WorldWideScience

Sample records for sv40 early region

  1. Columnar structure of SV40 minichromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward N Trifonov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Like the sequence of the strongest 601 clone nucleosome of Lowary and Widom, the SV40 genome sequence contains tracks of YR dinucleotides separated by small integers of the 10.4n base series (10, 11, 21 and 30 bases. The tracks, however, substantially exceed the nucleosome DNA size and, thus, correspond to more extended structure - columnar chromatin. The micrococcal nuclease digests of the SV40 chromatin do not show uniquely positioned individual nucleosomes. This confirms the columnar structure of the minichromosome, as well as earlier electron microscopy studies.

  2. Fanconi anemia patients are more susceptible to infection with tumor virus SV40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia (FA is a recessive DNA repair disease characterized by a high predisposition to developing neoplasms. DNA tumor polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms FA fibroblasts at high efficiency suggesting that FA patients could be highly susceptible to SV40 infection. To test this hypothesis, the large tumor (LT antigen of SV40, BKV, JCV and Merkel Cell (MC polyomaviruses were tested in blood samples from 89 FA patients and from 82 of their parents. Two control groups consisting of 47 no-FA patients affected by other genetic bone marrow failure diseases and 91 healthy subjects were also evaluated. Although JCV, BKV and MC were not found in any of the FA samples, the prevalence and viral load of SV40 were higher in FA patients (25%; mean viral load: 1.1×10(2 copies/10(5cells as compared with healthy individuals (4.3%; mean viral load: 0.8×10(1 copies/10(5cells and genetic controls (0% (p<0.005. A marked age-dependent frequency of SV40 was found in FA with respect to healthy subjects suggesting that, although acquired early in life, the virus can widespread more easily in specific groups of population. From the analysis of family pedigrees, 60% of the parents of SV40-positive probands were positive for the virus compared to 2% of the parents of the SV40-negative probands (p<0.005. It is worthy of note that the relative frequency of SV40-positive relatives detected in this study was the highest ever reported, showing that asymptomatic FA carriers are also more susceptible to SV40. In conclusion, we favor the hypothesis that SV40 spread could be facilitated by individuals who are genetically more susceptible to infection, such as FA patients. The increased susceptibility to SV40 infection seems to be associated with a specific defect of the immune system which supports a potential interplay of SV40 with an underlying genetic alteration that increases the risk of malignancies.

  3. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Transgenic Mouse Models of SV40-Induced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Amanda L; Colvin, Emily K

    2016-01-01

    The SV40 viral oncogene has been used since the 1970s as a reliable and reproducible method to generate transgenic mouse models. This seminal discovery has taught us an immense amount about how tumorigenesis occurs, and its success has led to the evolution of many mouse models of cancer. Despite the development of more modern and targeted approaches for developing genetically engineered mouse models of cancer, SV40-induced mouse models still remain frequently used today. This review discusses a number of cancer types in which SV40 mouse models of cancer have been developed and highlights their relevance and importance to preclinical research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Virus-specific nucleic acids in SV40-exposed hamster embryo cell lines: correlation with S and T antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M J; Oxman, M N; Diamandopoulos, G T; Levine, A S; Henry, P H; Enders, J F

    1969-02-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome.

  6. VIRUS-SPECIFIC NUCLEIC ACIDS IN SV40-EXPOSED HAMSTER EMBRYO CELL LINES: CORRELATION WITH S AND T ANTIGENS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Myron J.; Oxman, Michael N.; Diamandopoulos, George Th.; Levine, Arthur S.; Henry, Patrick H.; Enders, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A number of homologous SV40-exposed hamster embryonic cell lines were examined for the presence of RNA complementary to SV40 DNA. Only those lines containing the SV40 T antigen were found to have such virus-specific RNA. In lines containing the SV40 S antigen, but not the SV40 T antigen, virus-specific RNA was not detected. These findings suggest that the S antigen is not coded for directly by the SV40 genome. PMID:4307716

  7. SV40 Assembly In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Oppenheim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid is a T = 7d icosahedral lattice ∼45 nm in diameter surrounding the ∼5 kb circular minichromosome. The outer shell is composed of 360 monomers of the major capsid protein VP1, tightly bound in 72 pentamers. VP1 is a jellyroll β-barrel, with extending N- and C-terminal arms. The N-terminal arms bind DNA and face the interior of the capsid. The flexible C-arms tie together the 72 pentamers in three distinct kinds of interactions, thus facilitating the formation of a T = 7 icosahedron from identical pentameric building blocks. Assembly in vivo was shown to occur by addition of capsomers around the DNA. We apply a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to study SV40 assembly. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the following model: one or two capsomers bind at a high affinity to ses, the viral DNA encapsidation signal, forming the nucleation centre for assembly. Next, multiple capsomers attach concomitantly, at lower affinity, around the minichromosome. This increases their local concentration facilitating rapid, cooperative assembly reaction. Formation of the icosahedron proceeds either by gradual addition of single pentamers to the growing shell or by concerted assembly of pentamer clusters.

  8. Biologic properties of viable deletion mutants of simian virus 40 (SV40) rescued from the cells of an SV40-induced hamster lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, G T; Carmichael, G

    1983-12-01

    A lymphocytic leukemia induced by the oncogenic DNA simian virus 40 (SV40) in an inbred LSH/SsLak Syrian golden hamster was evoked to produce infectious SV40 by fusion of the leukemia cells with grivet monkey kidney (GMK) cells and by exposure of the leukemia cells to the chemical inducers mitomycin C and cycloheximide. Plaque-purified viable substrains of the rescued SV40 when studied by restriction endonuclease digestion of viral DNA were found to contain small deletions within the Hind III restriction fragment C. These deletions lay near the viral origin of DNA replication. Ten plaque-purified substrains of the rescued virus identified by immunofluorescence as being SV40 were found, when compared to the wild-type SV40, to replicate slowly and to form small plaques. Although these substrains transformed NIH/3T3 cells as efficiently as the wild-type SV40 in tissue culture, they were generally less oncogenic in vivo--7 of the 10 failed to induce tumors. The 3 oncogenic SV40-rescued substrains were not found to exhibit "lymphocytotropism," i.e., the capacity to infect and neoplastically transform preferentially hamster lymphocytes. Thus the hamster lymphocytic leukemia originally induced by the wild-type SV40 was most likely a chance-stochastic event rather than the result of tropism-determinism mediated by the virus, as is usually the case with leukemogenic RNA viruses.

  9. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  10. An investigation of the occurrence of sv40 antibodies in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four of the samples were from the healthy population group and the remaining 1 (1/64) was from the patient group. An SV40 antibody-blocking assay and a Western blot were used as additional confirmation for the SV40 antibodies, whereas the Western blot assay developed a single common band on all 5 samples.

  11. SV40 DNA amplification and reintegration in surviving hamster cells after 60Co gamma-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücke-Huhle, C; Pech, M; Herrlich, P

    1990-10-01

    SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells were exposed to 60Co gamma-irradiation and the fate of the integrated SV40 sequences was pursued over a period of 20 days following radiation exposure. As shown by colony hybridization, integrated SV40 sequences were amplified in surviving and non-surviving cells. At later times, however, clonal sublines of surviving cells grown for 20-30 cell generations after irradiation had lost most of their amplified SV40 copies but showed altered restriction fragment patterns indicating reintegration of SV40 sequences at new sites of the hamster genome. This suggests that 60Co gamma-irradiation can generate mutations by inducing over-replication of chromosome segments that are then substrates of enzymatic rearrangements.

  12. DJ-1, an oncogene and causative gene for familial Parkinson's disease, is essential for SV40 transformation in mouse fibroblasts through up-regulation of c-Myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Chul; Kitaura, Hirotake; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-24

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a tumor virus and its early gene product large T-antigen (LT) is responsible for the transforming activity of SV40. Parkinson's disease causative gene DJ-1 is also a ras-dependent oncogene, but the mechanism of its oncogene function is still not known. In this study, we found that there were no transformed foci when fibroblasts from DJ-1-knockout mice were transfected with LT. We also found that DJ-1 directly bound to LT and that the expression level of c-Myc in transformed cells was parallel to that of DJ-1. These findings indicate that DJ-1 is essential for SV40 transformation. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro and in vivo Functional Characterization of Gutless Recombinant SV40-derived CFTR Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christian; Strayer, Marlene S; Sirninger, Jeffery; Braag, Sofia; Branco, Francisco; Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Flotte, Terence R.; Strayer, David S.

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF) respiratory failure caused by progressive airway obstruction and tissue damage is primarily a result of the aberrant inflammatory responses to lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite considerable improvement in patient survival, conventional therapies are mainly supportive. Recent progress towards gene therapy for CF has been encouraging; however, several factors such as immune response and transduced cell turnover remain as potential limitations to CF gene therapy. As alternative gene therapy vectors for CF we examined the feasibility of using SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) which may circumvent some of these obstacles. To accommodate the large CFTR cDNA, we removed not only SV40 Tag genes, but also all capsid genes. We therefore tested whether “gutless” rSV40s could be packaged and were able to express a functional human CFTR cDNA. Results from our in vitro analysis determined that rSV40-CFTR was able to successfully result in the expression of CFTR protein which localized to the plasma membrane and restored channel function to CFTR deficient cells. Similarly in vivo experiments delivering rSV40-CFTR to the lungs of Cftr−/− mice resulted in a reduction of the pathology associated with intra-tracheal pseudomona aeruginosa challenge. rSV40-CFTR treated mice had had less weight loss when compared to control treated mice as well as demonstrably reduced lung inflammation as evidence by histology and reduced inflammatory cytokines in the BAL. The reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels led to an evident decrease in neutrophil influx to the airways. These results indicate that further study of the application of rSV40-CFTR to CF gene therapy is warranted. PMID:19890354

  14. Fatal SV40-associated pneumonia and nephropathy following renal allotransplantation in rhesus macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M; Mulvihill, M S; Williams, K D; Collins, B H; Kirk, A D

    2018-02-01

    Recrudescence of latent and dormant viruses may lead to overwhelming viremia in immunosuppressed hosts. In immunocompromised hosts, Simian virus 40 (SV40) reactivation is known to cause nephritis and demyelinating central nervous system disease. Here, we report SV40 viremia leading to fatal interstitial pneumonia in an immunosuppressed host following renal allotransplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Temperature-sensitive SV40-immortalized rat middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Katsuhiro; Kim, Youngki; Paparella, Michael M; Lin, Jizhen

    2004-12-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of middle ear epithelial cells are essential in both normal and diseased middle ears. The normal situation involves physiologic growth and renewal of the epithelium, and the diseased situation involves pathological changes of the epithelium such as mucous cell metaplasia and ciliated cell proliferation in otitis media. In this study, we used a temperature-sensitive large T antigen (the SV40 mutant) to transduce and immortalize the primary culture of middle ear epithelial cells. SV40-immortalized middle ear epithelial cells have been cultured for more than 50 passages and are stable morphologically. Their nonimmortalized parent cells died at the second passage. Immortalized middle ear epithelial cells carrying the SV40 mutant show a monolayer, cobblestonelike morphology. The cell line expresses characteristic middle ear mucosal molecules such as mucins, keratins, and collagens. It also responds to temperature changes; namely, cells proliferate at 33 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is active, and differentiate at 39 degrees C, when the SV40 antigen is inactive. Therefore, we conclude that a temperature-sensitive middle ear epithelial cell line has successfully been established.

  16. A very late viral protein triggers the lytic release of SV40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Daniels

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available How nonenveloped viruses such as simian virus 40 (SV40 trigger the lytic release of their progeny is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that SV40 expresses a novel later protein termed VP4 that triggers the timely lytic release of its progeny. Like VP3, VP4 synthesis initiates from a downstream AUG start codon within the VP2 transcript and localizes to the nucleus. However, VP4 expression occurs approximately 24 h later at a time that coincides with cell lysis, and it is not incorporated into mature virions. Mutation of the VP4 initiation codon from the SV40 genome delayed lysis by 2 d and reduced infectious particle release. Furthermore, the co-expression of VP4 and VP3, but not their individual expression, recapitulated cell lysis in bacteria. Thus, SV40 regulates its life cycle by the later temporal expression of VP4, which results in cell lysis and enables the 50-nm virus to exit the cell. This study also demonstrates how viruses can generate multiple proteins with diverse functions and localizations from a single reading frame.

  17. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  18. In situ study of SV40 virus DNA in lytic infection by mild loosening of nucleoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvion-Dutilleul, F; Pedron, J; Lange, M

    1980-11-01

    We have studied SV40 (simian virus40) nucleoprotein in permissively infected monkey kidney cell cultures (CV1) by a procedure which does not require the isolation of the SV40 chromosomes. Treatment of the cells by a low ionic strenght medium containing Photo flo produces a mild loosening of nucleoproteins, and permits the in situ study in ultrathin sections of virus components and their relationships with host cell chromatin. RNP and DNP could be distinguished by uranyl-EDTA-lead staining (for RNP) and by DNase digestion. SV40 DNA was observed as circular molecules, either free or connected with either RNP fibrils or virus capsids. These three aspects were interpreted, respectively, as viral minichromosomes, transcription of virus genome and partially encapsidated virus DNA. During encapsidation a few virus particles appear to be bound to host chromatin. Many, if not all, seemingly mature viruses, singly or in small linear clusters, are also aligned on host chromatin. Some of these observations were corroborated by the Miller spreading technique. They are consistent with a role for the host cell chromatin in the production of nuclear viruses.

  19. Vectors bicistronically linking a gene of interest to the SV40 large T antigen in combination with the SV40 origin of replication enhance transient protein expression and luciferase reporter activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahon, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The Simian Virus large T antigen (SVLT) induces replication of plasmids bearing the SV40 origin of replication (SV40 ori) within mammalian cells. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an element that allows for the co-translation of proteins from one polycistronic mRNA. Through the combination of these elements, IRES-dependent co-expression of a protein of interest and the SVLT, either constitutive or regulated, on plasmids bearing the SV40 ori generates a positive feedback loop, result...

  20. Vectors bicistronically linking a gene of interest to the SV40 large T antigen in combination with the SV40 origin of replication enhance transient protein expression and luciferase reporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Matthew J

    2011-08-01

    The simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) induces replication of plasmids bearing the SV40 origin of replication (SV40 ori) within mammalian cells. The internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an element that allows for the cotranslation of proteins from one polycistronic mRNA. Through the combination of these elements, IRES-dependent coexpression of a protein of interest and the SVLT, either constitutive or regulated, on plasmids bearing the SV40 ori generates a positive feedback loop, resulting in enhanced expression. A vector linking red fluorescent protein (RFP) to the IRES-SVLT element enhances fluorescence ~10-fold over that demonstrated from a vector lacking this element. In transfection-resistant CV-1 cells, the RFP-IRES-SVLT vector substantially increases the number of cells expressing detectable levels of RFP. Furthermore, inclusion of the IRES-SVLT/SV40 ori elements in standard luciferase-based reporter gene constructs and associated effectors results in marked increases in luminescent output and sensitivity, using the β-catenin/TCF pathway and the mammalian two-hybrid assay as models. Ultimately, vector systems combining these well-established elements (IRES-SVLT/SV40 ori) will increase the utility of transient transfection for the production of recombinant proteins, the use of transfection-resistant cell lines, and the effectiveness of luciferase-based high-throughput screening assays.

  1. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  2. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Masaaki [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Morikawa, Katsuma [Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Suda, Tatsuya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ohno, Naohito [Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsushita, Sho [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Allergy Center, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Akatsuka, Toshitaka [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: handa.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Solutions Research Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Matsui, Masanori, E-mail: mmatsui@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  3. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  4. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-12-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs) kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs) and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  5. SV40 Infection of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells From Wharton's Jelly Drives the Production of Inflammatory and Tumoral Mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Carolina; Campisciano, Giuseppina; Zanotta, Nunzia; Valencic, Erica; Delbue, Serena; Bella, Ramona; Comar, Manola

    2017-11-01

    The Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (WJSCs) are a source of cells with high potentiality for the treatment of human immunological disorders. Footprints of the oncogenic viruses Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and JC Virus (JCPyV) have been recently detected in human WJSCs specimens. The aim of this study is to evaluate if WJSCs can be efficiently infected by these Polyomaviruses and if they can potentially exert tumoral activity. Cell culture experiments indicated that WJSCs could sustain both SV40 and JCPyV infections. A transient and lytic replication was observed for JCPyV, while SV40 persistently infected WJSCs over a long period of time, releasing a viral progeny at low titer without evident cytopathic effect (CPE). Considering the association between SV40 and human tumors and the reported ability of the oncogenic viruses to drive the host innate immune response to cell transformation, the expression profile of a large panel of immune mediators was evaluated in supernatants by the Bioplex platform. RANTES, IL-3, MIG, and IL-12p40, involved in chronic inflammation, cells differentiation, and transformation, were constantly measured at high concentration comparing to control. These findings represent a new aspect of SV40 biological activity in the humans, highlighting its interaction with specific host cellular pathways. In view of these results, it seems to be increasingly urgent to consider Polyomaviruses in the management of WJSCs for their safely use as promising therapeutic source. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 3060-3066, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  7. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  8. A human corneal equivalent constructed from SV40-immortalised corneal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Tykhonova, Svitlana; Belge, Gazanfer; Bednarz, Jürgen; Diehl, Horst A; Engelke, Maria

    2005-02-01

    Within the last decade, extensive research in the field of tissue and organ engineering has focused on the development of in vitro models of the cornea. The use of organotypic, three-dimensional corneal equivalents has several advantages over simple monolayer cultures. The aim of this study was to develop a corneal equivalent model composed of the same cell types as in the natural human tissue, but by using immortalised cell lines to ensure reproducibility and to minimise product variation. We report our success in the establishment of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (designated HCK). A collagen matrix, built up with these cells, displayed the morphological characteristics of the human stromal tissue and served as a biomatrix for the immortalised human corneal epithelial and endothelial cells. Histological cross-sections of the whole-cornea equivalents resemble human corneas in tissue structure. This organotypic in vitro model may serve as a research tool for the ophthalmic science community, as well as a model system for testing for eye irritancy and drug efficacy.

  9. SV40-transformed human corneal keratocytes: optimisation of serum-free culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Anna Katharina; Lombardi-Borgia, Simone; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Seeber, Judith; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Engelke, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the replacement of animal experiments in eye irritation testing, we have established a multilay ered cornea model comprising the co-culture of all three corneal cell types. It was the objective of this study to optimise serum-free culture conditions to preserve both growth and phenotype of an SV40-immortalised human corneal keratocyte cell line (HCK). Our results revealed that HCK continue to proliferate in both monolayer cultures as well as after seeding in a collagen matrix and resemble primary corneal keratocytes in morphology and functional characteristics under defined serum-free conditions. Furthermore, HCK were shown to transform into activated corneal fibroblast phenotypes in response to serum and TGF(beta)1. In summary, HCK cells mimic their in vivo (primary) precursors, both in sustaining the quiescent keratocyte phenotype (serum-starved conditions) and in responding to growth factor stimulation. Hence, this cell line may provide a useful tool to study the toxicity and wound healing response of corneal keratocytes in vitro.

  10. Abrogation of p53-mediated transactivation by SV40 large T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, K; Minowa, A; Sugasawa, K; Takano, T; Hanaoka, F

    1993-03-01

    p53 is known to bind specifically to the 44-bp human DNA sequence in an immunoprecipitation assay. We show here that the transcription of the reporter CAT gene linked with the herpesvirus thymidine kinase (tk) promoter containing the 44-base sequence is enhanced by mouse wild-type but not mutant-type p53 in F9 and p53-null Saos-2 cells. The p53-mediated transactivation was dramatically abrogated by introduction of SV40 large T antigen (SVLT) in Saos-2 cells in which p53 was clearly associated with SVLT. Furthermore, the p53-SVLT complex did not bind to the 44-base sequence at all. Thus, SVLT sequesters the transactivation function of the wild-type p53 by inhibiting the binding of p53 to the 44-base sequence. This is good evidence to show 'loss of functions' in the product of a tumor-suppressor oncogene by a dominant oncogene product at a molecular level.

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of an SV40-Transformed Human Fibroblast (MRC5CVI) and Its Untransformed Counterpart (MRC-5) in Response to UVB Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Wei Chang; Chaang-Ray Chen; Chao-Ying Huang; Wun-Yi Shu; Chi-Shiun Chiang; Ji-Hong Hong; Hsu, Ian C.

    2013-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause ...

  12. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  13. The structure of SV40 large T hexameric helicase in complex with AT-rich origin DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Dahai; Wang, Damian; Li, Shu-Xing; Chen, Xiaojiang S

    2016-12-06

    DNA replication is a fundamental biological process. The initial step in eukaryotic DNA replication is the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, including the formation of two head-to-head hexameric helicases around the replication origin. How these hexameric helicases interact with their origin dsDNA remains unknown. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the SV40 Large-T Antigen (LT) hexameric helicase bound to its origin dsDNA. The structure shows that the six subunits form a near-planar ring that interacts with the origin, so that each subunit makes unique contacts with the DNA. The origin dsDNA inside the narrower AAA+ domain channel shows partial melting due to the compression of the two phosphate backbones, forcing Watson-Crick base-pairs within the duplex to flip outward. This structure provides the first snapshot of a hexameric helicase binding to origin dsDNA, and suggests a possible mechanism of origin melting by LT during SV40 replication in eukaryotic cells.

  14. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  15. Comparative transcriptome profiling of an SV40-transformed human fibroblast (MRC5CVI and its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5 in response to UVB irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 transforms cells through the suppression of tumor-suppressive responses by large T and small t antigens; studies on the effects of these two oncoproteins have greatly improved our knowledge of tumorigenesis. Large T antigen promotes cellular transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins. Previous studies have shown that not all of the tumor-suppressive responses were inactivated in SV40-transformed cells; however, the underlying cause is not fully studied. In this study, we investigated the UVB-responsive transcriptome of an SV40-transformed fibroblast (MRC5CVI and that of its untransformed counterpart (MRC-5. We found that, in response to UVB irradiation, MRC-5 and MRC5CVI commonly up-regulated the expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. MRC-5 up-regulated the expressions of chromosome condensation, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, and apoptotic genes, but MRC5CVI did not. Further cell death assays indicated that MRC5CVI was more sensitive than MRC-5 to UVB-induced cell death with increased caspase-3 activation; combining with the transcriptomic results suggested that MRC5CVI may undergo UVB-induced cell death through mechanisms other than transcriptional regulation. Our study provides a further understanding of the effects of SV40 transformation on cellular stress responses, and emphasizes the value of SV40-transformed cells in the researches of sensitizing neoplastic cells to radiations.

  16. Inhibition of multidrug resistance by SV40 pseudovirion delivery of an antigene peptide nucleic acid (PNA in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Macadangdang

    Full Text Available Peptide nucleic acid (PNA is known to bind with extraordinarily high affinity and sequence-specificity to complementary nucleic acid sequences and can be used to suppress gene expression. However, effective delivery into cells is a major obstacle to the development of PNA for gene therapy applications. Here, we present a novel method for the in vitro delivery of antigene PNA to cells. By using a nucleocapsid protein derived from Simian virus 40, we have been able to package PNA into pseudovirions, facilitating the delivery of the packaged PNA into cells. We demonstrate that this system can be used effectively to suppress gene expression associated with multidrug resistance in cancer cells, as shown by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and cell viability under chemotherapy. The combination of PNA with the SV40-based delivery system is a method for suppressing a gene of interest that could be broadly applied to numerous targets.

  17. Cellular ras gene activity is required for full neoplastic transformation by the large tumor antigen of SV40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, L; Brownell, H L; Corbley, M J; Wood, K W; Wang, D; Haliotis, T

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the cellular ras gene product in neoplastic transformation by the SV40 large tumor antigen (SVLT), murine C3H10T1/2 cells were rendered deficient in Ras activity by transfection with inducible or constitutive antisense ras gene constructs or through the introduction of the dominant-negative mutant, ras(asn17). Consistent with previous results, SVLT-induced morphological transformation was unaffected by the down-regulation of c-ras gene product activity. On the other hand, colony formation in soft agar and tumorigenicity in nude mice were drastically reduced in c-Ras-deficient cells. In addition, SVLT expression in C3H10T1/2 cells led to increased c-Ras activity, as determined by an increase in the Ras-bound GTP/GTP + GDP ratio. These results suggest that c-Ras is required for full neoplastic transformation by SVLT.

  18. The Prognostic Role and Relationship between E2F1 and SV40 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of Egyptian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab M. Samaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is the most common type of lymphomas worldwide. The pathogenesis of lymphomas is not yet well understood. SV40 induces malignant transformation by the large T-antigen (L-TAG and promotes transformation by binding and inactivating p53 and pRb. L-TAG can bind pRb promoting the activation of the E2F1 transcription factor, thus inducing the expression of genes required for the entry to the S phase and leading to cell transformation. This immunohistochemical study was conducted to assess the prognostic role and relationship of SV40 L-TAG and E2F1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL of Egyptian patients. This retrospective study was conducted on 105 tissue specimens including 20 follicular hyperplasia and 85 DLBCL cases. SV40 L-TAG was identified in 3/85 (4% of DLBCL. High Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI and apoptotic count were associated with high E2F1 expression (p<0.001 for all. No significant association was reached between E2F1 and SV40. E2F1 expression proved to be the most and first independent prognostic factor on overall survival of DLBCL patients (HR = 5.79, 95% CI = 2.3–14.6, and p<0.001. Upregulation of E2F1 has been implicated in oncogenesis, prognosis, and prediction of therapeutic response but is not seemingly to have a relationship with the accused SV40.

  19. Immortalization of Porcine 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1-Transgenic Liver Cells Using SV40 Large T Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Young Kang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cortisol is a steroid hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis that is released in response to stress and low blood glucose concentration. Cortisol is converted from cortisone by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1. It has been reported that too much cortisol or overexpression of HSD11B1 induces obesity and the insulin resistance that accompanies metabolic syndrome in rodent adipose tissue. In our previous study, HSD11B1-transgenic (TG fibroblasts were established, and a porcine model was generated by SCNT using those fibroblasts. Hepatocytes overexpressing HSD11B1 were obtained from livers of this porcine model and cultured in vitro. However, the primary hepatocytes were found to have a short life span or low proliferation rate. To overcome these problems, the SV40 large T antigen was transduced into primary HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes, and those cells were immortalized. Immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes showed restored morphology, more rapid proliferation rate, and more expression of HSD11B1 than primary hepatocytes. As well, these cells kept the hepatic characteristics such as gluconeogenic response to cortisone and increased expression of hepatic makers. The immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes may be useful for studying traits and potential therapeutic drugs for treatment of metabolic disorders induced by overexpression of HSD11B1.

  20. Immortalization of Porcine 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1-Transgenic Liver Cells Using SV40 Large T Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee Young; Choi, Young-Kwon; Jeong, Yeon Ik; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Hwang, Woo-Suk; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2017-12-05

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone essential to the maintenance of homeostasis that is released in response to stress and low blood glucose concentration. Cortisol is converted from cortisone by 11βhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1). It has been reported that too much cortisol or overexpression of HSD11B1 induces obesity and the insulin resistance that accompanies metabolic syndrome in rodent adipose tissue. In our previous study, HSD11B1-transgenic (TG) fibroblasts were established, and a porcine model was generated by SCNT using those fibroblasts. Hepatocytes overexpressing HSD11B1 were obtained from livers of this porcine model and cultured in vitro. However, the primary hepatocytes were found to have a short life span or low proliferation rate. To overcome these problems, the SV40 large T antigen was transduced into primary HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes, and those cells were immortalized. Immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes showed restored morphology, more rapid proliferation rate, and more expression of HSD11B1 than primary hepatocytes. As well, these cells kept the hepatic characteristics such as gluconeogenic response to cortisone and increased expression of hepatic makers. The immortalized HSD11B1-TG hepatocytes may be useful for studying traits and potential therapeutic drugs for treatment of metabolic disorders induced by overexpression of HSD11B1.

  1. Arginine-rich cross-linking peptides with different SV40 nuclear localization signal content as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton

    2017-11-01

    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simvastatin and intracellular pH regulation by the Na+/H+ antiport of SV40-virus-transformed human MRC5 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Ng, L L

    1993-06-01

    1. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase by simvastatin leads to inhibition of both cell growth and Na+/H+ antiport activity. The effect of simvastatin on intracellular pH and Na+/H+ antiport activity was therefore studied on an adherent cell line, the SV40-virus-transformed MRC5 human fibroblast. 2. Simvastatin led to a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular pH, attributed to a reduction in Na+/H+ exchange, together with a rounding of cell shape. Mevalonate (1 mmol/l) prevented these effects of simvastatin, and when added after inhibition of the antiport by simvastatin, reversed these changes within 1-2h. 3. The phenomenon of mevalonate reversal of antiport inhibition by simvastatin was not sensitive to cycloheximide, indicating its post-translational nature. This was also consistent with the short period of incubation with mevalonate leading to reversal of antiport inhibition (1-2 h). These changes in intracellular pH regulation were not due to alterations in cell cholesterol content. 4. A variety of inhibitors of post-translational processes, such as N-linked glycosylation (tunicamycin), phosphorylation (staurosporine), isoprenylation (farnesol, limonene), and of pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins or calmodulin (W7), had no effect on the reversal by mevalonate of simvastatin-induced changes in Na+/H+ antiport activity. 5. N-Ethylmaleimide (50 mumol/l for 5 min) prevented mevalonate reversing the effects of simvastatin, suggesting the importance of thiol groups in the phenomenon of reversal of the inhibition of Na+/H+ antiport activity by simvastatin. Furthermore, concurrent incubation of simvastatin-treated cells with dithiothreitol (1 mmol/l) and N-ethylmaleimide restored the ability of mevalonate to reverse the inhibitory effects of simvastatin on Na+H+ antiport activity.

  4. The MRC-5 human embryonal lung fibroblast two-dimensional gel cellular protein database: quantitative identification of polypeptides whose relative abundance differs between quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Dejgaard, K; Madsen, Peder

    1990-01-01

    (1323 with isoelectric focusing and 572 with nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis) are recorded in this database, containing quantitative and qualitative data on the relative abundance of cellular proteins synthesized by quiescent, proliferating and SV40 transformed MRC-5 fibroblasts. Of the 592......A new version of the MRC-5 two-dimensional gel cellular protein database (Celis et al., Electrophoresis 1989, 10, 76-115) is presented. Gels were scanned with a Molecular Dynamics laser scanner and processed by the PDQUEST II software. A total of 1895 [35S]methionine-labeled cellular polypeptides...

