Cu) and carbonaceous components (except for organic carbon) had dust days/non-dust days (DD/NDD) ratios higher than 1, implying that all components are somehow affected by dust storms. Crustal elements constituted the major portion of particles for both TSP and PM10 in both DDs and NDDs. The enrichment factor of elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Ti was near unity. Species such as Al, Ca, Fe, K, Na, Si, and EC had high correlation coefficients in both TSP and PM10 (except for EC). In conclusion, Ahvaz is exposed to high concentrations of TSP and PM10 during the MED period. Immediate actions must be planned to decrease the high concentrations of particulate matter in Ahvaz's ambient air.

  10. The impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the temperature, precipitation and surface mass balance of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Day

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed decline in summer sea ice extent since the 1970s is predicted to continue until the Arctic Ocean is seasonally ice free during the 21st Century. This will lead to a much perturbed Arctic climate with large changes in ocean surface energy flux. Svalbard, located on the present day sea ice edge, contains many low lying ice caps and glaciers and is expected to experience rapid warming over the 21st Century. The total sea level rise if all the land ice on Svalbard were to melt completely is 0.02 m.

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change on Svalbard's surface mass balance (SMB and to determine, in particular, what proportion of the projected changes in precipitation and SMB are a result of changes to the Arctic sea ice cover. To investigate this a regional climate model was forced with monthly mean climatologies of sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration for the periods 1961–1990 and 2061–2090 under two emission scenarios. In a novel forcing experiment, 20th Century SSTs and 21st Century sea ice were used to force one simulation to investigate the role of sea ice forcing. This experiment results in a 3.5 m water equivalent increase in Svalbard's SMB compared to the present day. This is because over 50 % of the projected increase in winter precipitation over Svalbard under the A1B emissions scenario is due to an increase in lower atmosphere moisture content associated with evaporation from the ice free ocean. These results indicate that increases in precipitation due to sea ice decline may act to moderate mass loss from Svalbard's glaciers due to future Arctic warming.

  11. 15-years of permafrost monitoring on Janssonhaugen, Svalbard; new insights into permafrost response and sensitivity to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Ketil; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Vikhamar Schuler, Dagrun; Nordli, Øyvind

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic land areas have experienced greater warming over the last three decades than elsewhere in the world. In Europe the Svalbard archipelago (located in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean from 74° to 81°N and 10° to 35°E) have experienced the greatest temperature change during this period. At Svalbard airport the mean annual air temperature has increased by approximately 4 °C since 1980. Air temperatures on Svalbard are highly sensitive to the coupled sea ice-ocean-atmosphere system and recent studies suggest that the shrinkage in Arctic sea-ice cover is the most important factor for the record high temperatures. Continuous temperature series from two instrumented permafrost boreholes (102 m and 15 m deep) on Janssonhaugen, Svalbard, provide main data for the present analysis. The boreholes are located 23 km from Svalbard Airport and were established in 1998 within the EU-funded PACE project and are designed for long-term temperature monitoring. In this study we examine the impact of the recent atmospheric warming on the permafrost in Svalbard. Trends and variability in permafrost temperatures at different depths are compared to trends in air temperature and ground surface temperatures. Although Janssonhaugen is representative for exposed sites where snow cover typically is thin or absent, the altered effect of a thin snow cover on subsurface thermal regime has not been analysed in detail so far. The effect of variability in snow cover on ground temperatures is studied and quantified by combined use of snow cover modeling, 1-D transient heat flow modeling and advanced time-series analyses. The study gives new insights into permafrost response and sensitivity to climate change, including effects of more frequent anomalous weather events.

  12. The influence of meteorological conditions and stringent emission control on high TSP episodes in Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Sema; Incecik, Selahattin; Unal, Yurdanur Sezginer

    2003-01-01

    Istanbul has faced serious air pollution problems since the mid-80s. This is mainly due to particulate air pollution coming from poor quality lignite in areas, which are heavily populated and industrialized. As a consequence of severe air pollution problems, stringent control on the emissions in the city started in the year of 1994. In this work, in order to study the relationship between emissions and meteorological conditions, an assessment of air pollution episodes and air pollution potential in the city is presented for the terms at the changed emission schedule as the influence of an emission reduction strategy. The influence of meteorological conditions on the TSP (total suspended particulates) levels is considered for two consecutive winter periods. On this occasion, the city has faced different TSP levels and episode characteristics depending on stringent emission reductions covering the banned, poor-quality lignite and fuel switching. For this purpose, climatological conditions and air quality analyses were performed.

  13. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  14. Tidal power in Norway; Maanekraft fra dypet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The world's first tidal power station is scheduled for stat-up in the spring of 2003. It is located in Kvalsundet, off Hammerfest, Norway. This is a pilot installation of a 300 kW tidal turbine at a depth of 50 metres. When fully developed in 2007, the tidal power plant will deliver 32 GWh per year. Hammerfest Stroem has patented the energy and the company hopes to be able to install similar power stations both in Norway and abroad. The potential worldwide is claimed to be more than 450 TWh per year.

  15. A review of selected physical parameterization sensitivity settings within Polar-WRF model over Svalbard area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilguj, Natalia; Kryza, Maciej; Czernecki, Bartosz; Migała, Krzysztof; Kolendowicz, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    In this work we present the results of the sensitivity study using the mesoscale meteorological Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model (Polar-WRF) for high-resolution dynamical downscaling done over the Svalbard area. In total, 36 unique simulations were performed for January 2009 and June 2008. For each model run, we have used different configuration of physical parameters, including the tests of long and shortwave radiation schemes, planetary boundary layer, microphysics and cumulus parameterizations. Additionally, two model runs were tested using the same configuration for physical parameterizations, but with two different digital elevation models: the default one as provided in the WRF Preprocessing System, and a high-resolution layer available for the Svalbard area. The sensitivity of the model in terms of spatial resolution is also analyzed, as the Polar-WRF model was configured using three-way nested domains with 27km, 9km and 3km grid cell resolutions. The results were compared against meteorological observations gathered at 9 weather stations. These preliminary results show high sensitivity of the obtained dynamical downscaling geophysical fields to the selected model configuration. For example, mean values of Pearson correlation coefficients for near-surface air temperature may vary from 0.3 up to 0.73 in June and from 0.79 up to 0.97 depending on analyzed locations. Significant differences of stations mean error (ME) distributions occur for longwave radiation schemes (particularly for CAM and New Goddard). This study is an attempt to address the most optimal model configuration for the area of Svalbard in order to downscale a future climate scenarios as accurate as possible.

  16. Stratigraphy of the uppermost Old Red Sandstone of Svalbard (Mimerdalen Subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Piepjohn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Between the fjords Dicksonfjorden and Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard's youngest deposits (Early Givetian to Famennian in age of the Old Red Sandstone—the Mimerdalen Subgroup—are exposed. They form a narrow outcrop area parallel to the Billefjorden Fault Zone and overlie unconformably the multicoloured sandstones of the Lower Devonian Wood Bay Formation. Stratigraphic rank and subdivision of the succession were changed repeatedly since its first mention in 1910. Based on student work in 1996, as well as regional mapping by the authors in 1993 and 2003, the present work formalizes the stratigraphic framework of the succession. This framework has already been applied in recent geological maps. At the same time it is a continuation of the lithostratigraphic standardization carried out by the Committee on the Stratigraphy of Svalbard (1999, where only post-Devonian rocks were considered. Except for some small-pebble conglomerate layers in the Wood Bay Formation, the upper part of the Mimerdalen Subgroup contains the first coarse-grained deposits in Svalbard's Old Red since the lowermost Devonian Red Bay Group. Faulting between its formations as well as conglomerate pebbles derived from the Lower Devonian Wood Bay Formation indicate the onset of the Svalbardian Event after the tectonic stability during the deposition of the Wood Bay Formation. The Mimerdalen Subgroup is probably the detrital fill of a small foreland basin derived from erosion during the uplift of the Ny-Friesland Block to the east of the Billefjorden Fault Zone. It was later affected by compressional tectonic movements during the Svalbardian Event.

  17. Past and Present Glacial Sedimentary Environments in Krossfjorden, Western Svalbard: Glacier Front Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, J. A.; Husum, K.; Forwick, M.; Abernethy, C.; Macdonald, F.; Kohler, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic will probably experience the most severe environmental change on Earth with an estimated annual average warming of 4 - 8°C degrees. The fjord systems of western Svalbard are highly sensitive to the present warming and are therefore very vulnerable to change. These `natural Arctic laboratories', are influenced by both temperate Atlantic water advected from the West Spitsbergen Current as well as atmospheric input from North America, Europe and Asia. Furthermore, marine terminating glaciers locally influence many Svalbard fjords. Thus, Svalbard is an important site for investigations of polar marine environmental and climate change. The distribution and movement of glacier fronts in the Krossfjorden-Kongsfjorden region has previously been mapped using surface vessels, yet the innermost part of these fjords and the glacier front environments have not been subject to detailed surveys. In this study, the seafloor from the inner part of a fjord in Krossfjorden, the Fjortendejulibuka, and the adjacent to the tide water Fjortendejulibreen glacial front, has been mapped using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) equipped with a swath sonar system, providing very high-resolution bathymetry, side-scan data and the seabed photography to document the seabed geomorphology, sediment type and benthic habitat. Preliminary bathymetric, photographic and side-scan data suggests sedimentation from subglacial meltwater dominates the ice-proximal zone whilst settling from suspension is more prevalent away from the glacier. Seabed photographs from the AUV reveal a fine-grained depositional environment with fine-grain sediments and intense bioturbation with a limited benthic species diversity. Glaciomarine systems are characterized by a dynamic climatically controlled environment and the use of autonomous and robotic vehicles can greatly aid in the monitoring of change by collecting high-resolution datasets where vessel based observations are lacking.

  18. Salivary glands in Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svein D. Mathiesen

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to compare the size of salivaty glands in Svalbard reindeer {Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus and in Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus in relation to feeding strategy, season and reproductive status. The mean body mass (BM, standard deviation j in adult non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer was 72.0, s = 4.2, kg (n = 8 in September and 46.7, s = 7.1, kg (« = 4 in April. The mean BM of adult non-lactating Norwegian reindeer was 67.5, s = 7.7, kg (» = 8 in September and 59.2, s = 9.6, kg (n = 9 in March. In non-lactating female Svalbard reindeer the mean combined mass of parotid glands was 82.7, s = 4.5, g in September and 58.8, s = 8.7, g in April (P < 0.05. In the Norwegian reindeer the mean combined mass of the parotid glands was 95.2, s = 14.4, g in Septembet and 68.1, s = 9.5, g in Match (P < 0.05. We wete not able to find any sub-species differences in the size of the salivaty glands which could be related to phenotypic difference in feeding strategy. Both sub-species had parotid glands sizes similar to that of intermediate ruminant types, ranging from 0.11-0.14% of BM. The larger absolute size of salivaty glands in summer compared to winter reflects the importance of high rates of production of saliva when the dry matter intake and microbial fermentation is high.

  19. Spatial mapping of multi-year superimposed ice on the glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ola; Kohler, Jack; Lüthje, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and satellite ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are used to map the thickness and extent of the superimposed ice (SI) zone on the surge-type glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard. GPR imagery shows sub-horizontal SI layers lying unconformably above a discrete boundary....... Below this boundary, the ice has a GPR signature similar to that of ice further down-glacier in the ablation zone. This boundary is posited to represent the closing of crevasses that were created during the last surge of Kongsvegen in similar to 1948. Open crevasses would have interrupted the formation...

  20. Chenophila nanseni sp. n. (Acari: Syringophilidae parasitising the barnacle goose in Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoracki Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Chenophila nanseni sp. n., collected from covert quills of the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Svalbard (Spitsbergen is described and female polymorphism is recorded in this species. In syringophilids this phenomenon was known only for representatives of the genus Stibarokris. The new species differs from the similar Ch. platyrhynchos by following features: in females of Ch. nanseni the anterior margin of the propodonotal shield is flat (vs. concave in Ch. platyrhynchos and the lengths of idiosomal setae si, f2 and ag3 in Ch. nanseni are distinctly shorter than in Ch. plathyrynchos.

  1. Organic carbon degradation in arctic marine sediments, Svalbard: A comparison of initial and terminal steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    of extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis and sulfate reduction were measured in parallel cores collected from 5 fjords on the west and northwest coast of Svalbard, in the high Arctic. Inventories of total dissolved carbohydrates were also measured in order to evaluate their potential role in carbon turnover...... carbohydrate concentrations were comparable to those measured in more temperate sediments, and likely comprise a considerable fraction of porewater dissolved organic carbon. A comparison of dissolved carbohydrate inventories with hydrolysis and sulfate reduction rates suggests that the turnover of carbon...

  2. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingolfsson, O.; Alexanderson, H.

    2012-12-01

    Recent discovery of a subfossil polar bear (Ursus maritimus) jawbone in the Poolepynten coastal cliff sequence, western Svalbard (Ingolfsson & Wiig, 2009), and its implications for the natural history of the polar bear (Lindqvist et al. 2010; Miller et al. 2012), motivated an effort to better constrain the environmental history and age envelope of the Poolepynten sediment sequence, particularly the lithostratigraphy of the coastal cliffs with emphasis on re-dating the sequence using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. We report a revised lithostratigraphy and nine new OSL ages. It is concluded that the Poolepynten sequence holds evidence of four regional glaciation events, recorded in the strata as erosional unconformities and/or glacial deposits followed by shallow-marine deposition signifying transgressions and subsequent glacio-isostatic rebound and regression. Our OSL ages refine previous age determinations (14C and IRSL) and support the interpretation that the subfossil polar bear jawbone is of last interglacial (Eemian) age (Alexanderson et al. in press). References: Alexanderson, H., Ingolfsson, O., Murray, A.S. & Dudek, J. in press. An Interglacial Polar Bear and an Early Weichselian Glaciation at Poolepynten, Western Svalbard. Boreas 00, 000-000. Ingolfsson, O. & Wiig, O. 2009. Late Pleistocene fossil find in Svalbard: the oldest remains of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus Phipps, 1744) ever discovered. Polar Research 28, 455-466. Lindqvist, C., Schuster, S. C., Sun, Y., Talbot, S. L., Qi, J., Ratan, A., Tomsho, L. P., Kasson, L., Zeyl, E., Aars, J., Miller, W., Ingólfsson, Ó., Bachmann, L. & Wiig, Ø. 2010. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, 5053-5057. Miller, W., Schuster, S. C., Welch, A. J., Ratan, A., Bedoya-Reina, O. C., Zhao, F., Kim, H. L., Burhans, R.C., Drautz, D.I., Wittekindt, N.E., Tomsho, L.P., Ibarra-Laclette, E

  3. Holocene landscape history and ground ice distribution in Svalbard and NE-Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cable, Stefanie

    quantified and shows a large variability at local, landform and landscape scale and with depth, just as lithology and carbon distribution vary considerably. This variability is linked to the landscape history and patterns of permafrost aggradation, controlled by the relief, sediment transport and hydrology......- and carbon-rich permafrost on alluvial fans continued to aggrade during warmer Early Holocene climate, linked to nivation and slope erosion, fan sedimentation and vegetation expansion, in Svalbard, loess terraces and alluvial fans seem more vulnerable to degradation in a warmer climate where...

  4. Generating subtour elimination constraints for the TSP from pure integer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pferschy, Ulrich; Staněk, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the most prominent combinatorial optimization problems. Given a complete graph [Formula: see text] and non-negative distances d for every edge, the TSP asks for a shortest tour through all vertices with respect to the distances d. The method of choice for solving the TSP to optimality is a branch and cut approach. Usually the integrality constraints are relaxed first and all separation processes to identify violated inequalities are done on fractional solutions. In our approach we try to exploit the impressive performance of current ILP-solvers and work only with integer solutions without ever interfering with fractional solutions. We stick to a very simple ILP-model and relax the subtour elimination constraints only. The resulting problem is solved to integer optimality, violated constraints (which are trivial to find) are added and the process is repeated until a feasible solution is found. In order to speed up the algorithm we pursue several attempts to find as many relevant subtours as possible. These attempts are based on the clustering of vertices with additional insights gained from empirical observations and random graph theory. Computational results are performed on test instances taken from the TSPLIB95 and on random Euclidean graphs.

  5. Association between HLA-DQB1 alleles and HAM/TSP patients in Khorasan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshian, Amir Reza; Etemadi, Mehdi; Farid-Hosseini, Reza; Salhi, Mansoor; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol

    2014-10-01

    HTLVI-1 is the first human retrovirus with limited endemic regions in the world. The epidemiological studies have shown that the genetic background and immune response to the virus have a significant role in HTLV-I-associated diseases. Among the genes are involved in HTLV-I infection, the role of human leukocytes antigen (HLA) have been studied in different population. In the present study we examined the association between HLA-DQB1 alleles and HTLV-I infection in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-I carriers and healthy controls in north east of Iran, Mashhad. The blood samples of 16 patients with HAM/TSP, 20 HTLV-1 carriers, and 30 healthy individuals were taken and DNA was extracted by salting out method. HLA-DQB1 typing was performed using PCR-SSP method and the frequency of HLA-DQB1 alleles were compared by Fischer Exact Test. There was a significant difference between HAM/TSP patients and healthy controls in the frequency of HLA-DQB1*07 (P=0.004, RR=7). Furthermore, we found that possession of HLA- DQB1*02 or HLA-DQB1*05 increased the risk of disease 1.5 times. The data presented here suggest that both HLA-DQB1*07 and HLA-DQB1*06 are associated with disease development.

  6. Single-shot lifetime-based PSP and TSP measurements on turbocharger compressor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Jiao, Lingrui; Yu, Yuelong; Liu, Yingzheng; Oshio, Tetsuya; Kawakubo, Tomoki; Yakushiji, Akimitsu

    2017-09-01

    Fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (Fast PSP) and temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) measurements were conducted on two turbocharger compressors using a single-shot lifetime-based technique. The fast PSP and TSP were applied on separate blades of one compressor, and both paints were excited by a pulsed 532 nm Nd:YAG laser. The luminescent decay signals following the laser pulse were recorded by a CCD camera in a double-exposure mode. Instantaneous pressure and temperature fields on compressor blades were obtained simultaneously, for rotation speeds up to 150,000 rpm. The variations in pressure and temperature fields with rotation speed, flow rate and runtime were clearly visualized, showing the advantage of high spatial resolution. Severe image blurring problems and significant temperature-induced errors in the PSP results were found at high rotation speeds. The first issue was addressed by incorporating a deconvolution-based deblurring algorithm to recover the clear image from the blurred image using the combination of luminescent lifetime and rotation speed. The second issue was resolved by applying a pixel-by-pixel temperature correction based on the TSP results. The current technique has shown great capabilities in flow diagnostics of turbomachinery and can serve as a powerful tool for CFD validations and design optimizations.

  7. Interferon Beta-1a Improves Urinary Symptoms, Reduces Proviral Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Davi Tanajura; Sundberg, Michael; Passos, Lúcia; Muniz, André Luiz; Santos, Silvane

    2012-01-01

    The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  8. Molecular characterization of HTLV-1 gp46 glycoprotein from health carriers and HAM/TSP infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Miranda, Aline C A; Barreto, Fernanda K; Amarante, Maria F C; Batista, Everton; Monteiro-Cunha, Joana P; Farre, Lourdes; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Alcantara, Luiz C J

    2013-03-06

    Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) that can be identified in around 0.25%-3.8% of the infected population. Disease progression can be monitored by the proviral load and may depend on genetic factors, however, it is not well understood why some HTLV-1 infected people develop the disease while others do not. The present study attempts to assess the molecular diversity of gp46 glycoprotein in HAM/TSP patients and Health Carrier (HC) individuals. Blood samples were collected from 10 individuals, and DNA was extracted from PBMCs to measure the HTLV-1 proviral load. The gp46 coding sequences were amplified PCR, cloned and sequenced. The molecular characterization was performed using bioinformatics tools. The median HTLV-1 proviral load of HC (n = 5) and HAM/TSP (n = 5) patients was similar (average 316,227 copies/106 PBMCs). The gp46 molecular characterization of 146 clones (70 HC and 76 HAM/TSP) revealed an overall diversity, within HC and HAM/TSP clones, of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively. Five frequent mutations were detected among groups (HAM/TSP and HC clone sequences). A single amino acid (aa) substitution (S35L) was exclusive for the HC group, and three gp46 substitutions (F14S, N42H, G72S) were exclusive for the HAM/TSP group. The remaining frequent mutation (V247I) was present in both groups (p = 0.0014). The in silico protein analysis revealed that the mutated alleles F14S and N42H represent more hydrophilic and flexible protein domains that are likely to be less antigenic. The Receptor Binding Domain is quite variable in the HAM/TSP group. Two other domains (aa 53-75 and 175-209) that contain multiple linear T-cell epitopes showed genetic diversity in both HAM/TSP and HC groups. Further analysis revealed 27 and 13 T-cell epitopes for class I HLA alleles and class II HLA alleles, when analyzing the entire gp46. The most common gp46 mutations were not

  9. HTLV-1 proviral integration sites differ between asymptomatic carriers and patients with HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Heather A; Laydon, Daniel J; Melamed, Anat; Elemans, Marjet; Asquith, Becca; Matsuoka, Masao; Bangham, Charles R M

    2014-09-30

    HTLV-1 causes proliferation of clonal populations of infected T cells in vivo, each clone defined by a unique proviral integration site in the host genome. The proviral load is strongly correlated with odds of the inflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). There is evidence that asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) have a more effective CD8 + T cell response, including a higher frequency of HLA class I alleles able to present peptides from a regulatory protein of HTLV-1, HBZ. We have previously shown that specific features of the host genome flanking the proviral integration site favour clone survival and spontaneous expression of the viral transactivator protein Tax in naturally infected PBMCs ex vivo. However, the previous studies were not designed or powered to detect differences in integration site characteristics between ACs and HAM/TSP patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genomic environment of the provirus differs systematically between ACs and HAM/TSP patients, and between individuals with strong or weak HBZ presentation. We used our recently described high-throughput protocol to map and quantify integration sites in 95 HAM/TSP patients and 68 ACs from Kagoshima, Japan, and 75 ACs from Kumamoto, Japan. Individuals with 2 or more HLA class I alleles predicted to bind HBZ peptides were classified 'strong' HBZ binders; the remainder were classified 'weak binders'. The abundance of HTLV-1-infected T cell clones in vivo was correlated with proviral integration in genes and in areas with epigenetic marks associated with active regulatory elements. In clones of equivalent abundance, integration sites in genes and active regions were significantly more frequent in ACs than patients with HAM/TSP, irrespective of HBZ binding and proviral load. Integration sites in genes were also more frequent in strong HBZ binders than weak HBZ binders. Clonal abundance is correlated with integration in a

  10. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.

    2009-01-01

    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic da...

  11. Accreditation of occupational health services in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Bjørnstad, O

    2015-12-01

    In 2010, an accreditation system for occupational health services (OHS) in Norway was implemented. To examine OHS experiences of the accreditation system in Norway 4 years after its implementation. A web-based questionnaire was sent to all accredited OHS asking about their experiences with the accreditation system. Responses were compared with a similar survey conducted in 2011. The response rate was 76% (173/228). OHS reported that the most common changes they had had to make to achieve accreditation were: improvement of their quality assurance system (53%), a plan for competence development (44%) and increased staffing in occupational hygiene (36%) and occupational medicine (28%). The OHS attributed improved quality in their own OHS (56%) and in OHS in Norway (47%), to the accreditation process. The accreditation system was well accepted by OHS, who reported that it had improved the quality of their OHS and of OHS in Norway. The results are similar to the findings of a 2011 survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  12. The Bamble Sector, South Norway: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Harlov, D.E.; Andersen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Bamble Sector, South Norway, is one of the world’s classic amphibolite- to granulitefacies transition zones. It is characterized by a well-developed isograd sequence, with isolated ‘granulite-facies islands’ in the amphibolite-facies portion of the transition zone. The area is

  13. Improved predictions of atmospheric icing in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Bjørg Jenny; Nygaard, Bjørn Egil; Thompson, Gregory; Bengtsson, Lisa; Berntsen, Terje

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric icing of ground structures is a problem in cold climate locations such as Norway. During the 2013/2014 winter season two major power lines in southern Norway suffered severe damage due to ice loads exceeding their design values by two to three times. Better methods are needed to estimate the ice loads that affect various infrastructure, and better models are needed to improve the prediction of severe icing events. The Wind, Ice and Snow loads Impact on Infrastructure and the Natural Environment (WISLINE) project, was initiated to address this problem and to explore how a changing climate may affect the ice loads in Norway. Creating better forecasts of icing requires a proper simulation of supercooled liquid water (SLW). Preliminary results show that the operational numerical weather prediction model (HARMONIE-AROME) at MET-Norway generates considerably lower values of SLW as compared with the WRF model when run with the Thompson microphysics scheme. Therefore, we are piecewise implementing specific processes found in the Thompson scheme into the AROME model and testing the resulting impacts to prediction of SLW and structural icing. Both idealized and real icing cases are carried out to test the newly modified AROME microphysics scheme. Besides conventional observations, a unique set of specialized instrumentation for icing measurements are used for validation. Initial results of this investigation will be presented at the conference.

