WorldWideScience

Sample records for svalbard sea ice

  1. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  2. Rapid formation of a sea ice barrier east of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; van Woert, M. L.; Neumann, G.

    2005-11-01

    Daily SeaWinds scatterometer images acquired by the QuikSCAT satellite show an elongated sea ice feature that formed very rapidly (˜1-2 days) in November 2001 east of Svalbard over the Barents Sea. This sea ice structure, called "the Svalbard sea ice barrier," spanning approximately 10° in longitude and 2° in latitude, restricts the sea route and poses a significant navigation hazard. The secret of its formation appears to lie in the bottom of the sea: A comparison between bathymetry from the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean data and the pattern of sea ice formation from scatterometer data reveals that the sea ice barrier conforms well with and stretches above a deep elongated channel connecting the Franz Josef-Victoria Trough to the Hinlopen Basin between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. Historic hydrographic data from this area indicate that this sea channel contains cold Arctic water less than 50 m below the surface. Strong and persistent cold northerly winds force strong heat loss from this shallow surface layer, leading to the rapid formation of the sea ice barrier. Heat transfer rates estimated from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts temperature and wind data over this region suggest that the surface water along the deep channel can be rapidly cooled to the freezing point. Scatterometer results in 1999-2003 show that sea ice forms in this area between October and December. Understanding the ice formation mechanisms helps to select appropriate locations for deployment of buoys measuring wind and air-sea temperature profile and to facilitate ice monitoring, modeling, and forecasting.

  3. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

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    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  4. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

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    Vladimir V. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  5. Disentangling the coupling between sea ice and tundra productivity in Svalbard.

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    Macias-Fauria, Marc; Karlsen, Stein Rune; Forbes, Bruce C

    2017-08-17

    The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice poses urgent questions concerning its ecological effects, such as on tundra terrestrial productivity. However, reported sea ice/terrestrial productivity linkages have seldom been constrained, and the mechanism governing them remains elusive, with a diversity of spatial scales and metrics proposed, at times in contradiction to each other. In this study, we use spatially explicit remotely sensed sea ice concentration and high-resolution terrestrial productivity estimates (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI) across the Svalbard Archipelago to describe local/sub-regional and large-scale components of sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling. Whereas the local/sub-regional component is attributed to sea breeze (cold air advection from ice-covered ocean onto adjacent land during the growing season), the large-scale component might reflect co-variability of sea ice and tundra productivity due to a common forcing, such as large-scale atmospheric circulation (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Our study clarifies the range of mechanisms in sea ice/terrestrial productivity coupling, allowing the generation of testable hypotheses about its past, present, and future dynamics across the Arctic.

  6. Snow contribution to first-year and second-year Arctic sea ice mass balance north of Svalbard

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    Granskog, Mats A.; Rösel, Anja; Dodd, Paul A.; Divine, Dmitry; Gerland, Sebastian; Martma, Tõnu; Leng, Melanie J.

    2017-03-01

    The salinity and water oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of 29 first-year (FYI) and second-year (SYI) Arctic sea ice cores (total length 32.0 m) from the drifting ice pack north of Svalbard were examined to quantify the contribution of snow to sea ice mass. Five cores (total length 6.4 m) were analyzed for their structural composition, showing variable contribution of 10-30% by granular ice. In these cores, snow had been entrained in 6-28% of the total ice thickness. We found evidence of snow contribution in about three quarters of the sea ice cores, when surface granular layers had very low δ18O values. Snow contributed 7.5-9.7% to sea ice mass balance on average (including also cores with no snow) based on δ18O mass balance calculations. In SYI cores, snow fraction by mass (12.7-16.3%) was much higher than in FYI cores (3.3-4.4%), while the bulk salinity of FYI (4.9) was distinctively higher than for SYI (2.7). We conclude that oxygen isotopes and salinity profiles can give information on the age of the ice and enables distinction between FYI and SYI (or older) ice in the area north of Svalbard.Plain Language SummaryThe role of snow in sea ice mass balance is largely two fold. Firstly, it can slow down growth and melt due to its high insulation and high reflectance, but secondly it can actually contribute to sea ice growth if the snow cover is turned into ice. The latter is largely a consequence of high mass of snow on top of sea ice that can push the surface of the sea ice below sea level and seawater can flood the ice. This mixture of seawater and snow can then freeze and add to the growth of sea ice. This is very typical in the Antarctic but not believed to be so important in the Arctic. In this work we show, for the first time, that snow actually contributes significantly to the growth of Arctic sea ice. This is likely a consequence of the thinning of the Arctic sea ice. The conditions in the Arctic, with thinner and more seasonal ice thus resemble the ice

  7. Warming of the West Spitsbergen Current and sea ice north of Svalbard

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    Jan Piechura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was supported by a grant from the Fifth European Union Frame-work Programme project ASOF-N, contract EVK2-CT-200200139, the Sixth Frame-work Programme DAMOCLES, contract 018509GOCE, and grants from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, decisions 61/N-IPY/2007/0 and 175/IPY/2007/01.AbstractAccording to the results of recent research, besides the atmospheric circulation, it is heat transport to the Arctic Ocean (AO by ocean currents, the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC in particular, that is playing a significant role in the process of Arctic warming. Data collected by the Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences (IO PAS, in the Norwegian and Greenland Seas, and Fram Strait during the last 20 years reveal considerable changes in the amount of heat transported by the WSC into the Arctic Ocean. An increase in Atlantic Water (AW temperature and the intensification of heat transport were observed in 2004-06; after this period, both parameters decreased. The aim of this study was to find out whether the fluctuations in heat input by the WSC have influenced the sea-ice distribution around Svalbard. In fact they do, but oceanic heat transport should nonetheless be regarded as just one of many processes influencing sea-ice behaviour.

  8. Sea ice and polar bear den ecology at Hopen Island, Svalbard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. E. Derocher; M. Andersen; Ø. Wiig; J. Aars; E. Hansen; M. Biuw

    2011-01-01

    The maternity denning of polar bears was studied at Hopen Island, Svalbard, Norway, using information collected by direct observation and live-capture of females and cubs during den emergence in spring of 1994 to 2008...

  9. Sea ice-associated decline in body condition leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway.

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    Tartu, Sabrina; Bourgeon, Sophie; Aars, Jon; Andersen, Magnus; Polder, Anuschka; Thiemann, Gregory W; Welker, Jeffrey M; Routti, Heli

    2017-01-15

    Global climate changes are magnified in the Arctic and are having an especially dramatic effect on the spatial and temporal distribution and the thickness traits of sea ice. Decline of Arctic sea ice may lead to qualitative and/or quantitative changes in diet and reduced body condition (i.e. adipose tissue stores) of ice-associated apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). This may further affect their tissue concentrations of lipophilic pollutants. We determined how variations in adipose tissue stores associated to both breeding status and spatial changes in sea ice conditions and diet influence concentrations and biotransformation of lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We collected 112 blood and fat samples from female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of different breeding status (alone, with cubs of the year, or with yearlings) during two seasons (April and September) in 2012 and 2013 at three locations of Svalbard, Norway, with contrasted sea ice conditions. We inferred diet from nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in red blood cells and fatty acid composition in adipose tissue. Relative to diet, body condition, which was negatively related to sea ice extent at both temporal and spatial scales, was the most important predictor for concentrations of POPs in plasma and fat, whereas diet showed a minor influence. Additionally, fatter females were more efficient at biotransforming PCBs than were leaner ones. Breeding status influenced the concentrations of less lipophilic compounds such as β-hexachlorocyclohexane, which were lower in females with yearlings, probably due to excretion into milk and subsequent offloading to young. In conclusion, our results indicate that declining sea ice indirectly leads to increased concentrations of lipophilic pollutants in polar bears mediated through reduced feeding opportunities and declining body condition rather than changes in diet composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In-situ calibration and validation of Cryosat-2 observations over arctic sea ice north of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Renner, Angelika H. H.; Spreen, Gunnar

    photography. Measurements from a Twin-Otter aircraft carrying a laser scanner and the CryoSat airborne simulator ASIRAS were obtained over one sea ice station. Here we discuss effects of snow properties on the penetration of the radar signal into the snow pack, along with in-situ, helicopter, and aircraft......CryoSat-2's radar altimeter allows to observe the panArctic sea ice thickness up to 88°N on a monthly basis. However, calibration and validation are crucial to assess limitations and accuracy of the altimeter, and to better quantify the uncertainties involved in converting sea ice freeboard...

  11. Brief Communication: Trends in sea ice extent north of Svalbard and its impact on cold air outbreaks as observed in spring 2013

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    A. Tetzlaff

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I satellite data reveals that the Whaler's Bay polynya north of Svalbard was considerably larger in the three winters from 2012 to 2014 compared to the previous 20 years. This increased polynya size leads to strong atmospheric convection during cold air outbreaks in a region north of Svalbard that was typically ice-covered in the last decades. The change in ice cover can strongly influence local temperature conditions. Dropsonde measurements from March 2013 show that the unusual ice conditions generate extreme convective boundary layer heights that are larger than the regional values reported in previous studies.

  12. The impact of a seasonally ice free Arctic Ocean on the temperature, precipitation and surface mass balance of Svalbard

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    J. J. Day

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The observed decline in summer sea ice extent since the 1970s is predicted to continue until the Arctic Ocean is seasonally ice free during the 21st Century. This will lead to a much perturbed Arctic climate with large changes in ocean surface energy flux. Svalbard, located on the present day sea ice edge, contains many low lying ice caps and glaciers and is expected to experience rapid warming over the 21st Century. The total sea level rise if all the land ice on Svalbard were to melt completely is 0.02 m.

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of climate change on Svalbard's surface mass balance (SMB and to determine, in particular, what proportion of the projected changes in precipitation and SMB are a result of changes to the Arctic sea ice cover. To investigate this a regional climate model was forced with monthly mean climatologies of sea surface temperature (SST and sea ice concentration for the periods 1961–1990 and 2061–2090 under two emission scenarios. In a novel forcing experiment, 20th Century SSTs and 21st Century sea ice were used to force one simulation to investigate the role of sea ice forcing. This experiment results in a 3.5 m water equivalent increase in Svalbard's SMB compared to the present day. This is because over 50 % of the projected increase in winter precipitation over Svalbard under the A1B emissions scenario is due to an increase in lower atmosphere moisture content associated with evaporation from the ice free ocean. These results indicate that increases in precipitation due to sea ice decline may act to moderate mass loss from Svalbard's glaciers due to future Arctic warming.

  13. Frost flower chemical signature in winter snow on Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard

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    E. Beaudon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry of snow and ice cores from Svalbard is influenced by variations in local sea ice margin and distance to open water. Snow pits sampled at two summits of Vestfonna ice cap (Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, exhibit spatially heterogeneous soluble ions concentrations despite similar accumulation rates, reflecting the importance of small-scale weather patterns on this island ice cap. The snow pack on the western summit shows higher average values of marine ions and a winter snow layer that is relatively depleted in sulphate. One part of the winter snow pack exhibits a [SO42-/Na+] ratio reduced by two thirds compared with its ratio in sea water. This low sulphate content in winter snow is interpreted as the signature of frost flowers, which are formed on young sea ice when offshore winds predominate. Frost flowers have been described as the dominant source of sea salt to aerosol and precipitation in ice cores in coastal Antarctica but this is the first time their chemical signal has been described in the Arctic. The eastern summit does not show any frost flower signature and we interpret the unusually dynamic ice transport and rapid formation of thin ice on the Hinlopen Strait as the source of the frost flowers.

  14. Svalbard glacier elevation changes and contribution to sea level rise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuth, Christopher; Moholdt, Geir; Kohler, Jack; Hagen, Jon Ove; Kääb, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    ... third of the total observed global sea level rise. It is therefore important to quantify glacier volume changes for the various glaciated regions in the world, both to estimate glacial sea level contribution and to link such contributions to regional climatic changes. In this paper we estimate the contribution of Svalbard glaciers to sea level rise. Various m...

  15. Remote sensing of seawater and drifting ice in Svalbard fjords by compact Raman LIDAR

    CERN Document Server

    Bunkin, Alexey F; Lednev, Vasily N; Lushnikov, Dmitry L; Marchenko, Aleksey V; Morozov, Eugene G; Pershin, Sergey M; Yulmetov, Renat N

    2013-01-01

    A compact Raman LIDAR system for remote sensing of sea and drifting ice was developed at the Wave Research Center at the Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the RAS. The developed system is based on a diode pumped solid state YVO4:Nd laser combined with compact spectrograph equipped with gated detector. The system exhibits high sensitivity and can be used for mapping or depth profiling of different parameters within many oceanographic problems. Light weight (~20 kg) and low power consumption (300 W) make possible to install the device on any vehicle including unmanned aircraft or submarine system. The Raman LIDAR presented was used for Svalbard fjords study and analysis of different influence of the open sea and glaciers on the water properties. Temperature, phytoplankton, and dissolved organic matter distributions in the seawater were studied in the Ice Fjord, Van Mijen Fjord and Rinders Fjord. Drifting ice and seawater in the Rinders Fjord were characterized by the Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence. It...

  16. Airborne observations of changes of ice sheet and sea ice in the Arctic using CryoVEx campaign data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    ‐launch validation studies, with several aircraft and international in‐situ ground teams participating, both in Greenland, Arctic Canada, and Svalbard. The methods and campaigns are outlined together with examples of results.The campaigns focused on five main validation sites: Devon ice cap (Canada), Austfonna ice...... cap (Svalbard), the EGIG line crossing the Greenland Ice Sheet, as well as the sea ice north of Alert and sea ice around Svalbard in the Fram Strait. Selected tracks were planned to match CryoSat‐2 passes and a few of them were flown in formation flight with the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) Polar‐5......DTU Space have collected surface elevation observations of the Arctic sea ice and land ice since 1998 using laser scanning and radar altimetry from a small fixed‐wing Twin‐Otter aircraft. The observations provide unique datasets for studying ongoing changes, and support the analysis of satellite...

  17. Increased snow contribution to Arctic sea ice mass balance

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    Granskog, M. A.; Rösel, A.; Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Dodd, P. A.; Martma, T.; Leng, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally snow on Arctic sea ice has not been considered as a significant component of the mass balance of the (solid) ice cover, due to the low snow to ice thickness ratio. In contrast, snow contributes significantly to the mass balance of Antarctic sea ice due to thinner seasonal ice and thicker snow cover, similar to Arctic marginal seas, such as the Baltic and Okhotsk seas. Recent observations from the N-ICE2015 campaign, conducted in January-June 2015 in the rather thin ice pack north of Svalbard, imply that with a thinning of the Arctic ice pack, snow turned into ice, either as refrozen snow meltwater at the ice surface (superimposed ice) or snow-ice formed due to flooding of the bottom of the snow pack by seawater, can contribute significantly to Arctic sea ice mass balance. We provide evidence from both sea ice cores (from textural and isotope data) and ice mass balance buoys (IMB) with thermistor chains using a heating cycle to detect different media (air/snow/ice/water). Observations indicate that snow-ice or superimposed ice has formed in fall/winter likely when the ice was thin due to summer melt and heavy snow fall early in the freezing season. IMB records from winter/spring showcase the rapid formation of snow-ice due to flooding by seawater after re-adjustment of isostacy in response to: i) deformation events (likely related to changes in floe size) and ii) bottom ice melt over warmer Atlantic waters north of Svalbard. In summary the new data indicate that snow-ice or superimposed can contribute up to about 30% of total sea ice thickness, unprecedented from any earlier records in the high-Arctic.

  18. Thin ice and storms: Sea ice deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015

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    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Cheng, Bin; Doble, Martin; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Haapala, Jari; Hughes, Nick; Kaleschke, Lars; Nicolaus, Marcel; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Arctic sea ice has displayed significant thinning as well as an increase in drift speed in recent years. Taken together this suggests an associated rise in sea ice deformation rate. A winter and spring expedition to the sea ice covered region north of Svalbard-the Norwegian young sea ICE2015 expedition (N-ICE2015)—gave an opportunity to deploy extensive buoy arrays and to monitor the deformation of the first-year and second-year ice now common in the majority of the Arctic Basin. During the 5 month long expedition, the ice cover underwent several strong deformation events, including a powerful storm in early February that damaged the ice cover irreversibly. The values of total deformation measured during N-ICE2015 exceed previously measured values in the Arctic Basin at similar scales: At 100 km scale, N-ICE2015 values averaged above 0.1 d-1, compared to rates of 0.08 d-1 or less for previous buoy arrays. The exponent of the power law between the deformation length scale and total deformation developed over the season from 0.37 to 0.54 with an abrupt increase immediately after the early February storm, indicating a weakened ice cover with more free drift of the sea ice floes. Our results point to a general increase in deformation associated with the younger and thinner Arctic sea ice and to a potentially destructive role of winter storms.

  19. Effect of periodic melting on geochemical and isotopic signals in an ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Isaksson, E.; Jauhiainen, T.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Martma, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Vaikmäe, R.

    2002-01-01

    [1] We examine the quality of atmospherically deposited ion and isotope signals in an ice core taken from a periodically melting ice field, Lomonosovfonna in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The aim is to determine the degree to which the signals are altered by periodic melting of the ice. We use

  20. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity studies show that the radiometer ice concentration estimate can be biased by +10% by anomalous atmospheric emissivity and -20% by anomalous ice surface emissivity. The aim of the sea ice activities in EU 5th FP project IOMASA is to improve sea ice concentration estimates at higher...... spatial resolution. The project is in the process of facilitating an ice concentration observing system through validation and a better understanding of the microwave radiative transfer of the sea ice and overlying snow layers. By use of a novel modelling approach, it is possible to better detect...... and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...

  1. Tropospheric characteristics over sea ice during N-ICE2015

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    Kayser, Markus; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert; Hudson, Stephen; Cohen, Lana; Rinke, Annette; Kim, Joo-Hong; Park, Sang-Jong; Moon, Woosok; Granskog, Mats

    2017-04-01

    Over recent years, the Arctic Ocean region has shifted towards a younger and thinner sea-ice regime. The Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition was designed to investigate the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interactions in this new ice regime north of Svalbard. Here we analyze upper-air measurements made by radiosondes launched twice daily together with surface meteorology observations during N-ICE2015 from January to June 2015. We study the multiple cyclonic events observed during N-ICE2015 with respect to changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure, sudden increases in moisture content and temperature, temperature inversions and boundary layer dynamics. The influence of synoptic cyclones is strongest under polar night conditions, when radiative cooling is most effective and the moisture content is low. We find that transitions between the radiatively clear and opaque state are the largest drivers of changes to temperature inversion and stability characteristics in the boundary layer during winter. In spring radiative fluxes warm the surface leading to lifted temperature inversions and a statically unstable boundary layer. The unique N-ICE2015 dataset is used for case studies investigating changes in the vertical structure of the atmosphere under varying synoptic conditions. The goal is to deepen our understanding of synoptic interactions within the Arctic climate system, to improve model performance, as well as to identify gaps in instrumentation, which precludes further investigations.

  2. The fast-ice growth and freezing of the bottom in the Braganzavagen Gulf (Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard)

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    Bogorodsky, Petr; Marchenko, Aleksey; Pnyushkov, Andrey; Filchuk, Kirill; Morozov, Yevgenii; Ryzhov, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    The results of oceanographic and sea ice studies in the shallow Braganzavågen Gulf (Van Mijenfjorden, Svalbard) in March 2016 are presented. These studies are a continuation of observational efforts initiated by UNIS (Svalbard, Norway) in 2014. 2016 field campaign includes instrumental measurements of snow and ice properties in the fjord (e.g., ice thicknesses, temperatures, and salinities), as well as high-resolution CTD measurements within the under-ice water column. Collected observations were accompanied by freezing simulations of adjacent water and bottom ground layers performed with a one-dimensional thermodynamic model (Bogorodskii and Pnyushkov, 2015). The model uses two methods to reproduce phase transition areas - a "classic" (frontal) method for the fast ice, and transition in the continuous media (mushy zone) for the bottom sediments. Meteorological observations during the winter 2015-16 at Sveagruva (northwest coast) were used in these simulations as the atmospheric forcing. Numerical experiments were carried out for the initial salinity of 35 psu and 2 m water depth. The simulations start with the beginning of water freezing determined by a steady air temperature transition through the freezing point. The start of freezing was also verified by comparison with sea ice charts available for the Van Mijenfjorden for the period of simulations. Model simulations showed that the growth of sea ice in shallow (salinity in the under-ice layer. For instance, at a 0.5 m depth the salinity in the under ice water layer exceeds 160 psu, which corresponds to the freezing temperature below -9C. In fact, the water salinity does not reach high values because of the horizontal mixing. However, available hydrological observations showed relatively small (0.2-0.5 m) amplitudes of tides - the major contributor to the horizontal exchange in this area. These small amplitudes likely suggest small advective salt fluxes induced by tides, and thus their little effect on the

  3. Geometric changes and mass balance of the Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard

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    G. Moholdt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics and mass balance regime of the Austfonna ice cap, the largest glacier on Svalbard, deviates significantly from most other glaciers in the region and is not fully understood. We have compared ICESat laser altimetry, airborne laser altimetry, GNSS surface profiles and radio echo-sounding data to estimate elevation change rates for the periods 1983–2007 and 2002–2008. The data sets indicate a pronounced interior thickening of up to 0.5 m y−1, at the same time as the margins are thinning at a rate of 1–3 m y−1. The southern basins are thickening at a higher rate than the northern basins due to a higher accumulation rate. The overall volume change in the 2002–2008 period is estimated to be −1.3±0.5 km3 w.e. y−1 (or −0.16±0.06 m w.e. y−1 where the entire net loss is due to a rapid retreat of the calving fronts. Since most of the marine ice loss occurs below sea level, Austfonna's current contribution to sea level change is close to zero. The geodetic results are compared to in-situ mass balance measurements which indicate that the 2004–2008 surface net mass balance has been slightly positive (0.05 m w.e. y−1 though with large annual variations. Similarities between local net mass balances and local elevation changes indicate that most of the ice cap is slow-moving and not in dynamic equilibrium with the current climate. More knowledge is needed about century-scale dynamic processes in order to predict the future evolution of Austfonna based on climate scenarios.

  4. Elevation changes measured on Svalbard glaciers and ice caps from airborne laser data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Bamber, J.L.; Krabill, W.; Raper, V.; Dowdeswell, J.A.

    Precise airborne laser surveys were conducted during spring in 1996 and 2002 on 17 ice caps and glaciers in the Svalbard archipelago covering the islands of Spitsbergen and Nordaustlandet. We present the derived elevation changes. Lower-elevation glaciers in south Spitsbergen show the largest

  5. An experimental study of the effects of Statfjord crude oil and application of Inipol and fish meal on the sea ice biota in Svalbard in February-April 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikavalko, J. [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aquatic Sciences and Hydrobiology; Gerdes, B.; Dieckmann, G. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil and oil product shipping is expected to increase in the Arctic in the near future, particularly in the Barents Sea. In addition to increasing transportation, the risks of an oil spill or accident are also elevated, particularly in view of the relative inexperience in large-tonnage tanker navigation under Arctic conditions and insufficient emergency services resources. While birds and mammals suffer from oiling of plumage or skin with subsequent thermoregulation difficulties, most underwater nature is also threatened by the chemical effects of hydrocarbons. Oil can cause damage to marine organisms on several systematic levels. Eggs, as well as larval and juvenile stages of organisms are particularly sensitive to hydrocarbons. Information on the consequences of oil contamination on unicellular aquatic organisms is scarce. This paper discussed a 63 day field experiment in Van Mijenfjorden, Sweden, which was conducted to study crude oil and nutrient addition effects on Arctic sea ice biota. It was determined that once oil is released in the marine environment in the presence of ice cover, several processes may take place depending on the season, the site of the oil spill and the state of ice growth or melt. During the pack ice season, an under-ice spill will lead to the formation of oil lenses beneath the ice sheet. During ice growth, oil may become sealed within the ice to migrate to the top of the Arctic multi-year ice. Hydrocarbon concentrations increase notably during ice break up. Fresh melt water migrates downwards and facilitates the release of ice associated organisms into the underlying water. Acute toxic effects of an oil spill on Arctic ice biota and planktonic communities in the water column will become apparent during the surface melting or break-up of the ice. Low concentrations of PAH compounds can inhibit the growth of multicellular algae. Changes were noted in phytoplankton, but diatoms appear to be more tolerant to oil than other protists

  6. Observations of brine plumes below melting Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Peterson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In sea ice, interconnected pockets and channels of brine are surrounded by fresh ice. Over time, brine is lost by gravity drainage and flushing. The timing of salt release and its interaction with the underlying water can impact subsequent sea ice melt. Turbulence measurements 1 m below melting sea ice north of Svalbard reveal anticorrelated heat and salt fluxes. From the observations, 131 salty plumes descending from the warm sea ice are identified, confirming previous observations from a Svalbard fjord. The plumes are likely triggered by oceanic heat through bottom melt. Calculated over a composite plume, oceanic heat and salt fluxes during the plumes account for 6 and 9 % of the total fluxes, respectively, while only lasting in total 0.5 % of the time. The observed salt flux accumulates to 7.6 kg m−2, indicating nearly full desalination of the ice. Bulk salinity reduction between two nearby ice cores agrees with accumulated salt fluxes to within a factor of 2. The increasing fraction of younger, more saline ice in the Arctic suggests an increase in desalination processes with the transition to the new Arctic.

  7. Freezing and hungry? Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in Barents Sea sediments around Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Straaten, Nontje

    2017-04-01

    The Polar Regions are characterised by varying temperatures and changing ice coverage, so most of the primary production take place in the warmer season. Consequently, sedimentation rates and nutrient input are low. The diversity and metabolic potentials of the microbial communities inhabiting these sediments in the Northern Barents Sea are largely unknown. Recent reports on natural methane seeps as well as the increase in hydrocarbon exploration activities in the Arctic initiated our studies on the potential of indigenous microbial communities to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons under in situ pressure and temperature conditions. Furthermore, the subseafloor geochemistry in these areas was studied, together with important microbial groups, like methanotrophs, methanogens, metal and sulfate reducers, which may drive seafloor ecosystems in the Northern Barents Sea. Sediment samples were collected in several areas around Svalbard in the years 2013-2016 ranging from shallow (200m) areas on the Svalbard shelf to deep sea areas on the eastern Yermak Plateau (3200m water depths). Shelf sediments showed the highest organic carbon content which decreased with increasing depths. Iron and manganese as potential electron acceptors were found in the porewater especially in the top 50 cm of the cores, while sulfate was always present in substantial amounts in porewater samples down to the end of the up to two metre long cores. Concentrations of dissolved methane and carbon dioxide were low. The potential of the indigenous microorganisms to degrade methane and higher hydrocarbons as well as different oils under in situ temperatures and pressures was widespread in surface sediments. Degradation rates were higher under aerobic than under anaerobic conditions, and decreased with increasing sediment as well as water depths. Similar pattern were found for other metabolic processes, including sulfate, Fe and Mn reduction as well as carbon dioxide and methane production rates

  8. GRACE gravity observations constrain Weichselian ice thickness in the Barents Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, B.C.; Tarasov, L.; Van der Wal, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Barents Sea is subject to ongoing postglacial uplift since the melting of the Weichselian ice sheet that covered it. The regional ice sheet thickness history is not well known because there is only data at the periphery due to the locations of Franz Joseph Land, Svalbard, and Novaya Zemlya

  9. Modelling of Sea Ice Thermodynamics and Biogeochemistry during the N-ICE2015 Expedition in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A.; Duarte, P.; Mork Olsen, L.; Kauko, H.; Assmy, P.; Rösel, A.; Itkin, P.; Hudson, S. R.; Granskog, M. A.; Gerland, S.; Sundfjord, A.; Steen, H.; Jeffery, N.; Hunke, E. C.; Elliott, S.; Turner, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in the sea ice regime of the Arctic Ocean over the last decades from a thick perennial multiyear ice to a first year ice have been well documented. These changes in the sea ice regime will affect feedback mechanisms between the sea ice, atmosphere and ocean. Here we evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE), a state of the art sea ice model, to predict sea ice physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks. We also identify the most problematic prognostic variables and what is necessary to improve their forecast. The availability of a complete data set of forcing collected during the Norwegian Young sea Ice (N-ICE-2015) expedition north of Svalbard opens the possibility to properly test CICE. Oceanographic, atmospheric, sea ice, snow, and biological data were collected above, on, and below the ice using R/V Lance as the base for the ice camps that were drifting south towards the Fram Strait. Over six months, four different drifts took place, from the Nansen Basin, through the marginal ice zone, to the open ocean. Obtained results from the model show a good performance regarding ice thickness, salinity and temperature. Nutrients and sea ice algae are however not modelled as accurately. We hypothesize that improvements in biogeochemical modeling may be achieved by complementing brine drainage with a diffusion parameterization and biogeochemical modeling with the introduction of an explicit formulation to forecast chlorophyll and regulate photosynthetic efficiency.

  10. Spatial mapping of multi-year superimposed ice on the glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Ola; Kohler, Jack; Lüthje, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and satellite ERS-2 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) are used to map the thickness and extent of the superimposed ice (SI) zone on the surge-type glacier Kongsvegen, Svalbard. GPR imagery shows sub-horizontal SI layers lying unconformably above a discrete boundary....... Below this boundary, the ice has a GPR signature similar to that of ice further down-glacier in the ablation zone. This boundary is posited to represent the closing of crevasses that were created during the last surge of Kongsvegen in similar to 1948. Open crevasses would have interrupted the formation...

  11. Selected anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes in the Barents Sea and off the western coast of Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Matishov, Gennady G; Solatie, Dina

    2013-12-01

    The Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) performed high-latitude expeditions to the Barents Sea during 2007-2009 where a scientist from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) participated. The aim of the expeditions was to study and map the current radiological situation throughout the Barents Sea. In the expeditions, samples of seawater, sediment and biota were collected for radioactivity studies. The (90)Sr and (137)Cs isotopes were analysed from the seawater samples and no spatial distribution in the concentrations of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found. The sediment samples were analysed for γ-emitting isotopes. In the statistical analysis performed only the (90)Sr was found to have no spatial distribution. In the (137)Cs concentrations two areas containing higher concentrations were observed: one in the western part of Svalbard and another in Franz Victoria Trough near the Franz Josef Land archipelago. The increase in the western coast of Svalbard suggests an Atlantic influence while in the Franz Victoria Trough source regions are possibly more complex. Since (137)Cs in marine sediments mainly originates from terrestrial sources, finding higher concentrations in the northern part of the Barents Sea may also suggest a contribution of (137)Cs carried by the ocean currents and by sea ice from the outside Barents Sea. In addition to γ spectrometric measurements, the sediment samples were radiochemically analysed for (210)Pb. It was found that the unsupported fraction of (210)Pb showed significant spatial variation. The fraction of unsupported (210)Pb was reduced to 40-70% near Bear Island, Edge Island and in the Franz Josef Land archipelago. In these regions the sea is typically covered with sea ice during winter. The relatively low fraction of unsupported (210)Pb is possibly caused by blocking of wet and dry deposition of (210)Pb onto the sea by winter sea ice. In biota samples, only small traces, at the level of 0.2 Bq/kg w.w. of (137)Cs, were found

  12. Modelling sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.

  13. Temporal constraints on future accumulation-area loss of a major Arctic ice cap due to climate change (Vestfonna, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Marco; Schneider, Christoph

    2015-01-28

    Arctic glaciers and ice caps are major contributors to past, present and future sea-level fluctuations. Continued global warming may eventually lead to the equilibrium line altitudes of these ice masses rising above their highest points, triggering unstoppable downwasting. This may feed future sea-level rise considerably. We here present projections for the timing of equilibrium-line loss at the major Arctic ice cap Vestfonna, Svalbard. The projections are based on spatially distributed climatic mass balance modelling driven by the outputs of multiple climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) forced by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5, 6.0 and 8.5. Results indicate strongly decreasing climatic mass balances over the 21(st) century for all RCPs considered. Glacier-wide mass-balance rates will drop down to -4 m a(-1) w.e. (water equivalent) at a maximum. The date at which the equilibrium line rises above the summit of Vestfonna (630 m above sea level) is calculated to range between 2040 and 2150, depending on scenario.

  14. Tracing the Origins of Organic Matter in the Ice of Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidonish, J. E.; Bowden, R.; Benning, L. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the origin of organic matter (OM) in Arctic ice is of key importance in understanding the nature and origin of life in both modern and ancient ice. In turn, knowledge of this OM is important for studying biosignatures of ice, necessary for the search for life on Mars. In a study of samples from Svalbard, Norway, both stable isotope analysis and the presence of a unique UV-absorbing pigment (scytonemin) serve as a means of tracing potential sources of organic matter to glacial ice. Possible sources for glacial OM include the following: 1) aeolian sources including black carbon or local soils, creating "dirty snow", 2) plant sources from surrounding areas including higher plants, lichens, and mosses, 3) microbial sources from on the ice itself , i.e., snow algae and cryoconites, and 4) microbial biofilms and endoliths from nearby habitats.. The UV-sunscreen pigment scytonemin is prevalent in many of the sources, particularly snow algae, cryoconites, lichens and microbial biofilms, as determined by spectrophotometry and ultra-performance LCMS analysis. These same methods also revealed the presence of scytonemin in various ice cores and surface runoff samples, suggesting that these plant and microbial sources are indeed tied to the introduction of OM to the ice of Svalbard. Supporting pigment signature tracing, stable isotope analysis of 13C and 15N shows a clear trend confirming the origin of OM from regional organic matter, as both ice cores and runoff have an isotopic signature comparable to Svalbard plants, snow algae, cryconites, and lichen. These two lines of evidence conclude in tandem that the OM found in Svalbard's glaciers have an origin in the surrounding ecosystem. This finding suggests that traces of life can both be transported and preserved in ice for extended periods of time. This has especial meaning in the pursuit of biosignatures on Mars, as well as the study of paleoclimate on Earth. Future studies can focus on further tracing of

  15. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  16. Application of a two-step approach for mapping ice thickness to various glacier types on Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Fürst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The basal topography is largely unknown beneath most glaciers and ice caps, and many attempts have been made to estimate a thickness field from other more accessible information at the surface. Here, we present a two-step reconstruction approach for ice thickness that solves mass conservation over single or several connected drainage basins. The approach is applied to a variety of test geometries with abundant thickness measurements including marine- and land-terminating glaciers as well as a 2400 km2 ice cap on Svalbard. The input requirements are kept to a minimum for the first step. In this step, a geometrically controlled, non-local flux solution is converted into thickness values relying on the shallow ice approximation (SIA. In a second step, the thickness field is updated along fast-flowing glacier trunks on the basis of velocity observations. Both steps account for available thickness measurements. Each thickness field is presented together with an error-estimate map based on a formal propagation of input uncertainties. These error estimates point out that the thickness field is least constrained near ice divides or in other stagnant areas. Withholding a share of the thickness measurements, error estimates tend to overestimate mismatch values in a median sense. We also have to accept an aggregate uncertainty of at least 25 % in the reconstructed thickness field for glaciers with very sparse or no observations. For Vestfonna ice cap (VIC, a previous ice volume estimate based on the same measurement record as used here has to be corrected upward by 22 %. We also find that a 13 % area fraction of the ice cap is in fact grounded below sea level. The former 5 % estimate from a direct measurement interpolation exceeds an aggregate maximum range of 6–23 % as inferred from the error estimates here.

  17. Application of a two-step approach for mapping ice thickness to various glacier types on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Johannes Jakob; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Benham, Toby J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Grabiec, Mariusz; Navarro, Francisco; Pettersson, Rickard; Moholdt, Geir; Nuth, Christopher; Sass, Björn; Aas, Kjetil; Fettweis, Xavier; Lang, Charlotte; Seehaus, Thorsten; Braun, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    The basal topography is largely unknown beneath most glaciers and ice caps, and many attempts have been made to estimate a thickness field from other more accessible information at the surface. Here, we present a two-step reconstruction approach for ice thickness that solves mass conservation over single or several connected drainage basins. The approach is applied to a variety of test geometries with abundant thickness measurements including marine- and land-terminating glaciers as well as a 2400 km2 ice cap on Svalbard. The input requirements are kept to a minimum for the first step. In this step, a geometrically controlled, non-local flux solution is converted into thickness values relying on the shallow ice approximation (SIA). In a second step, the thickness field is updated along fast-flowing glacier trunks on the basis of velocity observations. Both steps account for available thickness measurements. Each thickness field is presented together with an error-estimate map based on a formal propagation of input uncertainties. These error estimates point out that the thickness field is least constrained near ice divides or in other stagnant areas. Withholding a share of the thickness measurements, error estimates tend to overestimate mismatch values in a median sense. We also have to accept an aggregate uncertainty of at least 25 % in the reconstructed thickness field for glaciers with very sparse or no observations. For Vestfonna ice cap (VIC), a previous ice volume estimate based on the same measurement record as used here has to be corrected upward by 22 %. We also find that a 13 % area fraction of the ice cap is in fact grounded below sea level. The former 5 % estimate from a direct measurement interpolation exceeds an aggregate maximum range of 6-23 % as inferred from the error estimates here.

  18. Historic PCB congener profiles in an ice core from Svalbard, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanson, M.; Matthews, K.A. [Pennsylvania Univ, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, G.W. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Inst., Tromso (Norway); Teixeira, C.; Muir, D.C.G. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada); Van Wal, R.S.W. [Utrecht Univ., Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    This study identified historic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels and congener patterns in an ice core from Svalbard, Norway in order to identify types of sources and characteristic PCB congeners that remain in ice over time. A 60 meter ice core was drilled near the summit of the highest ice cap in Eurasia. Two snow/firn samples were also taken from the top meter of ice in order to determine PCB characteristics from the previous 2 years. The core was analyzed for electrical conductivity and density in the field, which resulted in estimates of water equivalent deposition. The upper 38 meters of the core were divided into 6 separate samples. PCBs were separated from polar compounds by elution through silica-gel with hexane. Fuzzy c means (FCM) was used to identify and map 2 different congener patterns. FCM cluster centroid compositions were then compared to Aroclor mixtures in order to identify parent materials or mixes. Results showed that peak PCB concentrations occurred over 3 core layers between 1972 and 1998. More recent layers had lower concentrations. However, the 2 snow samples had PCB concentrations similar to peak values observed in earlier layers. FCM of the congener profile results indicated a binary system with little gradation between them. All samples were dominated by pentachlorobiphenyls. It was concluded that lower molecular mass congeners had a tendency to remain in the gas phase at the Svalbard location. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Diversity of bacteria in surface ice of Austre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yin-Xin; Yan, Ming; Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; He, Jian-Feng; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Fang

    2013-05-01

    Two 16S rRNA gene clone libraries Cores 1U and 2U were constructed using two ice core samples collected from Austre Lovénbreen glacier in Svalbard. The two libraries yielded a total of 262 clones belonging to 59 phylotypes. Sequences fell into 10 major lineages of the domain Bacteria, including Proteobacteria (alpha, beta, gamma and delta subdivisions), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Cyanobacteria and candidate division TM7. Among them, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were most abundant. UniFrac data showed no significant differences in community composition between the two ice cores. A total of nineteen bacterial strains from the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Psychrobacter were isolated from the ice cores. Phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses revealed a close relationship between the ice core isolates and bacteria in marine environments, indicating a wide distribution of some bacterial phylotypes in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  20. Observations of snow-ice formation in a thinner Arctic sea ice regime during the N-ICE2015 campaign: influence of basal ice melt and storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, C.; Sennechael, N.; Itkin, P.; Rösel, A.; Koenig, Z.; Villacieros-Robineau, N.; Granskog, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Seven ice mass balance instruments deployed on different first-year and second-year ice floes, within a distance of 50 km near 83°N representing variable snow and ice conditions, documented the evolution of snow and ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard in Jan-Mar 2015. Frequent profiles of temperature and thermal resistivity proxy were recorded to distinguish changes in snow depth and ice thickness with 2 cm vertical resolution. Four instruments documented snow-ice formation which was clearly detectable in the simultaneous changes in thermal resistivity proxy, increased temperature and heat propagation through the underlying ice. Snow-ice formation restored a positive freeboard after storm-induced break-up of snow-loaded floes and/or after loss of buoyancy due to basal ice melt. In the case of break-up, when the ice was cold and not permeable, the rapid snow-ice formation, probably due to lateral intrusion of seawater, led to snow-ice layers at the ocean freezing temperature (-1.88°C). After the storm the instruments registered basal sea-ice melt over warm Atlantic waters. Basal ablation reached 71 cm and ocean heat fluxes peaked at 400 Wm-2. The warm ice was permeable and the gradual snow-ice formation probably involved vertical intrusion of brines and led to colder snow-ice (-3°C). In both cases, the exothermal reaction warmed the underlying sea-ice. N-ICE2015 campaign provided the first documentation of significant snow-ice formation in the Arctic ice pack with a fraction of snow-ice to total ice thickness 28%. Snow-ice formation may become a more important process in a thinner-ice Arctic.

  1. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpen, T.; Haas, C.; Itkin, P.

    2016-12-01

    Interannual variability and trends in sea ice export out of the Laptev Sea were investigated using a combination of observations and satellite data. The Laptev Sea shows a statistically positive trend in ice area export that is likely associated to an increase in ice drift velocity being the consequence of a thinning ice cover further north. Moreover, we could show that there is a high statistical connection of the late winter (Jan-May) sea ice export and ice formation in Laptev Sea polynyas to the summer sea ice concentration. By means of a sensitivity study using a coupled sea ice-ocean model (MITgcm), we could highlight the importance of winter sea ice processes for summer sea ice conditions in the Laptev Sea and likewise in the adjacent Siberian Seas. Years of high ice export have a thinning effect on the ice cover, which in turn preconditions early fast ice break up, pack ice melt and the occurrence of negative sea ice extent anomalies in summer. Our model simulation also indicate that observed increase in the sea ice export from the Laptev Sea is accompanied by an increase in the volume export, which is important for the Arctic sea ice budget.

  2. Changes in sea ice cover and ice sheet extent at the Yermak Plateau during the last 160 ka - Reconstructions from biomarker records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, A.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Ji, Z.; Yang, Z.; Wiers, S.; Matthiessen, J.; Forwick, M.; Löwemark, L.; O'Regan, M.; Chen, J.; Snowball, I.

    2018-02-01

    The Yermak Plateau is located north of Svalbard at the entrance to the Arctic Ocean, i.e. in an area highly sensitive to climate change. A multi proxy approach was carried out on Core PS92/039-2 to study glacial-interglacial environmental changes at the northern Barents Sea margin during the last 160 ka. The main emphasis was on the reconstruction of sea ice cover, based on the sea ice proxy IP25 and the related phytoplankton - sea ice index PIP25. Sea ice was present most of the time but showed significant temporal variability decisively affected by movements of the Svalbard Barents Sea Ice Sheet. For the first time, we prove the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the eastern Yermak Plateau during glacial intervals, probably steered by a major northward advance of the ice sheet and the formation of a coastal polynya in front of it. Maximum accumulation of terrigenous organic carbon, IP25 and the phytoplankton biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, HBI III) can be correlated to distinct deglaciation events. More severe, but variable sea ice cover prevailed at the Yermak Plateau during interglacials. The general proximity to the sea ice margin is further indicated by biomarker (GDGT) - based sea surface temperatures below 2.5 °C.

  3. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts there is...reflection to the atmosphere, absorption in the snow and sea ice, and transmission to the ocean. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Arctic sea ice, sunlight, albedo ...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SUNLIGHT, SEA ICE, AND THE ICE ALBEDO FEEDBACK IN A

  4. Warming in the Nordic Seas, North Atlantic storms and thinning Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Walsh, John E.; Ivanov, Vladimir V.; Semenov, Vladimir A.; Smirnov, Alexander V.

    2017-08-01

    Arctic sea ice over the last few decades has experienced a significant decline in coverage both in summer and winter. The currently warming Atlantic Water layer has a pronounced impact on sea ice in the Nordic Seas (including the Barents Sea). More open water combined with the prevailing atmospheric pattern of airflow from the southeast, and persistent North Atlantic storms such as the recent extremely strong Storm Frank in December 2015, lead to increased energy transport to the high Arctic. Each of these storms brings sizeable anomalies of heat to the high Arctic, resulting in significant warming and slowing down of sea ice growth or even melting. Our analysis indicates that the recently observed sea ice decline in the Nordic Seas during the cold season around Svalbard, Franz Joseph Land and Novaya Zemlya, and the associated heat release from open water into the atmosphere, contributed significantly to the increase in the downward longwave radiation throughout the entire Arctic. Added to other changes in the surface energy budget, this increase since the 1960s to the present is estimated to be at least 10 W m-2, which can result in thinner (up to at least 15-20 cm) Arctic ice at the end of the winter. This change in the surface budget is an important contributing factor accelerating the thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  5. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, global warming is particularly pronounced so that we need to monitor its development continuously. On the other hand, the vast and hostile conditions make in situ observation difficult, so that available satellite observations should be exploited in the best possible way to extract geophysical information. Here, we give a résumé of the sea ice remote sensing efforts of the European Union's (EU project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. In order to better understand the seasonal variation of the microwave emission of sea ice observed from space, the monthly variations of the microwave emissivity of first-year and multi-year sea ice have been derived for the frequencies of the microwave imagers like AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS and sounding frequencies of AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, and have been used to develop an optimal estimation method to retrieve sea ice and atmospheric parameters simultaneously. In addition, a sea ice microwave emissivity model has been used together with a thermodynamic model to establish relations between the emissivities from 6 GHz to 50 GHz. At the latter frequency, the emissivity is needed for assimilation into atmospheric circulation models, but is more difficult to observe directly. The size of the snow grains on top of the sea ice influences both its albedo and the microwave emission. A method to determine the effective size of the snow grains from observations in the visible range (MODIS is developed and demonstrated in an application on the Ross ice shelf. The bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF of snow, which is an essential input parameter to the retrieval, has been measured in situ on Svalbard during the DAMOCLES campaign, and a BRDF model assuming aspherical particles is developed. Sea ice drift and deformation is derived from satellite observations with the scatterometer

  6. A two-step mass-conservation approach to infer ice thickness maps: Performance for different glacier types on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Johannes J.; Seehaus, Thorsten; Sass, Björn; Aas, Kjetil; Benham, Toby J.; Dowdeswell, Julian; Fettweis, Xavier; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Moholdt, Geir; Navarro, Francisco; Nuth, Christopher; Petterson, Rickard; Braun, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Satellite remote sensing based on optical or radar instruments has enable us to measure glacier-wide surface velocities as well as changes both in glacier extent and in surface elevation with good coverage worldwide. Yet, for the large majority of all glaciers and ice caps, there is in fact no information on how thick the ice cover is. Any attempt to predict glacier demise under climatic warming and to estimate the future contribution to sea-level rise is limited as long as the glacier thickness is not well constrained. Moreover, the poor knowledge of the bed topography inhibits the applicability of ice-flow models which could help to understand dominant processes controlling the ice-front evolution of marine-terminating glaciers. The reason is that the basal topography exerts major control on the dynamic response of grounded ice. As it is impractical to measure ice thicknesses on most glaciers, reconstruction approaches have been forwarded that can infer thickness fields from available geometric, climatic and ice-flow information. Here, we presented a two-step, mass-conserving reconstruction approach to infer 2D ice-thickness fields with prior knowledge on source and sink terms in the mass budget. The first-step reconstruction is aimed at glaciers for which not much information is available. Input requirements for this first step are comparable to other reconstruction approaches that have successfully been applied to glaciers world-wide. In fast-flowing areas where surface velocity measurements are most reliable, these observations enter a second-step reconstruction providing an improved thickness estimate. In both steps, available thickness measurements are readily assimilated to constrain the reconstruction. The approach is tested on different glacier geometries on Svalbard were an abundant thickness record was available. On these test geometries, we show that the approach performs well for entire ice caps as well as for marine- and land-terminating glaciers

  7. Snowdrift modelling for the Vestfonna ice cap, north-eastern Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sauter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The redistribution of snow by drifting and blowing snow frequently leads to an inhomogeneous snow mass distribution on larger ice caps. Together with the thermodynamic impact of drifting snow sublimation on the lower atmospheric boundary layer, these processes affect the glacier surface mass balance. This study provides a first quantification of snowdrift and sublimation of blowing and drifting snow on the Vestfonna ice cap (Svalbard by using the specifically designed snow2blow snowdrift model. The model is forced by atmospheric fields from the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting model and resolves processes on a spatial resolution of 250 m. The model is applied to the Vestfonna ice cap for the accumulation period 2008/2009. Comparison with radio-echo soundings and snow-pit measurements show that important local-scale processes are resolved by the model and the overall snow accumulation pattern is reproduced. The findings indicate that there is a significant redistribution of snow mass from the interior of the ice cap to the surrounding areas and ice slopes. Drifting snow sublimation of suspended snow is found to be stronger during spring. It is concluded that the redistribution process is strong enough to have a significant impact on glacier mass balance.

  8. Windows in Arctic sea ice: Light transmission and ice algae in a refrozen lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Hanna M.; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Assmy, Philipp; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Mundy, C. J.; Duarte, Pedro; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Olsen, Lasse M.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Johnsen, Geir; Elliott, Ashley; Wang, Feiyue; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-06-01

    The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing from thicker multiyear to thinner first-year ice cover, with significant consequences for radiative transfer through the ice pack and light availability for algal growth. A thinner, more dynamic ice cover will possibly result in more frequent leads, covered by newly formed ice with little snow cover. We studied a refrozen lead (≤0.27 m ice) in drifting pack ice north of Svalbard (80.5-81.8°N) in May-June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015). We measured downwelling incident and ice-transmitted spectral irradiance, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), particle absorption, ultraviolet (UV)-protecting mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in melted sea ice samples. We found occasionally very high MAA concentrations (up to 39 mg m-3, mean 4.5 ± 7.8 mg m-3) and MAA to Chl a ratios (up to 6.3, mean 1.2 ± 1.3). Disagreement in modeled and observed transmittance in the UV range let us conclude that MAA signatures in CDOM absorption spectra may be artifacts due to osmotic shock during ice melting. Although observed PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) transmittance through the thin ice was significantly higher than that of the adjacent thicker ice with deep snow cover, ice algal standing stocks were low (≤2.31 mg Chl a m-2) and similar to the adjacent ice. Ice algal accumulation in the lead was possibly delayed by the low inoculum and the time needed for photoacclimation to the high-light environment. However, leads are important for phytoplankton growth by acting like windows into the water column.

  9. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Figure 1). When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...and iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice

  10. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  11. USGS Sea Ice Email Script

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Daily sea ice imagery and charting benefits logistics and navigational planning in the Alaskan Arctic waters, yet access to these data often requires high bandwidth...