  5. Bypass of a site-specific cis-Syn thymine dimer in an SV40 vector during in vitro replication by HeLa and XPV cell-free extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensch-Simon, I; Burgers, P M; Taylor, J S

    1998-06-02

    The key step in skin cancer induction by UV light is thought to be the mutagenic DNA synthesis past a DNA photoproduct in a proto-oncogene or tumor suppressor gene. To investigate this critical step, we have constructed an SV40 vector containing a cis-syn thymine dimer, the major DNA photoproduct induced by UVB light, within an AseI site at a location that would initially be replicated by leading strand synthesis. When the dimer-containing SV40 vector was incubated with cell-free HeLa extracts in the presence of TAg, and then digested with AseI, a 2325 bp fragment corresponding to inhibition of cleavage at the dimer site was observed, suggesting that the dimer had terminated synthesis and/or had been bypassed. When the reaction was limited to one round of replication and the products of restriction enzyme digestion were examined by denaturing gel electrophoresis, bands corresponding to both termination and bypass were observed in roughly a one-to-one ratio. Whereas increasing the dNTP concentration from 10 microM to 1 mM increased the ratio of bypass to termination from 0.6 to 2.6, it had no effect on the site of termination, which occurred exclusively one nucleotide before the dimer. Experiments in which dGTP was held constant at 25 microM and various combinations of the remaining nucleotides were raised from 25 microM to 1 mM showed substantial increases in the bypass-to-termination ratio, with the greatest effect seen for raising all three nucleotides to 1 mM. Replication by primary fibroblast XPV extracts was also investigated and found to be greatly stimulated by rhRPA, whereas the stimulatory effect for HeLa cell extracts was variable. In the presence of rhRPA, the XPV extracts were also found to bypass the cis-syn dimer, which contrasts with a recent report that could not detect dimer bypass in SV40 transformed XPV extracts in the absence of added replication factors [Cordeiro-Stone, M., et al. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13945-13954].

  6. The AT-rich tract of the SV40 ori core: negative synergism and specific recognition by single stranded and duplex DNA binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Galli, Ivo; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    1992-01-01

    The cellular oncogene c-myc encodes a nuclear protein that is considered to play a role in cell proliferation. In this report, the region upstream from the transcriptional promoter of the c-myc gene was examined for regulatory activity on its expression during cell cycle. Plasmids which contain the upstream region of human c-myc gene linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were transfected to rat 3Y1 cells together with pSV2Hg (containing the hygromycin resistance...

  7. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  8. The application of normal, SV40 T-antigen-immortalised and tumour-derived oral keratinocytes, under serum-free conditions, to the study of the probability of cancer progression as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceder, Rebecca; Merne, Marina; Staab, Claudia A; Nilsson, Jan Anders; Höög, Jan-Olov; Dressler, Dirk; Engelhart, Karin; Grafström, Roland C

    2007-12-01

    In vitro models are currently not considered to be suitable replacements for animals in experiments to assess the multiple factors that underlie the development of cancer as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals. An evaluation was conducted on the potential use of normal keratinocytes, the SV40 T-antigen-immortalised keratinocyte cell line, SVpgC2a, and the carcinoma cell line, SqCC/Y1, alone and in combination, and under standardised serum-free culture conditions, to study oral cancer progression. In addition, features considered to be central to cancer development as a result of environmental exposure to chemicals, were analysed. Genomic expression, and enzymatic and functional data from the cell lines reflected many aspects of the transition of normal tissue epithelium, via dysplasia, to full malignancy. The composite cell line model develops aberrances in proliferation, terminal differentiation and apoptosis, in a similar manner to oral cancer progression in vivo. Transcript and protein profiling links aberrations in multiple gene ontologies, molecular networks and tumour biomarker genes (some proposed previously, and some new) in oral carcinoma development. Typical specific changes include the loss of tumour-suppressor p53 function and of sensitivity to retinoids. Environmental agents associated with the aetiology of oral cancer differ in their requirements for metabolic activation, and cause toxic effects to cells in both the normal and the transformed states. The results suggest that the model might be useful for studies on the sensitivity of cells to chemicals at different stages of cancer progression, including many aspects of the integrated roles of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Overall, the properties of the SVpgC2a and SqCC/Y1 cell lines, relative to normal epithelial cells in monolayer or organotypic culture, support their potential applicability to mechanistic studies on cancer risk factors, including, in particular, the definition of

  9. Transmural anoxic wave front and regional dysfunction during early ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaide, H; Taira, Y; Nakamura, M

    1987-08-01

    The relative time courses of early changes in myocardial metabolism and function during anoxia, global ischemia, and regional ischemia were compared in isolated rat hearts. Transmural anoxic wave front was determined with NADH fluorescence photography, and oxygen saturation of myoglobin and dynamic systolic wall thickening were measured with spectrophotometry of light transmitted through the left ventricular free wall. In all three treatments, anoxic wave front first appeared in the subendocardium and reached the epicardial half of the myocardium in 10 s, when oxygen saturation of myoglobin decreased by 50% and tissue ATP and creatine phosphate remained at aerobic levels. During this period, systolic wall thickening decreased gradually in anoxia and global ischemia, whereas a marked decrease in systolic wall thickening and appearance of dyskinesia (wall thinning) occurred in regional ischemia. Thus the early extension of anoxic wave front and metabolic changes are similar with all three treatments, and dyskinesia, observed only in case of regional ischemia, occurs when the inner half is ischemic or anoxic.

  10. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  11. Iodination as a probe for small regions of disrupted secondary structure in double-stranded DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank; Nes, Ingolf F.; Wells, Robert D.

    1976-01-01

    , if they existed within an otherwise helical DNA fragment 789 base pairs long. Iodination studies were performed on superhelical SV40 DNA and on linear plac DNA. Analysis of the relative amount of iodine in restriction endonuclease fragments of these DNAs revealed the absence of localized single-stranded regions....

  12. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    All human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) early mRNAs are polyadenylated at the poly(A) signal within the early 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). The 3'end of the early E5 open reading frame and the 3'UTR of HPV-16 is very AU-rich, with five regions similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (...

  13. The block of adipocyte differentiation by a C-terminally truncated, but not by full-length, simian virus 40 large tumor antigen is dependent on an intact retinoblastoma susceptibility protein family binding domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, C; Chatterjee, S.; Cherington, V

    1996-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) can promote cell transformation and suppress differentiation. It does this partly by targeting tumor suppressors such as p53 and members of the retinoblastoma susceptibility protein (Rb) family. This work concentrates on mechanisms by which SV40 large tumor antigen (SVLT) suppresses adipocyte differentiation. We created cell lines derived from murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes expressing different versions of SV40 early-region sequences. SVLT-expressing cells failed to exhibi...

  14. [Factors associated with early weaning in a Spanish region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, J M; Ortuño, J; Rivas, C; Maravall, M; Calzado, M A; López, A; Aguar, M; Vento, M

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding has undoubtedly great benefits. Previous studies have foundan early dropout. Only a few studies have investigated related factors. Our aim was to find out on-going breastfeeding rates along the first 12 months after birth and analyse factors associated with early weaning. This is a prospective study including consecutive pairs (mother and newborn) till completion of the required sample. Variables were collected performing a structured program of surveys to the mothers. Bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. A total of 452 pairs were recruited. It was found that 81% of them started breastfeeding, with a prevalence of breastfeeding of 39% and 21% at 3 and 6 months after birth, respectively. Factors associated with early discontinuation of breastfeeding were: pregnancy induced by assisted reproduction methods (OR=5.58; 95% CI: 2.62-11.91), maternal smoking (OR=1.56; 95% CI: 1.10-2.22), poor maternal expectations about the duration of breastfeeding (OR=2.19; 95% CI: 1.49-3.23), use of nipple shields for breastfeeding (OR=2.57; 95% CI: 1.69-3.90), pacifier use on a regular basis during the first month after delivery (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.91), maternal university educational level (OR=0,59; 95% CI: 0,40-0,88), attending birth preparation programs during pregnancy (OR=0,68; 95% CI: 0,49-0,94), and believing having enough milk output at the time of discharge (OR=0,66; 95% CI: 0,47-0,92). International recommendations about duration of breastfeeding are not achieved in our country because of high rates of early weaning. We describe the known factors involved and other novel factors. The implementation of interventions to increase breastfeeding rates and to prevent early weaning are strongly recommended. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of cells transformed by Ad5/Ad12 hybrid early region I plasmids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Houweling, A.; Schrier, P.I.; Bos, J.L.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    Early region I (EI) of the human adenoviruses consists of two transcriptional units, EIa and EIb. We have constructed plasmids containing hybrid EI regions from the nononcogenic adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and the highly oncogenic Ad12. Each plasmid essentially contains the EIa region of one serotype

  16. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marvin So; Yianni A Ellenikiotis; Hannah M Husby; Cecilia Leonor Paz; Brittany Seymour; Karen Sokal-Gutierrez

    2017-01-01

    .... To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study...

  17. The Construction of Early-warning Index System in Regional Circular Economy of China

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Yanqing; Zhang Rui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the model of early warning system for circular economy development system was studied, the early-warning system for circular economy provides a quantitative model to support the pollution control. Specifically, this paper built an early warning index system of regional circular economy, and put forward the measure model for the development of circular economy. In addition, this paper constructed prediction model of the circulation economy development. Finally, by the proposed e...

  18. Regional odontodysplasia in early childhood: A clinical and histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana O

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (RO is a rare disorder of dental development. The affected teeth are clinically hypoplastic and hypocalcified, presenting a ghost-like appearance radiographically. The aim of this work was to report a clinical case of a child with both primary and permanent dentition affected by RO. The conducted therapy was based on a conservative approach, which consisted of follow-up clinical evaluations of the anomalous teeth. However, the endodontic treatment of the primary incisors failed. Then, the chosen option for patient rehabilitation became extraction followed by removable of prosthesis confection. The extracted teeth were processed for histological analysis. In spite of the uncertain prognosis, but taking into account the psychological aspects of the patient, a conservative approach in an attempt to maintain those viable teeth in the oral cavity should be established.

  19. Increased Vascularization in the Vulnerable Upstream Regions of Both Early and Advanced Human Carotid Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Hjelmgren

    Full Text Available Vascularization of atherosclerotic plaques has been linked to plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to test if the vascularization was increased in upstream regions of early atherosclerotic carotid plaques and also to test if the same pattern of vascularization was seen in complicated, symptomatic plaques.We enrolled 45 subjects with early atherosclerotic lesions for contrast enhanced ultrasound and evaluated the percentage of plaque area in a longitudinal ultrasound section which contained contrast agent. Contrast-agent uptake was evaluated in both the upstream and downstream regions of the plaque. We also collected carotid endarterectomy specimens from 56 subjects and upstream and downstream regions were localized using magnetic resonance angiography and analyzed using histopathology and immunohistochemistry.Vascularization was increased in the upstream regions of early carotid plaques compared with downstream regions (30% vs. 23%, p = 0.033. Vascularization was also increased in the upstream regions of advanced atherosclerotic lesions compared with downstream regions (4.6 vs. 1.4 vessels/mm2, p = 0.001 and was associated with intra-plaque hemorrhage and inflammation.Vascularization is increased in the upstream regions of both early and advanced plaques and is in advanced lesions mainly driven by inflammation.

  20. Left hemisphere regions are critical for language in the face of early left focal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R; Levine, Susan C; Small, Steven L

    2010-06-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during category fluency in participants who had sustained pre- or perinatal left hemisphere stroke (n = 25) and in neurologically normal siblings (n = 27). In typically developing children, performance of a category fluency task elicits strong involvement of left frontal and lateral temporal regions and a lesser involvement of right hemisphere structures. In our cohort of atypically developing participants with early stroke, expressive and receptive language skills correlated with activity in the same left inferior frontal regions that support language processing in neurologically normal children. This was true independent of either the amount of brain injury or the extent that the injury was located in classical cortical language processing areas. Participants with bilateral activation in left and right superior temporal-inferior parietal regions had better language function than those with either predominantly left- or right-sided unilateral activation. The advantage conferred by left inferior frontal and bilateral temporal involvement demonstrated in our study supports a strong predisposition for typical neural language organization, despite an intervening injury, and argues against models suggesting that the right hemisphere fully accommodates language function following early injury.

  1. An early historic assemblage offshore of Godawaya, Sri Lanka: Evidence for early regional seafaring in South Asia.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muthucumarana, R.; Gaur, A.S.; Chandraratne, W.M.; Manders, M.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.

    in the site museum. The quern stones from Godawaya site are very similar to those reported from early historic sites of Ramba and Yatala monasteries. The symbols such as Srivasta, Nandipad and a  fish on the quern stone of Godawaya site suggest Buddhist... in ancient India was published by Govind (1970) suggest similar type of composition and appears to be like soda-lime glass. Since not much study on the chemical composition of ancient glass has been made from the region, thus a comparison of these glass...

  2. [Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis] / Ulrike Plath

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Plath, Ulrike, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Communication in the early modern Baltic Sea region = Kommunikatsioon varauusaegses Läänemereruumis. Hrsg. von Enn Küng, Mati Laur, Kersti Lust. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal 2009. Nr. 3/4 (129/130). (Tartu 2010)

  3. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in three regions in Tanzania; successes and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, Mercy G.; Mmbando, Bruno M.; Theilgaard, Zarah P.

    2013-01-01

    The study showed an increase in testing of HIV exposed infants within the three years, there is large variations of HIV prevalence among the regions. Challenges like; sample turnaround time and LTFU must be overcome before this can translate into the intended goal of early initiation of lifelong...

  4. Early Childhood Safety Education: An Overview of Safety Curriculum in Outer Metropolitan, Regional and Rural NSW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Jennifer; Saltmarsh, Sue; Klopper, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on preliminary findings from a 2008 survey and telephone interviews with 27 directors of early childhood education and care (ECEC) services located in regional and rural districts of the Australian state of New South Wales. Data from the study suggests that some areas of safety education--most notably road/traffic safety and…

  5. Avian finds from the Early Neolithic settlement near Kapitan-Dimitrievo village (Pazardzhik Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLATOZAR BOEV

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two finds of Great bustard (Otis tarda and Rook (Corvus frugilegus have been identified among the materials of the kitchen debris from the Early Neolithic (ca. 6000 BP settlement near Kapitan-Dimitrievo village (Pazardzhik Region. They indicate open grassland habitats in its vicinities.

  6. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were positively correlated with the age of onset of hearing aid use and were negatively correlated with the percentage of lifetime hearing aid use in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that earlier and longer hearing aid use may inhibit cross-modal reorganization in early deaf subjects. Granger

  7. Matrix attachment region combinations increase transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Peng; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Chang-Zheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Jun-He; Chen, Shao-Nan; Jia, Yan-Long; Wang, Tian-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human β-interferon and β-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus (SV) 40 promoter. These were transfected into CHO-K1 cells, which were screened with geneticin; eGFP expression was detected by flow cytometry. The presence of MAR elements increased transfection efficiency and transient and stably expression of eGFP expression under both promoters; the level was higher when the two MARs differed (i.e., iMAR and gMAR) under the CMV but not the SV40 promoter. For the latter, two gMARs showed the highest activity. We also found that MARs increased the ratio of stably transfected positive colonies. These results indicate that combining the CMV promoter with two different MAR elements or the SV40 promoter with two gMARs is effective for inducing high expression level and stability of transgenes. PMID:28216629

  8. DETERMINANTS OF EARLY RETIREMENT TRANSITIONS OF TEACHERS IN POLAND. DOES REGIONAL HETEROGENEITY PLAY A ROLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kopycka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the literature on early retirement transitions by testing a line of explanations of this phenomenon in a specific context of public sector employment. It utilizes waves 2006 and 2007 of a longitudinal data set of employment histories of Polish teachers (SIO. Standard structural explanations of early retirement transitions, i.e. labor force restructuring and devaluation of human capital of older workers do not find support in the data. Multilevel logistic regression models show instead that the considerable variance in early retirement risks found in the data can to some degree be explained by labour mobility of prime aged teachers, supporting the thesis of a labor market as generational figuration. The analyses identify two early emploment groups among Polish teachers: 49–54, and 55–59 year olds. Whereas retirement transitions in the younger group are to a greater extent attributable to individual pull factors (like work commitment, regional variation plays a greater role in the older “early retirees” group indicating higher risks of involuntary early retirement in this group.

  9. Tetrapod-like axial regionalization in an early ray-finned fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallan, Lauren Cole

    2012-01-01

    Tetrapods possess up to five morphologically distinct vertebral series: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and caudal. The evolution of axial regionalization has been linked to derived Hox expression patterns during development and the demands of weight-bearing and walking on land. These evolutionary and functional explanations are supported by an absence of similar traits in fishes, living and extinct. Here, I show that, Tarrasius problematicus, a marine ray-finned fish from the Mississippian (Early Carboniferous; 359–318 Ma) of Scotland, is the first non-tetrapod known to possess tetrapod-like axial regionalization. Tarrasius exhibits five vertebral regions, including a seven-vertebrae ‘cervical’ series and a reinforced ‘sacrum’ over the pelvic area. Most vertebrae possess processes for intervertebral contact similar to tetrapod zygapophyses. The fully aquatic Tarrasius evolved these morphologies alongside other traits convergent with early tetrapods, including a naked trunk, and a single median continuous fin. Regional modifications in Tarrasius probably facilitated pelagic swimming, rather than a terrestrial lifestyle or walking gait, presenting an alternative scenario for the evolution of such traits in tetrapods. Axial regionalization in Tarrasius could indicate tetrapod-like Hox expression patterns, possibly representing the primitive state for jawed vertebrates. Alternately, it could signal a weaker relationship, or even a complete disconnect, between Hox expression domains and vertebrate axial plans. PMID:22628471

  10. Planning early childhood audiologic intervention programs on a regional scale: introduction to an Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzan, E; Ciciriello, E

    2016-02-01

    Non-uniform, late, or inappropriate care of childhood with permanent hearing impairment (PHI) predisposes many children to develop communicative- behaviour problems and impaired psychosocial adjustment that can persist in adolescence and adulthood.In March 2014, the CCM (Centro Controllo Malattie or Disease Control Centre) of the Italian Ministry of Health funded a project entitled " Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for Early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children". The project involved 5 tertiary centres with UNHS programs formally approved by the Region. The main purpose of the project is to define and launch an integrated regionally-based public health model for identification, diagnosis and intervention of childhood PHI. The first phase of the project investigated the state of art and produced recommendations for positive changes in identification, diagnosis, therapy and care of childhood PHI in Italy, taking into account diagnostic and treatment innovations, family empowerment, treatment alliance and an interdisciplinary approach. Recommendations drawn from this initial phase will represent the basis for a regional system for early intervention that is validated, integrated and shared between the five regions. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  11. Real-Time Performance of PRESTo Earthquake Early Warning System at the Ibero-Maghrebian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Marta; Cruz, Eva; Buforn, Elisa; Zollo, Aldo

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the first correlations for an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) at the Ibero-Maghrebian region have been developed. In order to validate them, we have adapted the Earthquake Early Warning System software platform PRESTo to operate in real time at the Ibero-Maghrebian region. After the period of configuration, it became operative on October 2015, sending warnings to few private users. Here we show the performance of the system during the first 15 months that the EEWS has been operative. More than 400 earthquakes have been detected at the region during the period, for which we have analysed the time needed to issue the alert. We have also compared the first and final estimation of PRESTo with those of the Instituto Geográfico Nacional, for the hipocentral location, origin time and magnitude. A detailed study of the performance of PRESTo for the Alboran 01/25/2016 (Mw=6.3) earthquake, the largest occurred in the region in the last ten years, has been carried out. From the analysis of PRESTo during this period we conclude that an EEWS is feasible and very useful for the Ibero-Maghrebian region.

  12. Early Pollen Sensitization in Children Is Dependent upon Regional Aeroallergen Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aeroallergen sensitization occurs at an earlier age than previously noted. The purpose of this paper was to identify which pollens cause early sensitization in young children presenting with rhinitis symptoms. Methods. This paper was a retrospective analysis of skin test results from 2- to 8-year-old patients presenting with a history consistent with allergic rhinitis. Patients were tested to aeroallergens common to the Great Basin along with a histamine and saline control. Pollen counts were obtained from a Reno, NV-certified counting station. Results. 123 children less than 8 years of age were identified. Over 50% of these children were sensitized to at least one aeroallergen. Chemopodaciae, timothy, alfalfa, black walnut, olive, mountain cedar and willow were predominating sensitizing aeroallergens of the Great Basin Region. Pollen counts were notable for a early spring peak for the tree season, grass season in May and weed season in August. Pollen levels continued to November at low levels. Discussion. Aeroallergens causing early sensitization differed from those which had predominately been reported in other regions of the United States. Pediatric allergists should consider performing a local review of sensitizing aeroallergens in their region to assist with identification and management of allergic rhinitis in their youngest patients. Please make style changes as appropriate.

  13. Controversial Questions of the Early Neolithic Studies in the Mari Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vybornov A.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some debatable questions of cultural identity, origin and correlation between the different Neolithic sites in the territory of the Mari Volga region, located at the junction of forest-steppe Volga River, Sura River and Lower Kama areas as well as the Upper Volga. The Early Neolithic of this region is characterized by presence of pottery without ornamentation and stroke ware. In the Late Neolithic, the sites with the pottery of Kama culture and of pit-comb type were spread there. The author suggests his own version of development of Neolithic cultures in this region, based on typological approaches and the results of radiocarbon dating and technological analysis of the pottery. Spread of ware without ornamentation seems to be preceding the stroke ware, and both traditions in the Mari land were under the cultural impact of the forest-steppe Volga population.

  14. Region-specific disturbed iron distribution in early idiopathic Parkinson's disease measured by quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Naying; Ling, Huawei; Ding, Bei; Huang, Juan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Zhongping; Liu, Chunlei; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Fuhua

    2015-11-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), iron elevation in specific brain regions as well as selective loss of dopaminergic neurons is a major pathologic feature. A reliable quantitative measure of iron deposition is a potential biomarker for PD and may contribute to the investigation of iron-mediated PD. The primary purpose of this study is to assess iron variations in multiple deep grey matter nuclei in early PD with a novel MRI technique, quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). The inter-group differences of susceptibility and R2* value in deep grey matter nuclei, namely head of caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (PUT), global pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), and red nucleus (RN), and the correlations between regional iron deposition and the clinical features were explored in forty-four early PD patients and 35 gender and age-matched healthy controls. Susceptibility values were found to be elevated within bilateral SN and RN contralateral to the most affected limb in early PD compared with healthy controls (HCs). The finding of increased susceptibility in bilateral SN is consistent with work on a subgroup of patients at the earliest clinical detectable state (Hoehn and Yahr [1967]: Neurology 17:427-442; Stage I). However, increased R2* values were only seen within SN contralateral to the most affected limb in the PD group when compared with controls. Furthermore, bilateral SN magnetic susceptibility positively correlated with disease duration and UPDRS-III scores in early PD. This finding supports the potential value of QSM as a non-invasive quantitative biomarker of early PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regional seismic hazard for Revithoussa, Greece: an earthquake early warning Shield and selection of alert signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of an earthquake early warning Shield in Greece is being explored as a European demonstration project. This will be the first early warning system in Europe. The island of Revithoussa is a liquid natural gas storage facility near Athens from which a pipeline runs to a gas distribution centre in Athens. The Shield is being centred on these facilities. The purpose here is to analyze seismicity and seismic hazard in relation to the Shield centre and the remote sensor sites in the Shield network, eventually to help characterize the hazard levels, seismic signals and ground vibration levels that might be observed or create an alert situation at a station. Thus this paper mainly gives estimation of local seismic hazard in the regional working area of Revithoussa by studying extreme peak ground acceleration (PGA and magnitudes. Within the Shield region, the most important zone to be detected is WNW from the Shield centre and is at a relatively short distance (50 km or less, the Gulf of Corinth (active normal faults region. This is the critical zone for early warning of strong ground shaking. A second key region of seismicity is at an intermediate distance (100 km or more from the centre, the Hellenic seismic zone south or southeast from Peloponnisos. A third region to be detected would be the northeastern region from the centre and is at a relatively long distance (about 150 km, Lemnos Island and neighboring region. Several parameters are estimated to characterize the seismicity and hazard. These include: the 50-year PGA with 90% probability of not being exceeded (pnbe using Theodulidis & Papazachos strong motion attenuation for Greece, PGANTP; the 50-year magnitude and also at the 90% pnbe, M50 and MP50, respectively. There are also estimates of the earthquake that is most likely to be felt at a damaging intensity level, these are the most perceptible earthquakes at intensities VI, VII and VIII with magnitudes MVI, MVII and MVIII

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in early-onset anorexia nervosa before and after weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Ozono, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in early-onset anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after weight gain, we examined resting rCBF using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with [(123)I]iodoamphetamine ((123)I-IMP). Ten female children with AN (mean age 13.2 years old) participated in this study. SPECT examinations were performed in all patients twice at the beginning of treatment and after weight gain. The mean body mass index (BMI) was changed from 13.1 to 16.6 during 4 months treatment period. Automatic voxel-based analysis of the images was carried out using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. Relatively increased rCBF in the bilateral parietal lobe and limbic lobe including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were observed after weight gain in early-onset AN. There was no significant decrease in the rCBF after weight gain. A significant positive correlation was observed between BMI and rCBF in the right thalamus, right parietal lobe, and right cerebellum. These results suggested that weight gain during the process of recovery from early-onset AN might activate specific brain regions which are possibly relevant to the pathophysiological aspects of the disorder. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PRESSCA: A regional operative Early Warning System for landslides risk scenario assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponziani, Francesco; Stelluti, Marco; Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2013-04-01

    The Italian national alert system for the hydraulic and hydrogeological risk is ensured by the National Civil Protection Department, through the "Functional Centres" Network, together with scientific/technical Support Centres, named "Competence Centres". The role of the Functional Centres is to alert regional/national civil protection network, to manage the prediction and the monitoring phases, thus ensuring the flow of data for the management of the emergency. The Umbria regional alerting procedure is based on three increasing warning levels of criticality for 6 sub-areas (~1200 km²). Specifically, for each duration (from 1 to 48 hours), three criticality levels are assigned to the rainfall values corresponding to a recurrence interval of 2, 5, and 10 years. In order to improve confidence on the daily work for hydrogeological risk assessment and management, a simple and operational early warning system for the prediction of shallow landslide triggering on regional scale was implemented. The system is primarily based on rainfall thresholds, which represent the main element of evaluation for the early-warning procedures of the Italian Civil Protection system. Following previous studies highlighting that soil moisture conditions play a key role on landslide triggering, a continuous physically-based soil water balance model was implemented for the estimation of soil moisture conditions over the whole regional territory. In fact, a decreasing trend between the cumulated rainfall values over 24, 36 and 48 hours and the soil moisture conditions prior to past landslide events was observed. This trend provides an easy-to-use tool to dynamically adjust the operational rainfall thresholds with the soil moisture conditions simulated by the soil water balance model prior to rainfall events. The application of this procedure allowed decreasing the uncertainties tied to the application of the rainfall thresholds only. The system is actually operational in real-time and it was

  18. Regional asynchronicity in dairy production and processing in early farming communities of the northern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono Spiteri, Cynthianne; Gillis, Rosalind E; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Castells Navarro, Laura; Guilaine, Jean; Manen, Claire; Muntoni, Italo M; Saña Segui, Maria; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Whelton, Helen L; Craig, Oliver E; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evershed, Richard P

    2016-11-29

    In the absence of any direct evidence, the relative importance of meat and dairy productions to Neolithic prehistoric Mediterranean communities has been extensively debated. Here, we combine lipid residue analysis of ceramic vessels with osteo-archaeological age-at-death analysis from 82 northern Mediterranean and Near Eastern sites dating from the seventh to fifth millennia BC to address this question. The findings show variable intensities in dairy and nondairy activities in the Mediterranean region with the slaughter profiles of domesticated ruminants mirroring the results of the organic residue analyses. The finding of milk residues in very early Neolithic pottery (seventh millennium BC) from both the east and west of the region contrasts with much lower intensities in sites of northern Greece, where pig bones are present in higher frequencies compared with other locations. In this region, the slaughter profiles of all domesticated ruminants suggest meat production predominated. Overall, it appears that milk or the by-products of milk was an important foodstuff, which may have contributed significantly to the spread of these cultural groups by providing a nourishing and sustainable product for early farming communities.

  19. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...... distribution correlated with age (r = 0.12-0.21, P bone mineral density decreased with both YSM (r = -0.30, P ....001) and age (r = -0.21, P fat and fat distribution are more dependent on age than on menopause, but we cannot exclude a separate effect of the menopause. Changes in fat-free mass, including a postmenopausal decline in both soft lean tissue mass...

  20. Design of a reliable and operational landslide early warning system at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Michele; Piciullo, Luca; Gariano, Stefano Luigi; Melillo, Massimo; Brunetti, Maria Teresa; Peruccacci, Silvia; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2017-04-01

    Landslide early warning systems at regional scale are used to warn authorities, civil protection personnel and the population about the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides over wide areas, typically through the prediction and measurement of meteorological variables. A warning model for these systems must include a regional correlation law and a decision algorithm. A regional correlation law can be defined as a functional relationship between rainfall and landslides; it is typically based on thresholds of rainfall indicators (e.g., cumulated rainfall, rainfall duration) related to different exceedance probabilities of landslide occurrence. A decision algorithm can be defined as a set of assumptions and procedures linking rainfall thresholds to warning levels. The design and the employment of an operational and reliable early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides at regional scale depend on the identification of a reliable correlation law as well as on the definition of a suitable decision algorithm. Herein, a five-step process chain addressing both issues and based on rainfall thresholds is proposed; the procedure is tested in a landslide-prone area of the Campania region in southern Italy. To this purpose, a database of 96 shallow landslides triggered by rainfall in the period 2003-2010 and rainfall data gathered from 58 rain gauges are used. First, a set of rainfall thresholds are defined applying a frequentist method to reconstructed rainfall conditions triggering landslides in the test area. In the second step, several thresholds at different exceedance probabilities are evaluated, and different percentile combinations are selected for the activation of three warning levels. Subsequently, within steps three and four, the issuing of warning levels is based on the comparison, over time and for each combination, between the measured rainfall and the pre-defined warning level thresholds. Finally, the optimal percentile combination to be employed in

  1. Cell and molecular biology of simian virus 40: implications for human infections and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.; Lednicky, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40), a polyomavirus of rhesus macaque origin, was discovered in 1960 as a contaminant of polio vaccines that were distributed to millions of people from 1955 through early 1963. SV40 is a potent DNA tumor virus that induces tumors in rodents and transforms many types of cells in culture, including those of human origin. This virus has been a favored laboratory model for mechanistic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and of cellular transformation. The viral replication protein, named large T antigen (T-ag), is also the viral oncoprotein. There is a single serotype of SV40, but multiple strains of virus exist that are distinguishable by nucleotide differences in the regulatory region of the viral genome and in the part of the T-ag gene that encodes the protein's carboxyl terminus. Natural infections in monkeys by SV40 are usually benign but may become pathogenic in immunocompromised animals, and multiple tissues can be infected. SV40 can replicate in certain types of simian and human cells. SV40-neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated polio vaccines. SV40 DNA has been identified in some normal human tissues, and there are accumulating reports of detection of SV40 DNA and/or T-ag in a variety of human tumors. This review presents aspects of replication and cell transformation by SV40 and considers their implications for human infections and disease pathogenesis by the virus. Critical assessment of virologic and epidemiologic data suggests a probable causative role for SV40 in certain human cancers, but additional studies are necessary to prove etiology.