  14. New records of Marine Turbellaria from Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der G.

    1976-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During an excursion to Norway organized by the Department of Systematic Zoology of the Rijksuniversiteit of Leiden in August 1973, I had the opportunity to make some observations on Turbellarians of salt-marshes and rocky shores of the Trondheimsfjord (63o 37' N 9° 43' Ε) and the

  15. Measurement of acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arne Semb

    1976-01-01

    Since January 1972, chemical analysis of daily precipitation samples from about 20 background stations in Norway has been carried out on a routine basis. Air monitoring is carried out at six stations. The chemical analysis programme is: sulphate, pH and acidity in precipitation, sulphates and sulphur dioxide in air. In addition, more detailed chemical analysis of...

  16. Geographical distribution of Phytophthora ramorum in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    María- Luz Herrero; Brita Toppe; Trond Rafoss

    2008-01-01

    In November 2002, Phytophthora ramorum was detected for the first time in Norway. It was isolated from Rhododendron catawbiense imported earlier the same year. After the first detection, the Norwegian Food Safety Authority has carried out surveys from 2003 to 2006. The surveys were first directed to nurseries and garden centres....

  17. Field Studies of Gullies and Pingos on Svalbard - a Martian Analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, E.; Johannsson, H. A. B.; Johnsson, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; McKay, C. P.; Olvmo, M.; Johansson, L.; Fredriksson, S.; Schmidt, H. T.; McDaniel, S.; Reiss, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Hauber, E.; Zanetti, M.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: The gully systems on Mars [1] have been found to superpose young geological surfaces such as dunes and thermal contraction polygons [2]. This in combination with the general absence of superimposed impact craters suggest that the gullies are relatively recent geological formations [3]. The observed gullies display a wide set of morphologies ranging from features seemingly formed by fluvial erosion to others pointing to dry landslide processes. A recent discovery [4] suggests that this is an ongoing process, which appears to occur even today. Several formation mechanisms have been proposed for the Martian gullies, such as liquid carbon dioxide reservoirs [5], shallow liquid water aquifer [6], melting ground ice [7], dry landslide [8], snow melt [9] and deep liquid water aquifer [10]. However, none of these models can alone explain all the gullies discovered on Mars. So far Martian gullies have been studied only from orbit via remote sensing data. Hydrostatic pingos are perennial ice-cored mounds that may reach an elongated or circular radius of approximately 150 m. They are found in periglacial environments where they are formed by freezing processes in the continuous permafrost. The pingos go through different evolutionary stages as they mature, where the final stage leaves an annular rim left by the collapse of the summit. Images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) show small fractured mounds in the Martian mid-latitudes [11]. Even though some differences are observed, the best terrestrial analogues for the observed mound morphology are pingos [11]. Gullies and pingos found in Arctic climates on Earth could be an analog for the Martian ones. A comparative analysis might help to understand the formation mechanisms of the Martian pingos and gullies and their possible eroding agent. Svalbard as a Martian Analog: Svalbard is situated at 74°-81°N and 10°-35°E, in the discontinuous zone of permafrost, and is a fairly good

  18. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.215 - May my agency pay a TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May my agency pay a TSP... TSP any extra fees to pay for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR? No, your agency must not pay any additional charges for the preparation and use of the GBL or GTR. Your agency may not pay a TSP a...

  20. 40 CFR Table C-3 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and Pb in PM10 Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and..., Subpt. C, Table C-3 Table C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and Pb in PM10 Methods Table C-3 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for Pb in TSP and Pb in PM10 Methods...

  1. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  2. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  3. Rain more important than windchill for insulation loss in Svalbard reindeer fur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer through dry and wet Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus summer and winter midback fur samples was studied in a wind tunnel. A light wetting water spray simulated heavy fog, mist or light rain, while heavy soaking simulated heavy rain. Wind velocities ranged from 0 to 10 m.s-1. Calf fur samples were from June, August and March. Adult fur samples were females from August and March. There was no evidence for increased heat loss from lightly wet fur relative to dry fur. Calm air conductance decreased for calf fur (P’s < 0.05. Adult fur also decreased, however, the difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Further, wind coefficients and regressions for lightly wet fur were similar or below those for dry fur. A thin water film forming on the fur surface may have caused this. It is unlikely that a light rain, fog or mist would cause increased heat loss for Svalbard reindeer, and no increase of metabolic heat production would be needed to maintain thermoregulation. Only the simulated heavy rain dramatically raised heat loss from the fur samples examined regardless of age or season, e.g., heavy soaking increased calm air conductance for all furs (P’s < 0.05. This was likely due to the addition of evaporative heat loss from the fur surface and a reduction in the amount of trapped air within the fur. Windchill was of minor importance, since wind coefficients were generally close to zero, meaning increasing wind velocity only marginally raised heat loss even with the added effect of evaporative heat loss. Rain would cause greater insulation loss than increasing wind velocity in Svalbard reindeer of all ages, with the exception of calves under one month old, which could experience dramatic insulation loss from a combination of heavy rain and windchill. Dry or wet, Svalbard reindeer fur appears to provide better insulation than fur of others of their species.Abstract in Danish / Abstrakt: Varmetab fra tørre og våde Svalbard

  4. Glacio−meteorology of Ebbabreen, Dickson Land, central Svalbard, during 2008–2010 melt seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecki Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interior of Svalbard, High Arctic, is relatively arid and warm during the summer, but impact of this quasi−continental climate type on the glacio−meteorology, surface energy balance and melt processes has been seldom researched. This study brings new data from a weather station located on the largest glacier in Dickson Land, Ebbabreen, at 550 m a.s.l from July and August 2008-2010. The paper discusses air temperature and moisture, wind speed, incoming shortwave radiation and estimates of turbulent heat exchange of the melting surface in the background of atmospheric circulation over Svalbard. The results have shown that average insolation in the study area was low with ca. 135Wm−2. Frequent occurrence of strongly negative temperature gradients resulted in mean July-August air temperature of 1.9°C at the measuring site. Relatively low air vapour pressure led to negative latent heat flux, particularly during advection of air masses from the northern and north−eastern sector. The local microclimate supports the sensible heat transfer, which reached its maxi− mum during eastern circulation situations.

  5. The Arctic Playground of Europe: Sir Martin Conway’s Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism is a significant aspect of the processes of modernity in the High Arctic. This article discusses the British art historian and mountaineer Sir William Martin Conway's two travelogues, The First Crossing of Spitsbergen (1897 and With Ski and Sledge over Arctic Glaciers (1898, in terms of a pioneering tourist approach to the archipelago of Svalbard. Unlike earlier yachting tourists, Conway described a journey into the uncharted interior of the main island, Spitsbergen. His books are therefore narrated as exploration accounts and following many of the demands of that genre, such as an emphasis on mapping, natural science and being the first. However, they may also be read as guidebooks for other discerning and undaunted British gentleman travellers. Inspired by the art critic John Ruskin’s “science of aspects”, which combined accurate scientific observations and practical knowledge with an imaginative and aesthetic response to the landscape, Conway attempts to give his readers a positive sense of the qualities of the Arctic. At the same time, he promotes Svalbard as an Arctic “Playground of Europe”, where adventurous Alpinists in addition to climbing unknown mountains and glaciers could find fraternal domesticity far away from home around the hearth of the campfire. In this way Conway locates natural beauty, life and recreational opportunities where travellers before him had only described desolation and death.

  6. Norwegian Arctic climate. Climate influencing emissions, scenarios and mitigation options at Svalbard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestreng, Vigdis; Kallenborn, Roland; Oekstad, Elin

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to establish an emission inventory and emission scenarios for climate influencing compounds at Svalbard, as a basis to develop strategies for emission reduction measures and policies. Emissions for the years 2000-2007 have been estimated for the Svalbard Zone. This area, covering about 173 000 km{sub 2}, ranges from 10 E to 35 E longitude and 74 N to 81 N latitude (Figure 1). In addition, air and ship transport between Tromsoe at the Norwegian mainland and Svalbard has been included. Pollutants considered in our inventory are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), Sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} as NO{sub 2}), and for the first time also estimates of black carbon (BC, soot) and organic carbon (OC) have been included. Our results show that emissions of all pollutants have increased over the time span 2000-2007 (Figure 2), and are expected to increase also in the future if additional measures are not implemented (Figure 12). The emissions from Svalbard are minuscule compared to emission released from the Norwegian mainland and waters (1% in the case of CO{sub 2}). Even so, local releases of climate influencing compounds in the vulnerable Arctic may turn out to make a difference both with respect to adverse environmental effects and to climate change. Emissions have been estimated for all activities of any significance taking place at and around Svalbard. Combustion sources as well as fugitive emissions of methane are included. The main sectors are coal mining, energy production and transportation. Pollution from 28 sub sectors related to these activities has been estimated. The scope of this work differs from that covered by national inventories since emission estimates are based on the fuel consumed and include emissions from international shipping and aviation. Fuel consumption data were collected from local authorities, institutions and industry. Emission factors have been selected from relevant

  7. Vertical Profiles and Chemical Properties of Aerosol Particles upon Ny-Ålesund (Svalbard Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moroni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Size-segregated particle samples were collected in the Arctic (Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in April 2011 both at ground level and in the free atmosphere exploiting a tethered balloon equipped also with an optical particle counter (OPC and meteorological sensors. Individual particle properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive microanalysis (SEM-EDS. Results of the SEM-EDS were integrated with particle size and optical measurements of the aerosols properties at ground level and along the vertical profiles. Detailed analysis of two case studies reveals significant differences in composition despite the similar structure (layering and the comparable texture (grain size distribution of particles in the air column. Differences in the mineral chemistry of samples point at both local (plutonic/metamorphic complexes in Svalbard and remote (basic/ultrabasic magmatic complexes in Greenland and/or Iceland geological source regions for dust. Differences in the particle size and shape are put into relationship with the mechanism of particle formation, that is, primary (well sorted, small or secondary (idiomorphic, fine to coarse grained origin for chloride and sulfate crystals and transport/settling for soil (silicate, carbonate and metal oxide particles. The influence of size, shape, and mixing state of particles on ice nucleation and radiative properties is also discussed.

  8. Managing visitor sites in Svalbard: from a precautionary approach towards knowledge-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Fangel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased tourism in the Arctic calls for more knowledge to meet management challenges. This paper reviews existing knowledge of the effects of human use on vegetation, fauna and cultural heritage in Svalbard, and it addresses the need for site-specific knowledge for improved management. This paper draws upon scientific studies, knowledge held by management authorities and local people, the Governor's database on visitors and visited sites and our own data from landing sites we visited. There is a certain level of basic knowledge available, allowing us to roughly grade the vulnerability of sites. However, there is a thorough lack of site-specific data related to the management of single locations or groups of similar locations. Future research needs to address specific on-site challenges in the management of visitor sites. Relevant management models and measures are discussed. We contend that a shift away from a blanket application of the precautionary principle and towards a more integrated, site-specific and evidence-based management plan will contribute to more trusted and reliable, and thereby acceptable among stakeholders, decisions in the management of growing tourism activity in Svalbard.

  9. Sediment accumulation and carbon burial rates in subpolar fjords of Svalbard, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczucinski, W.; Dominiczak, A.; Forwick, M.; Apolinarska, K.; Moskalik, M.; Woszczyk, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Svalbard region is particularly sensitive to global climate changes as proved by modern monitoring data and the past records. One of the most evident results is rapid retreat of glaciers during the post-Little Ice Age period (after 1900) observed in many subpolar fjords in Svalbard. The goal of this study is to assess impact of these changes on sediment accumulation rates and carbon burial rate. The study reviews the existing data and provide new high resolution results on 210Pb and 137Cs-based sediment accumulation as well as organic carbon burial rates from a dozen of cores collected in Hornsund fjord, western Spitsbergen. The results prove the sediment accumulation rate to be in order of several mm to several cm/year and large increase in the area of high accumulation rate due to rapid glaciers retreat and formation of new inner fjord bays. In consequence, the total amount of sediment stored in the fjord increases, as well as increase the carbon burial rates. The available data suggest that this kind of fjords may serve as significant sediment and carbon sinks, largely exceeding other polar marine environments. The study was funded by Polish National Science Centre grant No. 2013/10/E/ST10/00166.

  10. Winter to summer oceanographic observations in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Fer, Ilker; Provost, Christine; Villacieros Robineau, Nicolas; Koenig, Zoe; Onarheim, Ingrid H.; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Duarte, Pedro; Dodd, Paul A.; Graham, Robert M.; Schmidtko, Sunke; Kauko, Hanna M.

    2017-08-01

    Oceanographic observations from the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard collected between January and June 2015 from the N-ICE2015 drifting expedition are presented. The unique winter observations are a key contribution to existing climatologies of the Arctic Ocean, and show a ˜100 m deep winter mixed layer likely due to high sea ice growth rates in local leads. Current observations for the upper ˜200 m show mostly a barotropic flow, enhanced over the shallow Yermak Plateau. The two branches of inflowing Atlantic Water are partly captured, confirming that the outer Yermak Branch follows the perimeter of the plateau, and the inner Svalbard Branch the coast. Atlantic Water observed to be warmer and shallower than in the climatology, is found directly below the mixed layer down to 800 m depth, and is warmest along the slope, while its properties inside the basin are quite homogeneous. From late May onwards, the drift was continually close to the ice edge and a thinner surface mixed layer and shallower Atlantic Water coincided with significant sea ice melt being observed.

  11. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  12. Nitrate stable isotopes and major ions in snow and ice samples from four Svalbard sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Vega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition in the Arctic may adversely impact N-limited ecosystems. To investigate atmospheric transport of Nr to Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic, snow and firn samples were collected from glaciers and analysed to define spatial and temporal variations (1–10 years in major ion concentrations and the stable isotope composition (δ15N and δ18O of nitrate (NO3- across the archipelago. The δ15N NO3- and δ18ONO3- averaged −4‰ and 67‰ in seasonal snow (2010–11 and −9‰ and 74‰ in firn accumulated over the decade 2001–2011. East–west zonal gradients were observed across the archipelago for some major ions (non-sea salt sulphate and magnesium and also for δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3- in snow, which suggests a different origin for air masses arriving in different sectors of Svalbard. We propose that snowfall associated with long-distance air mass transport over the Arctic Ocean inherits relatively low δ15NNO3- due to in-transport N isotope fractionation. In contrast, faster air mass transport from the north-west Atlantic or northern Europe results in snowfall with higher δ15NNO3- because in-transport fractionation of N is then time-limited.

  13. Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beaudon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of snow and ice cores from Svalbard is influenced by variations in local sea ice margin and distance to open water. Snow pits sampled at two summits of Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, exhibit spatially heterogeneous soluble ions concentrations despite similar accumulation rates, reflecting the importance of small-scale weather patterns on this island ice cap. The snow pack on the western summit shows higher average values of marine ions and a winter snow layer that is relatively depleted in sulphate. One part of the winter snow pack exhibits a [SO42-/Na+] ratio reduced by two thirds compared with its ratio in sea water. This low sulphate content in winter snow is interpreted as the signature of frost flowers, which are formed on young sea ice when offshore winds predominate. Frost flowers have been described as the dominant source of sea salt to aerosol and precipitation in ice cores in coastal Antarctica but this is the first time their chemical signal has been described in the Arctic. The eastern summit does not show any frost flower signature and we interpret the unusually dynamic ice transport and rapid formation of thin ice on the Hinlopen Strait as the source of the frost flowers.

  14. Characteristics and Sources of Metals in TSP and PM2.5 in an Urban Forest Park at Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hua Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban forest parks play important roles in improving environments, protecting biodiversity and even public welfare. Aerosols, including total suspended particles (TSP and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5, were simultaneously collected in an urban forest park (Dafushan at Guangzhou, southern China, from January 2012 to December 2013. The concentrations of 12 metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn in both TSP and PM2.5 were quantified using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The origins and possible sources of the studied metals in the PM2.5 and TSP were evaluated using the crustal enrichment factors and the principal component analysis, respectively. The results showed that Dafushan urban forest park was polluted by PM2.5 rather than by TSP. The PM2.5 and TSP in the forest park exhibited seasonal patterns with significantly higher contents in the dry season compared with the rainy season. The metals Al, Zn, Pb were the most abundant, while Hg was the lowest metals in the aerosols. The ratios of PM2.5/TSP ratio indicated that the metals were predominant in the finer particles (PM2.5. The crustal enrichment factors indicated that Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Se and Zn in the aerosols originated from anthropogenic sources, while Al and Mn were mainly of crustal origin. The principal component analysis implied that industrial activities, traffic-related emissions, and soil dust were the main possible sources of the metals in both PM2.5 and TSP in Dafushan forest park.

  15. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  16. Matricellular TSP-1 as a target of interest for impeding melanoma spreading: towards a therapeutic use for TAX2 peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Albin; Boulagnon-Rombi, Camille; Devy, Jérôme; Théret, Louis; Fichel, Caroline; Bouland, Nicole; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Martiny, Laurent; Schneider, Christophe; Dedieu, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular glycoprotein known for being highly expressed within a tumor microenvironment, where it promotes an aggressive phenotype particularly by interacting with the CD47 cell-surface receptor. While it originates from the stromal compartment in many malignancies, melanoma is an exception as invasive and metastatic melanoma cells overexpress TSP-1. We recently demonstrated that a new molecular agent that selectively prevents TSP-1 binding to CD47, called TAX2, exhibits anti-cancer properties when administered systemically by decreasing viable tumor tissue within subcutaneous B16 melanoma allografts. At the same time, emerging evidence was published suggesting a contribution of TSP-1 in melanoma metastatic dissemination and resistance to treatment. Through a comprehensive systems biology approach based on multiple genomics and proteomics databases analyses, we first identified a TSP-1-centered interaction network that is overexpressed in metastatic melanoma. Then, we investigated the effects of disrupting TSP-1:CD47 interaction in A375 human malignant melanoma xenografts. In this model, TAX2 systemic administrations induce tumor necrosis by decreasing intra-tumoral blood flow, while concomitantly making tumors less infiltrative. Besides, TAX2 treatment also drastically inhibits B16F10 murine melanoma cells metastatic dissemination and growth in a syngeneic experimental model of lung metastasis, as demonstrated by histopathological analyses as well as longitudinal and quantitative µCT follow-up of metastatic progression. Altogether, the results obtained by combining bioinformatics and preclinical studies strongly suggest that targeting TSP-1/CD47 axis may represent a valuable therapeutic alternative for hampering melanoma spreading.

  17. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio Pereira; Gonçalves, Cassia Cristina Alves; Slater, Carla Maria Sena Andrade; Carvalho, Silvia Maia Farias de; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2013-09-01

    Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies (Abs) represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Western blotting (WB) for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF) indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I) and gag (p24) proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  18. The FAS-670 AA genotype is associated with high proviral load in peruvian HAM/TSP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Jason; Morales, Sandra; López, Giovanni; Clark, Daniel; Verdonck, Kristien; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Van Camp, Guy; Talledo, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Apoptosis is a mechanism of defense elicited by many triggers, including cross-linking of the FAS receptor expressed in viruses-infected cells, and the ligand FASL presented by T-cytotoxic cells. As HAM/TSP has been associated with high levels of proviral load (PVL), we hypothesized that certain genotypes of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a decreased protein expression of FAS and FASL could be risk factors for this disease. Three SNPs: FAS-670A/G (rs1800682), FAS-1377G/A (rs2234767), and FASL-844C/T (rs763110) were analyzed in 73 HAM/TSP patients and 143 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers. Ancestry informative markers were used to adjust for ethnicity through a principal component analysis. Gender, age, PVL, and the first three principal components were used as covariates. The FAS/FASL genotype distribution was not associated with HAM/TSP presence (P-> 0.05). The FAS-670 AA genotype was associated with high PVL in comparison to FAS-670 GG in HAM/TSP patients (P = 0.015), while in asymptomatic carriers low levels of PVL were observed (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that rs1800682, rs2234767, and rs763110 genotypes are not associated with the presence of HAM/TSP, but that the FAS-670 AA genotype can promote higher PVL values in HAM/TSP patients. J. Med. Virol. 89:726-731, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Methotrexate and its therapeutic antagonists caffeine and theophylline, target a motogenic T-cell mechanism driven by thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talme, Toomas; Bergdahl, Eva; Sundqvist, Karl-Gösta

    2016-05-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a widely used treatment for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, based on the concept that it is immunosuppressive. Its mechanism of action, however, remains unclear, although it is thought to depend on adenosine. Caffeine and theophylline, which have several targets including adenosine receptors, have been shown to suppress the beneficial clinical effects of MTX. Here we show that MTX and caffeine and theophylline differentially affect a motogenic T-cell mechanism driven by endogenous thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). MTX stimulated TSP-1 expression and the motogenic TSP-1/TSP-1 receptor mechanism in primary human T cells, hence mimicking IL-2 and CXCL12, which similar to MTX, dampen inflammatory disease. SiRNA-mediated gene silencing of TSP-1 and LRP1 inhibited this stimulatory effect. Caffeine and theophylline inhibited the TSP-1/TSP-1 receptor mechanism by inhibiting LRP1 expression. These results indicate that the effect of MTX on T cells is immunoregulatory rather than immunosuppressive, and suggest a pathway dependent on TSP-1/TSP-1 receptor interactions for the regulation of immune responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Eurekan deformation on Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard - new insights from Ar40/Ar39 muscovite dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnrich, Karol; Schneider, David; Manecki, Maciej; Czerny, Jerzy; Myhre, Per Inge; Majka, Jarosław; Kośmińska, Karolina; Barnes, Christopher; Maraszewska, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Eurekan deformation has been proven to be a complex sequence of tectonic episodes, dominated by compression in the Circum Arctic region. It was associated with early Cenozoic collision of Eurasia, North America and Greenland plates producing fold-thrust belt style of deformation. Timing of this enigmatic event has not yet been extensively resolved by radiometric dating (Piepjohn et al. 2016, Journal of the Geological Society, 173(6), 1007-1024). Reinhardt et al. (2013, Z. Dt. Ges. Geowiss., 164 (1), 131-147) dated syn-tectonic volcanic ashes at c. 60 Ma and 54 Ma on Ellesmere Island, Canada. Tagner et al. (2011, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 303(3), 203-214) interpreted c. 49-47 Ma 40Ar/39Ar ages on trachyte flows in northern Greenland as peak compression during the Eurekan event. On Svalbard, Tessensohn et al. (2001, Geologisches Jahrbuch, B 91, 83-104) reported K/Ar whole rock ages ranging from c. 67 to 49 Ma for the slates from Svartfjella-Eidembukta-Daudmannsodden Lineament. Bentonite layers in the Central Tertiary Basin are as young as c. 56 Ma (Charles et al. 2011, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, 1-19), predating latest deformation. Moreover, Barnes et al (2017, in prep.) applied (U-Th)/He thermochronology along the western margin of Svalbard and resolved Early to Middle Eocene heating, likely documenting burial related to thrusting. Here we present new results from 40Ar/39Ar muscovite dating of ductile to brittle shear zone on Prins Karls Forland, Svalbard, indicating Eurekan age of thrusting. Prins Karls Forland is dominated by Neoproterozoic siliciclastic metasediments (comprising Caledonian basement) regionally metamorphosed to greenschist facies conditions. A ˜1 km wide ductile to brittle shear zone (the Bouréefjellet shear zone) separates the amphibolite facies Pinkie Unit from the lower grade upper structural unit, the Grampianfjella Formation (Faehnrich et al. 2016, EGU 2016). The age of the amphibolite facies metamorphism (c. 370-355 Ma

  1. A comparison of annual and seasonal carbon dioxide effluxes between subarctic Sweden and high-arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Mats P.; Morgner, Elke; Björk, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    estimated in High-Arctic Adventdalen, Svalbard, and sub-Arctic Latnjajaure, Sweden, using a new trace gas-based method to track real-time diffusion rates through the snow. Summer measurements from snow-free soils were made using a chamber-based method. Measurements were obtained from different snow regimes...