  12. Nitrate stable isotopes and major ions in snow and ice samples from four Svalbard sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Vega

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition in the Arctic may adversely impact N-limited ecosystems. To investigate atmospheric transport of Nr to Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic, snow and firn samples were collected from glaciers and analysed to define spatial and temporal variations (1–10 years in major ion concentrations and the stable isotope composition (δ15N and δ18O of nitrate (NO3- across the archipelago. The δ15N NO3- and δ18ONO3- averaged −4‰ and 67‰ in seasonal snow (2010–11 and −9‰ and 74‰ in firn accumulated over the decade 2001–2011. East–west zonal gradients were observed across the archipelago for some major ions (non-sea salt sulphate and magnesium and also for δ15NNO3- and δ18ONO3- in snow, which suggests a different origin for air masses arriving in different sectors of Svalbard. We propose that snowfall associated with long-distance air mass transport over the Arctic Ocean inherits relatively low δ15NNO3- due to in-transport N isotope fractionation. In contrast, faster air mass transport from the north-west Atlantic or northern Europe results in snowfall with higher δ15NNO3- because in-transport fractionation of N is then time-limited.

  13. Critical Role of Snow on Sea Ice Growth in the Atlantic Sector of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Cheng, Bin; Graham, Robert M.; Rösel, Anja; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-10-01

    During the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) campaign in early 2015, a deep snowpack was observed, almost double the climatology for the region north of Svalbard. There were significant amounts of snow-ice in second-year ice (SYI), while much less in first-year ice (FYI). Here we use a 1-D snow/ice thermodynamic model, forced with reanalyses, to show that snow-ice contributes to thickness growth of SYI in absence of any bottom growth, due to the thick snow. Growth of FYI is tightly controlled by the timing of growth onset relative to precipitation events. A later growth onset can be favorable for FYI growth due to less snow accumulation, which limits snow-ice formation. We surmise these findings are related to a phenomenon in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic, where frequent storm events bring heavy precipitation during autumn and winter, in a region with a thinning ice cover.

  14. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  15. A minimal, statistical model for the surface albedo of Vestfonna ice cap, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Möller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ice cap Vestfonna is located in northeastern Svalbard and forms one of the largest ice bodies of the Eurasian Arctic. Its surface albedo plays a key role in the understanding and modelling of its energy and mass balance. The principle governing factors for albedo evolution, i.e. precipitation and air temperature and therewith snow depth and melt duration, were found to vary almost exclusively with terrain elevation throughout the ice cap. Hence, surface albedo can be expected to develop a comparable pattern. A new statistical model is presented that estimates this mean altitudinal albedo profile of the ice cap on the basis of a minimal set of meteorological variables on a monthly resolution. Model calculations are based on a sigmoid function of the artificial quantity rain-snow ratio and a linear function of cumulative snowfall and cumulative positive degree days. Surface albedo fields of the MODIS snow product MOD10A1 from the period March to October in the years 2001–2008 serve as a basis for both calibration and cross-validation of the model. The meteorological model input covers the period September 2000 until October 2008 and is based on ERA-Interim data of a grid point located close to the ice cap. The albedo model shows a good performance. The root mean square error between observed and modelled albedo values along the altitudinal profile is 0.057±0.028 (mean ± one standard deviation. The area weighted mean even reduces to a value of 0.054. Distinctly higher deviations (0.07–0.09 are only present throughout the very lowest and uppermost parts of the ice cap that are either small in area or hardly affected by surface melt. Thus, the new, minimal, statistical albedo model presented in this study is found to reproduce the albedo evolution on Vestfonna ice cap on a high level of accuracy and is thus suggested to be fully suitable for further application in broader energy or mass-balance studies of the ice cap.

  16. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Fauria, M. [University of Calgary, Biogeoscience Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada); University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); University of Barcelona, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Barcelona (Spain); Grinsted, A. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland); Helama, S.; Eronen, M. [University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Moore, J. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Oulu (Finland); Beijing Normal University, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing (China); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); Martma, T. [Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of Geology, Tallinn (Estonia); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200-1997 using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and {delta}{sup 18}O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent based on the calibration period 1864-1997. The significance of the reconstruction statistics (reduction of error, coefficient of efficiency) is computed for the first time against a realistic noise background. The twentieth century sustained the lowest sea ice extent values since A.D. 1200: low sea ice extent also occurred before (mid-seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries, early fifteenth and late thirteenth centuries), but these periods were in no case as persistent as in the twentieth century. Largest sea ice extent values occurred from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with relatively smaller sea ice-covered area during the sixteenth century. Moderate sea ice extent occurred during thirteenth-fifteenth centuries. Reconstructed sea ice extent variability is dominated by decadal oscillations, frequently associated with decadal components of the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO), and multi-decadal lower frequency oscillations operating at {proportional_to}50-120 year. Sea ice extent and NAO showed a non-stationary relationship during the observational period. The present low sea ice extent is unique over the last 800 years, and results from a decline started in late-nineteenth century after the LIA. (orig.)

  17. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Polona; Krumpen, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  18. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  19. Submesoscale Sea Ice-Ocean Interactions in Marginal Ice Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.

    2017-12-01

    Signatures of ocean eddies, fronts, and filaments are commonly observed within marginal ice zones (MIZs) from satellite images of sea ice concentration, and in situ observations via ice-tethered profilers or underice gliders. However, localized and intermittent sea ice heating and advection by ocean eddies are currently not accounted for in climate models and may contribute to their biases and errors in sea ice forecasts. Here, we explore mechanical sea ice interactions with underlying submesoscale ocean turbulence. We demonstrate that the release of potential energy stored in meltwater fronts can lead to energetic submesoscale motions along MIZs with spatial scales O(10 km) and Rossby numbers O(1). In low-wind conditions, cyclonic eddies and filaments efficiently trap the sea ice and advect it over warmer surface ocean waters where it can effectively melt. The horizontal eddy diffusivity of sea ice mass and heat across the MIZ can reach O(200 m2 s-1). Submesoscale ocean variability also induces large vertical velocities (order 10 m d-1) that can bring relatively warm subsurface waters into the mixed layer. The ocean-sea ice heat fluxes are localized over cyclonic eddies and filaments reaching about 100 W m-2. We speculate that these submesoscale-driven intermittent fluxes of heat and sea ice can contribute to the seasonal evolution of MIZs. With the continuing global warming and sea ice thickness reduction in the Arctic Ocean, submesoscale sea ice-ocean processes are expected to become increasingly prominent.

  20. Arctic sea ice melt leads to atmospheric new particle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall Osto, M; Beddows, D C S; Tunved, P; Krejci, R; Ström, J; Hansson, H-C; Yoon, Y J; Park, Ki-Tae; Becagli, S; Udisti, R; Onasch, T; O Dowd, C D; Simó, R; Harrison, Roy M

    2017-06-12

    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) and growth significantly influences climate by supplying new seeds for cloud condensation and brightness. Currently, there is a lack of understanding of whether and how marine biota emissions affect aerosol-cloud-climate interactions in the Arctic. Here, the aerosol population was categorised via cluster analysis of aerosol size distributions taken at Mt Zeppelin (Svalbard) during a 11 year record. The daily temporal occurrence of NPF events likely caused by nucleation in the polar marine boundary layer was quantified annually as 18%, with a peak of 51% during summer months. Air mass trajectory analysis and atmospheric nitrogen and sulphur tracers link these frequent nucleation events to biogenic precursors released by open water and melting sea ice regions. The occurrence of such events across a full decade was anti-correlated with sea ice extent. New particles originating from open water and open pack ice increased the cloud condensation nuclei concentration background by at least ca. 20%, supporting a marine biosphere-climate link through sea ice melt and low altitude clouds that may have contributed to accelerate Arctic warming. Our results prompt a better representation of biogenic aerosol sources in Arctic climate models.

  1. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of 137Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137Cs in the marine ecosystem.

  2. The Sea Ice Board Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation-funded Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) provides "curriculum resource-based professional development" materials that combine current science information with practical classroom instruction embedded with "best practice" techniques for teaching science to diverse students. The Sea Ice Board…

  3. Small-scale sea ice deformation during N-ICE2015: From compact pack ice to marginal ice zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikkonen, Annu; Haapala, Jari; Lensu, Mikko; Karvonen, Juha; Itkin, Polona

    2017-06-01

    We studied small-scale (50 m to 5 km) sea ice deformation from ship radar images recorded during the N-ICE2015 campaign. The campaign consisted of four consecutive drifting ice stations (Floes 1-4) north of Svalbard, with a total duration of nearly 5 months. Deformation was calculated using 5 different time intervals from 10 min to 24 h, and the deformation rate was found to depend strongly on the time scale. Floes 1-3 had a mean deformation rate within the range of 0.06-0.07 h-1 with the interval of 10 min, and 0.03-0.04 h-1 with the interval of 1 h. Floe 4 represented marginal ice zone (MIZ) with very high deformation rate, 0.14/0.08 h-1 with the interval of 10 min/1 h. Deep in the ice pack, high deformation rates occurred only with high wind and drift speed, while in MIZ they were found also during calm conditions. The deformation rates were found to follow power law scaling with respect to length and time scale even on this small scale and in small domain (15 km × 15 km). The length scale dependence of deformation rate depends on the time scale: the power law scaling exponent β of the whole study period decreases from 0.82 to 0.52 with the time interval increasing from 10 min to 24 h. Ship radar images reveal the importance of the deformation history of the ice pack, since the deformation events were initialized along the lines of previous damages.

  4. Annual Arctic sea ice less reflective than old ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-06-01

    In the Arctic Ocean the blanket of permanent sea ice is being progressively replaced by a transient winter cover. In recent years the extent of the northern ocean's ice cover has declined. The summer melt season is starting earlier, the winter freeze is happening later, the areal extent of the ice has decreased, and more ice is failing to last through the summer. A key uncertainty in this ongoing climate transformation is how seasonal sea ice affects and responds to climate dynamics as compared to the traditional multiyear sea ice. Tackling an important branch of this issue, Perovich and Polashenski analyze how the albedo of seasonal sea ice changes throughout the summer melt season. The ice's albedo affects how much sunlight enters the system and hence influences biological productivity, ice extent, and future rates of warming.

  5. Sea ice and iceberg dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Comeau, Darin

    2011-05-01

    A model of iceberg motion has been implemented in the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE). Individual bergs are tracked under the influence of winds, currents, sea surface tilt, Coriolis, and sea ice forcing. In turn, sea ice is affected by the presence of icebergs, primarily as obstacles that cause the sea ice to ridge on the upstream side or create open water on the downstream side of the bergs. Open water formed near icebergs due to sea ice ridging and blocking of sea ice advection increases level and ridged ice downstream of the bergs through increased frazil ice formation. Resulting anomalies in sea ice area and thickness (compared with a simulation without icebergs) are transported with the sea ice flow, expanding over time. Although local changes in the sea ice distribution may be important for smaller-scale studies, these anomalies are small compared with the total volume of sea ice and their effect on climate-scale variables appears to be insignificant.

  6. Fluctuations of the Vestfonna ice margin at Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, Svalbard, after the last glacial maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Four radiocarbon datings of shells of Mya truncata and Saxicava arctica from the till of the end-moraine of the advance of Vestfonna against Brageneset, Nordaustlandet, between AD 1861 and 1899, gave ages between 8300 BP and 8700 BP. These are from the time when the ice margin had retreated from Brageneset after the last glaciation. An additional age of 7900 BP obtained for Astarteelliptica, also from the end-moraine, shows that the shells in the till represent a mixed death assemblage, as also shown by the composition of the molluscan fauna in general. By comparing the altitudes of the two pumice levels with their altitudes in other areas of Svalbard a curve for the relative uplift of Brageneset could be constructed. According to this curve the highest point of Brageneset at 46.5 m emerged at about 9200 BP, which gives a minimum age for the general deglaciation, an age in agreement with dates obtained from other parts of Nordaustlandet.

  7. Reconstructing the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets with Ice Sheet Models; data-model comparison and focus on the Storfjorden (Svalbard) ice stream dynamics history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Michele; Kirchner, Nina; Colleoni, Florence; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Rebesco, Michele; Lucchi, Renata G.; Forte, Emanuele; Colucci, Renato R.

    2017-04-01

    The challenge of reconstructing palaeo-ice sheets past growth and decay represent a critical task to better understand mechanisms of present and future global climate change. Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and the subsequent deglaciation until Pre-Industrial time (PI) represent an excellent testing ground for numerical Ice Sheet Models (ISMs), due to the abundant data available that can be used in an ISM as boundary conditions, forcings or constraints to test the ISMs results. In our study, we simulate with ISMs the post-LGM decay of the Eurasian Ice Sheets, with a focus on the marine-based Svalbard-Barents Sea-Kara Sea Ice Sheet. In particular, we aim to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history by comparing the model results with the marine geological data (MSGLs, GZWs, sediment cores analysis) available from the area, e.g., Pedrosa et al. 2011, Rebesco et al. 2011, 2013, Lucchi et al. 2013. Two hybrid SIA/SSA ISMs are employed, GRISLI, Ritz et al. 2001, and PSU, Pollard&DeConto 2012. These models differ mainly in the complexity with which grounding line migration is treated. Climate forcing is interpolated by means of climate indexes between LGM and PI climate. Regional climate indexes are constructed based on the non-accelerated deglaciation transient experiment carried out with CCSM3, Liu et al. 2009. Indexes representative of the climate evolution over Siberia, Svalbard and Scandinavia are employed. The impact of such refined representation as opposed to the common use of the NGRIP δ18O index for transient experiments is analysed. In this study, the ice-ocean interaction is crucial to reconstruct the Storfjorden ice stream dynamics history. To investigate the sensitivity of the ice shelf/stream retreat to ocean temperature, we allow for a space-time variation of basal melting under the ice shelves by testing two-equations implementations based on Martin et al. 2011 forced with simulated ocean temperature and salinity from the TraCE-21ka coupled

  8. Skillful prediction of Barents Sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Ingrid H.; Eldevik, Tor; Årthun, Marius; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Smedsrud, Lars H.

    2015-07-01

    A main concern of present climate change is the Arctic sea ice cover. In wintertime, its observed variability is largely carried by the Barents Sea. Here we propose and evaluate a simple quantitative and prognostic framework based on first principles and rooted in observations to predict the annual mean Barents Sea ice cover, which variance is carried by the winter ice (96%). By using observed ocean heat transport and sea ice area, the proposed framework appears skillful and explains 50% of the observed sea ice variance up to 2 years in advance. The qualitative prediction of increase versus decrease in ice cover is correct 88% of the time. Model imperfections can largely be diagnosed from simultaneous meridional winds. The framework and skill are supported by a 60 year simulation from a regional ice-ocean model. We particularly predict that the winter sea ice cover for 2016 will be slightly less than 2015.

  9. The role of sea ice dynamics in global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, William D., III

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: general characteristics of sea ice drift; sea ice rheology; ice thickness distribution; sea ice thermodynamic models; equilibrium thermodynamic models; effect of internal brine pockets and snow cover; model simulations of Arctic Sea ice; and sensitivity of sea ice models to climate change.

  10. The Influence of Platelet Ice and Snow on Antarctic Land-fast Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Sea ice fastened to coasts, icebergs and ice shelves is of crucial importance for climate- and ecosystems. Near Antarctic ice shelves, this land-fast sea ice exhibits two unique characteristics that distinguish it from most other sea ice: 1) Ice platelets form and grow in super-cooled water, which originates from ice shelf cavities. The crystals accumulate beneath the solid sea-ice cover and are incorporated into the sea-ice fabric, contributing between 10 and 60% to the mas...

  11. Past and Present-day Ice Mass Variation on Svalbard Revealed by Superconducting Gravimeter and GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omang, O. D.; Kierulf, H. P.

    2012-12-01

    In Arctic areas deglaciation after the last glacial maximum, holocene ice-mass variation as well as present day ice melt, contribute to the land uplift. We use both geometric (GPS) and gravity (Superconducting Gravimeter) data from the observatory in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, as well as in-situ mass balance measurements of the local glaciers, to separate the different processes contributing to the land uplift in Ny-Ålesund and Svalbard. Geometric measurements from Ny-Ålesund indicate a land uplift much larger than expected from traditional models of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). In addition the land uplift shows large year-to-year variations. A combination of the measured variations in the land uplift with local ice-mass variations give us a good constraint on the land uplift caused by the present day ice melt. However, we are still not able to explain all of the measured uplift. We compare 10 years of Superconducting Gravimeter measurements with geometric data and find that they are consistent. We also find, as with the geometric data, that the measured gravity change is much larger than expected from glacial isostatic adjustment and present day ice melt. The ratio between unexplained gravity change and unexplained geometric uplift indicates a viscoelastic process. Most likely is the unexplained uplift caused by late holocene ice-mass variations. Daily SG measurements (in red) overlaid by 4 harmonic constituents and piecewise trends (in black), piecewise trends only (in green) and AG measurements with 1 σ uncertainties (in blue). Daily GPS measurements (in red) overlaid by 4 harmonic constituents and piecewise trends (in black) and piecewise trends only (in green).

  12. Improved method for sea ice age computation based on combination of sea ice drift and concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosov, Anton; Rampal, Pierre; Lavergne, Thomas; Aaboe, Signe

    2017-04-01

    Sea Ice Age is one of the components of the Sea Ice ECV as defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) [WMO, 2015]. It is an important climate indicator describing the sea ice state in addition to sea ice concentration (SIC) and thickness (SIT). The amount of old/thick ice in the Arctic Ocean has been decreasing dramatically [Perovich et al. 2015]. Kwok et al. [2009] reported significant decline in the MYI share and consequent loss of thickness and therefore volume. Today, there is only one acknowledged sea ice age climate data record [Tschudi, et al. 2015], based on Maslanik et al. [2011] provided by National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) [http://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0611-sea-ice-age/]. The sea ice age algorithm [Fowler et al., 2004] is using satellite-derived ice drift for Lagrangian tracking of individual ice parcels (12-km grid cells) defined by areas of sea ice concentration > 15% [Maslanik et al., 2011], i.e. sea ice extent, according to the NASA Team algorithm [Cavalieri et al., 1984]. This approach has several drawbacks. (1) Using sea ice extent instead of sea ice concentration leads to overestimation of the amount of older ice. (2) The individual ice parcels are not advected uniformly over (long) time. This leads to undersampling in areas of consistent ice divergence. (3) The end product grid cells are assigned the age of the oldest ice parcel within that cell, and the frequency distribution of the ice age is not taken into account. In addition, the base sea ice drift product (https://nsidc.org/data/docs/daac/nsidc0116_icemotion.gd.html) is known to exhibit greatly reduced accuracy during the summer season [Sumata et al 2014, Szanyi, 2016] as it only relies on a combination of sea ice drifter trajectories and wind-driven "free-drift" motion during summer. This results in a significant overestimate of old-ice content, incorrect shape of the old-ice pack, and lack of information about the ice age distribution within the grid cells. We

  13. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  14. Albedo evolution of seasonal Arctic sea ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald K. Perovich; Christopher Polashenski

    2012-01-01

    .... Here we examine the impact of this shift on sea ice albedo. Our analysis of observations from four years of field experiments indicates that seasonal ice undergoes an albedo evolution with seven phases...

  15. Arctic Sea Ice Concentration and Extent from Danish Meteorological Institute Sea Ice Charts, 1901-1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides estimates of Arctic sea ice extent and concentration from 1901 to 1956 created from a collection of historic, hand-drawn sea ice charts from...

  16. A Fram Strait Experiment: Sensing Sea Ice Conditions using Shipborne GNSS Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmling, Maximilian; Rösel, Anja; Ludwig, Marcel; Bratrein, Marius; Gerland, Sebastian; Wickert, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Cruises of the Norwegian research vessel (R/V) Lance provide regular in-situ measurements of ocean and sea ice properties in Fram Strait, at the major link between the Arctic and the Atlantic Ocean. A GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) setup has been installed aboard R/V Lance to investigate sea ice remote sensing opportunities during the Fram Strait 2016 cruise. The experiment is based on previous coastal investigations, which demonstrated the ocean altimetric potential of GNSS-R and its sensitivity to the sea ice cover. The presence of sea ice can be detected by the reduced sea surface roughness that affects the coherence of the GNSS-R carrier phase. Differential phase observations of the reflected signal relative to the direct signal are considered here. The objective of this study is the retrieval of the coherent differential phase resolving the altimetric effect of changes in the sea ice thickness. Grazing reflections with satellite elevations commercial JAVAD hardware. Two antenna links are starbord-looking with right- and left-handed circular polarization to detect the reflected signal. One right-handed antenna is up-looking for reference to the direct signal. In-phase and quadrature (I,Q) samples from the three antenna links were recorded during the entire Fram Strait cruise, between 25 August and 13 September 2016. The ship's track on its main section went from Svalbard at 10° E roughly along 79° N to the Eastern Greenland coast at 13° W and back. Different ice conditions were encountered: open water with a rough sea surface close to Svalbard, a dense coverage of multiyear drift ice in the centre of Fram Strait and multiyear fast ice at the Greenland coast. The recorded events comprise about 920 hours of observations with an almost omnidirectional view and 1° to 30° elevation. Most data can be referred to sea surface reflections. However, parts are also affected by multipath from the ship. The specular reflection power ratio is mapped over the entire cruise

  17. The Last Arctic Sea Ice Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Fowler, C.

    2010-12-01

    Summer sea ice may persist along the northern flank of Canada and Greenland for decades longer than the rest of the Arctic, raising the possibility of a naturally formed refugium for ice-associated species. Observations and models indicate that some ice in this region forms locally, while some is transported to the area by winds and ocean currents. Depending on future changes in melt patterns and sea ice transport rates, both the central Arctic and Siberian shelf seas may be sources of ice to the region. An international system of monitoring and management of the sea ice refuge, along with the ice source regions, has the potential to maintain viable habitat for ice-associated species, including polar bears, for decades into the future. Issues to consider in developing a strategy include: + the likely duration and extent of summer sea ice in this region based on observations, models and paleoenvironmental information + the extent and characteristics of the “ice shed” contributing sea ice to the refuge, including its dynamics, physical and biological characteristics as well as potential for contamination from local or long-range sources + likely assemblages of ice-associated species and their habitats + potential stressors such as transportation, tourism, resource extraction, contamination + policy, governance, and development issues including management strategies that could maintain the viability of the refuge.

  18. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Nesland Vevatne

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFNmodel which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  19. Assessing trend and variation of Arctic sea-ice extent during 1979–2012 from a latitude perspective of ice edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea-ice extent (in summer has been shrinking since the 1970s. However, we have little knowledge of the detailed spatial variability of this shrinking. In this study, we examine the (latitudinal ice extent along each degree of longitude, using the monthly Arctic ice index data sets (1979–2012 from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Statistical analysis suggests that: (1 for summer months (July–October, there was a 34-year declining trend in sea-ice extent at most regions, except for the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Greenland and Svalbard, with retreat rates of 0.0562–0.0898 latitude degree/year (or 6.26–10.00 km/year, at a significance level of 0.05; (2 for sea ice not geographically muted by the continental coastline in winter months (January–April, there was a declining trend of 0.0216–0.0559 latitude degree/year (2.40–6.22 km/year, at a significance level of 0.05. Regionally, the most evident sea-ice decline occurred in the Chukchi Sea from August to October, Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea from January to May, Barents Sea in most months, Kara Sea from July to August and Laptev Sea and eastern Siberian Sea in August and September. Trend analysis also indicates that: (1 the decline in summer ice extent became significant (at a 0.05 significance level since 1999 and (2 winter ice extent showed a clear changing point (decline around 2000, becoming statistically significant around 2005. The Pacific–Siberian sector of the Arctic accounted for most of the summer sea-ice decline, while the winter recovery of sea ice in the Atlantic sector tended to decrease.

  20. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Sea ice reflectance or albedo , a key parameter in climate modeling, is primarily determined by melt pond and ice floe configurations. Ice- albedo ...ice albedo remains a significant challenge to improving climate models. Our research is focused on obtaining extensive imagery of melt pond...of a plane (water level) with a surface generated by a random Fourier series (representing the snow and ice topography) look very similar to melt

  1. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Brightness temperatures at 1.4. GHz (L-band) measured by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission have been used to derive the thickness of sea ice. The retrieval method is applicable only for relatively thin ice and not during the melting period. Hitherto, the availability of ground...... truth sea ice thickness measurements for validation of SMOS sea ice products was mainly limited to relatively thick ice. The situation has improved with an extensive field campaign in the Barents Sea during an anomalous ice edge retreat and subsequent freeze-up event in March 2014. A sea ice forecast...... system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...

  2. Climate change, sea ice, and RADARSAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, D.G. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    1998-12-31

    The role of sea ice in climate variability and change was discussed. It was suggested that since oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns are driven by polar processes, sea ice is a good potential indicator of the impacts of climate variability and change. Sensors such as RADARSAT are ideal for direct measurement and monitoring of the effects of climate change in polar regions. This presentation described the nature of the surface energy balance over sea ice and described how energy fluxes affect both the geophysical and electrical properties of sea ice over the annual cycle of growth and decay. The concept of the time series evolution in the average relative scattering coefficient as a means of directly measuring the thermodynamic state of the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system was introduced. Work recently completed in the North Water Polynya study, the Collaborative Interdisciplinary Cryosphere Experiment (C-ICE), and the Surface Heat and Energy Balance of the Arctic (SHEBA) was also described.

  3. Past and Present-day Ice Mass Variation on Svalbard Revealed by Superconducting Gravimeter, GPS and VLBI Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierulf, H. P.; Omang, O.

    2012-12-01

    The measured uplift in Ny-Alesund has varied with geodetic technique, analyzed strategy, and the time period used. This has caused problems for both reference frame issues as well as the geophysical interpretations of the results. In Arctic areas deglaciation after the last glacial maximum, Holocene ice mass variation, and present day ice melt contribute to the land uplift. In addition, tectonic contributions cannot be excluded. We use both geometric and gravity data from the observatory in Ny-Alesund as well as in-situ mass balance measurements of local glaciers to separate the different processes contributing to the land uplift in Ny-Alesund and Svalbard. Measurements from the geodetic observatory in Ny-Alesund indicate land uplift much larger than expected from traditional models of glacial isostatic adjustment. In addition, the land uplift shows large variations from year to year. A combination of the measured variations in the land uplift along with local ice mass variations give a good constraint on the land uplift caused by the present day ice melt. However, we are still not able to explain all the measured uplift. The changes in measured gravity are consistent with the geometric measurements but also much larger than expected from the glacial isostatic adjustment and the present day ice melt. The ratio of unexplained gravity change and unexplained geometric uplift indicate a viscoelastic process. The unexplained uplift is most likely caused by late Holocene ice mass variations.

  4. Biogeochemical Coupling between Ocean and Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Jeffery, N.; Maltrud, M. E.; Elliott, S.; Wolfe, J.

    2016-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes in ocean and sea ice are tightly coupled at high latitudes. Ongoing changes in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice domain likely influence the coupled system, not only through physical fields but also biogeochemical properties. Investigating the system and its changes requires representation of ocean and sea ice biogeochemical cycles, as well as their coupling in Earth System Models. Our work is based on ACME-HiLAT, a new offshoot of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), including a comprehensive representation of marine ecosystems in the form of the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling Module (BEC). A full vertical column sea ice biogeochemical module has recently been incorporated into the sea ice component. We have further introduced code modifications to couple key growth-limiting nutrients (N, Si, Fe), dissolved and particulate organic matter, and phytoplankton classes that are important in polar regions between ocean and sea ice. The coupling of ocean and sea ice biology-chemistry will enable representation of key processes such as the release of important climate active constituents or seeding algae from melting sea ice into surface waters. Sensitivity tests suggest sea ice and ocean biogeochemical coupling influences phytoplankton competition, biological production, and the CO2 flux. Sea ice algal seeding plays an important role in determining phytoplankton composition of Arctic early spring blooms, since different groups show various responses to the seeding biomass. Iron coupling leads to increased phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean, which also affects carbon uptake via the biological pump. The coupling of macronutrients and organic matter may have weaker influences on the marine ecosystem. Our developments will allow climate scientists to investigate the fully coupled responses of the sea ice-ocean BGC system to physical changes in polar climate.

  5. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  6. Small scale deformation of Arctic sea ice with respect to distance to ice edge: the impact of wave propagation in the ice pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikkonen, A.; Haapala, J. J.; Tuomi, L.; Karvonen, J.; Itkin, P.; Lensu, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the deformation of Arctic sea ice in small scale ( 0.1 to 10 km) using the ship radar images recorded on board R/V Lance during the N-ICE2015 campaign. The data covers nearly six-month period from January to June in 2015. During the campaign, R/V Lance was drifting in the ice pack north/northwest from Svalbard, and experienced variety of conditions. This dataset allows us to study the impact of conditions on the sea ice deformation. In this study we focus on the impact of the distance to the ice edge.The ship radar images cover the area of 15*15 km. We calculate trajectories of identifiable objects using the virtual buoy tracking method with an interval of 1 minute. For the deformation calculations, we use hourly averages of the 1 minute positions. In order to cover different length scales, we form different sizes of triangles from the followed objects and calculate their deformations with one hour time step. In order to minimize the effect of other factors than the distance to ice edge, we conduct our deformation analyses separately for cold winter and warm spring. For both of these cases, we show the power law scaling of the sea ice deformation at different distance ranges. Both in winter and spring, the impact of the distance to the ice edge is found as a gradient in the deformation rate: as the distance increases, the deformation rate decreases. We see this as an indication of the wave attenuation in the ice pack. Also, the power law scaling exponent shows a decrease in the magnitude as the distance to ice edge increases. The greater magnitude of the power law scaling exponent close to the ice edge reflects how the internal stress is transmitted over shorter distances than deeper in the ice pack.

  7. CICE, The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-12

    The Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) is the result of an effort to develop a computationally efficient sea ice component for a fully coupled atmosphere–land–ocean–ice global climate model. It was originally designed to be compatible with the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), an ocean circulation model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on massively parallel computers. CICE has several interacting components: a vertical thermodynamic model that computes local growth rates of snow and ice due to vertical conductive, radiative and turbulent fluxes, along with snowfall; an elastic-viscous-plastic model of ice dynamics, which predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the ice; an incremental remapping transport model that describes horizontal advection of the areal concentration, ice and snow volume and other state variables; and a ridging parameterization that transfers ice among thickness categories based on energetic balances and rates of strain. It also includes a biogeochemical model that describes evolution of the ice ecosystem. The CICE sea ice model is used for climate research as one component of complex global earth system models that include atmosphere, land, ocean and biogeochemistry components. It is also used for operational sea ice forecasting in the polar regions and in numerical weather prediction models.

  8. Arctic Sea ice Predictability and the Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Bogren, E. J.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2015-12-01

    The decline in extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice is an active area of scientific effort with significant implications for ecosystems and communities. Forecasting sea ice extent for seasonal timescales, which is of particular interest to many stakeholders, is challenging due to variable weather and ocean behavior over that timescale as well as the current limits to data and modeling capabilities. The Sea Ice Prediction Network (SIPN) is developing a collaborative network of scientists and stakeholders to advance research on sea ice prediction and to communicate sea ice knowledge and tools. The project objectives are to coordinate and evaluate predictions; integrate, assess, and guide observations; synthesize predictions and observations; and disseminate predictions and engage key stakeholders. These objectives are advanced with projects such as the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO), efforts of the SIPN Action Teams, and a series SIPN webinars on topics relevant to the sea ice research community.

  9. Massive phytoplankton blooms under Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R; Perovich, Donald K; Pickart, Robert S; Brown, Zachary W; van Dijken, Gert L; Lowry, Kate E; Mills, Matthew M; Palmer, Molly A; Balch, William M; Bahr, Frank; Bates, Nicholas R; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Bowler, Bruce; Brownlee, Emily; Ehn, Jens K; Frey, Karen E; Garley, Rebecca; Laney, Samuel R; Lubelczyk, Laura; Mathis, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Atsushi; Mitchell, B Greg; Moore, G W K; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Pal, Sharmila; Polashenski, Chris M; Reynolds, Rick A; Schieber, Brian; Sosik, Heidi M; Stephens, Michael; Swift, James H

    2012-06-15

    Phytoplankton blooms over Arctic Ocean continental shelves are thought to be restricted to waters free of sea ice. Here, we document a massive phytoplankton bloom beneath fully consolidated pack ice far from the ice edge in the Chukchi Sea, where light transmission has increased in recent decades because of thinning ice cover and proliferation of melt ponds. The bloom was characterized by high diatom biomass and rates of growth and primary production. Evidence suggests that under-ice phytoplankton blooms may be more widespread over nutrient-rich Arctic continental shelves and that satellite-based estimates of annual primary production in these waters may be underestimated by up to 10-fold.

  10. Disentangling the mechanisms of the coupling between sea ice and tundra productivity: cold air advection vs. arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Fauria, M.; Karlsen, S. R.; Forbes, B. C.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in arctic terrestrial productivity have been associated with the decline in sea ice extent, concentration, and volume observed at a pan-Arctic scale during the last decades, on the basis that most tundra ecosystems lay close to the sea. However the mechanisms for this coupling remain elusive, and despite overall trend agreements between different components of the Arctic system, no clear hypothesis has successfully explained the heterogeneous spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice and tundra productivity. Here we propose two mechanisms through which sea ice might influence tundra productivity: (1) by advecting cold air from sea ice to the adjacent land during the growing season (cold air advection, local-to-regional control); (2) via changes in the regional climate linked to the snow-ice albedo feedbacks (arctic amplification, regional-to-pan-Arctic controls). We used 8-day Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI MODIS) and concurrent sea ice concentration data (Norwegian Sea Ice Service) to test the relative influence of cold air advection vs. arctic amplification over the Svalbard Archipelago (period 2000-2014). Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) analyses suggest that cold air advection affects tundra productivity in regions/periods where/when sea ice is close to the adjacent land during the growing season, whereas a more regional signal appears when sea ice is distant ( >100km) from the coast. Further analyses were performed using the same approach over the pan-Arctic region using bi-weekly NDVI (GIMMS-NDVI3g) and sea ice extent (NASA/JAXA dataset; period 1981-2015). We interpret that cold air advection locally causes temperatures in the adjacent land to drop ("true coupling"), whereas in the arctic amplification scenario both NDVI and regional sea ice concentration are collinearly related to warmer, regional-to-pan-Arctic temperatures. Our results offer a mechanism that successfully explains NDVI/sea ice coupling and its heterogeneous spatial and

  11. Predictions replaced by facts: a keystone species' behavioural responses to declining arctic sea-ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Charmain D; Lydersen, Christian; Ims, Rolf A; Kovacs, Kit M

    2015-11-01

    Since the first documentation of climate-warming induced declines in arctic sea-ice, predictions have been made regarding the expected negative consequences for endemic marine mammals. But, several decades later, little hard evidence exists regarding the responses of these animals to the ongoing environmental changes. Herein, we report the first empirical evidence of a dramatic shift in movement patterns and foraging behaviour of the arctic endemic ringed seal (Pusa hispida), before and after a major collapse in sea-ice in Svalbard, Norway. Among other changes to the ice-regime, this collapse shifted the summer position of the marginal ice zone from over the continental shelf, northward to the deep Arctic Ocean Basin. Following this change, which is thought to be a 'tipping point', subadult ringed seals swam greater distances, showed less area-restricted search behaviour, dived for longer periods, exhibited shorter surface intervals, rested less on sea-ice and did less diving directly beneath the ice during post-moulting foraging excursions. In combination, these behavioural changes suggest increased foraging effort and thus also likely increases in the energetic costs of finding food. Continued declines in sea-ice are likely to result in distributional changes, range reductions and population declines in this keystone arctic species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Arctic tides from GPS on sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    The presence of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean plays a significant role in the Arctic climate. Sea ice dampens the ocean tide amplitude with the result that global tidal models which use only astronomical data perform less accurately in the polar regions. This study presents a kinematic processing...... of Global Positioning System (GPS) buoys placed on sea-ice at five different sites north of Greenland for the study of sea level height and tidal analysis to improve tidal models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tidal model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide...

  13. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  14. Correlated Energy Exchange in Drifting Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ice floe speed variations were monitored at the research camp North Pole 35 established on the Arctic ice pack in 2008. A three-month time series of measured speed values was used for determining changes in the kinetic energy of the drifting ice floe. The constructed energy distributions were analyzed by methods of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on the Tsallis statistics for open nonequilibrium systems, such as tectonic formations and drifting sea ice. The nonextensivity means the nonadditivity of externally induced energy changes in multicomponent systems due to dynamic interrelation of components having no structural links. The Tsallis formalism gives one an opportunity to assess the correlation between ice floe motions through a specific parameter, the so-called parameter of nonextensivity. This formalistic assessment of the actual state of drifting pack allows one to forecast some important trends in sea ice behavior, because the level of correlated dynamics determines conditions for extended mechanical perturbations in ice pack. In this work, we revealed temporal fluctuations of the parameter of nonextensivity and observed its maximum value before a large-scale sea ice fragmentation (faulting of consolidated sea ice. The correlation was not detected in fragmented sea ice where long-range interactions are weakened.

  15. Vertical thermodynamic structure of the troposphere during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Markus; Maturilli, Marion; Graham, Robert M.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Rinke, Annette; Cohen, Lana; Kim, Joo-Hong; Park, Sang-Jong; Moon, Woosok; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-10-01

    The Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition was designed to investigate the atmosphere-snow-ice-ocean interactions in the young and thin sea ice regime north of Svalbard. Radiosondes were launched twice daily during the expedition from January to June 2015. Here we use these upper air measurements to study the multiple cyclonic events observed during N-ICE2015 with respect to changes in the vertical thermodynamic structure, moisture content, and boundary layer characteristics. We provide statistics of temperature inversion characteristics, static stability, and boundary layer extent. During winter, when radiative cooling is most effective, we find the strongest impact of synoptic cyclones. Changes to thermodynamic characteristics of the boundary layer are associated with transitions between the radiatively "clear" and "opaque" atmospheric states. In spring, radiative fluxes warm the surface leading to lifted temperature inversions and a statically unstable boundary layer. Further, we compare the N-ICE2015 static stability distributions to corresponding profiles from ERA-Interim reanalysis, from the closest land station in the Arctic North Atlantic sector, Ny-Ålesund, and to soundings from the SHEBA expedition (1997/1998). We find similar stability characteristics for N-ICE2015 and SHEBA throughout the troposphere, despite differences in location, sea ice thickness, and snow cover. For Ny-Ålesund, we observe similar characteristics above 1000 m, while the topography and ice-free fjord surrounding Ny-Ålesund generate great differences below. The long-term radiosonde record (1993-2014) from Ny-Ålesund indicates that during the N-ICE2015 spring period, temperatures were close to the climatological mean, while the lowest 3000 m were 1-3°C warmer than the climatology during winter.

  16. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    from the EM31 ............................................ 5 5 The Yeti-EM31 survey track plot. GPS track points (circles) were logged at 10 s...Using similar ice-temperature bins, Weale and Sodhi (2015) calculated the required ice thickness to support heavy tracked vehicles traversing...C is interpreted as the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the

  17. Atmospheric and oceanic drag on sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Feltham, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pressure ridges, keels, floe edges and melt pond edges all introduce discrete obstructions to the flow of the air or ocean over the ice, and are a source of form drag. For typical ice covers the form drag contribution to the total drag is of comparable or greater magnitude to the surface or skin drag. In current climate models form drag is only accounted for by tuning of the air-ice and air-ocean drag coefficients, i.e. by altering the roughness length in a surface drag parameterization. The existing approach of skin drag parameter tuning, while numerically convenient, is poorly constrained by observations and fails to describe correctly the physics associated with the air-ice and ocean-ice drag. Here we combine recent theoretical developments to deduce the total neutral form drag coefficients from the key parameters of the ice cover such as ice concentration, size and area of the ridges and keels, freeboard and floe draft and size of melt ponds. We validate the assumptions of this parameterisation against remote sensing observations from airborne missions (IceBridge) and high resolution satellites. We incorporate the drag coefficients into the sea ice component of a climate model (the CICE model). This stage necessitates that the sea ice characteristics obtained locally from observations are mapped to the averaged sea ice quantities provided by the sea ice model at the larger grid cell length scale. We present results over the Arctic of a stand-alone version of the model and show the influence of the new drag parameterisation on the motion and mass of the ice cover. The new parameterisation allows the drag coefficients to be coupled to the sea ice state and therefore to evolve spatially and temporally. We test the predictions of the model against measured drag coefficients in several regions of the Arctic and find good agreement between model and observations.

  18. Quantification of sea ice production in Weddell Sea polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther; Paul, Stephan; Stulic, Lukrecia; Timmermann, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    The regional climate model COSMO-CLM was used to perform simulations the Weddell Sea region in Antarctica for the time period 2002-2015 with the focus on atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interactions. The original model was adapted to polar regions by the use of a thermodynamic sea ice module with snow cover and an temperature-dependent albedo scheme for sea ice. The recently published topography RTopo2 was used. The model was run with nesting in ERA-Interim data in a forecast mode. Sea ice concentrations were taken from satellite measurements (AMSR-E, SSMI/S, AMSR2) and were updated daily to allow for a close-to-reality hindcast. Simulations were done with 15 km resolution for the whole period 2002-2015 with the goal to force the sea-ice ocean model FESOM. In a second step a 5 km simulation was one-way nested for the winter period (April - September) 2002-2015 to allow for a better quantification of sea ice production in the Weddell Sea. Estimates of sea ice production and comparisons of the results to remote sensing data will be presented.

  19. Stress and deformation characteristics of sea ice in a high resolution numerical sea ice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Tsamados, Michel

    2017-04-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice floating on the polar oceans is due to the applied wind and ocean currents. The deformations of sea ice over ocean basin length scales have observable patterns; cracks and leads in satellite images and within the velocity fields generated from floe tracking. In a climate sea ice model the deformation of sea ice over ocean basin length scales is modelled using a rheology that represents the relationship between stresses and deformation within the sea ice cover. Here we investigate the link between observable deformation characteristics and the underlying internal sea ice stresses and force balance using the Los Alamos numerical sea ice climate model. In order to mimic laboratory experiments on the deformation of small cubes of sea ice we have developed an idealised square domain that tests the model response at spatial resolutions of up to 500m. We use the Elastic Anisotropic Plastic and Elastic Viscous Plastic rheologies, comparing their stability over varying resolutions and time scales. Sea ice within the domain is forced by idealised winds in order to compare the confinement of wind stresses and internal sea ice stresses. We document the characteristic deformation patterns of convergent, divergent and rotating stress states.

  20. Linking scales in sea ice mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jérôme; Dansereau, Véronique

    2017-02-13

    Mechanics plays a key role in the evolution of the sea ice cover through its control on drift, on momentum and thermal energy exchanges between the polar oceans and the atmosphere along cracks and faults, and on ice thickness distribution through opening and ridging processes. At the local scale, a significant variability of the mechanical strength is associated with the microstructural heterogeneity of saline ice, however characterized by a small correlation length, below the ice thickness scale. Conversely, the sea ice mechanical fields (velocity, strain and stress) are characterized by long-ranged (more than 1000 km) and long-lasting (approx. few months) correlations. The associated space and time scaling laws are the signature of the brittle character of sea ice mechanics, with deformation resulting from a multi-scale accumulation of episodic fracturing and faulting events. To translate the short-range-correlated disorder on strength into long-range-correlated mechanical fields, several key ingredients are identified: long-ranged elastic interactions, slow driving conditions, a slow viscous-like relaxation of elastic stresses and a restoring/healing mechanism. These ingredients constrained the development of a new continuum mechanics modelling framework for the sea ice cover, called Maxwell-elasto-brittle. Idealized simulations without advection demonstrate that this rheological framework reproduces the main characteristics of sea ice mechanics, including anisotropy, spatial localization and intermittency, as well as the associated scaling laws.This article is part of the themed issue 'Microdynamics of ice'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Albedo of the ice-covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.I.; King, J C; T. A. Lachlan-Cope; Ladkin, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albed...

  2. Operationally Merged Satellite Visible/IR and Passive Microwave Sea Ice Information for Improved Sea Ice Forecasts and Ship Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    sea ice concentration, we grouped surface types into five classes: sea ice , snow on sea ice , cloud, water, and land . The land surface type is...determined by the 250 m resolution MODIS land mask data; the water surface is identified as very low albedo in the visible spectrum; ice /snow/cloud pixels are...microwave sea ice information for improved sea ice forecasts and ship routing W. Meier NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory

  3. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  4. Influences of sea ice on eastern Bering Sea phytoplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Wang, Peng; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Li, Bingqian; Gao, Yahui

    2015-03-01

    The influence of sea ice on the species composition and cell density of phytoplankton was investigated in the eastern Bering Sea in spring 2008. Diatoms, particularly pennate diatoms, dominated the phytoplankton community. The dominant species were Grammonema islandica (Grunow in Van Heurck) Hasle, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, F. oceanica (Cleve) Hasle, Navicula vanhoeffenii Gran, Thalassiosira antarctica Comber, T. gravida Cleve, T. nordenskiöeldii Cleve, and T. rotula Meunier. Phytoplankton cell densities varied from 0.08×104 to 428.8×104 cells/L, with an average of 30.3×104 cells/L. Using cluster analysis, phytoplankton were grouped into three assemblages defined by ice-forming conditions: open water, ice edge, and sea ice assemblages. In spring, when the sea ice melts, the phytoplankton dispersed from the sea ice to the ice edge and even into open waters. Thus, these phytoplankton in the sea ice may serve as a "seed bank" for phytoplankton population succession in the subarctic ecosystem. Moreover, historical studies combined with these results suggest that the sizes of diatom species have become smaller, shifting from microplankton to nannoplankton-dominated communities.

  5. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice leads in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Hutchings, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Shapiro, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Leads in sea ice play an important role in the polar marine environment where they allow heat and moisture transfer between the oceans and atmosphere and act as travel pathways for both marine mammals and ships. Examining AVHRR thermal imagery of the Beaufort Sea, collected between 1994 and 2010, sea ice leads appear in repeating patterns and locations (Eicken et al 2005). The leads, resolved by AVHRR, are at least 250m wide (Mahoney et al 2012), thus the patterns described are for lead systems that extend up to hundreds of kilometers across the Beaufort Sea. We describe how these patterns are associated with the location of weather systems relative to the coastline. Mean sea level pressure and 10m wind fields from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to identify if particular lead patterns can be uniquely forecast based on the location of weather systems. Ice drift data from the NSIDC's Polar Pathfinder Daily 25km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors indicates the role shear along leads has on the motion of ice in the Beaufort Gyre. Lead formation is driven by 4 main factors: (i) coastal features such as promontories and islands influence the origin of leads by concentrating stresses within the ice pack; (ii) direction of the wind forcing on the ice pack determines the type of fracture, (iii) the location of the anticyclone (or cyclone) center determines the length of the fracture for certain patterns; and (iv) duration of weather conditions affects the width of the ice fracture zones. Movement of the ice pack on the leeward side of leads originating at promontories and islands increases, creating shear zones that control ice transport along the Alaska coast in winter. . Understanding how atmospheric conditions influence the large-scale motion of the ice pack is needed to design models that predict variability of the gyre and export of multi-year ice to lower latitudes.

  6. Floating ice-algal aggregates below melting arctic sea ice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Assmy

    Full Text Available During two consecutive cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic in late summer 2012, we observed floating algal aggregates in the melt-water layer below and between melting ice floes of first-year pack ice. The macroscopic (1-15 cm in diameter aggregates had a mucous consistency and were dominated by typical ice-associated pennate diatoms embedded within the mucous matrix. Aggregates maintained buoyancy and accumulated just above a strong pycnocline that separated meltwater and seawater layers. We were able, for the first time, to obtain quantitative abundance and biomass estimates of these aggregates. Although their biomass and production on a square metre basis was small compared to ice-algal blooms, the floating ice-algal aggregates supported high levels of biological activity on the scale of the individual aggregate. In addition they constituted a food source for the ice-associated fauna as revealed by pigments indicative of zooplankton grazing, high abundance of naked ciliates, and ice amphipods associated with them. During the Arctic melt season, these floating aggregates likely play an important ecological role in an otherwise impoverished near-surface sea ice environment. Our findings provide important observations and measurements of a unique aggregate-based habitat during the 2012 record sea ice minimum year.

  7. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  8. ISLSCP II Global Sea Ice Concentration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative II data set is based on the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Sea Ice...

  9. Estimating the thickness of sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Robert H.; Paquette, Robert G.

    1989-01-01

    Sea ice freeboard, thickness, and snow depth were measured from a series of closely spaced (5 to 10 m) drill hole sites from five free-floating multiyear ice floes in the Beaufort Sea during the spring of 1986 and 1987. A regression of ice thickness on ice draft was performed on the data from each floe and for the combined data set. Regressions were performed both on nonscreened data and data screened to eliminate pressure ridges. A predictive equation was developed permitting the total ice thickness to be estimated from measured values of ice draft, e.g., from submarine echo sounder traces: t = 1.115 d. The keel-sail height ratio for pressure ridges was found constant at 3.3 to 1, in agreement with past observations.

  10. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    the sea-ice extent minimum) is complete. These include, multi-year ice advective flux away from coastlines in winter, Bering Strait heat inflow and...anomalous sea ice extent and position of the MIZ as thermodynamic effect. Results also show a strong correlation (r = 0.8) between the Bering Strait ...melting via radiative/turbulent losses. We define dynamic loss as summer sea ice extent loss via sea ice export through Fram Strait (mainly) or sea

  11. SENTINEL-1 RESULTS: SEA ICE OPERATIONAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Saldo, Roberto; Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production.......In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production....

  12. The Optical Properties of Sea Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    In this section we present an overview of these observations in the context of illustrating how the optical properties of sea ice are affected by...observations of re- flected radiance. The presence of any systematic topographic features, such as sastrugi , will fur- ther complicate the BRDF. the two...models. As the previous section demonstrated, there are several good radiative transfer models for sea ice that include information on the physi- cal

  13. Holocene landscape history and ground ice distribution in Svalbard and NE-Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cable, Stefanie

    quantified and shows a large variability at local, landform and landscape scale and with depth, just as lithology and carbon distribution vary considerably. This variability is linked to the landscape history and patterns of permafrost aggradation, controlled by the relief, sediment transport and hydrology......- and carbon-rich permafrost on alluvial fans continued to aggrade during warmer Early Holocene climate, linked to nivation and slope erosion, fan sedimentation and vegetation expansion, in Svalbard, loess terraces and alluvial fans seem more vulnerable to degradation in a warmer climate where...