  2. Outflow-confined H ii Regions. II. The Early Break-out Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kei E. I.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Staff, Jan E.; Zhang, Yichen

    2017-11-01

    In this series of papers, we model the formation and evolution of the photoionized region and its observational signatures during massive star formation. Here, we focus on the early breakout of the photoionized region into the outflow cavity. Using results of 3D magnetohydrodynamic-outflow simulations and protostellar evolution calculations, we perform a post-processing radiative transfer. The photoionized region first appears at a protostellar mass of {m}* =10 {M}ȯ in our fiducial model and is confined to within 10–100 au by the dense inner outflow, which is similar to some of the observed very small hypercompact H ii regions. Since the ionizing luminosity of the massive protostar increases dramatically as the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) contraction proceeds, the photoionized region breaks out to the entire outflow region in ≲10,000 year. Accordingly, the radio free–free emission brightens significantly in this stage. In our fiducial model, the radio luminosity at 10 GHz changes from 0.1 {mJy} {{kpc}}2 at {m}* =11 {M}ȯ to 100 {mJy} {{kpc}}2 at {m}* =16 {M}ȯ , while the infrared luminosity increases by less than a factor of two. The radio spectral index also changes in the break-out phase from the optically thick value of ∼2 to the partially optically thin value of ∼0.6. Additionally, we demonstrate that short-timescale variation in the free–free flux would be induced by an accretion burst. The outflow density is enhanced in the accretion burst phase, which leads to a smaller ionized region and weaker free–free emission. The radio luminosity may decrease by one order of magnitude during such bursts, while the infrared luminosity is much less affected because internal protostellar luminosity dominates over accretion luminosity after the KH contraction starts. Such a variability may be observable on timescales as short 10–100 year if accretion bursts are driven by disk instabilities.

  3. The early postnatal pattern of vesicle formation in different regions of the porcien small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Weström, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the early postnatal period, the permeability of the piglet small intestine is high to compensate for the absence of trans-placental transfer of immunoglobulins during the fetal period. Vesicles, which mainly reflect the uptake of macromolecules and other colostral/milk components, were studied...... in three different regions of the small intestine - proximal, mid and distal - in a total of twelve piglets on day 0 (unsuckled and colostrums-fed), 2 and 6 (all suckled). Tissues were sampled and prepared for light microscopy (paraffin and cryo) and trans-electron microscopy. Different methods were...... present. They disappeared after 2 days (gut closure) and on day 6 adult-looking epithelial cells were present. In the distal region of day 0 pigs digestion vesicles/flocculent vesicles were observed in the cytoplasma. The vesicles appeared empty but with eosinophilic, PAS+ and electron dense...

  4. Influence of early linguistic experience on regional dialect categorization by an adult cochlear implant user: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamati, Terrin N; Gilbert, Jaimie L; Pisoni, David B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of a cochlear implant user to categorize talkers by region of origin and examine the influence of prior linguistic experience on the perception of regional dialect variation. A postlingually deafened adult cochlear implant user from the Southern region of the United States completed a six-alternative forced-choice dialect categorization task. The cochlear implant user was most accurate at categorizing unfamiliar talkers from his own region and another familiar dialect region, and least accurate at categorizing talkers from less familiar regions. Although the dialect-specific information made available by a cochlear implant may be degraded compared with information available to normal-hearing listeners, this experienced cochlear implant user was able to reliably categorize unfamiliar talkers by region of origin. The participant made use of dialect-specific acoustic-phonetic information in the speech signal and previously stored knowledge of regional dialect differences from early exposure before implantation despite an early hearing loss.

  5. Brain Regions Related to Impulsivity Mediate the Effects of Early Adversity on Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Scott; Chaarani, Bader; Kan, Kees-Jan; Spechler, Philip A; Orr, Catherine; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Jurk, Sarah; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Althoff, Robert R; Garavan, Hugh

    2017-08-15

    Individual differences in impulsivity and early adversity are known to be strong predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior. However, the neurobiological bases of impulsivity and their relation to antisocial behavior and adversity are poorly understood. Impulsivity was estimated with a temporal discounting task. Voxel-based morphometry was used to determine the brain structural correlates of temporal discounting in a large cohort (n = 1830) of 14- to 15-year-old children. Mediation analysis was then used to determine whether the volumes of brain regions associated with temporal discounting mediate the relation between adverse life events (e.g., family conflict, serious accidents) and antisocial behaviors (e.g., precocious sexual activity, bullying, illicit substance use). Greater temporal discounting (more impulsivity) was associated with 1) lower volume in frontomedial cortex and bilateral insula and 2) greater volume in a subcortical region encompassing the ventral striatum, hypothalamus and anterior thalamus. The volume ratio between these cortical and subcortical regions was found to partially mediate the relation between adverse life events and antisocial behavior. Temporal discounting is related to regions of the brain involved in reward processing and interoception. The results support a developmental imbalance model of impulsivity and are consistent with the idea that negative environmental factors can alter the developing brain in ways that promote antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Irregular oscillatory patterns in the early-time region of coherent phonon generation in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yohei; Hino, Ken-ichi; Hase, Muneaki; Maeshima, Nobuya

    2017-09-01

    Coherent phonon (CP) generation in an undoped Si crystal is theoretically investigated to shed light on unexplored quantum-mechanical effects in the early-time region immediately after the irradiation of ultrashort laser pulses. We examine time signals attributed to an induced charge density of an ionic core, placing the focus on the effects of the Rabi frequency Ω0 c v on the signals; this frequency corresponds to the peak electric-field of the pulse. It is found that at specific Ω0 c v's, where the energy of plasmon caused by photoexcited carriers coincides with the longitudinal-optical phonon energy, the energetically resonant interaction between these two modes leads to striking anticrossings, revealing irregular oscillations with anomalously enhanced amplitudes in the observed time signals. Also, the oscillatory pattern is subject to the Rabi flopping of the excited carrier density that is controlled by Ω0 c v. These findings show that the early-time region is enriched with quantum-mechanical effects inherent in the CP generation, though experimental signals are more or less masked by the so-called coherent artifact due to nonlinear optical effects.

  7. Regional Cultural Enterprises and Cultural Markets in Early Republican China: The Motion Picture as Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the motion picture from foreign amusement to local enterprise was primarily the result of transnational commercial activity linking investors, entrepreneurs, and entertainment professionals. Amid the ongoing urbanization of China’s early Republican period, the enterprises emerging from this activity became increasingly profitable and, as a result, film production and exhibition became regularized phenomena, rooted in identifiable genres and standardized approaches to engaging audiences within the immersive space of the theater. By the early 1920s, those closest to the nascent industry were eager to legitimize its power by portraying the medium as a tool for political and social reform. However, commercial strategies and aesthetics remained relatively undisturbed despite this progressive rhetoric. In geographic terms, motion picture–related enterprises and culture remained strongly regional: affected and constrained by the non-Chinese national industries operating in politically divided China, by competing forms of local popular culture, and by existing geographies of exchange and infrastructure. The early Republican “experimental” period in Chinese cinema was, from an enterprise-centered perspective, one of numerous coexisting subnational cultural centers and zones.

  8. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  9. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A.; Husby, Hannah M.; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011–2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3–6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions. PMID:28531148

  10. SF2/ASF binding region within JC virus NCCR limits early gene transcription in glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleri, Elena; Regan, Patrick; Dolei, Antonina; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret

    2013-05-14

    Patients undergoing immune modulatory therapies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, and individuals with an impaired-immune system, most notably AIDS patients, are in the high risk group of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal demyelinating disease of the white matter caused by human neurotropic polyomavirus, JC virus. It is now widely accepted that pathologic strains of JCV shows unique rearrangements consist of deletions and insertions within viral NCCR. While these kinds of rearrangements are related to viral tropism and pathology of the disease, their roles in molecular regulation of JCV gene expression and replication are unclear. We have previously identified SF2/ASF as a negative regulator of JCV gene expression in glial cells. This negative impact of SF2/ASF was dependent on its ability to bind a specific region mapped to the tandem repeat within viral promoter. In this report, functional role of SF2/ASF binding region in viral gene expression and replication was investigated by using deletion mutants of viral regulatory sequences. The second 98-base-pair tandem repeat on Mad1 strain was first mutated by deletion and named Mad1-(1X98). In addition to this mutant, the CR3 region which served the binding side for SF2/ASF was also mutated and named Mad1-ΔCR3 (1X73). Both mutations were tested for SF2/ASF binding by ChIP assay. While SF2/ASF was associated with Mad1-WT and Mad1-(1X98), its interaction was completely abolished on Mad1-ΔCR3 (1X73) construct as expected. Surprisingly, reporter gene analysis of Mad1-(1X98) and Mad1-ΔCR3 (1X73) early promoter sequences showed two and three fold increase in promoter activities, respectively. The impact of "CR3" region on JCV propagation was also tested on the viral background. While replication of Mad1-(1X98) strain in glial cells was similar to Mad1-WT strain, propagation of Mad1-ΔCR3 (1X73) was less productive. Further analysis of the

  11. Developing Drought Outlook Forums in Support of a Regional Drought Early Warning Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcnutt, C. A.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Darby, L. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Webb, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-430) charged NIDIS with developing the leadership and partnerships necessary to implement an integrated national drought monitoring and forecasting system that creates a drought "early warning system". The drought early warning information system should be capable of providing accurate, timely and integrated information on drought conditions at the relevant spatial scale to facilitate proactive decisions aimed at minimizing the economic, social and ecosystem losses associated with drought. As part of this effort, NIDIS has held Regional Drought Outlook Forums in several regions of the U.S. The purpose of the Forums is to inform practices that reduce vulnerability to drought through an interactive and collaborative process that includes the users of the information. The Forums have focused on providing detailed assessments of present conditions and impacts, comparisons with past drought events, and seasonal predictions including discussion of the state and expected evolution of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena. Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) that include close interaction between information providers and users are not a new concept, however. RCOFs started in Africa in the 1990s in response to the 1997-98 El Niño and have since expanded to South America, Asia, the Pacific islands, and the Caribbean. As a result of feedback from the RCOFs a large body of research has gone into improving seasonal forecasts and the capacity of the users to apply the information in a way that improves their decision-making. Over time, it has become clear that more is involved than just improving the interaction between the climate forecasters and decision-makers. NIDIS is using the RCOF approach as one component in a larger effort to develop Regional Drought Early Warning Information Systems (RDEWS) around the U.S. Using what has been learned over the past decade in the RCOF process

  12. The keys to conservative treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Castelnau-Marchand, P; Rubin, F; Badoual, C; Halimi, P; Giraud, P

    2017-09-01

    To analyze the medical literature devoted to work-up, epidemiology, local control, survival, complications and sequelae after conservative treatment for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region. An analysis of the PubMed (1975-2016) database was performed using the following keywords and associations: "tonsil/tonsillar region/oropharynx" AND "squamous cell carcinoma" AND "early-stage (I-II; T1-2N0M0)" AND "radiation therapy/radiotherapy" OR "conservative surgery/oropharyngectomy/transoral surgery/radical tonsillectomy". The search retrieved 10 retrospective series documenting local control and/or survival in series with more than 50 cases and a minimum 2 years' follow-up after conservative treatment; no prospective studies, meta-analyses and/or Cochrane analyses were found. Magnetic resonance imaging is the key radiological exam for local extension assessment. Human papilloma virus infection (HPV) is a risk factor that must be screened for systematically, since it induces tumoral radio-sensitivity and increases the risk of specific synchronous and metachronous second primaries. Whatever conservative treatment used, local control and survival rates higher than 85% were achieved. Implementing intensity-modulated radiation therapy reduced the incidence and severity of radiation-related complications and sequelae. Transoral surgery yielded very low morbidity/mortality rates, enabled association to ipsilateral neck dissection, and allowed radiation therapy to be reserved for the management of metachronous second primaries. Transoral surgery appeared to be the first-line option in the majority of cases. Lifetime follow-up adapted to HPV status is mandatory. The development of HPV vaccination does not mean that campaigns against smoking and alcohol abuse are of diminished importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic regional pain syndrome after subtalar arthrodesis is not prevented by early hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon T B; Davies, Anthony; Bryson, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Subtalar arthrodesis was performed on a 48-year-old, non-insulin-dependent diabetic with a history of chronic ankle instability and lateral ankle pain. In the early post-operative period he presented as an emergency with an infection at the operative site. This was treated with 2 returns to the operating theatre for washout and debridement. His wounds were left open and at 3 weeks after emergency admission he was referred for adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy to aid healing by secondary intention. He received a total of 19 hyperbaric sessions, at a pressure of 2.2 ATA, one treatment per day for 5 days a week. Shortly after commencing HBO therapy his ankle became increasingly painful, despite the introduction of analgesia. By 7 weeks after emergency admission his wounds had virtually healed but hyperesthesia persisted over the dorsum of the foot. A computerized tomography scan at 5 1/2 months post-operatively showed satisfactory joint fusion and revealed no evidence of infection. Symptoms and signs at this time were compatible with a diagnosis of chronic regional pain syndrome (CRPS). There is published evidence to suggest that HBO therapy may be a useful modality in the treatment of established CRPS. Here, we seek to publicize a case in which early treatment with HBO for another indication did not prevent the simultaneous development of CRPS Type 1.

  14. Early infant diagnosis of HIV in three regions in Tanzania; successes and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiduo, Mercy G; Mmbando, Bruno Paul; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    By the end of 2009 an estimated 2.5 million children worldwide were living with HIV-1, mostly as a consequence of vertical transmission, and more than 90% of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended early initiation of Highly Active Antir...... in HIV prevalences and logistical set-up with regard to HIV DNA testing.......By the end of 2009 an estimated 2.5 million children worldwide were living with HIV-1, mostly as a consequence of vertical transmission, and more than 90% of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO), recommended early initiation of Highly Active...... Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) to all HIV infected infants diagnosed within the first year of life, and since 2010, within the first two years of life, irrespective of CD4 count or WHO clinical stage. The study aims were to describe implementation of EID programs in three Tanzanian regions with differences...

  15. Early Middle Palaeolithic occupations at Ventalaperra cave (Cantabrian Region, Northern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseba Rios-Garaizar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Paleolithic assemblage from Ventalaperra level III, excavated in 1931 by Aranzadi and Barandiarán, was initially interpreted as being Aurignacian, and then as a Late Middle Paleolithic assemblage. Recent excavations at the site undertaken by Ruiz Idarraga and d'Errico have confirmed the Middle Paleolithic attribution, and have additionally produced data on subsistence strategies and environmental conditions. The results obtained from the technological analysis made on level III’s assemblage suggest that its characteristics fit with an Early Middle Paleolithic attribution. The extensive use of local raw materials, the absence of ramified productions, and the use of centripetal (Levallois and Discoid and SSDA flaking systems, link this assemblage with sites like Arlanpe and Lezetxiki VI which have been dated to the end of the Middle Pleistocene, or nearby sites such as Abrigo Rojo, still under study. This reveals a behavioral pattern for Early Middle Paleolithic populations in the eastern Cantabrian Region characterized by an extensive use of the landscape, high mobility, short occupations and a high dependence on local resources to assure subsistence and technological provisioning.

  16. Mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin in the early evaluation of acute chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Philip; Twerenbold, Raphael; Reichlin, Tobias; Faoro, Jonathan; Reiter, Miriam; Meune, Christophe; Steuer, Stephan; Bassetti, Stefano; Ziller, Ronny; Balmelli, Cathrin; Campodarve, Isabel; Zellweger, Christa; Kilchenmann, Ashley; Irfan, Affan; Papassotiriou, Jana; Drexler, Beatrice; Mueller, Christian

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in the early diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with acute chest pain in comparison with established and novel biomarkers and risk scores. In this prospective, observational, international, multi-center trial (APACE), MR-proADM was determined in 1179 unselected patients with acute chest pain. Patients were followed for 24 months. MR-proADM concentrations at presentation were higher in patients with AMI (median: 0.78 nmol/l, IQR 0.60-1.13) than in patients with other diagnoses (0.64 nmol/l, IQR 0.49-0.86 nmol/l; p0.90 nmol/l). Adding MR-proADM to the TIMI-score (AUC 0.87) predicted 1-year mortality more accurately than the TIMI-score alone (AUC 0.82; ppatients with AMI (p=0.015) and in those without AMI (p=0.003). MR-proADM at presentation was tantamount to GRACE score and BNP as to its prognostic accuracy for mortality. The AUC for the prediction of cardiovascular events amounted to 0.63. While MR-proADM does not have clinical utility in the early diagnosis of AMI or predicting cardiovascular events in patients with acute chest pain, it may provide prognostic value for all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tsunami Early Warning for the Indian Ocean Region - Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterjung, Joern; Rudloff, Alexander; Muench, Ute; Gitews Project Team

    2010-05-01

    The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) for the Indian Ocean region has gone into operation in Indonesia in November 2008. The system includes a seismological network, together with GPS stations and a network of GPS buoys additionally equipped with ocean bottom pressure sensors and a tide gauge network. The different sensor systems have, for the most part, been installed and now deliver respective data either online or interactively upon request to the Warning Centre in Jakarta. Before 2011, however, the different components requires further optimization and fine tuning, local personnel needs to be trained and eventual problems in the daily operation have to be dealt with. Furthermore a company will be founded in the near future, which will guarantee a sustainable maintenance and operation of the system. This concludes the transfer from a temporarily project into a permanent service. This system established in Indonesia differs from other Tsunami Warning Systems through its application of modern scientific methods and technologies. New procedures for the fast and reliable determination of strong earthquakes, deformation monitoring by GPS, the modeling of tsunamis and the assessment of the situation have been implemented in the Warning System architecture. In particular, the direct incorporation of different sensors provides broad information already at the early stages of Early Warning thus resulting in a stable system and minimizing breakdowns and false alarms. The warning system is designed in an open and modular structure based on the most recent developments and standards of information technology. Therefore, the system can easily integrate additional sensor components to be used for other multi-hazard purposes e.g. meteorological and hydrological events. Up to now the German project group is cooperating in the Indian Ocean region with Sri Lanka, the Maldives, Iran, Yemen, Tanzania and Kenya to set up the equipment primarily for

  18. Regional brain metabolic response to lorazepam in alcoholics during early and late alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G J; Overall, J E; Hitzemann, R; Fowler, J S; Pappas, N; Frecska, E; Piscani, K

    1997-10-01

    Changes in GABA function have been postulated to be involved in alcohol tolerance, withdrawal and addiction. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission), in alcoholics during early and late withdrawal. Brain metabolism was measured using PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose after placebo (baseline) and after lorazepam (30 micrograms/kg intravenously) in 10 alcoholics and 16 controls. In the alcoholics evaluations were performed 2 to 3 weeks after detoxification and were repeated 6 to 8 weeks later. Controls were also evaluated twice at a 6 to 8 weeks interval. While during the initial evaluation metabolism was significantly lower for most brain regions in the alcoholics than in controls in the repeated evaluation the only significant differences were in cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex. Lorazepam-induced decrements in metabolism did not change with protracted alcohol withdrawal and the magnitude of these changes were similar in controls and alcoholics except for a trend towards a blunted response to lorazepam in orbitofrontal cortex in alcoholics during the second evaluation. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus in alcoholics are unlikely to be due to withdrawal since they persist 8 to 11 weeks after detoxification. The fact that there was only a trend of significance for an abnormal response to lorazepam in orbitofrontal cortex indicates that mechanisms other than GABA are involved in the brain metabolic abnormalities observed in alcoholic subjects.

  19. Snow accumulation/melting model (SAMM for integrated use in regional scale landslide early warning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martelloni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple snow accumulation/melting model (SAMM to be applied at regional scale in conjunction with landslide warning systems based on empirical rainfall thresholds. SAMM is based on two modules modelling the snow accumulation and the snowmelt processes. Each module is composed by two equations: a conservation of mass equation is solved to model snowpack thickness and an empirical equation for the snow density. The model depends on 13 empirical parameters, whose optimal values were defined with an optimisation algorithm (simplex flexible using calibration measures of snowpack thickness. From an operational point of view, SAMM uses as input data only temperature and rainfall measurements, bringing about the additional benefit of a relatively easy implementation. After performing a cross validation and a comparison with two simpler temperature index models, we simulated an operational employment in a regional scale landslide early warning system (EWS and we found that the EWS forecasting effectiveness was substantially improved when used in conjunction with SAMM.

  20. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  1. Structural and Functional Brain Changes at Early and Late Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokouhi, Mahsa; Clarke, Collin; Morley-Forster, Patricia; Moulin, Dwight E; Davis, Karen D; St Lawrence, Keith

    2017-10-14

    Brain plasticity is demonstrated in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), although it is unclear how it modulates at different stages of CRPS. The observation that symptoms can progress over time suggests that the pattern of brain changes might also evolve. We measured structural and functional changes as well as sensorimotor integration at the early stage (ES) and late stage (LS) of CRPS. Twelve ES patients, 16 LS patients, and 16 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Gray matter (GM) volume was estimated using voxel-based morphometry. Cerebral perfusion was measured using arterial spin labeling, because it provides a measure of resting neural activity. Connectivity to sensorimotor regions was evaluated using blood-oxygen level-dependent images. The ES group showed reduced GM volume and perfusion in areas associated with spatial body perception, somatosensory cortex, and the limbic system, whereas the LS group exhibited increased perfusion in the motor cortex but no changes in GM volume. However, in the LS group, GM volume in areas associated with pain processing was negatively correlated with average pain levels, likely reflecting a response to ongoing pain. Furthermore, connectivity to sensorimotor cortex showed disruptions in regions associated with motor control and planning, implying impairment of higher-order motor control. This article presents brain changes at ES and LS of CRPS. We found different patterns of brain changes between these 2 stages. Understanding modulation of brain plasticity at different stages of CRPS could help understand the diversity in outcomes and treatment response and hopefully improve treatment planning. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in nucleosome repeat lengths precede replication in the early replicating metallothionein II gene region of cells synchronized in early S phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Anna, J.A.; Tobey, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-04-04

    Previous investigations showed that inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea, aphidicolin, or 5-fluorodeoxyuridine produced large changes in the composition and nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin. There the authors report results of investigations to determine whether the changes in nucleosome repeat lengths might be localized in the initiated replicons, as postulated. In most experiments, Chinese hamster (line CHO) cells were synchronized in G1, or they were synchronized in early S phase by allowing G1 cells to enter S phase in medium containing 1 mM hydroxyurea or 5 {mu}g mL{sup {minus}1} aphidicolin, a procedure believed to produce an accumulation of initiated replicons that arise from normally early replicating DNA. Measurements of nucleosome repeat lengths of bulk chromatin, the early replicating unexpressed metallothionein II (MTII) gene region, and a later replicating repeated sequence indicate that the changes in repeat lengths occur preferentially in the early replicating MTII gene region as G1 cells enter and become synchronized in early S phase. During that time, the MTII gene region is not replicated nor is there any evidence for induction of MTII messenger RNA. Thus, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in chromatin structure occur preferentially in the early replicating (presumably initiated) replicons at initiation or that changes in chromatin structure can precede replication during inhibition of DNA synthesis. The shortened repeat lengths that precede MTII replication are, potentially, reversible, because they become elongated when the synchronized early S-phase cells are released to resume cell cycle progression.

  3. Ionospheric storm of early November 1993 in the Indian equatorial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastri, J. Hanumath; Jyoti, N.; Somayajulu, V. V.; Chandra, H.; Devasia, C. V.

    2000-08-01

    An investigation is made of the response of equatorial ionosphere in the Indian (75°E) sector to the major magnetic storm of November 3, 1993, using data from the ionosonde and magnetometer networks spanning the region 0.3-34.5°N dip. Some outstanding and new aspects of the storm time ionospheric behaviour are revealed. An anomalous and striking positive gradient in ƒ0F2 from the magnetic equator to 34.5° dip developed under counter electrojet (CEJ) condition in the morning on November 4, corresponding to the early stage of the storm main phase. This storm effect is attributed to plasma transport by a poleward surge in transequatorial winds due to large scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) launched by auroral heating. Remarkable wave-like variations in hpF2 and ƒ0F2 immediately followed at locations away from dip equator till local sunset, with concomitant disruptions in the development of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). Rapid variations in meridional neutral winds due to large-scale AGWs are assessed as the cause of the oscillations in hpF2 and the associated cyclic sequence of development and inhibition of EIA as the outcome of the combined effects of plasma transport due to meridional winds and the plasma "fountain" driven by E×B drift. Just after the onset of the storm recovery phase at 1800 LT, a sudden and anomalous drop (54-57%) in ƒ0F2 prevailed throughout the anomaly region over the interval 1915-2330 LT, with an apparent time delay in occurrence toward the magnetic equator. This premidnight collapse of equatorial F region is interpreted in terms of horizontal transport of plasma across the equator toward the opposite hemisphere by an equatorward surge in meridional winds. The case study showed that besides disturbances in the zonal electric field due to prompt penetration and ionospheric disturbance dynamo effects, perturbations in neutral meridional winds played a prominent role in the ionospheric storm of November 4, 1993, in the

  4. Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events. RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate

  5. Different alterations of cerebral regional homogeneity in early-onset and late-onset Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age.Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen gyrus and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; however, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset.

  6. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. METHODOLOGY: We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal. Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01. Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26-6.59; p<0.0001. Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3% lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8% were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5% showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8% were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide

  7. Left Hemisphere Regions Are Critical for Language in the Face of Early Left Focal Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharelle, Anjali Raja; Dick, Anthony Steven; Josse, Goulven; Solodkin, Ana; Huttenlocher, Peter R.; Levine, Susan C.; Small, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A predominant theory regarding early stroke and its effect on language development, is that early left hemisphere lesions trigger compensatory processes that allow the right hemisphere to assume dominant language functions, and this is thought to underlie the near normal language development observed after early stroke. To test this theory, we…

  8. Data Collection and Use in Early Childhood Education Programs: Evidence from the Northeast Region. Stated Briefly. REL 2015-085

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Jacqueline; Irwin, Clare W.; Kook, Janna Fuccillo; Cox, Josh

    2015-01-01

    This "Stated Briefly" report is a companion piece that summarizes the results of another report of the same name. This study explores how seven early childhood education programs in a mid-sized city in the Northeast region are collecting and using data, how they would like to use data, how they could use the data that they have, and the…

  9. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  10. Early Childhood Development Operations in Latin and Caribbean Region (LCR) : Jamaica, Mexico, and Brazil in Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Peter; Evans, David

    2010-01-01

    The rationale and evidence of the effectiveness of investing early in children is compelling: early childhood is the most rapid period of development in a human life, with incredible brain development occurring (85 percent of the brain is wired by age 5). Investments in Early Childhood Development (ECD) are among the most effective and cost-effective investments a country can make in its p...

  11. Early antenatal care visit: a systematic analysis of regional and global levels and trends of coverage from 1990 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Ann-Beth; Petzold, Max; Chou, Doris; Say, Lale

    2017-10-01

    The timing of the first antenatal care visit is paramount for ensuring optimal health outcomes for women and children, and it is recommended that all pregnant women initiate antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (early antenatal care visit). Systematic global analysis of early antenatal care visits has not been done previously. This study reports on regional and global estimates of the coverage of early antenatal care visits from 1990 to 2013. Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys and national health information systems. Estimates of coverage of early antenatal care visits were generated with linear regression analysis and based on 516 logit-transformed observations from 132 countries. The model accounted for differences by data sources in reporting the cutoff for the early antenatal care visit. The estimated worldwide coverage of early antenatal care visits increased from 40·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 34·6-46·7) in 1990 to 58·6% (52·1-64·3) in 2013, corresponding to a 43·3% increase. Overall coverage in the developing regions was 48·1% (95% UI 43·4-52·4) in 2013 compared with 84·8% (81·6-87·7) in the developed regions. In 2013, the estimated coverage of early antenatal care visits was 24·0% (95% UI 21·7-26·5) in low-income countries compared with 81·9% (76·5-87·1) in high-income countries. Progress in the coverage of early antenatal care visits has been achieved but coverage is still far from universal. Substantial inequity exists in coverage both within regions and between income groups. The absence of data in many countries is of concern and efforts should be made to collect and report coverage of early antenatal care visits to enable better monitoring and evaluation. Department of Reproductive Health and Research, WHO and UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. Copyright © This is an Open Access article published under the

  12. Regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa J; Craven, Paul D; Lakkundi, Anil; Foster, Jann P; Badawi, Nadia

    2015-06-09

    With improvements in neonatal intensive care, more preterm infants are surviving the neonatal period and presenting for surgery in early infancy. Inguinal hernia is the most common condition requiring early surgery, appearing in 38% of infants whose birth weight is between 751 grams and 1000 grams. Approximately 20% to 30% of otherwise healthy preterm infants having general anaesthesia for inguinal hernia surgery at a postmature age have at least one apnoeic episode within the postoperative period. Research studies have failed to adequately distinguish the effects of apnoeic episodes from other complications of extreme preterm gestation on the risk of brain injury, or to investigate the potential impact of postoperative apnoea upon longer term neurodevelopment. In addition to episodes of apnoea, there are concerns that anaesthetic and sedative agents may have a direct toxic effect on the developing brain of preterm infants even after reaching postmature age. It is proposed that regional anaesthesia may reduce the risk of postoperative apnoea, avoid the risk of anaesthetic-related neurotoxicity and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants requiring surgery for inguinal hernia at a postmature age. To determine if regional anaesthesia reduces postoperative apnoea, bradycardia, the use of assisted ventilation, and neurological impairment, in comparison to general anaesthesia, in preterm infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy at a postmature age. The following databases and resources were searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), EMBASE (December 2002 to 25 February 2015), controlled-trials.com and clinicaltrials.gov, reference lists of published trials and abstracts published in Pediatric Research and Pediatric Anesthesia. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of regional (spinal, epidural, caudal) versus general anaesthesia, or

  13. Hypothalamus region-specific global gene expression profiling in early stages of central endocrine disruption in rat neonates injected with estradiol benzoate or flutamide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shibutani, Makoto; Lee, Kyoung-Youl; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Inoue, Kaoru; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Hirose, Masao

    2007-01-01

    To identify genes linked to early stages of disruption of brain sexual differentiation, hypothalamic region-specific microarray analyses were performed using a microdissection technique with neonatal...

  14. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  15. Temporal transcription of the lactococcal temperate phage TP901-1 and DNA sequence of the early promoter region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Hans Peter Lynge; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    , of which at least two (the integrase gene and putative repressor) are needed for lysogeny, and the divergent and longer transcriptional unit from PL, presumably encoding functions required for the lytic life cycle. ORFs with homology to proteins involved in DNA replication were identified on the latter......Transcriptional analysis by Northern blotting identified clusters of early, middle and late transcribed regions of the temperate lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 during one-step growth experiments. The latent period was found to be 65 min and the burst size 40 +/- 10. The eight early transcripts...