  2. The hunting of the Greenland right whale in Svalbard, its interaction with climate and its impact on the marine ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, L

    1999-01-01

    During the 17th and 18th centuries, tens of thousands of Greenland right whales were killed as a result of extensive European whaling in the coastal waters of the Svalbard archipelago. The author reconstructed these whaling activities, examined how the changing climate affected whaling productivity,

  3. Simulating melt, runoff and refreezing on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, using a coupled snow and energy balance model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, W.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326056645; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X; Reijmer, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229345956; Pohjola, V.A.; Pettersson, R.; van Angelen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    A distributed energy balance model is coupled to a multi-layer snow model in order to study the mass balance evolution and the impact of refreezing on the mass budget of Nordenski¨oldbreen, Svalbard. The model is forced with output from the regional climate model RACMO and meteorological data from

  4. Thermogenic methane injection via bubble transport into the upper Arctic Ocean from the hydrate-charged Vestnesa Ridge, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.; Greinert, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use new gas-hydrate geochemistry analyses, echosounder data, and three-dimensional P-Cable seismic data to study a gas-hydrate and free-gas system in 1200 m water depth at the Vestnesa Ridge offshore NW Svalbard. Geochemical measurements of gas from hydrates collected at the ridge revealed a

  5. TSP1-CD47 signaling is upregulated in clinical pulmonary hypertension and contributes to pulmonary arterial vasculopathy and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Natasha M; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Yao, Mingyi; Ghimire, Kedar; Bienes-Martinez, Raquel; Mutchler, Stephanie M; Knupp, Heather E; Baust, Jeffrey; Novelli, Enrico M; Ross, Mark; St Croix, Claudette; Kutten, Johannes C; Czajka, Caitlin A; Sembrat, John C; Rojas, Mauricio; Labrousse-Arias, David; Bachman, Timothy N; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Champion, Hunter C; Mora, Ana L; Straub, Adam C; Bilonick, Richard A; Calzada, Maria J; Isenberg, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a ligand for CD47 and TSP1-/- mice are protected from pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized the TSP1-CD47 axis is upregulated in human PH and promotes pulmonary arterial vasculopathy. We analyzed the molecular signature and functional response of lung tissue and distal pulmonary arteries (PAs) from individuals with (n = 23) and without (n = 16) PH. Compared with controls, lungs and distal PAs from PH patients showed induction of TSP1-CD47 and endothelin-1/endothelin A receptor (ET-1/ETA) protein and mRNA. In control PAs, treatment with exogenous TSP1 inhibited vasodilation and potentiated vasoconstriction to ET-1. Treatment of diseased PAs from PH patients with a CD47 blocking antibody improved sensitivity to vasodilators. Hypoxic wild type (WT) mice developed PH and displayed upregulation of pulmonary TSP1, CD47, and ET-1/ETA concurrent with down regulation of the transcription factor cell homolog of the v-myc oncogene (cMyc). In contrast, PH was attenuated in hypoxic CD47-/- mice while pulmonary TSP1 and ET-1/ETA were unchanged and cMyc was overexpressed. In CD47-/- pulmonary endothelial cells cMyc was increased and ET-1 decreased. In CD47+/+ cells, forced induction of cMyc suppressed ET-1 transcript, whereas suppression of cMyc increased ET-1 signaling. Furthermore, disrupting TSP1-CD47 signaling in pulmonary smooth muscle cells abrogated ET-1-stimulated hypertrophy. Finally, a CD47 antibody given 2 weeks after monocrotaline challenge in rats upregulated pulmonary cMyc and improved aberrations in PH-associated cardiopulmonary parameters. In pre-clinical models of PH CD47 targets cMyc to increase ET-1 signaling. In clinical PH TSP1-CD47 is upregulated, and in both, contributes to pulmonary arterial vasculopathy and dysfunction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Long-term temperature trends and variability on Spitsbergen: the extended Svalbard Airport temperature series, 1898–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Nordli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the few long instrumental records available for the Arctic is the Svalbard Airport composite series that hitherto began in 1911, with observations made on Spitsbergen, the largest island in the Svalbard Archipelago. This record has now been extended to 1898 with the inclusion of observations made by hunting and scientific expeditions. Temperature has been observed almost continuously in Svalbard since 1898, although at different sites. It has therefore been possible to create one composite series for Svalbard Airport covering the period 1898–2012, and this valuable new record is presented here. The series reveals large temperature variability on Spitsbergen, with the early 20th century warming as one striking feature: an abrupt change from the cold 1910s to the local maxima of the 1930s and 1950s. With the inclusion of the new data it is possible to show that the 1910s were colder than the years at the start of the series. From the 1960s, temperatures have increased, so the present temperature level is significantly higher than at any earlier period in the instrumental history. For the entire period, and for all seasons, there are positive, statistically significant trends. Regarding the annual mean, the total trend is 2.6°C/century, whereas the largest trend is in spring, at 3.9°C/century. In Europe, it is the Svalbard Archipelago that has experienced the greatest temperature increase during the latest three decades. The composite series may be downloaded from the home page of the Norwegian Meteorological Institute and should be used with reference to the present article.

  7. Skull pathology in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) during 1892 to 2002 in relation to organochlorine pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark) and Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Buelowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)]. E-mail: csh@dmu.dk; Riget, Frank F. [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Dietz, Rune [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Wiig, Oystein [Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172 Blindern, N-0562 Oslo (Norway); Kirkegaard, Maja [National Environmental Research Institute, Department of Arctic Environment, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Born, Erik W. [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, DK-3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are heavily polluted with long-range transported organochlorines such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). To investigate the negative health impacts, a time-trend study of skull pathology was conducted on 269 East Greenland and 241 Svalbard polar bears. The skulls were sampled during 1892-2002 and 1964-1992, respectively. Seven different pathological changes were found: adonti, displacement of teeth, caries, osseous proliferations, exostosis, tooth wear and periodontitis. Only tooth wear and periodontitis was in a prevalence that allowed statistical treatment. The most severe cases of tooth wear and periodontitis were accompanied by a substantial loss of alveolar bone structure. The prevalence of tooth wear and periodontitis increased significantly with age (p < 0.001) with incisor wear being more severe than in canines, premolars and molars (p < 0.001). No sex difference was found for tooth wear (p = 0.22) while a significant difference between sexes was found for periodontitis (p = 0.01) with males having higher prevalence than females (odds ratio of 2.5 for males:females). In East Greenland, the prevalence of tooth wear was significantly higher in polar bears collected in the pre pollution period (< 1960) than in bears sampled during polluted periods (1960-1980 and 1981-2002) (p < 0.001). Regarding periodontitis, the prevalence was not significantly different between pre-pollution and pollution periods (p = 0.309). Polar bears from Svalbard had significantly higher prevalence of tooth wear (p < 0.001) and periodontitis (p = 0.02) than polar bears from East Greenland. The tooth wear and periodontitis odds ratios for Svalbard:East Greenland were 135 and 2.6, respectively. Hence, we found a clear age/sex link and geographical difference but no evidence for an association between skull pathology and exposure to organochlorines in East Greenland and Svalbard polar bears.

  8. Pleistocene iceberg dynamics on the west Svalbard margin: Evidence from bathymetric and sub-bottom profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Minshull, Timothy A.; Crocker, Anya J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Wu, Shiguo; Soryal, Simon M.

    2017-04-01

    Large icebergs leave evidence of their drift via ploughing of the seabed, thereby providing a geological record of episodes of calving from thick ice sheets. We interpret large-scale curvilinear depressions on the western Svalbard margin as ploughmarks produced by the keels of icebergs that grounded on the seafloor as they drifted through this area. Iceberg ploughmarks were identified at modern water depths between 300 m and 1000 m and in two distinct stratigraphic units. Combining data from sediment cores with seismic stratigraphy from sub-bottom profiler data suggests that the ploughmarks developed in two phases: (1) during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6; and (2) during MIS 2, indicating the presence of large drifting icebergs on the western Svalbard margin during both the Late Saalian and Late Weichselian glaciations. Sediment-core data along the western Svalbard margin indicate a sharp increase in mass-transported sediments dated at 23.7 ± 0.2 ka, consistent with the MIS 2 age of the younger iceberg-ploughed surface. The ploughmarks are oriented in two main directions: SW-NE and S-N. S-N oriented ploughmarks, which shallow to the north, indicate iceberg drift from the south with a SW-NE component marking the zone of splitting of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) into the Yermak Slope Current (YSC) and North Spitsbergen Current (NSC). Large MIS 6 and MIS 2 icebergs most likely had an Arctic Ocean source. We suggest that these icebergs probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait and circulated within the Norwegian-Greenland Sea before being transported northwards along the Svalbard margin by the WSC. An additional likely source of icebergs to the western Svalbard margin during MIS 2 was the ice-sheet terminating in the western Barents Sea, from which icebergs drifted northward.

  9. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  10. PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI GOOGLE MAPS UNTUK PENYELESAIAN ONLINE TRAVELLING SALESMAN PROBLEM (TSP BERBASIS GEOGRAFIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN ALGORITMA HEURISTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Agustiono

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP adalah salah satu metode klasik dalam proses pemecahan masalah optimasi dan penemuan rute terpendek dari sebuah rute perjalanan yang melewati beberapa titik lokasi. Oleh karena kehandalan metode ini banyak sekali algoritma dan metode optimasi yang mencoba memecahkan TSP dalam banyak penelitian. Sebagin besar hasil dari rangkaian ujicoba tersebut berupa kombinasi teroptimal dari rangkaian perjalanan salesman yang umumnya digambarkan dalam sebuah graph. Namun belum banyak penelitian yang menerapkan TSP pada data spasial atau geografis seperti Google Maps yang dapat memberikan representasi nyata permasalahan TSP dalam menemukan rute perjalanan melewati titik-titik wilayah di muka bumi. Dibandingkan dengan representasi graph, Google Maps memiliki kemampuan tidak sekedar menampilkan rute perjalanan akan tetapi juga dapat menyajikan informasi yang lebih komprehensif, interaktif dan faktual. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menerapkan metode TSP pada layanan data spasial sehingga akan dihasilkan visualisasi secara riil dari alternatif rute perjalanan salesman. Sebagai basis dari data spasial, penelitian ini memanfaatkan Google Maps Mashup untuk mendapatkan informasi rute yang lebih aktual, interaktif, dan komprehensif.

  11. Enhancing the Urea-N Use Efficiency in Maize (Zea mays Cultivation on Acid Soils Amended with Zeolite and TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP and zeolite (Clinoptilolite on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf production of Swan (test crop. All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.

  12. Enhancing the urea-N use efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on acid soils amended with zeolite and TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osumanu H; Hussin, Aminuddin; Ahmad, Husni M H; Rahim, Anuar A; Majid, Nik Muhamad Abd

    2008-04-20

    Ammonia loss significantly reduces the urea-N use efficiency in crop production. Efforts to reduce this problem are mostly laboratory oriented. This paper reports the effects of urea amended with triple superphosphate (TSP) and zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on soil pH, nitrate, exchangeable ammonium, dry matter production, N uptake, fresh cob production, and urea-N uptake efficiency in maize (Zea mays) cultivation on an acid soil in actual field conditions. Urea-amended TSP and zeolite treatments and urea only (urea without additives) did not have long-term effect on soil pH and accumulation of soil exchangeable ammonium and nitrate. Treatments with higher amounts of TSP and zeolite significantly increased the dry matter (stem and leaf) production of Swan (test crop). All the treatments had no significant effect on urea-N concentration in the leaf and stem of the test crop. In terms of urea-N uptake in the leaf and stem tissues of Swan, only the treatment with the highest amount of TSP and zeolite significantly increased urea-N uptake in the leaf of the test crop. Irrespective of treatment, fresh cob production was statistically not different. However, all the treatments with additives improved urea-N uptake efficiency compared to urea without additives or amendment. This suggests that urea amended with TSP and zeolite has a potential of reducing ammonia loss from surface-applied urea.

  13. Dust Monitoring on the Hanford Site: An Investigation into the Relationship Between TSP, PM-10, and PM-2.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, T.; Fitz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    High levels of particulate matter (PM) are linked to some health problems and environmental issues. Air quality standards have been developed in hopes to reduce particulate matter problems. The most common fractions of particulate matter measured include PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particles (TSP). The focus of this study was to evaluate relationships between PM2.5, PM10, and TSP concentrations specific to the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations continued while additional measurements of TSP were made over several summer months. Four sampling locations on the Hanford Site were used to compare spatial differences in the data. Comparison of the data revealed a strong linear correlation between PM10 and TSP for the time period evaluated. The correlation between PM2.5 and TSP was not as strong, and indicated that local sources rarely were above background measurements. This was supported by the correlation of ground level PM2.5 with PM2.5 concentrations measured on a near by mountain.

  14. The BLI-3/TSP-15/DOXA-1 dual oxidase complex is required for iodide toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhaofa; Luo, Jintao; Li, Yu; Ma, Long

    2014-12-04

    Iodine is an essential trace element for life. Iodide deficiency can lead to defective biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major cause of hypothyroidism and mental retardation. Excess iodide intake, however, has been linked to different thyroidal diseases. How excess iodide causes harmful effects is not well understood. Here, we found that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits developmental arrest and other pleiotropic defects when exposed to excess iodide. To identify the responsible genes, we performed a forward genetic screen and isolated 12 mutants that can survive in excess iodide. These mutants define at least four genes, two of which we identified as bli-3 and tsp-15. bli-3 encodes the C. elegans ortholog of the mammalian dual oxidase DUOX1 and tsp-15 encodes the tetraspanin protein TSP-15, which was previously shown to interact with BLI-3. The C. elegans dual oxidase maturation factor DOXA-1 is also required for the arresting effect of excess iodide. Finally, we detected a dramatically increased biogenesis of reactive oxygen species in animals treated with excess iodide, and this effect can be partially suppressed by bli-3 and tsp-15 mutations. We propose that the BLI-3/TSP-15/DOXA-1 dual oxidase complex is required for the toxic pleiotropic effects of excess iodide. Copyright © 2015 Xu et al.

  15. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  16. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of metasediments from southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Schneider, David A.; Majka, Jarosław; Lorenz, Henning; Gee, David G.; Manecki, Maciej; Barnes, Chris

    2015-04-01

    We conducted SIMS U-Pb geochronology on detrital zircons from metasedimentary rocks of Svalbard's Southwestern Caledonian Province, including: Prins Karls Forland, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, and Sørkapp Land. Quartzite from the northernmost area, Prins Karls Forland, was collected from the amphibolite facies Pinkie Unit, which was thought to be Mesoproterozoic. Preliminary detrital zircon dating obtained for this unit yielded ages as young as early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (0.95-1.05 Ga), with dominant populations around 1.4 and 1.6 Ga. Samples from Wedel Jarlsberg Land were collected from the Eimfjellet, Deilegga and Sofiebogen groups, and except for one quartzite from the Gulliksenfjellet Formation (Eimfjellet Group), samples also possess ages as young as early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (0.9-1.1 Ga). Older zircon age signatures are dominated by Mesoproterozoic populations at ca. 1.3 Ga and 1.45-1.6 Ga, with older Paleoproterozoic ages also present. The Gulliksenfjellet Formation is characterized by 1.75-1.9 and 2.5-3.0 Ga detrital zircon ages; no detrital grains younger than 1.7 Ga are present. The samples from Sørkapp Land were collected from an unnamed complex, which is thought to be an equivalent of the Neoproterozoic Isbjørnhamna Group of Wedel Jarlsberg Land. Youngest detrital zircons of early Neoproterozoic to late Mesoproterozoic (ca. 0.95-1.1 Ga) age are abundant. The older populations are dominated by Mesoproterozoic to Paleoproterozoic zircon, with clusters at 1.3-1.35, 1.65, and 1.8 Ga. Single Archean grains were also identified. The detrital zircon age signatures for metasedimentary rocks from Sørkapp are similar to those identified within Wedel Jarlsberg Land. In summary, our data from the southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province indicate: a) an early Neoproterozic maximum sedimentation age for the units; and b) a distinct late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic provenance. The exception is the Gulliksenfjellet

  17. Holocene record of glacier variability from lake sediments reveals tripartite climate history for Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem; Bakke, Jostein; Vasskog, Kristian; D`Andrea, William; Bradley, Raymond; Olafsdottir, Sædis

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is responding sensitively to ongoing global climate change, warming and moistening faster than any other region on the planet. Holocene proxy paleoclimate time series are increasingly used to put this amplified response in perspective by understanding Arctic climate processes beyond the instrumental period. Glaciers rapidly respond to climate shifts as demonstrated by their current demise around the world. This response has a composite climate signature, marked by shifts in hydroclimate (winter precipitation) as well as (summer) temperature. Attendant changes in glacier size are recorded by variations in glacigenic rock flour that may be deposited in downstream lakes. Here, we present a Holocene reconstruction of glacier activity, based on sediments from Hajeren, a glacier-fed lake on northwest Spitsbergen in the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago. Owing to undisturbed sediments and robust age control, we could resolve variability on a sub-centennial scale. To ensure the accurate detection of glacier activity, we applied a toolbox of physical, magnetic and geochemical proxies in conjunction with multivariate statistics. Our findings indicate a three-stage Holocene climate history for Svalbard, driving by melt water pulses, episodic Atlantic cooling and a decline in orbitally driven summer insolation. Correspondence between inferred advances, including a Holocene glacier maximum around 9.5 ka BP, suggests forcing by the melting LIS during the Early Holocene. Following a late Holocene Thermal Maximum around 7.4 ka BP, glaciers disappeared from the catchment. Glaciers reformed around 4.2 ka BP during the regional onset of the Neoglacial, supporting previous findings. This transition did, however, not mark the onset of persistent glacier activity in the catchment, but a series of centennial-scale cycles of growth and decay, including events around 3.3 and 1.1 ka BP. As orbitally driven insolation declined towards the present, the glaciation threshold

  18. The influence of cruise ship emissions on air pollution in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Sabine; Hermansen, Ove; Grythe, Henrik; Fiebig, Markus; Stebel, Kerstin; Cassiani, Massimo; Baecklund, Are; Stohl, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    We have analyzed whether tourist cruise ships have an influence on measured sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), Aitken mode particle and equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at Ny Ålesund and Zeppelin Mountain on Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic, during summer. We separated the measurement data set into periods when ships were present and periods when no ships were present in the Kongsfjord area, according to a long-term record of the number of passengers visiting Ny Ålesund. We show that when ships with more than 50 passengers cruise in the Kongsfjord, measured daytime-mean concentrations of 60-nm particles and EBC in summer show enhancements of 72 and 45% relative to values when no ships are present. Even larger enhancements of 81 and 72% were found for stagnant conditions. In contrast, O3 concentrations were 5% lower on average and 7% lower under stagnant conditions, due to titration of O3 with the emitted nitric oxide (NO). The differences between the two data subsets are largest for the highest measured percentiles while relatively small differences were found for the median concentrations, indicating that ship plumes are sampled relatively infrequently even when ships are generally present but carry high concentrations. We estimate that the ships increased the total summer mean concentrations of SO2, 60-nm particles and EBC by 15, 18 and 11%, respectively. Our findings have two important implications: Firstly, even at such a remote Arctic observatory as Zeppelin, the measurements can be influenced by tourist ship emissions. Careful data screening is recommended before summer-time Zeppelin data is used for data analysis or for comparison with global chemistry transport models. However, Zeppelin remains one of the most valuable Arctic observatories, as most other Arctic observatories face even larger local pollution problems. Secondly, given landing statistics of tourist ships on Svalbard, it is suspected that large parts of the Svalbard archipelago are

  19. Do contemporary (1980–2015 emissions determine the elemental carbon deposition trend at Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ruppel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The climate impact of black carbon (BC is notably amplified in the Arctic by its deposition, which causes albedo decrease and subsequent earlier snow and ice spring melt. To comprehensively assess the climate impact of BC in the Arctic, information on both atmospheric BC concentrations and deposition is essential. Currently, Arctic BC deposition data are very scarce, while atmospheric BC concentrations have been shown to generally decrease since the 1990s. However, a 300-year Svalbard ice core showed a distinct increase in EC (elemental carbon, proxy for BC deposition from 1970 to 2004 contradicting atmospheric measurements and modelling studies. Here, our objective was to decipher whether this increase has continued in the 21st century and to investigate the drivers of the observed EC deposition trends. For this, a shallow firn core was collected from the same Svalbard glacier, and a regional-to-meso-scale chemical transport model (SILAM was run from 1980 to 2015. The ice and firn core data indicate peaking EC deposition values at the end of the 1990s and lower values thereafter. The modelled BC deposition results generally support the observed glacier EC variations. However, the ice and firn core results clearly deviate from both measured and modelled atmospheric BC concentration trends, and the modelled BC deposition trend shows variations seemingly independent from BC emission or atmospheric BC concentration trends. Furthermore, according to the model ca. 99 % BC mass is wet-deposited at this Svalbard glacier, indicating that meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency have most likely a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends. BC emission source sectors contribute differently to the modelled atmospheric BC concentrations and BC deposition, which further supports our conclusion that different processes affect atmospheric BC concentration and

  20. Do contemporary (1980-2015) emissions determine the elemental carbon deposition trend at Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Meri M.; Soares, Joana; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Martma, Tõnu; Svensson, Jonas; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Christina A.; Manninen, Sirkku; Korhola, Atte; Ström, Johan

    2017-10-01

    The climate impact of black carbon (BC) is notably amplified in the Arctic by its deposition, which causes albedo decrease and subsequent earlier snow and ice spring melt. To comprehensively assess the climate impact of BC in the Arctic, information on both atmospheric BC concentrations and deposition is essential. Currently, Arctic BC deposition data are very scarce, while atmospheric BC concentrations have been shown to generally decrease since the 1990s. However, a 300-year Svalbard ice core showed a distinct increase in EC (elemental carbon, proxy for BC) deposition from 1970 to 2004 contradicting atmospheric measurements and modelling studies. Here, our objective was to decipher whether this increase has continued in the 21st century and to investigate the drivers of the observed EC deposition trends. For this, a shallow firn core was collected from the same Svalbard glacier, and a regional-to-meso-scale chemical transport model (SILAM) was run from 1980 to 2015. The ice and firn core data indicate peaking EC deposition values at the end of the 1990s and lower values thereafter. The modelled BC deposition results generally support the observed glacier EC variations. However, the ice and firn core results clearly deviate from both measured and modelled atmospheric BC concentration trends, and the modelled BC deposition trend shows variations seemingly independent from BC emission or atmospheric BC concentration trends. Furthermore, according to the model ca. 99 % BC mass is wet-deposited at this Svalbard glacier, indicating that meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency have most likely a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends. BC emission source sectors contribute differently to the modelled atmospheric BC concentrations and BC deposition, which further supports our conclusion that different processes affect atmospheric BC concentration and deposition trends

  1. Diagnosing the decline in climatic mass balance of glaciers in Svalbard over 1957-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ims Østby, Torbjørn; Vikhamar Schuler, Thomas; Ove Hagen, Jon; Hock, Regine; Kohler, Jack; Reijmer, Carleen H.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the long-term mass balance of the high-Arctic Svalbard archipelago is difficult due to the incomplete geodetic and direct glaciological measurements, both in space and time. To close these gaps, we use a coupled surface energy balance and snow pack model to analyse the mass changes of all Svalbard glaciers for the period 1957-2014. The model is forced by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalysis data, downscaled to 1 km resolution. The model is validated using snow/firn temperature and density measurements, mass balance from stakes and ice cores, meteorological measurements, snow depths from radar profiles and remotely sensed surface albedo and skin temperatures. Overall model performance is good, but it varies regionally. Over the entire period the model yields a climatic mass balance of 8.2 cm w. e. yr-1, which corresponds to a mass input of 175 Gt. Climatic mass balance has a linear trend of -1.4 ± 0.4 cm w. e. yr-2 with a shift from a positive to a negative regime around 1980. Modelled mass balance exhibits large interannual variability, which is controlled by summer temperatures and further amplified by the albedo feedback. For the recent period 2004-2013 climatic mass balance was -21 cm w. e. yr-1, and accounting for frontal ablation estimated by Błaszczyk et al.(2009) yields a total Svalbard mass balance of -39 cm w. e. yr-1 for this 10-year period. In terms of eustatic sea level, this corresponds to a rise of 0.037 mm yr-1. Refreezing of water in snow and firn is substantial at 22 cm w. e. yr-1 or 26 % of total annual accumulation. However, as warming leads to reduced firn area over the period, refreezing decreases both absolutely and relative to the total accumulation. Negative mass balance and elevated equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) resulted in massive reduction of the thick (> 2 m) firn extent and an increase in the superimposed ice, thin (< 2 m) firn and bare ice extents. Atmospheric warming also leads to a marked change in the thermal regime

  2. Happiness in Serbia and Norway:  

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtic, Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Happiness here is investigated by means of 12 young people from Serbia and Norway. The main instrument was interview with a short questionnaire. Happiness is in line with other studies found to be a complex human quality with a variety of meanings and numerous influences. These meanings can be divided into actual happiness (predominant positive feelings and satisfaction of life), ideal happiness (complete and lasting one), good fortune or luck, the pursuit of happiness, creation of happiness ...

  3. Moods of Norway: NY market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Haugom, Mats Klevengen; Throne, Sindre Raaen; Myrseth, Sebastian; Løvoll, Linda-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this document is to identify the key strategic and supplementary measures the Moods of Norway(MoN) management must take under consideration, to successfully penetrate the New York marketplace, more importantly stay there. Methodology In order to identify those areas of importance stated in the purpose, we looked at the several areas of importance such as the company´s history of expansion, identified business objectives for the New York launch, anal...

  4. CHF of a Downward Curved SA508 Surface with Boric Acid and TSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, CHF experiments were conducted in the two-dimensional slice test sections to clarify the combined effects of the heater material of SA508 and additives of boric acid and TSP. In particular, the top of the lower head is the main focus due to the importance of the focusing effect of decay heat through metal layer after corium relocation during severe accident. Through this study, flow boiling CHF experiments were conducted using two types of test sections to investigate the combined effect of heater material and additives. For the case of different coolant additives, the CHF using boric acid was higher than that when using DI water, while the CHF was reduced by a TSP solution. The CHF tendencies were attributed to differences in steel oxidation according to the characteristics of the working fluid. The CHF enhancement and reduction mechanisms for the combined effects of heater material and additives were explained as aspects of carbon steel oxidation according to the pH of the working fluids. Under the boric acid conditions, the effect of steel oxidation and the consequent CHF enhancement were shown to be minimized in terms of local condition. For severe accident mitigation, a number of nuclear power plants use the in-vessel retention through external reactor vessel cooling (IVR-ERVC) strategy which removes the decay heat of the molten corium. The critical heat flux (CHF) is one of the most important criteria by which to judge the success of the IVR-ERVC strategy. The CHF is affected by the properties of cooling water and the conditions of heated surface. In APR1400, the cooling water of the IRWST, which contains boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), is injected into the reactor cavity by an external reactor vessel cooling system (ERVC, an active feature) and a cavity flooding system (CFS, a passive feature) to manage severe accidents. As the CFS begins to operate, IRWST water flows through the hold-up volume tank (HVT), which contains tri-sodium phosphate

  5. A Bibliography of the Personal Software Process (PSP) and the Team Software Process (TSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/CSEE.1996.491362 El Emam, K.; Shostak, B .; & Madhavji, N... Marciniak Editor-in-Chief, New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1994, 851-860. Humphrey, Watts S. ―Reflections on a Software Life,‖ In the Beginning...Adoption with PSP/TSP— TCAIM.‖ Proceedings of the TSP Symposium (September 2008). http://www.sei.cmu.edu/tspsymposium/ Nichols, B . & Willett, Alan

  6. A performance evaluation of ACO and SA TSP in a supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. Srinivas

    2017-07-01

    Supply Chain management and E commerce business solutions are one of the prominent areas of active research. In our paper we have modelled a supply chain model which aggregates all the manufacturers requirement and the products are supplied to all the manufacturer through a common vehicle routing algorithm. An appropriate tsp has been constructed for all the manufacturers which determines the shortest route thru which the aggregated material can be supplied in the shortest possible time. In this paper we have solved the shortest route through constructing a Simulated annealing algorithm and Ant colony algorithm and their performance is evaluated.