  14. Sea-ice production in the northern Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    Sinking of the dense water plays a significant role in the global climate system by driving thermohaline (overturning) circulation and biogeochemical cycles. Deep water convection occurs also in the Japan Sea, and the convection has been considered to be mainly caused by intense cooling of the sea surface. Another possible cause of the convection is brine rejection associated with high sea-ice production in a coastal polynya (thin sea-ice) area in the northern Japan Sea. We have developed an algorithm which detects the thin ice area and estimates the thickness using passive microwave satellite data. Based on a heat flux calculation with the satellite-derived ice thickness, the total sea-ice production in winter (December-March) averaged over 2002/03-2010/11 is estimated to be 4.27 × 1010 m3. This indicates that the ice production was underestimated by about half in a previous study in which the polynya was unrealistically treated as a low ice concentration area. The main determinant factor for the total ice production is the surface air temperature in early winter (December-January), which shows a rapid warming trend of 0.7 °C/decade for this 40-years. Based on a linear regression approach, the total ice production is estimated to have decreased by 5%/decade due to air temperature warming. If brine rejection due to the ice production contributes to the deep water formation in the Japan Sea, this is consistent with the fact that the deep water formation has been decreasing for the last 50-100 years.

  15. How reversible is sea ice loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Ridley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well accepted that increasing atmospheric CO2 results in global warming, leading to a decline in polar sea ice area. Here, the specific question of whether there is a tipping point in the sea ice cover is investigated. The global climate model HadCM3 is used to map the trajectory of sea ice area under idealised scenarios. The atmospheric CO2 is first ramped up to four times pre-industrial levels (4 × CO2, then ramped down to pre-industrial levels. We also examine the impact of stabilising climate at 4 × CO2 prior to ramping CO2 down to pre-industrial levels. Against global mean temperature, Arctic sea ice area is reversible, while the Antarctic sea ice shows some asymmetric behaviour – its rate of change slower, with falling temperatures, than its rate of change with rising temperatures. However, we show that the asymmetric behaviour is driven by hemispherical differences in temperature change between transient and stabilisation periods. We find no irreversible behaviour in the sea ice cover.

  16. Canadian Ice Service Arctic Regional Sea Ice Charts in SIGRID-3 Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Canadian Ice Service (CIS) produces digital Arctic regional sea ice charts for marine navigation, climate research, and input to the Global Digital Sea Ice Data...

  17. Wave-Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ice . The ROV and all sensors were tested extensively at WHOI. This platform will complement the AUV by performing rapid, short under ice ...Bruncin, 3) two WHOI-built IMBs also equipped with acoustic snow depth sensors and CTDs, and 4) one CRREL Seasonal Sea Ice Zone IMB. In addition, an...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- Ice and Air- Ice -Ocean Interaction During the

  18. Arctic and Antarctic sea ice and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2014-12-01

    Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode Varimax rotated was performed on Antarctic and Arctic monthly sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) fields for the period 1979-2014, in order to investigate which are the main spatial characteristics of sea ice and its relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis provides 5 patterns of sea ice for inter-spring period and 3 patterns for summer-autumn for Antarctica (69,2% of the total variance) and 3 different patterns for summer-autumn and 3 for winter-spring season for the Arctic Ocean (67,8% of the total variance).Each of these patterns has a positive and negative phase. We used the Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations database derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm. To understand the links between the SICA and climate trends, we extracted the mean pressure and, temperature field patterns for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns that gave distinct atmospheric structures associated with each one. For Antarctica, the first SICA spatial winter-spring pattern in positive phase shows a negative SICA centre over the Drake Passage and north region of Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas together with another negative SICA centre over the East Indian Ocean. Strong positive centres over the rest of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans basins and the Amundsen Sea are also presented. A strong negative pressure anomaly covers most of the Antarctic Continent centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. During recent years, the Arctic showed persistent associations of sea-ice and climate patterns principally during summer. Our strongest summer-autumn pattern in negative phase showed a marked reduction on SICA over western Arctic, primarily linked to an overall increase in Arctic atmospheric temperature most pronounced over the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian Seas, and a positive anomaly of

  19. Structural Uncertainty in Antarctic sea ice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    The inability of the vast majority of historical climate model simulations to reproduce the observed increase in Antarctic sea ice has motivated many studies about the quality of the observational record, the role of natural variability versus forced changes, and the possibility of missing or inadequate forcings in the models (such as freshwater discharge from thinning ice shelves or an inadequate magnitude of stratospheric ozone depletion). In this presentation I will highlight another source of uncertainty that has received comparatively little attention: Structural uncertainty, that is, the systematic uncertainty in simulated sea ice trends that arises from model physics and mean-state biases. Using two large ensembles of experiments from the Community Earth System Model (CESM), I will show that the model is predisposed towards producing negative Antarctic sea ice trends during 1979-present, and that this outcome is not simply because the model's decadal variability is out-of-synch with that in nature. In the "Tropical Pacific Pacemaker" ensemble, in which observed tropical Pacific SST anomalies are prescribed, the model produces very realistic atmospheric circulation trends over the Southern Ocean, yet the sea ice trend is negative in every ensemble member. However, if the ensemble-mean trend (commonly interpreted as the forced response) is removed, some ensemble members show a sea ice increase that is very similar to the observed. While this results does confirm the important role of natural variability, it also suggests a strong bias in the forced response. I will discuss the reasons for this systematic bias and explore possible remedies. This an important problem to solve because projections of 21st -Century changes in the Antarctic climate system (including ice sheet surface mass balance changes and related changes in the sea level budget) have a strong dependence on the mean state of and changes in the Antarctic sea ice cover. This problem is not unique to

  20. In situ validation of segmented SAR satellite scenes of young Arctic thin landfast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerland, S.; Negrel, J.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Akbari, V.; Lauknes, T. R.; Rouyet, L.; Storvold, R.

    2016-12-01

    The use of satellite remote sensing techniques for the observation and monitoring of the polar regions has increased in recent years due to the ability to cover larger areas than can be covered by ground measurements, However, in situ data remain mandatory for the validation of such data. In April 2016 an Arctic fieldwork campaign was conducted at Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. Ground measurements from this campaign are used together with satellite data acquisitions to improve identification of young sea ice types from satellite data. This work was carried out in combination with Norwegian Polar Institute's long-term monitoring of Svalbard fast ice, and with partner institutes in the Center for Integrated Remote Sensing and Forecasting for Arctic operations (CIRFA). Thin ice types are generally more difficult to investigate than thicker ice, because ice of only a few centimetres thickness does not allow scientists to stand and work on it. Identifying it on radar scenes will make it easier to study and monitor. Four high resolution 25 km x 25 km Radarsat-2 quad-pol scenes were obtained, coincident in space and time with the in situ measurements. The field teams used a variety of methods, including ice thickness transects, ice salinity measurements, ground-based radar imaging from the coast and UAV-based photography, to identify the different thin ice types, their location and evolution in time. Sampling of the thinnest ice types was managed from a small boat. In addition, iceberg positions were recorded with GPS and photographed to enable us to quantify their contribution to the radar response. Thin ice from 0.02 to 0.18 m thickness was sampled on in a total nine ice stations. The ice had no or only a thin snow layer. The GPS positions and tracks and ice characteristics are then compared to the Radarsat-2 scenes, and the radar responses of the different thin ice types in the quad-pol scenes are identified. The first segmentation results of the scenes present a good

  1. Evaluation of the use of very high resolution aerial imagery for accurate ice-wedge polygon mapping (Adventdalen, Svalbard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousada, Maura; Pina, Pedro; Vieira, Gonçalo; Bandeira, Lourenço; Mora, Carla

    2017-09-24

    The main objective of this paper is to verify the accuracy of delineating and characterizing ice-wedge polygonal networks with features exclusively extracted from remotely sensed images of very high resolution. This kind of mapping plays a key role for quantifying ice-wedge degradation in warming permafrost. The evaluation of mapping a network is performed in this study with two sets of aerial images that are compared to ground reference data determined by fieldwork on the same network, located in Adventdalen, Svalbard (78°N). One aerial dataset is obtained from a photogrammetric survey with RGB+NIR imagery of 20cm/pixel, the other from an UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) survey that acquired RGB images of 6cm/pixel of spatial resolution. Besides evaluating the degree of matching between the delineations, the morphometric and topological features computed for the differently mapped versions of the network are also confronted, to have a more solid basis of comparison. The results obtained are similar enough to admit that remotely sensed images of very high resolution are an adequate support to provide extensive characterizations and classifications of this kind of patterned ground. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The data set spans...

  3. Sea Ice Summer Camp: Bringing Together Arctic Sea Ice Modelers and Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Holland, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice has undergone dramatic change and numerical models project this to continue for the foreseeable future. Understanding the mechanisms behind sea ice loss and its consequences for the larger Arctic and global systems is of critical importance if we are to anticipate and plan for the future. One impediment to progress is a disconnect between the observational and modeling communities. A sea ice summer camp was held in Barrow Alaska from 26 May to 1 June 2016 to overcome this impediment and better integrate the sea ice community. The 25 participants were a mix of modelers and observers from 13 different institutions at career stages from graduate student to senior scientist. The summer camp provided an accelerated program on sea ice observations and models and also fostered future collaborative interdisciplinary activities. Each morning was spent in the classroom with a daily lecture on an aspect of modeling or remote sensing followed by practical exercises. Topics included using models to assess sensitivity, to test hypotheses and to explore sources of uncertainty in future Arctic sea ice loss. The afternoons were spent on the ice making observations. There were four observational activities; albedo observations, ice thickness measurements, ice coring and physical properties, and ice morphology surveys. The last field day consisted of a grand challenge where the group formulated a hypothesis, developed an observational and modeling strategy to test the hypothesis, and then integrated the observations and model results. The impacts of changing sea ice are being felt today in Barrow Alaska. We opened a dialog with Barrow community members to further understand these changes. This included an evening discussion with two Barrow sea ice experts and a community presentation of our work in a public lecture at the Inupiat Heritage Center.

  4. Ocean circulation and sea-ice thinning induced by melting ice shelves in the Amundsen Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Mathiot, Pierre; Merino, Nacho; Durand, Gaël.; Le Sommer, Julien; Spence, Paul; Dutrieux, Pierre; Madec, Gurvan

    2017-03-01

    A 1/12° ocean model configuration of the Amundsen Sea sector is developed to better understand the circulation induced by ice-shelf melt and the impacts on the surrounding ocean and sea ice. Eighteen sensitivity experiments to drag and heat exchange coefficients at the ice shelf/ocean interface are performed. The total melt rate simulated in each cavity is function of the thermal Stanton number, and for a given thermal Stanton number, melt is slightly higher for lower values of the drag coefficient. Sub-ice-shelf melt induces a thermohaline circulation that pumps warm circumpolar deep water into the cavity. The related volume flux into a cavity is 100-500 times stronger than the melt volume flux itself. Ice-shelf melt also induces a coastal barotropic current that contributes 45 ± 12% of the total simulated coastal transport. Due to the presence of warm circumpolar deep waters, the melt-induced inflow typically brings 4-20 times more heat into the cavities than the latent heat required for melt. For currently observed melt rates, approximately 6-31% of the heat that enters a cavity with melting potential is actually used to melt ice shelves. For increasing sub-ice-shelf melt rates, the transport in the cavity becomes stronger, and more heat is pumped from the deep layers to the upper part of the cavity then advected toward the ocean surface in front of the ice shelf. Therefore, more ice-shelf melt induces less sea-ice volume near the ice sheet margins.Plain Language SummaryThe ice-shelf cavities of the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, act as very powerful pumps that create strong inflows of warm water under the ice-shelves, as well as significant circulation changes in the entire region. Such warm inflows bring more heat than required to melt ice, so that a large part of that heat exits ice-shelf cavities without being used. Due to mixing between warm deep waters and melt freshwater, melt-induced flows are warm and buoyant when they leave cavities. Therefore, they reach

  5. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR data of sea ice have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) during a mission at the Greenland Sea in August 1994. Video recordings from a low-altitude acquisition have been used for interpretation of the SAR data. Also, ERS-1 SAR data and NOAA AVHRR-data have been...

  6. Laser Altimetry Sampling Strategies over Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead L.; Markus, Thorsten; Kwok, Ron; Connor, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    With the conclusion of the science phase of the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission in late 2009, and the planned launch of ICESat-2 in late 2015, NASA has recently established the IceBridge program to provide continuity between missions. A major goal of IceBridge is to obtain a sea-ice thickness time series via airborne surveys over the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Typically two laser altimeters, the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) and the Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS), are utilized during IceBridge flights. Using laser altimetry simulations of conventional analogue systems such as ICESat, LVIS and ATM, with the multi-beam system proposed for ICESat-2, we investigate differences in measurements gathered at varying spatial resolutions and the impact on sea-ice freeboard. We assess the ability of each system to reproduce the elevation distributions of two seaice models and discuss potential biases in lead detection and sea-surface elevation, arising from variable footprint size and spacing. The conventional systems accurately reproduce mean freeboard over 25km length scales, while ICESat-2 offers considerable improvements over its predecessor ICESat. In particular, its dense along-track sampling of the surface will allow flexibility in the algorithmic approaches taken to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio for accurate and precise freeboard retrieval.

  7. A sea ice model for the marginal ice zone with an application to the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, Max D.

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented that describes the formation, transport, and desalinization of frazil and pancake ice as it is formed in marginal seas. This model uses as input the total ice concentration evaluated from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and wind speed and direction. The model calculates...... the areal concentration, thickness, volume concentration, and salinity of frazil ice as well as the areal concentration, thickness, and salinity of pancakes. A simple parameterization for the Odden region of the Greenland Sea is presented. The model is run for the winter of 1996-1997. There are direct...... observations of the thickness and salinity of pancakes and the volume concentration of frazil ice to compare with the model. The model results compare very well with the measured data. This new ice model can be tuned to work in marginal seas elsewhere to calculate ice thickness, motion, and brine rejection...

  8. On producing sea ice deformation data sets from SAR-derived sea ice motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bouillon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to reduce the error generated when computing sea ice deformation fields from synthetic aperture radar (SAR-derived sea ice motion. The method is based on two steps. The first step consists of using a triangulation of the positions taken from the sea ice trajectories to define a mesh on which a first estimate of sea ice deformation is computed. The second step consists of applying a specific smoother to the deformation field to reduce the artificial noise that arises along discontinuities in the sea ice motion field. This method is here applied to RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS sea ice trajectories having a temporal and spatial resolution of about 3 days and 10 km, respectively. From the comparison between unfiltered and filtered fields, we estimate that the artificial noise causes an overestimation of about 60% of opening and closing. The artificial noise also has a strong impact on the statistical distribution of the deformation and on the scaling exponents estimated with multifractal analysis. We also show that a similar noise is present in the deformation fields provided in the widely used four-point deformation RGPS data set. These findings may have serious implications for previous studies as the constant overestimation of the opening and closing could lead to a large overestimation of freezing in leads, salt rejection and sea ice ridging.

  9. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    key regional processes in southern Beaufort Sea affecting MY ice recruitment 3) Improved predictability of the future states of the Arctic ice pack ...will improve understanding of the fate of multiyear sea ice in an increasingly seasonal ice pack and lead to reduced uncertainty in sea ice forecasting...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort

  10. Deriving ice thickness, glacier volume and bedrock morphology of the Austre Lov\\'enbreen (Svalbard) using Ground-penetrating Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Saintenoy, Albane; Booth, Adam D; Tolle, F; Bernard, E; Laffly, Dominique; Marlin, C; Griselin, M

    2013-01-01

    The Austre Lov\\'enbreen is a 4.6 km2 glacier on the Archipelago of Svalbard (79 degrees N) that has been surveyed over the last 47 years in order of monitoring in particular the glacier evolution and associated hydrological phenomena in the context of nowadays global warming. A three-week field survey over April 2010 allowed for the acquisition of a dense mesh of Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) data with an average of 14683 points per km2 (67542 points total) on the glacier surface. The profiles were acquired using a Mala equipment with 100 MHz antennas, towed slowly enough to record on average every 0.3 m, a trace long enough to sound down to 189 m of ice. One profile was repeated with 50 MHz antenna to improve electromagnetic wave propagation depth in scattering media observed in the cirques closest to the slopes. The GPR was coupled to a GPS system to position traces. Each profile has been manually edited using standard GPR data processing including migration, to pick the reflection arrival time from the ic...

  11. Diagnostic and prognostic simulations with a full Stokes model accounting for superimposed ice of Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zwinger

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present steady state (diagnostic and transient (prognostic simulations of Midtre Lovénbreen, Svalbard performed with the thermo-mechanically coupled full-Stokes code Elmer. This glacier has an extensive data set of geophysical measurements available spanning several decades, that allow for constraints on model descriptions. Consistent with this data set, we included a simple model accounting for the formation of superimposed ice. Diagnostic results indicated that a dynamic adaptation of the free surface is necessary, to prevent non-physically high velocities in a region of under determined bedrock depths. Observations from ground penetrating radar of the basal thermal state agree very well with model predictions, while the dip angles of isochrones in radar data also match reasonably well with modelled isochrones, despite the numerical deficiencies of estimating ages with a steady state model.

    Prognostic runs for 53 years, using a constant accumulation/ablation pattern starting from the steady state solution obtained from the configuration of the 1977 DEM show that: 1 the unrealistic velocities in the under determined parts of the DEM quickly damp out; 2 the free surface evolution matches well measured elevation changes; 3 the retreat of the glacier under this scenario continues with the glacier tongue in a projection to 2030 being situated ≈500 m behind the position in 1977.

  12. Physical and structural characteristics of Weddell Sea pack ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gow, A.J; Ackley, S.F; Buck, K.R; Golden, K.M

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies by CRREL researchers of the dynamics and thermodynamics of sea ice in the Antarctic have included investigations of the physical and structural properties of pack ice in the Weddell Sea...

  13. Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides different measurements of Antarctic sea ice data collected as part of the Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) program. The...

  14. The Seasonal Evolution of Sea Ice Floe Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    occur in the appearance and morphology of the Arctic sea ice cover over and annual cycle. These photos were taken over the pack ice near SHEBA in May...causing flexural failure and breaking of the ice cover. In the interior of the Arctic ice pack (e.g. Beaufort Sea ) where waves are not prevalent...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. “The Seasonal Evolution of Sea Ice Floe Size Distribution

  15. Albedo of the ice covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, A.I.; King, J C; T. A. Lachlan-Cope; Ladkin, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo, which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albedo o...

  16. Iron in sea ice: Review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lannuzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The discovery that melting sea ice can fertilize iron (Fe-depleted polar waters has recently fostered trace metal research efforts in sea ice. The aim of this review is to summarize and synthesize the current understanding of Fe biogeochemistry in sea ice. To do so, we compiled available data on particulate, dissolved, and total dissolvable Fe (PFe, DFe and TDFe, respectively from sea-ice studies from both polar regions and from sub-Arctic and northern Hemisphere temperate areas. Data analysis focused on a circum-Antarctic Fe dataset derived from 61 ice cores collected during 10 field expeditions carried out between 1997 and 2012 in the Southern Ocean. Our key findings are that 1 concentrations of all forms of Fe (PFe, DFe, TDFe are at least a magnitude larger in fast ice and pack ice than in typical Antarctic surface waters; 2 DFe, PFe and TDFe behave differently when plotted against sea-ice salinity, suggesting that their distributions in sea ice are driven by distinct, spatially and temporally decoupled processes; 3 DFe is actively extracted from seawater into growing sea ice; 4 fast ice generally has more Fe-bearing particles, a finding supported by the significant negative correlation observed between both PFe and TDFe concentrations in sea ice and water depth; 5 the Fe pool in sea ice is coupled to biota, as indicated by the positive correlations of PFe and TDFe with chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon; and 6 the vast majority of DFe appears to be adsorbed onto something in sea ice. This review also addresses the role of sea ice as a reservoir of Fe and its role in seeding seasonally ice-covered waters. We discuss the pivotal role of organic ligands in controlling DFe concentrations in sea ice and highlight the uncertainties that remain regarding the mechanisms of Fe incorporation in sea ice.

  17. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT. Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice extent. The extent and edge of the sea ice obtained in this study is compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sea ice concentration data and the Sentinel-1 SAR imagery for verification, respectively. Meanwhile, the classified sea ice type is compared with a multi-sensor sea ice type product based on data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and SSMIS. Results show that HY-2A/SCAT is powerful in providing sea ice extent and type information, while differences in the sensitivities of active/passive products are found. In addition, HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice products are also proved to be valuable complements for existing polar sea ice data products.

  18. Weddell Sea exploration from ice station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice Station Weddell Group of Principal Investigators; Chief Scientists; Gordon, Arnold L.

    On January 18, 1915, the Endurance and Sir Ernest Shackleton and his crew were stranded in the ice of the Weddell Sea and began one of the most famous drifts in polar exploration. Shackleton turned a failure into a triumph by leading all of his team to safety [Shackleton, 1919]. The drift track of the Endurance and the ice floe occupied by her stranded crew after the ship was lost on November 21, 1915, at 68°38.5‧S and 52°26.5‧W, carried the group along the western rim of the Weddell Gyre, representing a rare human presence in this region of perennial sea-ice cover.Seventy-seven years later, in 1992, the first intentional scientific Southern Ocean ice drift station, Ice Station Weddell-1 (ISW-1), was established in the western Weddell Sea by a joint effort of the United States and Russia. ISW-1 followed the track of the Endurance closely (Figure 1) and gathered an impressive array of data in this largely unexplored corner of the Southern Ocean, the western edge of the Weddell Gyre.

  19. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    , and secondly oceanic oil drift in ice affected conditions. Both investigations are made with the coupled ocean - sea ice model HYCOM-CICE at 10 km resolution, which is also used operationally at DMI and allows detailed studies of sea ice build-up, drift and melt. To investigate the sea ice decrease of the last......The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice...... decade, we have performed a reanalysis simulation of the years 1990-2011, forced with ERA Interim atmospheric data. Thus, the simulation includes both the period before the recent sea ice decrease and the full period of decrease up till today. We will present our model results of the thinning...

  20. Sea ice ridging in the eastern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, V. I.; Ackley, S. F.

    1991-10-01

    In August 1986, sea ice ridge heights and spatial frequency in the eastern Weddell Sea were measured using a ship-based acoustical sounder. Using a minimum ridge sail height of 0.75 m, a total of 933 ridges were measured along a track length of 415 km. The ridge frequency varied from 0.4 to 10.5 ridges km-1. The mean height of the ridges was found to be about 1.1 m regardless of the ridge frequency. These results are compared to other ridging statistics from the Ross Sea and found to be similar. Comparison with Arctic data, however, indicates that the height and frequency of the ridges are considerably less in the Weddell Sea than in the Arctic. Whereas in the Arctic the mean ridge height tends to increase with the ridge frequency, we found that this was not the case in the Weddell Sea, where the mean ridge height remained constant irrespective of the ridge frequency. Estimates of the contribution of deformed ice to the total ice thickness are generally low except for a single 53-km section where the ridge frequency increased by an order of magnitude. This resulted in an increase in the equivalent mean ice thickness due to ridging from 0.04 m in the less deformed areas to 0.45 m in the highly deformed section. These values were found to be consistent with values obtained from drilled profile lines during the same cruise.

  1. A model of sea ice formation in leads and polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heorton, Harry; Feltham, Daniel; Radia, Nikhil

    2017-04-01

    Cracks in the sea ice cover break the barrier between the ocean and atmosphere, exposing the ocean to the cold atmosphere during the winter. These cracks are known as leads within the continuous sea ice pack and polynyas near land or ice shelves. Sea ice formation starts with frazil ice crystals in supercooled waters, which grow and precipitate to the ocean surface to form grease ice, eventually consolidating into a layer of solid sea ice that grows downwards. In this study a numerical model is formulated to simulate the formation of sea ice in a lead or polynya from frazil ice to a layer of new sea ice. Our simulations show the refreezing of a lead within 48 hours of its opening. Grease ice covers the lead typically within 3 - 10 hours and consolidates into sea ice within 15 - 30 hours. We use our model to simulate an observed polynya event in the Laptev Sea showing the vertical distribution of frazil ice and water supercooling. Sensitivity studies are used to investigate the dependence of ice growth on the ambient environment with the surface wind speed shown to be of greatest importance to lead exposure time and total ice growth. The size and distribution of frazil crystals and the time taken for the lead to freeze over is shown to be highly dependent upon the ambient forcing and lead geometry.

  2. Arctic Sea Ice: Trends, Stability and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Woosok

    A stochastic Arctic sea-ice model is derived and analyzed in detail to interpret the recent decay and associated variability of Arctic sea-ice under changes in greenhouse gas forcing widely referred to as global warming. The approach begins from a deterministic model of the heat flux balance through the air/sea/ice system, which uses observed monthly-averaged heat fluxes to drive a time evolution of sea-ice thickness. This model reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of the ice cover and it is to this that stochastic noise---representing high frequency variability---is introduced. The model takes the form of a single periodic non-autonomous stochastic ordinary differential equation. Following an introductory chapter, the two that follow focus principally on the properties of the deterministic model in order to identify the main properties governing the stability of the ice cover. In chapter 2 the underlying time-dependent solutions to the deterministic model are analyzed for their stability. It is found that the response time-scale of the system to perturbations is dominated by the destabilizing sea-ice albedo feedback, which is operative in the summer, and the stabilizing long wave radiative cooling of the ice surface, which is operative in the winter. This basic competition is found throughout the thesis to define the governing dynamics of the system. In particular, as greenhouse gas forcing increases, the sea-ice albedo feedback becomes more effective at destabilizing the system. Thus, any projections of the future state of Arctic sea-ice will depend sensitively on the treatment of the ice-albedo feedback. This in turn implies that the treatment a fractional ice cover as the ice areal extent changes rapidly, must be handled with the utmost care. In chapter 3, the idea of a two-season model, with just winter and summer, is revisited. By breaking the seasonal cycle up in this manner one can simplify the interpretation of the basic dynamics. Whereas in the fully

  3. Sea ice assimilation into a coupled ocean-sea ice model using its adjoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldunov, Nikolay V.; Köhl, Armin; Serra, Nuno; Stammer, Detlef

    2017-09-01

    Satellite sea ice concentrations (SICs), together with several ocean parameters, are assimilated into a regional Arctic coupled ocean-sea ice model covering the period of 2000-2008 using the adjoint method. There is substantial improvement in the representation of the SIC spatial distribution, in particular with respect to the position of the ice edge and to the concentrations in the central parts of the Arctic Ocean during summer months. Seasonal cycles of total Arctic sea ice area show an overall improvement. During summer months, values of sea ice extent (SIE) integrated over the model domain become underestimated compared to observations, but absolute differences of mean SIE to the data are reduced in nearly all months and years. Along with the SICs, the sea ice thickness fields also become closer to observations, providing added value by the assimilation. Very sparse ocean data in the Arctic, corresponding to a very small contribution to the cost function, prevent sizable improvements of assimilated ocean variables, with the exception of the sea surface temperature.

  4. Intercomparison of the Arctic sea ice cover in global ocean-sea ice reanalyses from the ORA-IP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Matthieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dupont, Frédéric; Lemieux, Jean-François; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Hernandez, Fabrice; Msadek, Rym; Peterson, K. Andrew; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Valdivieso, Maria; Vernieres, Guillaume; Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Ferry, Nicolas; Garric, Gilles; Haines, Keith; Keeley, Sarah; Kovach, Robin M.; Kuragano, Tsurane; Masina, Simona; Tang, Yongming; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Wang, Xiaochun

    2017-08-01

    Ocean-sea ice reanalyses are crucial for assessing the variability and recent trends in the Arctic sea ice cover. This is especially true for sea ice volume, as long-term and large scale sea ice thickness observations are inexistent. Results from the Ocean ReAnalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP) are presented, with a focus on Arctic sea ice fields reconstructed by state-of-the-art global ocean reanalyses. Differences between the various reanalyses are explored in terms of the effects of data assimilation, model physics and atmospheric forcing on properties of the sea ice cover, including concentration, thickness, velocity and snow. Amongst the 14 reanalyses studied here, 9 assimilate sea ice concentration, and none assimilate sea ice thickness data. The comparison reveals an overall agreement in the reconstructed concentration fields, mainly because of the constraints in surface temperature imposed by direct assimilation of ocean observations, prescribed or assimilated atmospheric forcing and assimilation of sea ice concentration. However, some spread still exists amongst the reanalyses, due to a variety of factors. In particular, a large spread in sea ice thickness is found within the ensemble of reanalyses, partially caused by the biases inherited from their sea ice model components. Biases are also affected by the assimilation of sea ice concentration and the treatment of sea ice thickness in the data assimilation process. An important outcome of this study is that the spatial distribution of ice volume varies widely between products, with no reanalysis standing out as clearly superior as compared to altimetry estimates. The ice thickness from systems without assimilation of sea ice concentration is not worse than that from systems constrained with sea ice observations. An evaluation of the sea ice velocity fields reveals that ice drifts too fast in most systems. As an ensemble, the ORA-IP reanalyses capture trends in Arctic sea ice area and extent

  5. Knowledge-based sea ice classification by polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR images acquired at C- and L-band over sea ice in the Greenland Sea, Baltic Sea, and Beaufort Sea have been analysed with respect to their potential for ice type classification. The polarimetric data were gathered by the Danish EMISAR and the US AIRSAR which both are airborne...

  6. Evaluation of Sea Ice Kinematics and their Impact on Ice Thickness Distribution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    10  B.  INTENT OF STUDY .....................................................................................11  C.  OVERVIEW ...principle pathway out of the Arctic through Fram Strait, between Greenland and Svalbard (Figure 2). From the late 1980s through the mid-1990s, the...AO entered a strongly positive phase, which was seen as the primary atmospheric forcing that lead to an increased ice export through Fram Strait

  7. Thermal Diffusivity Identification of Distributed Parameter Systems to Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiong Shi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of optimal control is presented as a numerical tool for solving the sea ice heat transfer problem governed by a parabolic partial differential equation. Taken the deviation between the calculated ice temperature and the measurements as the performance criterion, an optimal control model of distributed parameter systems with specific constraints of thermal properties of sea ice was proposed to determine the thermal diffusivity of sea ice. Based on sea ice physical processes, the parameterization of the thermal diffusivity was derived through field data. The simulation results illustrated that the identified parameterization of the thermal diffusivity is reasonably effective in sea ice thermodynamics. The direct relation between the thermal diffusivity of sea ice and ice porosity is physically significant and can considerably reduce the computational errors. The successful application of this method also explained that the optimal control model of distributed parameter systems in conjunction with the engineering background has great potential in dealing with practical problems.

  8. Sea-ice thickness and mass at Ice Station Belgica, Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissling, B. P.; Lewis, M. J.; Ackley, S. F.

    2011-05-01

    Ice Station Belgica was commenced in late winter 2007 in the Bellingshausen Sea as part of Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica (SIMBA), an IPY 2007 cruise on the research vessel N.B. Palmer. A primary objective was to build on the work of previous Antarctic drift station experiments to geophysically characterize sea ice in terms of thickness, surface and ice bottom morphology, and ultimately area-unitized mass. A 24 day drift station was established at approximately 70°S and 93°W in mixed first-year and multi-year ice with three geophysical study sites selected on a 5 km 2 floe. A comprehensive time series assessment of elevation-surveyed transects ranging from 100 m to 300 m in length included snow surface elevation, snow depth, electromagnetic (EM) profiling, and direct drilling for ice draft and ice freeboard. Additional work included a snow surface morphology characterization of a 100 m×300 m area between the primary time series EM transects. Correlation of EM ice thicknesses with collocated drilled ice thickness yielded equations for the correction of EM underestimation of thick deformed ice, particularly at pressure ridges. Mean ice thickness from corrected EM was compared to isostatic ice thickness calculated from surface elevation, snow depth, ice freeboard and respective snow, slush, ice, and sea water densities. Results were consistent, with mean ice thicknesses for multi-year ice of 2.35 m, 2.34 m, and 2.41 m, with similar variance, for corrected EM, drilling, and buoyancy methods respectively. Additionally, a mean ice thickness of 2.31 m was calculated from ASPeCt observations of the ice field associated with the floe, using the method incorporating mean sail heights and fractional coverage of surface deformities or ridging. Temporal series assessment of ice freeboard indicated a slightly negative mean ice freeboard (ice formation from the freezing of slush. The three distinct snow and ice regions assessed on the Belgica floe had mean corrected EM ice

  9. Ice and AIS: ship speed data and sea ice forecasts in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löptien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are distributed as prognostic variables, but their actual usefulness is difficult to measure, and the ship captains must determine their relative importance and relevance for optimal ship speed and safety ad hoc. The present study provides a more objective approach by comparing the ship speeds, obtained by the automatic identification system (AIS, with the respective forecasted ice conditions. We find that, despite an unavoidable random component, this information is useful to constrain and rate fore- and nowcasts. More precisely, 62–67% of ship speed variations can be explained by the forecasted ice properties when fitting a mixed-effect model. This statistical fit is based on a test region in the Bothnian Sea during the severe winter 2011 and employs 15 to 25 min averages of ship speed.

  10. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...... a trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found...... with sensor noise between 1.3 and 1.8%. This is in accord with variability estimated from analysis of SSM/I time series. Algorithms, which primarily use 85 GHz information, consistently give the best agreement with both SAR ice concentrations and ship observations. Although the 85 GHz information is more...

  11. Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeaver, Eric T.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Tremblay, L.-Bruno

    This volume addresses the rapid decline of Arctic sea ice, placing recent sea ice decline in the context of past observations, climate model simulations and projections, and simple models of the climate sensitivity of sea ice. Highlights of the work presented here include • An appraisal of the role played by wind forcing in driving the decline; • A reconstruction of Arctic sea ice conditions prior to human observations, based on proxy data from sediments; • A modeling approach for assessing the impact of sea ice decline on polar bears, used as input to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's decision to list the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act; • Contrasting studies on the existence of a "tipping point," beyond which Arctic sea ice decline will become (or has already become) irreversible, including an examination of the role of the small ice cap instability in global warming simulations; • A significant summertime atmospheric response to sea ice reduction in an atmospheric general circulation model, suggesting a positive feedback and the potential for short-term climate prediction. The book will be of interest to researchers attempting to understand the recent behavior of Arctic sea ice, model projections of future sea ice loss, and the consequences of sea ice loss for the natural and human systems of the Arctic.

  12. Multifractals, random walks and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John

    We examine the long-term correlations and multifractal properties of daily satellite retrievals of Arctic sea ice albedo, extent, and ice velocity for decadal periods. The approach harnesses a recent development called Multifractal Temporally Weighted Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-TWDFA), which exploits the intuition that points closer in time are more likely to be related than distant points. In both data sets we extract multiple crossover times, as characterized by generalized Hurst exponents, ranging from synoptic to decadal. The method goes beyond treatments that assume a single decay scale process, such as a first-order autoregression, which cannot be justifiably fit to these observations. The ice extent data exhibits white noise behavior from seasonal to bi-seasonal time scales, whereas the clear fingerprints of the short (weather) and long (~ 7 and 9 year) time scales remain, the latter associated with the recent decay in the ice cover. Thus, long term persistence is reentrant beyond the seasonal scale and it is not possible to distinguish whether a given ice extent minimum/maximum will be followed by a minimum/maximum that is larger or smaller in magnitude. The ice velocity data show long term persistence in auto covariance. NASA Grant NNH13ZDA001N-CRYO and Swedish Research Council Grant No. 638-2013-9243.

  13. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Bendtsen, J.; Pedersen, L. T.

    2009-01-01

    uptake in the Nordic Seas is currently unknown. We present evidence from 50 localities in the Arctic Ocean that dissolved inorganic carbon is rejected together with brine from growing sea ice and that sea ice melting during summer is rich in carbonates. Model calculations show that melting of sea ice......The uptake rates of atmospheric CO2 in the Nordic Seas are among the highest in the world's oceans. This has been ascribed mainly to a strong biological drawdown, but chemical processes within the sea ice itself have also been suggested to play a role. The importance of sea ice for the carbon...

  14. The Effects of Black Carbon on Arctic Sea Ice Surface Albedo with Sea Ice Type and Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D.; Marks, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sea ice covers up to 7% of the Earth's surface and therefore changes in sea ice albedo have important global climatic consequences. Black carbon in sea ice will decrease surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, which exacerbates sea ice melting through increased heating. Values of absorption cross-section calculated for typical multi-year and first year Arctic sea ice suggest that absorption in sea ice is due to black carbon in sea ice and not other absorbers. Radiative-transfer calculations were undertaken using the TUV-snow model to ascertain the effect on surface albedo of additional black carbon (from 1-1024 ng g-1) in the top 5 cm of 155 cm of a typical multi-year and first year ice. Black carbon is likely to be concentrated in the surface layer due to atmospheric deposition. A black carbon addition of 1024 ng g-1 to the top 5 cm of first year sea ice would decrease albedo at 500 nm by 0.33, and multi-year sea ice albedo would decrease by 0.21; highlighting the different response of different sea ice types. However, for the majority of the year sea ice is snow covered, which may mitigate the impact of black carbon in sea ice on surface albedo; an effect which to the author's knowledge has previously not been investigated. Absorption and scattering cross-section values were also obtained for a typical Arctic wet and dry snow. Radiative-transfer calculations were subsequently undertaken with wet and dry snow layers, of 0.5-10 cm of snow, overlying the first year and multi-year sea ice to ascertain the degree to which a snow layer will "mask" the effect of black carbon in sea ice on surface albedo. Just a 0.5 cm snow layer dramatically reduces the effect of black carbon in sea ice on surface albedo. However the underlying sea ice still impacts surface albedo with up to 10 cm of overlying snow, with all snow/sea ice types. A dry snow is more effective at masking black carbon in sea ice than a wet snow. Although the effects of black

  15. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  16. Early Student Support to Investigate the Role of Sea Ice-Albedo Feedback in Sea Ice Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    necessary in any model to make up for unavoidable small biases in clouds. The snow albedo in CESM1 was tuned to be too high, which caused the snow ...Ice- Albedo Feedback in Sea Ice Predictions Cecilia M. Bitz Atmospheric Sciences MS351640 University of Washington Seattle, WA 98196-1640 phone...TERM GOALS The overarching goals of this project are to understand the role of sea ice- albedo feedback on sea ice predictability, to improve how

  17. Albedo of the ice covered Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the surface albedo of the sea ice areas adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer. Aircraft measurements of the surface albedo, which were conducted in the sea ice areas of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas show significant differences between these two regions. The averaged surface albedo varied between 0.13 and 0.81. The ice cover of the Bellingshausen Sea consisted mainly of first year ice and the sea surface showed an averaged sea ice albedo of αi = 0.64 ± 0.2 (± standard deviation. The mean sea ice albedo of the pack ice area in the western Weddell Sea was αi = 0.75 ± 0.05. In the southern Weddell Sea, where new, young sea ice prevailed, a mean albedo value of αi = 0.38 ± 0.08 was observed. Relatively warm open water and thin, newly formed ice had the lowest albedo values, whereas relatively cold and snow covered pack ice had the highest albedo values. All sea ice areas consisted of a mixture of a large range of different sea ice types. An investigation of commonly used parameterizations of albedo as a function of surface temperature in the Weddell and Bellingshausen Sea ice areas showed that the albedo parameterizations do not work well for areas with new, young ice.

  18. Complementary biomarker-based methods for characterising Arctic sea ice conditions: A case study comparison between multivariate analysis and the PIP25 index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Denizcan; Belt, Simon T.; Smik, Lukas; Yao, Haoyi; Panieri, Giuliana; Knies, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    The discovery of IP25 as a qualitative biomarker proxy for Arctic sea ice and subsequent introduction of the so-called PIP25 index for semi-quantitative descriptions of sea ice conditions has significantly advanced our understanding of long-term paleo Arctic sea ice conditions over the past decade. We investigated the potential for classification tree (CT) models to provide a further approach to paleo Arctic sea ice reconstruction through analysis of a suite of highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers in ca. 200 surface sediments from the Barents Sea. Four CT models constructed using different HBI assemblages revealed IP25 and an HBI triene as the most appropriate classifiers of sea ice conditions, achieving a >90% cross-validated classification rate. Additionally, lower model performance for locations in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) highlighted difficulties in characterisation of this climatically-sensitive region. CT model classification and semi-quantitative PIP25-derived estimates of spring sea ice concentration (SpSIC) for four downcore records from the region were consistent, although agreement between proxy and satellite/observational records was weaker for a core from the west Svalbard margin, likely due to the highly variable sea ice conditions. The automatic selection of appropriate biomarkers for description of sea ice conditions, quantitative model assessment, and insensitivity to the c-factor used in the calculation of the PIP25 index are key attributes of the CT approach, and we provide an initial comparative assessment between these potentially complementary methods. The CT model should be capable of generating longer-term temporal shifts in sea ice conditions for the climatically sensitive Barents Sea.

  19. Sea Ice Microorganisms: Environmental Constraints and Extracellular Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody W. Deming

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherent to sea ice, like other high latitude environments, is the strong seasonality driven by changes in insolation throughout the year. Sea-ice organisms are exposed to shifting, sometimes limiting, conditions of temperature and salinity. An array of adaptations to survive these and other challenges has been acquired by those organisms that inhabit the ice. One key adaptive response is the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, which play multiple roles in the entrapment, retention and survival of microorganisms in sea ice. In this concept paper we consider two main areas of sea-ice microbiology: the physico-chemical properties that define sea ice as a microbial habitat, imparting particular advantages and limits; and extracellular responses elicited in microbial inhabitants as they exploit or survive these conditions. Emphasis is placed on protective strategies used in the face of fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions in sea ice. Gaps in knowledge and testable hypotheses are identified for future research.

  20. Theory of the sea ice thickness distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Toppaladoddi, Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    We use concepts from statistical physics to transform the original evolution equation for the sea ice thickness distribution $g(h)$ due to Thorndike et al., (1975) into a Fokker-Planck like conservation law. The steady solution is $g(h) = {\\cal N}(q) h^q \\mathrm{e}^{-~ h/H}$, where $q$ and $H$ are expressible in terms of moments over the transition probabilities between thickness categories. The solution exhibits the functional form used in observational fits and shows that for $h \\ll 1$, $g(h)$ is controlled by both thermodynamics and mechanics, whereas for $h \\gg 1$ only mechanics controls $g(h)$. Finally, we derive the underlying Langevin equation governing the dynamics of the ice thickness $h$, from which we predict the observed $g(h)$. The genericity of our approach provides a framework for studying the geophysical scale structure of the ice pack using methods of broad relevance in statistical mechanics.

  1. Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotten, Caroline; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; De Schepper, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50-3.00 Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer sea surface temperatures. As evidenced from brassicasterol and dinosterol, primary productivity was low between 3.50 and 3.00 Ma and the site experienced generally oligotrophic conditions. The East Greenland Current (and East Icelandic Current) may have transported sea ice into the Iceland Sea and/or brought cooler and fresher waters favoring local sea ice formation. Between 3.00 and 2.40 Ma, the Iceland Sea is mainly sea ice-free, but seasonal sea ice occurred between 2.81 and 2.74 Ma. Sea ice extending into the Iceland Sea at this time may have acted as a positive feedback for the build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which underwent a major expansion ∼2.75 Ma. Thereafter, most likely a stable sea ice edge developed close to Greenland, possibly changing together with the expansion and retreat of the GIS and affecting the productivity in the Iceland Sea.

  2. Modeling of Antarctic Sea Ice in a General Circulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingren; Simmonds, Ian; Budd, W. F.

    1997-04-01

    A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is developed and coupled with the Melbourne University general circulation model to simulate the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic sea ice distribution. The model is efficient, rapid to compute, and useful for a range of climate studies. The thermodynamic part of the sea ice model is similar to that developed by Parkinson and Washington, the dynamics contain a simplified ice rheology that resists compression. The thermodynamics is based on energy conservation at the top surface of the ice/snow, the ice/water interface, and the open water area to determine the ice formation, accretion, and ablation. A lead parameterization is introduced with an effective partitioning scheme for freezing between and under the ice floes. The dynamic calculation determines the motion of ice, which is forced with the atmospheric wind, taking account of ice resistance and rafting. The simulated sea ice distribution compares reasonably well with observations. The seasonal cycle of ice extent is well simulated in phase as well as in magnitude. Simulated sea ice thickness and concentration are also in good agreement with observations over most regions and serve to indicate the importance of advection and ocean drift in the determination of the sea ice distribution.

  3. Mechanism of seasonal Arctic sea ice evolution and Arctic amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-Y. Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss is proposed as a primary reason for the Arctic amplification, although the physical mechanism of the Arctic amplification and its connection with sea ice melting is still in debate. In the present study, monthly ERA-Interim reanalysis data are analyzed via cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis to understand the seasonal mechanism of sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic amplification. While sea ice loss is widespread over much of the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean in summer, sea ice remains thin in winter only in the Barents–Kara seas. Excessive turbulent heat flux through the sea surface exposed to air due to sea ice reduction warms the atmospheric column. Warmer air increases the downward longwave radiation and subsequently surface air temperature, which facilitates sea surface remains to be free of ice. This positive feedback mechanism is not clearly observed in the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas, since sea ice refreezes in late fall (November before excessive turbulent heat flux is available for warming the atmospheric column in winter. A detailed seasonal heat budget is presented in order to understand specific differences between the Barents–Kara seas and Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas.

  4. Response of passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithms to thin ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Ivanova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sea ice thickness brightness temperatures and ice concentrations retrieved from passive microwave observations is quantified, using horizontally homogeneous sea ice thickness retrievals from ESA's SMOS sensor observations at high incidence angles. Brightness temperatures...... are influenced by thickness below 18 cm (89GHz) and 50 cm (1.4 GHz). Ice concentration retrievals reduced by ice thickness below 0.17 m and 0.33 m, with higher frequency algorithms being less influenced....

  5. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk

    2009-12-08

    We discuss the existence of cryospheric "tipping points" in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice-albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  6. On optical and physical properties of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Uusikivi, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice has been recognized as one of the key elements of polar and sub-polar seas, including Baltic Sea. The existence of sea ice cover and its properties have influence to many aspects of marine biology, climate and seafaring. This thesis is concentrated on describing physical and optical properties of landfast ice, and also pack ice, in the Baltic Sea. The aim of the thesis is to use measurements to study the interactions between optical and physical properties of sea ice and how these can...

  7. Analysis of Principal Components of the Sea Ice Concentration Fields in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    N.V. Mikhailova; A.V. Yurovsky

    2017-01-01

    The processes of interaction within the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system which influence a multiyear ice cover dynamics in the Barents Sea are investigated. Being analyzed, the principal components of the sea ice concentration fields in the Barents Sea make it possible to distinguish three modes of inter-annual variability of the sea ice concentration. It is shown that the first mode describes 65.4 % of the sea ice concentration total variance and its multiyear trend. The second mode (10.8 %) ...

  8. Sea ice pCO2 dynamics and air-ice CO2 fluxes during the Sea Ice Mass Balance in the Antarctic (SIMBA) experiment - Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, J.-L.; Ackley, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal evolution of pCO2 profiles in sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, in October 2007 shows physical and thermodynamic processes controls the CO2 sys- tem in the ice. During the survey, cyclical warming and cool- ing strongly influenced the physical, chemical, and thermo- dynamic ...

  9. Assessment of the sea-ice carbon pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimm, R.; Notz, D.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that geochemical processes related to sea-ice growth and melt might be important for the polar carbon cycle via the so called sea-ice carbon pump (SICP). The SICP affects the air-sea CO2 exchange by influencing the composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total...

  10. Early Student Support to Investigate the Role of Sea Ice Albedo Feedback in Sea Ice Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1), which can be run in various configurations, such as fully-coupled, with slab-ocean, or ice-ocean only. We are...further round of analysis. To avoid overfitting biases in the results, the time period was divided in half, and a further round of stepwise...climate feedbacks using ra- diative kernels. J. Climate, 21, 3504–3520. 7 PUBLICATIONS Notz, D. and C.M. Bitz, Sea Ice in Earth System

  11. Calibration of sea ice dynamic parameters in an ocean-sea ice model using an ensemble Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, F.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Counillon, F.

    2014-07-01

    The choice of parameter values is crucial in the course of sea ice model development, since parameters largely affect the modeled mean sea ice state. Manual tuning of parameters will soon become impractical, as sea ice models will likely include more parameters to calibrate, leading to an exponential increase of the number of possible combinations to test. Objective and automatic methods for parameter calibration are thus progressively called on to replace the traditional heuristic, "trial-and-error" recipes. Here a method for calibration of parameters based on the ensemble Kalman filter is implemented, tested and validated in the ocean-sea ice model NEMO-LIM3. Three dynamic parameters are calibrated: the ice strength parameter P*, the ocean-sea ice drag parameter Cw, and the atmosphere-sea ice drag parameter Ca. In twin, perfect-model experiments, the default parameter values are retrieved within 1 year of simulation. Using 2007-2012 real sea ice drift data, the calibration of the ice strength parameter P* and the oceanic drag parameter Cw improves clearly the Arctic sea ice drift properties. It is found that the estimation of the atmospheric drag Ca is not necessary if P* and Cw are already estimated. The large reduction in the sea ice speed bias with calibrated parameters comes with a slight overestimation of the winter sea ice areal export through Fram Strait and a slight improvement in the sea ice thickness distribution. Overall, the estimation of parameters with the ensemble Kalman filter represents an encouraging alternative to manual tuning for ocean-sea ice models.

  12. Monitoring Sea Ice Covered Areas for Ship Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Igor; Prasad, Siva; Bobby, Pradeep; Power, Desmond; Walsh, David; Warren, Sherry; Howell, Mark; Puestow, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Sea ice monitoring is an important field of scientific research and relevant to marine operational applications. Satellite remote sensing imagery is useful for monitoring sea ice, identifying and tracking ice features over broad spatial scales. At the same time, current satellites have limited ability to provide important sea ice characteristics such as thickness and deformation with required temporal frequency, spatial scale and coverage. The present work investigates the retrieval of sea ice parameters relevant to ship navigation from multisource data including satellite data and sea ice model outputs. The model results were validated by using SMOS and Cryosat-2 satellites as well as ULS measurements. The example of a ship voyage demonstrated advanced capabilities in ice parameters retrieval using the developed technique.

  13. Arctic Landfast Sea Ice 1953-1998, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The files in this data set contain landfast sea ice data (monthly means) gathered from both Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) and Canadian Ice...

  14. The Potential for Horizontal Gene Transfer in Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. E.; Deming, J. W.

    2010-04-01

    Sea ice is a potential hotspot for horizontal gene transfer due to physical concentration of bacteria, viruses, and extracellular DNA. An ice-affiliated bacterium, "Colwellia psychrerythraea," has acquired genes for compatible solute degradation via horizontal gene transfer.

  15. Siku DEM Simulations of Beaufort Sea-Ice Fracture Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Hutchings, J. K.; Johnson, J.; Velikhovskiy, G.