  16. The role of the anterior neural ridge and Fgf-8 in early forebrain patterning and regionalization in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleson, Gerald W; Dempewolf, Ryan D

    2002-05-01

    The tissue, cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate early regional specification of the vertebrate forebrain are largely unknown. We studied the expression patterns of Xbf-1, an anterior (and telencephalon) neural-specific winged helix transcription factor and Fgf-8, an early-secreted factor. This study looked at Xbf-1 and Fgf-8 expression in combination with embryonic grafting experiments and also used beads containing the recombinant Fgf-8 protein to determine these factors' effects upon forebrain patterning events. We provide evidence that additional Fgf-8 displaces Xbf-1 expression posteriorly, suggesting a concentration dependence of Fgf-8 for the early distinct regionalization of the telencephalic primordia. Also, additional stage 15 mid-anterior neural ridge (mANR) transplants inhibited telencephalon development, whereas lateral ANR transplants facilitated increased areas of telencephalon development. In both cases, these transplantations promoted ectopic expression of Xbf-1. These studies suggested that the distinct regionalization of the forebrain primordia involves the inhibitory actions of the mANR towards a telencephalon development and maintaining bilateral telencephali. These telencephalic primordia are initially localized by optimal Fgf-8 expression. The anterior mANR will eventually become the anterior and rostral diencephalic tissue. This in vivo study demonstrated Fgf-8 and the mANR are important in forebrain regionalization.

  17. Physical Education of the Soviet Population in the early 1950's (on the Example of the Penza Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Koroleva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy in the field of physical education and sports of the USSR population in the early 1950s at the regional level – in the Penza region. It had the task to train physically strong, healthy, motivated «builders of communism», capable of high-performance labor and defence of the Motherland. The implementation of this area of activity of the Soviet leadership in the region involved the Committee on Physical Culture and Sport under the Penza Regional Executive Committee. The key areas of activity were the preparation of the TRP icons; creation of sports sections and colleges of judges; organization and holding of sports competitions, etc.

  18. The 55 kDa regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A plays a role in the activation of the HPV16 long control region in human cells with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, P. H.; Smits, H. L.; Minnaar, R. P.; Hemmings, B. A.; Mayer-Jaekel, R. E.; Schuurman, R.; van der Noordaa, J.; ter Schegget, J.

    1992-01-01

    Previous results indicated that SV40 small t is essential for SV40-induced transformation of diploid cells but dispensable for the transformation of cells with a deletion on the short arm of chromosome 11 (del-11 cells). From these results we concluded that del-11 cells contain a cellular 'SV40

  19. The 3' region of Human Papillomavirus type 16 early mRNAs decrease expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, J.; Rosenstierne, M.W.; Kristiansen, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Background: High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infects mucosal surfaces and HR-HPV infection is required for development of cervical cancer. Accordingly, enforced expression of the early HR-HPV proteins can induce immortalisation of human cells. In most cervical cancers and cervical cancer...

  20. The Agro Pontino region, refuge after the Early Bronze Age Avellino eruption of Mount Vesuvius, Italy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakels, C.; Sevink, J.; Kuijper, W.; Kamermans, H.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it was discovered that the Middle to Late Holocene infi ll of the Agro Pontino graben (Central Italy) held a tephra layer originating from the Avellino eruption of the Vesuvius volcano. The eruption is dated to 1995 ± 10 calBC and took therefore place during the Early Bronze Age.

  1. Recent star formation in the Hi dominated outer regions of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    Context According to the ATLAS3D project, about 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies (D <42 Mpc; M K < -21.5 mag; stellar mass M stars >~ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside clusters are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (Hi) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much

  2. Protective effects of salidroside on epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Wei-sheng; Gao, Chun-heng; Deng, Li-chun; Shen, Dong

    2012-06-01

    Salidroside [2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside], one of the most potent ingredients extracted from the plant Rhodiola rosea L., has been shown to have a cardiovascular protective effect as an antioxidant, and early treatment of epirubicin-induced cardiotoxicity has been the focus of clinical chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer. However, the cardioprotective effects of salidroside on epirubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, especially early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction, have to date been sparsely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of salidroside in preventing early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction induced by epirubicin. Sixty patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were enrolled. Eligible patients were randomized to receive salidroside (600 mg/day; n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) starting 1 week before chemotherapy. Patients were investigated by means of echocardiography and strain rate (SR) imaging. We also measured plasma concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS). All parameters were assessed at baseline and 7 days after each new epirubicin dose of 100 mg/m2. A decline of the SR peak was observed at an epirubicin dose of 200 mg/m2, with no significant differences between salidroside and placebo (1.35 ± 0.36 vs 1.42 ± 0.49/second). At growing cumulative doses of epirubicin, the SR normalized only with salidroside, showing a significant difference in comparison with placebo at epirubicin doses of 300 mg/m2 (1.67 ± 0.43 vs 1.32 ± 0.53/second, p salidroside. Salidroside can provide a protective effect on epirubicin-induced early left ventricular regional systolic dysfunction in patients with breast cancer.

  3. Early Post-operative Mortality After Major Lower Limb Amputation: A Systematic Review of Population and Regional Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, J J; Fortington, L V; Hinchliffe, R J; Hijmans, J M

    2016-02-01

    Lower limb amputation is often associated with a high risk of early post-operative mortality. Mortality rates are also increasingly being put forward as a possible benchmark for surgical performance. The primary aim of this systematic review is to investigate early post-operative mortality following a major lower limb amputation in population/regional based studies, and reported factors that might influence these mortality outcomes. Embase, PubMed, Cinahl and Psycinfo were searched for publications in any language on 30 day or in hospital mortality after major lower limb amputation in population/regional based studies. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A self developed checklist was used to assess quality and susceptibility to bias. Summary data were extracted for the percentage of the population who died; pooling of quantitative results was not possible because of methodological differences between studies. Of the 9,082 publications identified, results were included from 21. The percentage of the population undergoing amputation who died within 30 days ranged from 7% to 22%, the in hospital equivalent was 4-20%. Transfemoral amputation and older age were found to have a higher proportion of early post-operative mortality, compared with transtibial and younger age, respectively. Other patient factors or surgical treatment choices related to increased early post-operative mortality varied between studies. Early post-operative mortality rates vary from 4% to 22%. There are very limited data presented for patient related factors (age, comorbidities) that influence mortality. Even less is known about factors related to surgical treatment choices, being limited to amputation level. More information is needed to allow comparison across studies or for any benchmarking of acceptable mortality rates. Agreement is needed on key factors to be reported. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Supernumerary Teeth in the Maxillary Anterior Region: The Dilemma of Early Versus Late Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarne, Ofer; Shapira, Yehoshua; Blumer, Sigalit; Finkelstein, Tamar; Schonberger, Shirley; Bechor, Naomi; Shpack, Nir

    2017-09-22

    Supernumerary teeth are the most common developmental dental anomalies in the maxillary anterior region causing interference to the developing permanent incisors resulting in poor dental and facial esthetics. Two different opinions regarding the timing for surgical removal of the supernumerary teeth are presented. In this case report, three brothers with supernumerary teeth in the maxillary anterior region are presented, their surgical and orthodontic management and outcome are discussed.

  5. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in soil records of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological research is fundamental in the process of obtaining a greater understanding on the intricate dynamics between the human species and the 'natural' environment. Deep historical processes can evaluate the complex interactions that eventually led to the human species as the dominating agent, in terms of the Earth's biotic and abiotic processes. Regional landscape studies can determine whether the human species can be evaluated as a formative element in soil formation processes during the Holocene. This study is directed to examine early anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium, between the Late Bronze Age and Early Roman Period (1050-200 AD). The introduction of an extensive agricultural system, the Celtic field system, in co-relation with demographic rise, led to increased anthropogenic pressure on the MDS landscape. Throughout the Holocene, demographic rise pressured farmers to develop increasingly efficient and innovative methods of extracting more yields per unit area farmed resulting in a decrease in land use per capita over time (Kaplan et al. 2010; Boserup, 1965,1981)). The land use per capita under Celtic field technology was relatively high compared to contemporary numbers, based on the assumption that land use per capita did not remain constant. The MDS region is a clear example of early Holocene ALCC and modification of terrestrial ecosystems due to excessive clearance of vegetation. Early Holocene ALCC resulted in ecological deficiencies in the landscape, e.g. deforestation, acceleration of podzolisation and a decrease in terrestrial carbon storage as well as water retention capacity. ALCC can impact climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the atmosphere, and result in regional negative radiative forcing. Here we hypothesize that the previously presumed fundamental restructuring that led to a structural bipartition in the landscape due to

  6. Regional myocardial lidocaine concentration following continuous intravenous infusion early and later after myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, R.A.; Caride, V.J.; Holford, T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1982-09-01

    The regional concentration of lidocaine using a double constant infusion technique (250 micrograms/kg/min x 15 minutes followed by 35 micrograms/kg/mg/min x 120 minutes) was studied immediately (2 hours) in seven dogs and 24 hours (six dogs) after myocardial infarction. Tissue levels were determined by gas chromatography and related to regional myocardial blood flow as determined by the radioactive microsphere technique in multiple samples. At 2 hours after infarction a significantly higher lidocaine concentration (4.1 +/- 0.42 micrograms/g) was found in zones with greatly reduced blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that (2.6 +/- 0.19 micrograms/g) in zones with normal blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow greater than 0.8 ml/min per g) (p less than 0.01). In contrast, in the 24 hour model the opposite situation was observed. Although the concentration of lidocaine in the infarct zone was substantial, a significant decline in lidocaine tissue concentration was found in the zones of lowest blood flow (regional myocardial blood flow less than 0.2 ml/min per g) when compared with that in normal zones (1.76 +/- 0.21 versus 3.38 +/- 0.21 micrograms/g, p less than 0.001). In addition, no significant differences in lidocaine concentrations were found between endocardium and epicardium in any of the groups other than those related to regional myocardial blood flow. Thus, with the double constant infusion technique, lidocaine reached normal and ischemic myocardium in concentrations equivalent to therapeutic plasma concentrations, even in lower infarct blood flow zones, with no significant differences between endocardium and epicardium. Of perhaps greater significance, the age of the ischemic insult is an important determinant of lidocaine tissue distribution in infarcted myocardium.

  7. The UNESCO-IOC framework – establishing an international early warning infrastructure in the Indian Ocean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauterjung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with a magnitude of 9.3, and the subsequent destructive tsunami which caused more than 225 000 fatalities in the region of the Indian Ocean, happened on 26 December 2004. Less than one month later, the United Nations (UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction took place in Kobe, Japan to commemorate the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The importance of preparedness and awareness on regional, national and community levels with respect to natural disasters was discussed during this meeting, and resulted in the approval of the Hyogo Declaration on Disaster Reduction. Based on this declaration the UN mandated the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC of UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science and Cultural Organization, taking note of its over 40 years of successful coordination of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWC, to take on the international coordination of national early-warning efforts for the Indian Ocean and to guide the process of setting up a Regional Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean.

  8. Early mixed farming of millet and rice 7800 years ago in the Middle Yellow River region, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Zhang

    Full Text Available The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization.

  9. Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can

    2012-01-01

    The Peiligang Culture (9000-7000 cal. yr BP) in the Middle Yellow River region, North China, has long been considered representative of millet farming. It is still unclear, however, if broomcorn millet or foxtail millet was the first species domesticated during the Peiligang Culture. Furthermore, it is also unknown whether millet was cultivated singly or together with rice at the same period. In this study, phytolith analysis of samples from the Tanghu archaeological site reveals early crop information in the Middle Yellow River region, China. Our results show that broomcorn millet was the early dry farming species in the Peiligang Culture at 7800 cal. yr BP, while rice cultivation took place from 7800 to 4500 cal. yr BP. Our data provide new evidence of broomcorn millet and rice mixed farming at 7800 cal. yr BP in the Middle Yellow River region, which has implications for understanding the domestication process of the two crops, and the formation and continuance of the Ancient Yellow River Civilization. PMID:23284907

  10. Early Sex Identification in Date Palm by Male-Specific Sequence-Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, Pushpa; Mitra, Charu

    2017-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a dioecious plant, and sex of the seedlings can be determined only at the time of first flowering which takes 4-5 years. Female date palm plants are of economic importance as they bear the fruit. Therefore, sex identification at an early stage is highly desirable. DNA-based markers are useful for early sex detection. In this chapter, we describe male-specific sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers to identify sex in date palm at the seedling stage. Genomic DNA is isolated separately from both male and female date palm genotypes. Amplification of this genomic DNA isolated from male and female plants using the SCAR primers results in an amplicon of 406 bp in both female and male samples and a unique amplicon of 354 bp only in male samples. Based on this amplification pattern, the sex of date palm seedlings can be predicted.

  11. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barreto, Josafá Gonçalves; Bisanzio, Donal; Guimarães, Layana de Souza; Spencer, John Stewart; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Kitron, Uriel; Salgado, Claudio Guedes

    2014-01-01

    More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children...

  12. Bilingual/Multicultural Early Childhood Education: Proceedings of Head Start Regional Conferences, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Kenneth A.; Arenas, Soledad

    This summary of the presentation given at four Head Start Regional Bilingual/Multicultural Conferences consists of materials related to the Head Start Strategy for Spanish-speaking Children. Keynote addresses focus on Head Start policy implications, the future of Head Start in the 1980s, and the relation of bilingual/bicultural programs to the…

  13. Regionalized sequence of myocardial cell growth and proliferation characterizes early chamber formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soufan, Alexandre T.; van den Berg, Gert; Ruijter, Jan M.; de Boer, Piet A. J.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Increase in cell size and proliferation of myocytes are key processes in cardiac morphogenesis, yet their regionalization during development of the heart has been described only anecdotally. We have made quantitative reconstructions of embryonic chicken hearts ranging in stage from the fusion of the

  14. Development of forecasting elements for minimization of fungicide treatment in potato protection against early blight in Moscow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penjkin Roman V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of potato (the agent is imperfect fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissl. is a serious disease of potatoes under hot conditions. This disease is important in the regions of Eastern and Southern Europe, Asia and Africa. It is controlled with intensive application of fungicides commonly used against late blight. However, currently fungicides cause undesirable damage to humans and the environment. Elements of forecasting the early blight have been developed in order to minimize the dosage of fungicides. Primary symptoms (chloroses and necroses and the potential of pathogen natural inoculum (determination of disease severity, indexes of formation of conidia and aggressiveness; as well as the current weather conditions were registered and determined in the potato signal plots (no treatments or artificial inoculation near main potato cropping. Seed tubers of main potato cropping were preliminary treated with plant growth regulator Circon and micro-fertilizer Siliplant produced by the Russian Company NEST-M. These preparations proved to be effective in acceleration process of potato growth and in delaying the early blight onset by 5-10 days. The same potato cultivar must be planted both in signaling plots and in the fields. Well-timed determination of primary symptoms and potential of pathogen in­oculum allowed us to understand the damage that early blight can cause to potato natural inoculation, and hence to provide well-timed application of fungicides with optimum dosages in mixture with Circon or Silipant. This forecasting method can be helpful for the adequate management of early blight and decrease of the environmental damages.

  15. The selective alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist A-582941 activates immediate early genes in limbic regions of the forebrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M S; Mikkelsen, J D; Timmermann, D B

    2008-01-01

    Due to the cognitive-enhancing properties of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) agonists, they have attracted interest for the treatment of cognitive disturbances in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia typically presents in late adolescence or early adulthood. It is therefore important...... to study whether alpha7 nAChR stimulation activates brain regions involved in cognition in juvenile as well as adult individuals. Here, we compared the effects of the novel and selective alpha7 nAChR agonist 2-methyl-5-(6-phenyl-pyridazin-3-yl)-octahydro-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole (A-582941) in the juvenile...... regions critically involved in working memory and attention. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in juvenile than adult rats, indicating that the juvenile forebrain is more responsive to alpha7 nAChR stimulation. This observation may be relevant in the treatment of juvenile-onset schizophrenia....

  16. Prognostic Factors for Local, Loco-regional and Systemic Recurrence in Early-stage Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, A; Kümmel, S; Barinoff, J; Heitz, F; Holtschmidt, J; Weikel, W; Lorenz-Salehi, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Traut, A; Blohmer, J U; Ataseven, B

    2015-07-01

    Aim: The risk of recurrence in breast cancer depends on factors such as treatment but also on the intrinsic subtype. We analyzed the risk factors for local, loco-regional and systemic recurrence, evaluated the differences and analyzed the risk of recurrence for different molecular subtypes. Material and Methods: A total of 3054 breast cancer patients who underwent surgery followed by adjuvant treatment at HSK hospital or Essen Mitte Hospital between 1998 and 2011 were analyzed. Based on immunohistochemical parameters, cancers were divided into the following subgroups: luminal A, luminal B (HER2-), luminal B (HER2+), HER2+ and TNBC (triple negative breast cancer). Results: 67 % of tumors were classified as luminal A, 13 % as luminal B (HER2-), 6 % as luminal B (HER2+), 3 % as HER2+ and 11 % as TNBC. After a median follow-up time of 6.6 years there were 100 local (3.3 %), 32 loco-regional (1 %) and 248 distant recurrences (8 %). Five-year recurrence-free survival for the overall patient collective was 92 %. On multivariate analysis, positive nodal status, TNBC subtype and absence of radiation therapy were found to be independent risk factors for all forms of recurrence. Age loco-regional recurrence was low. In addition to nodal status, subgroup classification was found to be an important factor affecting the risk of recurrence.

  17. Short-lasting systemic and regional benefits of early crystalloid infusion after intravenous inoculation of dogs with live Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of early crystalloid infusion in an experimental model of septic shock induced by intravenous inoculation with live Escherichia coli. Anesthetized dogs received an intravenous infusion of 1.2 x 10(10 cfu/kg live E. coli in 30 min. After 30 min of observation, they were randomized to controls (no fluids; N = 7, or fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution, 16 ml/kg (N = 7 or 32 ml/kg (N = 7 over 30 min and followed for 120 min. Cardiac index, portal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, blood lactate, and gastric PCO2 were assessed. Rapid and progressive cardiovascular deterioration with reduction in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and portal blood flow (~50, ~25 and ~70%, respectively was induced by the live bacteria challenge. Systemic and regional territories showed significant increases in oxygen extraction and in lactate levels. Significant increases in venous-arterial (~9.6 mmHg, portal-arterial (~12.1 mmHg and gastric mucosal-arterial (~18.4 mmHg PCO2 gradients were also observed. Early fluid replacement, especially with 32 ml/kg volumes of crystalloids, promoted only partial and transient benefits such as increases of ~76% in cardiac index, of ~50% in portal vein blood flow and decreases in venous-arterial, portal-arterial, gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradients (7.2 ± 1.0, 7.2 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. The fluid infusion promoted only modest and transient benefits, unable to restore the systemic and regional perfusional and metabolic changes in this hypodynamic septic shock model.

  18. Punctuated Sediment Discharge during Early Pliocene Birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from Regional Stratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O'Connell, Brennan; McDougall, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.

    2018-01-01

    The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at 5.4-5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough. These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on punctuated sediment

  19. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene

  20. Effect of the regional environment on the skin properties and the early wrinkles in young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Han, J Y; Lee, H K; He, Q Q; Cho, J C; Wei, L; Wang, X; Li, L; Wei, L; Liang, H; Gao, X; Kim, B J; Nam, G W

    2014-11-01

    There are ethnic differences in the skin characteristics, also the skin is susceptible to be influenced by the external environment such as UV radiation and the climates. It can be shown that the skin in same race or twins varies by the environment. This study was designed to investigate the skin characteristics and the early wrinkles of young Chinese women from four different regions, and to identify the correlation among the wrinkles, the other skin characteristics, and environmental conditions. A total of 441 healthy Chinese women aged between 20 and 35 years participated in the study: 110 from Beijing, 110 from Shanghai, 111 from Wuhan, and 110 from Guangzhou. The skin hydration, sebum contents, TEWL, pH, elasticity, and wrinkles were measured on the crow's feet area. There were regional differences in the skin characteristics and the wrinkles. Beijing women had dry skin and more wrinkles, but Guangzhou women had high sebum contents, low pH, and less wrinkles (P wrinkles' form (area, depth, and length) was different from region to region. Beijing women's wrinkles were deep and large, but Guangzhou women's wrinkles were shallow and small. The skin physical parameters that influenced the wrinkles were low sebum content and hydration, high TEWL, and pH (P wrinkle formation than skin elasticity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Regional Exchange and the Role of the Shop in Byzantine and Early Islamic Syria-Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2012-01-01

    a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...... as a system of economic exchange and cultural interaction in post-classical Syria-Palestine. Attention will focus on how the physical centrality of the shop was matched by its defining social role on a daily basis; therefore, the study of the shop and its contents also promises to offers a fascinating insight...

  2. Structured Regions of Alpha-synuclein Fibrils Include the Early Onset Parkinson's Disease Mutation Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comellas Canal, Gemma; Lemkau, Luisel R.; Nieuwkoop, Andrew J.; Kloepper, Kathryn D.; Ladror, Daniel T.; Ebisu, Reika; Woods, Wendy S.; Lipton, Andrew S.; George, Julia M.; Rienstra, Chad M.

    2011-08-26

    Alpha-Synuclein (AS) fibrils constitute the major proteinaceous component of Lewy bodies (LBs), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. Three single point mutations in the AS gene, as well as multiplication of the wild-type (WT) AS allele, have been previously identified in families with early-onset PD. Although AS fibrils have been the subject of intense study, critical details about their structure including the precise location of the B-strands and the extent of the core, the three-dimensional structure and the effects of the mutations—remain unknown. Here, we have used magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy to present a detailed characterization of the full-length WT AS fibrils. With improved sample preparations, isotopic labeling patterns and NMR experiments, we have confidently assigned more than 90% of the 13C and 15N backbone and sidechain chemical shifts of the detected residues from residue 39 to 97, and quantified the conformational dynamics throughout this region. Our results demonstrate that the core of AS fibrils extends with a repeated motif and that residues 30, 46 and 53-the early-onset PD mutant sites-are located in structured regions of AS fibrils.

  3. Peptide maps and N-terminal sequences of polypeptides from early region 1A of human adenovirus 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, J F; Evelegh, C M; Branton, P E; Bayley, S T

    1984-01-01

    Experiments exploring the reasons for a multiplicity of products from early region 1A of adenovirus 5 are described. Labeled early region 1A products from wild-type virus were synthesized in infected cells and in a cell-free system programmed with mRNA from infected cells, immunoprecipitated specifically with an antipeptide serum, E1A-C1, directed against the C-terminal sequence of E1A products, and separated by gel electrophoresis. Two-dimensional maps of [35S]methionine-labeled peptides were consistent with antigens of 52,000 daltons (52K) and 48.5K being from the 13S mRNA and antigens of 50K, 45K, and 35K from the 12S mRNA. Partial N-terminal sequences of 52K, 50K, 48.5K, and 45K synthesized in vitro showed that each of these antigens was initiated at the predicted ATG at nucleotide 560 in the DNA sequence. These results eliminate multiple initiation sites and proteolytic cleavage at the N-terminal end as sources of antigen diversity. Peptide maps and N-terminal sequences were obtained in a similar way for E1A products from the Ad5 deletion mutant dl1504, which lacks the normal initiator codon. As predicted, these polypeptides are initiated at the next ATG, 15 codons downstream in the wild-type sequence. These results are discussed in relation to Kozak's ribosomal scanning model. Images PMID:6699947

  4. [Economic assessment of the routine use of Oncotype DX® assay for early breast cancer in Franche-Comte region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerich, Virginie; Curtit, Elsa; Bazan, Fernando; Montcuquet, Philippe; Villanueva, Cristian; Chaigneau, Loïc; Cals, Laurent; Méneveau, Nathalie; Dobi, Erion; Altmotlak, Hamadi; Algros, Marie-Paule; Choulot, Marie-Jeanne; Nallet, Gilles; Limat, Samuel; Mansion, Sylvie; Pivot, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Oncotype DX® has been validated as quantifying the likelihood of distant recurrence at 10 years and overall chemotherapy benefit in patients with estrogen-receptor-positive and HER-2-negative early breast cancer. In 2012, this genomic signature was routinely available for patients in Franche-Comté, France. Patients eligible for Oncotype DX(®) testing had a ER-positive, HER-2-négative early breast cancer with a nodal involvement limited to 0 or 1 positive-node without extracapsular spread; an adjuvant chemotherapy was indicated based on usual prognostic factors. The aim was to assess the economic impact of Oncotype DX(®) testing in a French region. A cost-minimisation analysis from the French Public Healthcare System perspective was performed. The availability of Oncotype DX(®) in Franche-Comté, France, and its use in clinical routine allowed a decrease of 73 % of adjuvant chemotherapy without increase of the cost of the patients' management and with a potential reduction of the cost for the French Public Healthcare System. This strategy was successful and may allow the reimbursement of this test in France for patients with early breast cancer.

  5. Monasteries and social networks in the early medieval el Bierzo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Martín Viso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the influence of monasteries on the creation of social networks based on the specific case of the El Bierzo region. Six monasteries were chosen (Santa Leocadia de Castañeda, Santos Cosme y Damián de Burbia, San Salvador de Bárcena, San Pedro de Montes, Santiago de Peñalba, and San Julián de Samos in order to study three different parameters: the social agents that interacted with the monasteries, the shaping of the monastical estates and the geographical scale of their domains. As a result of this analysis, a typology based on the way in which the social networks were organized (monasteries of local scale, monasteries with religious prestige, and monasteries linked to the monarchy, has been clearly identified. Additionally, it highlights the existence of a decentralized social pattern in which the different aristocratic groups coexisted without fierce competition because they developed on a local-regional scale, in which the monasteries served as stage for their power.

  6. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  7. Origin, fate, and function of the components of the avian germ disc region and early blastoderm: role of ooplasmic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callebaut, Marc

    2005-08-01

    In the avian oocytal germ disc region, at the end of oogenesis, we discerned four ooplasms (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) presenting an onion-peel distribution (from peripheral and superficial to central and deep. Their fate was followed during early embryonic development. The most superficial and peripheral alpha ooplasm plays a fundamental role during cleavage. The beta ooplasm, originally localized in the peripheral region of the blastodisc, becomes mainly concentrated in the primitive streak. At the moment of bilateral symmetrization, a spatially oblique, sickle-shaped uptake of gamma and delta ooplasms occurs so that gamma and delta ooplasms become incorporated into the deeper part of the avian blastoderm. These ooplasms seem to contain ooplasmic determinants that initiate either early neurulation or gastrulation events. The early neural plate-inducing structure that forms a deep part of the blastoderm is the delta ooplasm-containing endophyll (primary hypoblast). Together with the primordial germ cells, it is derived from the superficial centrocaudal part of the nucleus of Pander, which also contains delta ooplasm. The other structure (gamma ooplasm) that is incorporated into the caudolateral deep part of the blastoderm forms Rauber's sickle. It induces gastrulation in the concavity of Rauber's sickle and blood island formation exterior to Rauber's sickle. Rauber's sickle develops by ingrowth of blastodermal cells into the gamma ooplasm, which surrounds the nucleus of Pander. Rauber's sickle constitutes the primary major organizer of the avian blastoderm and generates only extraembryonic tissues (junctional and sickle endoblast). By imparting positional information, it organizes and dominates the whole blastoderm (controlling gastrulation, neurulation, and coelom and cardiovascular system formation). Fragments of the horns of Rauber's sickle extend far cranially into the lateral quadrants of the unincubated blastoderm, so that often Rauber's sickle material

  8. The early evolution of southwestern Pennsylvania's regional math/science collaborative from the leadership perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Nancy R.

    Designed as a regional approach to the coordination of efforts and focusing of resources in fragmented southwestern Pennsylvania, the Collaborative's story is narrated by its founding director. Drawing from office archives, including letters of invitation, meeting notes, and participant evaluations of each event, the study describes the genesis of the Collaborative. It begins with identification of the problem and the resulting charge by a founding congress. It details the building of an organizational framework, the creation of a shared vision, the development of a blueprint for action, and the decision-making involved in determining how to strengthen mathematics and science education in the region. The study notes several influences on the Collaborative's leadership. Considering the role of other collaboratives, the study notes that knowledge of the Los Angeles Educational Partnership's LA SMART jump-started the Collaborative's initial planning process. Knowledge of San Francisco's SEABA influenced the size and naming of the Collaborative's Journal. Fred Newmann's definition of authentic instruction, learning and assessment are reflected in the shared vision and belief statements of the Collaborative. The five disciplines of Peter Senge influenced the nature of the organizational framework as well as the day-to-day operations of the Collaborative. The study also notes that the five organizational tensions identified in Ann Lieberman's work on "intentional learning communities" were present in every aspect of the evolution of the Collaborative. The study suggests that leaders of evolving collaboratives: (1) engage all relevant stakeholders in assessing the current situation and defining a desired future state, (2) take advantage of the lessons learned by others and the resources available at the state and national levels to design strategies and build action plans, (3) model the practices to be inspired in the learning community, (4) constantly gather feedback on

  9. The evolution of a UK regional tobacco control office in its early years: social contexts and policy dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Andrew; Heckler, Serena; White, Martin; Sengupta, Soumen; Chappel, David; Hunter, David J; Mason, James; Milne, Eugene; Lewis, Susan

    2009-09-01

    The Smoke Free North East Office (SFNEO) is the first dedicated tobacco control office in the UK coordinating a regional tobacco control network, Smoke Free North East (SFNE). On the basis of ethnographic research conducted between 2006 and 2008, this article examines the context for SFNEO's emergence at this time and in this region of England, and the main policy and practice challenges it has faced in its early years. SFNE formed in a favourable political and cultural climate, although regional champions were crucial in setting it up. It has worked well in branding itself and in taking advantage of the opportunity to lobby in support of comprehensive smoke-free legislation, although the success of the legislation presents a risk that people will regard SFNE's work as finished. There is a need for independent sustainable funding, strong partnership working and the 'bringing together' of existing organizations under its leadership for an organization such as SFNE to succeed. SFNE offers a model that is transferable to other places as well as to other public health concerns such as alcohol, and has been taken up by public health planners and policy makers with alacrity. This indicates a general perception that SFNE plays an effective role in public health delivery.

  10. Neutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Parameter Region: From the Early Experiments to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giacomelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the main experimental steps which led to the current picture of neutrino oscillations in the “atmospheric parameter region.” In the 1980s a deficit of atmospheric muon neutrinos was observed with the first generation of underground experiments. In the following decade new experiments provided fundamental results which led to the discovery claims in 1998. At the beginning of the new century neutrino beams of medium and high energy became available and several long baseline experiments were performed and added new information to the atmospheric neutrino puzzle. The interpretation of the results of atmospheric and long baseline neutrino experiments was in terms of dominant νμ→ντ oscillations. Short recollections are made of the SNO solar neutrino measurements, of the results with neutrino telescopes, and of reactor neutrinos to measure sin2θ13. Over the years the phenomenological picture improved in completeness and increased in complexity. A short perspective concludes the paper.