  7. [Water-borne disease outbreaks in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Karin; Gondrosen, Bjørn; Lund, Vidar

    2003-12-04

    The drinking water in Norway has traditionally been considered being of good quality. However, outbreaks related to drinking water are reported every year. We review waterborne outbreaks in Norway over the last 15 years, and describe the aetiology of and contributory factors in these outbreaks. We compiled data on waterborne outbreaks reported to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and Norwegian Food Control Authority during 1988-2002. We included all events in which two or more people fell ill and water was the suspected source of infection. Over the 15-year period. 72 outbreaks were reported, affecting a total of 10 616 persons. Campylobacter was the cause in 26% (19/72) of the outbreaks, norovirus in 18% (13/72). The causative organism was unknown in 46% (33/72). The water came from public waterworks in 32 of the 54 outbreaks for which this information was available (59%); from a private supply in the remaining 22. For 62% (16/26) of the outbreaks related to waterworks, the water was not disinfected before distribution. None of the private water supplies were disinfected. Over the last five years, there were more outbreaks related to private supplies. The most important contributory factor to waterborne outbreaks in Norway is contamination of the raw water combined with missing or faulty disinfecting procedures. To prevent future outbreaks, a continuous upgrading of small and private water supplies is needed. Reporting of outbreaks is important for the implementation of targeted and effective preventive measures.

  8. Resource partitioning in sympatric arctic-breeding geese: summer habitat use, spatial and dietary overlap of Barnacle and Pink-footed Geese in Svalbard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FOX, TONY (A. D.); EIDE, NINA E; BERGERSEN, ESPEN; MADSEN, JESPER

    2009-01-01

    The spatial, habitat and dietary overlap of two breeding goose species was studied in Sassendalen, Svalbard, in summer 2003 based on abundance within 500 x 500-m grid squares and faecal diet analyses...

  9. The tetraspanin TSP3 of Neurospora crassa is a vacuolar membrane protein and shares characteristics with IDI proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Daniela; Petereit, Linda; Schumann, Marcel R; Patzelt, Diana; Rachid, Leila; Brandt, Ulrike; Werner, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Fleißner, André

    2016-01-01

    The fungal vacuole is an organelle, which adopts pleiotropic morphologies and functions. In aging and starving hyphae it is the compartment of degradation and recycling of cellular constituents. Here we identified TSP3, one of three tetraspanins present in the filamentous ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, as a vacuolar membrane protein. The protein is detected only in aging and starving cultures and under other conditions, which induce autophagy, such as vegetative incompatibility or the presence of the macrolide antibiotic rapamycin. Mutant analysis revealed that TSP3 is dispensable for growth and development of the fungus under laboratory conditions. Together these findings indicate that tsp3 shares characteristics with idi (induced during incompatibility) genes and might promote vacuolar functions related to autophagy. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. ANALISIS RESIKO KONSENTRASI DEBU (TSP DAN TIMBAL (Pb DI PINGGIR JALAN TERHADAP KESEHATAN MANUSIA STUDI KASUS KOTA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Setyo Huboyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle emission generate numerous harmful pollutants in the street every day, some of them arecarcinogenic such as TSP and lead. Yogyakarta is one of represent city which has high traffic load so that thecontamination effect is pronounced. This research was aimed at analysing the risk from related pollutant forpeople who live or work in the vicinity of main streets. This work consists of four steps i.e hazardidentifications, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization. High volume samplerwas used to catch ambient TSP, spektrophotometer was used for Pb analysis further. Fifteen main streets hadbeen selected for field sampling. Hazard identifications to TSP and Pb concentration was mirrored toambient air standard that maximal concentration for the TSP is 230 μg/m3 and for Pb is 2 μg/m3. Onexposure assessment the TSP concentration in Wates street, Janti, Godean street, Solo street, PKUMuhammadiyah, and STTL exceed ambient air standard (Kep. Gub. DIY No. 513/ 2002, whereas for Pb, allstreets comply to standard. Toxicity assessment revealed that TSP intake in all place was safe since thecalculated intake were still under maximal intake 0,074 mg/kg.day. The circumstance was also true for Pbthat the intake do not exceed 0,00065 mg/kg.day. Based on risk characterization result, it can be concludedthat level of total risk in all places was less than unity so it implies that in those area was safe for dailyactivities in specified time with respect to pollutants of interest. However the relative high risk was pointedout to the Ahmad Dahlan street and the lowest risk was in the Magelang street. Average total risk inYogjakarta city was 0,034.

  11. Characterization of ionic composition of TSP and PM10 during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) storms in Ahvaz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavani, Abbas; Naddafi, Kazem; Jaafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nematollah; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Yunesian, Masud; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Arhami, Mohamad; Yarahmadi, Maryam; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Ghani, Maryam; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Alimohamadi, Mahmood; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Soleimani, Zahra

    2012-11-01

    Because of the recent frequent observations of major dust storms in southwestern cities in Iran such as Ahvaz, and the importance of the ionic composition of particulate matters regarding their health effects, source apportionment, etc., the present work was conducted aiming at characterizing the ionic composition of total suspended particles (TSP) and particles on the order of ∼10 μm or less (PM(10)) during dust storms in Ahvaz in April-September 2010. TSP and PM(10) samples were collected and their ionic compositions were determined using an ion chromatography. Mean concentrations of TSP and PM(10) were 1,481.5 and 1,072.9 μg/m(3), respectively. Particle concentrations during the Middle Eastern Dust (MED) days were up to four times higher than those in normal days. Ionic components contributed to only 9.5% and 11.3% of the total mass of TSP and PM(10), respectively. Crustal ions were most abundant during dust days, while secondary ions were dominant during non-dust days. Ca(2+)/Na(+) and Cl(-)/Na(+) ratios can be considered as the indicators for identification of the MED occurrence. It was found that possible chemical forms of NaCl, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), KCl, K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), Ca(NO(3))(2), and CaSO(4) may exist in TSP. Correlation between the anionic and cationic components suggests slight anion and cation deficiencies in TSP and PM(10) samples, though the deficiencies were negligible.

  12. High Accuracy Radiation TSP-type Thermometers for Radiometric Scale Realization in the Temperature Range from 600 to 3200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylov, M. L.; Ogarev, S. A.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Khromchenko, V. B.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2003-09-01

    We have designed at VNIIOFI a high-accuracy radiation thermometer, model TSP-2 (Transfer Standard Pyrometer), for radiometric scale dissemination within the temperature range from 600°C to 3200 °C. This thermometer has been recently modified and investigated. The new TSP-4 model of radiation thermometer is under development now.

  13. Oral chromium picolinate impedes hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis and inhibits proatherogenic protein TSP-1 expression in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Rituparna; Sahu, Soumyadip; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Haney, Rebecca; Chavez, Ronaldo J; Shah, Shivani; Yalamanchili, Siri; Raman, Priya

    2017-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, as a putative link between hyperglycemia and atherosclerotic complications in diabetes. We previously reported that the micronutrient chromium picolinate (CrP), with long-standing cardiovascular benefits, inhibits TSP-1 expression in glucose-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the atheroprotective action of orally administered CrP in type 1 diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice and elucidated the role of TSP-1 in this process. CrP decreased lipid burden and neointimal thickness in aortic root lesions of hyperglycemic ApoE-/- mice; also, smooth muscle cell (SMC), macrophage and leukocyte abundance was prevented coupled with reduced cell proliferation. Attenuated lesion progression was accompanied with inhibition of hyperglycemia-induced TSP-1 expression and reduced protein O-glycosylation following CrP treatment; also, PCNA and vimentin (SMC synthetic marker) expression were reduced while SM-MHC (SMC contractile marker) levels were increased. To confirm a direct role of TSP-1 in diabetic atherosclerosis, hyperglycemic TSP-1-/-/ApoE-/- double knockout mice were compared with age-matched hyperglycemic ApoE-/- littermates. Lack of TSP-1 prevented lesion formation in hyperglycemic ApoE-/- mice, mimicking the atheroprotective phenotype of CrP-treated mice. These results suggest that therapeutic TSP-1 inhibition may have important atheroprotective potential in diabetic vascular disease.

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.460 - What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges, reparations, and loss or damage to....460 What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.50 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP under the FAR? 102-117.50 Section 102-117.50... Related Services § 102-117.50 What are the advantages and disadvantages of contracting directly with a TSP...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.75 - What if my agency or the TSP does not have an account with a financial institution or approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What if my agency or the TSP does not have an account with a financial institution or approved payment agent? 102-118.75... Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.75 What if my agency or the TSP does not...

  17. Ambient Seismic Noise Tomography of Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Weidle, Christian; Maupin, Valerie

    2010-05-01

    The noise cross-correlation technique is especially useful in regions like southern Norway since local seismicity is rare and teleseismic records are not able to resolve the upper crust. Within the TopoScandiaDeep project, which aims to investigate the relation between surface topography and lithosphere-asthenosphere structure, we process seismic broadband data from the temporary MAGNUS network in Southern Norway. The receivers were recording 20 months of continuous data between September 2006 and June 2008. Additionally, permanent stations of the National Norwegian Seismic Network, NORSAR and GSN stations in the region are used. After usual preprocessing steps (filtering, prewhitening, temporal normalization), we compute 820 cross-correlation functions from 41 receivers for three month time windows. Evaluation of the azimuthal and temporal variation of signal to noise ratios and f-k analysis of NORSAR array data shows that the dominant propagation direction of seismic noise is south-west to north, corresponding well to the Norwegian coast line. During summer months, the signal to noise ratios decrease and the azimuthal distribution becomes smoother. Time-frequency analysis is applied to measure Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity dispersion curves between each station pair for each three-month correlation stack. The mean and variance of all dispersion curves is computed for each path. After rejection of low-quality data using a signal to noise ratio, minimum wavelength and velocity variance criterion, we obtain a large number of reliable velocity estimates (about 600) for periods between 2 and 15 seconds, which we invert for group velocity maps at respective periods. At all inverted periods, we find positive and negative velocity anomalies for Rayleigh and Love waves that correlate very well with local surface geology. While higher velocities (+5%) can be associated with the Caledonian nappes in the central part of southern Norway, the Oslo Graben is reflected

  18. Impacts of Geomorphic Disturbances on Plant Colonization in Ebba Valley, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stawska Monika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming observed nowadays causes an increase in geomorphic activity in polar regions. Within the areas influenced by cold climatic conditions, relief dynamics and vegetation development are the main landscape shaping processes. The study is limited to the Ebba Valley (78°43’N; 16°37’E in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard, where geomorphologic observations and vegetation sampling were conducted in 2007. The valley was divided into three zones differentiated by dominating geomorphic activity and stability of deposits. The settlement and the evolution of plant cover have been documented there. The main factors that control well developed vegetation cover within raised marine terraces are frost heave and solifluction. In deeper parts of the valley, aeolian processes dominate and high differentiation of microsite conditions causes high variability in plant coverage. The area close to the Ebba glacier marginal zone is characterized by initial stages of plant colonisation where disturbance to vegetation is mainly caused by hydrological processes.

  19. Cold season soil respiration in response to grazing and warming in the High Arctic Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strebel, Ditte; Elberling, Bo; Morgner, Elke

    2010-01-01

    of Arctic Goose Habitat: Impacts of Land Use, Conservation and Elevated Temperatures). New measurements of soil CO2 effluxes, temperatures and water contents were regularly made from July to November 2007. SOC stocks were quantified, and the reactivity and composition measured by basal soil respiration (BSR...... in significantly higher CO2 effluxes. Different grazing intensities had no significant effects on observed soil respiration, but BSR rates at the mesic site (13-23 mu g CO2 g soil-C-1 h-1) were highest with moderate grazing and lowest in the absence of grazing. A limited effect of grazing on microbial respiration......The influence of goose grazing intensity and open-topped chambers (OTCs) on near-surface quantities and qualities of soil organic carbon (SOC) was evaluated in wet and mesic ecosystems in Svalbard. This study followed up a field experiment carried out in 2003-05 (part of the project Fragility...

  20. Crinoids from Svalbard in the aftermath of the end−Permian mass extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamon Mariusz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The end-Permian mass extinction constituted a major event in the history of crinoids. It led to the demise of the major Paleozoic crinoid groups including cladids, disparids, flexibles and camerates. It is widely accepted that a single lineage, derived from a late Paleozoic cladid ancestor (Ampelocrinidae, survived this mass extinction. Holocrinid crinoids (Holocrinus, Holocrinida along with recently described genus Baudicrinus (Encrinida, the only crinoid groups known from the Early Triassic, are considered the stem groups for the post-Paleozoic monophyletic subclass Articulata. Here, we report preliminary data on unexpectedly diverse crinoid faunas comprising at least four orders from the Lower Triassic (Induan and Olenekian of Svalbard, extending their stratigraphic ranges deeper into the early Mesozoic. These findings strongly imply that the recovery of crinoids in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction began much earlier at higher palaeolatitudes than in the central Tethys.

  1. Industrial heritage sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula: Sources of historical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacquebord, Louwrens; Avango, Dag

    2016-09-01

    Industrial heritage sites in Polar Regions are very important as sources of historical information. Together with archival documents this information gives us the possibility to complete the picture of the exploitation of natural resources in those regions. Thirty years of historical-archaeological field research at whaling and mining sites in Spitsbergen (Svalbard), South Georgia and the Antarctic Peninsula has shown that these sites can provide unique evidence about the driving forces behind industrial development, the design of industrial technology, the structure of the settlements, strategies to control natural resources and achieve political influence, and the impact of resource extraction on the local environment. In this article we will give examples of the results of our research at these sites.

  2. Chemical and geochemical composition of spring-summer Arctic aerosol collected at Ny Alesund, Svalbard Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udisti, Roberto; Becagli, Silvia; Caiazzo, Laura; Cappelletti, David; Giardi, Fabio; Grotti, Marco; Lucarelli, Franco; Moroni, Beatrice; Nava, Silvia; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Since March 2010, spring-summer (usually March - September) campaigns were continuously carried out at the Italian Gruvebadet Observatory, Ny Alesund, Svalbard Island. Aerosol was sampled by PM10 (daily) and 4-stage (4-day resolution) collector devices and size distribution was evaluated at 10 min resolution in the range 10 nm - 20 um (106 size classes by a TSI SMPS-APS integrated system). Six-year (2010-2015) PM10 and size-segregated (>10, 10-2.5, 2.5-1, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.002. A. Bazzano et al., "Long-range transport of atmospheric lead reaching Ny Alesund: inter-annual and seasonal variations of potential source areas". Atmos. Environ., 2016, 139, 11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.026.

  3. Palaeomagnetic, rock-magnetic and mineralogical investigations of metadolerites from Western Svalbard : A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof; Nejbert, Krzysztof; Domańska-Siuda, Justyna; Manby, Geoffrey

    2014-05-01

    A group of 42 independently oriented palaeomagnetic samples from 7 sites located in central part of the West Spitsbergen Thrust and Fault Belt has been investigated. The samples were collected from 5 distinct metadolerite sheets intruded into the Proterozoic - Lower Paleozoic metamorphic complex of Western Oscar II Land (Western Svalbard Caledonian Terrane - Harland, 1997 division). All analyzed metadolerite samples were metamorphosed under greenschist facies metamorphism. The metamorphic assemblage consist of hornblende, biotite, actinolite, chlorite, epidote, stilpnomelane, titanite, albite, and quartz. Calcite, associated with pyrrhotite, pyrite chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and covellite, that occurs as irregular intergrowths or thin veins, document high activity of H2O-CO2-rich fluids during metamorphism. Primary magmatic phases represented by clinopyroxene occur rarely, and only in thick metadolerite dykes. Accessory oxides change their mineralogical and chemical composition during metamorphism. In all examined samples primary Ti-magnetite and oxy-exsolved hematite break-down completely into titanite or have been dissolved. The ilmenite are also replaced by titanite, but in metadolerites at contact with host metapelites, slightly altered ilmenite grains with preserved hematite exsolution were documented. Basing on mineralogical observations it should be expected that metamorphic processes have almost completely reset the paleomagnetic data record from the time of dolerite crystallization. This stage can document only rare hematite oxy-exsolution preserved within ilmenite, and presumably small inclusion of magnetite still preserved within unaltered clinopyroxene. The paleomagnetic record of metamorphic stage is probably recorded by pyrrhotite, hematite, goethite, and late Ti-free magnetite that can grow during breakdown of pyrrhotite to pyrite (Ramdohr. 1980). The NRM (Natural Remanent Magnetisation) intensities of the palaeomagnetic samples exceed the minimum 10

  4. Diversity of bacteria in surface ice of Austre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yin-Xin; Yan, Ming; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; He, Jian-Feng; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Fang

    2013-05-01

    Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries Cores 1U and 2U were constructed using two ice core samples collected from Austre Lovénbreen glacier in Svalbard. The two libraries yielded a total of 262 clones belonging to 59 phylotypes. Sequences fell into 10 major lineages of the domain Bacteria, including Proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma and delta subdivisions), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7. Among them, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were most abundant. UniFrac data showed no significant differences in community composition between the two ice cores. A total of nineteen bacterial strains from the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter were isolated from the ice cores. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses revealed a close relationship between the ice core isolates and bacteria in marine environments, indicating a wide distribution of some bacterial phylotypes in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  5. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This study examines soil physical and environmental conditions controlling patterned-ground variability on an alluvial fan in a continuous permafrost landscape, at Adventdalen, Svalbard. On-site monitoring of ground temperature, soil moisture and snow depth, laboratory analyses of soil physical...... properties and principal component analysis indicate that the distribution of patterned ground depends primarily on soil texture, soil moisture and the winter ground thermal regime associated with snow cover. Mudboils and composite patterns (mudboils surrounded by small polygons) occupy well-drained areas...... composed of clay-rich aeolian sediments. Compared to mudboils, composite patterns show a sharper contrast in soil texture between barren centres and vegetated rims. Hummocks filled with organic materials develop on poorly drained lowlands associated with a shallow water table. Ice-wedge polygons...

  6. Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman LIDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Bunkin, Alexey F; Lednev, Vasily N; Lushnikov, Dmitry L; Marchenko, Aleksey V; Morozov, Eugene G; Pershin, Sergey M; Yulmetov, Renat N

    2013-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system for remote sensing of sea and drifting ice was developed at the Wave Research Center at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS. The developed system is based on a diode pumped solid state YVO4:Nd laser combined with compact spectrograph equipped with gated detector. The system exhibits high sensitivity and can be used for mapping or depth profiling of different parameters within many oceanographic problems. Light weight (~20 kg) and low power consumption (300 W) make possible to install the device on any vehicle including unmanned aircraft or submarine system. The Raman LIDAR presented was used for Svalbard fjords study and analysis of different influence of the open sea and glaciers on the water properties. Temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter distributions in the seawater were studied in the Ice Fjord, Van Mijen Fjord and Rinders Fjord. Drifting ice and seawater in the Rinders Fjord were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence. It...

  7. Phase-equilibrium modelling of blueschists from the Vestgötabreen Complex (SW Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Lorenz, Henning; Kozub, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    In Svalbard Archipelago, blueschists are known from Motalafjella area (Oscar II Land). They belong to the Vestgötabreen Complex, which is divided into a Lower (LU) and Upper Unit (UU). The former is composed of high pressure-low temperature (HP-LT) metasediments. The latter consists mainly of blueschists and eclogites. Various radiometric dating yielded an age of c. 470 Ma for the HP-LT metamorphism in the Motalafjella area. The pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for carpholite-bearing schists from LU have been estimated to c. 16 kbar and 330-450°C (Agard et al., 2005), whereas eclogites from UU indicate peak conditions of 18-24 kbar and 580-640°C (Hirajima et al., 1988). During the fieldwork in 2011, blueschists were also discovered at the western coast of Nordenskiöld Land. They form isolated bodies enclosed within metasedimentary units, but their tectonic position is still under debate. Preliminary P-T estimates indicate peak pressure conditions of c. 17 kbar and 480°C (Kośmińska et al., in revision). The age of metamorphism is unknown, however P-T conditions as well as metamorphic assemblage suggest that the blueschists from Nordenskiöld Land may be an equivalent of these in the Vestgötabreen Complex. Samples of blueschists from UU have been collected on Skipperryggen. They consist mainly of glaucophane, garnet, white micas (phengite and paragonite), rutile, lawsonite and chlorite. The garnet typically forms euhedral to subhedral porphyroblasts which contain voluminous inclusions. Its composition varies from Alm63Prp13Grs22Sps2 in the cores to Alm60Prp19Grs20Sps1 in the rims. The change in chemical zoning is rather gradual. The garnet shows bowl-shaped pyrope profiles and opposite almandine trends. The P-T conditions were estimated using phase equilibrium modeling. Preliminary modeling in the NCKFMMnASHTO system yields peak pressure conditions at c. 20 kbar and 520°C. The estimated P-T conditions for the blueschists from Skipperryggen are in

  8. Imaging spinal cord atrophy in progressive myelopathies: HTLV-I-associated neurological disease (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodi, Shila; Nair, Govind; Enose-Akahata, Yoshimi; Charlip, Emily; Vellucci, Ashley; Cortese, Irene; Dwyer, Jenifer; Billioux, B Jeanne; Thomas, Chevaz; Ohayon, Joan; Reich, Daniel S; Jacobson, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Previous work measures spinal cord thinning in chronic progressive myelopathies, including human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative measurements of spinal cord atrophy are important in fully characterizing these and other spinal cord diseases. We aimed to investigate patterns of spinal cord atrophy and correlations with clinical markers. Spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured in individuals (24 healthy controls [HCs], 17 asymptomatic carriers of HTLV-1 (AC), 47 HAM/TSP, 74 relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS], 17 secondary progressive MS [SPMS], and 40 primary progressive MS [PPMS]) from C1 to T10. Clinical disability scores, viral markers, and immunological parameters were obtained for patients and correlated with representative spinal cord cross-sectional area regions at the C2 to C3, C4 to C5, and T4 to T9 levels. In 2 HAM/TSP patients, spinal cord cross-sectional area was measured over 3 years. All spinal cord regions are thinner in HAM/TSP (56 mm2 [standard deviation, 10], 59 [10], 23 [5]) than in HC (76 [7], 83 [8], 38 [4]) and AC (71 [7], 78 [9], 36 [7]). SPMS (62 [9], 66 [9], 32 [6]) and PPMS (65 [11], 68 [10], 35 [7]) have thinner cervical cords than HC and RRMS (73 [9], 77 [10], 37 [6]). Clinical disability scores (Expanded Disability Status Scale [p = 0.009] and Instituto de Pesquisas de Cananeia [p = 0.03]) and CD8+ T-cell frequency (p = 0.04) correlate with T4 to T9 spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP. Higher cerebrospinal fluid HTLV-1 proviral load (p = 0.01) was associated with thinner spinal cord cross-sectional area. Both HAM/TSP patients followed longitudinally showed thoracic thinning followed by cervical thinning. Group average spinal cord cross-sectional area in HAM/TSP and progressive MS show spinal cord atrophy. We further hypothesize in HAM/TSP that is possible that neuroglial loss from a thoracic inflammatory process

  9. Autochthonous and allochthonous contributions of organic carbon to microbial food webs in Svalbard fjords

    KAUST Repository

    Holding, Johnna M.

    2017-03-27

    Rising temperatures in the Arctic Ocean are causing sea ice and glaciers to melt at record breaking rates, which has consequences for carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean that are yet to be fully understood. Microbial carbon cycling is driven by internal processing of in situ produced organic carbon (OC), however recent research suggests that melt water from sea ice and glaciers could introduce an allochthonous source of OC to the microbial food web with ramifications for the metabolic balance of plankton communities. In this study, we characterized autochthonous and allochthonous sources of OC to the Western Svalbard fjord system using stable isotopes of carbon. We quantified δ13C of eukaryotic and prokaryotic planktonic groups using polar lipid-derived fatty acids as biomarkers in addition to measuring δ13C of marine particulate OC and dissolved OC from glacial runoff. δ13C of bacteria (−22.5‰) was higher than that of glacial runoff OC (−28.5‰) and other phytoplankton groups (−24.7 to −29.1‰), which suggests that marine bacteria preferentially use a third source of OC. We present a Bayesian three-source δ13C mixing model whereby ∼ 60% of bacteria carbon is derived from OC in sea ice, and the remaining carbon is derived from autochthonous production and glacial-derived OC. These results suggest that subsidies of OC from melting glaciers will not likely influence microbial carbon cycling in Svalbard fjords in the future and that further research is needed to determine the effects of melting sea ice on microbial carbon cycling in fjord systems and elsewhere in the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Seasonal speed-up of two outlet glaciers of Austfonna, Svalbard, inferred from continuous GPS measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dunse

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the ice discharge from ice caps and ice sheets occurs through spatially limited flow units that may operate in a mode of steady flow or cyclic surge behaviour. Changes in the dynamics of distinct flow units play a key role in the mass balance of Austfonna, the largest ice cap on Svalbard. The recent net mass loss of Austfonna was dominated by calving from marine terminating outlet glaciers. Previous ice-surface velocity maps of the ice cap were derived by satellite radar interferometry (InSAR and rely on data acquired in the mid-1990s with limited information concerning the temporal variability. Here, we present continuous Global Positioning System (GPS observations along the central flowlines of two fast flowing outlet glaciers over 2008–2010. The data show prominent summer speed-ups with ice-surface velocities as high as 240% of the pre-summer mean. Acceleration follows the onset of the summer melt period, indicating enhanced basal motion due to input of surface meltwater into the subglacial drainage system. In 2008, multiple velocity peaks coincide with successive melt periods. In 2009, the major melt was of higher amplitude than in 2008. Flow velocities appear unaffected by subsequent melt periods, suggesting a transition towards a hydraulically more efficient drainage system. The observed annual mean velocities of Duvebreen and Basin-3 exceed those from the mid-1990s by factors two and four, respectively, implying increased ice discharge at the calving front. Measured summer velocities up to 2 m d−1 for Basin-3 are close to those of Kronebreen, often referred to as the fastest glacier on Svalbard.