    2016-12-01

    Leads are fractures in the ice pack where exposed ocean surface increases heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere. These leads are the location of shear in the pack and during winter control the transport of ice around the Beaufort Gyre. Hence prediction of lead direction opening and shear is important in forecasting sea ice drift and weather. Regional ice pack deformation is related to the fracture patterns, and related shear zones. Hence climate models need to simulate these processes to simulate realistic sea-ice transport and mass balance. We have developed a new discrete element method (DEM) model of sea ice, Siku, to forecast lead patterns. Siku is the first sea ice DEM model that takes into account the spherical geometry of the Earth, and allows simulation ranging from basin scale to meter scale without nesting. We present simulations with 2.5km resolution in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, and 25-100km across the rest of the Arctic. The DEM has been shown to reproduce discontinuous dynamics that result in shear patterns in the ice cover. We evaluate these against observed fracture patterns in thermal band satellite imagery. Simulations with differing ice mechanics produce lead pattern differences that are used to evaluate the physical validity of proposed physics of ice-ice and ice-coast contact. We present simulations demonstrating a good match to observations and discuss the implications for continuum modeling, where predicted ice transport along the Alaskan coast is known to be too slow.

  16. Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Stern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology – the cycle of biological events – is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979–2014 mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from −3 to −9 days decade−1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade−1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of −7 to −19 days decade−1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June–October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from −1 to −9 percent decade−1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in

  17. Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Harry L.; Laidre, Kristin L.

    2016-09-01

    Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology - the cycle of biological events - is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat) on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance) on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979-2014) mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from -3 to -9 days decade-1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade-1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days) and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of -7 to -19 days decade-1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June-October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from -1 to -9 percent decade-1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change) were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in future reports.

  18. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mingming Li; Chaofang Zhao; Yong Zhao; Zhixiong Wang; Lijian Shi

    2016-01-01

    A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT). Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT ...

  19. Ice Draft and Ice Velocity Data in the Beaufort Sea, 1990-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides measurement of sea ice draft (m) and the movement of sea ice (cm/s) over the continental shelf of the Eastern Beaufort Sea. The data set spans...

  20. Recent wind driven high sea ice area export in the Fram Strait contributes to Arctic sea ice decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. Smedsrud

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice area has been decreasing for the past two decades. Apart from melting, the southward drift through Fram Strait is the main ice loss mechanism. We present high resolution sea ice drift data across 79° N from 2004 to 2010. Ice drift has been derived from radar satellite data and corresponds well with variability in local geostrophic wind. The underlying East Greenland current contributes with a constant southward speed close to 5 cm s−1, and drives around a third of the ice export. We use geostrophic winds derived from reanalysis data to calculate the Fram Strait ice area export back to 1957, finding that the sea ice area export recently is about 25% larger than during the 1960's. The increase in ice export occurred mostly during winter and is directly connected to higher southward ice drift velocities, due to stronger geostrophic winds. The increase in ice drift is large enough to counteract a decrease in ice concentration of the exported sea ice. Using storm tracking we link changes in geostrophic winds to more intense Nordic Sea low pressure systems. Annual sea ice area export likely has a significant influence on the summer sea ice variability and we find low values in the 1960's, the late 1980's and 1990's, and particularly high values during 2005–2008. The study highlights the possible role of variability in ice export as an explanatory factor for understanding the dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice during the last decades.

  1. Sea ice and climate feedbacks in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Rebecca; Feltham, Daniel; Holland, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Arctic sea ice is melting rapidly under the effects of climate change, but at the same time Antarctic sea ice is actually expanding overall. Understanding the reasons for this difference could provide significant insight into the workings of polar climate change. The behaviour of sea ice is not simple to understand because it is an integral part of the wider climate system, with many feedbacks affecting its evolution. For example, snow-covered sea ice is much more reflective than seawater, so if some ice is lost, the ice-ocean system will absorb more heat in summer, leading to further ice loss. There are several other important feedbacks, including examples associated with the insulating properties of sea ice, and the mixing of ocean heat up towards the surface as the ice forms. For example, during sea ice growth, the thickness of ice controls the growth rate, with the rate of growth decreasing as the ice thickens due to poorer heat conduction through the thick ice. On the other hand, increased melting of sea ice decreases the salinity of the mixed layer, therefore raising the freezing temperature of the seawater, making it easier to grow more sea ice. It is important to understand these feedbacks in the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica for many reasons. The changes in Antarctic sea ice over the last thirty years have a strong seasonal dependence, and the way that these changes grow in spring and decay in autumn suggests that feedbacks are strongly involved. The changes might ultimately be caused by winds, atmospheric warming, snowfall changes, etc., but we cannot understand these forcings without first untangling the feedbacks. A highly simplified coupled sea ice-mixed layer model has been developed to investigate the impact of feedbacks on the behaviour of sea ice in the Southern Ocean. The latest generation of climate models are very poor at modelling Antarctic sea ice. Solving this problem is of crucial importance to predicting the response of Antarctic

  2. National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) is an inter-agency sea ice analysis and forecasting center comprised of the Department of Commerce/NOAA, the Department of...

  3. National Ice Center Arctic Sea Ice Charts and Climatologies in Gridded Format, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The U.S. National Ice Center (NIC) is an inter-agency sea ice analysis and forecasting center comprised of the Department of Commerce/NOAA, the Department of...

  4. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    forecasts, rescue, emergency response, educational purposes, etc. The site is also available on the National Snow and Ice Data Center http...surface triggering the positive ice- albedo feedback. In CCSM4, no abrupt reductions in summer Arctic sea ice are simulated; instead, the model...ice- albedo and cloud-ice albedo feedback, with an increase in liquid water cloud and associated increase in downwelling longwave radiation. This

  5. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  6. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  7. SEDNA: Sea ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Experiment - Dynamic Nature of the Arctic (SEDNA) is an international collaborative effort to improve the understanding of the interaction between sea...

  8. Sea-ice deformation in a coupled ocean-sea-ice model and in satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreen, Gunnar; Kwok, Ron; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Nguyen, An T.

    2017-07-01

    A realistic representation of sea-ice deformation in models is important for accurate simulation of the sea-ice mass balance. Simulated sea-ice deformation from numerical simulations with 4.5, 9, and 18 km horizontal grid spacing and a viscous-plastic (VP) sea-ice rheology are compared with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite observations (RGPS, RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System) for the time period 1996-2008. All three simulations can reproduce the large-scale ice deformation patterns, but small-scale sea-ice deformations and linear kinematic features (LKFs) are not adequately reproduced. The mean sea-ice total deformation rate is about 40 % lower in all model solutions than in the satellite observations, especially in the seasonal sea-ice zone. A decrease in model grid spacing, however, produces a higher density and more localized ice deformation features. The 4.5 km simulation produces some linear kinematic features, but not with the right frequency. The dependence on length scale and probability density functions (PDFs) of absolute divergence and shear for all three model solutions show a power-law scaling behavior similar to RGPS observations, contrary to what was found in some previous studies. Overall, the 4.5 km simulation produces the most realistic divergence, vorticity, and shear when compared with RGPS data. This study provides an evaluation of high and coarse-resolution viscous-plastic sea-ice simulations based on spatial distribution, time series, and power-law scaling metrics.

  9. Impacts of Tropopause Polar Cyclones on Arctic Sea Ice Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapiro, N.; Cavallo, S. M.; Skamarock, W. C.; Park, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic sea ice exhibits considerable and potentially abrupt year to year variability, with changes amplified as the ice thins. Extremes of summer Arctic sea ice loss are intimately connected to the atmospheric forcing. On sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales, there are significant correlations between upper level heights, sea level pressure, and sea ice loss. Individual synoptic cyclones can also drive significant ice loss.Cyclonic tropopause polar vortices (TPVs) are common, coherent upper level potential vorticity anomalies with typical radii of 100 to 1000 km and lifetimes of days to months. Here, we test the hypothesis that TPVs have significant impacts on the evolution and predictability of summer sea ice loss.Historical TPV-based composites reveal coherent mass, momentum, and energy sea ice forcings under TPVs, with implications for pack ice maintenance and marginal ice loss. Coupled MPAS-CESM sensitivity experiments with strengthened and weakened TPVs quantify the sea ice response to these forcings at both short- and extended-range time scales. The coupling of forcings between TPVs and larger scales is seen to contribute to the significance of impacts. Since modelling systems exhibit systematic errors in the representation of TPVs, resolving these errors may realize the potential predictability associated with TPVs.

  10. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  11. Sea Ice Ridge Detection from ICESAR 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingting; Spreen, Gunnar; Dierking, Wolfgang; Heygster, Georg; Li, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Shengkai; Hao, Weifeng; Yuan, Lexian; Xiao, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery can be used to capture sea ice surface deformation features including rafted ice, shear zones, pressure ridges and rubble ice caused by the divergence, convergence and shear of sea ice. It has been shown that pressure ridges can be observed as bright, curvilinear features in C-band and L-band SAR satellite images. A comparison of airborne L-band and C-band SAR data to identify deformation features (ridge) has concluded that L-band is preferable in most cases. To investigate in more detail how sea ice can be observed by SAR, the airborne measurement campaign ICESAR 2007 has been conducted. In this study, we use L-band and C-band airborne SAR data sets to detect ridges from the ICESAR 2007 campaign. Our region of interest (ROI) is the Fram Strait. One goal of this study is to identify possibilities if deformed ice areas can also be detected with the lower resolution (40 m) SAR of the Sentinel-1 satellite mission. We therefore consider the parameter configurations of the Sentinel-1 mission as a baseline in our study. Traditional techniques for ridge detection include line detection, edge detection, and direct threshold method. These methods are insufficient without considering the intensive speckle noise and contextual information in such high spatial resolution SAR imagery like we use here from ICESAR 2007. Another obstacle is to separate ridges from other deformed features in the SAR imagery. For tackling these issues, we propose using a structure tensor algorithm for ridge detection in the ICESAR 2007 data sets. For the tensor structure algorithm, sea ice ridges are described as the target enhanced by the tensor matrix and surrounding pixels are suppressed as the background using the weighted gradient distance. The length to width ratio is used to preserve ridge shaped features and avoids that they are being filtered out as noise. The structure tensor algorithm is validated for the ICESAR L-band HH and HV SAR imagery with a

  12. Sea ice control of water isotope transport to Antarctica and implications for ice core interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, David; Simmonds, Ian

    2004-04-01

    Sea ice in the Southern Ocean is important for Antarctic climate and hydrology. The dependence of water isotope abundance (δ18O and deuterium excess) on the winter sea ice state is examined with the isotopic version of the Melbourne University general circulation model. Reductions in the ice concentration provide warmer temperatures in winter and allow higher precipitation totals further south, while the reverse occurs with increased ice extent. The model shows clear demarcation between the changes in the isotopic conditions over the sea ice pack, where local changes in surface exchange dominate, and those of the continent interior, which depend on the long-ranged transport aloft. While less sensitive to the forcing, the interior response is influenced by changes in turbulent mixing over the ice pack and modification of the vertical transport associated with diabatic heating. The interior deuterium excess response is more strongly affected by sea ice as it captures changes in temperature over the ice rather than just the final vapor mass. Traditional reconstruction of temperature from a single isotopic nuclide would give erroneous interpretation of change in the global mean temperature unless the sea ice changes in parallel; instead, the spatial structure of the sea ice response gives some hope for extracting past sea ice conditions from multicore analysis. This study begins to explore the role of entropy production during transport such that the isotopic interpretation is more closely tied to the dynamics of the atmosphere than is expressed by idealized parcel analysis.

  13. Protists in Arctic drift and land-fast sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, André M; Philippe, Benoît; Thaler, Mary; Gosselin, Michel; Poulin, Michel; Lovejoy, Connie

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change is having profound impacts on polar ice with changes in the duration and extent of both land-fast ice and drift ice, which is part of the polar ice pack. Sea ice is a distinct habitat and the morphologically identifiable sympagic community living within sea ice can be readily distinguished from pelagic species. Sympagic metazoa and diatoms have been studied extensively since they can be identified using microscopy techniques. However, non-diatom eukaryotic cells living in ice have received much less attention despite taxa such as the dinoflagellate Polarella and the cercozoan Cryothecomonas being isolated from sea ice. Other small flagellates have also been reported, suggesting complex microbial food webs. Since smaller flagellates are fragile, often poorly preserved, and are difficult for non-experts to identify, we applied high throughput tag sequencing of the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene to investigate the eukaryotic microbiome within the ice. The sea ice communities were diverse (190 taxa) and included many heterotrophic and mixotrophic species. Dinoflagellates (43 taxa), diatoms (29 taxa) and cercozoans (12 taxa) accounted for ~80% of the sequences. The sympagic communities living within drift ice and land-fast ice harbored taxonomically distinct communities and we highlight specific taxa of dinoflagellates and diatoms that may be indicators of land-fast and drift ice. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Analysis of Principal Components of the Sea Ice Concentration Fields in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Mikhailova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The processes of interaction within the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system which influence a multiyear ice cover dynamics in the Barents Sea are investigated. Being analyzed, the principal components of the sea ice concentration fields in the Barents Sea make it possible to distinguish three modes of inter-annual variability of the sea ice concentration. It is shown that the first mode describes 65.4 % of the sea ice concentration total variance and its multiyear trend. The second mode (10.8 % is related to the variations of the heat inflow due to the sea currents governed by the atmospheric circulation. The third one (7.8 % is associated with variability of the total turbulent heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere at the boundary of the ice edge in the northern Barents Sea.

  15. The discrimination of sea ice types using SAR backscatter statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuchman, Robert A.; Wackerman, Christopher C.; Maffett, Andrew L.; Onstott, Robert G.; Sutherland, Laura L.

    1989-01-01

    X-band (HH) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data of sea ice collected during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in March and April of 1987 was statistically analyzed with respect to discriminating open water, first-year ice, multiyear ice, and Odden. Odden are large expanses of nilas ice that rapidly form in the Greenland Sea and transform into pancake ice. A first-order statistical analysis indicated that mean versus variance can segment out open water and first-year ice, and skewness versus modified skewness can segment the Odden and multilayer categories. In additions to first-order statistics, a model has been generated for the distribution function of the SAR ice data. Segmentation of ice types was also attempted using textural measurements. In this case, the general co-occurency matrix was evaluated. The textural method did not generate better results than the first-order statistical approach.

  16. Image Techniques for Identifying Sea-Ice Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of ice forces are critical to Dynamic Positioning (DP operations in Arctic waters. Ice conditions are important for the analysis of ice-structure interaction in an ice field. To monitor sea-ice conditions, cameras are used as field observation sensors on mobile sensor platforms in Arctic. Various image processing techniques, such as Otsu thresholding, k-means clustering, distance transform, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Snake, mathematical morphology, are then applied to obtain ice concentration, ice types, and floe size distribution from sea-ice images to ensure safe operations of structures in ice covered regions. Those techniques yield acceptable results, and their effectiveness are demonstrated in case studies.

  17. Age characteristics in a multidecadal Arctic sea ice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Elizabeth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bitz, Cecllia M [UNIV. OF WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    Results from adding a tracer for age of sea ice to a sophisticated sea ice model that is widely used for climate studies are presented. The consistent simulation of ice age, dynamics, and thermodynamics in the model shows explicitly that the loss of Arctic perennial ice has accelerated in the past three decades, as has been seen in satellite-derived observations. Our model shows that the September ice age average across the Northern Hemisphere varies from about 5 to 8 years, and the ice is much younger (about 2--3 years) in late winter because of the expansion of first-year ice. We find seasonal ice on average comprises about 5% of the total ice area in September, but as much as 1.34 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} survives in some years. Our simulated ice age in the late 1980s and early 1990s declined markedly in agreement with other studies. After this period of decline, the ice age began to recover, but in the final years of the simulation very little young ice remains after the melt season, a strong indication that the age of the pack will again decline in the future as older ice classes fail to be replenished. The Arctic ice pack has fluctuated between older and younger ice types over the past 30 years, while ice area, thickness, and volume all declined over the same period, with an apparent acceleration in the last decade.

  18. Impacts of freshwater changes on Antarctic sea ice in an eddy-permitting sea-ice-ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Verena; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Masina, Simona

    2017-06-01

    In a warming climate, satellite data indicate that the sea ice extent around Antarctica has increased over the last decades. One of the suggested explanations is the stabilizing effect of increased mass loss of the Antarctic ice sheet. Here, we investigate the sea ice response to changes in both the amount and the spatial distribution of freshwater input to the ocean by comparing a set of numerical sensitivity simulations with additional supply of water at the Antarctic ocean surface. We analyze the short-term response of the sea ice cover and the on-shelf water column to variations in the amount and distribution of the prescribed surface freshwater flux.Our results confirm that enhancing the freshwater input can increase the sea ice extent. Our experiments show a negative development of the sea ice extent only for extreme freshwater additions. We find that the spatial distribution of freshwater is of great influence on sea ice concentration and thickness as it affects sea ice dynamics and thermodynamics. For strong regional contrasts in the freshwater addition the dynamic response dominates the local change in sea ice, which generally opposes the thermodynamic response. Furthermore, we find that additional coastal runoff generally leads to fresher and warmer dense shelf waters.

  19. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Tsay, S.C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  20. Air-Sea Interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Journal article postprint 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2012 - 30/09/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Waves & Fetch in the Marginal Ice Zone...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zone 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-12-1-0113 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...elementascience.org Air-sea interactions in the marginal ice zoneAir-Sea interactions in the Marginal Ice Zone Seth Zippel1* • Jim Thomson1 1Applied

  1. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D. G.; McCullough, G.; Babb, D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil...... will be a much more complex task than modeling average ice circulation. Given the observed reduction in sea ice extent and thickness this rather counterintuitive situation, associated with a warming climate, poses significant hazards to Arctic marine oil and gas development and marine transportation. Accurate...

  2. Arctic Sea Ice Trafficability - New Strategies for a Changing Icescape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Dyre Oliver

    Sea ice is an important part of the Arctic social-environmental system, in part because it provides a platform for human transportation and for marine flora and fauna that use the ice as a habitat. Sea ice loss projected for coming decades is expected to change ice conditions throughout the Arctic, but little is known about the nature and extent of anticipated changes and in particular potential implications for over-ice travel and ice use as a platform. This question has been addressed here through an extensive effort to link sea ice use and key geophysical properties of sea ice, drawing upon extensive field surveys around on-ice operations and local and Indigenous knowledge for the widely different ice uses and ice regimes of Utqiagvik, Kotzebue, and Nome, Alaska.. A set of nine parameters that constrain landfast sea ice use has been derived, including spatial extent, stability, and timing and persistence of landfast ice. This work lays the foundation for a framework to assess and monitor key ice-parameters relevant in the context of ice-use feasibility, safety, and efficiency, drawing on different remote-sensing techniques. The framework outlines the steps necessary to further evaluate relevant parameters in the context of user objectives and key stakeholder needs for a given ice regime and ice use scenario. I have utilized this framework in case studies for three different ice regimes, where I find uses to be constrained by ice thickness, roughness, and fracture potential and develop assessment strategies with accuracy at the relevant spatial scales. In response to the widely reported importance of high-confidence ice thickness measurements, I have developed a new strategy to estimate appropriate thickness compensation factors. Compensation factors have the potential to reduce risk of misrepresenting areas of thin ice when using point-based in-situ assessment methods along a particular route. This approach was tested on an ice road near Kotzebue, Alaska, where

  3. Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Gradinger, R.; Gaylord, A.; Mahoney, A.; Rigor, I.; Melling, H.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment-laden sea ice is widespread over the shallow, wide Siberian Arctic shelves, with off-shelf export from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas contributing substantially to the Arctic Ocean's sediment budget. By contrast, the North American shelves, owing to their narrow width and greater water depths, have not been deemed as important for basin-wide sediment transport by sea ice. Observations over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02 revealed the widespread occurrence of sediment-laden ice over an area of more than 100,000 km 2 between 68 and 74°N and 155 and 170°W. Ice stratigraphic studies indicate that sediment inclusions were associated with entrainment of frazil ice into deformed, multiple layers of rafted nilas, indicative of a flaw-lead environment adjacent to the landfast ice of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. This is corroborated by buoy trajectories and satellite imagery indicating entrainment in a coastal polynya in the eastern Chukchi Sea in February of 2002 as well as formation of sediment-laden ice along the Beaufort Sea coast as far eastward as the Mackenzie shelf. Moored upward-looking sonar on the Mackenzie shelf provides further insight into the ice growth and deformation regime governing sediment entrainment. Analysis of Radarsat Synthetic Aperture (SAR) imagery in conjunction with bathymetric data help constrain the water depth of sediment resuspension and subsequent ice entrainment (>20 m for the Chukchi Sea). Sediment loads averaged at 128 t km -2, with sediment occurring in layers of roughly 0.5 m thickness, mostly in the lower ice layers. The total amount of sediment transported by sea ice (mostly out of the narrow zone between the landfast ice edge and waters too deep for resuspension and entrainment) is at minimum 4×10 6 t in the sampling area and is estimated at 5-8×10 6 t over the entire Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02, representing a significant term in the sediment budget of the western Arctic Ocean. Recent

  4. Skillful regional prediction of Arctic sea ice on seasonal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuk, Mitchell; Msadek, Rym; Winton, Michael; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Gudgel, Rich; Rosati, Anthony; Yang, Xiaosong

    2017-05-01

    Recent Arctic sea ice seasonal prediction efforts and forecast skill assessments have primarily focused on pan-Arctic sea ice extent (SIE). In this work, we move toward stakeholder-relevant spatial scales, investigating the regional forecast skill of Arctic sea ice in a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) seasonal prediction system. Using a suite of retrospective initialized forecasts spanning 1981-2015 made with a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-land model, we show that predictions of detrended regional SIE are skillful at lead times up to 11 months. Regional prediction skill is highly region and target month dependent and generically exceeds the skill of an anomaly persistence forecast. We show for the first time that initializing the ocean subsurface in a seasonal prediction system can yield significant regional skill for winter SIE. Similarly, as suggested by previous work, we find that sea ice thickness initial conditions provide a crucial source of skill for regional summer SIE.

  5. INTERACTION BETWEEN ANTARCTIC SEA ICE AND ENSO EVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    / /; Simei, XIE; Chenglan, BAO; Zhenhe, XUE; Lin, Zhang; Chunjiang, HAO

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of the cross-coupled correlation-resonance of two wave spectra is used to study the interaction between Antarctic sea ice and ENSO events. It is found that : (1) The principal period of the correlation time series oscillation is usually coincident with the principal period of sea ice itself. If the same periods of two elements were in resonance, the correlation oscillation period would be more significant. (2) The sea ice of the Ross Sea area with its principal perio...

  6. Sea ice growth rates from tide-driven visible banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kate E.; Smith, Inga J.; Tison, Jean-Louis; Verbeke, Véronique; McGuinness, Mark; Ingham, Malcolm; Vennell, Ross; Trodahl, Joe

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, periodic tide-current-driven banding in a sea-ice core is demonstrated as a measure of the growth rate of first-year sea ice at congelation-ice depths. The study was performed on a core from the eastern McMurdo Sound, exploiting the well-characterized tidal pattern at the site. It points the way to a technique for determining early-season ice growth rates from late-season cores, in areas where under ice currents are known to be tidally dominated and the ice is landfast, thus providing data for a time of year when thin ice prevents direct thickness (and therefore growth rate) measurements. The measured results were compared to the growth-versus-depth predicted by a thermodynamic model.type="synopsis">type="main">Plain Language SummaryIt is currently very difficult to measure sea-ice growth rates, due to the danger of traveling on thin ice early in the growing season. This paper introduces the use of tidal patterns to determine sea-ice growth rates at the end of the growing season, when ice cores can be taken. The technique utilizes the visible light and dark bands that are often present in sea ice near land, and are driven by changes in the tidal current beneath the ice. As well as being important for climate research, this method could contribute to the understanding biological ecosystems within the ice, by providing a method to date depths in an ice core where particular organisms are observed or samples taken.

  7. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  8. The statistical properties of sea ice velocity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Thorndike and Colony (1982) showed that more than 70% of the variance of the ice motion can be explained by the geostrophic winds. This conclusion was reached by analyzing only 2 years of data. Due to the importance of ice motion in Arctic climate we ask how persistent is such a prediction. In so doing, we study and develop a stochastic model for the Arctic sea ice velocity fields based on the observed sea ice velocity fields from satellites and buoys for the period 1978 - 2012. Having previously found that the Arctic Sea Equivalent Ice Extent (EIE) has a white noise structure on annual to bi-annual time scales (Agarwal et. al. 2012), we assess the connection to ice motion. We divide the Arctic into dynamic and thermodynamic components, with focus on the dynamic part i.e. the velocity fields of sea ice driven by the geostrophic winds over the Arctic. We show (1) the stationarity of the spatial correlation structure of the velocity fields, and (2) the robustness of white noise structure present in the velocity fields on annual to bi-annual time scales, which combine to explain the white noise characteristics of the EIE on these time scales. S. Agarwal, W. Moon and J.S. Wettlaufer, Trends, noise and reentrant long-term persistence in Arctic sea ice, Proc. R. Soc. A, 468, 2416 (2012). A.S. Thorndike and R. Colony, Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5845 (1982).

  9. What sea-ice biogeochemical modellers need from observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Steiner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical models can be a powerful tool helping to understand the role biogeochemical processes play in local and global systems and how this role may be altered in a changing climate. With respect to sea-ice biogeochemical models, our knowledge is severely limited by our poor confidence in numerical model parameterisations representing those processes. Improving model parameterisations requires communication between observers and modellers to guide model development and improve the acquisition and presentation of observations. In addition to more observations, modellers need conceptual and quantitative descriptions of the processes controlling, for example: primary production and diversity of algal functional types in sea ice, ice algal growth, release from sea ice, heterotrophic remineralisation, transfer and emission of gases (e.g., DMS, CH4, BrO, incorporation of seawater components in growing sea ice (including Fe, organic and inorganic carbon, and major salts and subsequent release; CO2 dynamics (including CaCO3 precipitation, flushing and supply of nutrients to sea-ice ecosystems; and radiative transfer through sea ice. These issues can be addressed by focused observations, as well as controlled laboratory and field experiments that target specific processes. The guidelines provided here should help modellers and observers improve the integration of measurements and modelling efforts and advance toward the common goal of understanding biogeochemical processes in sea ice and their current and future impacts on environmental systems.

  10. Evaluation of Sentinel-3 SAR Performance over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, A.; Simonsen, S.; Skourup, H.; Sandberg Sorensen, L.; Forsberg, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice is a fundamental component of the Earth climate system since it influences directly the albedo of our planet and regulates the heat exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. Global weather patterns and climate are therefore strictly connected to the presence and properties of sea ice which represents an important element in short- and long-term climate modelling. The launch of the EC/ESA's Sentinel-3 mission offers the opportunity to prolong the observation of sea ice topography and dynamics as well as it provides essential near real-time information for ocean and weather forecasting. In particular, the SAR radar altimeter (SRAL) carried on board of this satellite enables to estimate sea ice thickness in ice-covered areas by measuring directly the sea ice freeboard. This work evaluates Sentinel-3 SAR performance over Arctic sea ice using laser altimetry data collected during a Sentinel-3 underflight - the first with the SRAL instrument operating in SAR mode - performed as a part of the CryoVEx 2016 campaign. Snow freeboard heights derived from airborne laser scanner measurements are used to validate the sea ice freeboard obtained by processing Sentinel-3 SAR level 1b waveforms. We present the results of the freeboard comparison from a statistical point of view.

  11. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, C.; Arndt, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Perovich, D. K.; Jakuba, M.; Suman, S.; Elliott, S.; Whitcomb, L. L.; McFarland, C.; Gerdes, R.; Boetius, A.

    2015-12-01

    The changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover observed over the last decades severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role in the amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to undertake challenging research at the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance onboard the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely-piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three-dimensional under-ice topography and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties during summer on the spatial variability of light transmittance. Results show that surface properties dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (<1000m²), while sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we suggest an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  12. Antarctic Sea Ice Patterns and Its Relationship with Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.

    2015-12-01

    Antarctic sea ice concentration fields show a strong seasonal and interannual variation closely tied to changes in climate patterns. The Ross, Amundsen, Bellingshausen, and Weddell Seas during Summer-Autumn and the Southern Ocean regions north of these areas during Winter-Spring have the greatest sea ice variability. Principal components analysis in T- mode, Varimax-rotated applied on Antarctic monthly sea ice concentration anomaly (SICA) fields for 1979-2015 (NASA Team algorithm data sets available at nsidc.org) revealed the main spatial characteristics of Antarctic sea ice patterns and their relationship with atmospheric circulation. This analysis yielded five patterns of sea ice for winter-spring and three patterns for summer-autumn, each of which has a positive and negative phase. To understand the links between the SICA patterns and climate, we extracted the mean pressure and temperature fields for the months with high loadings (positive or negative) of the sea ice patterns. The first pattern of winter-spring sea ice concentration is a dipole structure between the Drake Passage and northern regions of the Bellingshausen and Weddell Seas and, the South Atlantic Ocean. The negative phase shows a strong negative SICA over the Atlantic basin. This pattern can be associated with to the atmospheric structures related to a positive SAM index and a wave-3 arrangement around the continent. That is, a strong negative pressure anomaly centered over the Bellingshausen Sea accompanied by three positive pressure anomalies in middle-latitudes. For summer-autumn, the first pattern shows two strong positive SICA areas, in the eastern Weddell Sea and the northwestern Ross Sea. A negative SICA covers the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas and northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula. This pattern, frequently seen in summers since 2008, is associated with cool conditions over the Weddell Sea but warmer temperatures and high surface air pressure west, north and northwest of the Peninsula.

  13. NASA IceBridge: Airborne surveys of the polar sea ice covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Menge, J.; Farrell, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne sea ice surveys are designed to continue a valuable series of sea ice thickness measurements by bridging the gap between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), which operated from 2003 to 2009, and ICESat-2, which is scheduled for launch in 2017. Initiated in 2009, OIB has conducted campaigns over the western Arctic Ocean (March/April) and Southern Oceans (October/November) on an annual basis. Primary OIB sensors being used for sea ice observations include the Airborne Topographic Mapper laser altimeter, the Digital Mapping System digital camera, a Ku-band radar altimeter, a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) snow radar, and a KT-19 infrared radiation pyrometer. Data from the campaigns are available to the research community at: http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/. This presentation will summarize the spatial and temporal extent of the campaigns and highlight key scientific accomplishments, which include: • Documented changes in the Arctic marine cryosphere since the dramatic sea ice loss of 2007 • Novel snow depth measurements over sea ice in the Arctic • Improved skill of April-to-September sea ice predictions via numerical ice/ocean models • Validation of satellite altimetry measurements (ICESat, CryoSat-2, and IceSat-2/MABEL)

  14. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea-ice to open ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Jones, Hazel M.; Crosier, Jonathan; Bower, Keith N.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is intricately coupled to the atmosphere[1]. The decreasing sea-ice extent with the changing climate raises questions about how Arctic cloud structure will respond. Any effort to answer these questions is hindered by the scarcity of atmospheric observations in this region. Comprehensive cloud and aerosol measurements could allow for an improved understanding of the relationship between surface conditions and cloud structure; knowledge which could be key in validating weather model forecasts. Previous studies[2] have shown via remote sensing that cloudiness increases over the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and ocean with comparison to the sea-ice; however, to our knowledge, detailed in-situ data of this transition have not been previously presented. In 2013, the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign was carried out in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway to collect in-situ observations of the Arctic atmosphere and investigate this issue. Fitted with a suite of remote sensing, cloud and aerosol instrumentation, the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft was used during the spring segment of the campaign (Mar-Apr 2013). One case study (23rd Mar 2013) produced excellent coverage of the atmospheric changes when transitioning from sea-ice, through the MIZ, to the open ocean. Clear microphysical changes were observed, with the cloud liquid-water content increasing by almost four times over the transition. Cloud base, depth and droplet number also increased, whilst ice number concentrations decreased slightly. The surface warmed by ~13 K from sea-ice to ocean, with minor differences in aerosol particle number (of sizes corresponding to Cloud Condensation Nuclei or Ice Nucleating Particles) observed, suggesting that the primary driver of these microphysical changes was the increased heat fluxes and induced turbulence from the warm ocean surface as expected. References: [1] Kapsch, M.L., Graversen, R.G. and Tjernström, M. Springtime

  15. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. On the assimilation of ice velocity and concentration data into large-scale sea ice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dulière

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate way to further assimilate sea ice concentration and velocity observations into a global sea ice-ocean model, we analyze here results from a number of twin experiments (i.e. experiments in which the assimilated data are model outputs carried out with a simplified model of the Arctic sea ice pack. Our objective is to determine to what degree the assimilation of ice velocity and/or concentration data improves the global performance of the model and, more specifically, reduces the error in the computed ice thickness. A simple optimal interpolation scheme is used, and outputs from a control run and from perturbed experiments without and with data assimilation are thoroughly compared. Our results indicate that, under certain conditions depending on the assimilation weights and the type of model error, the assimilation of ice velocity data enhances the model performance. The assimilation of ice concentration data can also help in improving the model behavior, but it has to be handled with care because of the strong connection between ice concentration and ice thickness. This study is first step towards real data assimilation into NEMO-LIM, a global sea ice-ocean model.

  17. Quantification of sea ice production at coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulic, Lukrecia; Timmermann, Ralph; Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice production and associated High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) formation in the southern Weddell Sea is an important driver for the global thermohaline ocean circulation and determines the properties of shelf water inflow that fuels ice shelf basal melting. In the southern Weddell Sea, coastal polynyas cover 1% of the area, but contribute about 10% to the total winter sea ice production. This project aims to improve estimates of the sea ice production and HSSW formation in the southern Weddell Sea coastal polynyas by a synergy of numerical simulations and remote sensing data. Sea ice-ocean simulations are performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) with a horizontal resolution close to the Rossby radius over the whole Weddell Sea to better represent eddy dynamics. In order to asses sensitivity of polynya characteristics and HSSW formation rates to the atmospheric forcing, FESOM is forced with different reanalysis data (ERA-Interim, NCEP-CFSR). Mean sea ice growth for the simulated period (1979-2012) is lower and more localized along the coastline/ice shelf front in the NCEP-CFSR run. Differences may be attributed to the colder air temperatures and stronger offshore winds in ERA-Interim forcing. FESOM will be forced with output from the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) to further investigate sensitivity with respect to different atmospheric forcing. The best and most realistic ice production and HSSW formation estimates are expected to be obtained by assimilation of thin ice thickness data derived from MODIS retrievals into FESOM. This will lead to a high resolution data set of sea ice coverage and ice thickness fields that can be used as reference data set for other sea ice models and as an input for high-resolution atmospheric models.

  18. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    Mineral authigenesis from their dissolved sea salt matrix is an emergent feature of sea ice brines, fuelled by dramatic equilibrium solubility changes in the large sub-zero temperature range of this cryospheric system on the surface of high latitude oceans. The multi-electrolyte composition of seawater results in the potential for several minerals to precipitate in sea ice, each affecting the in-situ geochemical properties of the sea ice brine system, the habitat of sympagic biota. The solubility of two of these minerals, gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl · 2H2O), was investigated in high ionic strength multi-electrolyte solutions at below-zero temperatures to examine their dissolution-precipitation dynamics in the sea ice brine system. The gypsum dynamics in sea ice were found to be highly dependent on the solubilities of mirabilite and hydrohalite between 0.2 and - 25.0 ° C. The hydrohalite solubility between - 14.3 and - 25.0 ° C exhibits a sharp change between undersaturated and supersaturated conditions, and, thus, distinct temperature fields of precipitation and dissolution in sea ice, with saturation occurring at - 22.9 ° C. The sharp changes in hydrohalite solubility at temperatures ⩽-22.9 °C result from the formation of an ice-hydrohalite aggregate, which alters the structural properties of brine inclusions in cold sea ice. Favourable conditions for gypsum precipitation in sea ice were determined to occur in the region of hydrohalite precipitation below - 22.9 ° C and in conditions of metastable mirabilite supersaturation above - 22.9 ° C (investigated at - 7.1 and - 8.2 ° C here) but gypsum is unlikely to persist once mirabilite forms at these warmer (>-22.9 °C) temperatures. The dynamics of hydrohalite in sea ice brines based on its experimental solubility were consistent with that derived from thermodynamic modelling (FREZCHEM code) but the gypsum dynamics derived from the code were inconsistent with that indicated by its

  19. Sea ice algal biomass and physiology in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Arrigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sea ice covers approximately 5% of the ocean surface and is one of the most extensive ecosystems on the planet. The microbial communities that live in sea ice represent an important food source for numerous organisms at a time of year when phytoplankton in the water column are scarce. Here we describe the distributions and physiology of sea ice microalgae in the poorly studied Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean. Microalgal biomass was relatively high in sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, due primarily to well developed surface communities that would have been replenished with nutrients during seawater flooding of the surface as a result of heavy snow accumulation. Elevated biomass was also occasionally observed in slush, interior, and bottom ice microhabitats throughout the region. Sea ice microalgal photophysiology appeared to be controlled by the availability of both light and nutrients. Surface communities used an active xanthophyll cycle and effective pigment sunscreens to protect themselves from harmful ultraviolet and visible radiation. Acclimation to low light microhabitats in sea ice was facilitated by enhanced pigment content per cell, greater photosynthetic accessory pigments, and increased photosynthetic efficiency. Photoacclimation was especially effective in the bottom ice community, where ready access to nutrients would have allowed ice microalgae to synthesize a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus. Surprisingly, the pigment-detected prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica was an important component of surface communities (slush and surface ponds where its acclimation to high light may precondition it to seed phytoplankton blooms after the sea ice melts in spring.

  20. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69,p permafrost thaw.

  1. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  2. A multivariate analysis of Antarctic sea ice since 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Neto, Newton de; Evangelista, Heitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tanizaki-Fonseca, Kenny [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Dept. Analise Geoambiental, Inst. de Geociencias, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Penello Meirelles, Margareth Simoes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)/Geomatica, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Carlos Eiras [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Laboratorio de Oceanografia Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Recent satellite observations have shown an increase in the total extent of Antarctic sea ice, during periods when the atmosphere and oceans tend to be warmer surrounding a significant part of the continent. Despite an increase in total sea ice, regional analyses depict negative trends in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea and positive trends in the Ross Sea. Although several climate parameters are believed to drive the formation of Antarctic sea ice and the local atmosphere, a descriptive mechanism that could trigger such differences in trends are still unknown. In this study we employed a multivariate analysis in order to identify the response of the Antarctic sea ice with respect to commonly utilized climate forcings/parameters, as follows: (1) The global air surface temperature, (2) The global sea surface temperature, (3) The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, (4) The South Annular Mode, (5) The Nino 3, (6) The Nino (3 + 4, 7) The Nino 4, (8) The Southern Oscillation Index, (9) The Multivariate ENSO Index, (10) the Total Solar Irradiance, (11) The maximum O{sub 3} depletion area, and (12) The minimum O{sub 3} concentration over Antarctica. Our results indicate that western Antarctic sea ice is simultaneously impacted by several parameters; and that the minimum, mean, and maximum sea ice extent may respond to a separate set of climatic/geochemical parameters. (orig.)

  3. Sea ice properties in the Bohai Sea measured by MODIS-Aqua: 2. Study of sea ice seasonal and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

    2012-07-01

    During the 2009-2010 winter, the Bohai Sea experienced its most severe sea ice event in four decades, which caused significant economic losses, affected marine transportation and fishery, and impacted the entire marine ecosystem in the region. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite from 2002 to 2010 and surface atmosphere temperature (SAT) data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) are used to study and quantify the extreme sea ice event in the 2009-2010 winter and the interannual variability of the regional sea ice properties, as well as the relationship between sea ice and the climate variability in the Bohai Sea. The mean sea ice reflectance from MODIS-Aqua visible and near-infrared wavelengths are 9.33%, 13.26%, and 12.60% in the months of December 2009, January 2010, and February 2010, respectively, compared with the monthly average sea ice reflectance values (from 2002 to 2010) of 9.35%, 11.21%, and 11.41% in the same three winter months. The sea ice monthly average coverages are ~ 5427, ~ 27,414, and ~ 21,156 km2 in these three winter months. These values are significantly higher than the averages of monthly sea ice coverage of ~ 2735, ~ 11,119, and ~ 10,287 km2 in the Bohai Sea in December, January, and February between 2002 and 2010. Most of the sea ice coverage was located in the northern Bohai Sea. Both the intra-seasonal and interannual sea ice variability in the Bohai Sea is found to be related closely to SAT. The mechanism of anomalous SAT and intense sea ice severity are also discussed and attributed to large-scale climate changes due to the variability of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and Siberian High (SH).

  4. Sea-ice cover in the Nordic Seas and the sensitivity to Atlantic water temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mari F.; Nisancioglu, Kerim H.; Spall, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the sea-ice cover of the Nordic Seas have been proposed to play a key role for the dramatic temperature excursions associated with the Dansgaard-Oeschger events during the last glacial. However, with its proximity to the warm Atlantic water, how a sea-ice cover can persist in the Nordic Seas is not well understood. In this study, we apply an eddy-resolving configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model with an idealized topography to study the presence of sea ice in a Nordic Seas-like domain. We assume an infinite amount of warm Atlantic water present in the south by restoring the southern area to constant temperatures. The sea-surface temperatures are restored toward cold, atmospheric temperatures, and as a result, sea ice is present in the interior of the domain. However, the sea-ice cover in the margins of the Nordic Seas, an area with a warm, cyclonic boundary current, is sensitive to the amount of heat entering the domain, i.e., the restoring temperature in the south. When the temperature of the warm, cyclonic boundary current is high, the margins are free of sea ice and heat is released to the atmosphere. We show that with a small reduction in the temperature of the incoming Atlantic water, the Nordic Seas-like domain is fully covered in sea ice. Warm water is still entering the Nordic Seas, however, this happens at depths below a cold, fresh surface layer produced by melted sea ice. Consequently, the heat release to the atmosphere is reduced along with the eddy heat fluxes. Results suggest a threshold value in the amount of heat entering the Nordic Seas before the sea-ice cover disappears in the margins. We study the sensitivity of this threshold to changes in atmospheric temperatures and vertical diffusivity.

  5. Ice matters. Arctic and Antarctic under-ice communities linking sea ice with the pelagic food web

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Hauke; van Franeker, J.-A.; David, Carmen; Lange, Benjamin; Pakhomov, E. A.; Bathmann, Ulrich; Peeken, Ilka

    2013-01-01

    In both Polar Regions, sea ice environments are undergoing rapid environmental change. Because sea ice constitutes an important habitat for numerous species, as well as an important carbon source during critical periods of the year, these changes impact significantly on ecosystem functioning, biodiversity, species distribution and population sizes, including commercially exploited fish stocks. Species dwelling at the ice-water interface (e.g. Antarctic krill and Arctic cod) play a key role in...

  6. Regional Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Ice Production in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal polynyas around the Antarctic continent have been regarded as sea ice factories because of high ice production rates in these regions. The observation of a positive trend in the extent of Antarctic sea ice during the satellite era has been intriguing in light of the observed rapid decline of the ice extent in the Arctic. The results of analysis of the time series of passive microwave data indicate large regional variability with the trends being strongly positive in the Ross Sea, strongly negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas and close to zero in the other regions. The atmospheric circulation in the Antarctic is controlled mainly by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the marginal ice zone around the continent shows an alternating pattern of advance and retreat suggesting the presence of a propagating wave (called Antarctic Circumpolar Wave) around the circumpolar region. The results of analysis of the passive microwave data suggest that the positive trend in the Antarctic sea ice cover could be caused primarily by enhanced ice production in the Ross Sea that may be associated with more persistent and larger coastal polynyas in the region. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate-of-increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 km2 per year. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 km3/year, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. In addition to the possibility of changes in SAM, modeling studies have also indicated that the ozone hole may have a role in that it causes the deepening of the lows in the western Antarctic region thereby causing strong winds to occur offthe Ross-ice shelf.

  7. Svalbard as a study model of future High Arctic coastal environments in a warming world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Piskozub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard archipelago, a high latitude area in a region undergoing rapid climate change, is relatively easily accessible for field research. This makes the fjords of Spitsbergen, its largest island, some of the best studied Arctic coastal areas. This paper aims at answering the question of how climatically diverse the fjords are, and how representative they are for the expected future Arctic diminishing range of seasonal sea-ice. This study uses a meteorological reanalysis, sea surface temperature climatology, and the results of a recent one-year meteorological campaign in Spitsbergen to determine the seasonal differences between different Spitsbergen fjords, as well as the sea water temperature and ice ranges around Svalbard in recent years. The results show that Spitsbergen fjords have diverse seasonal patterns of air temperature due to differences in the SST of the adjacent ocean, and different cloudiness. The sea water temperatures and ice concentrations around Svalbard in recent years are similar to what is expected most of the Arctic coastal areas in the second half of this century. This makes Spitsbergen a unique field study model of the conditions expected in future warmer High Arctic.

  8. Modeling the summertime evolution of sea-ice melt ponds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüthje, Mikael; Feltham, D.L.; Taylor, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a mathematical model describing the summer melting of sea ice. We simulate the evolution of melt ponds and determine area coverage and total surface ablation. The model predictions are tested for sensitivity to the melt rate of unponded ice, enhanced melt rate beneath the melt ponds......, vertical seepage, and horizontal permeability. The model is initialized with surface topographies derived from laser altimetry corresponding to first-year sea ice and multiyear sea ice. We predict that there are large differences in the depth of melt ponds and the area of coverage between the two types...... of ice. We also find that the vertical seepage rate and the melt rate of unponded ice are important in determining the total surface ablation and area covered by melt ponds....

  9. Tradition and Technology: Sea Ice Science on Inuit Sleds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeremy P.; Hanson, Susanne; Hughes, Nick E.; James, Alistair; Jones, Bryn; MacKinnon, Rory; Rysgaard, Søren; Toudal, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic is home to a circumpolar community of native people whose culture and traditions have enabled them to thrive in what most would perceive as a totally inhospitable and untenable environment. In many ways, sea ice can be viewed as the glue that binds these northern communities together; it is utilized in all aspects of their daily life. Sea ice acts as highways of the north; indeed, one can travel on these highways with dogsleds and snowmobiles. These travels over the frozen ocean occur at all periods of the sea ice cycle and over different ice types and ages. Excursions may be hunting trips to remote regions or social visits to nearby villages. Furthermore, hunting on the sea ice contributes to the health, culture, and commercial income of a community.

  10. Aquarius Retrieval of Sea Ice Thickness: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matthaeis, Paolo; Utku, C.; Le Vine, David M.; Moyer, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquarius brightness temperature data are used to calculate sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. The method is based on the inversion of a radiative transfer model for icecovered sea. Using this technique, the initial sea ice thickness values retrieved from Aquarius data are compared to the SMOSIce Data as well as to estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. The results show similar trends between the SMOS- and Aquarius-derived sea ice thickness, however the Aquarius estimates tend to be higher and noisier than the corresponding SMOS values. The accuracy of retrieved Aquarius ice thickness is possibly influenced by uncertainties in the ancillary input parameters and by the coarser resolutions of Aquarius.

  11. Mapping of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea using KOMPSAT-5 wide swath SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H.; Kim, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used for mapping sea ice because it can observe Earth's surface regardless of sun altitudes and weather conditions. Korea Multi-Purpose SATellte-5 (KOMPSAT-5) is South Korea's first satellite equipped with X-band SAR system that provides high-resolution images in various observation modes. In this study, sea ice mapping model based on Random Forest (RF), a rule-based machine learning approach, was developed for KOMPSAT-5 Enhanced Wide (EW) swath SAR data obtained from August to September 2015 in the Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean. All SAR images were acquired in HH-polarization at incidence angle ranging from 17 to 50°. Each SAR image covers the area of 100 km × 100 km. A total of 12 texture features derived from backscattering intensity and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were used as input variables for sea ice mapping model. The sea ice mapping model based on the RF produced sea ice map with a grid size of 125 m, with the overall accuracy of 99.2% and the kappa coefficient of 98.5% in the classification of sea ice and open water. Sea ice concentration (SIC) was computed from the RF-derived sea ice maps and compared with that from the observations of two passive microwave sensors— the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2). SSMIS and AMSR2 estimates SIC using the NASA Team (NT) and Turbulence Interaction STudy (ARTIST) Sea Ice (ASI) algorithm, respectively. The SSMIS NT SIC was underestimated in marginal ice zone and compact ice zone, while they were overestimated in sea ice edge. Meanwhile, the AMSR2 ASI SIC was underestimated in compact ice zone and overestimated in other regions. This research was funded by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) under the project titled `SaTellite remote sensing on west Antarctic ocean Research (STAR) (PE16040)'.

  12. Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rachael H.; Yang, Xin; Wolff, Eric W.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Frey, Markus M.

    2017-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the sea ice surface is an important source of sea salt aerosol and this has significant implications for polar climate and atmospheric chemistry. It also suggests the potential to use ice core sea salt records as proxies for past sea ice extent. To explore this possibility in the Arctic region, we use a chemical transport model to track the emission, transport, and deposition of sea salt from both the open ocean and the sea ice, allowing us to assess the relative importance of each. Our results confirm the importance of sea ice sea salt (SISS) to the winter Arctic aerosol burden. For the first time, we explicitly simulate the sea salt concentrations of Greenland snow, achieving values within a factor of two of Greenland ice core records. Our simulations suggest that SISS contributes to the winter maxima in sea salt characteristic of ice cores across Greenland. However, a north-south gradient in the contribution of SISS relative to open-ocean sea salt (OOSS) exists across Greenland, with 50 % of winter sea salt being SISS at northern sites such as NEEM (77° N), while only 10 % of winter sea salt is SISS at southern locations such as ACT10C (66° N). Our model shows some skill at reproducing the inter-annual variability in sea salt concentrations for 1991-1999, particularly at Summit where up to 62 % of the variability is explained. Future work will involve constraining what is driving this inter-annual variability and operating the model under different palaeoclimatic conditions.

  13. Sea ice as a source of sea salt aerosol to Greenland ice cores: a model-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Rhodes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that the sea ice surface is an important source of sea salt aerosol and this has significant implications for polar climate and atmospheric chemistry. It also suggests the potential to use ice core sea salt records as proxies for past sea ice extent. To explore this possibility in the Arctic region, we use a chemical transport model to track the emission, transport, and deposition of sea salt from both the open ocean and the sea ice, allowing us to assess the relative importance of each. Our results confirm the importance of sea ice sea salt (SISS to the winter Arctic aerosol burden. For the first time, we explicitly simulate the sea salt concentrations of Greenland snow, achieving values within a factor of two of Greenland ice core records. Our simulations suggest that SISS contributes to the winter maxima in sea salt characteristic of ice cores across Greenland. However, a north–south gradient in the contribution of SISS relative to open-ocean sea salt (OOSS exists across Greenland, with 50 % of winter sea salt being SISS at northern sites such as NEEM (77° N, while only 10 % of winter sea salt is SISS at southern locations such as ACT10C (66° N. Our model shows some skill at reproducing the inter-annual variability in sea salt concentrations for 1991–1999, particularly at Summit where up to 62 % of the variability is explained. Future work will involve constraining what is driving this inter-annual variability and operating the model under different palaeoclimatic conditions.