  11. A regional academic partnership for the early identification and retention of at-risk nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Glenda C; Klotz, Linda; Martin, Pam; Miller, Gregory K; Missildine, Kathy; Bishop, Sara; Hermanns, Melinda; Amerson, Cynthia; Buffalo, Sharon; Cordell, Barbara; Davidson, Dayna; Hodgson, Carol; Reid, Helen; Seeton, Rebecca; Putnam, Tami; Glymph, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    In a 2006 Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board report (Increasing RN Graduates in Texas: A Report to the 79th Legislature), nursing programs in Texas were challenged to increase the number of graduates to deal with the nursing shortage. This article describes the East Texas region's efforts to identify and intervene in the nursing student attrition rates of participating partners nursing programs. The primary purpose of this study was to identify and intervene with students at risk for attrition. Nine nursing programs participated in the study. Online surveys were used to assess variables associated with attrition. Online interventions and an intensive test review protocol were used as intervention methods. Across the nine nursing programs, 898 students participated in the study. Regression and categorical data analysis revealed that lack of reading comprehension was the best predictor of a student being off track or out of a nursing program (P student's grades in anatomy and physiology (P = .005). Grant intervention protocols were effective in reducing the attrition rate (P = .0002) between students who participated during the grant period and those prior to implementation of the grant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Weak and Compact Radio Emission in Early High-Mass Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero Rueda, Viviana Andrea

    2017-04-01

    I present a high sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl. G. Jansky Very Large Array towards a sample of 58 high-mass star forming regions. The sample was chosen from clumps within infrared dark clouds, also known as cold molecular clumps (CMCs) with and without IR sources (CMC-IRs, CMCs, respectively) and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the remarkable improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the VLA, this survey achieved map rms levels of 3-10 ?Jy/beam at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. From this dataset I extracted 70 centimeter continuum sources that are associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and are prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the mm dust clumps for CMCs, CMC-IRs and HMCs are 6%, 53% and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. I calculated 5-25 GHz spectral indices using power law fits and obtain a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), which is consistent with thermal emission from ionized jets. Moreover, these detected ionized jets towards high-mass stars are well correlated with jets formed towards lower masses, providing further evidence that ionized jets from any luminosity have a common origin. Ultimately, this set of detections will likely provide good candidates to enable new tests of high-mass star formation theories, in particular testing predictions of core accretion and competitive accretion models.

  13. Early Holocenic and Historic mtDNA African Signatures in the Iberian Peninsula: The Andalusian Region as a Paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candela L Hernández

    Full Text Available Determining the timing, identity and direction of migrations in the Mediterranean Basin, the role of "migratory routes" in and among regions of Africa, Europe and Asia, and the effects of sex-specific behaviors of population movements have important implications for our understanding of the present human genetic diversity. A crucial component of the Mediterranean world is its westernmost region. Clear features of transcontinental ancient contacts between North African and Iberian populations surrounding the maritime region of Gibraltar Strait have been identified from archeological data. The attempt to discern origin and dates of migration between close geographically related regions has been a challenge in the field of uniparental-based population genetics. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA studies have been focused on surveying the H1, H3 and V lineages when trying to ascertain north-south migrations, and U6 and L in the opposite direction, assuming that those lineages are good proxies for the ancestry of each side of the Mediterranean. To this end, in the present work we have screened entire mtDNA sequences belonging to U6, M1 and L haplogroups in Andalusians--from Huelva and Granada provinces--and Moroccan Berbers. We present here pioneer data and interpretations on the role of NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula regarding the time of origin, number of founders and expansion directions of these specific markers. The estimated entrance of the North African U6 lineages into Iberia at 10 ky correlates well with other L African clades, indicating that U6 and some L lineages moved together from Africa to Iberia in the Early Holocene. Still, founder analysis highlights that the high sharing of lineages between North Africa and Iberia results from a complex process continued through time, impairing simplistic interpretations. In particular, our work supports the existence of an ancient, frequently denied, bridge connecting the Maghreb and Andalusia.

  14. Causes of death among full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths in the Region of Southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, Millie; Johnsen, Iben Birgit Gade; Wehberg, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the causes of death amongst full term stillbirths and early neonatal deaths. METHODS: Our cohort includes women in the Region of Southern Denmark, who gave birth at full term to a stillborn infant or a neonate who died within the first 7 days from 2010 through 2014....... Demographic, biometric and clinical variables were analyzed to assess the causes of death using two classification systems: causes of death and associated conditions (CODAC) and a Danish system based on initial causes of fetal death (INCODE). RESULTS: A total of 95 maternal-infant cases were included. Using...... the CODAC and INCODE classification systems, we found that the causes of death were unknown in 59/95 (62.1%). The second most common cause of death in CODAC was congenital anomalies in 10/95 (10.5%), similar to INCODE with fetal, genetic, structural and karyotypic anomalies in 11/95 (11.6%). The majority...

  15. Sorghum Landrace Collections from Cooler Regions of the World Exhibit Magnificent Genetic Differentiation and Early Season Cold Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Maulana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1 to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2 to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance. A total of 136 sorghum accessions from cooler regions of the world were phenotyped for seedling growth characteristics under cold temperature imposed through early planting. The accessions were genotyped using 67 simple sequence repeats markers spanning all ten linkage groups of sorghum, of which 50 highly polymorphic markers were used in the analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses sorted the population into four subpopulations. Several accessions distributed in all subpopulations showed either better or comparable level of tolerance to the standard cold tolerance source, Shan qui red. Association analysis between the markers and seedling traits identified markers Xtxp34, Xtxp88, and Xtxp319 as associated with seedling emergence, Xtxp211 and Xtxp304 with seedling dry weight, and Xtxp20 with seedling height. The markers were detected on chromosomes previously found to harbor QTLs associated with cold tolerance in sorghum. Once validated these may serve as genomic tools in marker-assisted breeding or for screening larger pool of genotypes to identify additional sources of cold tolerance.

  16. REGIONAL RADIOGRAPHIC DAMAGE AND FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS: DIFFERENCES IN EARLY AND LATE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael M.; Learch, Thomas J.; Gensler, Lianne S.; Davis, John C.; Reveille, John D.; Weisman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiographic damage and functional limitations both increase with the duration of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We examined whether radiographic damage contributed more to functional limitations in late AS than in early AS, and if the strength of association varied with the anatomic region of damage. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 801 patients with AS, we examined associations of the lumbar modified Stoke AS Spine Score (mSASSS), cervical mSASSS, lumbar posterior fusion, cervical posterior fusion, and hip arthritis with the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-S). Results Higher lumbar and cervical mSASSS were associated with more functional limitations, but there was an interaction between mSASSS and the duration of AS such that the strength of their association with functional limitations decreased with increasing duration of AS. Cervical posterior fusion was associated with worse functioning independent of mSASSS. Hip arthritis was significantly associated with functional limitations independent of measures of spinal damage. Among patients with AS ≥ 40 years, the number of comorbid conditions accounted for most of the variation in functioning. Results were similar for both the BASFI and HAQ-S. Conclusions Although both radiographic damage and functional limitations increase over time in AS, the relative contribution of radiographic damage to functional limitations is lower among patients with longstanding AS than early AS, suggesting patients may accommodate to limited flexibility. Damage in different skeletal regions impacts functioning over the duration of AS. Functional limitations due to comorbidity supervene in late AS. PMID:23042639

  17. Sorghum Landrace Collections from Cooler Regions of the World Exhibit Magnificent Genetic Differentiation and Early Season Cold Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Frank; Weerasooriya, Dilooshi; Tesso, Tesfaye

    2017-01-01

    Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress affecting sorghum production in temperate regions. It reduces seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling vigor thus limiting the production of the crop both temporally and spatially. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess early season cold temperature stress response of sorghum germplasm from cooler environments and identify sources of tolerance for use in breeding programs, (2) to determine population structure and marker-trait association among these germplasms for eventual development of marker tools for improving cold tolerance. A total of 136 sorghum accessions from cooler regions of the world were phenotyped for seedling growth characteristics under cold temperature imposed through early planting. The accessions were genotyped using 67 simple sequence repeats markers spanning all ten linkage groups of sorghum, of which 50 highly polymorphic markers were used in the analysis. Genetic diversity and population structure analyses sorted the population into four subpopulations. Several accessions distributed in all subpopulations showed either better or comparable level of tolerance to the standard cold tolerance source, Shan qui red. Association analysis between the markers and seedling traits identified markers Xtxp34, Xtxp88, and Xtxp319 as associated with seedling emergence, Xtxp211 and Xtxp304 with seedling dry weight, and Xtxp20 with seedling height. The markers were detected on chromosomes previously found to harbor QTLs associated with cold tolerance in sorghum. Once validated these may serve as genomic tools in marker-assisted breeding or for screening larger pool of genotypes to identify additional sources of cold tolerance. PMID:28536596

  18. [Early child development inequalities and associated factors between public and private providers at metropolitan region in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Hernández, Viviana; Mingo, M Verónica; Castañón, Carla; Valenzuela, Patricia; Moore, Rosario; de la Cruz, Rolando; Castro, Daniela

    Early child development is a population determinant of physical, mental and social health. To know the base line situation prior to the implementation of "Chile grows with you" (Chile Crece Contigo) is key to its evaluation. To compare early child development and associated factors at baseline in pre-school children from public and private health sectors. The sample consisted of 1045 children aged 30-58 months, 52% male, and 671 from the public and 380 from the private sector of the metropolitan region in Chile were evaluated using Battelle Developmental Inventory-1 and a household interview of primary carer. Abnormal child development was found in 14.4% of children in the private sector compared to 30.4% in the public sector. There were no differences in adaptive area (26.3% vs 29.2%), but there were statistically significant differents in cognitive (8.8% vs 12.1%), social-personal (13.2% vs 32.5%), motor (19.2% vs 35.3%), and communication (19% vs 36.8%) development. The logistic regression showed that, independent of socioeconomic level, the risk factors are: Apgar<7 (OR: 5.4; 95% CI: 1.24-23.84); having childhood chronic diseases (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.11-1.42). Protective factor is: home with resources to learn and play (OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.76-0.89). These results are another input about early child development situation and its importance for paediatric social policy. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Redox history of the Three Gorges region during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian as indicated by the Fe isotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sawaki

    2018-01-01

    To circumvent this deficiency, we drilled a fossiliferous Ediacaran to Early Cambrian sedimentary succession in the Three Gorges region, South China. We analyzed the iron isotope ratios (δ56/54Fe of pyrite grains in the drill cores using laser ablation multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate large variations in δ56/54Fe, from −1.6 to 1.6‰, and positive iron isotope ratios are observed in many successions. The presence of positive δ56/54Fe in pyrite indicates that the ferrous iron in the seawater was partially oxidized, suggesting that seawater at Three Gorges was ferruginous during the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. However, aggregated pyrite grains in organic carbon-rich black shales at Member 4 of the Doushantuo Formation and the base of the Shuijingtuo Formation yield near-zero δ56/54Fe values; this suggests that the ocean was transiently dominated by sulfidic conditions during these periods. Notably negative δ56/54Fe values, lower than −1‰, can be interpreted as a signature of DIR. The DIR also might contribute in part to the re-mineralization of organic matter during the largest negative carbon isotope anomaly in the Ediacaran.

  20. Dancing to the rhythms of the Pleistocene? Early Middle Paleolithic population dynamics in NW Iberia (Duero Basin and Cantabrian Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Yustos, Policarpo; Diez Martín, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The Northwest of Iberia has yielded one of the most complete European Middle Paleolithic records. Despite this wealth of information, very little is known about population dynamics during this period. For that reason, the main concern of this paper is to provide socio-environmental models that may help explain Early Middle Paleolithic (EMP) population dynamics in NW Iberia, assessing to what extent they were shaped by climate forces. The archaeological record is analyzed on the basis of the heuristics of ecological models, already employed in the European Pleistocene record but never at a regional scale, in order to detect long-term changes in the composition of EMP populations, and the environmental, biological and sociocultural process influencing those changes. According to the models proposed, we have detected a long-term population dynamic between MIS 11 and MIS 6, characterized by low environmental stress, high biological productivity, interaction among populations and sociocultural complexity. Eventually, this population dynamic was broken due to an extreme climate phase in late MIS 6 that had a profound impact on populations and sociocultural structures. As a result, the Upper Pleistocene population of NW Iberia was concentrated in the Cantabrian region. This area became an isolated Neanderthal glacial refugium that hosted a population with different origins and fragile long-term demographic stability.

  1. The Carboxy Terminal Region of the Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early 1 (IE1 Protein Disrupts Type II Inteferon Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Raghavan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferons (IFNs activate the first lines of defense against viruses, and promote innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses. We report that the immediate early 1 (IE1 protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV disrupts signaling by IFNγ. The carboxyl-terminal region of IE1 is required for this function. We found no defect in the initial events in IFNγ signaling or in nuclear accumulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1 in IE1-expressing cells. Moreover, we did not observe an association between disruption of IFNγ signaling and nuclear domain 10 (ND10 disruption. However, there is reduced binding of STAT1 homodimers to target gamma activated sequence (GAS elements in the presence of IE1. Co-immunoprecipitation studies failed to support a direct interaction between IE1 and STAT1, although these studies revealed that the C-terminal region of IE1 was required for interaction with STAT2. Together, these results indicate that IE1 disrupts IFNγ signaling by interfering with signaling events in the nucleus through a novel mechanism.

  2. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described....... Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual...... codons. When comparing the ribosome spacing at various segments of the mRNA to its functional half-life, we found a clear correlation between the functional mRNA half-life and the ribosome spacing in the mRNA region approximately between codon 20 and codon 45. From this finding, we predicted that inserts...

  3. Schooling and wage income losses due to early-childhood growth faltering in developing countries: national, regional, and global estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Peet, Evan; Danaei, Goodarz; Andrews, Kathryn; McCoy, Dana Charles; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-07-01

    The growth of >300 million children human capital and financial losses due to growth faltering in early childhood are not available. We quantified the economic cost of growth faltering in developing countries. We combined the most recent country-level estimates of linear growth delays from the Nutrition Impact Model Study with estimates of returns to education in developing countries to estimate the impact of early-life growth faltering on educational attainment and future incomes. Primary outcomes were total years of educational attainment lost as well as the net present value of future wage earnings lost per child and birth cohort due to growth faltering in 137 developing countries. Bootstrapped standard errors were computed to account for uncertainty in modeling inputs. Our estimates suggest that early-life growth faltering in developing countries caused a total loss of 69.4 million y of educational attainment (95% CI: 41.7 million, 92.6 million y) per birth cohort. Educational attainment losses were largest in South Asia (27.6 million y; 95% CI: 20.0 million, 35.8 million y) as well as in Eastern (10.3 million y; 95% CI: 7.2 million, 12.9 million y) and Western sub-Saharan Africa (8.8 million y; 95% CI: 6.4 million, 11.5 million y). Globally, growth faltering in developing countries caused a total economic cost of $176.8 billion (95% CI: $100.9 billion, $262.6 billion)/birth cohort at nominal exchange rates, and $616.5 billion (95% CI: $365.3 billion, $898.9 billion) at purchasing power parity-adjusted exchange rates. At the regional level, economic costs were largest in South Asia ($46.6 billion; 95% CI: $33.3 billion, $61.1 billion), followed by Latin America ($44.7 billion; 95% CI: $19.2 billion, $74.6 billion) and sub-Saharan Africa ($34.2 billion; 95% CI: $24.4 billion, $45.3 billion). Our results indicate that the annual cost of early-childhood growth faltering is substantial. Further investment in scaling up effective interventions in this area is

  4. Regional brain activity during early-stage intense romantic love predicted relationship outcomes after 40 months: an fMRI assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomeng; Brown, Lucy; Aron, Arthur; Cao, Guikang; Feng, Tingyong; Acevedo, Bianca; Weng, Xuchu

    2012-09-20

    Early-stage romantic love is associated with activation in reward and motivation systems of the brain. Can these localized activations, or others, predict long-term relationship stability? We contacted participants from a previous fMRI study of early-stage love by Xu et al. [34] after 40 months from initial assessments. We compared brain activation during the initial assessment at early-stage love for those who were still together at 40 months and those who were apart, and surveyed those still together about their relationship happiness and commitment at 40 months. Six participants who were still with their partners at 40 months (compared to six who had broken up) showed less activation during early-stage love in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, right subcallosal cingulate and right accumbens, regions implicated in long-term love and relationship satisfaction [1,2]. These regions of deactivation at the early stage of love were also negatively correlated with relationship happiness scores collected at 40 months. Other areas involved were the caudate tail, and temporal and parietal lobes. These data are preliminary evidence that neural responses in the early stages of romantic love can predict relationship stability and quality up to 40 months later in the relationship. The brain regions involved suggest that forebrain reward functions may be predictive for relationship stability, as well as regions involved in social evaluation, emotional regulation, and mood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A polymorphic bipartite motif signals nuclear targeting of early auxin-inducible proteins related to PS-IAA4 from pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, S; Theologis, A

    1995-07-01

    The plant hormone, indoleacetic acid (IAA), transcriptionally activates two early genes in pea, PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6 that encode short-lived nuclear proteins. The identification of the nuclear localization signals (NLS) in PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 using progressive deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis is reported. A C-terminal SV40-type NLS is sufficient to direct the beta-glucuronidase reporter to the nucleus of transiently transformed tobacco protoplasts, but is dispensible for nuclear localization of both proteins. The dominant and essential NLS in PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 overlap with a bipartite basic motif which is polymorphic and conserved in related proteins from other plant species, having the consensus sequence (KKNEK)KR-X(24-71)-(RSXRK)/(RK/RK). Both basic elements of this motif in PS-IAA4, (KR-X41-RSYRK), function interdependently as a bipartite NLS. However, in PS-IAA6 (KKNEKKR-X36-RKK) the upstream element of the corresponding motif contains additional basic residues which allow its autonomous function as an SV40-type monopartite NLS. The spacer-length polymorphism, X(24-70), in respective bipartite NLS peptides of several PS-IAA4-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana does not affect nuclear targeting function. The structural and functional variation of the bipartite basic motif in PS-IAA4-like proteins supports the proposed integrated consensus of NLS.

  6. Differential short-term regional effects of early high dose erythropoietin on white matter in preterm lambs after mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Samantha K; McDougall, Annie R A; Melville, Jacqueline M; Moss, Timothy J M; Zahra, Valerie A; Lim, Tammy; Crossley, Kelly J; Polglase, Graeme R; Tolcos, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Inadvertently injurious ventilation of preterm neonates in the delivery room can cause cerebral white matter (WM) inflammation and injury. We investigated the impact of an early high dose of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) on ventilation-induced WM changes in preterm lambs. Injurious ventilation, targeting a V(T) of 15 ml kg(-1) with no positive end-expiratory pressure, was initiated for 15 min in preterm lambs (0.85 gestation). Conventional ventilation was continued for a further 105 min. Lambs received either 5000 IU kg(-1) of EPO (EPREX®; Vent+EPO; n = 6) or vehicle (Vent; n = 8) via an umbilical vein at 4 ± 2 min. Markers of WM injury and inflammation were assessed using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry and compared to a group of unventilated controls (UVC; n = 4). In Vent+EPO lambs compared to Vent lambs: (i) interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels in the periventricular WM and IL-8 mRNA levels in the subcortical WM were higher (P < 0.05 for all); (ii) the density of microglia within the aggregations was not different in the periventricular WM and was lower in the subcortical WM (P = 0.001); (iii) the density of astrocytes was lower in the subcortical WM (P = 0.002); (iv) occludin and claudin-1 mRNA levels were higher in the periventricular WM (P < 0.02 for all) and (vi) the number of blood vessels with protein extravasation was lower (P < 0.05). Recombinant human EPO had variable regional effects within the WM when administered during injurious ventilation. The adverse short-term outcomes discourage the use of early high dose EPO administration in preterm ventilated babies. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  7. Characterization of Early Stage Marcellus Shale Development Atmospheric Emissions and Regional Air Quality Impacts using Fast Mobile Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, J. D.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Herndon, S. C.; Kolb, C. E., Jr.; Knighton, W. B.; Shaw, S. L.; Knipping, E. M.; DeCarlo, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Marcellus shale is the largest shale gas resource in the United States and is found in the Appalachian region. Rapid large-scale development, and the scarcity of direct air measurements make the impact of Marcellus shale development on local and regional air quality and the global climate highly uncertain. Air pollutant and greenhouse gas emission sources include transitory emission from well pad development as well as persistent sources including the processing and distribution of natural gas. In 2012, the Aerodyne Inc. Mobile Laboratory was equipped with a suite of real-time (~ 1 Hz) instrumentation to measure source emissions associated with Marcellus shale development and to characterize regional air quality in the Marcellus basin. The Aerodyne Inc. Mobile Laboratory was equipped to measure methane, ethane, N2O (tracer gas), C2H2 (tracer gas), CO2, CO, NOx, aerosols (number, mass, and composition), and VOC including light aromatic compounds and constituents of natural gas. Site-specific emissions from Marcellus shale development were quantified using tracer release ratio methods. Emissions of sub-micron aerosol mass and VOC were generally not observed at any tracer release site, although particle number concentrations were often enhanced. Compressor stations were found to have the largest emission rates of combustion products with NOx emissions ranging from 0.01 to 1.6 tons per day (tpd) and CO emissions ranging from 0.03 to 0.42 tpd. Transient sources, including a well site in the drill phase, were observed to be large emitters of natural gas. The largest methane emissions observed in the study were at a flowback well completion with a value of 7.7 tpd. Production well pads were observed to have the lowest emissions of natural gas and the emission of combustion products was only observed at one of three well pads investigated. Regional background measurements of all measured species were made while driving between tracer release sites and while stationary

  8. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  9. Analysis of meteorology and emission in haze episode prevalence over mountain-bounded region for early warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Leelasakultum, Ketsiri

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the main causes of haze episodes in the northwestern Thailand to provide early warning and prediction. In an absence of emission input data required for chemical transport modeling to predict the haze, the climatological approach in combination with statistical analysis was used. An automatic meteorological classification scheme was developed using regional meteorological station data of 8years (2001-2008) which classified the prevailing synoptic patterns over Northern Thailand into 4 patterns. Pattern 2, occurring with high frequency in March, was found to associate with the highest levels of 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai, the largest city in Northern Thailand. Typical features of this pattern were the dominance of thermal lows over India, Western China and Northern Thailand with hot, dry and stagnant air in Northern Thailand. March 2007, the month with the most severe haze episode in Chiangmai, was found to have a high frequency of occurrence of pattern 2 coupled with the highest emission intensities from biomass open burning. Backward trajectories showed that, on haze episode days, air masses passed over the region of dense biomass fire hotspots before arriving at Chiangmai. A stepwise regression model was developed to predict 24h PM(10) for days of meteorology pattern 2 using February-April data of 2007-2009 and tested with 2004-2010 data. The model performed satisfactorily for the model development dataset (R(2)=87%) and test dataset (R(2)=81%), which appeared to be superior over a simple persistence regression of 24h PM(10) (R(2)=76%). Our developed model had an accuracy over 90% for the categorical forecast of PM(10)>120μg/m(3). The episode warning procedure would identify synoptic pattern 2 and predict 24h PM(10) in Chiangmai 24h in advance. This approach would be applicable for air pollution episode management in other areas with complex terrain where similar conditions exist. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The field of Archaeology remains focused on historical issues while underexploring its potential contribution on currently existing societal problems, e.g. climate change. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of archeological studies for the research of the 'human species as a significant moving agent' in terms of the changing natural environment during a much earlier time frame. This research is based on the study area of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region in the Netherlands and Belgium and exhibits the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman period. This period is characterized by the widespread introduction and use of an agricultural system, often referred to as the Celtic Field system that served as one of the most modifying systems in terms of anthropogenic-environmental change during this period. Emphasis in this research is given to results generated by the use of the remote sensing technology, LiDAR. New information is reported considering a correlation between singular field size and the overall surface of the agricultural complexes and secondly, the presentation of newly identified Celtic field systems in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region are presented. The study of the dynamics of the Celtic Field agricultural system provides evidence for a significant anthropogenic footprint on the natural environment due to land cover dominance, soil degeneration, increased soil acidification and forest clearance. Soil exhaustion forced the inhabitants to re-establish their relationship with the landscape in terms of fundamental changes in the habitation pattern and the agrarian exploitations of the land.

  11. Find Cancer Early: Evaluation of a Community Education Campaign to Increase Awareness of Cancer Signs and Symptoms in People in Regional Western Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Croager

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionCancer outcomes for people living in rural and remote areas are worse than for those living in urban areas. Although access to and quality of cancer treatment are important determinants of outcomes, delayed presentation has been observed in rural patients.MethodsFormative research with people from rural Western Australia (WA led to the Find Cancer Early campaign. Find Cancer Early was delivered in three regions of WA, with two other regions acting as controls. Staff delivered the campaign using a community engagement approach, including promotion in local media. Television communications were not used to minimize contamination in the control regions. The campaign evaluation was undertaken at 20 months via a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI survey comparing campaign and control regions. The primary outcome variable was knowledge of cancer signs and symptoms.ResultsRecognition and recall of Find Cancer Early and symptom knowledge were higher in the campaign regions. More than a quarter of those who were aware of the campaign reported seeing the GP as a result of their exposure.ConclusionDespite limited use of mass media, Find Cancer Early successfully improved knowledge of cancer symptoms and possibly led to changes in behavior. Social marketing campaigns using community development can raise awareness and knowledge of a health issue in the absence of television advertising.

  12. Caledonian formation of gold-bearing sulfide depositions in Early Proterozoic gabbroids in the northern Ladoga region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltybaev, Sh. K.; Ovchinnikova, G. V.; Glebovitskii, V. A.; Alekseev, I. A.; Vasil'eva, I. M.; Risvanova, N. G.

    2017-09-01

    We have studied Pb isotopic systems of K-feldspar, pyrite, and pyrrhotine from gabbroids and ore of the Velimyaki Early Proterozoic massif in the northern Ladoga region in the southeastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. The isochronous Pb-Pb age of sulfides has been determined as ˜450 Ma, which corresponds to intersection of the regression line with the lead accumulation curve with μ = 10.4-10.8; the model Pb age of sulfides is close to isochronous under the condition that the composition of lead evolved from a geochemical reservoir with an age of 1.9 Ga. The isotopic parameters of the lead in sulfides and K-feldspar indicate their formation in upper crust conditions (μ = 238U/204Pb > 10). From the obtained data, it follows that the isotopic composition of lead in K-feldspar corresponds to a Proterozoic age (1890 Ma) of magmatic crystallization of the rocks in the massif, and strongly radiogenic lead sulfides testify, with the greatest probability, to the later (Caledonian) formation of sulfide ores.

  13. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  14. The forecasting research of early warning systems for atmospheric pollutants: A case in Yangtze River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiliao; Qin, Shanshan; Qu, Jiansheng; Liu, Feng

    2015-10-01

    The issue of air quality regarding PM pollution levels in China is a focus of public attention. To address that issue, to date, a series of studies is in progress, including PM monitoring programs, PM source apportionment, and the enactment of new ambient air quality index standards. However, related research concerning computer modeling for PM future trends estimation is rare, despite its significance to forecasting and early warning systems. Thereby, a study regarding deterministic and interval forecasts of PM is performed. In this study, data on hourly and 12 h-averaged air pollutants are applied to forecast PM concentrations within the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China. The characteristics of PM emissions have been primarily examined and analyzed using different distribution functions. To improve the distribution fitting that is crucial for estimating PM levels, an artificial intelligence algorithm is incorporated to select the optimal parameters. Following that step, an ANF model is used to conduct deterministic forecasts of PM. With the identified distributions and deterministic forecasts, different levels of PM intervals are estimated. The results indicate that the lognormal or gamma distributions are highly representative of the recorded PM data with a goodness-of-fit R2 of approximately 0.998. Furthermore, the results of the evaluation metrics (MSE, MAPE and CP, AW) also show high accuracy within the deterministic and interval forecasts of PM, indicating that this method enables the informative and effective quantification of future PM trends.

  15. Late Paleozoic to Early Jurassic tectonic development of the high Andean Principal Cordillera, El Indio Region, Chile (29 30°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mark W.; Clavero R, Jorge; Mpodozis M, Constantino

    1999-01-01

    Regional mapping (1:50,000) and U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology in the El Indio region refines the knowledge of the distribution, lithostratigraphy, and age of the sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive rocks that comprise the regionally extensive Pastos Blancos Group which is equivalent to the Choiyoi Group of the Argentine Frontal Cordillera. The Pastos Blancos Group (which we elevate to Group status herein) includes at least two diachronous volcanic-sedimentary sequences: an older felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Guanaco Sonso sequence, that is Permian in age, and a younger bimodal volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Los Tilos sequence that is Middle Triassic to Early Jurassic. Sedimentary rocks of the Los Tilos sequence are transitional upward into the overlying Early to Middle Jurassic shallow marine limestones of the Lautaro Formation. Intrusions that make up the regionally extensive Permian to Early Jurassic plutons of the Chollay and Elqui-Limarı´ batholiths that were previously mapped as a single plutonic association, the Ingaguás Complex, include in the El Indio region at least three discrete intrusive units. These include: Early Permian (280-270 Ma) biotite granites, Early to Middle Triassic (242-238 Ma) silica-rich leucocratic granites and rhyolitic porphyries that made up the bulk of the Chollay Batholith, and a younger Late Triassic-Early Jurassic unit (221-200 Ma) of mainly intrusive rhyolitic porphyries, extrusive domes, and subordinate mafic intrusions and both felsic and mafic dikes, which are coeval with volcanic rocks of the Los Tilos sequence. Our data show that latest Paleozoic to Early Jurassic intrusive, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks in the El Indio region of the High Andes of Chile between 29-30°S likely formed during extension driven processes after the cessation of Carboniferous-Early Permian subduction along the western edge of Gondwana. These processes began by Late Permian time, but instead of recording a single and

  16. Punctuated sediment discharge during early Pliocene birth of the Colorado River: Evidence from regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; O’Connell, Brennan; McDougall-Reid, Kristin; Homan, Mindy B.

    2018-01-01

    The Colorado River in the southwestern U.S. provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the origins of a continent-scale river system, because deposits that formed prior to and during river initiation are well exposed in the lower river valley and nearby basinal sink. This paper presents a synthesis of regional stratigraphy, sedimentology, and micropaleontology from the southern Bouse Formation and similar-age deposits in the western Salton Trough, which we use to interpret processes that controlled the birth and early evolution of the Colorado River. The southern Bouse Formation is divided into three laterally persistent members: basal carbonate, siliciclastic, and upper bioclastic members. Basal carbonate accumulated in a tide-dominated marine embayment during a rise of relative sea level between ~ 6.3 and 5.4 Ma, prior to arrival of the Colorado River. The transition to green claystone records initial rapid influx of river water and its distal clay wash load into the subtidal marine embayment at ~ 5.4–5.3 Ma. This was followed by rapid southward progradation of the Colorado River delta, establishment of the earliest through-flowing river, and deposition of river-derived turbidites in the western Salton Trough (Wind Caves paleocanyon) between ~ 5.3 and 5.1 Ma. Early delta progradation was followed by regional shut-down of river sand output between ~ 5.1 and 4.8 Ma that resulted in deposition of marine clay in the Salton Trough, retreat of the delta, and re-flooding of the lower river valley by shallow marine water that deposited the Bouse upper bioclastic member. Resumption of sediment discharge at ~ 4.8 Ma drove massive progradation of fluvial-deltaic deposits back down the river valley into the northern Gulf and Salton Trough.These results provide evidence for a discontinuous, start-stop-start history of sand output during initiation of the Colorado River that is not predicted by existing models for this system. The underlying controls on

  17. Development of a WEB-GIS real-time dynamic landslide risk scenarios procedure – Umbria Region civil protection early warning system, a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Ponziani, Francesco; Stelluti, Marco; Berni, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Umbria Region Functional Centre, part of the Umbria Region Civil Protection Dept., since 2009 has developed an experimental, operational early warning system for landslide risk assessment, based on rainfall thresholds, soil moisture evaluation, quantitative precipitation forecasts – QPF, and an open source WebGIS decision support subsystem/platform – DSS. Rainfall thresholds were obtained by the analysis of past landslide events, correlated with their initial soil moisture condition reconstru...