  11. Regional passive seismic monitoring reveals dynamic glacier activity on Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Köhler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic glacier activity is increasingly observed through passive seismic monitoring. We analysed near-regional-scale seismicity on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard to identify seismic icequake signals and to study their spatial–temporal distribution within the 14-year period from 2000 until 2013. This is the first study that uses seismic data recorded on permanent broadband stations to detect and locate icequakes in different regions of Spitsbergen, the main island of the archipelago. A temporary local seismic network and direct observations of glacier calving and surging were used to identify icequake sources. We observed a high number of icequakes with clear spectral peaks between 1 and 8 Hz in different parts of Spitsbergen. Spatial clusters of icequakes could be associated with individual grounded tidewater glaciers and exhibited clear seasonal variability each year with more signals observed during the melt season. Locations at the termini of glaciers, and correlation with visual calving observations in situ at Kronebreen, a glacier in the Kongsfjorden region, show that these icequakes were caused dominantly by calving. Indirect evidence for glacier surging through increased calving seismicity was found in 2003 at Tunabreen, a glacier in central Spitsbergen. Another type of icequake was observed in the area of the Nathorstbreen glacier system. Seismic events occurred upstream of the glacier within a short time period between January and May 2009 during the initial phase of a major glacier surge. This study is the first step towards the generation and implementation of an operational seismic monitoring strategy for glacier dynamics in Svalbard.

  12. Alkenone-based reconstructions reveal four-phase Holocene temperature evolution for High Arctic Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, Willem G. M.; D'Andrea, William J.; Bakke, Jostein; Balascio, Nicholas L.; Werner, Johannes P.; Gjerde, Marthe; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2018-03-01

    Situated at the crossroads of major oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns, the Arctic is a key component of Earth's climate system. Compounded by sea-ice feedbacks, even modest shifts in the region's heat budget drive large climate responses. This is highlighted by the observed amplified response of the Arctic to global warming. Assessing the imprint and signature of underlying forcing mechanisms require paleoclimate records, allowing us to expand our knowledge beyond the short instrumental period and contextualize ongoing warming. However, such datasets are scarce and sparse in the Arctic, limiting our ability to address these issues. Here, we present two quantitative Holocene-length paleotemperature records from the High Arctic Svalbard archipelago, situated in the climatically sensitive Arctic North Atlantic. Temperature estimates are based on U37K unsaturation ratios from sediment cores of two lakes. Our data reveal a dynamic Holocene temperature evolution, with reconstructed summer lake water temperatures spanning a range of ∼6-8 °C, and characterized by four phases. The Early Holocene was marked by an early onset (∼10.5 ka cal. BP) of insolation-driven Hypsithermal conditions, likely compounded by strengthening oceanic heat transport. This warm interval was interrupted by cooling between ∼10.5-8.3 ka cal. BP that we attribute to cooling effects from the melting Northern Hemisphere ice sheets. Temperatures declined throughout the Middle Holocene, following a gradual trend that was accentuated by two cooling steps between ∼7.8-7 ka cal. BP and around ∼4.4-4.3 ka cal. BP. These transitions coincide with a strengthening influence of Arctic water and sea-ice in the adjacent Fram Strait. During the Late Holocene (past 4 ka), temperature change decoupled from the still-declining insolation, and fluctuated around comparatively cold mean conditions. By showing that Holocene Svalbard temperatures were governed by an alternation of forcings, this study

  13. Long-term monitoring of methane release and associated oceanographc setting offshore Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dølven, Knut Ola; Ferre, Benedicte; Frank, Carsten; Mienert, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are stored in the Arctic Ocean sediments, both as free gas and in form of methane hydrates. Warming of Arctic Ocean bottom water can destabilize methane hydrates and cause extensive methane release to the ocean, influencing marine environments (Åström et al., 2016). Previous oceanographic studies have shown a significant methane release from seep-sites offshore western Svalbard, mainly based on hydrographic snapshots and/or echosounder data. These studies have shown that the methane release has significant temporal variations, and these variations can only be investigated properly with ocean observatories. Two K-Lander ocean observatories, developed in collaboration between CAGE and Kontgberg Maritime were deployed at two of these seep sites at 90 and 240 meter depth, from July 2015 to May 2016. Time series obtained from these two observatories include ocean current profiles, temperature, salinity, pressure, as well as dissolved methane and CO2 concentration. The oceanographic data show a clear seasonal variation and indicates that the water column can be significantly affected by atmospheric forcing during winter season. At the same time, methane concentration shows significant temporal variations on both relatively short (hours) and long (seasonal) time scales, with values ranging from 90 to 800 nmol/kg. The short term variations indicates a non-mixed benthic boundary layer with respect to dissolved methane, while the long term variations may indicate seasonal changes in the vertical transport of methane in the water column. Acknowledgements This project is funded by CAGE (Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate), Norwegian Research Council grant no. 223259. Reference Åström, E. Carrol, M. L., Ambrose, W., Carrol, J. "Arctic cold seeps in marine methane hydrate environments: impacts on shelf macrobenthic community structure offshore Svalbard". Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2016 (1616-1599) 552 p. 1-18.

  14. Freezing and hungry? Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in Barents Sea sediments around Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Regions are characterised by varying temperatures and changing ice coverage, so most of the primary production take place in the warmer season. Consequently, sedimentation rates and nutrient input are low. The diversity and metabolic potentials of the microbial communities inhabiting these sediments in the Northern Barents Sea are largely unknown. Recent reports on natural methane seeps as well as the increase in hydrocarbon exploration activities in the Arctic initiated our studies on the potential of indigenous microbial communities to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons under in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Furthermore, the subseafloor geochemistry in these areas was studied, together with important microbial groups, like methanotrophs, methanogens, metal and sulfate reducers, which may drive seafloor ecosystems in the Northern Barents Sea. Sediment samples were collected in several areas around Svalbard in the years 2013-2016 ranging from shallow (200m) areas on the Svalbard shelf to deep sea areas on the eastern Yermak Plateau (3200m water depths). Shelf sediments showed the highest organic carbon content which decreased with increasing depths. Iron and manganese as potential electron acceptors were found in the porewater especially in the top 50 cm of the cores, while sulfate was always present in substantial amounts in porewater samples down to the end of the up to two metre long cores. Concentrations of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide were low. The potential of the indigenous microorganisms to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons as well as different oils under in situ temperatures and pressures was widespread in surface sediments. Degradation rates were higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions, and decreased with increasing sediment as well as water depths. Similar pattern were found for other metabolic processes, including sulfate, Fe and Mn reduction as well as carbon dioxide and methane production rates

  15. Recent Levels of Technetium-99 in Seawater at the West Coast of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gerland

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seawater from the western coast of Svalbard was sampled in the spring and summer of 2000 to determine levels of technetium-99 (99Tc, a conservative-behaving, manmade radionuclide originating from European nuclear reprocessing plants. This paper deals with the recent levels of this radionuclide in seawater and with the link between an Arctic fjord, Kongsfjorden, and the Western Spitsbergen Current (WSC, investigated using 99Tc results. By means of the WSC, the 99Tc radionuclides ultimately reach the eastern Fram Strait west of Spitsbergen (the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago. Results from oceanographic modelling and sea ice observations indicate a direct coupling between Kongsfjorden and the area west of it. The findings in connection with new radionuclide results presented in this paper concur with these assumptions. Furthermore they indicate that the inner part of Kongsfjorden is also well linked to the WSC. Surface seawater from the central part of the WSC, sampled during a cruise with RV Polarstern in the summer of 2000, shows a higher level of 99Tc than those measured in Kongsfjorden in spring 2000. However, all levels measured in surface water are of the same order of magnitude. Data from sampling of deeper water in the WSC area provide information pertaining to the lateral distribution of 99Tc. The results, along with additional data from spring 2001, indicate that Kongsfjorden is suitable for monitoring the levels of 99Tc arriving in the European Arctic and that the sheltered setting of this fjord does not necessarily provide protection against pollution from the open sea.

  16. Ancient DNA sheds new light on the Svalbard foraminiferal fossil record of the last millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowska, J; Lejzerowicz, F; Esling, P; Szczuciński, W; Zajączkowski, M; Pawlowski, J

    2014-07-01

    Recent palaeogenetic studies have demonstrated the occurrence of preserved ancient DNA (aDNA) in various types of fossilised material. Environmental aDNA sequences assigned to modern species have been recovered from marine sediments dating to the Pleistocene. However, the match between the aDNA and the fossil record still needs to be evaluated for the environmental DNA approaches to be fully exploited. Here, we focus on foraminifera in sediments up to one thousand years old retrieved from the Hornsund fjord (Svalbard). We compared the diversity of foraminiferal microfossil assemblages with the diversity of aDNA sequenced from subsurface sediment samples using both cloning and high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Our study shows that 57% of the species archived in the fossil record were also detected in the aDNA data. However, the relative abundance of aDNA sequence reads and fossil specimens differed considerably. We also found a limited match between the stratigraphic occurrence of some fossil species and their aDNA sequences, especially in the case of rare taxa. The aDNA data comprised a high proportion of non-fossilised monothalamous species, which are known to dominate in modern foraminiferal communities of the Svalbard region. Our results confirm the relevance of HTS for studying past micro-eukaryotic diversity and provide insight into its ability to reflect fossil assemblages. Palaeogenetic studies including aDNA analyses of non-fossilised groups expand the range of palaeoceanographical proxies and therefore may increase the accuracy of palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Diversity of hard-bottom fauna relative to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Voronkov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A baseline study of hard-bottom zoobenthos in relation to environmental gradients in Kongsfjorden, a glacial fjord in Svalbard, is presented, based on collections from 1996 to 1998. The total species richness in 62 samples from 0 to 30 m depth along five transects was 403 species. Because 32 taxa could not be identified to species level and because 11 species are probably new to science, the total number of identified species was 360. Of these, 47 species are new for Svalbard waters. Bryozoa was the most diverse group. Biogeographic composition revealed features of both Arctic and sub-Arctic properties of the fauna. Species richness, frequency of species occurrence, mean abundance and biomass generally decreased towards the tidal glaciers in inner Kongsfjorden. Among eight environmental factors, depth was most important for explaining variance in the composition of the zoobenthos. The diversity was consistently low at shallow depths, whereas the non-linear patterns of species composition of deeper samples indicated a transitional zone between surface and deeper water masses at 15–20 m depth. Groups of “colonial” and “non-colonial” species differed in diversity, biogeographic composition and distribution by location and depth as well as in relation to other environmental factors. “Non-colonial” species made a greater contribution than “colonial” species to total species richness, total occurrence and biomass in samples, and were more influenced by the depth gradient. Biogeographic composition was sensitive to variation of zoobenthic characteristics over the studied depth range. A list of recorded species and a description of sampling sites are presented.

  18. Establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen, Nordenskjöld land, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagina, Nelly; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Chernov, Robert; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Vasilyeva, Tatiana; Mavlyudov, Bulat; Kudikov, Arseny

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic archipelago Svalbard consists of a vast glacierized area which contributes significantly to the sea level rise outside of Greenland and Antarctica due to recent warming. The glaciers of Svalbard have already experienced an unprecedented increase in average summer temperatures, melt periods, and rainfall in late autumn and early summer. Glaciers of the Nordenskjöld land were the subject of glaciological studies conducted through the Soviet scientific program at the Institute of Geography RAS, Moscow starting in the 1960s. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union glaciological monitoring was stopped in the late 1980s. It was resumed in 2003 with direct observations of winter accumulation and summer melt at a number of glaciers in Nordenskjöld land. However, until now snow pit and stake data were inconsistent and were reported randomly. Recent efforts by the Institute of Geography RAS have been aimed at establishing mass balance observation at Austre Grønfjordbreen (7 km2) located 16 km south of Barentsburg. Starting from 2014 observations have included a new ablation stake network of 15 stakes measured biannually, two automatic weather stations located at the glacier tongue and at the accumulation area, and annual high resolution GPR surveys of snow thickness together with snow pit measurements repeated every spring. Special attention has been paid to the evaluation of refreezing ice and superimposed ice distribution. Active layer (10 m) borehole temperatures are measured annually at stake locations. The obtained mass balance gradients are compared with the geodetic mass balance changes in 1990-2005 and recent Arctic DEM data. Additionally glacier bedrock, polythermal structure and surface topography maps have been completed using GPR data and DGPS measurements. All available satellite imagery has been used to reconstruct the snowline elevation changes from 1986 to 2016. Remarkably almost a total absence of accumulation area has been registered in

  19. Observations of enhanced thinning in the upper reaches of Svalbard glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. James

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the volume and extent of land ice of the Svalbard archipelago have been the subject of considerable research since their sensitivity to changes in climate was first noted. However, the measurement of these changes is often necessarily based on point or profile measurements which may not be representative if extrapolated to a whole catchment or region. Combining high-resolution elevation data from contemporary laser-altimetry surveys and archived aerial photography makes it possible to measure historical changes across a glacier's surface without the need for extrapolation. Here we present a high spatial resolution time-series for six Arctic glaciers in the Svalbard archipelago spanning 1961 to 2005. We find high variability in thinning rates between sites with prevalent elevation changes at all sites averaging −0.59 ± 0.04 m a−1 between 1961–2005. Prior to 1990, ice surface elevation was changing at an average rate of −0.52 ± 0.09 m a−1 which decreased to −0.76 ± 0.10 m a−1 after 1990. Setting the elevation changes against the glaciers' altitude distribution reveals that significant increases in thinning rates are occurring most notably in the glaciers' upper reaches. We find that these changes are coincident with a decrease in winter precipitation at the Longyearbyen meteorological station and could reflect a decrease in albedo or dynamic response to lower accumulation. Further work is required to understand fully the causes of this increase in thinning rates in the glaciers' upper reaches. If on-going and occurring elsewhere in the archipelago, these changes will have a significant effect on the region's future mass balance. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the climatological context of geodetic mass balance measurements and demonstrate the difficulty of using index glaciers to represent regional changes in areas of strong climatological gradients.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants, skull size and bone density of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland 1892-2015 and Svalbard 1964-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugaard-Petersen, Tobias; Langebæk, Rikke; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jensen, Jens-Erik Bech; Bechshoft, Thea; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Pertoldi, Cino; Lorenzen, Eline D; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2017-12-26

    We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892-2015 in East Greenland and 1964-2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p non-significant trend that the skull size of adult East Greenland females was negatively correlated with collection year 1892-2015 (linear regression: p = 0.06). No temporal change was found for BMD or skull size in Svalbard polar bears (ANOVA: all p > 0.05) nor was there any significant difference in BMD between Svalbard and East Greenland subpopulations. Skull size was larger in polar bears from Svalbard than from East Greenland (two-way ANOVA: p = 0.003). T-scores reflecting risk of osteoporosis showed that adult males from both East Greenland and Svalbard are at risk of developing osteopenia. Finally, when correcting for age and sex, BMD in East Greenland polar bears increased with increasing concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) i.e. ΣPCB (polychlorinated biphenyls), ΣHCH (hexachlorohexane), HCB (hexachlorobenzene) and ΣPBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) while skull size increased with ΣHCH concentrations all in the period 1999-2014 (multiple linear regression: all p polar bears. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. NATO or Neutrality : Decisions by Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN by Kevin A. Chaney September 2017 Thesis Advisor: David S. Yost Second Reader...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO OR NEUTRALITY?: DECISIONS BY DENMARK, FINLAND, NORWAY, AND SWEDEN 5. FUNDING...Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Although Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden are ethnically and

  2. Intravenous methylprednisolone in HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q-C Araújo

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP is an immunomediated myelopathy induced by the HTLV-I. Some patients, specially those from Japan, seem to have a good response to steroid treatment. However, this has not been found in other regions of the world. High dose intravenous methylprednisolone has been used with success in patients with relapses of multiple sclerosis (MS, another autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. To test the effectiveness of methylprednisolone in patients with HAM/TSP, we devised an open trial in 23 patients. We found a very limited benefit of this form of treatment in these patients. Only one patient, who had the shortest disease duration (five months in the whole group, showed a sustained benefit. We speculate that those patients with a shorter history, with presumably less demye-lination and more inflammatory lesions, would show a better response to immunossupressive treatments.

  3. Direct use of mineral fertilizers MAP, DAP, and TSP as heterogeneous catalysts in organic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane Bahammou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reported the first use of phosphate fertilizers (MAP, DAP, and TSP as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions.  Their catalytic activities were investigated in the first time in Knoevenagel condensation of various aromatic aldehydes with malononitrile at room temperature.  These minerals phosphate showed high catalytic activities and ability to be recovering and reusing without a significant loss in their catalytic activities.  In order to reach the optimal reaction conditions for Knoevenagel condensation, we carried out a kinetic study of the effect of reaction time, the effect of solvent, the amount of catalysts and the variation of the range of the particles size the more active.  The best conditions were obtained by the use of these fertilizers (MAP, DAP, and TSP in their commercial status, simply crashed in powder, without any purification, using ethanol as solvent.  These phosphate fertilizers prove to be very promising and effective heterogeneous catalysts for the condensation of Knoevenagel.

  4. Solving Large-Scale TSP Using a Fast Wedging Insertion Partitioning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyong Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new partitioning method, called Wedging Insertion, is proposed for solving large-scale symmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP. The idea of our proposed algorithm is to cut a TSP tour into four segments by nodes’ coordinate (not by rectangle, such as Strip, FRP, and Karp. Each node is located in one of their segments, which excludes four particular nodes, and each segment does not twist with other segments. After the partitioning process, this algorithm utilizes traditional construction method, that is, the insertion method, for each segment to improve the quality of tour, and then connects the starting node and the ending node of each segment to obtain the complete tour. In order to test the performance of our proposed algorithm, we conduct the experiments on various TSPLIB instances. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm in this paper is more efficient for solving large-scale TSPs. Specifically, our approach is able to obviously reduce the time complexity for running the algorithm; meanwhile, it will lose only about 10% of the algorithm’s performance.

  5. Effects of anti-miR-182 on TSP-1 expression in human colon cancer cells: there is a sense in antisense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Valeria; Bazan, Viviana; Fanale, Daniele; Insalaco, Lavinia; Caruso, Stefano; Cicero, Giuseppe; Bronte, Giuseppe; Rolfo, Christian; Santini, Daniele; Russo, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    miRNAs are attractive molecules for cancer treatment, including colon rectal cancer (CRC). We investigate on the molecular mechanism by which miR-182 could regulate thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression, a protein downregulated in CRC and inversely correlated with tumor vascularity and metastasis. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of different genes, involved in cancer progression, angiogenesis and metastasis. miR-182, over-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC), has like predictive target thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a protein inversely correlated with tumor vascularity and metastasis that results downregulated in different types of cancer including CRC. We found that TSP-1 increased after transfection with anti-miR-182 and we showed that miR-182 targets TSP-1 3'UTR-mRNA in both cells. Moreover, we observed that anti-miR-182 did not induce significant variation of Egr-1 expression, but affected the nuclear translocation and its binding on tsp-1 promoter in HCT-116. Equally, Sp-1 was slightly increased as total protein, rather we found a nuclear accumulation and its loading on the TSP-1 promoter in HT-29 transfected with anti-miR-182. Our data suggest that miR-182 targets the anti-angiogenic factor TSP-1 and that anti-miR-182 determines an upregulation of TSP-1 expression in colon cancer cells. Moreover, anti-miR-182 exerts a transcriptional regulatory mechanism of tsp-1 modulating Egr-1 and Sp-1 function. Anti-miR-182 could be used to restore TSP-1 expression in order to contrast angiogenic and invasive events in CRC.

  6. Fern rhizomes as fodder in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2016-09-06

    Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition's core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the longer winters encountered in the north, frequently leading to fodder shortage in early spring. The tradition extends northeastwards into Finnmark, but is less well documented there. Although numerous sources mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder, the fern species hiding behind the tradition are incompletely known. This paper aims at reviewing available data in terms of identifyng the species used for fodder, the history and geographical distribution of such use, and other relevant traditions, e.g. the timing and mode of collection, and the way the rhizomes were used. The study is based on data extracted from a variety of archival and literature sources; the latter retrived from my database of more than 7500 publications providing information on plant names and plant uses in Norway. More than 200 individual records mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder in Norway. Only a fraction of these, typically made by botanist recording data on plant uses, provides information on the identity of the species used. Based on these, Dryopteris filix-mas and Matteuccia struthiopteris stand out as the most important species serving as sources of fern rhizomes for fodder. Locally, Dryopteris expansa was the preferred species, and this taxon may to some extent be overlooked in the records so far available. With a few exceptions, Norwegian folk tradition singles out Athyrium filix-femina as a harmful and poisonous species, causing livestock to go blind and lame, but whether this is true or not

  7. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  8. ENOR - An Energy-Model for Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ek

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The Energy model for Norway, ENOR, is a dynamic, multisectoral economic stimulation model to be used for long term energy analyses. Energy sectors and energy carriers are in principle treated in the same way as other sectors and economic commodities and integrated in the same general framework. The model has a two-level structure - a central coordination module ensures economic consistency, while the behaviour of each production and consumption sector is modelled in separate sector models. The model framework is thus capable of handling both engineering and economic knowledge.

  9. Wind power in Norway; Vindkraft i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Lower limb amputations in Trondheim, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Wits?, Eivind; Lium, Arne; Lydersen, Stian

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose In the city of Trondheim, Norway, diabetic lower-limb amputations accounted for one-third of all lower-limb amputations (LLAs). In an attempt to reduce this rate, a diabetic foot team was established in 1996. We present the incidence of LLA in Trondheim as measured 10 years later. Patients and methods In 2004?07, we registered all LLAs performed in Trondheim and then compared the data with previously published data from 1994?1997. From 1996 through 2006, we registered t...

  11. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  12. Size and composition of the wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus population in the Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alendal, Einar; Bie, Steven de; van Wieren, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the summer of 1977 we studied the reindeer population on the islands Barentsøya and Edgeøya in the eastern part of the Svalbard archipelago. A total of 1374 reindeer were observed: 326 animals in the western parts of Barentsøya and 1048 animals on Edgeøya. Considering those parts of Edgeøya which

  13. The changing impact of snow conditions and refreezing on the mass balance of an idealized Svalbard glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Van Pelt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glacier surface melt and runoff depend strongly on seasonal and perennial snow (firn conditions. Not only does the presence of snow and firn directly affect melt rates by reflecting solar radiation, it may also act as a buffer against mass loss by storing melt water in refrozen or liquid form. In Svalbard, ongoing and projected amplified climate change with respect to the global mean change has severe implications for the state of snow and firn and its impact on glacier mass loss. Model experiments with a coupled surface energy balance - firn model were done to investigate the surface mass balance and the changing role of snow and firn conditions for an idealized Svalbard glacier. A climate forcing for the past, present and future (1984-2104 is constructed, based on observational data from Svalbard Airport and a seasonally dependent projection scenario. Results illustrate ongoing and future firn degradation in response to an elevational retreat of the equilibrium line altitude (ELA of 31 m decade−1. The temperate firn zone is found to retreat and expand, while cold ice in the ablation zone warms considerably. In response to pronounced winter warming and an associated increase in winter rainfall, the current prevalence of refreezing during the melt season gradually shifts to the winter season in a future climate. Sensitivity tests reveal that in a present and future climate the density and thermodynamic structure of Svalbard glaciers are heavily influenced by refreezing. Refreezing acts as a net buffer against mass loss. However, the net mass balance change after refreezing is substantially smaller than the amount of refreezing itself, which can be ascribed to melt-enhancing effects after refreezing, which partly offset the primary mass-retaining effect of refreezing.