  14. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K; Jakuba, Michael V; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L; McFarland, Christopher J; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  15. The sea ice in Young Sound: Implications for carbon cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Rysgaard, Søren; Kühl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    , and 7 of the longest sea-ice-free periods observed in 50 years were recorded after 1990. The snow and sea-ice cover regulates the activity of the light-limited marine ecosystem of Young Sound. As the snow cover melts during late May and June, the irradiance refl ectance decreases, especially for red...... and near infrared light. Differences in snow cover thickness and patchy distribution of dry snow, wet snow and melting ponds on the sea-ice surface result in a very heterogeneous light environment at the underside of the ice. In areas with suffi cient light, sea-ice algae begin to fl ourish......–30 μg Chl a l-1 sea ice at the underside of the ice and with maximum area integrated values of c. 3 mg Chl a m-2. We speculate that the extreme dynamics in sea-ice appearance, structure and brine percolation, which is driven primarily by large but variable freshwater inputs during snow melt...

  16. Role of small ice shelves in sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, T. K.; Alley, R. B.

    2006-05-01

    Recent observations show marked acceleration and thinning of tributary ice streams following shrinkage or loss of a few of the many small ice shelves that ring Antarctica and Greenland. Our model experiments, which adopt a simplified geometry, show that calving from or partial disintegration of a small ice shelf has more effect on tributary ice streams than does loss of a berg of equal length from a larger ice shelf. Our results, which are consistent with the recent observations, indicate that even small ice shelves can provide important restraint on tributary flow from ice sheets, implying that characterization and modeling of the full range of ice shelves will be required for accurate projection of ice-sheet changes and their influence on sea level.

  17. Simulation and Domain Identification of Sea Ice Thermodynamic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the measured data and characteristics of sea ice temperature distribution in space and time, this study is intended to consider a parabolic partial differential equation of the thermodynamic field of sea ice (coupled by snow, ice, and sea water layers with a time-dependent domain and its parameter identification problem. An optimal model with state constraints is presented with the thicknesses of snow and sea ice as parametric variables and the deviation between the calculated and measured sea ice temperatures as the performance criterion. The unique existence of the weak solution of the thermodynamic system is proved. The properties of the identification problem and the existence of the optimal parameter are discussed, and the one-order necessary condition is derived. Finally, based on the nonoverlapping domain decomposition method and semi-implicit difference scheme, an optimization algorithm is proposed for the numerical simulation. Results show that the simulated temperature of sea ice fit well with the measured data, and the better fit is corresponding to the deeper sea ice.

  18. At-sea observations of the spring migration and pair bonding of ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea around Svalbard and East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kylin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of logistical constraints little previous information exists on ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea in the waters around Svalbard and the east coast of Greenland in late winter/early spring. The Swedish Arctic Ocean 2002 expedition investigated these areas at that time of year and in this paper I report on the observations of ivory gulls made during the expedition. The ivory gull was essentially absent from open waters but was the most common seabird in areas with pack ice, showing behavioural differences depending on local conditions. Generally, the number of ivory gulls was low when there was little plankton in the water. Ivory gulls followed the ship depending on the availability of food items in the wake and also depending on competition from other species, particularly glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus. Although ivory gulls were present in most of Fram Strait and the northern part of the East Greenland Current during 6 and 19 May, sightings were few and correlated to the amount of plankton in the water. Aggregations of several hundred were seen on the ice where copulation and other social interaction took place. A previously undescribed pair bonding behaviour during which females seemed to select between two competing males was observed north of Svalbard on 30 April–1 May. Off Scoresby Sound on 25 May, more than 700 birds were seen migrating north, while farther south along the Greenland coast on 30 May there was little indication of migration although many ivory gulls were seen.

  19. Effects of future Arctic sea ice decline on Greenland ice sheet melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaino, Miren; Michailidou, Egli

    2017-04-01

    CMIP5 models project substantial reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover during the current century, including the onset of a seasonally ice free Arctic. In this study we explore the effects of future Arctic sea-ice change on the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). For this, we use 1850-2100 simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 corresponding to historical and RCP8.5 scenarios. We examine the impact of Arctic change on the surface energy and mass budgets of the Greenland ice sheet. We distinguish between winter Arctic change and Greenland-melt-season (Spring and Summer) future climate change. We find a substantial reduction in summer incoming shortwave radiation over the GrIS both for clear-sky and all-sky conditions, that reduces the energy available for melt. Because of the large amount of energy that is used during summer to melt sea-ice, we find no amplified summer warming in the ocean around Greenland, except where summer-long ice-free conditions develop. The different nature of the processes controlling sea-ice change along the western and eastern Greenland coast is examined. We find no links in the timing of major sea-ice change and Greenland snow and ice melt, and justify why such a linkage is absent.

  20. IceMap250—Automatic 250 m Sea Ice Extent Mapping Using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Gignac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice cover in the North evolves at a rapid rate. To adequately monitor this evolution, tools with high temporal and spatial resolution are needed. This paper presents IceMap250, an automatic sea ice extent mapping algorithm using MODIS reflective/emissive bands. Hybrid cloud-masking using both the MOD35 mask and a visibility mask, combined with downscaling of Bands 3–7 to 250 m, are utilized to delineate sea ice extent using a decision tree approach. IceMap250 was tested on scenes from the freeze-up, stable cover, and melt seasons in the Hudson Bay complex, in Northeastern Canada. IceMap250 first product is a daily composite sea ice presence map at 250 m. Validation based on comparisons with photo-interpreted ground-truth show the ability of the algorithm to achieve high classification accuracy, with kappa values systematically over 90%. IceMap250 second product is a weekly clear sky map that provides a synthesis of 7 days of daily composite maps. This map, produced using a majority filter, makes the sea ice presence map even more accurate by filtering out the effects of isolated classification errors. The synthesis maps show spatial consistency through time when compared to passive microwave and national ice services maps.

  1. Sea Ice and Hydrographic Variability in the Northwest North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, I. G.; Heimbach, P.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice anomalies in the Northwest North Atlantic's Labrador Sea are of climatic interest because of known and hypothesized feedbacks with hydrographic anomalies, deep convection/mode water formation, and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric patterns. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, hydrographic anomalies formed in the Arctic Ocean associated with warming will propagate into the Labrador Sea via the Fram Strait/West Greenland Current and the Canadian Archipelago/Baffin Island Current. Therefore, understanding the dynamical response of sea ice in the basin to hydrographic anomalies is essential for the prediction and interpretation of future high-latitude climate change. Historically, efforts to quantify the link between the observed sea ice and hydrographic variability in the region has been limited due to in situ observation paucity and technical challenges associated with synthesizing ocean and sea ice observations with numerical models. To elaborate the relationship between sea ice and ocean variability, we create three one-year (1992-1993, 1996-1997, 2003-2004) three-dimensional time-varying reconstructions of the ocean and sea ice state in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The reconstructions are syntheses of a regional coupled 32 km ocean-sea ice model with a suite of contemporary in situ and satellite hydrographic and ice data using the adjoint method. The model and data are made consistent, in a least-squares sense, by iteratively adjusting several model control variables (e.g., ocean initial and lateral boundary conditions and the atmospheric state) to minimize an uncertainty-weighted model-data misfit cost function. The reconstructions reveal that the ice pack attains a state of quasi-equilibrium in mid-March (the annual sea ice maximum) in which the total ice-covered area reaches a steady state -ice production and dynamical divergence along the coasts balances dynamical convergence and melt along the pack’s seaward edge. Sea ice advected to the

  2. Combined observations of Arctic sea ice with near-coincident colocated X-band, C-band, and L-band SAR satellite remote sensing and helicopter-borne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A. M.; King, J. A.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Gerland, S.; Singha, S.; Spreen, G.; Busche, T.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we compare colocated near-coincident X-, C-, and L-band fully polarimetry SAR satellite images with helicopter-borne ice thickness measurements acquired during the Norwegian Young sea ICE 2015 (N-ICE2015) expedition in the region of the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard in April 2015. The air-borne surveys provide near-coincident snow plus ice thickness, surface roughness data, and photographs. This unique data set allows us to investigate how the different frequencies can complement one another for sea ice studies, but also to raise awareness of limitations. X-band and L-band satellite scenes were shown to be a useful complement to the standard SAR frequency for sea ice monitoring (C-band) for lead ice and newly formed sea ice identification. This may be in part be due to the frequency but also the high spatial resolution of these sensors. We found a relatively low correlation between snow plus ice thickness and surface roughness. Therefore, in our dataset ice thickness cannot directly be observed by SAR which has important implications for operational ice charting based on automatic segmentation.

  3. Environmental predictors of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Miksis-Olds

    Full Text Available Ice seals overwintering in the Bering Sea are challenged with foraging, finding mates, and maintaining breathing holes in a dark and ice covered environment. Due to the difficulty of studying these species in their natural environment, very little is known about how the seals navigate under ice. Here we identify specific environmental parameters, including components of the ambient background sound, that are predictive of ice seal presence in the Bering Sea. Multi-year mooring deployments provided synoptic time series of acoustic and oceanographic parameters from which environmental parameters predictive of species presence were identified through a series of mixed models. Ice cover and 10 kHz sound level were significant predictors of seal presence, with 40 kHz sound and prey presence (combined with ice cover as potential predictors as well. Ice seal presence showed a strong positive correlation with ice cover and a negative association with 10 kHz environmental sound. On average, there was a 20-30 dB difference between sound levels during solid ice conditions compared to open water or melting conditions, providing a salient acoustic gradient between open water and solid ice conditions by which ice seals could orient. By constantly assessing the acoustic environment associated with the seasonal ice movement in the Bering Sea, it is possible that ice seals could utilize aspects of the soundscape to gauge their safe distance to open water or the ice edge by orienting in the direction of higher sound levels indicative of open water, especially in the frequency range above 1 kHz. In rapidly changing Arctic and sub-Arctic environments, the seasonal ice conditions and soundscapes are likely to change which may impact the ability of animals using ice presence and cues to successfully function during the winter breeding season.

  4. Simulation of the crystal growth of platelet sea ice with diffusive heat and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wangpan, Pat; Langhorne, Patricia J.; Dempsey, David E.; Hahn-Woernle, L.; Sun, Zhifa

    2015-01-01

    Antarctic coastal sea ice often grows in water that has been supercooled by interaction with an ice shelf. In these situations, ice crystals can form at depth, rise and deposit under the sea-ice cover to form a porous layer that eventually consolidates near the base of the existing sea ice. The

  5. PHOTOPROTECTION OF SEA-ICE MICROALGAL COMMUNITIES FROM THE EAST ANTARCTIC PACK ICE(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Katherina; Hill, Ross; Doblin, Martina A; McMinn, Andrew; Johnson, Robert; Wright, Simon W; Ralph, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    All photosynthetic organisms endeavor to balance energy supply with demand. For sea-ice diatoms, as with all marine photoautotrophs, light is the most important factor for determining growth and carbon-fixation rates. Light varies from extremely low to often relatively high irradiances within the sea-ice environment, meaning that sea-ice algae require moderate physiological plasticity that is necessary for rapid light acclimation and photoprotection. This study investigated photoprotective mechanisms employed by bottom Antarctic sea-ice algae in response to relatively high irradiances to understand how they acclimate to the environmental conditions presented during early spring, as the light climate begins to intensify and snow and sea-ice thinning commences. The sea-ice microalgae displayed high photosynthetic plasticity to increased irradiance, with a rapid decline in photochemical efficiency that was completely reversible when placed under low light. Similarly, the photoprotective xanthophyll pigment diatoxanthin (Dt) was immediately activated but reversed during recovery under low light. The xanthophyll inhibitor dithiothreitol (DTT) and state transition inhibitor sodium fluoride (NaF) were used in under-ice in situ incubations and revealed that nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) via xanthophyll-cycle activation was the preferred method for light acclimation and photoprotection by bottom sea-ice algae. This study showed that bottom sea-ice algae from the east Antarctic possess a high level of plasticity in their light-acclimation capabilities and identified the xanthophyll cycle as a critical mechanism in photoprotection and the preferred means by which sea-ice diatoms regulate energy flow to PSII. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Interannual Variability of the Sea-Ice-Induced Salt Flux in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The Greenland Sea is one of the few places in the World Ocean where deep convection takes place. The convection process is initiated by a density increase originating from rapid cooling and/or a salt flux to the upper layer of the ocean due to brine rejection from ice formation (Rudels, 1990......; Visbeck and others, 1995). The predominant ice types in the Greenland Sea arc frazil/grease ice and pancake ice. A numerical model has been developed relating ice formation and decay of these ice types as observed by the SMMR and SSM/I microwave radiometers and evaluating their contribution to salt...... redistribution in the Greenland Sea. The model has been used to calculate spatial distribution of the annual integrated net salt flux to the Greenland Sea from ice production and advection for the period 1979-97....

  7. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    The Sea Ice Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by GCOS pertains of both sea ice concentration, thickness, and drift. Now in its second phase, the ESA CCI Sea Ice project is conducting the necessary research efforts to address sea ice drift.Accurate estimates of sea ice drift direction...... the physical parametrizations. Sea ice drift products are also required to locate regions of convergent and divergent ice motion across spatio-temporal scales from meters / hours to basins / years.The work in the CCI Sea Ice project includes defining metrics for assessing the accuracy of algorithms, selecting...... in the final product. This contribution reviews the motivation for the work, the plans for sea ice drift algorithms intercomparison and selection, and early results from our activity....

  8. NOAA/NMC/CAC Arctic and Antarctic Monthly Sea Ice Extent, 1973-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea ice extent from January 1973 through August 1990 was digitized from weekly operational sea ice charts produced by the Navy/NOAA Joint Ice Center. Charts were...

  9. Guide to Sea Ice Information and Sea Ice Data Online - the Sea Ice Knowledge and Data Platform www.meereisportal.de and www.seaiceportal.de

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffeisen, R. E.; Nicolaus, M.; Bartsch, A.; Fritzsch, B.; Grosfeld, K.; Haas, C.; Hendricks, S.; Heygster, G.; Hiller, W.; Krumpen, T.; Melsheimer, C.; Ricker, R.; Weigelt, M.

    2016-12-01

    The combination of multi-disciplinary sea ice science and the rising demand of society for up-to-date information and user customized products places emphasis on creating new ways of communication between science and society. The new knowledge platform is a contribution to the cross-linking of scientifically qualified information on climate change, and focuses on the theme: `sea ice' in both Polar Regions. With this platform, the science opens to these changing societal demands. It is the first comprehensive German speaking knowledge platform on sea ice; the platform went online in 2013. The web site delivers popularized information for the general public as well as scientific data meant primarily for the more expert readers and scientists. It also provides various tools allowing for visitor interaction. The demand for the web site indicates a high level of interest from both the general public and experts. It communicates science-based information to improve awareness and understanding of sea ice related research. The principle concept of the new knowledge platform is based on three pillars: (1) sea ice knowledge and background information, (2) data portal with visualizations, and (3) expert knowledge, latest research results and press releases. Since then, the content and selection of data sets increased and the data portal received increasing attention, also from the international science community. Meanwhile, we are providing near-real time and archived data of many key parameters of sea ice and its snow cover. The data sets result from measurements acquired by various platforms as well as numerical simulations. Satellite observations (e.g., AMSR2, CryoSat-2 and SMOS) of sea ice concentration, freeboard, thickness and drift are available as gridded data sets. Sea ice and snow temperatures and thickness as well as atmospheric parameters are available from autonomous ice-tethered platforms (buoys). Additional ship observations, ice station measurements, and

  10. SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroszczyk, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of sea-ice pack motion and deformation under the action of wind and water currents. Differential equations describing the dynamics of ice, with its very distinct mateFfigrial responses in converging and diverging flows, express the mass and linear momentum balances on the horizontal plane (the free surface of the ocean). These equations are solved by the fully Lagrangian method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Assuming that the ice behaviour can be approximated by a non-linearly viscous rheology, the proposed SPH model has been used to simulate the evolution of a sea-ice pack driven by wind drag stresses. The results of numerical simulations illustrate the evolution of an ice pack, including variations in ice thickness and ice area fraction in space and time. The effects of different initial ice pack configurations and of different conditions assumed at the coast-ice interface are examined. In particular, the SPH model is applied to a pack flow driven by a vortex wind to demonstrate how well the Lagrangian formulation can capture large deformations and displacements of sea ice.

  11. Ice Thickness, Snow Depth, and Surface Temperature in the Chukchi Sea Ice Edge from a Vessel-mounted Sea Ice Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissling, B.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-02-01

    A new Sea Ice Measurement System was constructed combining an Electromagnetic Induction Meter (Geonics EM-31), a KU-CRESIS Snow Radar, a Wengler Lidar Altimeter and a FLIR Infrared Camera. These were in-line mounted on a frame that was suspended over the side of the Sikuliaq during the ONR SeaState cruise to the Chukchi Sea ice edge in Oct 2015. The EMI measured total snow and ice thickness when corrected for height above the surface by the Lidar Altimeter. Ice Thickness was derived by subtracting radar snow depth from EMI total snow and ice thickness. A Riegl Lidar mounted separately on an upper deck provided a surface elevation swath containing the sea ice measurement system's line profile. These sea ice parameters, over 10km to 20km track lengths at 5m horizontal resolution, provide ground truth validation for airborne measurements which use only lidar surface elevation and radar snow depth to derive sea ice thickness. Algorithms to relate ice thickness only to surface elevation will be tested for possible application to future IceSAT-2 satellite data for the Arctic autumn period.

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Charts from Danish Meteorological Institute, 1893 - 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1893 to 1956, the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) created charts of observed and inferred sea ice extent for each summer month. These charts are based on...

  13. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Obbard, Rachel W; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    .... Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly...

  14. Sea Ice Melt Pond Data from the Canadian Arctic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains observations of albedo, depth, and physical characteristics of melt ponds on sea ice, taken during the summer of 1994. The melt ponds studied...

  15. Nimbus-7 SMMR Polar Gridded Radiances and Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains gridded brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations for both polar regions. It spans the period from October 1978 through August 1987,...

  16. Meltpond2000 Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer Sea Ice Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Meltpond2000 project was the first in a series of Arctic and Antarctic aircraft campaigns to validate sea ice algorithms developed for the Advanced Microwave...

  17. Modelling sea ice formation in the Terra Nova Bay polynya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiviero, M.; Morales Maqueda, M. Á.; Fusco, G.; Aulicino, G.; Flocco, D.; Budillon, G.

    2017-02-01

    Antarctic sea ice is constantly exported from the shore by strong near surface winds that open leads and large polynyas in the pack ice. The latter, known as wind-driven polynyas, are responsible for significant water mass modification due to the high salt flux into the ocean associated with enhanced ice growth. In this article, we focus on the wind-driven Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya, in the western Ross Sea. Brine rejected during sea ice formation processes that occur in the TNB polynya densifies the water column leading to the formation of the most characteristic water mass of the Ross Sea, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). This water mass, in turn, takes part in the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), the densest water mass of the world ocean, which plays a major role in the global meridional overturning circulation, thus affecting the global climate system. A simple coupled sea ice-ocean model has been developed to simulate the seasonal cycle of sea ice formation and export within a polynya. The sea ice model accounts for both thermal and mechanical ice processes. The oceanic circulation is described by a one-and-a-half layer, reduced gravity model. The domain resolution is 1 km × 1 km, which is sufficient to represent the salient features of the coastline geometry, notably the Drygalski Ice Tongue. The model is forced by a combination of Era Interim reanalysis and in-situ data from automatic weather stations, and also by a climatological oceanic dataset developed from in situ hydrographic observations. The sensitivity of the polynya to the atmospheric forcing is well reproduced by the model when atmospheric in situ measurements are combined with reanalysis data. Merging the two datasets allows us to capture in detail the strength and the spatial distribution of the katabatic winds that often drive the opening of the polynya. The model resolves fairly accurately the sea ice drift and sea ice production rates in the TNB polynya, leading to

  18. Ice–ocean coupled computations for sea-ice prediction to support ice navigation in Arctic sea routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanarachchi Waruna Arampath De Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent rapid decrease in summer sea ice in the Arctic Ocean extending the navigation period in the Arctic sea routes (ASR, the precise prediction of ice distribution is crucial for safe and efficient navigation in the Arctic Ocean. In general, however, most of the available numerical models have exhibited significant uncertainties in short-term and narrow-area predictions, especially in marginal ice zones such as the ASR. In this study, we predict short-term sea-ice conditions in the ASR by using a mesoscale eddy-resolving ice–ocean coupled model that explicitly treats ice floe collisions in marginal ice zones. First, numerical issues associated with collision rheology in the ice–ocean coupled model (ice–Princeton Ocean Model [POM] are discussed and resolved. A model for the whole of the Arctic Ocean with a coarser resolution (about 25 km was developed to investigate the performance of the ice–POM model by examining the reproducibility of seasonal and interannual sea-ice variability. It was found that this coarser resolution model can reproduce seasonal and interannual sea-ice variations compared to observations, but it cannot be used to predict variations over the short-term, such as one to two weeks. Therefore, second, high-resolution (about 2.5 km regional models were set up along the ASR to investigate the accuracy of short-term sea-ice predictions. High-resolution computations were able to reasonably reproduce the sea-ice extent compared to Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System satellite observations because of the improved expression of the ice–albedo feedback process and the ice–eddy interaction process.

  19. Antarctic Sea Ice-a Habitat for Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. N.; Dieckmann, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    The pack ice of Earth's polar oceans appears to be frozen white desert, devoid of life. However, beneath the snow lies a unique habitat for a group of bacteria and microscopic plants and animals that are encased in an ice matrix at low temperatures and light levels, with the only liquid being pockets of concentrated brines. Survival in these conditions requires a complex suite of physiological and metabolic adaptations, but sea-ice organisms thrive in the ice, and their prolific growth ensures they play a fundamental role in polar ecosystems. Apart from their ecological importance, the bacterial and algae species found in sea ice have become the focus for novel biotechnology, as well as being considered proxies for possible life forms on ice-covered extraterrestrial bodies.

  20. Algorithms to estimate Antarctic sea ice algal biomass from under-ice irradiance spectra at regional scales

    OpenAIRE

    Melbourne-Thomas, Jessica; Meiners, Klaus M.; Mundy, C. J.; Schallenberg, Christina; Tattersall, Katherine L.; Dieckmann, Gerhard S.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of algal pigments in sea ice alters under-ice irradiance spectra, and the relationship between these variables can be used as a non-invasive means for estimating ice- associated algal biomass on ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales. While the influence of snow cover and ice algal biomass on spectra transmitted through the snow-ice matrix has been examined for the Arctic, it has not been tested for Antarctic sea ice at regional scales. We used...

  1. Upper Ocean Evolution Across the Beaufort Sea Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Rainville, L.; Gobat, J. I.; Perry, M. J.; Freitag, L. E.; Webster, S.

    2016-12-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g., the relatively warm Pacific Summer and Atlantic waters), and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice. Spatial and temporal variability in ice properties and open water fraction impact these processes. To investigate how upper ocean structure varies with changing ice cover, how the balance of processes shift as a function of ice fraction and distance from open water, and how these processes impact sea ice evolution, a network of autonomous platforms sampled the atmosphere-ice-ocean system in the Beaufort, beginning in spring, well before the start of melt, and ending with the autumn freeze-up. Four long-endurance autonomous Seagliders occupied sections that extended from open water, through the marginal ice zone, deep into the pack during summer 2014 in the Beaufort Sea. Gliders penetrated up to 200 km into the ice pack, under complete ice cover for up to 10 consecutive days. Sections reveal strong fronts where cold, ice-covered waters meet waters that have been exposed to solar warming, and O(10 km) scale eddies near the ice edge. In the pack, Pacific Summer Water and a deep chlorophyll maximum form distinct layers at roughly 60 m and 80 m, respectively, which become increasingly diffuse late in the season as they progress through the MIZ and into open water. Stratification just above the Pacific Summer Water rapidly weakens near the ice edge and temperature variance increases, likely due to mixing or energetic vertical exchange associated with strong

  2. The Artic-sea-ice cover: Problem of forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmel, A.; Smirnov, V.

    2007-02-01

    The ice-research station “North Pole 32” (NP 32) was established on the ice pack in the Arctic Ocean in 2003 and drifted up to February 2004, when a “global” perturbation in the sea-ice-cover caused the intensive ice fragmentation around the actual position of the NP 32. As a result, the station ceased its activity and was abandoned in March 2004. The statistical characterization of the sea-ice cover fragmentation and the drift dynamics during the final weeks of the work of the NP 32 are under consideration in this communication. The work is an attempt to reveal some features in the prehistory of this large-scale event which could serve for forecasting the substantial perturbations in the sea-ice cover. The most prominent feature that indicated the approach of the sea-ice fragmentation over the area of ∼10 5 km 2 was the break of the correlated motion of ice-fields observed 2 days before the “catastrophic” event.

  3. Bellingshausen Sea Ice Extent Recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stacy E.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Annual net accumulation (A(sub n)) from the Bruce Plateau (BP) ice core retrieved from the Antarctic Peninsula exhibits a notable relationship with sea ice extent (SIE) in the Bellingshausen Sea. Over the satellite era, both BP A(sub n) and Bellingshausen SIE are influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as the Amundsen Sea Low, Southern Annular Mode, and Southern Oscillation. In addition to the direct response of BP A(sub n) to Bellingshausen SIE (e.g., more open water as a moisture source), these large-scale climate phenomena also link the BP and the Bellingshausen Sea indirectly such that they exhibit similar responses (e.g., northerly wind anomalies advect warm, moist air to the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring Bellingshausen Sea, which reduces SIE and increases A(sub n)). Comparison with a time series of fast ice at South Orkney Islands reveals a relationship between BP A(sub n) and sea ice in the northern Weddell Sea that is relatively consistent over the twentieth century, except when it is modulated by atmospheric wave patterns described by the Trans-Polar Index. The trend of increasing accumulation on the Bruce Plateau since approximately 1970 agrees with other climate records and reconstructions in the region and suggests that the current rate of sea ice loss in the Bellingshausen Sea is unrivaled in the twentieth century.

  4. Bellingshausen Sea ice extent recorded in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stacy E.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Annual net accumulation (An) from the Bruce Plateau (BP) ice core retrieved from the Antarctic Peninsula exhibits a notable relationship with sea ice extent (SIE) in the Bellingshausen Sea. Over the satellite era, both BP An and Bellingshausen SIE are influenced by large-scale climatic factors such as the Amundsen Sea Low, Southern Annular Mode, and Southern Oscillation. In addition to the direct response of BP An to Bellingshausen SIE (e.g., more open water as a moisture source), these large-scale climate phenomena also link the BP and the Bellingshausen Sea indirectly such that they exhibit similar responses (e.g., northerly wind anomalies advect warm, moist air to the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring Bellingshausen Sea, which reduces SIE and increases An). Comparison with a time series of fast ice at South Orkney Islands reveals a relationship between BP An and sea ice in the northern Weddell Sea that is relatively consistent over the twentieth century, except when it is modulated by atmospheric wave patterns described by the Trans-Polar Index. The trend of increasing accumulation on the Bruce Plateau since 1970 agrees with other climate records and reconstructions in the region and suggests that the current rate of sea ice loss in the Bellingshausen Sea is unrivaled in the twentieth century.

  5. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea Polynya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ethan; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Despite warming trends in global temperatures, sea ice extent in the southern hemisphere has shown an increasing trend over recent decades. Wind-driven sea ice export from coastal polynyas is an important source of sea ice production. Areas of major polynyas in the Ross Sea, the region with largest increase in sea ice extent, have been suggested to produce the vast amount of the sea ice in the region. We investigate the impacts of strong wind events on polynyas and the subsequent sea ice production. We utilize Bootstrap sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements derived from satellite based, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature images. These are compared with surface wind measurements made by automatic weather stations of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Meteorology Program. Our analysis focusses on the winter period defined as 1st April to 1st November in this study. Wind data was used to classify each day into characteristic regimes based on the change of wind speed. For each regime, a composite of SIC anomaly was formed for the Ross Sea region. We found that persistent weak winds near the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf are generally associated with positive SIC anomalies in the Ross Sea polynya area (RSP). Conversely we found negative SIC anomalies in this area during persistent strong winds. By analyzing sea ice motion vectors derived from SSM/I brightness temperatures, we find significant sea ice motion anomalies throughout the Ross Sea during strong wind events. These anomalies persist for several days after the strong wing event. Strong, negative correlations are found between SIC within the RSP and wind speed indicating that strong winds cause significant advection of sea ice in the RSP. This rapid decrease in SIC is followed by a more gradual recovery in SIC. This increase occurs on a time scale greater than the average persistence of strong wind events and the resulting Sea ice motion anomalies, highlighting the production

  6. NASA IceBridge: Scientific Insights from Airborne Surveys of the Polar Sea Ice Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Menge, J.; Farrell, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) airborne sea ice surveys are designed to continue a valuable series of sea ice thickness measurements by bridging the gap between NASA's Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), which operated from 2003 to 2009, and ICESat-2, which is scheduled for launch in 2017. Initiated in 2009, OIB has conducted campaigns over the western Arctic Ocean (March/April) and Southern Oceans (October/November) on an annual basis when the thickness of sea ice cover is nearing its maximum. More recently, a series of Arctic surveys have also collected observations in the late summer, at the end of the melt season. The Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter is one of OIB's primary sensors, in combination with the Digital Mapping System digital camera, a Ku-band radar altimeter, a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) snow radar, and a KT-19 infrared radiation pyrometer. Data from the campaigns are available to the research community at: http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/. This presentation will summarize the spatial and temporal extent of the OIB campaigns and their complementary role in linking in situ and satellite measurements, advancing observations of sea ice processes across all length scales. Key scientific insights gained on the state of the sea ice cover will be highlighted, including snow depth, ice thickness, surface roughness and morphology, and melt pond evolution.

  7. Global Daily Sea Ice Concentration Reprocessing Data Set for 1978-2007 from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (NCEI Accession 0068294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data constitute the reprocessed sea ice concentration data set from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), covering the...

  8. Snow depth evolution on sea ice from Snow Buoy measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Arndt, S.; Hendricks, S.; Hoppmann, M.; Katlein, C.; König-Langlo, G.; Nicolaus, A.; Rossmann, H. L.; Schiller, M.; Schwegmann, S.; Langevin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover is an Essential Climate Variable. On sea ice, snow dominates the energy and momentum exchanges across the atmosphere-ice-ocean interfaces, and actively contributes to sea ice mass balance. Yet, snow depth on sea ice is one of the least known and most difficult to observe parameters of the Arctic and Antarctic; mainly due to its exceptionally high spatial and temporal variability. In this study; we present a unique time series dataset of snow depth and air temperature evolution on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice recorded by autonomous instruments. Snow Buoys record snow depth with four independent ultrasonic sensors, increasing the reliability of the measurements and allowing for additional analyses. Auxiliary measurements include surface and air temperature, barometric pressure and GPS position. 39 deployments of such Snow Buoys were achieved over the last three years either on drifting pack ice, on landfast sea ice or on an ice shelf. Here we highlight results from two pairs of Snow Buoys installed on drifting pack ice in the Weddell Sea. The data reveals large regional differences in the annual cycle of snow depth. Almost no reduction in snow depth (snow melt) was observed in the inner and southern part of the Weddell Sea, allowing a net snow accumulation of 0.2 to 0.9 m per year. In contrast, summer snow melt close to the ice edge resulted in a decrease of about 0.5 m during the summer 2015/16. Another array of eight Snow Buoys was installed on central Arctic sea ice in September 2015. Their air temperature record revealed exceptionally high air temperatures in the subsequent winter, even exceeding the melting point but with almost no impact on snow depth at that time. Future applications of Snow Buoys on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice will allow additional inter-annual studies of snow depth and snow processes, e.g. to support the development of snow depth data products from airborne and satellite data or though assimilation in numerical models.

  9. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  10. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Barber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil and gas deposits known to occur throughout the Arctic. Here we show that hazardous ice features remain a threat to stationary and mobile infrastructure in the southern Beaufort Sea. With the opening up of the ice pack, forecasting of high-frequency oscillations or local eddy-driven ice motion will be a much more complex task than modeling average ice circulation. Given the observed reduction in sea ice extent and thickness this rather counterintuitive situation, associated with a warming climate, poses significant hazards to Arctic marine oil and gas development and marine transportation. Accurate forecasting of hazardous ice motion will require improved real-time surface wind and ocean current forecast models capable of ingesting local satellite-derived wind data and/or local, closely-spaced networks of anemometers and improved methods of determining high-frequency components of surface ocean current fields ‘up-stream’ from drilling and extraction operations.

  11. Routine Mapping of the Snow Depth Distribution on Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.; Newman, T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Dattler, M.; Paden, J. D.; Yan, S.; Li, J.; Leuschen, C.

    2016-12-01

    The annual growth and retreat of the polar sea ice cover is influenced by the seasonal accumulation, redistribution and melt of snow on sea ice. Due to its high albedo and low thermal conductivity, snow is also a controlling parameter in the mass and energy budgets of the polar climate system. Under a changing climate scenario it is critical to obtain reliable and routine measurements of snow depth, across basin scales, and long time periods, so as to understand regional, seasonal and inter-annual variability, and the subsequent impacts on the sea ice cover itself. Moreover the snow depth distribution remains a significant source of uncertainty in the derivation of sea ice thickness from remote sensing measurements, as well as in numerical model predictions of future climate state. Radar altimeter systems flown onboard NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission now provide annual measurements of snow across both the Arctic and Southern Ocean ice packs. We describe recent advances in the processing techniques used to interpret airborne radar waveforms and produce accurate and robust snow depth results. As a consequence of instrument effects and data quality issues associated with the initial release of the OIB airborne radar data, the entire data set was reprocessed to remove coherent noise and sidelobes in the radar echograms. These reprocessed data were released to the community in early 2016, and are available for improved derivation of snow depth. Here, using the reprocessed data, we present the results of seven years of radar measurements collected over Arctic sea ice at the end of winter, just prior to melt. Our analysis provides the snow depth distribution on both seasonal and multi-year sea ice. We present the inter-annual variability in snow depth for both the Central Arctic and the Beaufort/Chukchi Seas. We validate our results via comparison with temporally and spatially coincident in situ measurements gathered during many of the OIB surveys. The results

  12. Roles of wind stress and thermodynamic forcing in recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and Southern Ocean SST: An ocean-sea ice model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Williams, Guy D.; Massom, Robert; Reid, Phillip; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-11-01

    In contrast to a strong decrease in Arctic sea ice extent, overall Antarctic sea ice extent has modestly increased since 1979. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the net Antarctic sea ice expansion, including atmosphere/ocean circulation and temperature changes, sea ice-atmospheric-ocean feedback, increased precipitation, and enhanced basal meltwater from ice shelves. Concomitant with this positive trend in Antarctic sea ice, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Southern Ocean south of approximately 45°S have cooled over this period. However, the mechanisms responsible for the Antarctic sea ice expansion and the SST cooling trend remain poorly defined. Here, we conduct comprehensive sensitivity experiments using a coupled ocean-sea ice model with a steady-state ice shelf component in order to investigate the main drivers of recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and SST over the Southern Ocean. The results suggest that Antarctic sea ice expansion is mostly explained by trends in the thermodynamic surface forcing, notably cooling and drying and a reduction in longwave radiation. Similarly, thermodynamic forcing is found to be the main driver of the zonal SST cooling trend. While apparently less influential on sea ice extent and SST, wind stress plays a key role in sea ice motion, thickening coastal sea ice, and thinning and decreasing the concentration of ice in mid-pack regions of the Amundsen-eastern Ross seas and 65-95°E in winter-spring. Furthermore, the model suggests that ocean-ice shelf interaction does not significantly influence the observed trends in Antarctic sea ice coverage and Southern Ocean SST in recent decades.

  13. Taxonomic characterization, adaptation strategies and biotechnological potential of cryophilic yeasts from ice cores of Midre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard, Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Purnima; Tsuji, Masaharu; Singh, Shiv Mohan; Roy, Utpal; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-04-01

    Ten strains of cryophilic yeast were studied from glacier ice cores of Svalbard, Arctic. The ice melt samples contained about 3×10(3) - 1×10(4) colony forming unit (CFUs) per ml. Sequence analysis of the isolates, using D1/D2 domain identified five species of yeasts: Cryptococcus adeliensis (MLB-18 JX192655), Cryptococcus albidosimilis (MLB-19 JX192656), Cryptococcus saitoi (MLB-22 JX192659), Rhodosporidium lusitaniae (MLB-20 JX192657), and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (MLB-27 JX192664). Effect of temperature on growth of these isolates was studied. The strains are able to grow at temperatures ranging between 1 and 20°C. Screening of the cultures for amylase, cellulase, protease, lipase, urease and catalase activity were carried out indicating varying amounts of enzyme production at different temperatures. Characterization of lipase in strain Cryptococcus sp. MLB-24 was performed. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of the cultures grown at four different temperatures (1, 4, 15, and 20°C) was also done. Decrease in temperature was reported to cause increase in concentration of unsaturated fatty acids. High amount of oleic acid accumulated with increase in temperature. These fatty acids possibly help the strains to survive in glacial ice core cold environment. The extracellular and intracellular filtrate of the cultures showed negative antifreeze protein (AFP) activity. The observations indicate that probably the isolates in the present undertaking adapt to low temperatures, by enzyme and PUFA secretion rather than by antifreeze protein secretion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Newly Formed Sea Ice in Arctic Leads Monitored by C- and L-Band SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A. Malin; Brekke, Camilla; Spreen, Gunnar; King, Jennifer A.; Gerland, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the scattering entropy and co-polarization ratio for Arctic lead ice using C- and L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite scenes. During the Norwegian Young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) cruise campaign overlapping SAR scenes, helicopter borne sea ice thickness measurements and photographs were collected. We can therefore relate the SAR signal to sea ice thickness measurements as well as photographs taken of the sea ice. We show that a combination of scattering and co-polarization ratio values can be used to distinguish young ice from open water and surrounding sea ice.

  15. Microbial Mn(IV) and Fe(III) reduction in northern Barents Sea sediments under different conditions of ice cover and organic carbon deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickel, Maren; Vandieken, Verona; Brüchert, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Carbon oxidation rates and pathways were determined in two sediments at latitude 75° and 77°N southeast of Svalbard in the northern Barents Sea. Seasonal ice cover restricts primary production to few months a year, which determines the sedimentation rate of organic material to the seafloor. At one...... station, with seasonally extended ice cover, low organic carbon content and sedimentation rate combined with relatively high concentrations of Mn and Fe(III) oxides favored dissimilatory Fe and Mn reduction (98% of anaerobic carbon oxidation) over sulfate reduction in the top 12 cm of the sediment....... In contrast, in a sediment that had not been ice covered for at least 12 months and with more organic carbon and a higher sedimentation rate, sulfate reduction was the most important anaerobic electron-accepting process (>80% of anaerobic carbon oxidation). In the upper 3 cm, microbial Fe and sulfate...

  16. Wave-ice interactions in the neXtSIM sea-ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy D.; Rampal, Pierre; Bouillon, Sylvain

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we describe a waves-in-ice model (WIM), which calculates ice breakage and the wave radiation stress (WRS). This WIM is then coupled to the new sea-ice model neXtSIM, which is based on the elasto-brittle (EB) rheology. We highlight some numerical issues involved in the coupling and investigate the impact of the WRS, and of modifying the EB rheology to lower the stiffness of the ice in the area where the ice has broken up (the marginal ice zone or MIZ). In experiments in the absence of wind, we find that wind waves can produce noticeable movement of the ice edge in loose ice (concentration around 70 %) - up to 36 km, depending on the material parameters of the ice that are used and the dynamical model used for the broken ice. The ice edge position is unaffected by the WRS if the initial concentration is higher (≳ 0.9). Swell waves (monochromatic waves with low frequency) do not affect the ice edge location (even for loose ice), as they are attenuated much less than the higher-frequency components of a wind wave spectrum, and so consequently produce a much lower WRS (by about an order of magnitude at least).In the presence of wind, we find that the wind stress dominates the WRS, which, while large near the ice edge, decays exponentially away from it. This is in contrast to the wind stress, which is applied over a much larger ice area. In this case (when wind is present) the dynamical model for the MIZ has more impact than the WRS, although that effect too is relatively modest. When the stiffness in the MIZ is lowered due to ice breakage, we find that on-ice winds produce more compression in the MIZ than in the pack, while off-ice winds can cause the MIZ to be separated from the pack ice.

  17. Community structure of under-ice fauna in relation to winter sea-ice habitat properties from the Weddell Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, Carmen; Schaafsma, F.L.; Franeker, van J.A.; Lange, Benjamin; Brandt, A.; Flores, H.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change-related alterations of Antarctic sea-ice habitats will significantly impact the interaction of ice-associated organisms with the environment, with repercussions on ecosystem functioning. The nature of this interaction is poorly understood, particularly during the critical period of

  18. New IceTracker Tool Depicts Forward and Backward Arctic Sea Ice Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Campbell, G.; Tremblay, B.; Newton, R.; Meier, W.

    2013-12-01

    The IceTracker allows researchers, educators and the public to depict the forward drift trajectories of sea ice, as well as back trajectories showing the path the ice took to the specified location. Users enter in the location and date of an ice parcel - or parcels -- of interest, then select a later or earlier date, depending on whether they want to see the forward or the backward trajectory. The database for the IceTracker contains ice motion vectors based upon a pattern recognition algorithm applied to images of sea ice derived from microwave satellite data. Ice motion vector plots are single day motion estimates. The available database starts November 1978 and runs to the present with ca. 1 month delay. IceTracker output includes both an image of the ice motion path as well as a data file that has quasi-daily date, latitude, longitude, estimated sea ice age, ice drift speed, mean air temperature, and water depth. One can overlay different days on the same plot in different colors for comparing different seasons. This presentation highlights research, education, and outreach applications of the tool. Research applications include estimating the origin and melt location of sediment and contaminants sampled on or in sea ice, assessing potential trajectories oil spilled in ice-infested waters, documenting seasonal and interannual variability in ice drift trajectories from specific locations, defining the typical origins of ice that tend to melt in an area of interest, such as a polynya, and assessing the deviation from drift of polar bear foraging. The IceTracker can also be used in the social sciences, for example recreating Nansen's historic 1893-1896 trans-Arctic drift with the Fram under modern conditions and considering the implications of alternative fates. Educational purposes include teaching students about ice dynamics and interannual variability by setting up team competitions to be the first to reach the North Pole or some other location. Applications

  19. Frontal destabilization of Stonebreen, Edgeøya, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Strozzi

    2017-02-01

    and synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellite data, a number of zones of velocity increases have been observed at formerly slow-flowing calving fronts on Svalbard. Here we present the dynamic evolution of the southern lobe of Stonebreen on Edgeøya. We observe a slowly steady retreat of the glacier front from 1971 until 2011, followed by a strong increase in ice surface velocity along with a decrease of volume and frontal extension since 2012. The considerable losses in ice thickness could have made the tide-water calving glacier, which is grounded below sea level some 6 km inland from the 2014 front, more sensitive to surface meltwater reaching its bed and/or warm ocean water increasing frontal ablation with subsequent strong multi-annual ice-flow acceleration.

  20. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  1. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgani, Luisa; Piontek, Judith; Engel, Anja

    2016-07-20

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice brine. Here, we report from a research cruise to the central Arctic Ocean in 2012. Our study shows that microbial polymers accumulate at the air-sea interface when the sea ice melts. Proteinaceous compounds represented the major fraction of polymers supporting the formation of a gelatinous interface microlayer and providing a hitherto unrecognized potential source of marine POA. Our study indicates a novel link between sea ice-ocean and atmosphere that may be sensitive to climate change.

  2. Ice bridges and ridges in the Maxwell-EB sea ice rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Véronique; Weiss, Jérôme; Saramito, Pierre; Lattes, Philippe; Coche, Edmond

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a first implementation of a new rheological model for sea ice on geophysical scales. This continuum model, called Maxwell elasto-brittle (Maxwell-EB), is based on a Maxwell constitutive law, a progressive damage mechanism that is coupled to both the elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the ice cover and a Mohr-Coulomb damage criterion that allows for pure (uniaxial and biaxial) tensile strength. The model is tested on the basis of its capability to reproduce the complex mechanical and dynamical behaviour of sea ice drifting through a narrow passage. Idealized as well as realistic simulations of the flow of ice through Nares Strait are presented. These demonstrate that the model reproduces the formation of stable ice bridges as well as the stoppage of the flow, a phenomenon occurring within numerous channels of the Arctic. In agreement with observations, the model captures the propagation of damage along narrow arch-like kinematic features, the discontinuities in the velocity field across these features dividing the ice cover into floes, the strong spatial localization of the thickest, ridged ice, the presence of landfast ice in bays and fjords and the opening of polynyas downstream of the strait. The model represents various dynamical behaviours linked to an overall weakening of the ice cover and to the shorter lifespan of ice bridges, with implications in terms of increased ice export through narrow outflow pathways of the Arctic.

  3. Ice bridges and ridges in the Maxwell-EB sea ice rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dansereau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first implementation of a new rheological model for sea ice on geophysical scales. This continuum model, called Maxwell elasto-brittle (Maxwell-EB, is based on a Maxwell constitutive law, a progressive damage mechanism that is coupled to both the elastic modulus and apparent viscosity of the ice cover and a Mohr–Coulomb damage criterion that allows for pure (uniaxial and biaxial tensile strength. The model is tested on the basis of its capability to reproduce the complex mechanical and dynamical behaviour of sea ice drifting through a narrow passage. Idealized as well as realistic simulations of the flow of ice through Nares Strait are presented. These demonstrate that the model reproduces the formation of stable ice bridges as well as the stoppage of the flow, a phenomenon occurring within numerous channels of the Arctic. In agreement with observations, the model captures the propagation of damage along narrow arch-like kinematic features, the discontinuities in the velocity field across these features dividing the ice cover into floes, the strong spatial localization of the thickest, ridged ice, the presence of landfast ice in bays and fjords and the opening of polynyas downstream of the strait. The model represents various dynamical behaviours linked to an overall weakening of the ice cover and to the shorter lifespan of ice bridges, with implications in terms of increased ice export through narrow outflow pathways of the Arctic.

  4. Surface energy, CO2 fluxes and sea ice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gulev, SK

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of observation, parameterization and evaluation of surface air-sea energy and gas fluxes, and sea ice, for the purposes of monitoring and predicting the state of the global ocean. The last 10 years have been...

  5. Arctic Tides from GPS on sea-ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine; Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René

    2013-01-01

    ) placed on sea-ice, at six different sites north of Greenland for the preliminary study of sea surface height (SSH), and tidal analysis to improve tide models in the Central Arctic. The GPS measurements are compared with the Arctic tide model AOTIM-5, which assimilates tide-gauges and altimetry data...

  6. Evaluation of the ESA Sea Ice CCI (SICCI) project sea ice concentration data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Bell, Louisa; Ivanova, Natalia

    During phase 1 of the European Space Agency’s (ESA) climate change initiative (CCI) sea ice project (SICCI project) a sea ice concentration (SIC) data product was produced by employing a hybrid SIC retrieval algorithm comprising the Bristol and the Comiso-Bootstrap algorithm in frequency mode. SIC...... was computed from brightness temperatures (TB) measured at 19.4 GHz [18.7 GHz] and 37.0 GHz [36.5 GHz] by the space-borne microwave radiometer Special Sensor Microwave / Imager (SSM/I) [Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E)] in both polar hemispheres. The product has daily temporal and 25...... km x 25 km grid resolution and is available for the period 1992-2008 (SSM/I) and 2002-2011 (AMSR-E) from, e.g., http://icdc.zmaw.de. Each data file contains a limited (to the range 0% … 100%) and an unlimited (see below) SIC, SIC retrieval uncertainty, SIC smearing uncertainty from the gridding...

  7. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysgaard, Soeren (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Earth Observation Science, CHR Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)), e-mail: rysgaard@natur.gl; Bendtsen, Joergen (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen O (Denmark)); Delille, Bruno (Unit' e d' Oceanographie Chimique, Interfacultary Centre for Marine Research, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)); Dieckmann, Gerhard S. (Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)); Glud, Ronnie N. (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Scottish Association of Marine Sciences, Scotland UK, Southern Danish Univ. and NordCee, Odense M (Denmark)); Kennedy, Hilary; Papadimitriou, Stathys (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom)); Mortensen, John (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)); Thomas, David N. (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom); Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)); Tison, Jean-Louis (Glaciology Unit, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, (Belgium))

    2011-11-15

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO{sub 2} and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO{sub 2} uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea-ice driven CO{sub 2} uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake. Net CO{sub 2} uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO{sub 2}-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO{sub 2}-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO{sub 2} drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters

  8. The passive microwave sea ice CDRs: Approaches, results, challenges (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, T.; Parkinson, C.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Comiso, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Sea ice concentrations derived from satellite passive microwave radiances are among the most prominent cryospheric climate data records (CDRs). They constitute a prime source of information regarding the polar sea ice cover, and analyses from these data have been widely publicized, especially in connection with the recent rapid decline of the Arctic sea ice cover. The data are also widely used for studies of polar processes, such as ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions and broader sea ice connections with the global climate system. Since passive microwave data are available since late 1978, through instruments on board NASA’s Nimbus 7 and Aqua satellites and satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program, they provide one of the longest satellite data records available. Every-other-day data are available from November 1978 through August 1987, and daily data are available for most of the period since August 1987. Altogether, these data come from three different instruments on 6 different satellites. Obtaining the CDRs required careful inter-sensor and inter-satellite calibration in order to avoid artificial trends. The talk will present an overview of the generation of these data sets, some primary results, and a discussion of the challenges we face for the interpretation of the sea ice time series and for the future generation and continuation of these data sets.