  18. Loco-regional morbidity after breast conservation and axillary lymph node dissection for early breast cancer with or without regional nodes radiotherapy, perspectives in modern breast cancer treatment: the Skagen Trial 1 is active

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Friis, Rasmus Blechingberg; Linnet, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in early breast cancer are associated with a risk of morbidity, including lymphedema and impaired shoulder mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate loco-regional morbidity after breast conserving surgery (BCS...

  19. Application of regional physically-based landslide early warning model: tuning of the input parameters and validation of the results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Tofani, Veronica; Rossi, Guglielmo; Salvatici, Teresa; Tacconi Stefanelli, Carlo; Rosi, Ascanio; Benedetta Masi, Elena; Pazzi, Veronica; Vannocci, Pietro; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    runs in real-time by assimilating weather data and uses Monte Carlo simulation techniques to manage the geotechnical and hydrological input parameters. In this context, an assessment of the factors controlling the geotechnical and hydrological features is crucial in order to understand the occurrence of slope instability mechanisms and to provide reliable forecasting of the hydrogeological hazard occurrence, especially in relation to weather events. In particular, the model and the soil characterization were applied in back analysis, in order to assess the reliability of the model through validation of the results with landslide events that occurred during the period. The validation was performed on four past events of intense rainfall that have affected Valle d'Aosta region between 2008 and 2010 years triggering fast shallows landslides. The simulations show substantial improvement of the reliability of the results compared to the use of literature parameters. A statistical analysis of the HIRESSS outputs in terms of failure probability has been carried out in order to define reliable alert levels for regional landslide early warning systems.

  20. Early Childhood Developmental Status in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: National, Regional, and Global Prevalence Estimates Using Predictive Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Charles McCoy

    2016-06-01

    , followed by South Asia (27.7 million; 37.7% and the East Asia and Pacific region (15.1 million; 25.9%. Positive associations were found between low development scores and stunting, poverty, male sex, rural residence, and lack of cognitive stimulation. Additional research using more detailed developmental assessments across a larger number of LMICs is needed to address the limitations of the present study.The number of children globally failing to reach their developmental potential remains large. Additional research is needed to identify the specific causes of poor developmental outcomes in diverse settings, as well as potential context-specific interventions that might promote children's early cognitive and socioemotional well-being.

  1. Climate variations in the late Miocene - early Pliocene in the Black Sea region (Taman peninsula) inferred from palynological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundan, Ekaterina; Kürschner, Wolfram; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-04-01

    A palynological study of Neogene sediments from the cape "Zhelezny Rog" (Taman peninsula, the Black Sea area) was carried out as part of integrated micropaleontological, lithological and paleomagnetic research. The Neogene section of the cape "Zhelezny Rog" (the Zhelezny Rog section) is one of the most representative Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene succession of Eastern Paratethys. The section covers the Sarmatian, Maeotian, Pontian (upper Miocene) and Kimmerian (lower Pliocene) local stages. One hundred and eighteen samples were selected from the Zhelezny rog section for quantitative palynological analysis. Using PCA analysis and additional proxy such as "steppe index", art/chen and poa/ast ratios the regional climate history was reconstructed. The Early Maeotian is characterized by a warm, warm-temperate climate on the background of relatively high humidity. During the Late Maeotian it became colder and dryer. The coldest and driest conditions during the Maeotian correspond to the middle part of the Late Maeotian. There were a high number of steppe elements (as Artemisia) and low amount of thermophilous ones. Climate of the end of the Maeotian was characterized by warmer and wetter conditions. In the beginning of the Pontian there was a cooling trend, as evidenced by the decreasing thermophilous elements and the increasing high-latitude trees. Most significant changes were found within the Pontian-Kimmerian boundary beds. This level is characterized by decreasing of thermophilous elements, increasing of cool-temperate pollen and Sphagnum spores that are considered as an evidence of a temperature decrease in the background of high humidity conditions. The results will be discussed and correlated to Neogene global climate trends.

  2. Remote ischaemic conditioning decreases blood flow and improves oxygen extraction in patients with early complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelmaier, T; Kumowski, N; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Goertz, O; Lehnhardt, M; Zahn, P K; Maier, C; Kolbenschlag, J

    2017-09-01

    Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) is the cyclic application of non-damaging ischaemia leading to an increased tissue perfusion, among others triggered by NO (monoxide). Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is known to have vascular alterations such as increased blood shunting and decreased NO blood-levels, which in turn lead to decreased tissue perfusion. We therefore hypothesized that RIC could improve tissue perfusion in CRPS. In this proof-of-concept study, RIC was applied in the following groups: in 21 patients with early CRPS with a clinical history less than a year, in 20 age/sex-matched controls and in 12 patients with unilateral nerve lesions via a tourniquet on the unaffected/non-dominant upper limb. Blood flow and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 ) were assessed before, during and after RIC via laser Doppler and tissue spectroscopy on the affected extremity. The oxygen extraction fraction was calculated. After RIC, blood flow declined in CRPS (p CRPS and healthy controls (p CRPS, the oxygen extraction fraction correlated negatively with the decreasing blood flow (p CRPS, which led to a revised hypothesis: the decrease of blood flow might be due to an anti-inflammatory effect that attenuates vascular disturbances and reduces blood shunting, thus improving oxygen extraction. Further studies could determine whether a repeated application of RIC leads to a reduced hypoxia in chronic CRPS. Remote ischaemic conditioning leads to a decrease of blood flow. This decrease inversely correlates with the oxygen extraction in patients with CRPS. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  3. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  4. Some aspects of financing physical culture and sport organizations in the USSR at the regional level in the early fifties (on materials of the Penza region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroleva Larisa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the funding mechanism of the Soviet organizations of mass physical culture and sports in the early 1950s on the example of the Penza area: the defects in estimating of expensesin of sports events, incorrect registration of financial documents – acts, business trip certificates, etc., wrong payment of work of judges and coaches, etc.

  5. Sustaining Young Forest Communities: Ecology and Management of Early Successional Habitats in the Central Hardwood Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Frank R. Thompson III

    2011-01-01

    There is a rising concern among natural resource scientists and managers about decline of the many plant and animal species associated with early ­successional habitats. There is no concise definition of early successional habitats. However, all have a well developed ground cover or shrub and young tree component, lack a closed, mature tree canopy, and are created or...

  6. A pilot study to investigate the role of the 26S proteasome in radiotherapy resistance and loco-regional recurrence following breast conserving therapy for early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfadl, Dalia; Hodgkinson, Victoria C; Long, Ervine D; Scaife, Lucy; Drew, Philip J; Lind, Michael J; Cawkwell, Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Breast conserving therapy is a currently accepted method for managing patients with early stage breast cancer. However, approximately 7% of patients may develop loco-regional tumour recurrence within 5 years. We previously reported that expression of the 26S proteasome may be associated with radio-resistance. Here we aimed to analyse the 26S proteasome in a pilot series of early breast cancers and correlate the findings with loco-regional recurrence. Fourteen patients with early breast cancer who developed loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of completing breast conserving therapy were selected according to strict criteria and compared with those from 14 patients who were disease-free at 10 years. Decreased expression of the 26S proteasome was significantly associated with radio-resistance, manifested as the development of a loco-regional recurrence within 4 years of breast conserving therapy (p = 0.018). This small pilot study provides further suggestion that the 26S proteasome may be associated with response to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The early days of pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection in the central region of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Duque

    2010-11-01

    period for the for pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection was 2 days. The length of the clinical manifestations until the patients sough for medical observation had a median time of 2 days. All the cases were of mild to moderate severity. No deaths were observed. Conclusions: The early days of pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus infection were characterized by cases of disease of mild to moderate severity, in our region. Most affected patients were young adults, with the extreme ages of life being spared. An early diagnosis, strict isolation and treatment procedures could have slowed the spread of the infection. Resumo: Introdução: O primeiro caso de infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009, foi diagnosticado na região centro de Portugal no dia 16 de Junho de 2009, numa mulher infectada no Canadá. Métodos: O nosso estudo tem por objectivos, em primeiro lugar caracterizar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos de todos os doentes que tiveram manifestações clínicas incluídas na definição de caso para investigação com amostras submetidas para diagnóstico da infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009; em segundo lugar, avaliar a precisão da definição de caso para investigação de acordo com a presença ou ausência de febre no momento da observação clínica. Efectuámos a revisão dos registos médicos de todos os doentes classificados como caso para investigação e analisaram-se os primeiros casos de doentes infectados com o novo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009, diagnosticados na região centro de Portugal durante o período pandémico compreendido entre Junho e Agosto de 2009. Foi utilizado o método da reacção em cadeia da polimerase de retrotranscripção em tempo real para confirmação da infecção pelo vírus da gripe pandémica (H1N1 2009. A colheita de dados foi efectuada de forma padronizada em suporte de papel de acordo com as normas da Direcção Geral de Saúde. Resultados e discussão: A infecção pelo vírus da gripe

  8. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane vs surgeon administered intraoperative regional field infiltration with bupivacaine for early postoperative pain control in children undergoing open pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Armando J; Lynch, Johanne; Matava, Clyde; El-Beheiry, Hossam; Hayes, Jason

    2014-07-01

    Regional analgesic techniques are commonly used in pediatric urology. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block has recently gained popularity. However, there is a paucity of information supporting a benefit over regional field infiltration. We present a parallel group, randomized, controlled trial evaluating ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block superiority over surgeon delivered regional field infiltration for children undergoing open pyeloplasty at a tertiary referral center. Following ethics board approval and registration, children 0 to 6 years old were recruited and randomized to undergo perioperative transversus abdominis plane block or regional field infiltration for early post-pyeloplasty pain control. General anesthetic delivery, surgical technique and postoperative analgesics were standardized. A blinded assessor regularly captured pain scores in the recovery room using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) scale. The primary outcome was the need for rescue morphine administration based on a FLACC score of 3 or higher. Two pediatric urologists performed 57 pyeloplasties during a 2.5-year period, enrolling 32 children (16 in each group, balanced for age and weight). There were statistically significant differences in the number of children requiring rescue morphine administration (13 of 16 receiving transversus abdominis plane block and 6 of 16 receiving regional field infiltration, p = 0.011), mean ± SD total morphine consumption (0.066 ± 0.051 vs 0.028 ± 0.040 mg/kg, p = 0.021) and mean ± SD pain scores (5 ± 5 vs 2 ± 3, p = 0.043) in the recovery room, in favor of surgeon administered regional field infiltration. No local anesthetic specific adverse events were noted. Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block is not superior to regional field infiltration with bupivacaine as a strategy to minimize early opioid requirements following open pyeloplasty in children. Instead, our data suggest that

  9. Early nutritional stress impairs development of a song-control brain region in both male and female juvenile song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at the onset of song learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Ian F; Kempster, Bethany; Zanette, Liana; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2006-01-01

    Birdsong is a sexually selected trait and is often viewed as an indicator of male quality. The developmental stress hypothesis proposes a model by which song could be an indicator; the time during early development, when birds learn complex songs and/or local variants of song, is of rapid development and nutritional stress. Birds that cope best with this stress may better learn to produce the most effective songs. The developmental stress hypothesis predicts that early food restriction should impair development of song-control brain regions at the onset of song learning. We examined the effect of food restriction on song-control brain regions in fledgling (both sexes, 23–26 days old) song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Food restriction selectively reduced HVC volume in both sexes. In addition, sex differences were evident in all three song-control regions. This study lends further support to a growing body of literature documenting a variety of behavioural, physiological and neural detriments in several songbird species resulting from early developmental stress. PMID:16959649

  10. β-Globin Matrix Attachment Region Improves Stable Genomic Expression of the Sleeping Beauty Transposon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Meghan C.; Steer, Clifford J.; Kren, Betsy T.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an attractive target for gene therapy due to its extensive capability for protein production and the numerous diseases resulting from a loss of gene function it normally provides. The Sleeping Beauty Transposon (SB-Tn)1 system is a non-viral vector capable of delivering and mediating therapeutic transgene(s) insertion into the host genome for long-term expression. A current challenge for this system is the low efficiency of integration of the transgene. In this study we use a human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) and primary human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) to test vectors containing DNA elements to enhance transposition without integrating themselves. We employed the human β-globin matrix attachment region (MAR) and the Simian virus 40 (SV40) nuclear translocation signal to increase the percent of HuH-7 cells persistently expressing a GFP::Zeo reporter construct by ~50% for each element; while combining both did not show an additive effect. Interestingly, both elements together displayed an additive effect on the number of insertion sites, and in BOECs the SV40 alone appeared to have an inhibitory effect on transposition. In long-term cultures the loss of plasmid DNA, transposase expression and mapping of insertion sites demonstrated bona fide transposition without episomal expression. These results show that addition of the β-globin MAR and potentially other elements to the backbone of SB-Tn system can enhance transposition and expression of therapeutic transgenes. These findings may have a significant influence on the use of SB transgene delivery to liver for the treatment of a wide variety of disorders. PMID:21520245

  11. A method to determine the mammographic regions that show early changes due to the development of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemore, Gopal; Nielsen, Mads; Karssemeijer, Nico; Brandt, Sami S.

    2014-11-01

    It is well understood nowadays that changes in the mammographic parenchymal pattern are an indicator of a risk of breast cancer and we have developed a statistical method that estimates the mammogram regions where the parenchymal changes, due to breast cancer, occur. This region of interest is computed from a score map by utilising the anatomical breast coordinate system developed in our previous work. The method also makes an automatic scale selection to avoid overfitting while the region estimates are computed by a nested cross-validation scheme. In this way, it is possible to recover those mammogram regions that show a significant difference in classification scores between the cancer and the control group. Our experiments suggested that the most significant mammogram region is the region behind the nipple and that can be justified by previous findings from other research groups. This result was conducted on the basis of the cross-validation experiments on independent training, validation and testing sets from the case-control study of 490 women, of which 245 women were diagnosed with breast cancer within a period of 2-4 years after the baseline mammograms. We additionally generalised the estimated region to another, mini-MIAS study and showed that the transferred region estimate gives at least a similar classification result when compared to the case where the whole breast region is used. In all, by following our method, one most likely improves both preclinical and follow-up breast cancer screening, but a larger study population will be required to test this hypothesis.

  12. Regional drought early warning, impacts, and assessment for water and agriculture in the lower Rio Grande basin, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA’s Southern Plains Climate Hub (SPCH) and the University of Oklahoma’s Southern Climate Impacts Planning Program (SCIPP) contributed to a broad, multi-partnered effort to provide drought early warning information to water and agriculture management interests in the middle and lower Rio Grande ba...

  13. Quantification of synovitis in the cranio-cervical region: Dynamic contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging in early rheumatoid arthritis-A feasibility follow up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeromel, M., E-mail: miran.jeromel@gmail.com [Institute of Radiology, Department for Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jevtic, V., E-mail: vladimir.jevtic@mf.uni-lj.si [Medical Faculty Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1104 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sersa, I., E-mail: igor.sersa@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ambrozic, A., E-mail: ales.ambrozic@mf.uni-lj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomsic, M., E-mail: matija.tomsic@kclj.si [Department of Rheumatology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Vodnikova 62, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To test the feasibility of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCEI) and diffusion weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for quantifying synovitis of the cranio-cervical (C-C) region in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and neck pain at the beginning and at a six month follow up. Methods: 27 patients with duration of RA of less than 24 months and neck pain were studied with standard qualitative MRI evaluation and two quantitative MRI methods (DCEI and DWI) at the level of atlantoaxial joints. Rate of early enhancement (REE), enhancement gradient (Genh) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted from DCEI and DWI data. MRI was coupled with clinical assessment and radiographic imaging. Results: Using standard qualitative MRI evaluation, unequivocal active synovitis (grade 2 or 3 contrast enhancement) was proved in 16 (59%) patients at baseline and 14 (54%) at follow up. DCEI and DWI measurements confirmed active synovitis in 25 (93%) patients at baseline and 24 (92%) at follow up. Average REE, Genh and ADC values decreased during follow up, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Both qualitative and quantitative MRI methods confirmed active inflammatory disease in the C-C region following therapy although all clinical criteria showed signs of improvement of the peripheral disease. Conclusions: The study proved the feasibility of DCEI and DWI MRI for quantifying synovitis of the C-C region in patients with early RA and neck pain. Both techniques can be used as additional method for evaluation of synovitis of the C-C region in RA.

  14. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Kaleida, Catherine C. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, Michael A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, Donald N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J., E-mail: hwihyun.kim@asu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of {approx}15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  15. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H.; Calzetti, Daniela; O’Connell, Robert W.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of approximately 15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones.We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations ofWolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  16. Primary culture of avian embryonic heart forming region cells to study the regulation of vertebrate early heart morphogenesis by vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakstina, Inese; Riekstina, Una; Boroduskis, Martins; Nakurte, Ilva; Ancans, Janis; Zile, Maija H; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-02-19

    Important knowledge about the role of vitamin A in vertebrate heart development has been obtained using the vitamin A-deficient avian in ovo model which enables the in vivo examination of very early stages of vertebrate heart morphogenesis. These studies have revealed the critical role of the vitamin A-active form, retinoic acid (RA) in the regulation of several developmental genes, including the important growth regulatory factor, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGFβ2), involved in early events of heart morphogenesis. However, this in ovo model is not readily available for elucidating details of molecular mechanisms determining RA activity, thus limiting further examination of RA-regulated early heart morphogenesis. In order to obtain insights into RA-regulated gene expression during these early events, a reliable in vitro model is needed. Here we describe a cell culture that closely reproduces the in ovo observed regulatory effects of RA on TGFβ2 and on several developmental genes linked to TGFβ signaling during heart morphogenesis. We have developed an avian heart forming region (HFR) cell based in vitro model that displays the characteristics associated with vertebrate early heart morphogenesis, i.e. the expression of Nkx2.5 and GATA4, the cardiogenesis genes, of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), the vasculogenesis gene and of fibronectin (FN1), an essential component in building the heart, and the expression of the multifunctional genes TGFβ2 and neogenin (NEO). Importantly, we established that the HFR cell culture is a valid model to study RA-regulated molecular events during heart morphogenesis and that the expression of TGFβ2 as well as the expression of several TGFβ2-linked developmental genes is regulated by RA. Our findings reported here offer a biologically relevant experimental in vitro system for the elucidation of RA-regulated expression of TGFβ2 and other genes involved in vertebrate early cardiovascular morphogenesis.

  17. Plate tectonic characteristics during the early paleozoic in Beishan near the Sino-Mongolian border region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guochao; Zhang, Shuling; He, Guoqi; Zhang, Yang

    1991-03-01

    The tectonic units during the Early Paleozoic in the Beishan area comprise the northern margin of the eastern end of the Tarim Plate and the northern flank of the Mingshui-Hanshan microplate. These two paleoplates were separated by an ophiolitic melange belt. All of them underwent the tectonic evolution typical of the continental margins of Atlantic, Andean and west Pacific Ocean types. The continental margin was an open continental shelf and a continental slope from the Early Cambrian to the Early Ordovician. At the southern flank of the continental shelf an isolated shallow sea basin developed separated from the shelf by an upwarping zone. Its northern flank, Shibanjing-Xiaohuangshan, is an ocean basin. North of this ocean basin is the Mingshui-Hanshan microcontinent or microplate. This area is situated in a tensional tectonic environment, it shows the characteristics of a passive, Atlantic-type margin. During the middle and late parts of the Early Ordovician the continental crust on the southern fringe of the shallow sea basin was pulled open, and a narrow, ocean rift formed. In the mid-Ordovician, this area underwent a period of considerable development, in which extension and subduction existed simultaneously. The southern fringe of the continental margin came to the end of the passive margin. On its northern side, a marginal volcanic zone, with calc-alkali volcanism, formed. In the Late Ordovician-Silurian, the oceanic crust was folded and subducted southward, and the Hengluanshan-Xichanjing marginal basin developed into an interarc basin, where the Hongliuhe-Niujuazi backarc basin and the Baiyunshan Dongqiyishan volcanic arc had formed, with associated granitic magma. At the beginning of the Devonian, the Tarim Plate finally came into collision with the Mingshui-Hanshan microplate and the ocean basin closed, forming the Mingshui-Shibanjing-Xiaohuangshan suture belt. There were volcanic molasse basins on both sides of this orogenic zone. From the Late

  18. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  19. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  20. Organizing medical oncology care at a regional level and its subsequent impact on the quality of early breast cancer management: a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voidey, Aline; Pivot, Xavier; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Nallet, Gilles; Cals, Laurent; Schwetterle, Francis; Limat, Samuel

    2014-07-28

    One of the main measures of the French national cancer plan is to encourage physicians to work collectively, and to minimize territorial inequities in access to care by rethinking the geographical distribution of oncologists. For this reason, cancer care services are currently being reorganized at national level. A new infrastructure for multidisciplinary cancer care delivery has been put in place in our region. Patients can receive multidisciplinary health care services nearer their homes, thanks to a mobile team of oncologists. The objective of our study was to assess, using a quality approach, the impact on medical management and on the costs of treating early breast cancer, of the new regional structure for cancer care delivery. Before-and-after study performed from 2007 to 2010, including patients treated for early breast cancer in three hospitals in the region of Franche-Comté in Eastern France. The main outcome measures were quality criteria, namely delayed treatment (>12 weeks), dose-intensity and assessment of adjuvant chemotherapy. Other outcomes were 24-month progression-free survival (PFS) and economic evaluation. This study included 667 patients. The rate of chemotherapy tended to decrease, but not significantly (49.3% before versus 42.2% after, p=0.07), while the use of taxanes increased by 38% across all centres (59.6% before versus 98.0% after, p 3.0 weeks before versus 5.6 ± 3.6 weeks after, p=0.11). Dose-dense chemotherapy improved slightly, albeit non significantly (86.3% versus 91.1% p=0.22) and time to treatment tended to decrease. The new regional infrastructure did not change 24-month PFS, which remained at about 96%. The average cost of treatment was estimated at € 7000, with no difference between the two periods. Despite a shortage of oncologists, the new organization put in place in our region for the provision of care for early breast cancer makes it possible to maintain local community-based treatment, without negative economic

  1. Management of the Regional Lymph Nodes Following Breast-Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Evolving Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Laura E.G. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R., E-mail: jbellon@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radiation therapy to the breast following breast conservation surgery has been the standard of care since randomized trials demonstrated equivalent survival compared to mastectomy and improved local control and survival compared to breast conservation surgery alone. Recent controversies regarding adjuvant radiation therapy have included the potential role of additional radiation to the regional lymph nodes. This review summarizes the evolution of regional nodal management focusing on 2 topics: first, the changing paradigm with regard to surgical evaluation of the axilla; second, the role for regional lymph node irradiation and optimal design of treatment fields. Contemporary data reaffirm prior studies showing that complete axillary dissection may not provide additional benefit relative to sentinel lymph node biopsy in select patient populations. Preliminary data also suggest that directed nodal radiation therapy to the supraclavicular and internal mammary lymph nodes may prove beneficial; publication of several studies are awaited to confirm these results and to help define subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefit.

  2. Early marker of regional left ventricular deformation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy evaluated by MRI tissue tracking: The effects of myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Yan; Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Rui; Shi, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Xi; Xie, Lin-Jun; Jiang, Li; Guo, Ying-Kun

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the regional left ventricular (LV) myocardial strain of early stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients by magnetic resonance (MR) tissue tracking. In all, 114 adult HCM patients classified as NYHA I or II and 32 healthy volunteers were enrolled and underwent 3.0T MR examination. Vertical 2-chamber long axis, horizontal 4-chamber, and short axis cine sequence as well as late gadolinium enhancement images (LGE) were scanned. The cardiac function, regional LV tissue tracking variables, end-diastolic wall thickness (EDTH), and LGE extent were measured. In the HCM group, 38 were NYHA I and 76 were NYHA II. By regional analysis, peak strain (PS) and peak displacement (PD) with radial, circumferential direction of hypertrophic segments (n = 283) were significantly lower than nonhypertrophic segments (n = 1541) (all P hypertrophic and fibrotic segments of early-stage HCM patients can be measured by MR tissue tracking based on routine cine images. Moreover, myocardial strain may decrease with the increasing of myocardial hypertrophy as well as fibrosis. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1368-1376. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Abnormal regional activity and functional connectivity in resting-state brain networks associated with etiology confirmed unilateral pulsatile tinnitus in the early stage of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Rui; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Peng; Yan, Fei; Liu, Liheng; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Li, Ting; Dong, Cheng; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal neural activities can be revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) using analyses of the regional activity and functional connectivity (FC) of the networks in the brain. This study was designed to demonstrate the functional network alterations in the patients with pulsatile tinnitus (PT). In this study, we recruited 45 patients with unilateral PT in the early stage of disease (less than 48 months of disease duration) and 45 normal controls. We used regional homogeneity (ReHo) and seed-based FC computational methods to reveal resting-state brain activity features associated with pulsatile tinnitus. Compared with healthy controls, PT patients showed regional abnormalities mainly in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), posterior cingulate gyrus (PCC), precuneus and right anterior insula (AI). When these regions were defined as seeds, we demonstrated widespread modification of interaction between the auditory and non-auditory networks. The auditory network was positively connected with the cognitive control network (CCN), which may associate with tinnitus related distress. Both altered regional activity and changed FC were found in the visual network. The modification of interactions of higher order networks were mainly found in the DMN, CCN and limbic networks. Functional connectivity between the left MOG and left parahippocampal gyrus could also be an index to reflect the disease duration. This study helped us gain a better understanding of the characteristics of neural network modifications in patients with pulsatile tinnitus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. "Mullin' the Yarndi" and Other Wicked Problems at a Multiracial Early Childhood Education Site in Regional Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameniar, Barbara Maria; Imtoual, Alia; Bradley, Debra

    2010-01-01

    In this article, Grint's model of leadership is used to shape discussions of how "problems" are responded to in the context of a preschool in an Australian regional town. Authority styles are described as command, management, or leadership. These authority styles result in approaching problems as "crises," "tame…

  5. The impact of loco-regional recurrences on metastatic progression in early-stage breast cancer : a multistate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G. H.; Putter, H.; Bonnema, J.; van der Hage, J. A.; Bartelink, H.; van de Velde, C. J.

    To study whether the effects of prognostic factors associated with the occurrence of distant metastases (DM) at primary diagnosis change after the incidence of loco-regional recurrences (LRR) among women treated for invasive stage I or II breast cancer. The study population consisted of 3,601 women,

  6. Lugol chromoendoscopic screening for esophageal dysplasia/early squamous cell carcinoma in patients with esophageal symptoms in low-risk region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ying; Yu, Zhong-Lin; Ji, Ming; Wu, Yong-Dong; Yu, Yong-Zheng; Liang, Xiao-Mei; Yu, L I; Niu, Ying-Lin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2015-07-01

    Detection of esophageal dysplasia/early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is essential for improving 5-year survival. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether Lugol chromoendoscopy improves the detection of esophageal dysplasia/early ESCC in patients with esophageal symptoms in a low-incidence region in China. Eligible patients were randomly assigned into two groups who received routine endoscopy or Lugol chromoendoscopy. During endoscopy, between one and five biopsies were taken from visible lesions for routine endoscopy, or unstained areas of >0.5 cm in diameter for Lugol chromoendoscopy. In total, 812 patients were enrolled, 395 for routine endoscopy and 417 for Lugol chromoendoscopy. The overall detection rate of esophageal dysplasia/early ESCC was 10.6% (86/812), the detection rates were 7.3% (29/395) and 13.7% (57/417) in routine and chromoendoscopy groups, respectively (χ2=8.58, P=0.003). The detection rates were 8.3% (48/580), 17.2% (17/99) and 16.5% (22/133), respectively, in patients with reflux, dysphagia and globus sensation symptoms. In the chromoendoscopy group, 213 patients had unstained lesions of >0.5 cm, the detection rates of dysplasia/early carcinoma were 5.3% (4/76) in those with lesions of 0.5-1.0 cm, and 37.2% (51/137) in those with lesions >1.0 cm (χ2=21.46, PLugol chromoendoscopy improves the detection rate of esophageal dysplasia/early carcinoma in patients with esophageal symptoms compared with routine endoscopy. We propose that Lugol chromoendoscopy must therefore be considered in addition to routine endoscopy in patients with esophageal symptoms.

  7. Genetic analysis of historic western Great Lakes region wolf samples reveals early Canis lupus/lycaon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Tyler; White, Bradley N

    2009-02-23

    The genetic status of wolves in the western Great Lakes region has received increased attention following the decision to remove them from protection under the US Endangered Species Act. A recent study of mitochondrial DNA has suggested that the recovered wolf population is not genetically representative of the historic population. We present microsatellite genotype data on three historic samples and compare them with extant populations, and interpret published genetic data to show that the pre-recovery population was admixed over a century ago by eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) and grey wolf (Canis lupus) hybridization. The DNA profiles of the historic samples are similar to those of extant animals in the region, suggesting that the current Great Lakes wolves are representative of the historic population.

  8. New chronology for the Middle Palaeolithic of the southern Caucasus suggests early demise of Neanderthals in this region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Nioradze, M; Tushabramishvili, N; Lordkipanidze, D; Pleurdeau, D; Moncel, M-H; Adler, D S; Stringer, C; Higham, T F G

    2012-12-01

    Neanderthal populations of the southern and northern Caucasus became locally extinct during the Late Pleistocene. The timing of their extinction is key to our understanding of the relationship between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans (AMH) in Eurasia. Recent re-dating of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic (MP) at Mezmaiskaya Cave, northern Caucasus, and Ortvale Klde, southern Caucasus, suggests that Neanderthals did not survive after 39 ka cal BP (thousands of years ago, calibrated before present). Here we extend the analysis and present a revised regional chronology for MP occupational phases in western Georgia, based on a series of model-based Bayesian analyses of radiocarbon dated bone samples obtained from the caves of Sakajia, Ortvala and Bronze Cave. This allows the establishment of probability intervals for the onset and end of each of the dated levels and for the end of the MP occupation at the three sites. Our results for Sakajia indicate that the end of the late Middle Palaeolithic (LMP) and start of the Upper Palaeolithic (UP) occurred between 40,200 and 37,140 cal BP. The end of the MP in the neighboring site of Ortvala occurred earlier at 43,540-41,420 cal BP (at 68.2% probability). The dating of MP layers from Bronze Cave confirms that it does not contain LMP phases. These results imply that Neanderthals did not survive in the southern Caucasus after 37 ka cal BP, supporting a model of Neanderthal extinction around the same period as reported for the northern Caucasus and other regions of Europe. Taken together with previous reports of the earliest UP phases in the region and the lack of archaeological evidence for an in situ transition, these results indicate that AMH arrived in the Caucasus a few millennia after the Neanderthal demise and that the two species probably did not interact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenson A Bennett

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus. The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV were determined. This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. Results The PePV genome (7304 basepairs differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FPV reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. Conclusions The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution.