  14. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westengen, Ola T; Jeppson, Simon; Guarino, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat), Sorghum (sorghum), Pennisetum (pearl millet), Eleusine (finger millet), Cicer (chickpea) and Lens (lentil) exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth), Chenopodium (quinoa), Eragrostis (teff) and Abelmoschus (okra). In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  15. Global ex-situ crop diversity conservation and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault: assessing the current status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservation of crop diversity is a global concern, and the development of an efficient and sustainable conservation system is a historic priority recognized in international law and policy. We assess the completeness of the safety duplication collection in the Svalbard Global Seed Vault with respect to data on the world's ex-situ collections as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Currently, 774,601 samples are deposited at Svalbard by 53 genebanks. We estimate that more than one third of the globally distinct accessions of 156 crop genera stored in genebanks as orthodox seeds are conserved in the Seed Vault. The numbers of safety duplicates of Triticum (wheat, Sorghum (sorghum, Pennisetum (pearl millet, Eleusine (finger millet, Cicer (chickpea and Lens (lentil exceed 50% of the estimated numbers of distinct accessions in global ex-situ collections. The number of accessions conserved globally generally reflects importance for food production, but there are significant gaps in the safety collection at Svalbard in some genera of high importance for food security in tropical countries, such as Amaranthus (amaranth, Chenopodium (quinoa, Eragrostis (teff and Abelmoschus (okra. In the 29 food-crop genera with the largest number of accessions stored globally, an average of 5.5 out of the ten largest collections is already represented in the Seed Vault collection or is covered by existing deposit agreements. The high coverage of ITPGRFA Annex 1 crops and of those crops for which there is a CGIAR mandate in the current Seed Vault collection indicates that existence of international policies and institutions are important determinants for accessions to be safety duplicated at Svalbard. As a back-up site for the global conservation system, the Seed Vault plays not only a practical but also a symbolic role for enhanced integration and cooperation for conservation of crop diversity.

  16. Glacier surges and landforms in a permafrost environment at the tidewater glacier Paulabreen, inner Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the landsystem of the Svalbard tidewater glacier Paulabreen and its late Holocene surge moraines, focusing on the glaciology and the glacial geology. An active surge of Skobreen/Paulabreen was observed and the glacier dynamics and stress regime was studied using satellite images, a time-lapse movie and photographs. A persistent subglacial conduit was found beneath the medial moraine between Paulabreen and Bakaninbreen, and we postulate that this constrained sur...

  17. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland, western Norway, with a survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Godske Bjørklund

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available   Bjørklund BG. 2009. Freshwater rotifers from Hordaland western Norway with a u survey of freshwater rotifers previously found in Norway. Fauna Norvegica29: 11-54. A total of 156 species (or subspecies o rotifers, mostly non-planktonic, have been identified from freshwater or slightly brackish-water localities in the county of Hordaland; 83 are new to Norway and 24 others are new to the county. One hundred of the species were collected from the two valleys of Eksingedalen and Teigdalen in spring and summer 1967. Samples were taken on the shallow shores of lake-like parts of the rivers, and in pools, tarns and small lakes. Forty more or less euryhaline fresh­water rotifers were also collected during studies of slightly brackish-water localities around Bergen in 1963-1969. A number of freshwater rotifers were collected at several localities in and around Bergen in 1968-1970, and on the western part of Hardangervidda. Of those so far identified ,23 are new to Norway and 8 more are new to the county. They are therefore included in the species list. A few additional ones are referred to in the taxonomical notes. All the species are listed with localities and habitat categories, or, in the case of the last-mentioned ones, just the district where they were collected. The paper includes notes, measurements and ,in most cases, figures regarding 44 little known, variable or taxonomically problematical species, especially in the genera Cephalodella and Trichocerca. Comments are given on the distribution , abundance and diversity of the species. The paper presents asurvey of previous investigations on rotifers in Norway, listing 200 previously recorded freshwater (a few euryhaline rotifers, giving other names, the authors who recorded the finds and, in most cases, the counties where the species were collected. 

  18. HAM/TSP: association between white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Puccioni-Sohler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between clinical data, white matter lesions and inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF findings in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. METHOD: We studied brain and cervical spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and CSF examinations of 28 Brazilian HAM/TSP patients. RESULTS: The majority of patients had severe neurological incapacity with EDSS median of 6.5 (3-8. The brain MRI showed white matter lesions (75% and atrophy (14%. The preferential brain location was periventricular. Cervical demyelination lesions occurred in 11% of the cases, and cervical atrophy in 3.5%. One patient had enhancement lesions on T1 cervical spinal cord MRI. Cases with spinal cord lesions had signs of acute CSF inflammation. The brain white matter lesions predominated in the patients with higher age. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that an active inflammatory process is associated with the cervical spinal cord lesions in HAM/TSP. The brain abnormalities are not related to the clinical picture of HAM/TSP.

  19. An Extension of the Lin-Kernighan-Helsgaun TSP Solver for Constrained Traveling Salesman and Vehicle Routing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helsgaun, Keld

    problem (SOP), the traveling repairman problem (TRP), variants of the multiple travel-ing salesman problem (mTSP), as well as vehicle routing problems (VRPs) with capacity, time windows, pickup-and-delivery and distance constraints. The implementation of LKH-3 builds on the idea of transforming...

  20. Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retire Tool When Deciding Between High 36 Retirement and Blended TSP Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Members currently on active-duty who elect BRS will not need to wait the mandated 60 days for these one percent contributions to start. However, no...shifts incrementally toward a greater percentage of conservative TSP funds. By the end of a Lifecycle Fund, the fund looks proportionally very similar

  1. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  2. ADAMTS1-mediated targeting of TSP-1 by PPARδ suppresses migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sun Ah; Yoo, Taesik; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Jung Seok; Hur, Jinwoo; Paek, Kyung Shin; Lim, Dae-Seog; Han, Sung Gu; Lee, Chi-Ho; Seo, Han Geuk

    2017-11-07

    Migration and invasion of cancer cells into surrounding tissue is a key stage of cancer metastasis. Here, we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ regulates migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells via thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its degrading protease, a disintegrin and metalloprotease domains with thrombospondin motifs 1 (ADAMTS1). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand for PPARδ, led to marked inhibition in the cell migration and TSP-1 expression of breast cancer. These effects were suppressed by small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of ADAMTS1, indicating that ADAMTS1 is involved in PPARδ-mediated inhibition of migration and TSP-1 expression in breast cancer cells. In addition, ligand-activated PPARδ upregulated expression of ADAMTS1 at the transcriptional level via binding of PPARδ to a direct repeat-1 site within the ADAMTS1 gene promoter. Furthermore, ligand-activated PPARδ suppressed invasion of breast cancer cells in an ADAMTS1-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PPARδ suppresses migration and invasion of breast cancer cells by downregulating TSP-1 in a process mediated by upregulation of ADAMTS1.

  3. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  4. The alien terrestrial invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard: potential implications for the native flora and fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Coulson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experience from the Antarctic indicates that the establishment of alien species may have significant negative effects on native flora and fauna in polar regions and is considered to be amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity. But, there have been few similar studies from the Arctic. Although the terrestrial invertebrate inventory of the Svalbard Archipelago is amongst the most complete for any region of the Arctic, no consideration has yet been made of alien terrestrial invertebrate species, their invasiveness tendencies, threat to the native biology or their route of entry. Such baseline information is critical for appropriate management strategies. Fifteen alien invertebrate species have established in the Svalbard environment, many of which have been introduced via imported soils. Biosecurity legislation now prohibits such activities. None of the recorded established aliens yet show invasive tendencies but some may have locally negative effects. Ten species are considered to be vagrants and a further seven are classified as observations. Vagrants and the observations are not believed to be able to establish in the current tundra environment. The high connectivity of Svalbard has facilitated natural dispersal processes and may explain why few alien species are recorded compared to isolated islands in the maritime Antarctic. The vagrant species observed are conspicuous Lepidoptera, implying that less evident vagrant species are also arriving regularly. Projected climate change may enable vagrant species to establish, with results that are difficult to foresee.

  5. Evaluation of T Regulatory Lymphocytes Transcription Factors in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeldasht, Sanaz Ahmadi; Sadeghian, Hamed; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim

    2017-08-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4+CD25+ T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry. The demographic, history of disease, and severity of myelopathy were assessed by a checklist and the Osame motor disability score (OMDS). The mean OMDS for HAM/TSP was 4.82 ± 2.37 which had no significant correlation with Treg count or the expression of Foxp3, GITR, and PVL. The CD4+CD25+ cell counts had no significant differences between HAM/TSP and ACs. Findings revealed a higher PVL in HAM/TSPs (313.36 copies/104) compared to ACs (144.93 copies/104, p = 0.035). The Foxp3 and GITR mRNA levels were lower in HAM/TSP patients (11.78 and 13.80, respectively) than those in healthy carriers (18.44 and 21.00, p = 0.041 and 0.03, respectively). There was a significant correlation between Treg frequency and Foxp3 gene expression (R = 0.67, p = 0.006) and GITR and Foxp3 (R = 0.84, p = 0.042) in HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, the transcription factors have strong correlations with CD4+CD25+ T cell frequencies. These findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection can modify the expression of main functional transcription factors, FOXP3 and GITR, which may lead to immune response deterioration of Tregs and consequently HAM/TSP manifestation.

  6. Espacio literario relevante sobre el problema del vendedor viajero (TSP: contenido, clasificación, métodos y campos de inspiración Relevant literary space on travelling salesman problem (TSP: contents, classification, methods and fields of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Pérez Rave

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y se analiza un espacio literario relevante sobre el Problema del Vendedor Viajero (TSP en términos de contenido, clases de TSP, métodos y campos de inspiración. Los datos empleados provinieron de los trabajos más citados en Scopus sobre el TSP, tanto a través de la historia como en el período 2006-2010. Se encontró que el TSP prevalece en las investigaciones, con enfoques tanto en el problema original como en sus variantes, entre las cuales se identificaron el TSP Múltiple y el TSP Probabilístico. Entre los principales campos de inspiración para resolver el TSP están la evolución biológica y su base genético-molecular, el comportamiento de hormigas reales, la termodinámica, las estrategias sistemáticas para combinar reglas de decisión y la búsqueda de vecindades. Hoy día se tiende a desarrollar métodos híbridos, especialmente integrando enfoques globales con búsquedas locales, y se identifica la necesidad de introducir nuevos campos de inspiración.This paper describes and analyzes, in terms of content, the types of TSP, methods and fields of inspiration - the most relevant "literary space" on TSP. It is built based on the top most cited on the TSP history and the Top 10 cited from 2006 to 2010. The study of TSP still prevails in Research, focusing on the original problem and its variants: Multiple TSP (m-TSP and Probabilistic TSP (PTSP. Evidence shows that there has been progress in the development of TSP solving methods, highlighted by various inspiration fields: biological evolution, behavior of real ants, thermodynamics, systematic strategies for combining decision rules, and neighborhood search. There is a tendency to develop hybrid methods, in particular by integrating global approaches to local search. There is need to introduce new fields of inspiration.

  7. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  8. Young Christians in Norway, national socialism, and the German ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The German occupation of Norway during the Second World War caused unprecedented problems for the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norway and other Christian denominations. The subordination of the church to the de facto Nazi state eventually led its bishops and most of its pastors to sever their ties to the ...

  9. Solution structure, membrane interactions, and protein binding partners of the tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a vaccine antigen from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J; Daly, Norelle L; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jones, Malcolm K; Craik, David J; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-03-07

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument.

  10. Solution Structure, Membrane Interactions, and Protein Binding Partners of the Tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a Vaccine Antigen from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.; Craik, David J.; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument. PMID:24429291

  11. Analyses of HTLV-1 sequences suggest interaction between ORF-I mutations and HAM/TSP outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Fernanda Khouri; Khouri, Ricardo; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Santos, Luciane Amorim; Castro-Amarante, Maria Fernanda de; Bialuk, Izabela; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Gessain, Antoine; Jacobson, Steven; Franchini, Genoveffa; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The region known as pX in the 3' end of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genome contains four overlapping open reading frames (ORF) that encode regulatory proteins. HTLV-1 ORF-I produces the protein p12 and its cleavage product p8. The functions of these proteins have been linked to immune evasion and viral infectivity and persistence. It is known that the HTLV-1 infection does not necessarily imply the development of pathological processes and here we evaluated whether natural mutations in HTLV-1 ORF-I can influence the proviral load and clinical manifestation of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). For that, we performed molecular characterization, datamining and phylogenetic analysis with HTLV-1 ORF-I sequences from 156 patients with negative or positive diagnosis for HAM/TSP. Our analyses demonstrated that some mutations may be associated with the outcome of HAM/TSP (C39R, L40F, P45L, S69G and R88K) or with proviral load (P34L and F61L). We further examined the presence of mutations in motifs of HBZ and observed that P45L mutation is located within the HBZ nuclear localization signal and was found more frequently between patients with HAM/TSP and high proviral load. These results indicate that some natural mutations are located in functional domains of ORF-I and suggests a potential association between these mutations and the proviral loads and development of HAM/TSP. Therefore it is necessary to conduct functional studies aimed at evaluating the impact of these mutations on the virus persistence and immune evasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Ameliorate Experimental Murine Colitis via TSP-1-Dependent Activation of Latent TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Hiroshi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Uemura, Mamoru; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Matsuda, Chu; Takemasa, Ichiro; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Murata, Kohei; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been investigated as therapeutic tools for a variety of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory properties of ASCs are not well understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism of regulatory T cell (Treg) induction in ASC therapy in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Acute colitis was induced in mice using dextran sulfate sodium and ASCs administered intraperitoneally. Tregs and CD103+ dendritic cells were analyzed in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen, and colonic lamina propria (CLP). Activation of latent TGF-β by ASCs was analyzed in vitro using ELISA. siRNA technology was used to create ASCs in which TSP-1 or integrinαv was knocked down in order to investigate the involvement of these proteins in the activation of latent TGF-β. In addition, TSP-1-knockdown ASCs were administered to mice with colitis to assess their clinical efficacy in vivo. Systemic administration of ASCs significantly lessened the clinical and histopathological severity of colitis. ASCs were distributed throughout the lymphatic system in the MLNs and spleen. Tregs were increased in the MLNs and CLP, but CD103+ dendritic cells were not significantly altered. The ASCs activated latent TGF-β. TSP-1 knockdown impaired TGF-β activation in vitro and abrogated the therapeutic effects of the ASCs in vivo. Furthermore, Tregs were not increased in the MLNs and CLP from mice treated with TSP-1-knockdown ASCs. These results demonstrate that ASCs induce Tregs by activating latent TGF-β via TSP-1, independent of CD103+ dendritic cell induction.

  13. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  14. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-02

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  15. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  16. Playing with LISEM: Experiences from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greipsland, Inga; Krzeminska, Dominika

    2017-04-01

    Reducing soil loss from agricultural land is an important environmental challenge that is of relevance for both the European Soil Thematic Strategy (EC 2002) and the Water Framework Directive (EC 2000). Agricultural land in Norway is scarce, covering only around 3% of the total land area (The World Bank, 2015), which puts stress on preserving soil quality for food production. Additionally, reducing sediment loss is a national priority because of associated transport of pollutants such as phosphorous, which can cause eutrophication in nearby waterbodies. It is necessary to find tools that can estimate the effect of different scenarios on erosion processes on agricultural areas. We would like to present the challenges experienced and the results obtained by using LISEM (Limburg Soil Erosion Model) on the plot- subcatchment- and catchment scale in southeastern Norway. The agricultural catchment has been the subject of long-term monitoring of water quality. Challenges included spatial upscaling of local calibration, calibration on areas with very low soil loss rates and equifinality. In this poster, we want to facilitate a discussion about the possibilities of and limitations to the model for predicting hydrological and soil erosion processes at different scales.

  17. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a new bone morphogenetic protein-2 and -4 (BMP-2/4) antagonist identified in pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallon, Céline; Callebaut, Isabelle; Boulay, Ida; Fontaine, Joel; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Henriquet, Corinne; Pugnière, Martine; Cayla, Xavier; Monget, Philippe; Harichaux, Grégoire; Labas, Valérie; Canepa, Sylvie; Taragnat, Catherine

    2017-09-15

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate diverse cellular responses during embryogenesis and in adulthood including cell differentiation, proliferation, and death in various tissues. In the adult pituitary, BMPs participate in the control of hormone secretion and cell proliferation, suggesting a potential endocrine/paracrine role for BMPs, but some of the mechanisms are unclear. Here, using a bioactivity test based on embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2) transfected with a BMP-responsive element, we sought to determine whether pituitary cells secrete BMPs or BMP antagonists. Interestingly, we found that pituitary-conditioned medium contains a factor that inhibits action of BMP-2 and -4. Combining surface plasmon resonance and high-resolution mass spectrometry helped pinpoint this factor as thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). Surface plasmon resonance and co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that recombinant human TSP-1 can bind BMP-2 and -4 and antagonize their effects on C3H10T1/2 cells. Moreover, TSP-1 inhibited the action of serum BMPs. We also report that the von Willebrand type C domain of TSP-1 is likely responsible for this BMP-2/4-binding activity, an assertion based on sequence similarity that TSP-1 shares with the von Willebrand type C domain of Crossveinless 2 (CV-2), a BMP antagonist and member of the chordin family. In summary, we identified for the first time TSP-1 as a BMP-2/-4 antagonist and presented a structural basis for the physical interaction between TSP-1 and BMP-4. We propose that TSP-1 could regulate bioavailability of BMPs, either produced locally or reaching the pituitary via blood circulation. In conclusion, our findings provide new insights into the involvement of TSP-1 in the BMP-2/-4 mechanisms of action. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Penanganan Fuzzy Time Window pada Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP dengan Penerapan Algoritma Genetika

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    Gusti Eka Yuliastuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The route of the travel tour packages offered by travel agents is not considered optimum, so the level of satisfaction the tourist is not maximal. Selection of the route of the travel packages included in the traveling salesman problem (TSP. The problem that occurs is uncertain tourists visiting destinations at the best destinations timing hereinafter be referred to as the fuzzy time window problem. Therefore, the authors apply the genetic algorithm to solve the problem. Based on test results obtained optimum solution with the fitness value of 1.3291, a population size of 100, the number of generations of 1000, a combination of CR=0,4 and MR=0.6.

  19. European Plate Observing System - Norway (EPOS-N): A National Consortium for the Norwegian Implementation of EPOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Tellefsen, Karen

    2017-04-01

    relevant data for solid Earth science research. In addition to the standard data and data products such as seismological, geodetic, geomagnetic and geological data, there are a number of non-standard data and data products that will be integrated. In parallel, advanced visualization technologies are being implemented, which will provide a platform for a possible future ICS-D (distributed components of the Integrated Core Services) for EPOS. In order to enhance the monitoring capacity in the Arctic, planning and site selection process for the new instrument installations are well underway, as well as the procurement of the required equipment. In total, 17 new seismological and geodetic stations will be co-located in selected sites in Northern Norway, Jan Mayen and Svalbard. In addition, a seismic array with 9 nodes will be installed on Bear Island. A planned aeromagnetic survey along the Knipovich Ridge is being conducted this year, which will give new insights to the tectonic development of the mid-ocean ridge systems in the North Atlantic.

  20. The Present SP Tests for Determining the Transition Temperature TSP on "U" Notch Disc Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matocha, Karel; Dorazil, Ondrej; Hurst, Roger

    2017-05-03

    The principal difference between the small punch (SP) testing technique and standardized impact testing lies in the fact that the SP tests carried out in accordance with CWA 15627 Small Punch Test Method for Metallic Materials use disc-shaped test specimens without a notch. Especially in tough materials, the temperature dependence of SP fracture energy ESP in the transition area is very steep and lies close to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. In this case, the determination of SP transition temperature TSP can lead to significant errors in its determination. Efforts to move the transition area of penetration testing closer to the transition area of standardized impact tests led to the proposal of the notched disc specimen 8 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness with a "U" shaped notch 0.2 mm deep in the axis plane of the disc. The paper summarizes the results obtained to date when determining the transition temperature of SP tests TSP, determined according to CWA 15627 for material of pipes made of P92, P22, and a heat treated 14MoV6-3 steel in the as delivered state. Although the results obtained confirmed the results of other works in that the presence of a notch in a SP disc is insufficient to increase the transition temperature significantly and certainly not to the values obtained by Charpy testing, comparison of the different behaviors of the alloys tested reveals some evidence that the notch reduces the energy for initiation. This implies that the test on a notched disc is more a test of crack growth and would be a useful instrument if included in the forthcoming EU standard for SP testing.

  1. The Application of Fitness Sharing Method in Evolutionary Algorithm to Optimizing the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP

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    Nurmaulidar Nurmaulidar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP is one of complex optimization problem that is difficult to be solved, and require quite a long time for a large number of cities. Evolutionary algorithm is a precise algorithm used in solving complex optimization problem as it is part of heuristic method. Evolutionary algorithm, like many other algorithms, also experiences a premature convergence phenomenon, whereby variation is eliminated from a population of fairly fit individuals before a complete solution is achieved. Therefore it requires a method to delay the convergence. A specific method of fitness sharing called phenotype fitness sharing has been used in this research. The aim of this research is to find out whether fitness sharing in evolutionary algorithm is able to optimize TSP. There are two concepts of evolutionary algorithm being used in this research. the first one used single elitism and the other one used federated solution. The two concepts had been tested to the method of fitness sharing by using the threshold of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75. The result was then compared to a non fitness sharing method. The result in this study indicated that by using single elitism concept, fitness sharing was able to give a more optimum result for the data of 100-1000 cities. On the other hand, by using federation solution concept, fitness sharing can yield a more optimum result for the data above 1000 cities, as well as a better solution of data-spreading compared to the method without fitness sharing.

  2. Elemental analysis of soils and Salix polaris in the town of Pyramiden and its surroundings (Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcarová, Lucie; Novotný, Karel; Chattová, Barbora; Elster, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The contents of elements in the top soil (upper 5 cm) and deeper soil (5 to 10 cm) layers and in Salix polaris (leaves and stem) from the former Soviet mining town of Pyramiden and its close vicinity on the Svalbard archipelago were determined. The analyses covered major and trace elements, including heavy metals, in order to describe anthropogenic impacts related to the management of the mining town. Soil samples and plant tissues were analysed from 13 localities across and close to town vicinity. The plant ground cover of all sampling points was determined, and plant tissues (leaves and stem) were collected. Higher contents of Cd (3-11 mg kg(-1)) and Mo (11-33 mg kg(-1)) were detected in the soils. With relation to the world average concentration of metals in soils, the geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and the level of pollution of the analysed soils were classified into seven pollution grades. The soils of the studied localities were usually unpolluted (grade 1) when analysed for metals, with the soil pollution grades 4-6 identified only for Cd and Mo (moderately to strongly polluted). In Salix polaris, excessive amounts of Fe (60-1520 mg kg(-1)), Zn (80-1050 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2-5.5 mg kg(-1)) and Cr (0-3.6 mg kg(-1)) were observed. The Igeo of these elements, compared with values considered sufficient for plants, showed pollution grades from 2 to 6. The pollution load index (PLI) ranged between 0.49 and 1.01. Only one locality could be considered polluted having a PLI higher than 1. Plant/soil transfer factors (TF) for trace metals decreased in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cd > Mn > Ni > As > Mo > Pb > Co > Al > Cr > Fe. The principal contribution of this study consists in the assessment of the contamination of soils and plants by toxic heavy metals in an otherwise pristine environment of the Svalbard archipelago related to urban/industrial activities.