  9. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  10. Amundsen Sea simulation with optimized ocean, sea ice, and thermodynamic ice shelf model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y.; Menemenlis, D.; Schodlok, M.; Heimbach, P.; Nguyen, A. T.; Rignot, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves and glaciers of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet are thinning and melting rapidly in the Amundsen Sea (AS). This is thought to be caused by warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) that intrudes via submarine glacial troughs located at the continental shelf break. Recent studies, however, point out that the depth of thermocline, or thickness of Winter Water (WW, potential temperature below -1 °C located above CDW) is critical in determining the melt rate, especially for the Pine Island Glacier (PIG). For example, the basal melt rate of PIG, which decreased by 50% during summer 2012, has been attributed to thickening of WW. Despite the possible importance of WW thickness on ice shelf melting, previous modeling studies in this region have focused primarily on CDW intrusion and have evaluated numerical simulations based on bottom or deep CDW properties. As a result, none of these models have shown a good representation of WW for the AS. In this study, we adjust a small number of model parameters in a regional Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to better fit the available observations during the 2007-2010 period. We choose this time period because summer observations during these years show small interannual variability in the eastern AS. As a result of adjustments, our model shows significantly better match with observations than previous modeling studies, especially for WW. Since density of sea water depends largely on salinity at low temperature, this is crucial for assessing the impact of WW on PIG melt rate. In addition, we conduct several sensitivity studies, showing the impact of surface heat loss on the thickness and properties of WW. We also discuss some preliminary results pertaining to further optimization using the adjoint method. Our work is a first step toward improved representation of ice-shelf ocean interactions in the ECCO (Estimating the Circulation and

  11. River-ice and sea-ice velocity fields from near-simultaneous satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeaeb, A.; Leprince, S.; Prowse, T. D.; Beltaos, S.; Lamare, M.; Abrams, M.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite stereo and satellites that follow each other on similar orbits within short time periods produce near-simultaneous space imagery, a kind of data that is little exploited. In this study, we track river-ice and sea-ice motion over time periods of tens of seconds to several minutes, which is the typical time lag between the two or more images of such near-simultaneous acquisition constellations. Using this novel approach, we measure and visualize for the first time the almost complete two-dimensional minute-scale velocity fields over several thousand square-kilometers of sea ice cover or over up to several hundred kilometers long river reaches. We present the types of near-simultaneous imagery and constellations suitable for the measurements and discuss application examples, using a range of high and medium resolution imagery such as from ASTER, ALOS PRISM, Ikonos, WorldView-2, Landsat and EO-1. The river ice velocities obtained provide new insights into ice dynamics, river flow and river morphology, in particular during ice breakup. River-ice breakup and the associated downstream transport of ice debris is often the most important hydrological event of the year, producing flood levels that commonly exceed those for the open-water period and dramatic consequences for river infrastructure and ecology. We also estimate river discharge from ice/water surface velocities using near-simultaneous satellite imagery. Our results for sea ice complement velocity fields typically obtained over time-scales of days and can thus contribute to better understanding of a number of processes involved in sea ice drift, such as wind impact, tidal currents and interaction of ice floes with each other and with obstacles.

  12. Passive microwave remote sensing for sea ice research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for gathering data by remote sensors on satellites utilized for sea ice research are summarized. Measurement of brightness temperatures by a passive microwave imager converted to maps of total sea ice concentration and to the areal fractions covered by first year and multiyear ice are described. Several ancillary observations, especially by means of automatic data buoys and submarines equipped with upward looking sonars, are needed to improve the validation and interpretation of satellite data. The design and performance characteristics of the Navy's Special Sensor Microwave Imager, expected to be in orbit in late 1985, are described. It is recommended that data from that instrument be processed to a form suitable for research applications and archived in a readily accessible form. The sea ice data products required for research purposes are described and recommendations for their archival and distribution to the scientific community are presented.

  13. Numerical simulation of the Weddell Sea pack ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, W. D., III; Ackley, S. F.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine the degree to which a coupled dynamic thermodynamic model can reproduce the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic Sea ice in the Weddell Sea, a series of two-year simulations of the Weddell Sea ice pack were carried out. The simulations employed Hibler's (1979) model and used a one-day time step on an 18 x 15 grid with a resolution of 222 km. Daily atmospheric data from 1979 were used to drive the simulations. The simulations yielded a seasonal cycle of ice with maximum and minimum extents close to that observed. Except for portions of the western Weddell, the advance of the ice is found to be primarily thermodynamic in nature, while the rapid decay depends critically on the presence of both leads and lateral ice advection. In early summer the ice motion causes a residual tongue of ice to extend eastward from the Antarctic Peninsula in agreement with observations. Mean ice thicknesses are consistent with observations, as are the mean drift rates of about 5 km/day.

  14. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  15. Polynyas in a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ö. Ólason

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The representation of polynyas in viscous-plastic dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice models is studied in a simplified test domain, in order to give recommendations about parametrisation choices. Bjornsson et al. (2001 validated their dynamic-thermodynamic model against a polynya flux model in a similar setup and we expand on that work here, testing more sea-ice rheologies and new-ice thickness formulations. The two additional rheologies tested give nearly identical results whereas the two new-ice thickness parametrisations tested give widely different results. Based on our results we argue for using the new-ice thickness parametrisation of Hibler (1979. We also implement a new parametrisation for the parameter h0 from Hibler's scheme, based on ideas from a collection depth parametrisation for flux polynya models.

  16. Peopling of the high Arctic - induced by sea ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, Svend

    2010-05-01

    'We travelled in the winter after the return of daylight and did not go into fixed camp until spring, when the ice broke up. There was good hunting on the way, seals, beluga, walrus, bear.' (From Old Merkrusârk's account of his childhood's trek from Baffin Island to Northwest Greenland, told to Knud Rasmussen on Saunders Island in 1904) Five thousand years ago people moving eastwards from Beringia spread over the barrens of the Canadian high Arctic. This was the first of three waves of prehistoric Arctic 'cultures', which eventually reached Greenland. The passage into Greenland has to go through the northernmost and most hostile part of the country with a 5 month Polar night, and to understand this extraordinary example of human behaviour and endurance, it has been customary to invoke a more favourable (warmer) climate. This presentation suggests that land-fast sea ice, i.e. stationary sea ice anchored to the coast, is among the most important environmental factors behind the spread of prehistoric polar cultures. The ice provides the road for travelling and social communion - and access to the most important source of food, the ocean. In the LongTerm Project (2006 and 2007) we attempted to establish a Holocene record for sea ice variations along oceanic coasts in northernmost Greenland. Presently the coasts north of 80° N are beleaguered by year-round sea ice - for ten months this is land-fast ice, and only for a period in the stormy autumn months are the coasts exposed to pack-ice. This presentation Land-fast ice - as opposed to pack-ice - is a product of local temperatures, but its duration over the year, and especially into the daylight season, is also conditioned by other factors, notably wind strength. In the geological record we recognize long lasting land-fast ice by two absences: absence of traces of wave action (no beach formation), which, however, can also be a result of pack-ice along the coast; - and absence of driftwood on the shore (land-fast ice

  17. Biopolymers form a gelatinous microlayer at the air-sea interface when Arctic sea ice melts

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Galgani; Judith Piontek; Anja Engel

    2016-01-01

    The interface layer between ocean and atmosphere is only a couple of micrometers thick but plays a critical role in climate relevant processes, including the air-sea exchange of gas and heat and the emission of primary organic aerosols (POA). Recent findings suggest that low-level cloud formation above the Arctic Ocean may be linked to organic polymers produced by marine microorganisms. Sea ice harbors high amounts of polymeric substances that are produced by cells growing within the sea-ice ...

  18. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn D Rode

    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013 when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia, highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  19. Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Wilson, Ryan R.; Regehr, Eric V.; St. Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  20. Satellite altimetry in sea ice regions - detecting open water for estimating sea surface heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Felix L.; Dettmering, Denise; Bosch, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    The Greenland Sea and the Farm Strait are transporting sea ice from the central Arctic ocean southwards. They are covered by a dynamic changing sea ice layer with significant influences on the Earth climate system. Between the sea ice there exist various sized open water areas known as leads, straight lined open water areas, and polynyas exhibiting a circular shape. Identifying these leads by satellite altimetry enables the extraction of sea surface height information. Analyzing the radar echoes, also called waveforms, provides information on the surface backscatter characteristics. For example waveforms reflected by calm water have a very narrow and single-peaked shape. Waveforms reflected by sea ice show more variability due to diffuse scattering. Here we analyze altimeter waveforms from different conventional pulse-limited satellite altimeters to separate open water and sea ice waveforms. An unsupervised classification approach employing partitional clustering algorithms such as K-medoids and memory-based classification methods such as K-nearest neighbor is used. The classification is based on six parameters derived from the waveform's shape, for example the maximum power or the peak's width. The open-water detection is quantitatively compared to SAR images processed while accounting for sea ice motion. The classification results are used to derive information about the temporal evolution of sea ice extent and sea surface heights. They allow to provide evidence on climate change relevant influences as for example Arctic sea level rise due to enhanced melting rates of Greenland's glaciers and an increasing fresh water influx into the Arctic ocean. Additionally, the sea ice cover extent analyzed over a long-time period provides an important indicator for a globally changing climate system.

  1. Increased Land Use by Chukchi Sea Polar Bears in Relation to Changing Sea Ice Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; St Martin, Michelle; Douglas, David C; Olson, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986-1995 and 2008-2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss occurred. In both time periods, polar bears predominantly occupied sea-ice, although land was used during the summer sea-ice retreat and during the winter for maternal denning. However, the proportion of bears on land for > 7 days between August and October increased between the two periods from 20.0% to 38.9%, and the average duration on land increased by 30 days. The majority of bears that used land in the summer and for denning came to Wrangel and Herald Islands (Russia), highlighting the importance of these northernmost land habitats to Chukchi Sea polar bears. Where bears summered and denned, and how long they spent there, was related to the timing and duration of sea ice retreat. Our results are consistent with other studies supporting increased land use as a common response of polar bears to sea-ice loss. Implications of increased land use for Chukchi Sea polar bears are unclear, because a recent study observed no change in body condition or reproductive indices between the two periods considered here. This result suggests that the ecology of this region may provide a degree of resilience to sea ice loss. However, projections of continued sea ice loss suggest that polar bears in the Chukchi Sea and other parts of the Arctic may increasingly use land habitats in the future, which has the potential to increase nutritional stress and human-polar bear interactions.

  2. Observational Evidence of a Hemispheric-wide Ice-ocean Albedo Feedback Effect on Antarctic Sea-ice Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ice-ocean albedo feedback (a kind of ice-albedo feedback) on sea-ice decay is demonstrated over the Antarctic sea-ice zone from an analysis of satellite-derived hemispheric sea ice concentration and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) atmospheric data for the period 1979-2001. Sea ice concentration in December (time of most active melt) correlates better with the meridional component of the wind-forced ice drift (MID) in November (beginning of the melt season) than the MID in December. This 1 month lagged correlation is observed in most of the Antarctic sea-ice covered ocean. Daily time series of ice , concentration show that the ice concentration anomaly increases toward the time of maximum sea-ice melt. These findings can be explained by the following positive feedback effect: once ice concentration decreases (increases) at the beginning of the melt season, solar heating of the upper ocean through the increased (decreased) open water fraction is enhanced (reduced), leading to (suppressing) a further decrease in ice concentration by the oceanic heat. Results obtained fi-om a simple ice-ocean coupled model also support our interpretation of the observational results. This positive feedback mechanism explains in part the large interannual variability of the sea-ice cover in summer.

  3. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  4. Gypsum crystals observed in experimental and natural sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Galley, Ryan; Cooper, Marc

    2013-01-01

    , the gypsum crystals were identified as being authigenic. The FREeZing CHEMistry (FREZCHEM) model results support our observations of both gypsum and ikaite precipitation at typical in situ sea ice temperatures and confirms the “Gitterman pathway” where gypsum is predicted to precipitate. The occurrence...... of authigenic gypsum in sea ice during its formation represents a new observation of precipitate formation and potential marine deposition in polar seas. Citation: Geilfus, N.-X., R. J. Galley, M. Cooper, N. Halden, A. Hare, F. Wang, D. H. Søgaard, and S. Rysgaard (2013), Gypsum crystals observed...

  5. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Jes [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  6. Concentrations, patterns and metabolites of organochlorine pesticides in relation to xenobiotic phase I and II enzyme activities in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Svalbard and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.n [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway); Centre of Excellence in Evolutionary Genetics and Physiology, Department of Biology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku (Finland); Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Centre, Orebro University, 70182 Orebro (Sweden); Letcher, Robert J. [Wildlife Toxicology and Disease Program, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Chu Shaogang [Wildlife Toxicology and Disease Program, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, 9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2009-08-15

    The present study investigates the concentrations and patterns of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their metabolites in liver and plasma of two ringed seal populations (Phoca hispida): lower contaminated Svalbard population and more contaminated Baltic Sea population. Among OCPs, p,p'-DDE and sum-chlordanes were the highest in concentration. With increasing hepatic contaminant concentrations and activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, the concentrations of 3-methylsulfonyl-p,p'-DDE and the concentration ratios of pentachlorophenol/hexachlorobenzene increased, and the toxaphene pattern shifted more towards persistent Parlar-26 and -50 and less towards more biodegradable Parlar-44. Relative concentrations of the chlordane metabolites, oxychlordane and -heptachlorepoxide, to sum-chlordanes were higher in the seals from Svalbard compared to the seals from the Baltic, while the trend was opposite for cis- and trans-nonachlor. The observed differences in the OCP patterns in the seals from the two populations are probably related to the catalytic activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, and also to differences in dietary exposure. - Contrasting patterns of organochlorine pesticides in two ringed seal populations.

  7. Atmospheric Anomalies in the Transition Zone between the Sea Ice Edge and the Open Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, L. M.; Barber, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is an understudied area that contributes greatly to the global circulation and radiation budget. Increases in ocean temperatures and air temperatures have caused reductions in sea ice thickness, sea ice volume, average age of ice and an increasing melt season length. These changes in sea ice cover can release large heat and moisture fluxes into the Arctic atmosphere, modifying the regional boundary layer climate. In order to better understand the changes being observed in the Arctic, there must first be an in depth understanding of the influence from sea ice on the atmosphere. A Radiometrics Microwave Profiling Radiometer (MWRP) was mounted on board of the CCGS Amundsen during the summer of 2011. The MWRP captured the transition of the temperature, absolute humidity and liquid water from over the sea ice to the open ocean. The high temporal resolution of the MWRP was capable of capturing the changing moisture plumes and temperature gradients, using the off-zenith profiles over the port side, the zenith profiles over the ship and the off-zenith profiles over the starboard side, while the ship was moored to a large piece of ice. This presentation shows case studies from August 2011, giving a first glimpse of the influence sea ice has on the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer.

  8. Winter-to-summer transition of Arctic sea ice breakup and floe size distribution in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byongjun Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Breakup of the near-continuous winter sea ice into discrete summer ice floes is an important transition that dictates the evolution and fate of the marginal ice zone (MIZ of the Arctic Ocean. During the winter of 2014, more than 50 autonomous drifting buoys were deployed in four separate clusters on the sea ice in the Beaufort Sea, as part of the Office of Naval Research MIZ program. These systems measured the ocean-ice-atmosphere properties at their location whilst the sea ice parameters in the surrounding area of these buoy clusters were continuously monitored by satellite TerraSAR-X Synthetic Aperture Radar. This approach provided a unique Lagrangian view of the winter-to-summer transition of sea ice breakup and floe size distribution at each cluster between March and August. The results show the critical timings of a temporary breakup of winter sea ice coinciding with strong wind events and b spring breakup (during surface melt, melt ponding and drainage leading to distinctive summer ice floes. Importantly our results suggest that summer sea ice floe distribution is potentially affected by the state of winter sea ice, including the composition and fracturing (caused by deformation events of winter sea ice, and that substantial mid-summer breakup of sea ice floes is likely linked to the timing of thermodynamic melt of sea ice in the area. As the rate of deformation and thermodynamic melt of sea ice has been increasing in the MIZ in the Beaufort Sea, our results suggest that these elevated factors would promote faster and more enhanced breakup of sea ice, leading to a higher melt rate of sea ice and thus a more rapid advance of the summer MIZ.

  9. Scale properties of sea ice deformation and fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jérôme; Marsan, David

    2004-09-01

    The sea ice cover, which insulates the ocean from the atmosphere, plays a fundamental role in the Earth's climate system. This cover deforms and fractures under the action of winds, ocean currents and thermal stresses. Along with thermodynamics, this deformation and fracturing largely controls the amount of open water within the ice cover and the distribution of ice thickness, two parameters of high climatic importance, especially during fall and winter (no melting). Here we present a scaling analysis of sea ice deformation and fracturing that allows us to characterize the heterogeneity of fracture patterns and of deformation fields, as well as the intermittency of stress records. We discuss the consequences of these scaling properties, particularly for sea ice modelling in global climate models. We show how multifractal scaling laws can be extrapolated to small scales to learn about the nature of the mechanisms that accommodate the deformation. We stress that these scaling properties preclude the use of homogenisation techniques (i.e. the use of mean values) to link different scales, and we discuss how these detailed observations should be used to constrain sea ice dynamics modelling. To cite this article: J. Weiss, D. Marsan, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  10. Variability and Anomalous Trends in the Global Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    The advent of satellite data came fortuitously at a time when the global sea ice cover has been changing rapidly and new techniques are needed to accurately assess the true state and characteristics of the global sea ice cover. The extent of the sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere has been declining by about -4% per decade for the period 1979 to 2011 but for the period from 1996 to 2010, the rate of decline became even more negative at -8% per decade, indicating an acceleration in the decline. More intriguing is the drastically declining perennial sea ice area, which is the ice that survives the summer melt and observed to be retreating at the rate of -14% per decade during the 1979 to 2012 period. Although a slight recovery occurred in the last three years from an abrupt decline in 2007, the perennial ice extent was almost as low as in 2007 in 2011. The multiyear ice, which is the thick component of the perennial ice and regarded as the mainstay of the Arctic sea ice cover is declining at an even higher rate of -19% per decade. The more rapid decline of the extent of this thicker ice type means that the volume of the ice is also declining making the survival of the Arctic ice in summer highly questionable. The slight recovery in 2008, 2009 and 2010 for the perennial ice in summer was likely associated with an apparent cycle in the time series with a period of about 8 years. Results of analysis of concurrent MODIS and AMSR-E data in summer also provide some evidence of more extensive summer melt and meltponding in 2007 and 2011 than in other years. Meanwhile, the Antarctic sea ice cover, as observed by the same set of satellite data, is showing an unexpected and counter intuitive increase of about 1 % per decade over the same period. Although a strong decline in ice extent is apparent in the Bellingshausen/ Amundsen Seas region, such decline is more than compensated by increases in the extent of the sea ice cover in the Ross Sea region. The results of analysis of

  11. The Radiative Impacts of Precipitating Ice on Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Simulations in GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. L. F.; Hong, Y.; Lee, W. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, Y.; Richardson, M.; Yu, J. Y.; Suhas, E.; Fetzer, E. J.; Liu, G.

    2016-12-01

    Using the NCAR-CESM1 model and observations we show that a bias in sea-ice concentration is attributable to erroneous cloud-radiative interaction associated with the exclusion of downwelling long-wave heating from precipitating ice over Arctic and Southern Oceans. These biases resemble those in CMIP5 models which commonly exclude the radiative effects of precipitating ice. This missing radiative effects, in conjunction with overestimated surface albedo, leads to colder surface temperatures (TS), near surface-air temperatures (SAT) and the associated surface energy-budget adjustments. These biases in turn increases the sea-ice concentration in Arctic and Southern Oceans. The inclusion of the precipitating ice radiative effects reduces the negative model biases in surface radiative fluxes by more than 20 W m-2, TS and SAT by 2—4 K and positive sea-ice concentration by 30—40%, leading to a more realistic seasonal cycle compared with simulations lacking the snow-radiative effects. The findings have implications to the simulation of projection of changes associated with sea-ice in CMIP models.

  12. Leads in Arctic pack ice enable early phytoplankton blooms below snow-covered sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmy, Philipp; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Randelhoff, Achim; Mundy, Christopher J.; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Bailey, Allison; Chierici, Melissa; Cohen, Lana; Doulgeris, Anthony P.; Ehn, Jens K.; Fransson, Agneta; Gerland, Sebastian; Hop, Haakon; Hudson, Stephen R.; Hughes, Nick; Itkin, Polona; Johnsen, Geir; King, Jennifer A.; Koch, Boris P.; Koenig, Zoe; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Laney, Samuel R.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Provost, Christine; Rösel, Anja; Sandbu, Marthe; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Sundfjord, Arild; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Wiktor, Jozef; Wagner, Penelope M.; Wold, Anette; Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic icescape is rapidly transforming from a thicker multiyear ice cover to a thinner and largely seasonal first-year ice cover with significant consequences for Arctic primary production. One critical challenge is to understand how productivity will change within the next decades. Recent studies have reported extensive phytoplankton blooms beneath ponded sea ice during summer, indicating that satellite-based Arctic annual primary production estimates may be significantly underestimated. Here we present a unique time-series of a phytoplankton spring bloom observed beneath snow-covered Arctic pack ice. The bloom, dominated by the haptophyte algae Phaeocystis pouchetii, caused near depletion of the surface nitrate inventory and a decline in dissolved inorganic carbon by 16 ± 6 g C m-2. Ocean circulation characteristics in the area indicated that the bloom developed in situ despite the snow-covered sea ice. Leads in the dynamic ice cover provided added sunlight necessary to initiate and sustain the bloom. Phytoplankton blooms beneath snow-covered ice might become more common and widespread in the future Arctic Ocean with frequent lead formation due to thinner and more dynamic sea ice despite projected increases in high-Arctic snowfall. This could alter productivity, marine food webs and carbon sequestration in the Arctic Ocean.

  13. History of sea ice in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyak, Leonid; Alley, Richard B.; Andrews, John T.

    2010-01-01

    seasonally ice-free conditions occurred during warmer periods linked to orbital variations. The last low-ice event related to orbital forcing (high insolation) was in the early Holocene, after which the northern high latitudes cooled overall, with some superimposed shorterterm (multidecadal to millennial...

  14. Sea ice production variability in Antarctic coastal polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Takeshi; Ohshima, Kay I.; Fraser, Alexander D.; Williams, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    Enhanced sea ice production (SIP) in Antarctic coastal polynyas forms dense shelf water (DSW), leading to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) formation that ultimately drives the lower limb of the meridional overturning circulation. Some studies suggest that the variability of SIP in Antarctic coastal polynyas is driven by the influence of atmospheric forcing, i.e., surface winds and air temperature. Our previous mapping of SIP in 13 major Antarctic coastal polynyas from 1992 to 2007, using a heat flux calculation with ice thickness data derived from satellite data, is extended here to examine the interannual and seasonal variability of SIP from 1992 to 2013. The interannual variability of total ice production correlates more strongly with polynya extent than with atmospheric forcing, with the exception of the Shackleton Polynya, which correlates well with wind. There is no coherent signal in the interannual variability between the major Antarctic coastal polynyas. We find that stochastic changes to the coastal "icescape," i.e., ice shelves, floating glaciers, fast ice, together with offshore first-year ice, are also important factors driving SIP variability on multiyear time scales. Both the Ross Ice Shelf Polynya and Mertz Glacier Polynya experienced a significant reduction in SIP due to calving events and the repositioning of icebergs and fast ice. Our results also show opposing trends between polynya-based SIP and sea ice extent in key regions of Antarctic sea ice change. Close monitoring of coastal icescape dynamics and change is essential to better understand the long-term impact of coastal polynya variability and its influence on regional AABW production.

  15. Reviews and syntheses: Ice acidification, the effects of ocean acidification on sea ice microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Sea ice algae, like some coastal and estuarine phytoplankton, are naturally exposed to a wider range of pH and CO2 concentrations than those in open marine seas. While climate change and ocean acidification (OA) will impact pelagic communities, their effects on sea ice microbial communities remain unclear. Sea ice contains several distinct microbial communities, which are exposed to differing environmental conditions depending on their depth within the ice. Bottom communities mostly experience relatively benign bulk ocean properties, while interior brine and surface (infiltration) communities experience much greater extremes. Most OA studies have examined the impacts on single sea ice algae species in culture. Although some studies examined the effects of OA alone, most examined the effects of OA and either light, nutrients or temperature. With few exceptions, increased CO2 concentration caused either no change or an increase in growth and/or photosynthesis. In situ studies on brine and surface algae also demonstrated a wide tolerance to increased and decreased pH and showed increased growth at higher CO2 concentrations. The short time period of most experiments (genetic diversity (i.e. use of only a single strain), however, has been identified as a limitation to a broader interpretation of the results. While there have been few studies on the effects of OA on the growth of marine bacterial communities in general, impacts appear to be minimal. In sea ice also, the few reports available suggest no negative impacts on bacterial growth or community richness. Sea ice ecosystems are ephemeral, melting and re-forming each year. Thus, for some part of each year organisms inhabiting the ice must also survive outside of the ice, either as part of the phytoplankton or as resting spores on the bottom. During these times, they will be exposed to the full range of co-stressors that pelagic organisms experience. Their ability to continue to make a major contribution to sea ice

  16. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Edge Forecasts by Assimilating High Horizontal Resolution Sea Ice Concentration Data into the US Navy’s Ice Forecast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    avoid nearly all ice hazards. The location of the ice edge can shift , based on the resolution of the data sources. The IMS product (Fig. 6 – blue ...Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 also showed a substantial improvement in ice edge location over a system using the SSMIS sea ice concentration product...Global Ocean Fore- cast System (GOFS 3.1). Prior to 2 February 2015, the ice concentration fields from both ACNFS and GOFS 3.1 had been updated with

  17. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  18. Role of Weddell Sea ice variability in southern African climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Y.; Engelbrecht, F.; Behera, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    A role of interannual sea ice variability in the Weddell Sea on southern African climate is investigated by conducting data analysis and coupled general circulation model (CGCM) experiments. The Weddell Sea ice exhibits a distinct interannual variability during austral summer when the southern African rainfall experiences most of its annual rainfall. The sea ice concentration (SIC) in the Weddell Sea shows a significantly negative correlation with the southern African rainfall during early summer (Nov-Jan). The low SIC anomaly in the Weddell Sea is associated with anticyclonic atmospheric circulation anomalies in the South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans, which facilitates more moisture advection from the southern Indian Ocean. Composite analysis reveals that the low SIC anomaly in the Weddell Sea is attributed to the increased solar radiation and the northwesterly wind anomaly. This low SIC anomaly, in turn, acts to cause warmer skin temperature and reduce the meridional temperature gradient to the north. This is a favoring condition for sustaining the anticyclonic circulation anomaly in the South Atlantic by enhancing the near-surface atmospheric stability. This intriguing association between the SIC and atmospheric circulation anomalies is also simulated in a series of CGCM experiment, e.g. where the interannual sea surface temperature (SST) variability in the tropics and midlatitudes is suppressed by the monthly climatology of the model. However, in the absence of interannual SST variability over global oceans, the simulated SIC anomaly is much smaller in association with the atmospheric internal variability, called the Southern Annular Mode. These CGCM results suggest that the air-sea-ice interaction in the Weddell Sea has potential impact on the overlying atmosphere in the South Atlantic, which is important for the southern African climate.

  19. 15-years of permafrost monitoring on Janssonhaugen, Svalbard; new insights into permafrost response and sensitivity to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Ketil; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Vikhamar Schuler, Dagrun; Nordli, Øyvind

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic land areas have experienced greater warming over the last three decades than elsewhere in the world. In Europe the Svalbard archipelago (located in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean from 74° to 81°N and 10° to 35°E) have experienced the greatest temperature change during this period. At Svalbard airport the mean annual air temperature has increased by approximately 4 °C since 1980. Air temperatures on Svalbard are highly sensitive to the coupled sea ice-ocean-atmosphere system and recent studies suggest that the shrinkage in Arctic sea-ice cover is the most important factor for the record high temperatures. Continuous temperature series from two instrumented permafrost boreholes (102 m and 15 m deep) on Janssonhaugen, Svalbard, provide main data for the present analysis. The boreholes are located 23 km from Svalbard Airport and were established in 1998 within the EU-funded PACE project and are designed for long-term temperature monitoring. In this study we examine the impact of the recent atmospheric warming on the permafrost in Svalbard. Trends and variability in permafrost temperatures at different depths are compared to trends in air temperature and ground surface temperatures. Although Janssonhaugen is representative for exposed sites where snow cover typically is thin or absent, the altered effect of a thin snow cover on subsurface thermal regime has not been analysed in detail so far. The effect of variability in snow cover on ground temperatures is studied and quantified by combined use of snow cover modeling, 1-D transient heat flow modeling and advanced time-series analyses. The study gives new insights into permafrost response and sensitivity to climate change, including effects of more frequent anomalous weather events.

  20. Virtual radar ice buoys - a method for measuring fine-scale sea ice drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karvonen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present an algorithm for continuous ice drift estimation based on coastal and ship radar data. The ice drift is estimated for automatically selected ice targets in the images. These targets are here called virtual buoys (VBs) and are tracked based on an optical flow method. To maintain continuous ice drift tracking new VBs are added after a given number of VBs have been lost; i.e. they can not be tracked reliably any more. Here we also apply the algorithm to data of three test cases to demonstrate its capabilities and properties. Two of these cases use coastal radar data and one ship radar data. Ice drift velocity and direction information derived from the VB motion are computed and compared to the prevailing ice and weather conditions. Also a quantity measuring the local divergence or convergence is computed for some VBs to demonstrate the capability to estimate derived kinematic sea ice parameters from VB location time series. The results produced by the algorithm can be used as an input for estimation of the dynamic properties of sea the ice field, such as ice divergence or convergence, shear, vorticity, and total deformation.

  1. Forecasting consequences of changing sea ice availability for Pacific walruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Jay, Chadwick; Taylor, Rebecca; Fischbach, Anthony; Beatty, William S.; Noren, Shawn R.

    2017-01-01

    The accelerating rate of anthropogenic alteration and disturbance of environments has increased the need for forecasting effects of environmental change on fish and wildlife populations. Models linking projections of environmental change with behavioral responses and bioenergetic effects can provide a basis for these forecasts. There is particular interest in forecasting effects of projected reductions in sea ice availability on Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens). Declining extent of summer sea ice in the Chukchi Sea has caused Pacific walruses to increase use of coastal haulouts and decrease use of more productive offshore feeding areas. Such climate-induced changes in distribution and behavior could ultimately affect the status of the population. We developed behavioral models to relate changes in sea ice availability to adult female walrus movements and activity levels, and adapted previously developed bioenergetics models to relate those activity levels to energy requirements and the ability to meet those requirements. We then linked these models to general circulation model projections of future ice availability to forecast autumn body condition for female walruses during mid- and late-century time periods. Our results suggest that as sea ice becomes less available in the Chukchi Sea, female walruses will spend more time in the southwestern region of that sea, less time resting, and less time foraging. Median forecasted autumn body masses were 7–12% lower in future scenarios than during recent times, but posterior distributions broadly overlapped and median forecasted seasonal mass losses (15–34%) were comparable to seasonal mass losses routinely experienced by other pinnipeds. These seasonal reductions in body condition would be unlikely to result in demographic effects, but if walruses were unable to rebuild endogenous reserves while wintering in the Bering Sea, cumulative effects could have implications for reproduction and survival

  2. Comparison of sea ice simulations with interactive and monthly averaged forcing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingren; Simmonds, Ian; Budd, W. F.

    1996-04-01

    A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is developed and coupled with the "21 wave 9 level" Melbourne University general circulation model to simulate the seasonal cycle of the global sea ice distribution. We have run the coupled system and obtained a creditable seasonal simulation of global sea ice. When monthly averaged atmospheric data (taken from the mean of the coupled run) are used to force the sea ice model, the seasonal cycle of sea ice extent (to the outer ice edge) is quite similar to that simulated in the interactive run. However, the actual sea ice covered area (i.e., excluding leads) differs considerably between the two simulations. Sea ice is more compact in the monthly averaged forced run than in the interactive run throughout the year in both hemispheres. The sea ice thickness distribution also differs between the two runs. In general, the sea ice is more open and thicker in the seasonal ice zone of the two polar regions for the interactive coupled case than for the mean forcing. We have also run the model forced with daily atmospheric data and the simulated sea ice distribution differs significantly from both the interactive model and the monthly averaged forcing results. These differences highlight the dangers of undertaking studies with sea ice models forced with prescribed atmospheric conditions rather than using a fully interactive atmosphere-sea ice system.

  3. The effects of additional black carbon on the albedo of Arctic sea ice: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The response of the albedo of bare sea ice and snow-covered sea ice to the addition of black carbon is calculated. Visible light absorption and light-scattering cross-sections are derived for a typical first-year and multi-year sea ice with both "dry" and "wet" snow types. The cross-sections are derived using data from a 1970s field study that recorded both reflectivity and light penetration in Arctic sea ice and snow overlying sea ice. The variation of absorption cross-section over the visible wavelengths suggests black carbon is the dominating light-absorbing impurity. The response of first-year and multi-year sea ice albedo to increasing black carbon, from 1 to 1024 ng g−1, in a top 5 cm layer of a 155 cm-thick sea ice was calculated using a radiative-transfer model. The albedo of the first-year sea ice is more sensitive to additional loadings of black carbon than the multi-year sea ice. An addition of 8 ng g−1 of black carbon causes a decrease to 98.7% of the original albedo for first-year sea ice compared to a decrease to 99.7% for the albedo of multi-year sea ice, at a wavelength of 500 nm. The albedo of sea ice is surprisingly unresponsive to additional black carbon up to 100 ng g−1 . Snow layers on sea ice may mitigate the effects of black carbon in sea ice. Wet and dry snow layers of 0.5, 1, 2, 5 and 10 cm depth were added onto the sea ice surface. The albedo of the snow surface was calculated whilst the black carbon in the underlying sea ice was increased. A layer of snow 0.5 cm thick greatly diminishes the effect of black carbon in sea ice on the surface albedo. The albedo of a 2–5 cm snow layer (less than the e-folding depth of snow is still influenced by the underlying sea ice, but the effect of additional black carbon in the sea ice is masked.

  4. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part I: Additive noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with constant additive noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. The variability that the stochasticity provides to the deterministic steady state solutions (perennial and seasonal ice states) is illustrated by examining both the stochastic paths and probability density functions (PDFs). The principal stochastic moments (standard deviation, mean and skewness) are calculated and compared with those determined from a stochastic perturbation theory described previously by Moon and Wettlaufer (2013). We examine in detail the competing roles of the destabilizing sea ice-albedo-feedback and the stabilizing long-wave radiative loss contributions to the variability of the ice cover under increased greenhouse-gas forcing. In particular, the variability of the stochastic paths at the end of summer shows a clear maximum, which is due to the combination of the increasing importance of t...

  5. Tuning The Sea-Ice Seasonal Cycle Of HadCM3: Can It Reproduce Observed Trends In Sea-Ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, S. F.; Roach, L.; Rae, C.; Cartis, C.; Mineter, M.; Steig, E. J.; Yamazaki, K.; Schurer, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since high quality satellite observations of sea-ice begin in 1979 Artic sea-ice extent has declined . Observed losses in Arctic sea-ice during September are greater than the majority of models in the CMIP5 archive and the multi-model average. In contrast Antarctic sea-ice has increased in contrast to an expected decline. We have carried out a set of perturbations to the HadCM3 model in which we changed the maximum ice area (a proxy for ice leads), albedo parameterizations, ice thermal conductivity and ocean diffusion. Changes in these parameters affected ice extent in both the Arctic and Antarctic. We used these simulations to identify four parameters that had most impact on minimum and maximum sea-ice extent in both hemispheres. To tune the model we used a Gauss-Newton algorithm to adjust those four parameters to minimize differences between simulated and observed sea-ice extents. With this new parameter set we then simulated the period 1940 to 2015 and compared with the default configuration of HadCM3. Compared to the default configuration the perturbed model had greater summer sea-loss in the Arctic and is consistent with observed loss estimates. However, in the Antarctic neither the perturbed or default simulations show an increase in sea-ice extent. This is in contrast to the observations which do show an increase in sea-ice extent.

  6. Scaling properties of Arctic sea ice deformation in high-resolution viscous-plastic sea ice models and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nils; Losch, Martin; Menemenlis, Dimitris

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice models with the traditional viscous-plastic (VP) rheology and very high grid resolution can resolve leads and deformation rates that are localised along Linear Kinematic Features (LKF). In a 1-km pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean simulation, the small scale sea-ice deformations in the Central Arctic are evaluated with a scaling analysis in relation to satellite observations of the Envisat Geophysical Processor System (EGPS). A new coupled scaling analysis for data on Eulerian grids determines the spatial and the temporal scaling as well as the coupling between temporal and spatial scales. The spatial scaling of the modelled sea ice deformation implies multi-fractality. The spatial scaling is also coupled to temporal scales and varies realistically by region and season. The agreement of the spatial scaling and its coupling to temporal scales with satellite observations and models with the modern elasto-brittle rheology challenges previous results with VP models at coarse resolution where no such scaling was found. The temporal scaling analysis, however, shows that the VP model does not fully resolve the intermittency of sea ice deformation that is observed in satellite data.

  7. The use of sea ice habitat by female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Nielson, Ryan M.; McDonald, Trent

    2003-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) depend on ice-covered seas to satisfy life history requirements. Modern threats to polar bears include oil spills in the marine environment and changes in ice composition resulting from climate change. Managers need practical models that explain the distribution of bears in order to assess the impacts of these threats. We used stepwise procedures to create resource selection models of habitat use for radio-collared female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea. Sea ice characteristics and ocean depths at known polar bear locations were compared to the same features at randomly selected locations. Models generated for each of four seasons confirmed complexities of habitat use by polar bears and their response to numerous factors. Bears preferred shallow water areas where ice concentrations were > 80 % and different ice types intersected. Variation among seasons was reflected mainly in differential selection of ice stages, floe sizes, and their interactions. Water depth, total ice concentration and distance to the nearest interface between different ice types were significant terms in models for most seasons. Variation in ice stage and form also appeared in three models, and several interaction effects were identified. Habitat selection by polar bears is likely related to prey abundance and availability. Use of habitats in shallow water possibly reflects higher productivity in those areas. Habitat use in close proximity to ice edges is probably related to greater access of prey in those habitats.

  8. A microwave technique for mapping ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, K.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Remote Sensing Div.; Cavalieri, D.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1997-07-01

    A technique for deriving ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone from passive microwave radiances has been developed. The algorithm operates on brightness temperatures derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and uses ice concentration and type from a previously developed thin ice algorithm to estimate the surface emissivity. Comparisons of the microwave derived temperatures with estimates derived from infrared imagery of the Bering Strait yield a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and an RMS difference of 2.1 K when coastal and cloud contaminated pixels are removed. SSM/I temperatures were also compared with a time series of air temperature observations from Gambell on St. Lawrence Island and from Point Barrow, AK weather stations. These comparisons indicate that the relationship between the air temperature and the ice temperature depends on ice type.

  9. Scattering of ice-coupled waves by variable sea-ice terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Gareth L.; Squire, Vernon A.

    The reflection and transmission of ice-coupled waves under a sea-ice sheet is re-examined in this work. Recent theory can account for inhomogeneities in ice sheets such as the sails of pressure ridges and cracks or leads, but has only examined small numbers of features. Here the scattering coefficients can be obtained for an ice sheet containing a region of arbitrarily varying thickness that more closely approximates a real ice sheet and, consequently, models wave scattering more effectively. We explore the consequences of inverting ridge keels, placing the mass above the ice sheet as a technique by which the keel can be partially accounted for. It is found that the ridge sails themselves can reasonably be neglected. Upward-looking submarine sonar data are used to demonstrate the use of the model, noting that there are choices as to how to interpret such data. The model is tested to establish its sensitivity to these choices.

  10. Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas simulation with optimized ocean, sea ice, and thermodynamic ice shelf model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y.; Menemenlis, D.; Schodlok, M.; Rignot, E.

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the thickness of Winter Water (WW), that is, water with potential temperature below ˜-1°C located below Antarctic Surface Water and above Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is critical in determining the ice shelf melt rate, especially for the Pine Island Glacier (PIG). Existing model studies, however, misrepresent WW thickness and properties in the Amundsen Sea (AS). Here, we adjust a small number of model parameters in a regional Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas configuration of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model in order to reproduce properties and thickness of WW and CDW close to observations, with significant improvement for WW compared to previous studies. The cost, which is defined as weighted model-data difference squared, is reduced by 23%. Although a previous modeling study points out that the local surface heat loss upstream from Pine Island Polynya could be the reason for the observed 2012 PIG melt decline and WW thickening, they did not show WW freshening, which was observed at the same time. Model sensitivity experiments for surface heat loss, PIG melt rate, and precipitation fail to replicate WW freshening concurrent with PIG melt decline, implying that these processes cannot fully explain the observed PIG melt decrease.

  11. Temporal dynamics of ikaite in experimental sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Wang, F.; Galley, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) is a metastable phase of calcium carbonate that normally forms in a cold environment and/or under high pressure. Recently, ikaite crystals have been found in sea ice, and it has been suggested that their precipitation may play an important role in air–sea CO2 exchange in ice...... with ikaite concentrations of 200–400 μmol kg−1, and (3) a bottom layer with ikaite concentrations of salinities to increase, resulting in rapid...

  12. Thin Sea-ice Thickness Retrievals from SMAP Brightness Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayler, E. J.; Smith, R.

    2016-12-01

    The retrieval of thin sea-ice thicknesses has been developed for data from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture - Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, employing the transition of observed surface emissivity from open water to thick sea ice. This technique is now applied to brightness temperature data from NASA's Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission, addressing the instrument differences between the SMOS Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) and the SMAP scanning radiometer. This study demonstrates the utility of SMAP data for addressing a critical data gap for numerical prediction in polar regions, particularly as operational modeling advances toward coupled ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere modeling.

  13. Effects of soil moisture retention on ice distribution and active layer thickness subject to seasonal ground temperature variations in a dry loess terrace in Adventdalen, Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Carina; Frampton, Andrew; Christiansen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    The active layer constitutes an important part of permafrost environments. Thermal and hydrological processes in the active layer determine local phenomena such as erosion and hydrological and ecosystem changes, and can have important implications for the global carbon-climate feedback. Permafrost degradation usually starts with a deepening of the active layer, followed by the formation of a talik and the subsequent thawing of permafrost. An increasing active layer thickness is therefore regarded as an indicator of permafrost degradation. The importance of hydrology for active layer processes is generally well acknowledged on a conceptual level, however the in general non-linear physical interdependencies between soil moisture, subsurface water and heat fluxes and active layer thaw progression are not fully understood. In this study, high resolution field data for the period 2000-2014 consisting of active layer and permafrost temperature, active layer soil moisture, and thaw depth progression from the UNISCALM research site in Adventdalen, Svalbard, is combined with a physically-based coupled cryotic and hydrogeological model to investigate active layer dynamics. The site is a loess-covered river terrace characterized by dry conditions with little to no summer infiltration and an unsaturated active layer. A range of soil moisture characteristic curves consistent with loess sediments is considered and their effects on ice and moisture redistribution, heat flux, energy storage through latent heat transfer, and active layer thickness is investigated and quantified based on hydro-climatic site conditions. Results show that soil moisture retention characteristics exhibit notable control on ice distribution and circulation within the active layer through cryosuction and are subject to seasonal variability and site-specific surface temperature variations. The retention characteristics also impact unfrozen water and ice content in the permafrost. Although these effects

  14. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  15. Classification of new-ice in the Greenland Sea using Satellite SSM/I radiometer and SeaWinds scatterometer data and comparison with ice model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2005-01-01

    of the new-(frazil/pancake)-ice 'Odden' (8 degrees W, 75 degrees N) March 11th-18th, 2001, is used in the study. The results of the ice cover classification in the Greenland Sea are compared to model parameters from a sea ice model. The classification of each ice pixel is performed using its backscatter...... and radiative properties as reflected in the polarisation ratio. Our results based on these comparisons show that the transformation into older mature (sheet) ice occurs within 5 - 10 days. During one day the new-ice cover increased by 33 000 km(2). The new-ice appears in March 2001 as a peninsula (maximum...... extent 56000 km(2)) appended to the belt of older ice drifting along the East Coast of Greenland. These results are consistent with the ice model and with Radarsat images. Furthermore, using the ice model it is demonstrated that the new-ice/mature ice threshold in the classification corresponds...

  16. How sea ice could be the cold beating heart of European weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margrethe Ringgaard, Ida; Yang, Shuting; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Kaas, Eigil

    2017-04-01

    The possibility that the ongoing rapid demise of Arctic sea ice may instigate abrupt changes is, however, not tackled by current research in general. Ice cores from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) show clear evidence of past abrupt warm events with up to 15 degrees warming in less than a decade, most likely triggered by rapid disappearance of Nordic Seas sea ice. At present, both Arctic Sea ice and the GIS are in strong transformation: Arctic sea-ice cover has been retreating during most of the satellite era and in recent years, Arctic sea ice experienced a dramatic reduction and the summer extent was in 2012 and 2016 only half of the 1979-2000 average. With such dramatic change in the current sea ice coverage as a point of departure, several studies have linked reduction in wintertime sea ice in the Barents-Kara seas to cold weather anomalies over Europe and through large scale tele-connections to regional warming elsewhere. Here we aim to investigate if, and how, Arctic sea ice impacts European weather, i.e. if the Arctic sea ice works as the 'cold heart' of European weather. To understand the effects of the sea ice reduction on the full climate system, a fully-coupled global climate model, EC-Earth, is used. A new energy-conserving method for assimilating sea ice using the sensible heat flux is implemented in the coupled climate model and compared to the traditional, non-conserving, method of assimilating sea ice. Using this new method, experiments are performed with reduced sea ice cover in the Barents-Kara seas under both warm and cold conditions in Europe. These experiments are used to evaluate how the Arctic sea ice modulates European winter weather under present climate conditions with a view towards favouring both relatively cold and warm conditions.

  17. Arctic Ocean sea ice drift origin derived from artificial radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara-Mor, P., E-mail: patricia.camara@uab.es [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Masque, P. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Dpt. de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Orellana, J. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); Dpt. de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193. Bellaterra (Spain); School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Cochran, J.K. [School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Mas, J.L. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012, Seville. Spain (Spain); Chamizo, E. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avd. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, E-41092, Seville (Spain); Hanfland, C. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Am Handelshafen 12, D-27570 Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu activities and the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice.

  18. Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid 2.0 Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid 2.0 Weekly Snow Cover and Sea Ice Extent Version 4 product combine snow cover and sea ice extent at weekly intervals from 23...

  19. Recurring Spring Leads and Landfast Ice in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, 1993-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, the most significant sea ice anomalies have occurred in the summer ice extent (Eicken et al. 2006). In addition, there has been a...

  20. CryoSat-2 Sea Ice Freeboard, Thickness, and Snow Depth Quick Look, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA CryoSat-2 Sea Ice Freeboard, Thickness, and Snow Depth Quick Look product is an experimental sea ice thickness data set containing derived geophysical data...

  1. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  2. Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record Collection Spanning 1947-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record is the result of a concerted effort to collect as many observations as possible of Arctic sea-ice draft, freeboard,...

  3. Impact of the Projected Future Sea Ice Concentrations on the Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J.; Seierstad, I.

    2007-12-01

    The observed decline of Arctic sea ice cover and the projected future reduction raise the question of how reduced Artic sea ice will influence/feed back on the climate. Using the projected future sea ice concentration by the coupled atmosphere ocean sea ice model ECHAM5/MPI, we investigate the impact of the changed sea ice cover on the atmospheric circulation by conducting atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) experiments. We force the AGCM ECHAM5 by the current seasonal cycle of arctic sea ice and the projected future arctic seasonal cycle. The goal of this experiment is to determine the impact of the Artic sea ice reduction - that is projected in the next 100 years - on the atmospheric circulation. We find a significant reduction in storminess. The response to sea ice concentration changes differs strongly even on intraseasonal time scales.

  4. GLAS/ICESat L2 Sea Ice Altimetry Data (HDF5) V033

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLAH13 contains sea ice and open ocean elevations corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects, calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for sea ice returns. Granules...

  5. GLAS/ICESat L2 Sea Ice Altimetry Data V034

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLA13 contains sea ice and open ocean elevations corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects, calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for sea ice returns. Granules...

  6. GLAS/ICESat L2 Sea Ice Altimetry Data (HDF5) V034

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLAH13 contains sea ice and open ocean elevations corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects, calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for sea ice returns. Granules...

  7. GLAS/ICESat L2 Sea Ice Altimetry Data V033

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GLA13 contains sea ice and open ocean elevations corrected for geodetic and atmospheric affects, calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for sea ice returns. Granules...

  8. Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea Ice Edge Location and Extent in the Russian Arctic, 1933-2006 data are derived from sea ice charts from the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI),...

  9. Sea ice monitoring in the northern sea route by satellite radar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannessen, O.M.; Sandven, S.; Pettersson, L.H. [and others

    1997-06-01

    A project to implement satellite monitoring of ice in the Northern Sea Route between the Barents Sea and the Bering Strait is described. The project objectives are to support ice navigation, offshore oil exploration and production, and global climate change studies. Satellite monitoring will include synthetic-aperture radar, sidelooking radar, and other remote sensing data. The joint project between the Russian Space Agency and the European Space Agency is outlined, and major project elements are described.

  10. Sea-ice eukaryotes of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, and evidence for herbivory on weakly shade-adapted ice algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaneva, Markus; Blomster, Jaanika; Müller, Susann; Autio, Riitta; Majaneva, Sanna; Hyytiäinen, Kirsi; Nagai, Satoshi; Rintala, Janne-Markus

    2017-02-01

    To determine community composition and physiological status of early spring sea-ice organisms, we collected sea-ice, slush and under-ice water samples from the Baltic Sea. We combined light microscopy, HPLC pigment analysis and pyrosequencing, and related the biomass and physiological status of sea-ice algae with the protistan community composition in a new way in the area. In terms of biomass, centric diatoms including a distinct Melosira arctica bloom in the upper intermediate section of the fast ice, dinoflagellates, euglenoids and the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. predominated in the sea-ice sections and unidentified flagellates in the slush. Based on pigment analyses, the ice-algal communities showed no adjusted photosynthetic pigment pools throughout the sea ice, and the bottom-ice communities were not shade-adapted. The sea ice included more characteristic phototrophic taxa (49%) than did slush (18%) and under-ice water (37%). Cercozoans and ciliates were the richest taxon groups, and the differences among the communities arose mainly from the various phagotrophic protistan taxa inhabiting the communities. The presence of pheophytin a coincided with an elevated ciliate biomass and read abundance in the drift ice and with a high Eurytemora affinis read abundance in the pack ice, indicating that ciliates and Eurytemora affinis were grazing on algae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Observations for Changing Arctic Sea Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J.; Elder, B. C.; Polashenski, C.