  10. My early experiences in establishing neonatal screening and the reason for regional meetings of the international society for neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    When I started the neonatal screening in Japan, I could not obtain the necessary information for establishing the national screening system in my own country. Thus, around 1970, I visited H. Bickel, R. Guthrie and several other experts in the field of the neonatal screening in USA and Europe. Through their help, I could learn: (i) the philosophy of the world of screening, (ii) the way to improve the basic techniques in this field and (iii) the way to improve the level of screening. On the other hand, I realised that in some countries, people received imprecise information from non-authoritative sources. I also realised that it was difficult for people in developing countries to meet experts of other countries. Therefore, when I was appointed the first president of International Society of Neonatal Screening (ISNS), I proposed to have the regional meetings held in many areas. In this report, I explained how we were asked to establish the national screening system in Japan through the support of experts around the world. I hope that people will understand the reason why I proposed that regional meetings of the ISNS be held in various locations.

  11. Gene expression analysis of canonical Wnt pathway transcriptional regulators during early morphogenesis of the facial region in the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, Victor; Summerhurst, Kristen; Sharpe, James; Davidson, Duncan; Murphy, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Structures and features of the face, throat and neck are formed from a series of branchial arches that grow out along the ventrolateral aspect of the embryonic head. Multiple signalling pathways have been implicated in patterning interactions that lead to species-specific growth and differentiation within the branchial region that sculpt these features. A direct role for Wnt signalling in particular has been shown. The spatial and temporal distribution of Wnt pathway components contributes to the operation of the signalling system. We present the precise distribution of gene expression of canonical Wnt pathway transcriptional regulators, Tcf1, Lef1, Tcf3, Tcf4 and beta-catenin between embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 11.5. In situ hybridization combined with Optical Projection Tomography was used to record and compare distribution of transcripts in 3D within the developing branchial arches. This shows widespread yet very specific expression of the gene set indicating that all genes contribute to proper patterning of the region. Tcf1 and Lef1 are more prominent in rostral arches, particularly at later ages, and Tcf3 and Tcf4 are in general expressed more deeply (medial/endodermal aspect) in the arches than Tcf1 and Lef1. Comparison with Wnt canonical pathway readout patterns shows that the relationship between the expression of individual transcription factors and activation of the pathway is not simple, indicating complexity and flexibility in the signalling system.

  12. Structural and Dynamic Characterization of the Molecular Hub Early Region 1A (E1A) from Human Adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošek, Tomáš; Calçada, Eduardo O; Nogueira, Marcela Oliveira; Salvi, Michele; Pagani, Talita Duarte; Felli, Isabella C; Pierattelli, Roberta

    2016-09-05

    The small-DNA human adenovirus encodes one of the most versatile molecular hubs, the E1A protein. This protein is essential for productive viral infection in human cells and a vast amount of biologically relevant data are available on its interactions with host proteins. Up to now, however, no high-resolution structural and dynamic information on E1A is available despite its important biological role. Among the different spliced variants of E1A, two are expressed at high level in the early stage of infection. These are 243 and 289 residues isoforms. Herein, we present their NMR characterization, showing that they are both highly disordered, but also demonstrate a certain heterogeneous behavior in terms of structural and dynamic properties. Furthermore, we present the characterization of the isolated domain of the longer variant, known as CR3. This study opens the way to understanding at the molecular level how E1A functions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Loco-regional morbidity after breast conservation and axillary lymph node dissection for early breast cancer with or without regional nodes radiotherapy, perspectives in modern breast cancer treatment: the Skagen Trial 1 is active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Friis, Rasmus Blechingberg; Linnet, Søren; Offersen, Birgitte Vrou

    2017-05-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in early breast cancer are associated with a risk of morbidity, including lymphedema and impaired shoulder mobility. The aim of this study was to evaluate loco-regional morbidity after breast conserving surgery (BCS), ALND, taxane-based chemotherapy and whole breast irradiation (WBI) with or without regional nodes RT. Eligible patients had BCS and ALND from 2007 to 2012 followed by adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy and if indicated, trastuzumab and endocrine treatment. The RT consisted of WBI and regional nodes RT in case of ≥ pN1 disease (group 1) and WBI only in case of pN0-1(mic) disease (group 2). The dose was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study evaluating morbidity. Of the 347 eligible patients, 277 patients (79%) accepted the invitation. Of these, 185 patients (67%) belonged to group 1 and 92 patients (33%) to group 2. The median time from RT to evaluation of morbidity was 3.3 years (group 1) and 4.3 years (group 2). In group 1, 34 patients (18%) and in group 2, 15 patients (16%) had ≥2 cm enlargement in circumference of ipsilateral upper or lower arm (p = .67). The frequence of impairment of ipsilateral shoulder abduction to ≤120° was 3% in both groups and of shoulder flexion to ≤120° was 1% and 2% (group 1 versus 2). No difference in patient reported outcome measure (PROM) data regarding heaviness or enlargement of ipsilateral upper and lower arm or mobility and sensory disturbances. The risk of lymphedema was low in patients after ALND and not related to use of regional nodes RT. Impairment of shoulder function was rare, and no differences in PROM were detected regarding use or not of regional nodes RT.

  14. The Siberian Students in Research, Cultural and Social Life of the Region in the Late XIX – Early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Ustinova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the role and place of students in the Siberian scientific-research and cultural-educational life of the region. It is shown that high moral ideals and a desire to help people in need be useful to its edge and to society in general – describe the ideas, common in the student's environment at the turn of XIX – XX centuries. Based on the analysis of archival materials and scientific literature, it was found that the students showed during this period, an increased desire to participate in social and cultural life of Siberia and the whole country. However, this participation in different ways manifested in the minds and actions of young people. Some students, actively engage in the cultural life of the region, entered in the companies involved in charity work, academic research, literary and theatrical art, medicine, advanced study of philosophy, technical processes, etc. At universities created various thematic interest groups, on a territorial basis – numerous fraternities, a nobility of purpose in the form of moral and material support of their members. However, some Siberian students in their own way understood his own mission in social processes, including under the form of participation in legal societies, clubs or fraternities in the activities of political and campaign focus, in the meetings discussing ideas about the possibilities of revolution, as expected, from their point of view, progress and prosperity in case of their implementation. Also in this period, there are illegal organizations that engage some students of Siberian universities. The activities of such organizations is highly political in nature.

  15. Estimation of the tourism climate in the Hunter Region, Australia, in the early twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    Existing tourism-related climate information and evaluation are typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and do not include thermal perception and other climate parameters relevant for tourists. Here, we quantify climate based on the climate facets relevant to tourism (thermal, physical, aesthetical), and apply the results to the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). This paper presents bioclimatic and tourism climatological conditions in the Hunter Region—one of Australia's most popular tourist destinations. In the Hunter Region, generally, temperatures below 15°C occur from April through October, temperatures less than 25°C are expected throughout the whole year, while humidity sits around 50%. As expected, large differences between air temperature and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) were clearly identified. The widest differences were seen in summer time rather than in the winter period. In addition, cold stress was observed less than 10% of the time in winter while around 40-60% of heat stress was observed in summer time. This correlates with the highest numbers of international visitors, who usually seek a warmer weather, at the beginning of summer time (November and December) and also to the number of domestic visitors, who tend to seek cooler places for recreation and leisure, in late summer (January-March). It was concluded that thermal bioclimate assessment such as PET and CTIS can be applied in the Hunter region, and that local governments and the tourism industry should take an integrated approach to providing more relevant weather and climate information for both domestic and international tourists in the near future.

  16. The sensitivity to replacement and displacement of the eyes region in early adolescence, young and later adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana eMeinhardt-Injac

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests a rather gradual developmental trajectory for processing vertical relational face information, lasting well into late adolescence (de Heering and Schlitz, 2012. Results from another recent study (Tanaka et al., 2014 indicate that children and young adolescents use a smaller spatial integration field for faces than do adults, which particularly affects assessment of long-range vertical relations. Here we studied sensitivity to replacement of eyes and eyebrows (F, variation of inter-eye distance (H and eye height (V in young adolescents (11-12 years, young (21-25 years and middle-age adults (51-62 years. In order to provide a baseline for potential age effects the sensitivity to all three types of face manipulations was calibrated to equal levels for the young adults group. Both the young adolescents and the middle age adults showed substantially lower sensitivity compared to young adults, but only the young adolescents had selective impairment for V relational changes. Their inversion effects were at similar levels for all types of face manipulations, while in both adult groups the inversion effects for V were considerably stronger than for H or F changes. These results suggest that young adolescents use a limited spatial integration field for faces, and have not reached a mature state in processing vertical configural cues. The H-V asymmetry of inversion effects found for both adult groups indicates that adults integrate across the whole face when they view upright stimuli. However, the notably lower sensitivity of middle-age adults for all types of face manipulations, which was accompanied by a strong general same bias, suggests early age-related decline in attending cues for facial difference.

  17. Stable isotope and trace element proxy data from aragonite cements of stressed reef environments (early Messinian, Mediterranean Region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, Thomas; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Reuter, Markus; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Vescogni, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    Early Messinian coral reefs of the Mediterranean area are among the classical examples of Neogene reefs in the world and, according to the ecology of their biota, do not exhibit compelling evidence for significant salinity stress prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). Because of excellent outcrop conditions and preservation, these reefs have become prototypes of Neogene reefs worldwide. Here we present stable oxygen isotope (IRMS) and trace element data (LA-ICP-MS) from marine aragonite cement in biogenic frameworks of some Mediterranean reefs. The reworking of the cements by intraformational breccias clearly supports petrographic evidence of "syndepositional" precipitation. Reported values of 18O/16O translate into peak sea surface salinity of 50 to 60 permil, which is a lethal value for most members of the reef community. Therefore, additional proxies have been evaluated to constrain the environment in which the cements formed. 13C/12C signatures are fully within the range of marine cement, however, systematic excursions exist on outcrop-scaple over the geological sections which may suggest episodic influx of terrestrial organic matter brought in by rivers or episodic upwelling of deep water masses with CO2 enriched in 12C. Intra-cement 13C/12C, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca measured along transects exhibits co-variant changes which are incompatible with temperature effects and more plausibly document the mixing of different fluids, or the evolution of the pore fluids upon continuing precipitation. Although the final cause underlying the discrepant aspect of biological and various inorganic proxy data remains not yet fully understood, this study shows that evaluation of one single proxy may lead to more misleading than helpful concepts of palaeoenvironments and environment change.

  18. Early-Holocene Climate Change in Beringia: Mediation of Global-Warming Impacts by Regional-Scale Boundary-Condition Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. E.; Bartlein, P. J.; Hostetler, S. W.; Shafer, S. L.; Anderson, P. M.; Brubaker, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    The early Holocene transition from glacial to interglacial conditions that occurred ca. 13ka to 10ka in Beringia (eastern Siberia, Alaska, and northwestern Canada) was driven by the amplified seasonal cycle of northern hemisphere insolation and the accompanying changes in global ice volume, atmospheric composition, sea- surface temperature, and sea level. The climate of Beringia also was likely influenced by changes in regional- scale controls, including continental-shelf flooding, the development of thaw lakes, and the replacement of shrub tundra by deciduous forest or woodland. We are examining the sensitivity of Beringia's early Holocene climate to these regional-scale controls by applying a regional climate model (RegCM2), with lateral and oceanic boundary conditions provided by global climate simulations conducted with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with a mixed-layer ocean (Genesis 2.0). In addition to a present day simulation, we performed five 11ka climate simulations with RegCM2, each driven by the same AGCM 11ka global simulation: 1) a "control" simulation that represents conditions just prior to the major transitions (i.e. exposed land bridge, no thaw lakes or wetlands, widespread tundra vegetation); 2) a vegetation-change simulation, with deciduous needleleaf and boreal deciduous broadleaf vegetation types distributed as suggested by the paleoecological record; 3) a sea-level rise simulation, employing present-day continental outlines; 4) a thaw-lake simulation, using the present-day distribution of lakes and wetlands; and 5) a "post-11ka" simulation, incorporating all of the regional-scale boundary conditions changed in experiments 2-4. The experiments indicate that the regional-scale controls strongly mediate the climate responses to changes in the large-scale controls, amplifying them in some cases, damping them in others, and overall, generating considerable spatial heterogeneity in the simulated climate changes. The vegetation

  19. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  20. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  1. Women's perspectives on marriage and rights in Morocco: risk factors for forced and early marriage in the Marrakech region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Hamzali, Somia; Oulami, Najia; Le Hjir, Fatima Zehra; Abdallaoui, Mariam; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of the new Family Law, or Moudawana, in Morocco, effectively raising the minimum age for marriage, the number of girls being forced into wedlock is rising. This increase has been a source of concern from a women's rights perspective. The present study explored women's experiences and perspectives in relation to factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Using a participatory approach, focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were held with women in both urban and rural settings in the greater Marrakech region. Overall, 125 women, between 18 and 69 years of age, participated in the study. Our findings highlight the need for more open dialogue between (grand)parents and children. Overall, the Moudawana is perceived as a considerable step forward for women's rights, yet study findings show that current policy provisions are not effective in abolishing forced marriages. Findings point to the need for a redefinition of the role of organisations, women's associations and other groups, with the recommendation that they focus their future efforts on awareness-raising among older generations and refrain from directly intervening in cases of forced marriage. Sensitisation efforts, including the use of popular media, are crucial to reach members of this older population group, where illiteracy remains widespread.

  2. WEAK AND COMPACT RADIO EMISSION IN EARLY HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGIONS. I. VLA OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Claussen, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Rd., Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S.; Carrasco-González, C.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Loinard, L. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58090, México (Mexico); Cesaroni, R. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F. [Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ellingsen, S. P. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-12-01

    We present a high-sensitivity radio continuum survey at 6 and 1.3 cm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array toward a sample of 58 high-mass star-forming regions. Our sample was chosen from dust clumps within infrared dark clouds with and without IR sources (CMC–IRs and CMCs, respectively), and hot molecular cores (HMCs), with no previous, or relatively weak radio continuum detection at the 1 mJy level. Due to the improvement in the continuum sensitivity of the Very Large Array, this survey achieved map rms levels of ∼3–10  μ Jy beam{sup −1} at sub-arcsecond angular resolution. We extracted 70 continuum sources associated with 1.2 mm dust clumps. Most sources are weak, compact, and prime candidates for high-mass protostars. Detection rates of radio sources associated with the millimeter dust clumps for CMCs, CMC–IRs, and HMCs are 6%, 53%, and 100%, respectively. This result is consistent with increasing high-mass star formation activity from CMCs to HMCs. The radio sources located within HMCs and CMC–IRs occur close to the dust clump centers, with a median offset from it of 12,000 au and 4000 au, respectively. We calculated 5–25 GHz spectral indices using power-law fits and obtained a median value of 0.5 (i.e., flux increasing with frequency), suggestive of thermal emission from ionized jets. In this paper we describe the sample, observations, and detections. The analysis and discussion will be presented in Paper II.

  3. The block of adipocyte differentiation by a C-terminally truncated, but not by full-length, simian virus 40 large tumor antigen is dependent on an intact retinoblastoma susceptibility protein family binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C; Chatterjee, S; Cherington, V

    1996-02-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) can promote cell transformation and suppress differentiation. It does this partly by targeting tumor suppressors such as p53 and members of the retinoblastoma susceptibility protein (Rb) family. This work concentrates on mechanisms by which SV40 large tumor antigen (SVLT) suppresses adipocyte differentiation. We created cell lines derived from murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes expressing different versions of SV40 early-region sequences. SVLT-expressing cells failed to exhibit adipocyte morphology, to induce glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity, and to induce differentiation-dependent mRNA for adipocyte P2. SVLT alone was sufficient, in the absence of SV40 small tumor antigen, to inhibit differentiation. A truncated SVLT containing only the N-terminal 121 amino acids (SVLT1-121) blocked differentiation, thus mapping at least one differentiation blocking function to the N-terminal region. K1 (Glu-107-->Lys) point mutants of SVLT, which are unable to bind to the Rb protein family or induce neoplastic transformation, are defective for blocking differentiation in the case of SVLT1-121 but retain the ability to block differentiation in the case of full-length SVLT. This finding demonstrates that Rb family proteins are important in regulating adipocyte differentiation but that other functions of full-length SVLT can block adipocyte differentiation independently of RB family binding and transformation.

  4. Deficient suppression of default mode regions during working memory in individuals with early psychosis and at clinical high-risk for psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna L Fryer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The default mode network (DMN is a set of brain regions typically activated at rest and suppressed during extrinsic cognition. Schizophrenia has been associated with deficient DMN suppression, though the extent to which DMN dysfunction predates psychosis onset is unclear. This study examined DMN suppression during working memory (WM performance in youth at clinical high-risk (CHR for psychosis, early schizophrenia patients (ESZ, and healthy controls (HC. We hypothesized that the DMN would show load-dependent suppression during WM retrieval in HC but not in ESZ, with CHR participants showing an intermediate pattern. Methods: FMRI data were collected from CHR (n=32, ESZ (n=22, and HC (n=54 participants, ages 12-30. DMN regions were defined via seed-based connectivity analysis of resting state fMRI data from an independent HC sample. Load-dependent deactivations of these DMN regions in response to WM probes were interrogated.Results: HC showed linear load-dependent increases in DMN deactivation. Significant Group-by-Load interactions were observed in DMN regions including medial prefrontal and lateral posterior parietal cortices. Group-by-Load effects in posterior DMN nodes resulted from less suppression at higher WM loads in ESZ relative to HC, with CHR differing from neither group. In medial prefrontal cortex, suppression of activity at higher WM loads was significantly diminished in both CHR and ESZ groups, relative to HC. In addition, investigation of dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC activations revealed that ESZ activated right DLPFC significantly more than HC, with CHR differing from neither group. Conclusion: While HC showed WM load-dependent modulation of DMN suppression, CHR individuals had deficient higher-load DMN suppression that was similar to, but less pronounced than, the distributed suppression deficits evident in ESZ patients. These results suggest that DMN dysregulation associated with schizophrenia predates psychosis

  5. History and Historians in the Soviet Political and Ideological Structure in 1930s – early 1940s (case study: the Siberian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Khaminov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In paper deals with the issues of a place and a role of historical knowledge and historians as a special professional community (university professors, researchers and students of the history departments in the political and ideological structure of the Soviet state in the 1930s – early 1940s. The article restores politics of Communist Party and Soviet government in relation to historians on the example of a unique Siberian small region. The Author made an attempt, on the basis of party and government documents as well as archive materials, some of which were for the first time introduced in scientific circles, give a balanced assessment of these processes in the conditions of the most tragic and controversial periods in the Russian history.

  6. Early Provision of Mother's Own Milk and Other Predictors of Successful Breast Milk Feeding after Very Preterm Birth: A Regional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emilija; Christensson, Kyllike; Brandt, Lena; Altman, Maria; Bonamy, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    Breast milk is associated with a lower risk of neonatal morbidity in very preterm infants. Despite the benefits, the duration of breastfeeding is shorter in very preterm infants than in term infants. This study aimed to investigate how early provision of mother's own milk (MOM) and maternal and infant characteristics are related to breast milk feeding (BMF) between 36 and 40 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) after very preterm birth. A regional observational study of 138 singleton infants born at < 32 weeks of gestation in Stockholm, Sweden, was conducted. Data were derived from medical charts to investigate the association between early provision of MOM; maternal and infant characteristics; and exclusive, partial, or no BMF at 36 weeks PMA. Moreover, changes in BMF between 36 and 40 weeks PMA were studied. Most infants (80%) received MOM at 36 weeks PMA (55% exclusively, 25% partial). High provision of MOM at postnatal day 7 was associated with exclusive BMF at 36 weeks PMA, odds ratio (OR) 1.18 per 10 mL/kg MOM (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.32). Mothers born in non-Nordic countries provided MOM exclusively less often, adjusted OR 0.27 (95% CI, 0.10-0.69), compared to Nordic mothers. Between 36 and 40 weeks PMA, BMF decreased overall. This change was not associated with investigated predictors. It is possible to achieve high rates of BMF in very preterm infants. High intake of MOM early in the postnatal period is strongly related to exclusive BMF at 36 weeks PMA. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Predictive Value of Primary Tumor Site for Loco-regional Recurrence in Early Breast Cancer Patients with One to Three Positive Axillary Lymphadenophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shaoqing; Wen, Ge; Ren, Yufeng; Li, Yiyang; Feng, Lingling; Wang, Chengtao; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Bixiu; Zhang, Yujing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It remains controversial on high risks for early breast cancer patients with one to three axillary nodes after mastectomy who is predisposition to locoregional recurrence. The present study is to investigate the relationship between primary tumor site and loco-regional recurrence (LRR) and explore the predictive value of clinicopathological characteristics in LRR for early breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes after mastectomy. Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of 656 consecutively diagnosed patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with radical operation without postoperative radiotherapy between March 1998 and December 2010. The primary tumor sites included outer quadrant in 455 patients (69.36%), inner quadrant in 156 patients (23.78%)and central quadrant in 45 patients (6.86%). LRR and LRR-free survival (LRFS) in combination with clinical and pathological features were analyzed to screen out patients with higher risk of LRR. Results: The median follow-up time was 64.9 months. The 5-, 10-year LRR for the cohort was 8.6% and 12.9%, respectively; the 5-, 10-year LRFS was 86.2% and 76.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that age of ≤35 years, inner quadrant tumor and non-luminal subtype were independent risk factors for LRR and LRFS. Patients with primary tumor in inner quadrant showed higher LRR and poorer LRFS when risk factors are ≥2 than those with tumors in other sites. Conclusions: Inner quadrant tumor was an independent predictor for LRR and LRFS in patients with early breast cancer and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes, which would be more accurate in combination with other prognostic indexes including patients' age, pathological T stage, Ki67 status, molecular subtypes.

  8. The methylation levels of the H19 differentially methylated region in human umbilical cords reflect newborn parameters and changes by maternal environmental factors during early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaso, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Kenichi; Takase, Shunya; Eguchi, Akifumi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Fukuoka, Hideoki; Mori, Chisato

    2017-08-01

    H19 is a tumor-suppressor gene, and changes in the methylation of the H19-differential methylation region (H19-DMR) are related to human health. However, little is known about the factors that regulate the methylation levels of H19-DMR. Several recent studies have shown that maternal environmental factors during pregnancy, such as smoking, drinking, chemical exposure, and nutrient intake, can alter the methylation levels of several genes in fetal tissues. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal factors on changes in the methylation levels of H19-DMR in the human umbilical cord (UC), an extra-embryonic tissue. Participants from the Chiba study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH) were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from UC samples, and the methylation level of H19-DMR was evaluated by methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis. Individual maternal and paternal factors and clinical information for newborns at birth were examined using questionnaires prepared in the C-MACH study, a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) during early pregnancy (gestational age of 12 weeks), and medical records. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that reduced H19-DMR methylation (human UC tissues could be modulated by maternal factors during early pregnancy and may affect fetal and newborn growth. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  10. Measurement of temporal regional cerebral perfusion with single-photon emission tomography predicts rate of decline in language function and survival in early Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, J.J.; Walstra, G.J.M.; Hijdra, A.; Gool, W.A. van [Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Royen, E.A. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verbeeten, B. Jr. [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-01

    We determined the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and decline in cognitive function and survival in Alzheimer`s disease. In a prospective follow-up study, 69 consecutively referred patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease (NINCDS/ADRDA criteria) underwent SPET performed at the time of initial diagnosis using technetium-99m-labelled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime. Neuropsychological function was assessed at baseline and after 6 months and survival data were available on all patients, extending to 5.5 years of follow-up. Lower left temporal (P<0.01) and lower left parietal (P<0.01) rCBF were statistically significantly related to decline in language function after 6 months. The association between left temporal rCBF and survival was also statistically significant (P<0.05) using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Performing analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for low left temporal rCBF (rCBF<73.7%, P<0.01) and high risk of mortality. In this lowest quartile, median survival time was 2.7 years (follow-up to 5.2 years), compared with 4.4 years in the other quartiles (follow-up to 5.5 years). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed statistically significant (P<0.05, log rank test) survival curves for the lowest versus other quartiles of left temporal rCBF. All results were unaffected by adjustment for age, sex, dementia severity, duration of symptoms, education and ratings of local cortical atrophy. We conclude that left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable Alzheimer`s disease, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality. (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  11. Identify changes of brain regional homogeneity in early and later adult onset patients with first-episode depression using resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zonglin; Jiang, Linling; Yang, Shuran; Ye, Jing; Dai, Nan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Na; Lu, Jin; Liu, Fang; Lu, Yi; Sun, Xuejin; Cheng, Yuqi; Xu, Xiufeng

    2017-01-01

    Previous work exhibited different brain grey matter volume (GMV) changes between patients with early adult onset depression (EOD, age 18-29) and later adult onset depression (LOD, age 30-44) by using 30-year-old as the cut-off age. To identify whether regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes are also different between EOD and LOD by using same cut-off age, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to detect the abnormal ReHo between patients with EOD and LOD in the present study. Resting-state fMRI scans of 58 patients with EOD, 62 patients with LOD, 60 young healthy controls (HC), and 52 old HC were obtained. The ReHo approach was used to analyze the images. The ANOVA analysis revealed that the ReHo values in the frontoparietal, occipital, and cerebellar regions were significantly different among the four groups. Relative to patients with LOD, patients with EOD displayed significantly increased ReHo in the left precuneus, and decreased ReHo in the right fusiform. The ReHo values in the left precuneus and the right fusiform had no significant correlation with the score of the depression rating scale or illness duration in both patient subgroups. Compared to young HC, patients with EOD showed significantly increased ReHo in the right frontoparietal regions and the right calcarine. Furthermore, the increased ReHo in the right frontoparietal regions, right insula and left hippocampus, and decreased ReHo in the left inferior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, left calcarine, and left supplementary motor area were observed in patients with LOD when compared to old HC. The ReHo of brain areas that were related to mood regulation was changed in the first-episode, drug-naive adult patients with MDD. Adult patients with EOD and LOD exhibited different ReHo abnormalities relative to each age-matched comparison group, suggesting that depressed adult patients with different age-onset might have different pathological mechanism.

  12. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W

    2009-01-01

    leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were Ig...

  13. Welfare and Social Security in the USSR in the Late 1950s – Early 1980s (on the Material of the Lower Volga Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Aleksey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the analysis of the main directions of the social support for workers in the Lower Volga region in the late 1950s – early 1980s. The special attention is paid to creating the universal system of pension insurance for the Soviet people. The novelty of the study consists in the use of historical and anthropological approach allowing to trace the influence of the change in insurance bodies functioning on the life quality of pensioners and disabled people. The first part of the article is devoted to the period of 1953–1964, and it explores the ways of improving the quality of care of the disabled. The particular attention is paid to the study of the positive and negative results of social bodies’ work at the regional level. The ways of improving the quality of state social support for disabled people in 1965–1985 (the new stage of Soviet reforms is also investigated. The material in the article is organized according to the following scheme: firstly, the author analyzes the basic legislative acts of the State party in the field of social security, and, secondly, he describes the ways and the results of their implementation in the provinces. The author concludes that by Spring of 1985 the total social pension system was established in the country. The evidence proves that this system lacked the individual approach and the interests of some people were often not taken into account. This study is based on the vast set of factual materials from the archives, published sources and periodical press. The various aspects of this problem can be used in educational practice.

  14. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  15. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and European Union [2011].

  16. Quantification of regional early stage gas exchange changes using hyperpolarized {sup 129}Xe MRI in a rat model of radiation-induced lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doganay, Ozkan, E-mail: ozkan.doganay@oncology.ox.ac.uk [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Stirrat, Elaine [Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8 (Canada); McKenzie, Charles [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Schulte, Rolf F. [General Electric Global Research, Munich 85748 (Germany); Santyr, Giles E. [Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A5C1 (Canada); Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G1X8 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G1L7 (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    MRI measurements for both the non-irradiated (r = 0.79, P < 0.01) and irradiated groups (r = 0.91, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Regional RILI can be detected two weeks post-irradiation using HP {sup 129}Xe MRI and analysis of gas exchange curves. This approach correlates well with histology and can potentially be used clinically to assess radiation pneumonitis associated with early RILI to improve radiation therapy outcomes.

  17. Regional Nodal Irradiation After Breast Conserving Surgery for Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: Results of a Subanalysis From the ALTTO Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Isabelle; Holmes, Eileen; De Azambuja, Evandro; Nguyen, David H A; Izquierdo, Miguel; Anne Zujewski, Jo; Inbar, Moshe; Naume, Bjorn; Tomasello, Gianluca; Gralow, Julie R; Wolff, Antonio C; Harris, Lyndsay; Gnant, Michael; Moreno-Aspitia, Alvaro; Piccart, Martine J; Azim, Hatem A

    2017-08-01

    Two randomized trials recently demonstrated that regional nodal irradiation (RNI) could reduce the risk of recurrence in early breast cancer; however, these trials were conducted in the pretrastuzumab era. Whether these results are applicable to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients treated with anti-HER2-targeted therapy is unknown. This retrospective analysis was performed on patients with node-positive breast cancer who were enrolled in the Adjuvant Lapatinib and/or Trastuzumab Treatment Optimization phase III adjuvant trial and subjected to BCS. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of RNI on disease-free survival (DFS). A multivariable cox regression analysis adjusted for number of positive lymph nodes, tumor size, grade, age, hormone receptors status, presence of macrometastatis, treatment arm, and chemotherapy timing was carried out to investigate the relationship between RNI and DFS. One thousand six hundred sixty-four HER2-positive breast cancer patients were included, of whom 878 (52.8%) had received RNI to the axillary, supraclavicular, and/or internal mammary lymph nodes. Patients in the RNI group had higher nodal burden and more frequently had tumors larger than 2 cm. At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, DFS was 84.3% in the RNI group and 88.3% in the non-RNI group. No differences in regional recurrence (0.9 % vs 0.6 %) or in overall survival (93.6% vs 95.3%) were observed between the two groups. After adjustment in multivariable analysis, there was no statistically significant association between RNI and DFS (hazard ratio = 0.96, 95% confidence interval = 0.71 to 1.29). Our analysis did not demonstrate a DFS benefit of RNI in HER2-positive, node-positive patients treated with adjuvant HER2-targeted therapy. The benefit of RNI in HER2-positive breast cancer needs further testing within randomized clinical trials.