  3. The geomorphological effect of cornice fall avalanches in the Longyeardalen valley, Svalbard

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    M. Eckerstorfer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of snow avalanches and their geomorphological effect in the periglacial parts of the cryosphere is important for enhanced geomorphological process understanding as well as hazard-related studies. Only a few field studies, and particularly few in the High Arctic, have quantified avalanche sedimentation. Snow avalanches are traditionally ranked behind rockfall in terms of their significance for mass-wasting processes of rockslopes. Cornice fall avalanches are at present the most dominant snow avalanche type at two slope systems, called Nybyen and Larsbreen, in the valley Longyeardalen in central Svalbard. Both slope systems are on northwest-facing lee slopes underneath a large summit plateau, with annual cornices forming on the top. High-frequency and magnitude cornice fall avalanching is observed by daily automatic time-lapse photography. In addition, rock debris sedimentation by cornice fall avalanches was measured directly in permanent sediment traps or by snow inventories. The results from a maximum of seven years of measurements in a total of 13 catchments show maximum mean rock debris sedimentation rates ranging from 8.2 to 38.7 kg m−2 at Nybyen, and from 0.8 to 55.4 kg m−2 at Larsbreen. Correspondingly, avalanche fan surfaces accreted from 2.6 to 8.8 mm yr−1 at Nybyen, and from 0.2 to 13.9 mm yr−1 at Larsbreen. This comparably efficient rockslope mass wasting is due to collapsing cornices producing cornice fall avalanches containing large amounts of rock debris throughout the entire winter. The rock debris of different origin stems from the plateau crests, the adjacent free rock face and the transport pathway, accumulating distinct avalanche fans at both slope systems. Cornice fall avalanche sedimentation also contributed to the development of a rock glacier at the Larsbreen site during the Holocene. We have recorded present maximum rockwall retreat rates of 0.9 mm yr−1 at Nybyen, but as much as 6.7 mm yr−1 at

  4. From transpression to trnstension along the west Barents margin: the Forlandsundet basin, W. Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terje Osmundsen, Per; Redfield, Thomas F.; Ganerød, Morgan; Appleyard, Tyler; Peron-Pinvidic, Gwenn; Schaaf, Niklas

    2017-04-01

    The enigmatic and understudied Forlandsundet Basin in western Svalbard represents the outermost onshore Cenozoic basin along the NE Atlantic margin. It occupies a key location to understand the margińs tectono-sedimentary history as the margin switched from transpression to transtension in the late Paleogene. During Paleocene and Eocene time, the Barents segment of the NE Atlantic margin accommodated dextral shear between Svalbard and Greenland resulting in the formation of a transpressional orogen and associated foreland basin in western Spitsbergen. At anomaly 13 time (c. 33Ma), re-arrangement of the spreading system in the North Atlantic included formation of the obliquely ultraslow-spreading Knipovitch Ridge west of Spitsbergen. Ridge formation was preceded by a very dramatic reduction of crustal thickness west of Spitsbergen. The Forlandsundet Graben structure sits at the shoulder of a very narrow necking domain developed along parts of the sheared margin, where continental crust was thinned to a few kilometers or less over c. 100 km horizontal distance. The basin geometry is that of an asymmetric graben to half-graben filled with coarse continental-derived siliciclastics and finer-grained marine sediments. Parts of the outcropping stratigraphy represent continental-derived conglomeratic debris flows deposited into the marine environment. The basin is poorly dated but ages ranging from the Eocene to Early/Late Oligocene have been proposed by previous workers based on fossils and strontium isotope data. The basin is bound by normal/oblique faults that truncate the Paleocene-Eocene W. Spitsbergen fold and thrust belt, which may favor the Oligocene age. Both normal/oblique faults and contractional structures in the form of folds and thrusts are documented. Large-scale folds are oriented at an oblique to high angle compared with structures in the fold and thrust belt, but approximate the NW-SE maximum elongation trend as recorded by a number of oblique-slip and

  5. Gas emissions at the continental margin west off Svalbard: mapping, sampling, and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, H.; Römer, M.; Pape, T.; Bergès, B.; dos Santos Fereirra, C.; Boelmann, J.; Geprägs, P.; Tomczyk, M.; Nowald, N.; Dimmler, W.; Schroedter, L.; Glockzin, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-05-01

    We mapped, sampled, and quantified gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard during R/V Heincke cruise He-387 in late summer 2012. Hydroacoustic mapping revealed that gas emissions were not limited to a zone just above 396 m below sea level (m b.s.l.). Flares from this depth gained significant attention in the scientific community in recent years because they may be caused by bottom water-warming induced hydrate dissolution in the course of global warming and/or by recurring seasonal hydrate formation and decay. We found that gas emissions occurred widespread between about 80 and 415 m b.s.l. which indicates that hydrate dissolution might only be one of several triggers for active hydrocarbon seepage in that area. Gas emissions were remarkably intensive at the main ridge of the forlandet moraine complex in 80 to 90 m water depths, and may be related to thawing permafrost. Focused seafloor investigations were performed with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Cherokee". Geochemical analyses of gas bubbles sampled at about 240 m b.s.l. as well as at the 396 m gas emission sites revealed that the vent gas is primarily composed of methane (> 99.70%) of microbial origin (average δ13C = -55.7‰ V-PDB). Estimates of the regional gas bubble flux from the seafloor to the water column in the area of possible hydrate decomposition were achieved by combining flare mapping using multibeam and single beam echosounder data, bubble stream mapping using a ROV-mounted horizontally-looking sonar, and quantification of individual bubble streams using ROV imagery and bubble counting. We estimated that about 53 × 106 mol methane were annually emitted at the two areas and allow a large range of uncertainty due to our method (9 to 118 × 106 mol yr-1). These amounts, first, show that gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard were in the same order of magnitude as bubble emissions at other geological settings, and second, may be used to calibrate models

  6. Gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard: mapping, sampling, and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahling, H.; Römer, M.; Pape, T.; Bergès, B.; dos Santos Fereirra, C.; Boelmann, J.; Geprägs, P.; Tomczyk, M.; Nowald, N.; Dimmler, W.; Schroedter, L.; Glockzin, M.; Bohrmann, G.

    2014-11-01

    We mapped, sampled, and quantified gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard during R/V Heincke cruise He-387 in late summer 2012. Hydroacoustic mapping revealed that gas emissions were not limited to a zone just above 396 m water depth. Flares from this depth have gained significant attention in the scientific community in recent years because they may be caused by bottom-water warming-induced hydrate dissolution in the course of global warming and/or by recurring seasonal hydrate formation and decay. We found that gas emissions occurred widespread between about 80 and 415 m water depth, which indicates that hydrate dissolution might only be one of several triggers for active hydrocarbon seepage in that area. Gas emissions were remarkably intensive at the main ridge of the Forlandet moraine complex in 80 to 90 m water depths, and may be related to thawing permafrost. Focused seafloor investigations were performed with the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) "Cherokee". Geochemical analyses of gas bubbles sampled at about 240 m water depth as well as at the 396 m gas emission sites revealed that the vent gas is primarily composed of methane (> 99.70%) of microbial origin (average δ13C = -55.7‰ V-PDB). Estimates of the regional gas bubble flux from the seafloor to the water column in the area of possible hydrate decomposition were achieved by combining flare mapping using multibeam and single-beam echosounder data, bubble stream mapping using a ROV-mounted horizontally looking sonar, and quantification of individual bubble streams using ROV imagery and bubble counting. We estimated that about 53 × 106 mol methane were annually emitted at the two areas and allow for a large range of uncertainty due to our method (9 to 118 × 106 mol yr-1). First, these amounts show that gas emissions at the continental margin west of Svalbard were on the same order of magnitude as bubble emissions at other geological settings; second, they may be used to calibrate

  7. Predicting the fate of methane emanating from the seafloor using a marine two-phase gas model in one dimension (M2PG1) - Example from a known Arctic methane seep site offshore Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Pär; Ferré, Benedicte

    2017-04-01

    Transport of methane in seawater occurs by diffusion and advection in the dissolved phase, and/or as free gas in form of bubbles. The fate of methane in bubbles emitted from the seafloor depends on both bubble size and ambient conditions. Larger bubbles can transport methane higher into the water column, potentially reaching the atmosphere and contributing to greenhouse gas concentrations and impacts. Single bubble or plume models have been used to predict the fate of bubble mediated methane gas emissions. Here, we present a new process based two-phase (free and dissolved) gas model in one dimension, which has the capability to dynamically couple water column properties such as temperature, salinity and dissolved gases with the free gas species contained in bubbles. The marine two-phase gas model in one dimension (M2PG1) uses a spectrum of bubbles and an Eulerian formulation, discretized on a finite-volume grid. It employs the most up-to-date equations for solubility and compressibility of the included gases, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane. M2PG1 is an extension of PROBE (Omstedt, 2011), which facilitates atmospheric coupling and turbulence closures to realistically predict vertical mixing of all properties, including dissolved methane. This work presents the model's first application in an Arctic Ocean environment at the landward limit of the methane-hydrate stability zone west of Svalbard, where we observe substantial methane bubble release over longer time periods. The research is part of the Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE) and is supported by the Research Council of Norway through its Centres of Excellence funding scheme grant No. 223259 and UiT. Omstedt, A. (2011). Guide to process based modeling of lakes and coastal seas: Springer.

  8. Snowdrift modelling for the Vestfonna ice cap, north-eastern Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sauter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The redistribution of snow by drifting and blowing snow frequently leads to an inhomogeneous snow mass distribution on larger ice caps. Together with the thermodynamic impact of drifting snow sublimation on the lower atmospheric boundary layer, these processes affect the glacier surface mass balance. This study provides a first quantification of snowdrift and sublimation of blowing and drifting snow on the Vestfonna ice cap (Svalbard by using the specifically designed snow2blow snowdrift model. The model is forced by atmospheric fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model and resolves processes on a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is applied to the Vestfonna ice cap for the accumulation period 2008/2009. Comparison with radio-echo soundings and snow-pit measurements show that important local-scale processes are resolved by the model and the overall snow accumulation pattern is reproduced. The findings indicate that there is a significant redistribution of snow mass from the interior of the ice cap to the surrounding areas and ice slopes. Drifting snow sublimation of suspended snow is found to be stronger during spring. It is concluded that the redistribution process is strong enough to have a significant impact on glacier mass balance.

  9. Microbial community development on the surface of Hans and Werenskiold Glaciers (Svalbard, Arctic): a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Górniak, Dorota; Świątecki, Aleksander; Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Zdanowski, Marek K

    2015-09-01

    Surface ice and cryoconite holes of two types of polythermal Svalbard Glaciers (Hans Glacier--grounded tidewater glacier and Werenskiold Glacier-land-based valley glacier) were investigated in terms of chemical composition, microbial abundance and diversity. Gathered data served to describe supraglacial habitats and to compare microbe-environment interactions on those different type glaciers. Hans Glacier samples displayed elevated nutrient levels (DOC, nitrogen and seston) compared to Werenskiold Glacier. Adjacent tundra formations, bird nesting sites and marine aerosol were candidates for allochtonic enrichment sources. Microbial numbers were comparable on both glaciers, with surface ice containing cells in the range of 10(4) mL(-1) and cryoconite sediment 10(8) g(-1) dry weight. Denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis band-based clustering revealed differences between glaciers in terms of dominant bacterial taxa structure. Microbial community on Werenskiold Glacier benefited from the snow-released substances. On Hans Glacier, this effect was not as pronounced, affecting mainly the photoautotrophs. Over-fertilization of Hans Glacier surface was proposed as the major factor, desensitizing the microbial community to the snow melt event. Nitrogen emerged as a limiting factor in surface ice habitats, especially to Eukaryotic algae.

  10. Sr isotopic variations in Upper Proterozoic carbonates from Svalbard and East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Louis A.; Keto, Lisette S.; Jacobsen, Stein B.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Swett, Keene

    1989-01-01

    Precambrian Sr isotope stratigraphy was investigated by determining variations in Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios in the Upper Proterozoic carbonate succession from Svalbard and East Greenland. Data from this study were combined with those from literature to construct a curve of Sr-87/Sr-86 versus time for Upper Proterozoic seawater. The curve for the Upper Riphean-Vandian showed that the isotopic composition of Sr in seawater was low (Delta Sr-87 of about -500) between 900 and 650 Ma but rose rapidly to about +30 by 600 Ma (this range of long-term variation exceeds the total Phanerozoic variation). The very low values of Delta Sr-87 inferred for the Riphean require that, for this time, the submarine hydrothermal water flux was a large fraction of the Sr input to the oceans, while the rise in Delta Sr-87 in the Upper Proterozoic seawater reflects both a change in the ratio of hydrothermal and continental fluxes of Sr to the oceans, and a change in the isotopic composition of Sr from continental sources.

  11. Characteristics of Temperature and Humidity Inversions and Low-Level Jets over Svalbard Fjords in Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Vihma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature and specific humidity inversions and low-level jets were studied over two Svalbard fjords, Isfjorden and Kongsfjorden, applying three tethersonde systems. Tethersonde operation practices notably affected observations on inversion and jet properties. The inversion strength and depth were strongly affected by weather conditions at the 850 hPa level. Strong inversions were deep with a highly elevated base, and the strongest ones occurred in warm air mass. Unexpectedly, downward longwave radiation measured at the sounding site did not correlate with the inversion properties. Temperature inversions had lower base and top heights than humidity inversions, the former due to surface cooling and the latter due to adiabatic cooling with height. Most low-level jets were related to katabatic winds. Over the ice-covered Kongsfjorden, jets were lifted above a cold-air pool on the fjord; the jet core was located highest when the snow surface was coldest. At the ice-free Isfjorden, jets were located lower.

  12. Modelling the controls on the front position of a tidewater glacier in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Jaime; Navarro, Francisco J.; Lapazaran, Javier J.; Welty, Ethan; Puczko, Darek; Finkelnburg, Roman

    2017-04-01

    Calving is an important mass-loss process at ice sheet and marine-terminating glacier margins, but identifying and quantifying its principal driving mechanisms remains challenging. Hansbreen is a grounded tidewater glacier in southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, with a rich history of field and remote sensing observations. The available data make this glacier suitable for evaluating mechanisms and controls on calving, some of which are considered in this paper. We use a full-Stokes thermomechanical 2D flow model (Elmer/Ice), paired with a crevasse-depth calving criterion, to estimate Hansbreen’s front position at a weekly time resolution. The basal sliding coefficient is re-calibrated every four weeks by solving an inverse model. We investigate the possible role of backpressure at the front (a function of ice mélange concentration) and the depth of water filling crevasses by examining the model’s ability to reproduce the observed seasonal cycles of terminus advance and retreat. Our results suggest that the ice-mélange pressure plays an important role in the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice front, and that the crevasse-depth calving criterion, when driven by modelled surface meltwater, closely replicates observed variations in terminus position. These results suggest that tidewater glacier behavior is influenced by both oceanic and atmospheric processes, and that neither of them should be ignored.

  13.  Winter time burst of CO2 from the High Arctic soils of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Thomas; Hansen, Birger; Elberling, Bo

    of relatively few measurements which appear to give small and constant emission rates. Further, most studies of the processes behind winter time emission of CO2 conclude that the flux during this time of year can be linked to the respiratory release of CO2 from soil micro organisms, which is temperature...... the winter at a high arctic location in Svalbard (78°N). Measurements were conducted in the field during the winter season of 2004-2005 and show reliable and continuous measurements of CO2 fluxes down to a level of 0.01 ìmol m-2 s-1 and good correspondence with other types of soil chambers. Our results...... indicate that a substantial part of the annual CO2 emission from the ecosystem occur during the freeze in period, where more CO2 is emitted from the soil over a few weeks than the accumulated flux for the rest of the winter. During the coldest part of the...

  14. Viral dynamics in cryoconite holes on a high Arctic glacier (Svalbard)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesio, Alexandre M.; Mindl, Birgit; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Hodson, Andrew J.; Sattler, Birgit

    2007-12-01

    Viruses are an abundant and dynamic constituent of microbial communities in aquatic ecosystems. In this study we characterized the abundance of viruses associated first with the bottom sediment and overlying water of cryoconite holes and second with shallow ice cores of two different glaciers in Svalbard. Viral abundances were ca. 10-100 times lower than the average for marine and freshwater ecosystems in temperate regions. Virus to bacterium ratios (VBR) (average > 10, range between 0.7 and 74 in the water and ice samples) and a strong positive correlation between viral and bacterial abundance (r = 0.93, p viruses most probably play an important role in controlling bacterial mortality and hence biogeochemical cycling on glaciers. Samples taken along a transect from the glacier ablation area to proglacial ponds in its forefield showed that viral abundance increased in response to a higher host availability, which in turn probably resulted from an increase in temperature and higher mineral levels in the ponds. In a transplantation experiment, viruses from cryoconite holes were incubated with a bacterial community from a proglacial lake. Results from the transplantation experiment showed that viruses from cryoconite holes were able to infect bacteria from proglacial lakes and thus influence biogeochemical cycles across different glacial ecosystems. Our data therefore suggest that viruses in cryoconite holes may be able to infect a broad range of bacterial species.

  15. Metagenomics of the Svalbard reindeer rumen microbiome reveals abundance of polysaccharide utilization loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip B Pope

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass remains a largely untapped source of renewable energy predominantly due to its recalcitrance and an incomplete understanding of how this is overcome in nature. We present here a compositional and comparative analysis of metagenomic data pertaining to a natural biomass-converting ecosystem adapted to austere arctic nutritional conditions, namely the rumen microbiome of Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. Community analysis showed that deeply-branched cellulolytic lineages affiliated to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes are dominant, whilst sequence binning methods facilitated the assemblage of metagenomic sequence for a dominant and novel Bacteroidales clade (SRM-1. Analysis of unassembled metagenomic sequence as well as metabolic reconstruction of SRM-1 revealed the presence of multiple polysaccharide utilization loci-like systems (PULs as well as members of more than 20 glycoside hydrolase and other carbohydrate-active enzyme families targeting various polysaccharides including cellulose, xylan and pectin. Functional screening of cloned metagenome fragments revealed high cellulolytic activity and an abundance of PULs that are rich in endoglucanases (GH5 but devoid of other common enzymes thought to be involved in cellulose degradation. Combining these results with known and partly re-evaluated metagenomic data strongly indicates that much like the human distal gut, the digestive system of herbivores harbours high numbers of deeply branched and as-yet uncultured members of the Bacteroidetes that depend on PUL-like systems for plant biomass degradation.

  16. Micromorphological difference between glacial and glaciofluvial quartz grain, evidence from Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbcová, Klára

    2017-04-01

    Micromorphology of glaciofluvial sediments were only partially shown by Mahaney et al. (2001). This paper deals with the main diagnostic textures of glaciofluvial sediments and changes of their micromorphology caused fluvial transport. All samples were collected in Svalbard in August 2012. Two glacial samples and six glaciofluvial samples were taken near the glacier Bertilbreen and one glacial sample and seven glaciofluvial samples were taken near the glacier Hørbyebreen. Samples were prepared according to the Mahaney (2002) and examined under electron microscope. The correlation analyses was used to set the main glaciofluvial microtextures. Similarity of the samples was tested by one-way ANOVA by F-test. Increasing numbers of V-shaped pits, rounded grains, meandering ridges and microblocks are typical for characteristic microtextures of glaciofluvial grains which had greater rate of fluvial transport. But the grains mainly transported by glacier had a greater percentage occurence of subangular grains, straight steps, straight and curved grooves, adhering particles, pitting and V-shaped etch pits. The fastest change in variability was set during the first kilometre of fluvial transport. The study was funded by the Grant Agency of Charles University (GAUK 1314214). Keywords: exoscopy, quartz grains micromorphology, glaciofluvial sediments References: MAHANEY, W. C. (2002): Atlas of sand grain surface textures and applications. Oxford University Press, USA, 237 s. MAHANEY, W. C., STEWART A., KALM, V. (2001): Quantification of SEM microtextures useful in sedimentary environmental discrimination. Boreas, 30, s. 165 - 171.

  17. Fluctuations of the Vestfonna ice margin at Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, after the last glacial maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Four radiocarbon datings of shells of Mya truncata and Saxicava arctica from the till of the end-moraine of the advance of Vestfonna against Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, between AD 1861 and 1899, gave ages between 8300 BP and 8700 BP. These are from the time when the ice margin had retreated from Brageneset after the last glaciation. An additional age of 7900 BP obtained for Astarteelliptica, also from the end-moraine, shows that the shells in the till represent a mixed death assemblage, as also shown by the composition of the molluscan fauna in general. By comparing the altitudes of the two pumice levels with their altitudes in other areas of Svalbard a curve for the relative uplift of Brageneset could be constructed. According to this curve the highest point of Brageneset at 46.5 m emerged at about 9200 BP, which gives a minimum age for the general deglaciation, an age in agreement with dates obtained from other parts of Nordaustlandet.

  18. Triassic Sequence Geological Development of the Arctic with focus on Svalbard and the Barents Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerk, Atle

    1998-12-31

    Triassic rocks are of great interest for exploration in Arctic areas as they have proved to include both good hydrocarbon source rocks and potential hydrogen reservoir rocks. In this thesis, the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Arctic Triassic successions are studied within a sequence stratigraphical framework. Inter-regional comparisons throughout the Arctic are based on comparisons of transgressive-regressive sequences. Improved dating of the studied sequences, and the recognition and correlation of sequence boundaries of second and third order, facilitate interpretation of facies distribution and the geological development both within and between the studied areas. Main emphasis is given to the Triassic succession of Svalbard and the Barents Shelf, which through this study is integrated within a circum-Arctic sequence stratigraphical framework. Good correspondence of the Triassic sequence boundaries between the different Arctic areas indicate that they are mainly controlled by eustacy, while decreasing correspondence of the sequence boundaries in the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods indicate that local and large scale tectonism becomes progressively more dominant in the circum-Arctic Realm through the Mesozoic Era. These hypotheses are further discussed. 701 refs., 110 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Diversity and distribution of fungal communities in the marine sediments of Kongsfjorden, Svalbard (High Arctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Fei Wang, Neng; Qin Zhang, Yu; Yu Liu, Hong; Yan Yu, Li

    2015-10-01

    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities in eight marine sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic) using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Sedimentary fungal communities showed high diversity with 42,219 reads belonging to 113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Of these OTUs, 62 belonged to the Ascomycota, 26 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Chytridiomycota, 1 to Zygomycota, 1 to Glomeromycota, and 21 to unknown fungi. The major known orders included Hypocreales and Saccharomycetales. The common fungal genera were Pichia, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Malassezia. Interestingly, most fungi occurring in these Arctic sediments may originate from the terrestrial habitats and different basins in Kongsfjorden (i.e., inner basin, central basin, and outer basin) harbor different sedimentary fungal communities. These results suggest the existence of diverse fungal communities in the Arctic marine sediments, which may serve as a useful community model for further ecological and evolutionary study of fungi in the Arctic.

  20. Modeling the Controls on the Front Position of a Tidewater Glacier in Svalbard

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    Jaime Otero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Calving is an important mass-loss process at ice sheet and marine-terminating glacier margins, but identifying and quantifying its principal driving mechanisms remains challenging. Hansbreen is a grounded tidewater glacier in southern Spitsbergen, Svalbard, with a rich history of field and remote sensing observations. The available data make this glacier suitable for evaluating mechanisms and controls on calving, some of which are considered in this paper. We use a full-Stokes thermomechanical 2D flow model (Elmer/Ice, paired with a crevasse-depth calving criterion, to estimate Hansbreen's front position at a weekly time resolution. The basal sliding coefficient is re-calibrated every 4 weeks by solving an inverse model. We investigate the possible role of backpressure at the front (a function of ice mélange concentration and the depth of water filling crevasses by examining the model's ability to reproduce the observed seasonal cycles of terminus advance and retreat. Our results suggest that the ice-mélange pressure plays an important role in the seasonal advance and retreat of the ice front, and that the crevasse-depth calving criterion, when driven by modeled surface meltwater, closely replicates observed variations in terminus position. These results suggest that tidewater glacier behavior is influenced by both oceanic and atmospheric processes, and that neither of them should be ignored.

  1. Cold-seep ostracods from the western Svalbard margin: direct palaeo-indicator for methane seepage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Sztybor, Kamila; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Okahashi, Hisayo; Sato, Runa; Tanaka, Hayato

    2018-01-01

    Despite their high abundance and diversity, microfossil taxa adapted to a particular chemosynthetic environment have rarely been studied and are therefore poorly known. Here we report on an ostracod species, Rosaliella svalbardensis gen. et sp. nov., from a cold methane seep site at the western Svalbard margin, Fram Strait. The new species shows a distinct morphology, different from other eucytherurine ostracod genera. It has a marked similarity to Xylocythere, an ostracod genus known from chemosynthetic environments of wood falls and hydrothermal vents. Rosaliella svalbardensis is probably an endemic species or genus linked to methane seeps. We speculate that the surface ornamentation of pore clusters, secondary reticulation, and pit clusters may be related to ectosymbiosis with chemoautotrophic bacteria. This new discovery of specialized microfossil taxa is important because they can be used as an indicator species for past and present seep environments (http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6075FF30-29D5-4DAB-9141-AE722CD3A69B" target="_blank">http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6075FF30-29D5-4DAB-9141-AE722CD3A69B).

  2. Demographic population structure and fungal associations of plants colonizing High Arctic glacier forelands, Petuniabukta, Svalbard

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    Jakub Těšitel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in Arctic glacier forelands has been described as unidirectional, non-replacement succession characterized by the gradual establishment of species typical for mature tundra with no species turnover. Our study focused on two early colonizers of High Arctic glacier forelands: Saxifraga oppositifolia (Saxifragaceae and Braya purpurascens (Brassicaceae. While the first species is a common generalist also found in mature old growth tundra communities, the second specializes on disturbed substrate. The demographic population structures of the two study species were investigated along four glacier forelands in Petuniabukta, north Billefjorden, in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Young plants of both species occurred exclusively on young substrate, implying that soil conditions are favourable for establishment only before soil crusts develop. We show that while S. oppositifolia persists from pioneer successional stages and is characterized by increased size and flowering, B. purpurascens specializes on disturbed young substrate and does not follow the typical unidirectional, non-replacement succession pattern. Plants at two of the forelands were examined for the presence of root-associated fungi. Fungal genus Olpidium (Fungus incertae sedis was found along a whole successional gradient in one of the forelands.

  3. Ground clutter cancellation in incoherent radars: solutions for EISCAT Svalbard radar

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    T. Turunen

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Incoherent scatter radars measure ionosphere parameters using modified Thomson scatter from free electrons in the target (see e.g. Hagfors, 1997. The integrated cross section of the ionospheric scatterers is extremely small and the measurements can easily be disturbed by signals returned by unwanted targets. Ground clutter signals, entering via the antenna side lobes, can render measurements at the nearest target ranges totally impossible. The EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR, which started measurements in 1996, suffers from severe ground clutter and the ionosphere cannot be measured in any simple manner at ranges less than about 120–150 km, depending on the modulation employed. If the target and clutter signals have different, and clearly identifiable, properties then, in principle, there are always ways to eliminate the clutter. In incoherent scatter measurements, differences in the coherence times of the wanted and unwanted signals can be used for clutter cancellation. The clutter cancellation must be applied to all modulations, usually alternating codes in modern experiments, used for shorter ranges. Excellent results have been obtained at the ESR using a simple pulse-to-pulse clutter subtraction method, but there are also other possibilities.Key words: Radio science (ionospheric physics; signal processing; instruments and techniques

  4. Phase calibration of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar interferometer using optical satellite signatures

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    J. M. Sullivan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between natural ion-line enhancements in radar spectra and auroral activity has been the subject of recent studies but conclusions have been limited by the spatial and temporal resolution previously available. The next challenge is to use shorter sub-second integration times in combination with interferometric programmes to resolve spatial structure within the main radar beam, and so relate enhanced filaments to individual auroral rays. This paper presents initial studies of a technique, using optical and spectral satellite signatures, to calibrate the received phase of a signal with the position of the scattering source along the interferometric baseline of the EISCAT Svalbard Radar. It is shown that a consistent relationship can be found only if the satellite passage through the phase fringes is adjusted from the passage predicted by optical tracking. This required adjustment is interpreted as being due to the vector between the theoretical focusing points of the two antennae, i.e. the true radar baseline, differing from the baseline obtained by survey between the antenna foot points. A method to obtain a measurement of the true interferometric baseline using multiple satellite passes is outlined.