    2016-12-01

    Results from observational data and predictive models agree: the state of the Arctic sea ice cover is in transition with a major shift from thick multiyear ice to thinner seasonal ice. The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes, and frequent temporal measurement can aid in attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) have proved to be important measurement tools allowing in situ, long-term data collection at multiple locations. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating versions of the IMB that allow data collection in thin ice and during times of transition. To accomplish this a custom computer was developed to integrate the scientific instruments, power management, and data communications while providing expanded autonomous functionality. This new design also allows for the easy incorporation of other sensors. Additionally, the latest generation of SIMB includes improvements to make it more stable, longer lasting, easier to deploy, and less expensive. Models can provide important insights as to where to deploy the sea ice mass balance buoys and what measurements are the most important. The resulting dataset from the buoys can be used to inform and assess model results.

  12. The seeding of ice algal blooms in Arctic pack ice: The multiyear ice seed repository hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lasse M.; Laney, Samuel R.; Duarte, Pedro; Kauko, Hanna M.; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Mundy, Christopher J.; Rösel, Anja; Meyer, Amelie; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Peeken, Ilka; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Róźańska-Pluta, Magdalena; Wiktor, Józef; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Hop, Haakon; Assmy, Philipp

    2017-07-01

    During the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) from January to June 2015 the pack ice in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard was studied during four drifts between 83° and 80°N. This pack ice consisted of a mix of second year, first year, and young ice. The physical properties and ice algal community composition was investigated in the three different ice types during the winter-spring-summer transition. Our results indicate that algae remaining in sea ice that survived the summer melt season are subsequently trapped in the upper layers of the ice column during winter and may function as an algal seed repository. Once the connectivity in the entire ice column is established, as a result of temperature-driven increase in ice porosity during spring, algae in the upper parts of the ice are able to migrate toward the bottom and initiate the ice algal spring bloom. Furthermore, this algal repository might seed the bloom in younger ice formed in adjacent leads. This mechanism was studied in detail for the dominant ice diatom Nitzschia frigida. The proposed seeding mechanism may be compromised due to the disappearance of older ice in the anticipated regime shift toward a seasonally ice-free Arctic Ocean.

  13. The Dehn Collection of Arctic Sea Ice Charts, 1953-1986, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The National Snow and Ice Data Center holds a collection of charts depicting ice conditions in the seas off Alaska and western Canadian coasts. Ice edge position and...

  14. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino De Souza Silva, A.P.; Franeker, van J.A.; Cisewski, B.; Leach, H.; Putte, van de A.P.; Meesters, H.W.G.; Bathmann, U.; Wolff, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0–2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  15. Macrofauna under sea ice and in the open surface layer of the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, Hauke; van Franeker, Jan-Andries; Cisewski, Boris; Leach, Harry; Van de Putte, Anton P.; Meesters, Erik (H. W. G.); Bathmann, Ulrich; Wolff, Wirn J.

    2011-01-01

    A new fishing gear was used to sample the macrozooplankton and micronekton community in the surface layer (0-2 m) under ice and in open water, the Surface and Under Ice Trawl (SUIT). In total, 57 quantitative hauls were conducted in the Lazarev Sea (Southern Ocean) during 3 different seasons (autumn

  16. The Timing of Arctic Sea Ice Advance and Retreat as an Indicator of Ice-Dependent Marine Mammal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H. L.; Laidre, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is widely recognized as the front line of climate change. Arctic air temperature is rising at twice the global average rate, and the sea-ice cover is shrinking and thinning, with total disappearance of summer sea ice projected to occur in a matter of decades. Arctic marine mammals such as polar bears, seals, walruses, belugas, narwhals, and bowhead whales depend on the sea-ice cover as an integral part of their existence. While the downward trend in sea-ice extent in a given month is an often-used metric for quantifying physical changes in the ice cover, it is not the most relevant measure for characterizing changes in the sea-ice habitat of marine mammals. Species that depend on sea ice are behaviorally tied to the annual retreat of sea ice in the spring and advance in the fall. Changes in the timing of the spring retreat and the fall advance are more relevant to Arctic marine species than changes in the areal sea-ice coverage in a particular month of the year. Many ecologically important regions of the Arctic are essentially ice-covered in winter and ice-free in summer, and will probably remain so for a long time into the future. But the dates of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall are key indicators of climate change for ice-dependent marine mammals. We use daily sea-ice concentration data derived from satellite passive microwave sensors to calculate the dates of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall in 12 regions of the Arctic for each year from 1979 through 2013. The regions include the peripheral seas around the Arctic Ocean (Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents), the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and the marginal seas (Okhotsk, Bering, East Greenland, Baffin Bay, Hudson Bay). We find that in 11 of the 12 regions (all except the Bering Sea), sea ice is retreating earlier in spring and advancing later in fall. Rates of spring retreat range from -5 to -8 days/decade, and rates of fall advance range from +5 to +9

  17. Survival and breeding of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea in relation to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, E.V.; Hunter, C.M.; Caswell, H.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2010-01-01

    1. Observed and predicted declines in Arctic sea ice have raised concerns about marine mammals. In May 2008, the US Fish and Wildlife Service listed polar bears (Ursus maritimus) - one of the most ice-dependent marine mammals - as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. 2. We evaluated the effects of sea ice conditions on vital rates (survival and breeding probabilities) for polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea. Although sea ice declines in this and other regions of the polar basin have been among the greatest in the Arctic, to date population-level effects of sea ice loss on polar bears have only been identified in western Hudson Bay, near the southern limit of the species' range. 3. We estimated vital rates using multistate capture-recapture models that classified individuals by sex, age and reproductive category. We used multimodel inference to evaluate a range of statistical models, all of which were structurally based on the polar bear life cycle. We estimated parameters by model averaging, and developed a parametric bootstrap procedure to quantify parameter uncertainty. 4. In the most supported models, polar bear survival declined with an increasing number of days per year that waters over the continental shelf were ice free. In 2001-2003, the ice-free period was relatively short (mean 101 days) and adult female survival was high (0 ∙ 96-0 ∙ 99, depending on reproductive state). In 2004 and 2005, the ice-free period was longer (mean 135 days) and adult female survival was low (0 ∙ 73-0 ∙ 79, depending on reproductive state). Breeding rates and cub litter survival also declined with increasing duration of the ice-free period. Confidence intervals on vital rate estimates were wide. 5. The effects of sea ice loss on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea may apply to polar bear populations in other portions of the polar basin that have similar sea ice dynamics and have experienced similar, or more severe, sea ice declines. Our findings

  18. Comparing C- and L-band SAR images for sea ice motion estimation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lehtiranta; S. Siiriä; Karvonen, J

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of consecutive C-band synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are routinely used for sea ice motion estimation. The L-band radar has a fundamentally different character, as its longer wavelength penetrates deeper into sea ice. L-band SAR provides information on the seasonal sea ice inner structure in addition to the surface roughness that dominates C-band images. This is especially useful in the Baltic Sea, which lacks multiyear ice and icebergs, known to be confusing ta...

  19. A New Remotely Operated Sensor Platform for Interdisciplinary Observations under Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Katlein, Christian; Schiller, Martin; Belter, Hans J.; Coppolaro, Veronica; Wenslandt, David; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Observation of the climate and ecosystem of ice covered polar seas is a timely task for the scientific community. The goal is to assess the drastic and imminent changes of the polar sea ice cover induced by climate change. Retreating and thinning sea ice affects the planets energy budget, atmospheric, and oceanic circulation patterns as well as the ecosystem associated with this unique habitat. To increase the observational capabilities of sea ice scientists, we equipped a remotely operated v...

  20. Mass loss of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the Little Ice Age, implications on sea level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, K. K.; Bjork, A. A.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    -2010, NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from 2003-2009, and NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor (LVIS) from 2010, to estimate mass loss throughout the 20th and early 21st Century. We present mass balance estimates of the GrIS since retreat commence from the maximum extent......The impact of mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) on 20th Century sea level rise (SLR) has long been subject to intense discussions. While globally distributed tide gauges suggest a global mean SLR of 15-20 cm, quantifying the separate components is of great concern - in particular...... for modeling sea level projections into the 21st Century. Estimates of the past GrIS contribution to SLR have been derived using a number of different approaches, e.g. surface mass balance (SMB) calculations combined with estimates of ice discharge found by in correlating SMB anomalies and calving rates. Here...

  1. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  2. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO–LIM3.6-based ocean–sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pemberton

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO–LIM3.6-based ocean–sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic. The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961–2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  3. ICESat-2 Oceanic & Sea Ice Responses to Atmospheric Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. W.; Neumann, T.; Kwok, R.; Morison, J.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's ICESat-2 mission will measure and monitor the heights of sea ice and oceans as well as the heights over land, vegetation and land ice. In order to avoid aliasing high-frequency variations into averages of Sea Surface Height (SSH), science-directed oceanic data products require systematic correction to account for various geophysical signals such as tides and atmospheric forcing. The focus here is on the temporal surface responses to atmospheric pressure and wind field forcing. We present evaluations of modeled oceanic responses from the MOG2D Dynamic Atmospheric Correction (DAC) model, which includes both the atmospheric pressure and wind stress effects, and from ECMWF and NCEP atmospheric pressure alone through the Inverted Barometric (IB) effect pressure. We evaluate for both the ice-covered and ice-free ocean. The influence of wind stress relative to IB increases with latitude north and south, likely due to increased Coriolis and the associated effectiveness of Ekman pumping. However, we show examples where wind field stresses in the DAC appear to extend further onto sea-ice covered zones than we anticipated. Additional examples of anomalous variability between along-track, point-value DAC & IB values found on Cryosat-2 data records will be shown. Comparison of monthly samples across three years (2012-2014) of Arctic Ocean mean sea level pressure data from ECMWF and NASA's GMAO GEOS-5 FP-IT (V5.12.4) reveals pressure differences of up to ±9.5 mbar between them. Up to ±10.6 mbar differences are noted in the oceans surrounding Antarctica. The magnitude of these differences, between assimilation sources, when considered as an IB correction (1 mbar ≈ 1 cm IB), create a challenge when attempting to achieve 1 cm, satellite-borne, LIDAR oceanographic and sea ice geodesy.

  4. Arctic sea ice variability and trends, 1979–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Parkinson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of 32 yr (1979–2010 of Arctic sea ice extents and areas derived from satellite passive microwave radiometers are presented for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole and for nine Arctic regions. There is an overall negative yearly trend of −51.5 ± 4.1 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−4.1 ± 0.3% decade−1 in sea ice extent for the hemisphere. The yearly sea ice extent trends for the individual Arctic regions are all negative except for the Bering Sea: −3.9 ± 1.1 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−8.7 ± 2.5% decade−1 for the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan, +0.3 ± 0.8 × 103 km2 yr−1 (+1.2 ± 2.7% decade−1 for the Bering Sea, −4.4 ± 0.7 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−5.1 ± 0.9% decade−1 for Hudson Bay, −7.6 ± 1.6 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−8.5 ± 1.8% decade−1 for Baffin Bay/Labrador Sea, −0.5 ± 0.3 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−5.9 ± 3.5% decade−1 for the Gulf of St. Lawrence, −6.5 ± 1.1 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−8.6 ± 1.5% decade−1 for the Greenland Sea, −13.5 ± 2.3 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−9.2 ± 1.6% decade−1 for the Kara and Barents Seas, −14.6 ± 2.3 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−2.1 ± 0.3% decade−1 for the Arctic Ocean, and −0.9 ± 0.4 × 103 km2 yr−1 (−1.3 ± 0.5% decade−1 for the Canadian Archipelago. Similarly, the yearly trends for sea ice areas are all negative except for the Bering Sea. On a seasonal basis for both sea ice extents and areas, the largest negative trend is observed for summer with the next largest negative trend being for autumn. Both the sea ice extent and area trends vary widely by month depending on region and season. For the Northern Hemisphere as a whole, all 12 months show negative sea ice extent trends with a minimum magnitude in May and a maximum magnitude in September, whereas the corresponding sea ice area trends are smaller in magnitude and reach minimum and maximum values in March and September.

  5. Is Ice-Rafted Sediment in a North Pole Marine Record Evidence for Perennial Sea-ice Cover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, L.B.; Schmidt, G.A.; Pfirman, S.; Newton, R.; DeRepentigny, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ice-rafted sediments of Eurasian and North American origin are found consistently in the upper part (13 Ma BP to present) of the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) ocean core from the Lomonosov Ridge, near the North Pole (approximately 88 degrees N). Based on modern sea-ice drift trajectories and speeds, this has been taken as evidence of the presence of a perennial sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean from the middle Miocene onwards. However, other high latitude land and marine records indicate a long-term trend towards cooling broken by periods of extensive warming suggestive of a seasonally ice-free Arctic between the Miocene and the present. We use a coupled sea-ice slab-ocean model including sediment transport tracers to map the spatial distribution of ice-rafted deposits in the Arctic Ocean. We use 6 hourly wind forcing and surface heat fluxes for two different climates: one with a perennial sea-ice cover similar to that of the present day and one with seasonally ice-free conditions, similar to that simulated in future projections. Model results confirm that in the present-day climate, sea ice takes more than 1 year to transport sediment from all its peripheral seas to the North Pole. However, in a warmer climate, sea-ice speeds are significantly faster (for the same wind forcing) and can deposit sediments of Laptev, East Siberian and perhaps also Beaufort Sea origin at the North Pole. This is primarily because of the fact that sea-ice interactions are much weaker with a thinner ice cover and there is less resistance to drift. We conclude that the presence of ice-rafted sediment of Eurasian and North American origin at the North Pole does not imply a perennial sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, reconciling the ACEX ocean core data with other land and marine records.

  6. Wave–ice interactions in the neXtSIM sea-ice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Williams

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a waves-in-ice model (WIM, which calculates ice breakage and the wave radiation stress (WRS. This WIM is then coupled to the new sea-ice model neXtSIM, which is based on the elasto-brittle (EB rheology. We highlight some numerical issues involved in the coupling and investigate the impact of the WRS, and of modifying the EB rheology to lower the stiffness of the ice in the area where the ice has broken up (the marginal ice zone or MIZ. In experiments in the absence of wind, we find that wind waves can produce noticeable movement of the ice edge in loose ice (concentration around 70 % – up to 36 km, depending on the material parameters of the ice that are used and the dynamical model used for the broken ice. The ice edge position is unaffected by the WRS if the initial concentration is higher (≳ 0.9. Swell waves (monochromatic waves with low frequency do not affect the ice edge location (even for loose ice, as they are attenuated much less than the higher-frequency components of a wind wave spectrum, and so consequently produce a much lower WRS (by about an order of magnitude at least.In the presence of wind, we find that the wind stress dominates the WRS, which, while large near the ice edge, decays exponentially away from it. This is in contrast to the wind stress, which is applied over a much larger ice area. In this case (when wind is present the dynamical model for the MIZ has more impact than the WRS, although that effect too is relatively modest. When the stiffness in the MIZ is lowered due to ice breakage, we find that on-ice winds produce more compression in the MIZ than in the pack, while off-ice winds can cause the MIZ to be separated from the pack ice.

  7. Characterizing Spatial Variability of Ice Algal Chlorophyll a and Net Primary Production between Sea Ice Habitats Using Horizontal Profiling Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Lange

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the role of sea ice algal biomass and primary production for polar ecosystems remains challenging due to the strong spatio-temporal variability of sea ice algae. Therefore, the spatial representativeness of sea ice algal biomass and primary production sampling remains a key issue in large-scale models and climate change predictions of polar ecosystems. To address this issue, we presented two novel approaches to up-scale ice algal chl a biomass and net primary production (NPP estimates based on profiles covering distances of 100 to 1,000 s of meters. This was accomplished by combining ice core-based methods with horizontal under-ice spectral radiation profiling conducted in the central Arctic Ocean during summer 2012. We conducted a multi-scale comparison of ice-core based ice algal chl a biomass with two profiling platforms: a remotely operated vehicle and surface and under ice trawl (SUIT. NPP estimates were compared between ice cores and remotely operated vehicle surveys. Our results showed that ice core-based estimates of ice algal chl a biomass and NPP do not representatively capture the spatial variability compared to the remotely operated vehicle-based estimates, implying considerable uncertainties for pan-Arctic estimates based on ice core observations alone. Grouping sea ice cores based on region or ice type improved the representativeness. With only a small sample size, however, a high risk of obtaining non-representative estimates remains. Sea ice algal chl a biomass estimates based on the dominant ice class alone showed a better agreement between ice core and remotely operated vehicle estimates. Grouping ice core measurements yielded no improvement in NPP estimates, highlighting the importance of accounting for the spatial variability of both the chl a biomass and bottom-ice light in order to get representative estimates. Profile-based measurements of ice algae chl a biomass identified sea ice ridges as an underappreciated

  8. Characterising the sea ice environment using a newly developed sensor array mounted on an under-ice trawl

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Benjamin; David, Car; Katlein, Christian; Meiners, Klaus M.; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Flores, Hauke

    2014-01-01

    One of the most pronounced impacts of climate change is the changing sea ice cover, which has implications for sea ice-associated ecosystems that depend on carbon produced by ice-associated algae. In order to fully understand these ecosystems there is a need to understand both the physical and biological components. We present preliminary results from Polarstern cruises to the Eastern Central Arctic Ocean (summer 2012) and Weddell Sea (fall-winter 2013). Biological samples were acquired from ...

  9. Sea-ice Thickness and Draft Statistics from Submarine ULS, Moored ULS, and a Coupled Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of estimates of mean values of sea-ice thickness and sea-ice draft in meters computed from three different input data sets: sea ice draft from...

  10. Organic iodine in Antarctic sea ice: A comparison between winter in the Weddell Sea and summer in the Amundsen Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfors, Anna; Ahnoff, Martin; Mills, Matthew M.; Abrahamsson, Katarina

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have recognized sea ice as a source of reactive iodine to the Antarctic boundary layer. Volatile iodinated compounds (iodocarbons) are released from sea ice, and they have been suggested to contribute to the formation of iodine oxide (IO), which takes part in tropospheric ozone destruction in the polar spring. We measured iodocarbons (CH3I, CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2) in sea ice, snow, brine, and air during two expeditions to Antarctica, OSO 10/11 to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer and ANT XXIX/6 to the Weddell Sea in austral winter. These are the first reported measurements of iodocarbons from the Antarctic winter. Iodocarbons were enriched in sea ice in relation to seawater in both summer and winter. During summer, the positive relationship to chlorophyll a biomass indicated a biological origin. We suggest that CH3I is formed biotically in sea ice during both summer and winter. For CH2ClI, CH2BrI, and CH2I2, an additional abiotic source at the snow/ice interface in winter is suggested. Elevated air concentrations of CH3I and CH2ClI during winter indicate that they are enriched in lower troposphere and may take part in the formation of IO at polar sunrise.

  11. Comparison of airborne radar altimeter and ground-based Ku-band radar measurements on the ice cap Austfonna, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, O.; Hawley, R. L.; Kohler, J.; Hagen, J. O.; Morris, E. M.; Dunse, T.; Scott, J. B. T.; Eiken, T.

    2008-11-01

    We compare coincident data from the European Space Agency's Airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) with ground-based Very High Bandwidth (VHB) stepped-frequency radar measurements in the Ku-band. The ASIRAS instrument obtained data from ~700 m above the surface, using a 13.5 GHz center frequency and a 1 GHz bandwidth. The ground-based VHB radar measurements were acquired using the same center frequency, but with a variable bandwidth of either 1 or 8 GHz. Four sites were visited with the VHB radar; two sites within the transition region from superimposed ice to firn, and two sites in the long-term firn area (wet-snow zone). The greater bandwidth VHB measurements show that the first peak in the airborne data is a composite of the return from the surface (i.e. air-snow interface) and returns of similar or stronger amplitude from reflectors in the upper ~30 cm of the subsurface. The peak position in the airborne data is thus not necessarily a good proxy for the surface since the maximum and width of the first return depend on the degree of interference between surface and subsurface reflectors. The major response from the winter snowpack was found to be caused by units of thin crust/ice layers (0.5 2 mm) surrounded by large crystals (>3 mm). In the airborne data, it is possible to track such layers for tens of kilometers. The winter snowpack lacked thicker ice layers. The last year's summer surface, characterized by a low density large crystal layer overlaying a harder denser layer, gives a strong radar response, frequently the strongest. The clear relationship observed between the VHB and ASIRAS waveforms, justifies the use of ground-based radar measurements in the validation of air- or spaceborne radars.

  12. Sea ice thickness in the Beaufort Sea and comparisons with C-band SAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. A.; Haas, C.; Bublitz, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Beaufort Sea is a region of significant interest for both climate science and marine operations, as summer sea ice extent and ice age have shown strong declines in recent years, while interest in oil and gas activities have increased dramatically. As a result, there is high demand for sea ice information products in this region. In particular, routine observations of ice thickness are desired at regional and local scales for parameterization and validation of seasonal and long-term ice forecasts, as well as ensuring safe marine operations. We present ice thickness measurements acquired in April 2009-2016 with an airborne electromagnetic induction system (AEM). The AEM data are compared to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery acquired by RADARSAT-2 (RS2) in 2015 and 2016 to determine if ice thickness can be inverted from C-band SAR data. The RS2 data include ScanSAR dual-pol (HH/HV) and high-resolution quad-pol images. The AEM measurements indicate that the thickest multi-year ice (MYI) often occurs in a narrow band at the southern edge of the MYI zone, and that there is high interannual variability in modal MYI thickness. The southern Beaufort Sea is dominated by first-year ice (FYI) that is consistently 2 m thick. Significant areas of thin FYI were present in 2016 due to strong divergent ice motion and westward advection in February-April. Extreme ice features (> 6 m thick for 100+ m along flight track) were observed in all study years in both MYI and FYI regions. The AEM data were averaged in 0.5 to 5 km intervals and compared to SAR backscatter and polarimetric parameters. Correlations between ice thickness and SAR backscatter and polarimetric parameters were generally weak to moderate, and inconsistent between study years. Work is ongoing to compare AEM and SAR data at the floe scale instead of at fixed distance intervals. Depolarization parameters, which are strongly related to volume scattering, show potential for identifying thick deformed ice features

  13. The impact of melt ponds on summertime microwave brightness temperatures and sea-ice concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Rösel, Anja; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2016-01-01

    Sea-ice concentrations derived from satellite microwave brightness temperatures are less accurate during summer. In the Arctic Ocean the lack of accuracy is primarily caused by melt ponds, but also by changes in the properties of snow and the sea-ice surface itself. We investigate the sensitivity...... of eight sea-ice concentration retrieval algorithms to melt ponds by comparing sea-ice concentration with the melt-pond fraction. We derive gridded daily sea-ice concentrations from microwave brightness temperatures of summer 2009. We derive the daily fraction of melt ponds, open water between ice floes......, and the ice-surface fraction from contemporary Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance data. We only use grid cells where the MODIS sea ice concentration, which is the melt-pond fraction plus the ice-surface fraction, exceeds 90 %. For one group of algorithms, e.g., Bristol and Comiso...

  14. Analysis on variability and trend in Antarctic sea ice albedo between 1983 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minji; Kim, Hyun-cheol; Choi, Sungwon; Lee, Kyeong-sang; Han, Kyung-soo

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice is key parameter in order to understand the cryosphere climate change. Several studies indicate the different trend of sea ice between Antarctica and Arctic. Albedo is important factor for understanding the energy budget and factors for observing of environment changes of Cryosphere such as South Pole, due to it mainly covered by ice and snow with high albedo value. In this study, we analyzed variability and trend of long-term sea ice albedo data to understand the changes of sea ice over Antarctica. In addiction, sea ice albedo researched the relationship with Antarctic oscillation in order to determine the atmospheric influence. We used the sea ice albedo data at The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring and Antarctic Oscillation data at NOAA Climate Prediction Center (CPC). We analyzed the annual trend in albedo using linear regression to understand the spatial and temporal tendency. Antarctic sea ice albedo has two spatial trend. Weddle sea / Ross sea sections represent a positive trend (0.26% ˜ 0.04% yr-1) and Bellingshausen Amundsen sea represents a negative trend (- 0.14 ˜ -0.25%yr-1). Moreover, we performed the correlation analysis between albedo and Antarctic oscillation. As a results, negative area indicate correlation coefficient of - 0.3639 and positive area indicates correlation coefficient of - 0.0741. Theses results sea ice albedo has regional trend according to ocean. Decreasing sea ice trend has negative relationship with Antarctic oscillation, its represent a possibility that sea ice influence atmospheric factor.

  15. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO(2) exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard...[], Søren; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Delille, B.

    2011-01-01

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO(2) and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO(2) exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air......-sea CO(2) exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO(2) uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO(2) uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea......-ice driven CO(2) uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO(2) uptake. Net CO(2) uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO(2)-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air...

  16. Skill improvement of dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Folmer; Schmeits, Maurice; Vlot, Willem; Guemas, Virginie; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2016-01-01

    We explore the error and improve the skill of the outcome from dynamical seasonal Arctic sea ice reforecasts using different bias correction and ensemble calibration methods. These reforecasts consist of a five-member ensemble from 1979 to 2012 using the general circulation model EC-Earth. The

  17. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M

    2012-03-13

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  18. Eurasian permafrost instability constrained by reduced sea-ice cover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenberghe, J.; Renssen, H.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Goosse, H.J.M.; Velichko, A.A.; Gorbunov, A.; Levavasseur, G.

    2012-01-01

    In order to specify potentially causal relationships between climate, permafrost extent and sea-ice cover we apply a twofold research strategy: (1) we cover a large range of climate conditions varying from full glacial to the relatively warm climate projected for the end of the 21st Century, (2) we

  19. Ice sheets and sea level: thinking outside the box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.; Bamber, J.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Rignot, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Until quite recently, the mass balance (MB) of the great ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica was poorly known and often treated as a residual in the budget of oceanic mass and sea level change. Recent developments in regional climate modelling and remote sensing, especially altimetry, gravimetry

  20. Distribution of dissolved and particulate metals in Antarctic sea ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lannuzel, D.; Bowie, A.R.; van der Merwe, P.C.; Townsend, A.T.; Schoemann, V.

    2011-01-01

    Samples were collected in East Antarctic sea ice in late winter/early austral spring 2007 to assess the distributions of Al, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo. Cd and Ba. Total dissolved (<02 mu m) and particulate (>0.2 mu m) concentrations were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Sector Field Mass Spectrometry

  1. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, D.; Udevitz, M.; Atwood, T.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  2. Measurements of sea ice by satellite and airborne altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard Rose, Stine

    , and it has been in retreat every since. The mass balance of the sea ice is an important input to climate models, where the ice thickness is the most uncertain parameter. In this study, data from the CryoSat-2 radar altimeter satellite are used. CryoSat-2 has been measuring the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean...... airborne laser altimeter data from DTU Space together with data from the European Space Agency’s (ESA) CryoSat Calibration and Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Operation IceBridge (OIB) are used over a first and multi-year ice area. Comparing...... the modal freeboard heights of 55 cm retrieved from the laser scanner data with the 25 cm retrieved from CryoSat-2 indicates a snow layer of 30 cm, due to the theory that a laser is reflected at the air/snow interface, while the radar is reflected at the snow/ice interface. In the other area, the modal...

  3. Validation of SMOS sea ice thickness retrieval in the northern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Maaß

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS mission observes brightness temperatures at a low microwave frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band with a daily coverage of the polar regions. L-band radiometry has been shown to provide information on the thickness of thin sea ice. Here, we apply a new emission model that has previously been used to investigate the impact of snow on thick Arctic sea ice. The model has not yet been used to retrieve ice thickness. In contrast to previous SMOS ice thickness retrievals, the new model allows us to include a snow layer in the brightness temperature simulations. Using ice thickness estimations from satellite thermal imagery, we simulate brightness temperatures during the ice growth season 2011 in the northern Baltic Sea. In both the simulations and the SMOS observations, brightness temperatures increase by more than 20 K, most likely due to an increase of ice thickness. Only if we include the snow in the model, the absolute values of the simulations and the observations agree well (mean deviations below 3.5 K. In a second comparison, we use high-resolution measurements of total ice thickness (sum of ice and snow thickness from an electromagnetic (EM sounding system to simulate brightness temperatures for 12 circular areas. While the SMOS observations and the simulations that use the EM modal ice thickness are highly correlated (r 2=0.95, the simulated brightness temperatures are on average 12 K higher than observed by SMOS. This would correspond to an 8-cm overestimation of the modal ice thickness by the SMOS retrieval. In contrast, if the simulations take into account the shape of the EM ice thickness distributions (r 2=0.87, the mean deviation between simulated and observed brightness temperatures is below 0.1 K.

  4. The sensitivity of a one-dimensional thermodynamic sea ice model to changes in cloudiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, K. P.; Crane, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    A thermodynamic sea ice-lead model is used to assess the importance of cloud cover changes to modeled ice thickness. For regions of either permanent multiyear ice or seasonal sea ice, the cloud amount variations have relatively little impact. However, for regions where the presence of summer ice is variable from year to year, the predicted ice thickness is strongly dependent on cloud cover. In general, with a snow covered surface, decreased cloud leads to surface cooling while increased cloud gives rise to a surface warming. For a melting bare ice surface, the reverse occurs. The ice model response time is too long for interannual variations in cloud amount to explain interannual variations in ice thickness and extent. Nevertheless, the implication of the results is that numerical modeling of sea ice distribution requires accurate cloud data or cloud prediction and that trends in cloud cover may lead to significant perturbations in sea ice extent and thickness.

  5. Wave-induced stress and breaking of sea ice in a coupled hydrodynamic discrete-element wave-ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Agnieszka

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a coupled sea ice-wave model is developed and used to analyze wave-induced stress and breaking in sea ice for a range of wave and ice conditions. The sea ice module is a discrete-element bonded-particle model, in which ice is represented as cuboid grains floating on the water surface that can be connected to their neighbors by elastic joints. The joints may break if instantaneous stresses acting on them exceed their strength. The wave module is based on an open-source version of the Non-Hydrostatic WAVE model (NHWAVE). The two modules are coupled with proper boundary conditions for pressure and velocity, exchanged at every wave model time step. In the present version, the model operates in two dimensions (one vertical and one horizontal) and is suitable for simulating compact ice in which heave and pitch motion dominates over surge. In a series of simulations with varying sea ice properties and incoming wavelength it is shown that wave-induced stress reaches maximum values at a certain distance from the ice edge. The value of maximum stress depends on both ice properties and characteristics of incoming waves, but, crucially for ice breaking, the location at which the maximum occurs does not change with the incoming wavelength. Consequently, both regular and random (Jonswap spectrum) waves break the ice into floes with almost identical sizes. The width of the zone of broken ice depends on ice strength and wave attenuation rates in the ice.

  6. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  7. Clusters of interannual sea ice variability in the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fučkar, Neven S.; Guemas, Virginie; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Massonnet, François; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J.

    2016-09-01

    We determine robust modes of the northern hemisphere (NH) sea ice variability on interannual timescales disentangled from the long-term climate change. This study focuses on sea ice thickness (SIT), reconstructed with an ocean-sea-ice general circulation model, because SIT has a potential to contain most of the interannual memory and predictability of the NH sea ice system. We use the K-means cluster analysis—one of clustering methods that partition data into groups or clusters based on their distances in the physical space without the typical constraints of other unsupervised learning statistical methods such as the widely-used principal component analysis. To adequately filter out climate change signal in the Arctic from 1958 to 2013 we have to approximate it with a 2nd degree polynomial. Using 2nd degree residuals of SIT leads to robust K-means cluster patterns, i.e. invariant to further increase of the polynomial degree. A set of clustering validity indices yields K = 3 as the optimal number of SIT clusters for all considered months and seasons with strong similarities in their cluster patterns. The associated time series of cluster occurrences exhibit predominant interannual persistence with mean timescale of about 2 years. Compositing analysis of the NH surface climate conditions associated with each cluster indicates that wind forcing seem to be the key factor driving the formation of interannual SIT cluster patterns during the winter. Climate memory in SIT with such interannual persistence could lead to increased predictability of the Artic sea ice cover beyond seasonal timescales.

  8. In situ expression of eukaryotic ice-binding proteins in microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kilpert, Fabian; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Kegel, Jessica U; Krell, Andreas; Mock, Thomas; Valentin, Klaus; Beszteri, Bánk

    2015-01-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have been isolated from various sea-ice organisms. Their characterisation points to a crucial role in protecting the organisms in sub-zero environments. However, their in situ abundance and diversity in natural sea-ice microbial communities is largely unknown. In this study, we analysed the expression and phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic IBP transcripts from microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. IBP transcripts were found in abundances similar to those of proteins involved in core cellular processes such as photosynthesis. Eighty-nine percent of the IBP transcripts grouped with known IBP sequences from diatoms, haptophytes and crustaceans, but the majority represented novel sequences not previously characterized in cultured organisms. The observed high eukaryotic IBP expression in natural eukaryotic sea ice communities underlines the essential role of IBPs for survival of many microorganisms in communities living under the extreme conditions of polar sea ice. PMID:25885562

  9. In situ expression of eukaryotic ice-binding proteins in microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kilpert, Fabian; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Kegel, Jessica U; Krell, Andreas; Mock, Thomas; Valentin, Klaus; Beszteri, Bánk

    2015-11-01

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) have been isolated from various sea-ice organisms. Their characterisation points to a crucial role in protecting the organisms in sub-zero environments. However, their in situ abundance and diversity in natural sea-ice microbial communities is largely unknown. In this study, we analysed the expression and phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic IBP transcripts from microbial communities of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. IBP transcripts were found in abundances similar to those of proteins involved in core cellular processes such as photosynthesis. Eighty-nine percent of the IBP transcripts grouped with known IBP sequences from diatoms, haptophytes and crustaceans, but the majority represented novel sequences not previously characterized in cultured organisms. The observed high eukaryotic IBP expression in natural eukaryotic sea ice communities underlines the essential role of IBPs for survival of many microorganisms in communities living under the extreme conditions of polar sea ice.

  10. Inter-annual and Seasonal Variability of Sea Ice Thickness North of Alert, Ellesmere Island and in the Lincoln Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B. A.; Haas, C.; Hendricks, S.; Beckers, J.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite observations demonstrate a decreasing summer Arctic sea ice extent over the past ~37 years, as well as a smaller perennial sea ice zone, with a significantly accelerated decline in the last decade. Recent ice extent observations are significantly lower than predicted by any model employed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The disagreement of the modeled and observed results, along with the large variability of model results, can be in part attributed to a lack of consistent and long term sea ice mass balance observations for the High Arctic. This study presents aerial sea-ice thickness data north of Alert, Nunavut, during April-May of 2004-2009 (excluding 2006), acquired with airplane and helicopter (HEM) electromagnetic induction systems. These observations are a unique 5 year time series of sea-ice thickness and the most extensive observations of multi-year sea ice thickness in this region of the Arctic Ocean. These data help to better understand the interannual variability of ice thickness and ice mass balance in the perennial ice zone. Results demonstrate thinning of sea ice from 2004 to 2008. Ground based snow and ice thickness surveys of ice floes in the Lincoln Sea were conducted in May 2009. Furthermore we deployed GPS buoys on these floes in order to revisit them and repeat the ground based surveys, in August 2009, during the CCG Larsen’s passage through Nares Strait. In addition, HEM sea-ice thickness profiles will be conducted along the cruise track and will be presented with the survey observations and HEM thickness data from May 2009 in order to describe the seasonal variability of sea ice exported from the Lincoln Sea into Nares Strait. All observations will be complemented with NCEP meteorological data to help characterize the observed results of the study. Operation of the HEM bird (August 2009), from the CCGS Henry Larsen Icebreaker, in Nares Strait over validation sites.

  11. Sea ice and millennial-scale climate variability in the Nordic seas 90 kyr ago to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Ulrike; Rasmussen, Tine L; Stein, Ruediger; Ezat, Mohamed M; Fahl, Kirsten

    2016-07-26

    In the light of rapidly diminishing sea ice cover in the Arctic during the present atmospheric warming, it is imperative to study the distribution of sea ice in the past in relation to rapid climate change. Here we focus on glacial millennial-scale climatic events (Dansgaard/Oeschger events) using the sea ice proxy IP25 in combination with phytoplankton proxy data and quantification of diatom species in a record from the southeast Norwegian Sea. We demonstrate that expansion and retreat of sea ice varies consistently in pace with the rapid climate changes 90 kyr ago to present. Sea ice retreats abruptly at the start of warm interstadials, but spreads rapidly during cooling phases of the interstadials and becomes near perennial and perennial during cold stadials and Heinrich events, respectively. Low-salinity surface water and the sea ice edge spreads to the Greenland-Scotland Ridge, and during the largest Heinrich events, probably far into the Atlantic Ocean.

  12. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  13. Sea ice algae chlorophyll a concentrations derived from under-ice spectral radiation profiling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Benjamin A.; Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Peeken, Ilka; Flores, Hauke

    2016-12-01

    Multiscale sea ice algae observations are fundamentally important for projecting changes to sea ice ecosystems, as the physical environment continues to change. In this study, we developed upon previously established methodologies for deriving sea ice-algal chlorophyll a concentrations (chl a) from spectral radiation measurements, and applied these to larger-scale spectral surveys. We conducted four different under-ice spectral measurements: irradiance, radiance, transmittance, and transflectance, and applied three statistical approaches: Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF), Normalized Difference Indices (NDI), and multi-NDI. We developed models based on ice core chl a and coincident spectral irradiance/transmittance (N = 49) and radiance/transflectance (N = 50) measurements conducted during two cruises to the central Arctic Ocean in 2011 and 2012. These reference models were ranked based on two criteria: mean robustness R2 and true prediction error estimates. For estimating the biomass of a large-scale data set, the EOF approach performed better than the NDI, due to its ability to account for the high variability of environmental properties experienced over large areas. Based on robustness and true prediction error, the three most reliable models, EOF-transmittance, EOF-transflectance, and NDI-transmittance, were applied to two remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and two Surface and Under-Ice Trawl (SUIT) spectral radiation surveys. In these larger-scale chl a estimates, EOF-transmittance showed the best fit to ice core chl a. Application of our most reliable model, EOF-transmittance, to an 85 m horizontal ROV transect revealed large differences compared to published biomass estimates from the same site with important implications for projections of Arctic-wide ice-algal biomass and primary production.

  14. Ice Types and Processes in the Advancing Chukchi Sea Ice Edge from Visual Observations and Digital Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.; Shen, H. H.; Rogers, W.; Holt, B.; Maksym, T.; Kohout, A. L.; Smith, M.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Lund, B.

    2016-02-01

    Ice types were identified from the Sikuliaq while underway during the ONR SeaState cruise into the Chukchi Sea ice edge in Oct 2015 and were recorded in the ASSIST system for ice observations at 5 to 10km intervals while an automatic ice camera provided a continuous swath of photography between observations. Several transects of the newly advancing ice edge were conducted. From these observations, at much higher resolution than available from satellite imagery, sub meter scale ice features can be identified. This high resolution allows differentiation for example, between new pancake ice formed in wave fields and smooth nilas ice that forms in the absence of waves. The presence or absence of remnant ice floes from the summer decay period can also be identified. From these transects we differentiate between the role that old remnant floes may or may not play in stabilizing the ice edge during the advance of the ice cover, whether waves generated outside the ice edge can form pancake ice at the edge as found in the Antarctic, or whether neither waves nor remnant ice are needed and the ice edge advances by quiet ice growth, driven primarily by thermal processes. Ice growth processes may also vary with location and timing, and dependencies on variations in ocean and atmospheric forcing will be identified.

  15. NASA Team 2 Sea Ice Concentration Algorithm Retrieval Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Satellite microwave radiometers are widely used to estimate sea ice cover properties (concentration, extent, and area) through the use of sea ice concentration (IC) algorithms. Rare are the algorithms providing associated IC uncertainty estimates. Algorithm uncertainty estimates are needed to assess accurately global and regional trends in IC (and thus extent and area), and to improve sea ice predictions on seasonal to interannual timescales using data assimilation approaches. This paper presents a method to provide relative IC uncertainty estimates using the enhanced NASA Team (NT2) IC algorithm. The proposed approach takes advantage of the NT2 calculations and solely relies on the brightness temperatures (TBs) used as input. NT2 IC and its associated relative uncertainty are obtained for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) TB. NT2 IC relative uncertainties estimated on a footprint-by-footprint swath-by-swath basis were averaged daily over each 12.5-km grid cell of the polar stereographic grid. For both hemispheres and throughout the year, the NT2 relative uncertainty is less than 5%. In the Southern Hemisphere, it is low in the interior ice pack, and it increases in the marginal ice zone up to 5%. In the Northern Hemisphere, areas with high uncertainties are also found in the high IC area of the Central Arctic. Retrieval uncertainties are greater in areas corresponding to NT2 ice types associated with deep snow and new ice. Seasonal variations in uncertainty show larger values in summer as a result of melt conditions and greater atmospheric contributions. Our analysis also includes an evaluation of the NT2 algorithm sensitivity to AMSR-E sensor noise. There is a 60% probability that the IC does not change (to within the computed retrieval precision of 1%) due to sensor noise, and the cumulated probability shows that there is a 90% chance that the IC varies by less than

  16. Mapping wave heights in sea ice with Sentinel 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Justin; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Mouche, Alexis; Guitton, Gilles; Sutherland, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice plays an important role in the Earth system by regulating air-sea fluxes. These fluxes can be enhanced by the breaking of ice into floes which critically depends on wave heights propagating across the ice. Remote sensing with SAR provides a unique coverage of the polar regions but so far the measurement of wave heights has been performed routinely only for open water. The presence of ice completely changes the mechanisms by which waves make patterns in radar images. Namely, in the open ocean, the constructed images appear blurred due to the fact that the high frequency waves are unresolved by the sensor. Instead, in ice-covered seas, high frequency waves have been dissipated or scattered away, and only the low-frequency swell components are observed. Two new algorithms have been proposed by Ardhuin et al. (2015). Refining these algorithms, we analyze the intricate wave patterns captured over sea ice by Sentinel 1-A, and measure both the wave heights and directional spreading of the wave spectrum. The procedure is a two-step process which uses an estimation of the orbital vertical velocities that produce the observed image intensity. The first step is implemented when wiggly lines are present. Wiggly lines are created by the presence of two swell systems and are removed by estimating the wave orbital velocity that causes the amplitude in the wiggly line. The second step uses Fourier analysis to invert the straightened image into a velocity field. As a result we obtain a full non-linear inversion the mapping from the velocity field to the SAR intensity image. The inverted velocities can be used to obtain the wavenumber-direction spectrum. Our algorithm is applied to S1A images from the Arctic and Antarctic and discussions follow in terms of wave-ice interaction. These data will be validated using in situ measurements from the ONR Sea State DRI (Beaufort sea, 2016), and combined with numerical modeling using the WAVEWATCH III model to adjust parameterization

  17. Inter-annual sea-ice dynamics and micro-algal biomass in winter pack ice of Marguerite Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsen, Christian H.; Memmott, Jeramie; Stewart, Frank J.

    2008-09-01

    The geographic remoteness, the lack of remote sensing capabilities, and the lack of appropriate environmental sensors make the detection of seasonal trends or inter-annual variations in sea-ice microbial biomass or production processes within the pack ice of the Antarctic extremely rare. The evaluation of their inter-annual variability in the context of ice dynamics and trends in regional climate has not been possible. During the late winters of 2001 (July-August) and 2002 (August-September) we assessed sea-ice dynamics, sea-ice characteristics, and biomass of sea-ice microbiota along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. These two winters were marked by large contrasts in the dates of initial ice formation (late June in 2001 and April in 2002), which resulted in differences in the physical pack-ice characteristics. Chlorophyll a (chl a) content in ice cores differed between the study years, with 2002 having 10-fold higher chl a content. The difference in ice-core chl a content is best explained by the timing of ice formation that leads to less phytoplankton scavenging from the water column and a lack of transfer of solar energy into the pack-ice ecosystem. Such a tractable atmosphere ocean-ice-biota coupling may help in evaluating underlying processes responsible for long-term trends in recruitment cycles of upper trophic levels as well as future projections on the response of the Antarctic marine ecosystems to variability in local climate.

  18. Arctic cyclone water vapor isotopes support past sea ice retreat recorded in Greenland ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric S; Cherry, J E; Young, J; Noone, D; Leffler, A J; Welker, J M

    2015-05-29

    Rapid Arctic warming is associated with important water cycle changes: sea ice loss, increasing atmospheric humidity, permafrost thaw, and water-induced ecosystem changes. Understanding these complex modern processes is critical to interpreting past hydrologic changes preserved in paleoclimate records and predicting future Arctic changes. Cyclones are a prevalent Arctic feature and water vapor isotope ratios during these events provide insights into modern hydrologic processes that help explain past changes to the Arctic water cycle. Here we present continuous measurements of water vapor isotope ratios (δ(18)O, δ(2)H, d-excess) in Arctic Alaska from a 2013 cyclone. This cyclone resulted in a sharp d-excess decrease and disproportional δ(18)O enrichment, indicative of a higher humidity open Arctic Ocean water vapor source. Past transitions to warmer climates inferred from Greenland ice core records also reveal sharp decreases in d-excess, hypothesized to represent reduced sea ice extent and an increase in oceanic moisture source to Greenland Ice Sheet precipitation. Thus, measurements of water vapor isotope ratios during an Arctic cyclone provide a critical processed-based explanation, and the first direct confirmation, of relationships previously assumed to govern water isotope ratios during sea ice retreat and increased input of northern ocean moisture into the Arctic water cycle.

  19. Laboratory study of initial sea-ice growth: properties of grease ice and nilas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Naumann

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate initial sea-ice growth in an ice-tank study by freezing an NaCl solution of about 29 g kg−1 in three different setups: grease ice grew in experiments with waves and in experiments with a current and wind, while nilas formed in a quiescent experimental setup. In this paper we focus on the differences in bulk salinity, solid fraction and thickness between these two ice types.

    The bulk salinity of the grease-ice layer in our experiments remained almost constant until the ice began to consolidate. In contrast, the initial bulk-salinity evolution of the nilas is well described by a linear decrease of about 2.1 g kg−1 h−1 independent of air temperature. This rapid decrease can be qualitatively understood by considering a Rayleigh number that became maximum while the nilas was still less than 1 cm thick.

    Comparing three different methods to measure solid fraction in grease ice based on (a salt conservation, (b mass conservation and (c energy conservation, we find that the method based on salt conservation does not give reliable results if the salinity of the interstitial water is approximated as being equal to the salinity of the underlying water. Instead the increase in salinity of the interstitial water during grease-ice formation must be taken into account. In our experiments, the solid fraction of grease ice was relatively constant with values of 0.25, whereas it increased to values as high as 0.50 as soon as the grease ice consolidated at its surface. In contrast, the solid fraction of the nilas increased continuously in the first hours of ice formation and reached an average value of 0.55 after 4.5 h.

    The spatially averaged ice thickness was twice as large in the first 24 h of ice formation in the setup with a current and wind compared to the other two setups, since the wind kept parts of the water surface ice free and therefore allowed for a higher heat loss from

  20. Arctic sea ice loss - two distinct spatial and seasonal patterns related to the ocean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Ingrid; Eldevik, Tor; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Stroeve, Julienne

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased dramatically in recent decades. Typically focus has been on September when decreasing trends are largest and sea ice extent is at the minimum. However, decreasing sea ice trends are now significant for all months. By examining satellite observations of sea ice concentration since 1979 and an observational-based reconstruction of sea ice extent since 1850, we assess ongoing and past change in regional sea ice variability throughout the year. We find two distinct spatial and seasonal patterns of Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability throughout the observational record: summer variability and change inside the Arctic Ocean, and winter variability and change in the seas further south. In regions with largest summer variability, the recent ice loss is typically larger in spring than fall. The enhanced ice retreat in spring appears accelerated by the ice albedo feedback, while rapid fall freeze-up may be due to the strong salinity stratification. The winter variability in the seas further south, being less stratified and more affected by convection, have larger trends in fall than spring, indicating delayed and reduced ice formation in fall. These two patterns of Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability thus appear largely affected by the ocean state.

  1. Polar Stereographic Valid Ice Masks Derived from National Ice Center Monthly Sea Ice Climatologies, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These valid ice masks provide a way to remove spurious ice caused by residual weather effects and land spillover in passive microwave data. They are derived from the...

  2. An Interdecadal Increase in the Spring Bering Sea Ice Cover in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renguang eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sea ice coverage of the Northern Hemisphere as a whole has been declining since 1979. On contrary, the March-April sea ice concentration in the Bering Sea experienced a prominent increase in year 2007. The present study documents the changes in surface air temperature, surface heat fluxes, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric circulation accompanying the above interdecadal change in the Bering Sea ice concentration. It is shown that an obvious decrease in surface air temperature, sea surface temperature, and surface net shortwave radiation occurred in concurrent with the sea ice increase. The surface air temperature decrease is associated with a large-scale circulation change, featuring a decrease in sea level pressure extending from the Pacific coast of Alaska to northwestern Europe and an increase in sea level pressure over the high-latitude Asia and the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean. The enhancement of northwesterly winds over the Bering Sea led to a large decrease in surface air temperature there. The associated increase in upward turbulent heat flux cooled the sea surface temperature in the waters south of the ice covered region, favoring the southward expansion of ice extent. This, together with a positive ice-albedo feedback, amplified the sea ice anomalies after they were initiated, leading to the interdecadal increase in sea ice in the Bering Sea.

  3. Turbulence and heat flux observations in the Arctic north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Fer, Ilker; Smedsrud, Lars Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Heat fluxes and mixing between the ocean and the sea ice in the Arctic is fundamental to understanding the new first year sea ice regime and consequences for regional and global ocean circulation. Here we present observations collected between January and June 2015 during the Norwegian Young sea Ice (N-ICE2015) campaign in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. In January 2015, the Norwegian research vessel Lance was frozen into the ice at 83o.3N 21.5oE. Oceanographic, atmospheric, sea ice, snow and biological data were collected above, on, and below the ice using R/V Lance as the base for the ice camp that was drifting south towards the Fram Strait. Over the following six months, four different drifts took place in the same area, from the Nansen Basin, through the Marginal Ice Zone, to the open ocean. Throughout the drifts, the oceanography team collected turbulence measurements to estimate mixing, heat, salt, and momentum fluxes in the ice-ocean boundary layer and between the sub-surface warm Atlantic Water layer and the ice-ocean boundary layer close to freezing point. Water tracer data was collected to map water mass properties, and the distribution of the Atlantic Water inflow. Here we present 600 under-ice microstructure profiles spanning five months, from the deep Nansen Basin to the Yermak Plateau. During this period, several large atmospheric storms took place, forcing a fast drift of the ice camp. Tides were weak in the Nansen Basin and strong on the Yermak Plateau. We investigate vertical heat fluxes between the Atlantic Water layer and the surface mixed layer. Variations in mixing and heat fluxes are interpreted in terms of atmospheric forcing and regional topography.