  5. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

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    Vladimir V. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  6. Warming of the West Spitsbergen Current and sea ice north of Svalbard

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    Jan Piechura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a grant from the Fifth European Union Frame-work Programme project ASOF-N, contract EVK2-CT-200200139, the Sixth Frame-work Programme DAMOCLES, contract 018509GOCE, and grants from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, decisions 61/N-IPY/2007/0 and 175/IPY/2007/01.AbstractAccording to the results of recent research, besides the atmospheric circulation, it is heat transport to the Arctic Ocean (AO by ocean currents, the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC in particular, that is playing a significant role in the process of Arctic warming. Data collected by the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences (IO PAS, in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas, and Fram Strait during the last 20 years reveal considerable changes in the amount of heat transported by the WSC into the Arctic Ocean. An increase in Atlantic Water (AW temperature and the intensification of heat transport were observed in 2004-06; after this period, both parameters decreased. The aim of this study was to find out whether the fluctuations in heat input by the WSC have influenced the sea-ice distribution around Svalbard. In fact they do, but oceanic heat transport should nonetheless be regarded as just one of many processes influencing sea-ice behaviour.

  7. Disentangling the coupling between sea ice and tundra productivity in Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Fauria, Marc; Karlsen, Stein Rune; Forbes, Bruce C

    2017-08-17

    The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice poses urgent questions concerning its ecological effects, such as on tundra terrestrial productivity. However, reported sea ice/terrestrial productivity linkages have seldom been constrained, and the mechanism governing them remains elusive, with a diversity of spatial scales and metrics proposed, at times in contradiction to each other. In this study, we use spatially explicit remotely sensed sea ice concentration and high-resolution terrestrial productivity estimates (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) across the Svalbard Archipelago to describe local/sub-regional and large-scale components of sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling. Whereas the local/sub-regional component is attributed to sea breeze (cold air advection from ice-covered ocean onto adjacent land during the growing season), the large-scale component might reflect co-variability of sea ice and tundra productivity due to a common forcing, such as large-scale atmospheric circulation (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Our study clarifies the range of mechanisms in sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling, allowing the generation of testable hypotheses about its past, present, and future dynamics across the Arctic.

  8. Pregnancy outcome in Norway after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irgens, L.M.; Lie, R.T.; Ulstein, M.; Skeie Jensen, T.; Skjaerven, R.; Sivertsen, F.; Reitan, J.B.; Strand, F.; Strand, T. (Bergen Univ. (NO)); Egil Skjeldestad, F. (Trondheim, Univ. (NO))

    1991-01-01

    Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 2.4% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 3% after the accident. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed.

  9. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  10. Energy carriers in Norway; Energibaerere i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Within the Norwegian energy consumption, electricity is by far the most dominant energy carrier. In the last thirty years electricity has had an increased significance, while oil has been reduce. A trend that is likely to continue. Energy politics has among others these objectives: environment, reliability of supply and effective energy supply. These objectives are somewhat contradictory. In agreement with the environmental politic phasing out oil leads to a reduction in greenhouse gases. However this politic will have a local impact only effecting Norway, in a larger European connection it might lead to a larger net emission of CO{sub 2}. A political intervention in the energy market might also lead to a reduction in the energy markets effectiveness and flexibility. This report addresses this problem: If a total phase out of the stationary oil consumption is conducted, what energy carriers will this consumption convert to?

  11. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  12. TSP-1 secreted by bone marrow stromal cells contributes to retinal ganglion cell neurite outgrowth and survival.

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    Keming Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs are pluripotent and thereby a potential candidate for cell replacement therapy for central nervous system degenerative disorders and traumatic injury. However, the mechanism of their differentiation and effect on neural tissues has not been fully elucidated. This study evaluates the effect of BMSCs on neural cell growth and survival in a retinal ganglion cell (RGCs model by assessing the effect of changes in the expression of a BMSC-secreted protein, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1, as a putative mechanistic agent acting on RGCs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The effect of co-culturing BMSCs and RGCs in vitro was evaluated by measuring the following parameters: neurite outgrowth, RGC survival, BMSC neural-like differentiation, and the effect of TSP-1 on both cell lines under basal secretion conditions and when TSP-1 expression was inhibited. Our data show that BMSCs improved RGC survival and neurite outgrowth. Synaptophysin, MAP-2, and TGF-beta expression are up-regulated in RGCs co-cultured with BMSCs. Interestingly, the BMSCs progressively displayed neural-like morphology over the seven-day study period. Restriction display polymerase chain reaction (RD-PCR was performed to screen for differentially expressed genes in BMSCs cultured alone or co-cultured with RGCs. TSP-1, a multifactorial extracellular matrix protein, is critically important in the formation of neural connections during development, so its function in our co-culture model was investigated by small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection. When TSP-1 expression was decreased with siRNA silencing, BMSCs had no impact on RGC survival, but reduced neurite outgrowth and decreased expression of synaptophysin, MAP-2 and TGF-beta in RGCs. Furthermore, the number of BMSCs with neural-like characteristics was significantly decreased by more than two-fold using siRNA silencing. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the TSP-1 signaling pathway might have an important

  13. Evaluation of HTLV-1 HBZ and proviral load, together with host IFN λ3, in pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jaberi, Najmeh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Bustani, Reza; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Milani, Saeideh; Tarokhian, Hanieh; Norouzi, Mehdi

    2017-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with two progressive diseases: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Although HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) has been introduced as a risk factor for these diseases' progression, it is not sufficient on its own to yield an accurate estimation of the outcome of the infection. In the present study, PVL and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) expression level as viral factors, and IFN λ3 as a host factor, were evaluated in HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). During 2014-2015, 12 HAM/TSP patients and 18 ACs who had been referred to the HTLV-1 Clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and the DNA and mRNA were extracted for quantification of HBZ, IFN λ3 expression, and PVL using real-time PCR (TaqMan method). Although the PVL was higher in the HAM/TSP group, with a 94% confidence interval, there were no considerable differences in terms of HBZ mRNA and PVL between ACs and HAM patients. IFN λ3 expression in the HAM/TSP group was significantly higher than in the ACs (P = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the expression level of IFN λ3 in HTLV-1 positive patients. The immune response against HTLV-1 viral antigens and virulent factors will therefore further refine our knowledge of interactions between the virus and host in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-related disorders. The virus PVL and the host IFN λ3 can be used as pathogenic factors of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of HAM/TSP manifestation. J. Med. Virol. 89:1102-1107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diabetes: cost of illness in Norway

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    Jenssen Trond

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus places a considerable burden on patients in terms of morbidity and mortality and on society in terms of costs. Costs related to diabetes are expected to increase due to increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the health care costs attributable to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Norway in 2005. Methods Data on inpatient hospital services, outpatient clinic visits, physician services, drugs, medical equipment, nutrition guidance, physiotherapy, acupuncture, foot therapy and indirect costs were collected from national registers and responses to a survey of 584 patients with diabetes. The study was performed with a prevalence approach. Uncertainty was explored by means of bootstrapping. Results When hospital stays with diabetes as a secondary diagnosis were excluded, the total costs were €293 million, which represents about 1.4% of the total health care expenditure. Pharmaceuticals accounted for €95 million (32%, disability pensions €48 million (16%, medical devices €40 million (14% and hospital admissions €21 million (7%. Patient expenditures for acupuncture, physiotherapy and foot therapy were many times higher than expenditure for nutritional guidance. Indirect costs (lost production from job absenteeism accounted for €70.1 million (24% of the €293 million and included sick leave (€16.7 million, disability support and disability pensions (€48.2 million and other indirect costs (€5.3 million. If all diabetes related hospital stays are included (primary- and secondary diagnosis total costs amounts to €535 million, about 2.6% of the total health care expenditure in Norway. Conclusions Diabetes represents a considerable burden to society in terms of health care costs and productivity losses.

  15. Immunogenetics and the Pathological Mechanisms of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1- (HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineki Saito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a replication-competent human retrovirus associated with two distinct types of disease only in a minority of infected individuals: the malignancy known as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and a chronic inflammatory central nervous system disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although the factors that cause these different manifestations of HTLV-1 infection are not fully understood, accumulating evidence suggests that complex virus-host interactions play an important role in determining the risk of HAM/TSP. This review focuses on the role of the immune response in controlling or limiting viral persistence in HAM/TSP patients, and the reason why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP whereas the majority remains asymptomatic carriers of the virus.

  16. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  17. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988–2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988–2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  18. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn M Tombre

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size. The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  19. Socioeconomic Differences in Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Pollution (TSP in Bangladeshi Households with Children: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey

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    Geoffrey T. Fong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children’s exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children’s health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children’s health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94 or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07 and being a smoker (OR = 0.24. The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64, attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94, being a smoker (OR = 0.40 and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25. The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children’s health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children’s health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  20. Cytoplasmic Localization of HTLV-1 HBZ Protein: A Biomarker of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratella, Marco; Forlani, Greta; Raval, Goutham U; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Gout, Olivier; Gessain, Antoine; Tosi, Giovanna; Accolla, Roberto S

    2017-01-01

    HTLV-1 is the causative agent of a severe form of adult T cell leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL), and of a chronic progressive neuromyelopathy designated HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Two important HTLV-1-encoded proteins, Tax-1 and HBZ, play crucial roles in the generation and maintenance of the oncogenic process. Less information is instead available on the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to HAM/TSP. More importantly, no single specific biomarker has been described that unambiguously define the status of HAM/TSP. Here we report for the first time the finding that HBZ, described until now as an exclusive nuclear protein both in chronically infected and in ATL cells, is instead exclusively localized in the cytoplasm of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients suffering of HAM/TSP. Interestingly, at the single cell level, HBZ and Tax-1 proteins are never found co-expressed in the same cell, suggesting the existence of mechanisms of expression uncoupling of these two important HTLV-1 viral products in HAM/TSP patients. Cells expressing cytoplasmic HBZ were almost exclusively found in the CD4+ T cell compartment that was not, at least in a representative HAM/TSP patient, expressing the CD25 marker. Less than 1 percent CD8+ T cells were fond positive for HBZ, while B cells and NK cells were found negative for HBZ in HAM/TSP patients. Our results identify the cytoplasmic localization of HBZ in HAM/TSP patient as a possible biomarker of this rather neglected tropical disease, and raise important hypotheses on the role of HBZ in the pathogenesis of the neuromyelopathy associated to HTLV-1 infection.

  1. Socioeconomic differences in exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) in Bangladeshi households with children: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hitchman, Sara C; Driezen, Pete; Nargis, Nigar; Quah, Anne C K; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed the pattern of exposure to tobacco smoke pollution (TSP; also known as, secondhand smoke) in Bangladeshi households with children and examined the variations in household smoking restrictions and perception of risk for children's exposure to TSP by socioeconomic status. We interviewed 1,947 respondents from Bangladeshi households with children from the first wave (2009) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Bangladesh Survey. 43.5% of the respondents had complete smoking restrictions at home and 39.7% were very or extremely concerned about TSP risk to children's health. Participants with lower level of education were significantly less likely to be concerned about the risk of TSP exposure to children's health and less likely to adopt complete smoking restrictions at home. Logistic regression revealed that the predictors of concern for TSP exposure risk were educational attainment of 1 to 8 years (OR = 1.94) or 9 years or more (OR = 4.07) and being a smoker (OR = 0.24). The predictors of having complete household smoking restrictions were: urban residence (OR = 1.64), attaining education of 9 years or more (OR = 1.94), being a smoker (OR = 0.40) and being concerned about TSP exposure risk to children (OR = 3.25). The findings show that a high proportion of adults with children at home smoke tobacco at home and their perceptions of risk about TSP exposure to children's health were low. These behaviours were more prevalent among rural smokers who were illiterate. There is a need for targeted intervention, customized for low educated public, on TSP risk to children's health and tobacco control policy with specific focus on smoke-free home.

  2. TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements in the vicinity of a cement plant and their source apportionments using chemical mass balance model in Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatkin, Sinan; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2010-08-01

    Total suspended particles mass concentrations (TSP) and bulk depositions of particulate matter (PM depositions) were measured around a cement plant located in the multi-impacted area to assess the affect of the plant on the ambient air in the vicinity in Izmir, Turkey. TSP samples were collected five times a month whereas PM depositions were sampled monthly at four sites between August 2003 and January 2004. The concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in TSP and PM depositions (except Cu) were reported. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model with local source profiles was run in order to calculate the source contributions of the PM sources to the concentrations of TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements. Traffic was found to be the major contributor to TSP whereas PM depositions dominantly result from area sources including several stone quarries, concrete plants, lime kilns, and asphalt plants in the region. CMB model results indicate that the cement plant is a significant contributor to TSP, PM depositions, and trace elements, particularly Cd.

  3. T cell receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in CD4 + T cells from HAM/TSP individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tomazini Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. CD4+ T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3?, lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK, vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1, and zeta-chain (TCR associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP70 on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT. We observed that CD3?, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4+ T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC. Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3?, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4+ T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4+ T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP.

  4. T cell receptor signaling pathway is overexpressed in CD4(+) T cells from HAM/TSP individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Rodrigues, Evandra Strazza; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a human retrovirus related to the chronic neuroinflammatory disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). CD4(+) T cells activation appears to play a key role on HTLV-1 infection. Here we investigated the expression of genes associated to T cell activation CD3e molecule, epsilon (CD3ɛ), lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK), vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (VAV1), and zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP70) on T lymphocytes of HTLV-1-infected individuals and compared to healthy uninfected individuals (CT). We observed that CD3ɛ, LCK, ZAP70, and VAV1 gene expression were increased in CD4(+) T cells from HAM/TSP group compared to HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients (HAC). Moreover, ZAP70 and VAV1 were also upregulated in HAM/TSP compared to CT group. We detected a positive correlation among all these genes. We also observed that CD3ɛ, LCK, and VAV1 genes had a positive correlation with the proviral load (PVL) and Tax expression. These results suggest that PVL and Tax protein could drive CD3ɛ, LCK, and VAV1 gene expression in CD4(+) T cells, and these genes function on a synchronized way on the CD4(+) T cell activation. The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying T cell receptor signaling pathway is of considerable interest and might lead to new insights into the mechanism of HAM/TSP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation between TSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels and glioma microvascular density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Duanyun; Han, Yun; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Hongbo; Zhang, Quanzhong; Xu, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary tumor in the central nervous system and are characterized by abundant capillary angiogenesis. It is important to study the underlying molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis in order to aid the identification of potential therapeutic targets. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression levels of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) in gliomas, and determine their relationships with angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical methods were used to detect TSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels and to assess microvascular density (MVD) in 99 glioma tissue samples of various grades. The total positive expression rates of TSP-1 and PPAR-γ were 78.4 and 94.1% in low-grade gliomas and 45.8 and 39.6% in high-grade gliomas. These values suggest that their expression negatively correlated with tumor grade. However, TGF-β expression positively correlated with tumor grade; the total positive expression rate of TGF-β in high-grade gliomas (93.8%) was significantly increased compared with that in low-grade gliomas (43.1%). The MVD in the low-grade group was 28±7.2 vessels/field, which was significantly lower than in the high-grade group (45±6.2 vessels/field). TSP-1 and PPAR-γ expression levels were negatively correlated with MVD (PTSP-1, TGF-β and PPAR-γ expression levels in gliomas are correlated with MVD, which suggests that these proteins may be involved in the regulation of glioma angiogenesis.

  6. Unchanging Incidence of Hip Fracture in Southeastern Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polesie, Sam; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Bjørgul, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain trends in the incidence of hip fracture in southeastern Norway by comparing the hip fracture incidence for the years 2008 to 2010 to that of a study from 1998...

  7. Exposure to organic solvents among car painters in Bergen, Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moen, B E; Hollund, B E

    2000-01-01

    .... This study evaluated some of the effects of these regulations, by measuring the levels of exposure to organic solvents in six car-painting garages and relating them to the limit values in Norway...

  8. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  9. Brief Communication: Trends in sea ice extent north of Svalbard and its impact on cold air outbreaks as observed in spring 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that was typically ice-covered in the last decades. The change in ice cover can strongly influence local temperature conditions. Dropsonde measurements from March 2013 show that the unusual ice conditions generate extreme convective boundary layer heights that are larger than the regional values reported in previous studies.

  10. Rancang Bangun Dan Pengujian Alat Penjatah (Metering Device Tipe Edge Cell Untuk Penyaluran Pupuk Butiran Urea, TSP dan KCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafriandi Syafriandi

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. This study aims to design a fertilizer granules allotment (metering device type of cell edge that can control the fertilizer output by regulating the rotational speed of the motor is assembled with electronic circuits and test the prototypes performance using a metering device with 3 types of fertilizers ie Urea, TSP and KCl. Research tools are designed only able to drain urea and TSP , while KCL fertilizer have trouble escaping from the gap hopper . The average amount of urea metering device 1 output to the voltage 12.16 and 20 volts, respectively for 81.33 g /min, 130.33 g/min and 169.00 g/min. In metering device 2 each fertilizer output voltage feed all values in a row at 75,67 g/min, 129.00 g/min and 168.20 g/min. The average number of TSP output to metering device 1 at the 12.16 and 20 volts, respectively for 121.20 g/min, 181.53 g/min and 244.67 g/min. In metering device 2 each fertilizer output voltage feed all values in a row of 119.27 g/min, 180.53 g/min and 243.73 g/min.

  11. THE ABERRANT PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION PATTERN OF THE ANTI - ANGIOGENIC TSP1 GENE IN EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CARCINOMA: AN INDIAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The promoter hypermethylation patterns of Thrombospodin - 1 gene in 50 EOC patients were studied and the methylation pattern was correlated with various clinic pathological parameters. METHODS: The promoter hypermethylation pattern of the TSP - 1 gene was assessed using nested PCR and Methylation specific PCR. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All the available data was statistically analyzed using the Chi square test or Fisher Exact Test on the SPSS software version 22.0 and a value <0.0 5 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Forty of the fifty ovarian carcinoma samples reported positive for methylation corresponding to a methylation frequency of 80%. A methylation frequency of 89.2%, 83.3% and 42.8% was observed in malignant , Low malignant potential (borderline and benign sample cohorts. CONCLUSION: From the results drawn from this study, it clearly shows that the anti angiogenic protein TSP - 1 is extensively hypermethylated in ovarian carcinoma and that it accumulates over t he progression of the disease from benign to malignant. As previous reports suggest that there is no evidence of mutation of this gene, promoter hypermethylation may be a crucial factor for the down regulation of the gene. Further by clubbing together the promoter hypermethylation pattern of TSP - 1 gene with hypermethylation patterns of other TSG may provide a better insight into the application of using methylation profiles of TSG as a biomarker in the detection of ovarian carcinoma.

  12. Effects of TSP-1-696 C/T polymorphism on bladder cancer susceptibility and clinicopathologic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jinbao; Tao, Jun; Yang, Xiao; Li, Pengchao; Yang, Xuejian; Qin, Chao; Cao, Qiang; Cai, Hongzhou; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Min; Lu, Qiang; Yin, Changjun

    2014-06-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a glycoprotein that plays a major role in bladder cancer. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of the TSP-1 -696 C/T polymorphism (rs2664139) and the clinical features of bladder cancer. TaqMan assay was used to determine the genotype among the 609 cases and 670 controls in a Chinese population. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between the polymorphism and bladder cancer risk. Compared with the CT/TT genotypes, the CC genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.01-2.04), which was more prominent among the male participants (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.20-2.76). The polymorphism was associated with a higher risk of developing grade 3 (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.00-3.36), multiple-tumor (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.08-3.02), and large-tumor (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.22-3.10) bladder cancers. These observations suggest that the TSP-1 -696 C/T polymorphism may contribute to bladder cancer susceptibility in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Small Hydro Power Plants in a given region in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Masoliver Verdaguer, Anna Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, the hydropower development in Norway is more or less restricted to small scale installations without reservoirs as they are regarded as an environmentally solution. This thesis provides an overview of the hydropower potential of nine rivers in Sør-Trøndelag, a county in Norway. This feasibility study includes technical, economical and environmental considerations. There is a combination of theoretical, experimental and programming work. First of all, the hydropower pl...

  14. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 5

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDEL, Matthias; Hansen, Lars Ove

    2012-01-01

    The family Ichneumonidae represents a very species-rich family of parasitoid Hymenoptera. In Norway, 1583 different Ichneumonid species have been reported so far. The present survey gives distributional records for 98 additional species of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) previously not known from Norway. 21 of them have hitherto not been reported from Scandinavia, including the first Palaearctic record of Syrphophilus tricinctus (Ashmead, 1902). Posted here with permission from the...

  15. Adaptive Evolution and Demographic History of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies)

    OpenAIRE

    Källman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to determine the genetic basis of adaptive variation. In Norway spruce (Picea abies) the timing of bud set shows a very strong latitudinal cline despite a very low genetic differentiation between populations. The timing of bud set in Norway spruce is under strong genetic control and triggered by changes in photoperiod, but no genes controlling this response have so far been described. In this thesis we used a combination of functional stu...

  16. Conodont biostratigraphy in the Early to Middle Ordovician strata of the Oslobreen Group in Ny Friesland, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Oliver; Stouge, Svend; Brandl, Philipp A.

    2013-01-01

    . Collections of well-preserved conodonts (CAI 1) have been recovered from the Lower to lower Middle Ordovician interval in the region. Eight regional conodont zones are established in this preliminary study of the Oslobreen Group exposed at Hinlopenstretet, NE Svalbard. In ascending order these zones are...... Oepikodus evae becomes frequent and is succeeded by O. intermedius in abundance in the lower Valhallfonna Formation (Olenidsletta Member). The upper strata are characterised by the Periodon-Paroistodus assemblage characteristic for outer shelf and slope environments around Laurentia. In total...

  17. Selected anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes in the Barents Sea and off the western coast of Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Matishov, Gennady G; Solatie, Dina

    2013-12-01

    The Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) performed high-latitude expeditions to the Barents Sea during 2007-2009 where a scientist from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) participated. The aim of the expeditions was to study and map the current radiological situation throughout the Barents Sea. In the expeditions, samples of seawater, sediment and biota were collected for radioactivity studies. The (90)Sr and (137)Cs isotopes were analysed from the seawater samples and no spatial distribution in the concentrations of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found. The sediment samples were analysed for γ-emitting isotopes. In the statistical analysis performed only the (90)Sr was found to have no spatial distribution. In the (137)Cs concentrations two areas containing higher concentrations were observed: one in the western part of Svalbard and another in Franz Victoria Trough near the Franz Josef Land archipelago. The increase in the western coast of Svalbard suggests an Atlantic influence while in the Franz Victoria Trough source regions are possibly more complex. Since (137)Cs in marine sediments mainly originates from terrestrial sources, finding higher concentrations in the northern part of the Barents Sea may also suggest a contribution of (137)Cs carried by the ocean currents and by sea ice from the outside Barents Sea. In addition to γ spectrometric measurements, the sediment samples were radiochemically analysed for (210)Pb. It was found that the unsupported fraction of (210)Pb showed significant spatial variation. The fraction of unsupported (210)Pb was reduced to 40-70% near Bear Island, Edge Island and in the Franz Josef Land archipelago. In these regions the sea is typically covered with sea ice during winter. The relatively low fraction of unsupported (210)Pb is possibly caused by blocking of wet and dry deposition of (210)Pb onto the sea by winter sea ice. In biota samples, only small traces, at the level of 0.2 Bq/kg w.w. of (137)Cs, were found

  18. The southern Svalbard Margin sedimentary system: preliminary results from EGLACOM cruise 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Romana; Lucchi, Renata G.; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Persico, Davide; Ángeles Bárcena, Maria; Caburlotto, Andrea; Macrı, Patrizia; Villa, Giuliana; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Rebesco, Michele

    2010-05-01

    The Storfjorden sedimentary system (South-western Svalbard margin) was investigated during the EGLACOM cruise between 8th July and 4th August 2008 on board R/V OGS-Explora. EGLACOM (Evolution of a GLacial Arctic COntinental Margin: the southern Svalbard ice stream-dominated sedimentary system) project is the Italian contribution to the International Polar Year (IPY) Activity 367 (Neogene ice streams and sedimentary processes on high-latitude continental margins - NICE STREAMS) in combination with the IPY-Spanish SVAIS project. Four EGLACOM sediment cores were collected from the slope and shelf areas and were scanned for radiographs and multi-sensor core logger for physical properties. Sediment samples were collected every 10 cm, and analyzed for textural and compositional characteristics including the biogenic components. Paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigations were carried out at high-resolution along the core's length. Both data sets contributed to develop a high-resolution age models in combination with the palaeostratigraphy (using foraminifera, diatoms and nannoplankton) and AMS dating. On the upper slope, coarser-grained sediments containing abundant pebbles (IRD-rich facies), overlain a sequence of laminated mud interbedded with silt layers (laminated facies), having scarce, badly preserved and often reworked biogenic fraction. On the lower slope, the uppermost sequence is formed by fine-grained bioturbated sediments with abundant planktonic and benthic foraminifera reflecting open-ocean conditions similar to present days. The dominance of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi indicates well oxygenated bottom waters and the calcareous nannofossil' assemblage indicates this facies deposited within the Emiliania huxleyi Acme Zone. The bioturbated facies overlay an interval of crudely laminated mud containing a peak of diatoms and sponge spiculae abundance that corresponds to a decrease in foraminifers content. Here the nannofossil

  19. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  20. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way