  4. Morphology of sea ice pressure ridges in the northwestern Weddell Sea in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Li, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Peng; Haas, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the morphology and distribution of pressure ridges in the northwestern Weddell Sea, ice surface elevation profiles were measured by a helicopter-borne laser altimeter during Winter Weddell Outflow Study with the German R/V Polarstern in 2006. An optimal cutoff height of 0.62 m, derived from the best fits between the measured and theoretical ridge height and spacing distributions, was first used to separate pressure ridges from other sea ice surface undulations. It was found that the measured ridge height distribution was well modeled by a negative exponential function, and the ridge spacing distribution by a lognormal function. Next, based on the ridging intensity Ri (the ratio of mean ridge sail height to mean spacing), all profiles were clustered into three regimes by an improved k-means clustering algorithm: Ri ≤ 0.01, 0.01 0.026 (denoted as C1, C2, and C3 respectively). Mean (and standard deviation) of sail height was 0.99 (±0.07) m in Regime C1, 1.12 (±0.06) m in C2, and 1.17 (±0.04) m in C3, respectively, while the mean spacings (and standard deviations) were 232 (±240) m, 54 (±20) m, and 31 (±5.6) m. These three ice regimes coincided closely with distinct sea ice regions identified in a satellite radar image, where C1 corresponded to the broken ice in the marginal ice zone and level ice formed in the Larsen Polynya, C2 corresponded to the deformed first- and second-year ice formed by dynamic action in the center of the study region, and C3 corresponded to heavily deformed ice in the outflowing branch of the Weddell Gyre. The results of our analysis showed that the relationship between the mean ridge height and frequency was well modeled by a logarithmic function with a correlation coefficient of 0.8, although such correlation was weaker when considering each regime individually. The measured ridge height and frequency were both greater than those reported by others for the Ross Sea. Compared with reported values for other parts of the

  5. Modeling photosynthesis in sea ice-covered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Matthew C.; Lindsay, Keith; Holland, Marika M.

    2015-09-01

    The lower trophic levels of marine ecosystems play a critical role in the Earth System mediating fluxes of carbon to the ocean interior. Many of the functional relationships describing biological rate processes, such as primary productivity, in marine ecosystem models are nonlinear functions of environmental state variables. As a result of nonlinearity, rate processes computed from mean fields at coarse resolution will differ from similar computations that incorporate small-scale heterogeneity. Here we examine how subgrid-scale variability in sea ice thickness impacts simulated net primary productivity (NPP) in a 1°×1° configuration of the Community Earth System Model (CESM). CESM simulates a subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution and computes shortwave penetration independently for each ice thickness category. However, the default model formulation uses grid-cell mean irradiance to compute NPP. We demonstrate that accounting for subgrid-scale shortwave heterogeneity by computing light limitation terms under each ice category then averaging the result is a more accurate invocation of the photosynthesis equations. Moreover, this change delays seasonal bloom onset and increases interannual variability in NPP in the sea ice zone in the model. The new treatment reduces annual production by about 32% in the Arctic and 19% in the Antarctic. Our results highlight the importance of considering heterogeneity in physical fields when integrating nonlinear biogeochemical reactions.

  6. Periodic fluctuations in deep water formation due to sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, R.

    2012-12-01

    During the last ice age, several abrupt warming events took place, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Their effects were felt globally, although the North Atlantic experienced the largest temperature increase. The leading hypothesis to explain their occurrence postulates that the warming was caused by abrupt disruptions of the North Atlantic Current due to meltwater discharge from destabilized ice sheets (Heinrich events). However, the number of warming events outnumber the those of ice-sheet collapse. Thus, the majority of D-O events are not attributed to surface freshwater anomalies, and the underlying mechanism behind their occurrence remain unexplained. Using a simple dynamical model of sea ice and an overturning circulation, I show the existence of self-sustained relaxation oscillations in the overturning circulation. The insulating effect of sea ice is shown to paradoxically lead to a net loss of heat from the top layer of the polar ocean when sea ice retreats. Repeated heat loss results in a denser top layer and a destabilized water column, which triggers convection. The convective state pulls the system out of its preferred mode of circulation, setting up relaxation oscillations. The period of oscillations in this case is linked to the geometry of the ocean basin, if solar forcing is assumed to remain constant. If appropriate glacial freshwater forcing is applied to the model, a pattern of oscillation is produced that bears remarkable similarity to the observed fluctuations in North Atlantic climate between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present.; Comparison of NGRIP δ 18-O (proxy for near surface air temperature) between 50,000 and 30,000 years before present, showing Bond cycles (left) with the model output when forced with appropriate glacial freshwater forcing (right).

  7. Climate change impacts on wildlife in a High Arctic archipelago - Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Sébastien; Aars, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian; Pavlova, Olga; Pedersen, Åshild Ø; Ravolainen, Virve; Strøm, Hallvard

    2017-02-01

    The Arctic is warming more rapidly than other region on the planet, and the northern Barents Sea, including the Svalbard Archipelago, is experiencing the fastest temperature increases within the circumpolar Arctic, along with the highest rate of sea ice loss. These physical changes are affecting a broad array of resident Arctic organisms as well as some migrants that occupy the region seasonally. Herein, evidence of climate change impacts on terrestrial and marine wildlife in Svalbard is reviewed, with a focus on bird and mammal species. In the terrestrial ecosystem, increased winter air temperatures and concomitant increases in the frequency of 'rain-on-snow' events are one of the most important facets of climate change with respect to impacts on flora and fauna. Winter rain creates ice that blocks access to food for herbivores and synchronizes the population dynamics of the herbivore-predator guild. In the marine ecosystem, increases in sea temperature and reductions in sea ice are influencing the entire food web. These changes are affecting the foraging and breeding ecology of most marine birds and mammals and are associated with an increase in abundance of several temperate fish, seabird and marine mammal species. Our review indicates that even though a few species are benefiting from a warming climate, most Arctic endemic species in Svalbard are experiencing negative consequences induced by the warming environment. Our review emphasizes the tight relationships between the marine and terrestrial ecosystems in this High Arctic archipelago. Detecting changes in trophic relationships within and between these ecosystems requires long-term (multidecadal) demographic, population- and ecosystem-based monitoring, the results of which are necessary to set appropriate conservation priorities in relation to climate warming. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The impact of snow depth, snow density and ice density on sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2015-01-01

    We assess different methods and input parameters, namely snow depth, snow density and ice density, used in freeboard-to-thickness conversion of Arctic sea ice. This conversion is an important part of sea ice thickness retrieval from spaceborne altimetry. A data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and co-locate observations of total (sea ice + snow) and sea ice freeboard from the Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) airborne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine upward looking sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Warren climatology (Warren et al., 1999). We compare the different data sets in spatiotemporal scales where satellite radar altimetry yields meaningful results. An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets emphasizes the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. We test different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft derived from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the approaches are able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests that sea ice density is as important as snow depth.

  9. Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles: interactions between ocean and sea ice intrinsic to the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisancioglu, K. H.; Dokken, T. M.; Li, C.; Battisti, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles are the most dramatic, frequent, and wide reaching abrupt climate changes in the geologic record. On Greenland, D-O cycles are characterized by an abrupt warming of 10×5°C from a cold stadial to a warm interstadial phase, followed by gradual cooling before a rapid return to stadial conditions. The mechanisms responsible for these millennial cycles are not fully understood, but are widely thought to involve abrupt changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) due to freshwater perturbations. Here we present a new, high resolution multi-proxy marine sediment core monitoring changes in the warm Atlantic inflow to the Nordic Seas as well as in local sea ice cover and influx of ice rafted debris (IRD). In contrast to previous studies, the freshwater input is found to be coincident with warm interstadials on Greenland and has a Fennoscandian rather than Laurentide source. Furthermore, the data suggest a different thermohaline structure for the Nordic Seas during cold stadials in which relatively warm Atlantic water circulates beneath a fresh surface layer and the presence of sea ice is inferred from benthic oxygen isotopes. This implies a delicate balance between the warm sub-surface Atlantic water and fresh surface layer, with the possibility of abrupt changes in sea ice cover, and suggests a novel mechanism for the abrupt D-O events observed in Greenland ice cores.

  10. Propagation and Directional Scattering of Ocean Waves in the Marginal Ice Zone and Neighboring Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    the Marginal Ice Zone and Neighboring Seas William Perrie Bedford Institute of Oceanography 1 Challenger Dr. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 4A2...the spatial and temporal variability of sea state, and improve forecasting of waves on the open ocean and in the marginal ice zone; 2. Develop an...the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, of relevance to oil and gas exploitation. This project also involves wave-ice interactions in the marginal ice zone, MIZ

  11. Graph-Based Method for Multitemporal Segmentation of Sea Ice Floes from Satellite Data

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Claudio; Tarabalka, Yuliya; Brucker, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Automated segmentation of the sea ice evolution would allow scientists studying climate change to build accurate models of the sea ice meltdown process, which is a sensitive climate indicator. In this paper, we propose a novel approach which uses shape analysis and graph-based optimization for segmentation of a multiyear ice floe from time series of satellite images. Differently of the state-of-the-art sea ice segmentation techniques, the new method does not rely on th...

  12. Polar bear population dynamics in the southern Beaufort Sea during a period of sea ice decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F; Mcdonald, Trent L; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Richardson, Evan S; Regehr, Eric V; Douglas, David C; Durner, George M; Atwood, Todd; Amstrup, Steven C

    2015-04-01

    In the southern Beaufort Sea of the United States and Canada, prior investigations have linked declines in summer sea ice to reduced physical condition, growth, and survival of polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Combined with projections of population decline due to continued climate warming and the ensuing loss of sea ice habitat, those findings contributed to the 2008 decision to list the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Here, we used mark-recapture models to investigate the population dynamics of polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea from 2001 to 2010, years during which the spatial and temporal extent of summer sea ice generally declined. Low survival from 2004 through 2006 led to a 25-50% decline in abundance. We hypothesize that low survival during this period resulted from (1) unfavorable ice conditions that limited access to prey during multiple seasons; and possibly, (2) low prey abundance. For reasons that are not clear, survival of adults and cubs began to improve in 2007 and abundance was comparatively stable from 2008 to 2010, with ~900 bears in 2010 (90% CI 606-1212). However, survival of subadult bears declined throughout the entire period. Reduced spatial and temporal availability of sea ice is expected to increasingly force population dynamics of polar bears as the climate continues to warm. However, in the short term, our findings suggest that factors other than sea ice can influence survival. A refined understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying polar bear population dynamics is necessary to improve projections of their future status and facilitate development of management strategies.

  13. Winter to summer oceanographic observations in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Sundfjord, Arild; Fer, Ilker; Provost, Christine; Villacieros Robineau, Nicolas; Koenig, Zoe; Onarheim, Ingrid H.; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Duarte, Pedro; Dodd, Paul A.; Graham, Robert M.; Schmidtko, Sunke; Kauko, Hanna M.

    2017-08-01

    Oceanographic observations from the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard collected between January and June 2015 from the N-ICE2015 drifting expedition are presented. The unique winter observations are a key contribution to existing climatologies of the Arctic Ocean, and show a ˜100 m deep winter mixed layer likely due to high sea ice growth rates in local leads. Current observations for the upper ˜200 m show mostly a barotropic flow, enhanced over the shallow Yermak Plateau. The two branches of inflowing Atlantic Water are partly captured, confirming that the outer Yermak Branch follows the perimeter of the plateau, and the inner Svalbard Branch the coast. Atlantic Water observed to be warmer and shallower than in the climatology, is found directly below the mixed layer down to 800 m depth, and is warmest along the slope, while its properties inside the basin are quite homogeneous. From late May onwards, the drift was continually close to the ice edge and a thinner surface mixed layer and shallower Atlantic Water coincided with significant sea ice melt being observed.

  14. Investigating the local-scale influence of sea ice on Greenland surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Stroeve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover in the 21st century may have wide-reaching effects on the Arctic climate system, including the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Here, we investigate whether local changes in sea ice around the Greenland ice sheet have had an impact on Greenland surface melt. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between sea ice concentration, the timing of melt onset and open-water fraction surrounding Greenland with ice sheet surface melt using a combination of remote sensing observations, and outputs from a reanalysis model and a regional climate model for the period of 1979–2015. Statistical analysis points to covariability between Greenland ice sheet surface melt and sea ice within Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. While some of this covariance can be explained by simultaneous influence of atmospheric circulation anomalies on both the sea ice cover and Greenland melt, within Baffin Bay we find a modest correlation between detrended melt onset over sea ice and the adjacent ice sheet melt onset. This correlation appears to be related to increased transfer of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in early sea ice melt years, increasing temperatures and humidity over the ice sheet that in turn initiate ice sheet melt.

  15. Investigating the local-scale influence of sea ice on Greenland surface melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Mioduszewski, John R.; Rennermalm, Asa; Boisvert, Linette N.; Tedesco, Marco; Robinson, David

    2017-10-01

    Rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover in the 21st century may have wide-reaching effects on the Arctic climate system, including the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Here, we investigate whether local changes in sea ice around the Greenland ice sheet have had an impact on Greenland surface melt. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between sea ice concentration, the timing of melt onset and open-water fraction surrounding Greenland with ice sheet surface melt using a combination of remote sensing observations, and outputs from a reanalysis model and a regional climate model for the period of 1979-2015. Statistical analysis points to covariability between Greenland ice sheet surface melt and sea ice within Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. While some of this covariance can be explained by simultaneous influence of atmospheric circulation anomalies on both the sea ice cover and Greenland melt, within Baffin Bay we find a modest correlation between detrended melt onset over sea ice and the adjacent ice sheet melt onset. This correlation appears to be related to increased transfer of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in early sea ice melt years, increasing temperatures and humidity over the ice sheet that in turn initiate ice sheet melt.

  16. Antarctic summer sea ice concentration and extent: comparison of ODEN 2006 ship observations, satellite passive microwave and NIC sea ice charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy-Cicek, B.; Xie, H.; Ackley, S. F.; Ye, K.

    2009-02-01

    Antarctic sea ice cover has shown a slight increase (NIC) ice edge and the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System) ice extent are examined, while the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea Ice Process and Climate) ship observations from the Oden expedition in December 2006 are used as ground truth to verify the two products during Antarctic summer. While there is a general linear trend between ASPeCt and AMSR-E ice concentration estimates, there is poor correlation (R2=0.41) and AMSR-E tends to underestimate the low ice concentrations. We also found that the NIC sea ice edge agrees well with ship observations, while the AMSR-E shows the ice edge further south, consistent with its poorer detection of low ice concentrations. The northward extent of the ice edge at the time of observation (NIC) had mean values varying from 38 km to 102 km greater on different days for the area as compared with the AMSR-E sea ice extent. For the circumpolar area as a whole in the December period examined, AMSR-E therefore may underestimate the area inside the ice edge at this time by up to 14% or, 1.5 million km2 less area, compared to the NIC ice charts. Preliminary comparison of satellite scatterometer data however, suggests better resolution of low concentrations than passive microwave, and therefore better agreement with ship observations and NIC charts of the area inside the ice edge during Antarctic summer. A reanalysis data set for Antarctic sea ice extent that relies on the decade long scatterometer and high resolution satellite data set, instead of passive microwave, may therefore give better fidelity for the recent sea ice climatology.

  17. Pleistocene iceberg dynamics on the west Svalbard margin: Evidence from bathymetric and sub-bottom profiler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Minshull, Timothy A.; Crocker, Anya J.; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Wu, Shiguo; Soryal, Simon M.

    2017-04-01

    Large icebergs leave evidence of their drift via ploughing of the seabed, thereby providing a geological record of episodes of calving from thick ice sheets. We interpret large-scale curvilinear depressions on the western Svalbard margin as ploughmarks produced by the keels of icebergs that grounded on the seafloor as they drifted through this area. Iceberg ploughmarks were identified at modern water depths between 300 m and 1000 m and in two distinct stratigraphic units. Combining data from sediment cores with seismic stratigraphy from sub-bottom profiler data suggests that the ploughmarks developed in two phases: (1) during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6; and (2) during MIS 2, indicating the presence of large drifting icebergs on the western Svalbard margin during both the Late Saalian and Late Weichselian glaciations. Sediment-core data along the western Svalbard margin indicate a sharp increase in mass-transported sediments dated at 23.7 ± 0.2 ka, consistent with the MIS 2 age of the younger iceberg-ploughed surface. The ploughmarks are oriented in two main directions: SW-NE and S-N. S-N oriented ploughmarks, which shallow to the north, indicate iceberg drift from the south with a SW-NE component marking the zone of splitting of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) into the Yermak Slope Current (YSC) and North Spitsbergen Current (NSC). Large MIS 6 and MIS 2 icebergs most likely had an Arctic Ocean source. We suggest that these icebergs probably left the Arctic Ocean southward through Fram Strait and circulated within the Norwegian-Greenland Sea before being transported northwards along the Svalbard margin by the WSC. An additional likely source of icebergs to the western Svalbard margin during MIS 2 was the ice-sheet terminating in the western Barents Sea, from which icebergs drifted northward.

  18. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongsuk Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily and monthly sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole even during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA.

  19. Eastern-Western Arctic Sea Ice Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    3 .. 2 -~e, 8 6 8.’ PZ - 68, II 4-6 7-8O"W .2 010 -A 1-11 4-ŕ 󈧕 7 .1 1 -- ’ 5-7,* o / AA SO TH R IC L,’l % Dae- -. A /ST 1 L NAY5WA JON IC CETE ... CETE -INI /NN ICE IC CENER IGO ENTR METLN -T 175E/ IS /WIO 6W NW 15W1 4W10 n 5E70E15 0 50E 40E 30E 20E1 0IE 0 low 20W low 40# 0W 80E 85E 920E 925E 130ULM

  20. Ensemble sea ice forecast for predicting compressive situations in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtiranta, Jonni; Lensu, Mikko; Kokkonen, Iiro; Haapala, Jari

    2017-04-01

    Forecasting of sea ice hazards is important for winter shipping in the Baltic Sea. In current numerical models the ice thickness distribution and drift are captured well, but compressive situations are often missing from forecast products. Its inclusion is requested by the shipping community, as compression poses a threat to ship operations. As compressing ice is capable of stopping ships for days and even damaging them, its inclusion in ice forecasts is vital. However, we have found that compression can not be predicted well in a deterministic forecast, since it can be a local and a quickly changing phenomenon. It is also very sensitive to small changes in the wind speed and direction, the prevailing ice conditions, and the model parameters. Thus, a probabilistic ensemble simulation is needed to produce a meaningful compression forecast. An ensemble model setup was developed in the SafeWIN project for this purpose. It uses the HELMI multicategory ice model, which was amended for making simulations in parallel. The ensemble was built by perturbing the atmospheric forcing and the physical parameters of the ice pack. The model setup will provide probabilistic forecasts for the compression in the Baltic sea ice. Additionally the model setup provides insight into the uncertainties related to different model parameters and their impact on the model results. We have completed several hindcast simulations for the Baltic Sea for verification purposes. These results are shown to match compression reports gathered from ships. In addition, an ensemble forecast is in preoperational testing phase and its first evaluation will be presented in this work.

  1. On retrieving sea ice freeboard from ICESat laser altimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khvorostovsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice freeboard derived from satellite altimetry is the basis for the estimation of sea ice thickness using the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium. High accuracy of altimeter measurements and freeboard retrieval procedure are, therefore, required. As of today, two approaches for estimating the freeboard using laser altimeter measurements from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat, referred to as tie points (TP and lowest-level elevation (LLE methods, have been developed and applied in different studies. We reproduced these methods for the ICESat observation periods (2003–2008 in order to assess and analyse the sources of differences found in the retrieved freeboard and corresponding thickness estimates of the Arctic sea ice as produced by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC. Three main factors are found to affect the freeboard differences when applying these methods: (a the approach used for calculation of the local sea surface references in leads (TP or LLE methods, (b the along-track averaging scales used for this calculation, and (c the corrections for lead width relative to the ICESat footprint and for snow depth accumulated in refrozen leads. The LLE method with 100 km averaging scale, as used to produce the GSFC data set, and the LLE method with a shorter averaging scale of 25 km both give larger freeboard estimates comparing to those derived by applying the TP method with 25 km averaging scale as used for the JPL product. Two factors, (a and (b, contribute to the freeboard differences in approximately equal proportions, and their combined effect is, on average, about 6–7 cm. The effect of using different methods varies spatially: the LLE method tends to give lower freeboards (by up to 15 cm over the thick multiyear ice and higher freeboards (by up to 10 cm over first-year ice and the thin part of multiyear ice; the higher freeboards dominate. We show that the

  2. Arctic sea ice concentration observed with SMOS during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Martinez, Justino; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is under profound transformation. Observations and model predictions show dramatic decline in sea ice extent and volume [1]. A retreating Arctic ice cover has a marked impact on regional and global climate, and vice versa, through a large number of feedback mechanisms and interactions with the climate system [2]. The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, in 2009, marked the dawn of a new type of space-based microwave observations. Although the mission was originally conceived for hydrological and oceanographic studies [3,4], SMOS is also making inroads in the cryospheric sciences by measuring the thin ice thickness [5,6]. SMOS carries an L-band (1.4 GHz), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution, continuous multi-angle viewing, large wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but more frequently at the poles. A novel radiometric method to determine sea ice concentration (SIC) from SMOS is presented. The method uses the Bayesian-based Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) approach to retrieve SIC. The advantage of this approach with respect to the classical linear inversion is that the former takes into account the uncertainty of the tie-point measured data in addition to the mean value, while the latter only uses a mean value of the tie-point data. When thin ice is present, the SMOS algorithm underestimates the SIC due to the low opacity of the ice at this frequency. However, using a synergistic approach with data from other satellite sensors, it is possible to obtain accurate thin ice thickness estimations with the Bayesian-based method. Despite its lower spatial resolution relative to SSMI or AMSR-E, SMOS-derived SIC products are little affected by the atmosphere and the snow (almost transparent at L-band). Moreover L-band measurements are more robust in front of the

  3. Functionality of Sea Ice Data Sources on the NSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of available official sources of sea ice data for the Northern Sea Route to date is low. In recent years a large number of new publicly available sources have appeared. Their functionality for purposes of route planning has yet to be evaluated. This study presents results of qualitative and expert analyses of various sources. It is proposed to use new indicators to enable comparison of functionality of data sources. New sources provide the technical progress that is instrumental in reducing the amount of effort and influence of the human factor in the decision-making system. The study also presents solutions to the problem of limited bandwidth available at high latitudes with Iridium satellite system. Presented solutions can be used on any vessel by any company or navigator to implement or design the decision support system related to route planning in ice in accordance with the requirements of the ISM Code and concept of e-Navigation.

  4. SIMULATION OF THE Ku-BAND RADAR ALTIMETER SEA ICE EFFECTIVE SCATTERING SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonboe, Rasmus; Andersen, Søren; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2006-01-01

    A radiative transfer model is used to simulate the sea ice radar altimeter effective scattering surface variability as a function of snow depth and density. Under dry snow conditions without layering these are the primary snow parameters affecting the scattering surface variability. The model...... is initialised with in situ data collected during the May 2004 GreenIce ice camp in the Lincoln Sea (73ºW; 85ºN). Our results show that the snow cover is important for the effective scattering surface depth in sea ice and thus for the range measurement, ice freeboard and ice thickness estimation....

  5. Variability in sea ice cover and climate elicit sex specific responses in an Antarctic predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Sara; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Fraser, Alexander D; Massom, Rob A; Reid, Phillip; Hobbs, William; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, Robert; McMahon, Clive; Authier, Matthieu; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark A; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2017-02-24

    Contrasting regional changes in Southern Ocean sea ice have occurred over the last 30 years with distinct regional effects on ecosystem structure and function. Quantifying how Antarctic predators respond to such changes provides the context for predicting how climate variability/change will affect these assemblages into the future. Over an 11-year time-series, we examine how inter-annual variability in sea ice concentration and advance affect the foraging behaviour of a top Antarctic predator, the southern elephant seal. Females foraged longer in pack ice in years with greatest sea ice concentration and earliest sea ice advance, while males foraged longer in polynyas in years of lowest sea ice concentration. There was a positive relationship between near-surface meridional wind anomalies and female foraging effort, but not for males. This study reveals the complexities of foraging responses to climate forcing by a poleward migratory predator through varying sea ice property and dynamic anomalies.

  6. Hydrocarbon biodegradation by Arctic sea-ice and sub-ice microbial communities during microcosm experiments, Northwest Passage (Nunavut, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Marie-Ève; Michel, Christine; Meisterhans, Guillaume; Fortin, Nathalie; King, Thomas L; Greer, Charles W; Lee, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The increasing accessibility to navigation and offshore oil exploration brings risks of hydrocarbon releases in Arctic waters. Bioremediation of hydrocarbons is a promising mitigation strategy but challenges remain, particularly due to low microbial metabolic rates in cold, ice-covered seas. Hydrocarbon degradation potential of ice-associated microbes collected from the Northwest Passage was investigated. Microcosm incubations were run for 15 days at -1.7°C with and without oil to determine the effects of hydrocarbon exposure on microbial abundance, diversity and activity, and to estimate component-specific hydrocarbon loss. Diversity was assessed with automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial activity was measured by (3)H-leucine uptake rates. After incubation, sub-ice and sea-ice communities degraded 94% and 48% of the initial hydrocarbons, respectively. Hydrocarbon exposure changed the composition of sea-ice and sub-ice communities; in sea-ice microcosms, Bacteroidetes (mainly Polaribacter) dominated whereas in sub-ice microcosms, the contribution of Epsilonproteobacteria increased, and that of Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. Sequencing data revealed a decline in diversity and increases in Colwellia and Moritella in oil-treated microcosms. Low concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sub-ice seawater may explain higher hydrocarbon degradation when compared to sea ice, where DOM was abundant and composed of labile exopolysaccharides. © Fisheries and Oceans Canada [2016].

  7. Understanding the Importance of Oceanic Forcing on Sea Ice Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    discovered and only 5% of the Arctic Ocean being well surveyed (RADM D. Titley, USN, personal communication). It is likely that the Navy will be...increased SATs cause increased melting of sea ice, which in turn increases thermohaline stratification and suppresses convective overturning, thereby...regions form part of the global thermohaline circulation and are transported around the world via the ‘Great Ocean Conveyor’ (Broecker 1992). Two

  8. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions in the MIZ: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    melt) and a dynamic ice loss (advection of sea ice out of the Arctic through Fram Strait). Idealized model experiments (Chevallier et al. in prep...contact with sea ice before diving to the depth level at which it achieves dynamic equilibrium; in the latter case, the Atlantic heat enters the Fram

  9. Sea-ice thickness from airborne laser altimetry over the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    We present a new method to measure ice thickness of polar sea-ice freeboard heights, using airborne laser altimetry combined with a precise geoid model, giving estimates of thickness of ice through isostatic equilibrium assumptions. In the paper we analyze a number of flights from the Polar Sea off...

  10. MASAM2: Daily 4 km Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MASIE-AMSR2 (MASAM2) daily 4 km sea ice concentration is a prototype concentration product that is a blend of two other daily sea ice data products: ice coverage...

  11. Variability of the fauna within drifting sea ice floes in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern Ocean during the austral summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Motoha; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Iida, Takahiro; Moteki, Masato; Miyazaki, Naho; Tanimura, Atsushi; Odate, Tsuneo

    2017-06-01

    Sea ice covering the seasonal ice zone in the Southern Ocean contains micro-organisms (sea ice biota). Studies of sea ice biota have mostly been conducted on the land-fast ice and large ice floes, despite most sea ice in the Southern Ocean being seasonal and drifting ice types. We sampled 17 drifting sea ice floes in the marginal ice zone off Adélie Land, East Antarctica, in January 2013 and 2014. We found high densities of copepods such as Harpacticoida species (18,787 ± 50,647 inds.m-3), Paralabidocera antarctica (1773 ± 6370) and their nauplii (69,943 ± 149,607), as well as foraminiferans (193,869 ± 408,721) within ice. Variability in the animal assemblages among the different ice floes was observed. Cluster analysis of samples based on the assemblage of sea ice fauna revealed two major groups, which were divided by the year of the sampling, and were dominated by harpacticoid nauplii and foraminiferans, respectively. Sea ice trajectory and drifting duration estimated from satellite data were different for both years, although the origin of the sea ice was in the same bay. This study suggests that the variability of fauna among sea ice floes may reflect the continuance period of ice formation and the trajectory from where they originated.

  12. Role of sea ice and hemispheric circulation mode on sulphur oxidised compounds (Methanesulfonate and Sulfate) in the Artic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becagli, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Dayan, Uri; Di Biagio, Claudia; di Sarra, Alcide; Frosini, Daniele; Mazzola, Mauro; Rugi, Francesco; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Vitale, Vito; Udisti, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The recent decline in sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is expected to affect the regional radiation budget and to influence the ocean-atmosphere exchange of dimethylsulfide (DMS), thus the amount of biogenic aerosols formed from its atmospheric oxidation, such as methanesulfonate (MS-) and non-sea salt sulphate (nssSO42-). This study examines the temporal evolution of atmospheric MS- and nssSO42-, as measured in atmospheric aerosols, at Ny-Ålesund, (78.9°N, 11.9°E, Svalbard islands) and Thule (76.5°N, 68.8°W, Greenland) during three years (2010-12). Aerosol sampling was carried out using a PM10 sampler with Teflon filters, and a 12-stage impactor (SDI, Small Deposit-area Impactor) with polycarbonate filters. Analyses were performed by ion chromatography, for ion composition, and ICP-SFMS, for selected metals; both techniques are sufficiently sensitive, accurate, and reproducible to be applied to very low atmospheric load of aerosol particles, typical of remote polar regions. The evolution of MS- and nssSO4 concentrations was analysed as a function of speciation (as acidic species or ammonium salt), size distribution, and airmass pathways. This study reveals that nssSO4 is meanly associated with long range transport from anthropic sources, and presents a relative maximum in spring. Conversely, MS- arises from natural local sources and shows a peak in mid-summer. A large interannual variability is observed in MS- concentration with values in spring-summer 2010 in both the stations higher than in the other summers. In the previous winter a larger sea ice extent and larger sea ice melting surface in the following spring were observed. Arrigo et al. (2008) have observed a 22% increase in the annual primary productivity, that has been attributed to a longer phytoplankton growing season connected with the progressive decline in sea ice coverage in the Arctic over the past decade. Modeling results (Gabric et al., 2005) suggest that an increase in DMS production would

  13. Deglacial to Holocene history of ice-sheet retreat and bottom current strength on the western Barents Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, Hendrik; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Horry, Jan; Grave, Marina; Rebesco, Michele; Schwenk, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution sediment echosounder data combined with radiocarbon-dated sediment cores allowed us to reconstruct the Late Quaternary stratigraphic architecture of the Kveithola Trough and surrounding Spitsbergenbanken. The deposits display the successive deglacial retreat of the Svalbard-Barents Sea Ice Sheet. Basal subglacial till indicates that the grounded ice sheet covered both bank and trough during the Late Weichselian. A glaciomarine blanket inside the trough coinciding with laminated plumites on the bank formed during the initial ice-melting phase from at least 16.1 to 13.5 cal ka BP in close proximity to the ice margin. After the establishment of open-marine conditions at around 13.5 cal ka BP, a sediment drift developed in the confined setting of the Kveithola Trough, contemporary with crudely laminated mud, an overlying lag deposit, and modern bioclastic-rich sand on Spitsbergenbanken. The Kveithola Drift shows a remarkable grain-size coarsening from the moat towards the southern flank of the trough. This trend contradicts the concept of a separated drift (which would imply coarser grain sizes in proximity of the moat) and indicates that the southern bank is the main sediment source for the coarse material building up the Kveithola Drift. This depocenter represents, therefore, a yet undescribed combination of off-bank wedge and confined drift. Although the deposits inside Kveithola Trough and on Spitsbergenbanken display different depocenter geometries, time-equivalent grain-size changes imply a region-wide sediment-dynamic connection. We thus relate a phase of coarsest sediment supply (8.8-6.3 cal ka BP) to an increase in bottom current strength, which might be related to a stronger Atlantic Water inflow from the Southeast across the bank leading to winnowing and off-bank export of sandy sediments.

  14. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, M.; Katlein, C.

    2013-05-01

    Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  15. Incorporation of iron and organic matter into young Antarctic sea ice during its initial growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Janssens

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study reports concentrations of iron (Fe and organic matter in young Antarctic pack ice and during its initial growth stages in situ. Although the importance of sea ice as an Fe reservoir for oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean has been clearly established, the processes leading to the enrichment of Fe in sea ice have yet to be investigated and quantified. We conducted two in situ sea-ice growth experiments during a winter cruise in the Weddell Sea. Our aim was to improve the understanding of the processes responsible for the accumulation of dissolved Fe (DFe and particulate Fe (PFe in sea ice, and of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, extracellular polymeric substances, inorganic macro-nutrients (silicic acid, nitrate and nitrite, phosphate and ammonium, chlorophyll a and bacteria. Enrichment indices, calculated for natural young ice and ice newly formed in situ, indicate that during Antarctic winter all of the measured forms of particulate matter were enriched in sea ice compared to underlying seawater, and that enrichment started from the initial stages of sea-ice formation. Some dissolved material (DFe and ammonium was also enriched in the ice but at lower enrichment indices than the particulate phase, suggesting that size is a key factor for the incorporation of impurities in sea ice. Low chlorophyll a concentrations and the fit of the macro-nutrients (with the exception of ammonium with their theoretical dilution lines indicated low biological activity in the ice. From these and additional results we conclude that physical processes are the dominant mechanisms leading to the enrichment of DFe, PFe, organic matter and bacteria in young sea ice, and that PFe and DFe are decoupled during sea-ice formation. Our study thus provides unique quantitative insight into the initial incorporation of impurities, in particular DFe and PFe, into Antarctic sea ice.

  16. Mapping radiation transfer through sea ice using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolaus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of sunlight into and through sea ice is of critical importance for sea-ice associated organisms and photosynthesis because light is their primary energy source. The amount of visible light transferred through sea ice contributes to the energy budget of the sea ice and the uppermost ocean. However, our current knowledge on the amount and distribution of light under sea ice is still restricted to a few local observations, and our understanding of light-driven processes and interdisciplinary interactions is still sparse. The main reasons are that the under-ice environment is difficult to access and that measurements require large logistical and instrumental efforts. Hence, it has not been possible to map light conditions under sea ice over larger areas and to quantify spatial variability on different scales. Here we present a detailed methodological description for operating spectral radiometers on a remotely operated vehicle (ROV under sea ice. Recent advances in ROV and radiation-sensor technology have allowed us to map under-ice spectral radiance and irradiance on floe scales within a few hours of station time. The ROV was operated directly from the sea ice, allowing for direct relations of optical properties to other sea-ice and surface features. The ROV was flown close to the sea ice in order to capture small-scale variability. Results from the presented data set and similar future studies will allow for better quantification of light conditions under sea ice. The presented experiences will support further developments in order to gather large data sets of under-ice radiation for different ice conditions and during different seasons.

  17. Morphology and Ecology of Diatoms in Sea Ice from the Weddell Sea,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    pack ice two physical mechanisms to account for the high samples with illustrative scanning electron micro- concentrations of algae in young, thin ice...I is ohs il h, t4 4 l’) s 4 I0 iho cu ) d 2e sn o N o 9 (2.6. 0’( 20 e0 m Ith tei.alls (2.3 i ) j bl1 t klhdruh Ii h Ie c,1r I t hsl! f, r . i hich s...Comparison of the size ranges reported Two mechanisms for incorporation of algae into in the literature with our measurements shows newly forming sea ice

  18. Extracting sea ice surface characteristics using spectral unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A.; Stroeve, J.

    2016-12-01

    The surface of the Arctic Ocean is a mixture of bare sea ice, snow covered sea ice, melt ponds, leads and open ocean. The composition of this mixture changes throughout the summer melt season. The mixture of surface types influences albedo at a range of scales, from local to global. The spatial variability of surface types often occurs at a scale smaller than the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery, resulting in a "mixed-pixel" problem. Therefore, it is important to quantify the fractions of surface types in each pixel. Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) allows fractional area of surface types to be estimated. In this paper we explore classifying RS imagery collected over the Arctic Ocean into surface types using a spectral mixture analysis. MESMA is only as good as the endmembers. We use a library of spectra collected in-situ at Barrow, Resolute and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean over bare and snow covered sea ice, melt ponds, and leads as our endmembers. The separability of spectra is first examined. For the spectral unmixing, we follow a similar approach to the MEM/MODSCAG algorithm for snow covered area. Endmember spectra for each of the four surface types are selected to find the best linear combination of spectra. The algorithm is tested on MODIS imagery for selected dates throughout the 2007 melt season. The approach is validated using high-resolution Quickbird imagery collected at the same time as the MODIS images.

  19. Antarctic summer sea ice concentration and extent: comparison of ODEN 2006 ship observations, satellite passive microwave and NIC sea ice charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ozsoy-Cicek

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic sea ice cover has shown a slight increase (<1%/decade in overall observed ice extent as derived from satellite mapping from 1979 to 2008, contrary to the decline observed in the Arctic regions. Spatial and temporal variations of the Antarctic sea ice however remain a significant problem to monitor and understand, primarily due to the vastness and remoteness of the region. While satellite remote sensing has provided and has great future potential to monitor the variations and changes of sea ice, uncertainties remain unresolved. In this study, the National Ice Center (NIC ice edge and the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System ice extent are examined, while the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea Ice Process and Climate ship observations from the Oden expedition in December 2006 are used as ground truth to verify the two products during Antarctic summer. While there is a general linear trend between ASPeCt and AMSR-E ice concentration estimates, there is poor correlation (R2=0.41 and AMSR-E tends to underestimate the low ice concentrations. We also found that the NIC sea ice edge agrees well with ship observations, while the AMSR-E shows the ice edge further south, consistent with its poorer detection of low ice concentrations. The northward extent of the ice edge at the time of observation (NIC had mean values varying from 38 km to 102 km greater on different days for the area as compared with the AMSR-E sea ice extent. For the circumpolar area as a whole in the December period examined, AMSR-E therefore may underestimate the area inside the ice edge at this time by up to 14% or, 1.5 million km2 less area, compared to the NIC ice charts. Preliminary comparison of satellite scatterometer data however, suggests better resolution of low concentrations than passive microwave, and therefore better agreement with ship observations and NIC charts of the area inside the ice edge during Antarctic

  20. Characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice in the Weddell Sea and their contribution to the mass balance of sea ice

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    Hajo Eicken

    Full Text Available Based on snow- and ice-thickness measurements at >11 000 points augmented by snow- and icecore studies during 4 expeditions from 1986 - 92 in the Weddell Sea, we describe characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice and assess their importance for the mass balance of sea ice. For first-year ice (FY in the central and eastern Weddell Sea, mean snow depth amounts to 0.16 m (mean ice thickness 0.75 m compared to 0.53 m (mean ice thickness 1.70 m for second-year ice (SY in the northwestern Weddell Sea. Ridged ice retains a thicker snow cover than level ice, with ice thickness and snow depth negatively correlated for the latter, most likely due to aeolian redistribution. During the different expeditions, 8, 15, 17 and 40% of all drill holes exhibited negative freeboard. As a result of flooding and brine seepage into the snow pack, snow salinities averaged 4‰. Through 18O measurements the distribution of meteoric ice (i.e. precipitation in the sea-ice cover was assessed. Roughly 4% of the total ice thickness consist of meteoric ice (FY 3%, SY 5%. With a mean density of 290 kg/m3, the snow cover itself contributes 8% to total ice mass (7% FY, 11% SY. Analysis of 18O in snow indicates a local maximum in accumulation in the 65 to 75°S latitude zone. Hydrogen peroxide in the snow has proven useful as a temporal tracer and for identification of second-year floes. Drawing on accumulation data from stations at the Weddell Sea coast, it becomes clear that the onset of ice growth is important for the evolution of ice thickness and the interaction between ice and snow. Loss of snow to leads due to wind drift may be considerable, yet is reduced owing to metamorphic processes in the snow column. This is confirmed by a comparison of accumulation data from coastal stations and from snow depths over sea ice. Temporal and spatial accumulation patterns of snow are shown to be important in controlling

  1. Characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice in the Weddell Sea and their contribution to the mass balance of sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Eicken

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on snow- and ice-thickness measurements at >11 000 points augmented by snow- and icecore studies during 4 expeditions from 1986 - 92 in the Weddell Sea, we describe characteristics and distribution patterns of snow and meteoric ice and assess their importance for the mass balance of sea ice. For first-year ice (FY in the central and eastern Weddell Sea, mean snow depth amounts to 0.16 m (mean ice thickness 0.75 m compared to 0.53 m (mean ice thickness 1.70 m for second-year ice (SY in the northwestern Weddell Sea. Ridged ice retains a thicker snow cover than level ice, with ice thickness and snow depth negatively correlated for the latter, most likely due to aeolian redistribution. During the different expeditions, 8, 15, 17 and 40% of all drill holes exhibited negative freeboard. As a result of flooding and brine seepage into the snow pack, snow salinities averaged 4‰. Through 18O measurements the distribution of meteoric ice (i.e. precipitation in the sea-ice cover was assessed. Roughly 4% of the total ice thickness consist of meteoric ice (FY 3%, SY 5%. With a mean density of 290 kg/m3, the snow cover itself contributes 8% to total ice mass (7% FY, 11% SY. Analysis of ∆18O in snow indicates a local maximum in accumulation in the 65 to 75°S latitude zone. Hydrogen peroxide in the snow has proven useful as a temporal tracer and for identification of second-year floes. Drawing on accumulation data from stations at the Weddell Sea coast, it becomes clear that the onset of ice growth is important for the evolution of ice thickness and the interaction between ice and snow. Loss of snow to leads due to wind drift may be considerable, yet is reduced owing to metamorphic processes in the snow column. This is confirmed by a comparison of accumulation data from coastal stations and from snow depths over sea ice. Temporal and spatial accumulation patterns of snow are shown to be important in controlling the sea-ice cover evolution.

  2. CBSIT 2009: Airborne Validation of Envisat Radar Altimetry and In Situ Ice Camp Measurements Over Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Laurence; Farrell, Sinead; McAdoo, David; Krabill, William; Laxon, Seymour; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline; Markus, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of satellite altimetry as valuable tool for taking quantitative sea ice monitoring beyond the traditional surface extent measurements and into estimates of sea ice thickness and volume, parameters that arc fundamental to improved understanding of polar dynamics and climate modeling. Several studies have now demonstrated the use of both microwave (ERS, Envisat/RA-2) and laser (ICESat/GLAS) satellite altimeters for determining sea ice thickness. The complexity of polar environments, however, continues to make sea ice thickness determination a complicated remote sensing task and validation studies remain essential for successful monitoring of sea ice hy satellites. One such validation effort, the Arctic Aircraft Altimeter (AAA) campaign of2006. included underflights of Envisat and ICESat north of the Canadian Archipelago using NASA's P-3 aircraft. This campaign compared Envisat and ICESat sea ice elevation measurements with high-resolution airborne elevation measurements, revealing the impact of refrozen leads on radar altimetry and ice drift on laser altimetry. Continuing this research and validation effort, the Canada Basin Sea Ice Thickness (CBSIT) experiment was completed in April 2009. CBSIT was conducted by NOAA. and NASA as part of NASA's Operation Ice Bridge, a gap-filling mission intended to supplement sea and land ice monitoring until the launch of NASA's ICESat-2 mission. CBIST was flown on the NASA P-3, which was equipped with a scanning laser altimeter, a Ku-band snow radar, and un updated nadir looking photo-imaging system. The CB5IT campaign consisted of two flights: an under flight of Envisat along a 1000 km track similar to that flown in 2006, and a flight through the Nares Strait up to the Lincoln Sea that included an overflight of the Danish GreenArc Ice Camp off the coast of northern Greenland. We present an examination of data collected during this campaign, comparing airborne laser altimeter measurements

  3. Relationships between Arctic sea ice drift and strength modelled by NEMO-LIM3.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docquier, David; Massonnet, François; Barthélemy, Antoine; Tandon, Neil F.; Lecomte, Olivier; Fichefet, Thierry

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice cover and thickness have substantially decreased in the Arctic Ocean since the beginning of the satellite era. As a result, sea ice strength has been reduced, allowing more deformation and fracturing and leading to increased sea ice drift speed. We use the version 3.6 of the global ocean-sea ice NEMO-LIM model (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean coupled to the Louvain-la-Neuve sea Ice Model), satellite, buoy and submarine observations, as well as reanalysis data over the period from 1979 to 2013 to study these relationships. Overall, the model agrees well with observations in terms of sea ice extent, concentration and thickness. The seasonal cycle of sea ice drift speed is reasonably well reproduced by the model. NEMO-LIM3.6 is able to capture the relationships between the seasonal cycles of sea ice drift speed, concentration and thickness, with higher drift speed for both lower concentration and lower thickness, in agreement with observations. Model experiments are carried out to test the sensitivity of Arctic sea ice drift speed, thickness and concentration to changes in sea ice strength parameter P*. These show that higher values of P* generally lead to lower sea ice deformation and lower sea ice thickness, and that no single value of P* is the best option for reproducing the observed drift speed and thickness. The methodology proposed in this analysis provides a benchmark for a further model intercomparison related to the relationships between sea ice drift speed and strength, which is especially relevant in the context of the upcoming Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6).

  4. Isolating the Liquid Cloud Response to Recent Arctic Sea Ice Variability Using Spaceborne Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A. L.; Kay, J. E.; Chepfer, H.; Guzman, R.; Yettella, V.

    2018-01-01

    While the radiative influence of clouds on Arctic sea ice is known, the influence of sea ice cover on Arctic clouds is challenging to detect, separate from atmospheric circulation, and attribute to human activities. Providing observational constraints on the two-way relationship between sea ice cover and Arctic clouds is important for predicting the rate of future sea ice loss. Here we use 8 years of CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) spaceborne lidar observations from 2008 to 2015 to analyze Arctic cloud profiles over sea ice and over open water. Using a novel surface mask to restrict our analysis to where sea ice concentration varies, we isolate the influence of sea ice cover on Arctic Ocean clouds. The study focuses on clouds containing liquid water because liquid-containing clouds are the most important cloud type for radiative fluxes and therefore for sea ice melt and growth. Summer is the only season with no observed cloud response to sea ice cover variability: liquid cloud profiles are nearly identical over sea ice and over open water. These results suggest that shortwave summer cloud feedbacks do not slow long-term summer sea ice loss. In contrast, more liquid clouds are observed over open water than over sea ice in the winter, spring, and fall in the 8 year mean and in each individual year. Observed fall sea ice loss cannot be explained by natural variability alone, which suggests that observed increases in fall Arctic cloud cover over newly open water are linked to human activities.

  5. MODIS Sea Ice Thickness and Open Water–Sea Ice Charts over the Barents and Kara Seas for Development and Validation of Sea Ice Products from Microwave Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Mäkynen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed algorithms and procedures for calculating daily sea ice thickness (SIT and open water–sea ice (OWSI charts, based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, ice surface temperature (IST (night-time only, and reflectance ( R swath data, respectively. The resolution of the SIT chart is 1 km and that of the OWSI chart is 250 m. The charts are targeted to be used in development and validation of sea ice products from microwave sensor data. We improve the original MODIS cloud masks for the IST and R data, with a focus on identifying larger cloud-free areas in the data. The SIT estimation from the MODIS IST swath data follows previous studies. The daily SIT chart is composed from available swath charts by assigning daily median SIT to a pixel. The OWSI classification is simply conducted by a fixed threshold for the MODIS band 1 R . This was based on manually selected R data for various ice types in late winter, early melt, and advanced melt conditions. The composition procedures for the daily SIT and OWSI charts somewhat compensates for errors due to the undetected clouds. The SIT and OWSI charts were compared against manual ice charts by Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in Russia and by Norwegian Meteorological Institute, respectively, and on average, a good relationship between the charts was found. Pixel-wise comparison of the SIT and OWSI charts showed very good agreement in open water vs. sea ice classification, which gives further confidence on the reliability of our algorithms. We also demonstrate usage of the MODIS OWSI and SIT charts for validation of sea ice concentration charts based on the SENTINEL-1 SAR and AMSR2 radiometer data and two different algorithms.

  6. Variability in Arctic sea ice topography and atmospheric form drag: Combining IceBridge laser altimetry with ASCAT radar backscatter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Tsamados, M.; Kurtz, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present atmospheric form drag estimates over Arctic sea ice using high resolution, three-dimensional surface elevation data from NASA's Operation IceBridge Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), and surface roughness estimates from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT). Surface features of the ice pack (e.g. pressure ridges) are detected using IceBridge ATM elevation data and a novel surface feature-picking algorithm. We use simple form drag parameterizations to convert the observed height and spacing of surface features into an effective atmospheric form drag coefficient. The results demonstrate strong regional variability in the atmospheric form drag coefficient, linked to variability in both the height and spacing of surface features. This includes form drag estimates around 2-3 times higher over the multiyear ice north of Greenland, compared to the first-year ice of the Beaufort/Chukchi seas. We compare results from both scanning and linear profiling to ensure our results are consistent with previous studies investigating form drag over Arctic sea ice. A strong correlation between ASCAT surface roughness estimates (using radar backscatter) and the IceBridge form drag results enable us to extrapolate the IceBridge data collected over the western-Arctic across the entire Arctic Ocean. While our focus is on spring, due to the timing of the primary IceBridge campaigns since 2009, we also take advantage of the autumn data collected by IceBridge in 2015 to investigate seasonality in Arctic ice topography and the resulting form drag coefficient. Our results offer the first large-scale assessment of atmospheric form drag over Arctic sea ice due to variable ice topography (i.e. within the Arctic pack ice). The analysis is being extended to the Antarctic IceBridge sea ice data, and the results are being used to calibrate a sophisticated form drag parameterization scheme included in the sea ice model CICE, to improve the representation of form drag over Arctic and

  7. On the discrepancy between observed and CMIP5 multi-model simulated Barents Sea winter sea ice decline

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dawei; Zhang, Rong; Knutson, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to understand the relative roles of external forcing versus internal climate variability in causing the observed Barents Sea winter sea ice extent (SIE) decline since 1979. We identify major discrepancies in the spatial patterns of winter Northern Hemisphere sea ice concentration trends over the satellite period between observations and CMIP5 multi-model mean externally forced response. The CMIP5 externally forced decline in Barents Sea winter SIE is much weaker than that obse...

  8. Weddell Sea ice drift: Kinematics and wind forcing

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