  18. SU-D-204-07: Retrospective Correlation of Dose Accuracy with Regions of Local Failure for Early Stage Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devpura, S; Li, H; Liu, C; Fraser, C; Ajlouni, M; Movsas, B; Chetty, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To correlate dose distributions computed using six algorithms for recurrent early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), with outcome (local failure). Methods: Of 270 NSCLC patients treated with 12Gyx4, 20 were found to have local recurrence prior to the 2-year time point. These patients were originally planned with 1-D pencil beam (1-D PB) algorithm. 4D imaging was performed to manage tumor motion. Regions of local failures were determined from follow-up PET-CT scans. Follow-up CT images were rigidly fused to the planning CT (pCT), and recurrent tumor volumes (Vrecur) were mapped to the pCT. Dose was recomputed, retrospectively, using five algorithms: 3-D PB, collapsed cone convolution (CCC), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), AcurosXB, and Monte Carlo (MC). Tumor control probability (TCP) was computed using the Marsden model (1,2). Patterns of failure were classified as central, in-field, marginal, and distant for Vrecur ≥95% of prescribed dose, 95–80%, 80–20%, and ≤20%, respectively (3). Results: Average PTV D95 (dose covering 95% of the PTV) for 3-D PB, CCC, AAA, AcurosXB, and MC relative to 1-D PB were 95.3±2.1%, 84.1±7.5%, 84.9±5.7%, 86.3±6.0%, and 85.1±7.0%, respectively. TCP values for 1-D PB, 3-D PB, CCC, AAA, AcurosXB, and MC were 98.5±1.2%, 95.7±3.0, 79.6±16.1%, 79.7±16.5%, 81.1±17.5%, and 78.1±20%, respectively. Patterns of local failures were similar for 1-D and 3D PB plans, which predicted that the majority of failures occur in centraldistal regions, with only ∼15% occurring distantly. However, with convolution/superposition and MC type algorithms, the majority of failures (65%) were predicted to be distant, consistent with the literature. Conclusion: Based on MC and convolution/superposition type algorithms, average PTV D95 and TCP were ∼15% lower than the planned 1-D PB dose calculation. Patterns of failure results suggest that MC and convolution

  19. Early results of experimental 222Rn flux campaign carried out at a mountain Spanish region and comparison with available radon flux inventories results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofuentes, Manel; Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Cañas, Lidia; Occhipinti, Paola; Borràs, Silvia; Vazquez, Eusebi; Rodó, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of components impacting the greenhouse effect (CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, and aerosols) have increased significantly in the last two centuries, leading to a direct impact on our climate. These climatic changes deeply affect the geochemistry and the dynamics of the main reservoirs such as the atmosphere, the ocean, and the biosphere. Therefore, reductions of the emissions are needed for all four of the most important anthropogenic GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6. Particularly, the relative contribution of human induced CH4 in the atmosphere to the total human direct greenhouse effect is about 25%. Furthermore, the CH4 has the shortest lifetime in the atmosphere (about 9 years), so that emissions reduction measures for CH4 will lead to changes in concentration growth rates, or even a concentration decline, at relatively shor time scales. All these reasons make the CH4 an attractive compound to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. Nowadays, the study and attribution of categories for GHGs sources is carried out by using bottom-up inventories and top-down techniques. The atmospheric concentrations and the fluxes of the noble and radioactive 222Rn gas are widely used for retriving indirectly GHGs fluxes, improving top-down techniques and analysing different type of sources. In the frame of the "Methane exchange between soil and atmosphere over the Iberian Peninsula" (MIP) project (Reference: CGL2013-46186-R, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness) four experimental radon flux campaigns are carried out at mountain as well as at coastal Spanish regions using integrated and continuous monitors. The early results of first radon flux campaign carried out at the Gredos and Iruelas climate station (GIC3) of the Catalan Institute of Climate Science (IC3) are presented and compared with available radon flux inventories maps.

  20. Changes in expression of putative antigens encoded by pigment genes in mouse melanomas at different stages of malignant progression.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlow, S J; Hearing, V. J.; Sakai, C.; Urabe, K; Zhou, B K; Silvers, W. K.; Mintz, B

    1995-01-01

    Cutaneous melanomas of Tyr-SV40E transgenic mice (mice whose transgene consists of the tyrosinase promoter fused to the coding regions of simian virus 40 early genes) strikingly resemble human melanomas in their development and progression. Unlike human melanomas, the mouse tumors all arise in genetically identical individuals, thereby better enabling expression of specific genes to be characterized in relation to advancing malignancy. The products of pigment genes are of particular interest ...

  1. Discriminating Between Tectonic and Climatic Controls on Early Hominin Paleoenvironments From the Koobi Fora Region, Northeastern Turkana Basin, Kenya: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, R. L.; Lepre, C. J.

    2004-12-01

    Global climate is often elected as a catalyst for environmental change and used to characterize selective pressures acting on Plio-Pleistocene African hominins. Vrba's Habitat Theory (1992) and Pott's Variability Selection (1998) credit mammalian evolutionary pattern and process to global climate regulated by orbital forcing. Feibel (1999: 276) argues the need for a middle ground, tethering the "global-scale climatic phenomena" to "environmental change, habitat shift, and biotic evolution" and offers the basin as a scale for analysis. Feibel suggests that all basins are not created equal, and will respond to climate change with different sensitivities and thresholds. As such, interpretations of climate proxies must account for differences in basin size, climatic regime(s), topography, geology, and water availability when drawing relationships to global phenomena. Here we examine pedogenic carbonate isotopes (d13C, d18O) from the Plio-Pleistocene Koobi Fora Region to elucidate the differential influences of climate, tectonics, and deposition on ecological factors of early hominin evolution in the northeastern Turkana Basin of Kenya. One of the richest Plio-Pleistocene fossil localities in Africa, Koobi Fora has served as a setting for hominin evolution between 4.0 and 1.0 Ma. Numerous paleosols, stratigraphically controlled by tuffaceous marker beds, are preserved in the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the Koobi Fora Formation. Cerling and others (1988) and Wynn (2000) conducted isotopic studies of pedogenic carbonates from the Plio-Pleistocene Omo Group deposits of the Turkana Basin. With these data Wynn (2004) demonstrates stepwise d13C shifts over the last 4.0 Ma, with marked events at 2.5 and 1.8 Ma, and interprets increased aridity on a basin scale due to comparable records on the east and west side of present Lake Turkana. In this study, we increased the sample size of the current database and conducted widespread sampling of synchronous lateral horizons in the

  2. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  3. Early Low-grade Gastric MALToma Rarely Transforms Into Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma or Progresses Beyond the Stomach and Regional Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yun Liu

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: Compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, which has a 16% transformation rate and a median transformation time of 24 months, we conclude that early low-grade GM rarely transforms into secondary DLBCL or progresses beyond the stomach. Without transformation or progression, patients with early low-grade GM rarely die of the disease and should be treated conservatively.

  4. Exploring the role of the regional coordinator: how one large academic trial adopted a coordinating center model--helping drive early-model RBM gains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Lillian; Geraci, Therese S; Egan, Debra; Kingry, Connie; Piller, Linda B; Johnson, Janice M; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Pressel, Sara M

    2016-01-01

    ... clinical sites in the U.S., Canada, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, a "hub and spoke" regional coordinating center model was developed in an effort to better oversee the conduct of the trial at these widely dispersed clinical sites. Regional coordinator and physician positions led each region and bore responsibility for training, proto...

  5. Origin of the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous peraluminous granitoids in the northeastern Hunan province (middle Yangtze region), South China: Geodynamic implications for the Paleo-Pacific subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan; Chu, Yang; Xue, Zhenhua

    2017-06-01

    The Late Mesozoic granitic belt in the northeastern Hunan province (situated in the south of the middle Yangtze region) represents the western front of the large magmatic province of SE China. In order to determine their ages and petrogenesis, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical analyses for four granitic plutons, namely Taohuashan, Dayunshan-Mufushan, Wangxiang and Lianyunshan. Our SIMS zircon U-Pb ages, together with previously published data, reveal that the magmatic activities in this area can be roughly subdivided into three phases at 151-146 Ma, 132-127 Ma and ca. 117 Ma, and the Dayunshan-Mufushan batholith therein is a composite pluton. These four plutons are mainly composed of weakly to strongly peraluminous biotite or two-mica monzogranites, with a minor amount of biotite granodiorites. Their geochemical features are similar to S-type as well as fractionated S-type granites, with enrichment in LREEs and negative Ba, Sr, Nb, P and Ti anomalies. All samples show negative zircon εHf(t) values ranging from -12.5 to -3.6, corresponding to crustal Hf model (TDMC) ages of 1.4-2.0 Ga. It is inferred that these granitoids were derived from partial melting of metasedimentary rocks analogous to the Neoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group, predominantly with psammitic component. Fractional crystallization probably played an important role in the magma evolution, while input of mantle-derived magma was insignificant. Combined with other geological evidence, our new data allow us to propose that the Cretaceous (132-127 Ma and ca. 117 Ma) magmatism might be response to episodic slab rollback of the Paleo-Pacific plate, while the early-stage (151-146 Ma) magmatism that overlapped the epilogue of Jurassic magmatic flare-up and subsequent magmatic quiescence probably foreshadowed the transformation from foundering of a subducted flat-slab to slab rollback. Alternatively, slab foundering after a SE-directed intracontinental subduction in the

  6. Regional hydrothermal commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-14

    This plan for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Region articulates the complete range of initiatives (federal, state, local, and industrial) required for the early commercialization of the regions geothermal resources. (MHR)

  7. Tectonics of the Kola collision suture and adjacent Archaean and Early Proterozoic terrains in the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelsen, Asger; Marker, Mogens

    1986-06-01

    As preparation for the deep-seismic and other geophysical experiments along the Polar Profile, which transects the Granulite belt and the Kola collision suture, structural field work has been performed in northernmost Finland and Norway, and published geological information including data from the neighbouring Soviet territory of the Kola Peninsula, have been compiled and reinterpreted. Based on these studies and a classification according to crustal and structural ages, the northeastern region of the Baltic Shield is divided into six major tectonic units. These units are separated and outlined by important low-angle, ductile shear or thrust zones of Late Archaean to Early Proterozoic age. The lateral extension of these units into Soviet territory and their involvement in large-scale crustal deformation structures, are described. Using the "view down the plunge" method, a generalised tectonic cross-section that predicts the crustal structures along the Polar Profile is compiled, and the structures around the Kola deep drill-hole are reinterpreted. The Kola suture belt, through parts of which the Kola deep bore-hole has been drilled, is considered to represent a ca. 1900 Ma old arc-continent and continent-continent collision suture. It divides the northeastern Shield region into two major crustal compartments: a Northern compartment (comprising the Murmansk and Sörvaranger units) and a Southern compartment (including the Inari unit, the Granulite belt and the Tanaelv belt, as well as the more southernly situated South Lapland-Karelia "craton" of the Karelian province of the Svecokarelian fold belt). The Kola suture belt is outlined by a 2-40 km wide and ca. 500 km long crustal belt composed of (1) Early Proterozoic (ca. 2400-2000 Ma old) metavolcanic and metasedimentary sequences which originally formed part of the attenuated margin of the Northern Archaean compartment, and (2) the remains of a ca. 2000-1900 Ma old, predominantly andesitic island-arc terrain. This

  8. Patterns of Primary Tumor Invasion and Regional Lymph Node Spread Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Early-Stage Nasal NK/T-cell Lymphoma: Implications for Clinical Target Volume Definition and Prognostic Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Run-Ye [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Liu, Kang [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wang, Wei-Hu; Jin, Jing; Song, Yong-Wen; Wang, Shu-Lian; Liu, Yue-Ping; Ren, Hua; Fang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Yong; Chen, Bo; Qi, Shu-Nan; Lu, Ning-Ning; Tang, Yu; Tang, Yuan; Li, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Ouyang, Han [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Li, Ye-Xiong, E-mail: yexiong12@163.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the pathways of primary tumor invasion (PTI) and regional lymph node (LN) spread based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early-stage nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), to improve clinical target volume (CTV) delineation and evaluate the prognostic value of locoregional extension patterns. Methods and Materials: A total of 105 patients with newly diagnosed early-stage nasal NKTCL who underwent pretreatment MRI were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. Results: The incidences of PTI and regional LN involvement were 64.7% and 25.7%, respectively. Based on the incidence of PTI, involved sites surrounding the nasal cavity were classified into 3 risk subgroups: high-risk (>20%), intermediate-risk (5%-20%), and low-risk (<5%). The most frequently involved site was the nasopharynx (35.2%), followed by the maxillary (21.9%) and ethmoid (21.9%) sinuses. Local disease and regional LN spread followed an orderly pattern without LN skipping. The retropharyngeal nodes (RPNs) were most frequently involved (19.0%), followed by level II (11.4%). The 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional control (LRC) rates for all patients were 72.8%, 65.2%, and 90.0%, respectively. The presence of PTI and regional LN involvement based on MRI significantly and negatively affected PFS and OS. Conclusions: Early-stage nasal NKTCL presents with a high incidence of PTI but a relatively low incidence of regional LN spread. Locoregional spread followed an orderly pattern, and PTI and regional LN spread are powerful prognostic factors for poorer survival outcomes. CTV reduction may be feasible for selected patients.

  9. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.

    2015-03-23

    This presentation provides an overview of the Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) model, describes the methodology for developing scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure development, outlines an example "Hydrogen Success" scenario, and discusses detailed scenario metrics for a particular case study region, the Northeast Corridor.

  10. The Relation Between the View on the Language and Educational Ideology in the Early Meiji Period in Japan Through the Discourse of Regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufuko ICHIMIYA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the Japanese language situation in early Meiji period will be analysed from the viewpoint of the provinces. In concrete terms, the origin of the idea that "an opaque language yields an unlcear ideology" – we can often find such a discourse through Meiji, Taisho and early Showa period – will be searched for by using primary sources in northern Kyushu, the southern part of Japan. This kind of idea can be seen in the writings of teachers and professors. Consequently, educational theories and teaching methods which had spread over the country in that period will be clues to analyse this subject. Moreover, I will try to compare the concept of "opaque language" in the Taisho period, during which dialects were considered as the representative example of such a language, with what was considered "opaque language" in the early Meiji period, when the definition of dialect and the concrete form of the standard language were still vague.

  11. The relations between the view on the language and educational ideology in the early Meiji period in Japan through the discourse of regionalism:

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimiya, Yufuko

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the Japanese language situation in early Meiji period will be analysed from the viewpoint of the provinces. In concrete terms, the origin of the idea that "an opaque language yields an unlcear ideology" – we can often find such a discourse through Meiji, Taisho and early Showa period – will be searched for by using primary sources in northern Kyushu, the southern part of Japan. This kind of idea can be seen in the writings of teachers and professors. Consequently, educational...

  12. Comparing fludeoxyglucose F18-PET assessment of regional cerebral glucose metabolism and [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine-PET in evaluation of early dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Roger L; Koeppe, Robert A; Burke, James F; Giordani, Bruno; Kilbourn, Michael R; Gilman, Sid; Frey, Kirk A

    2010-04-01

    To compare assessment of regional cerebral metabolic changes with [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ)-positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (K(1)) and fludeoxyglucose F18 (FDG)-PET measurement of regional cerebral glucose uptake (CMR(glc)) in a clinically representative sample of subjects with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). [(11)C]Dihydrotetrabenazine-PET K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were performed. University-based cognitive disorders clinic. Fifty subjects with either mild dementia (Mini-Mental State Examination score > or = 18) or MCI. Their results were compared with those of 80 normal control subjects. The DTBZ-PET regional K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were compared with standard correlation analysis. The overall patterns of DTBZ-PET K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) deficits were assessed with stereotaxic surface projections (SSPs) of parametric images. The DTBZ-PET regional K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were highly correlated, both within and between subjects. The SSP maps of deficits in DTBZ-PET regional K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements were markedly similar. The DTBZ-PET K(1) SSP maps exhibited a mild decrease in sensitivity relative to FDG-PET CMR(glc) maps. Both DTBZ-PET K(1) and FDG-PET CMR(glc) measurements provide comparable information in assessment of regional cerebral metabolic deficits in mild dementia and MCI. Blood flow measures can assess regional cerebral metabolism deficits accurately in mild dementia and MCI. Blood flow assessments of regional cerebral metabolic deficits can be combined with tracer binding results to improve utility of PET imaging in mild dementia and MCI.

  13. Validation of an abbreviated Vitalpac™ Early Warning Score (ViEWS) in 75,419 consecutive admissions to a Canadian regional hospital.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2012-03-01

    The early warning score derived from 198,755 vital sign sets in the Vitalpac™ database (ViEWS) has an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) for death of acute unselected medical patients within 24h of 88%.

  14. Use of regional nodal irradiation and its association with survival for women with high-risk, early stage breast cancer: A National Cancer Database analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C. Moreno, MD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: In this large retrospective analysis, use of WBI+RNI did not affect 5-year OS rates for women with high-risk, early stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, regardless of nodal status, which confirms the findings of the MA.20 trial.

  15. A Regional Study of Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation Development During the First 15 Years After Early Complete Woody and/or Herbaceous Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Shepard M. Zedaker; M. Boyd Edwards; Ray A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Conifer plantations in North America and elsewhere in the world are increasingly cultured using early control of herbaceous and woody plants. Development of sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop- competition dynamics, and ecological changes. There are lmany reports of...

  16. Stand Dynamics and Plant Associates of Loblolly Pine Plantations to Midrotation after Early Intensive Vegetation Management-A Southeastern United States Regional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Miller; Bruce R. Zutter; Ray A. Newbold; M. Boyd Edwards; Shepard M. Zedaker

    2003-01-01

    Increasingly, pine plantations worldwide are grown using early control of woodv and/or herbaceous vegetation. Assuredsustainablepractices require long-term data on pine plantation development detailing patterns and processes to understand both crop-competition dynamics and the role of stand participants in providing multiple attributes such as biodiversity conservation...

  17. The Mineralogic Alteration History of Early Mars: The Role of Large Craters and Basins in Transient Regional High-Temperature Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, A. M.; Head, J. W.

    2017-10-01

    We explore a new formation hypothesis for the stratigraphic layers and associated alteration products in the Isidis region: the lowest layers were formed and altered contemporaneously with the impact event and do not require long-term warm conditions.

  18. Tumor markers for early diagnosis for brain metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma: A case series and literature review for effective loco-regional treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Kenya; Kobayashi, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshifumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kumaki, Daisuke; Yokoo, Takeshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Sakai, Norihiro; Sakamaki, Akira; Abe, Satoshi; Takamura, Masaaki; Kawai, Hirokazu; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Terai, Shuji

    2017-02-01

    Intrahepatic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been controlled by significant advances in treatment using loco-regional therapies, including, surgery, ablative therapy, catheter-based chemotherapy, and embolization. Consequently, the number of patients with extrahepatic metastatic lesions has increased. Their prognosis remains poor with approximately loco-regional treatment, including surgical resection and radiation therapy should be performed for better prognosis by preventing re-bleeding from the tumors.

  19. Expression of the small T antigen of Lymphotropic Papovavirus is sufficient to transform primary mouse embryo fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Tushar; Robles, Maria Teresa Sáenz [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Schowalter, Rachel M.; Buck, Christopher B. [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-4263 (United States); Pipas, James M., E-mail: pipas@pitt.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Polyomaviruses induce cell proliferation and transformation through different oncoproteins encoded within the early region (ER): large T antigen (LT), small T antigen (sT) and, in some cases, additional components. Each virus utilizes different mechanisms to achieve transformation. For instance, the LTs of Simian virus 40 (SV40), BK and/or JC virus can induce transformation; but Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) requires expression of sT. Lymphotropic Papovavirus (LPV) is closely related to Human Polyomavirus 9 (HuPyV9) and, under similar conditions, mice expressing LPV.ER exhibit higher rates of tumor formation than mice expressing SV40.ER. We have investigated the contributions of individual LPV.ER components to cell transformation. In contrast to SV40, LPV.ER transforms mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but expression of LPV LT is insufficient to transform MEFs. Furthermore, LPV sT induces immortalization and transformation of MEFs. Thus, in the case of LPV, sT is the main mediator of oncogenesis. - Highlights: • Characterization of early region products from the Lymphotropic Polyomavirus (LPV). • On its own, sT immortalizes and transforms mouse primary cells, and is able to block p53 activation. • Combined LT and sT expression induces a greater rate of proliferation than either LT or sT alone.

  20. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R; Yates, Esben S; Nyeng, Tine B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized......-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients....... and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. CONCLUSIONS: ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco...

  1. TRANSFORMATION OF PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS IN WESTERN SIBERIA WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF THE “THAW” DURING LATE 1950s-EARLY 1960s BASED ON MATERIALS OF REGIONAL TRADE UNIONS, PUBLIC ENGINEERING ORGANIZATIONS, AND TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Першиков

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the changes in the structure, personnel, and areas of practical activity of the trade unions, public engineering organizations and technical and scientific societies in the West Siberian region during late 1950s – early 1960s. The impact of national and regional factors on the transformation content, character, and results is investigated.Objective Analyze the transformation process of public organizations in Western Siberia during late 1950s-early 1960s, revel the characteristic trends and regional specific features.Method or methodology of the study: problem and chronological method, historical-and-systematic method, statistical method.Results: it was established that public organizations experienced certain changes, lost the dependence on government  institutions,  enlarged the area of  activity, but they complementely remained in the field of the party control and operations, did not aquire the proper self-reliance and independence of practical actions.Results application scope: scientific research and preparation of training in the field of historical knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-29

  2. The human beta-globin locus control region confers an early embryonic erythroid-specific expression pattern to a basic promoter driving the bacterial lacZ gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tewari (Rita); N. Gillemans (Nynke); A. Harper; M.G.J.M. Wijgerde (Mark); G. Zafarana (Gaetano); D.D. Drabek (Dubravka); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is contained on a 20 kb DNA fragment and is characterized by the presence of five DNaseI hypersensitive sites in erythroid cells, termed 5'HS1-5. A fully active 6.5 kb version of the LCR, called the muLCR, has been

  3. The human β-globin locus control region confers an early embryonic erythroid-specific expression pattern to a basic promoter driving the bacterial β-galactosidase gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tewari (Rita); N. Gillemans (Nynke); A. Harper; M.G.J.M. Wijgerde (Mark); G. Zafarana (Gaetano); D.D. Drabek (Dubravka); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is contained on a 20 kb DNA fragment and is characterized by the presence of five DNaseI hypersensitive sites in erythroid cells, termed 5'HS1-5. A fully active 6.5 kb version of the LCR, called the muLCR, has been described. Expression of the

  4. Geoid and gravity anomaly data of conjugate regions of Bay of Bengal and Enderby Basin: New constraints on breakup and early spreading history between India and Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, K.S.; Michael, L.; Bhattacharyya, R.; Majumdar, T.J.

    the rifting process in the north between combined north ECMI-Elan Bank and MacRobertson Land and in the south between southwest Sri Lanka and Gunnerus Ridge region of East Antarctica. Approximately during the period between the anomalies M1 and M0 and soon...

  5. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doelen, R.H. van der; Arnoldussen, I.A.C.; Ghareh, H.; Och, L. van; Homberg, J.R.; Kozicz, L.T.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene x Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid

  6. Early host cell reactivation of an oxidatively damaged adenovirus-encoded reporter gene requires the Cockayne syndrome proteins CSA and CSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Derrik M; Rainbow, Andrew J

    2011-03-01

    Reduced host cell reactivation (HCR) of a reporter gene containing 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesions in Cockayne syndrome (CS) fibroblasts has previously been attributed to increased 8-oxoG-mediated inhibition of transcription resulting from a deficiency in repair. This interpretation has been challenged by a report suggesting reduced expression from an 8-oxoG containing reporter gene occurs in all cells by a mechanism involving gene inactivation by 8-oxoG DNA glycosylase and this inactivation is strongly enhanced in the absence of the CS group B (CSB) protein. The observation of reduced gene expression in the absence of CSB protein led to speculation that decreased HCR in CS cells results from enhanced gene inactivation rather than reduced gene reactivation. Using an adenovirus-based β-galactosidase (β-gal) reporter gene assay, we have examined the effect of methylene blue plus visible light (MB + VL)-induced 8-oxoG lesions on the time course of gene expression in normal and CSA and CSB mutant human SV40-transformed fibroblasts, repair proficient and CSB mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and normal mouse embryo fibroblasts. We demonstrate that MB + VL treatment of the reporter leads to reduced expression of the damaged β-gal reporter relative to control at early time points following infection in all cells, consistent with in vivo inhibition of RNA polII-mediated transcription. In addition, we have demonstrated HCR of reporter gene expression occurs in all cell types examined. A significant reduction in the rate of gene reactivation in human SV40-transformed cells lacking functional CSA or CSB compared to normal cells was found. Similarly, a significant reduction in the rate of reactivation in CHO cells lacking functional CSB (CHO-UV61) was observed compared to the wild-type parental counterpart (CHO-AA8). The data presented demonstrate that expression of an oxidatively damaged reporter gene is reactivated over time and that CSA and CSB are required for

  7. Improved marine reservoir age estimation and palaeoclimate synchronisation of the early Holocene Levantine/NW-Arabian region based on identification of the S1 tephra in Dead Sea and Tayma palaeolake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ina; Wulf, Sabine; Schwab, Markus J.; Serb, Johanna; Plessen, Birgit; Appelt, Oona; Brauer, Achim

    2017-04-01

    Due to a lack of tephras identified in marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records from the Levantine-Arabian area, this region is still not sufficiently connected to the eastern Mediterranean tephrostratigraphical lattice. Here we report on the first finding of cryptotephra in the Holocene lacustrine sediment records of the Dead Sea and the Tayma palaeolake (NW Arabian Peninsula). The major elemental chemistry of the rhyolitic glass shards proves this tephra identical to the distal 'S1 tephra' identified in the Yammoûneh palaeolake, Lebanon (Develle et al, 2009), in a marine sediment record from the SE Levantine basin (Hamann et al., 2010) and in the Sodmein Cave archaeological site in Egypt (Barton et al., 2015). The 'S1 tephra', most likely corresponding to the early Holocene 'Dikkartın' dome eruption of the Erciyes Daǧ volcano in central Anatolia, Turkey, has been dated in the marine record at 8830 ± 140 cal yr BP. We present new age estimates of the 'S1 tephra' based on radiocarbon dating of terrestrial plant remains (Migowski et al., 2004) and pollen concentrates (Dinies et al., 2015), which reveal modelled ages of 8939 ± 83 cal yr BP in the Dead Sea sediments and 9041 ± 254 cal yr BP in Tayma. This allows the estimation of an early Holocene marine reservoir age of ca. 320 years in the SE Levantine Sea. The timing of the volcanic eruption during the early Holocene humid period, which led to the formation of sapropel S1 in the Mediterranean Sea, and the identification of the 'S1 tephra' more than 1200 km to the south are crucial for the synchronisation of marine and terrestrial palaeoclimate records in the eastern Mediterranean region. References: Barton et al., 2015. The role of cryptotephra in refining the chronology of Late Pleistocene human evolution and cultural change in North Africa. Quaternary Sci. Rev. 118, 151-169. Develle et al., 2009. Early Holocene volcanic ash fallout in the Yammoûneh lacustrine basin (Lebanon): Tephrochronological

  8. Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from the North-Eastern region of Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berredjem, Hajira; Aouras, Hayette; Benlaifa, Meriem; Becheker, Imène; Djebar, Mohamed Reda

    2017-09-01

    Acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presents a high risk of Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis is difficult, especially when serological testing for IgG/IgM antibodies fail to differentiate between a recent and a past infection. In this case, we rely on IgG avidity or PCR assays. The aim of this study was to compare conventional ELISA and IgG avidity, with PCR using B1 and P30 primers for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Sera were collected from 143 pregnant women and measured by ELISA for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity. DNA was extracted from 57 peripheral blood and 14 amniotic fluid samples for PCR amplification. A total of 57 out 143 women were seropositive: 30 (52.6%) were IgG+/IgM- and 27 (43.8%) were IgG+/IgM+; IgA antibodies were positive in 7 (12.2%) cases. IgG avidity was low in 9 women suggesting an acute infection; 3 women presented an intermediate avidity. PCR detected Toxoplasma DNA in 9 women presenting low avidity and was negative for the intermediate avidity cases. PCR combined to avidity IgG performed better than ELISA IgG, IgM and/or IgA assays alone. PCR was useful in the case of intermediate avidity.

  9. Early Miocene andesite conglomerates in the Sierra de Famatina, broken foreland region of western Argentina, and documentation of magmatic broadening in the south Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Kay, Suzanne M.

    2004-10-01

    A thick synorogenic megasequence, known as the Del Crestón Formation, crops out in the Famatina belt in western Argentina. Its coarsening upward arrangement, rotational syntectonic unconformities, and provenance analysis allowed considering this unit as an this unit was an Andean-related foreland succession, although its age and geological meaning have been largely controversial. It unconformably overlies Late Paleozoic (Paganzo Group) red beds and is covered by the Middle-Late Miocene Angulos Group in a faulted contact. No previous geochronologic data constrain this important synorogenic cycle bracketed between the Triassic and the late Neogene. This work provides a set of new ages for andesite boulders recorded in the lowermost volcanogenic conglomerate of the Del Crestón Formation. The andesite boulders provide evidence of backarc volcanism in the external foreland during the Early Miocene (ca. 17 Ma). This volcanic pulse, together with other evidence for Early Miocene volcanism in the Argentine Precordillera, support a previously unrecognized stage of magmatic broadening in the south Central Andes associated with the initiation of shallow subduction and changes in the plate convergence pattern at about 18 Ma. Major progressive unconformities and unroofing history from conglomerates indicate deformation at a proximal foreland depozone and basement involvement (broken foreland stage). This deformation could have occurred coevally with the deposition of distal facies in the Bermejo basin system to the south, suggesting markedly nonuniform Andean foreland development.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS IN SUMY REGION (THE END OF 19TH – EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Klochko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of determination of the development of high schools for girls in Sumy region in the second half of 19th – beginning of 20th centuries. It has been defined that rapid development of industry, social and cultural reforming in the region led to the necessity of increased number of educated citizens, including women. The dynamic process of the foundation of female high schools has been elicited: during 1870–1914 there were 13 schools of this type. The equipment of state schools was insufficient. But due to the community and sponsors main needs of these establishments were provided. It has been found out that the main aim of educational and studying process at high schools girls of the region was to bring up the qualities of a housewife, mother, wife, what confirm conservative status of female's high school education. However, the certificate of a tutor or mentor gave the opportunity to work at pedagogical sphere. It was a progressive phenomenon at that period, which expands women's opportunity for self-realization in modern social life.

  11. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R; Yates, Esben S; Nyeng, Tine B; Thomsen, Mette S; Nielsen, Hanne M; Poortmans, Philip; Kirkove, Carine; Krause, Mechthild; Kamby, Claus; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Blix, Egil S; Jensen, Ingelise; Berg, Martin; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Taheri-Kadkhoda, Zahra; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2016-12-01

    To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized multi-atlas libraries using MIM Maestro™ software. These libraries were used for auto-segmentation in two different patient groups (50 patients from the local institution and 40 patients from other institutions). Dice Similarity Coefficient, Average Hausdorff Distance, difference in volume and time were computed to compare ABAS before and after correction against a gold standard manual segmentation (MS). ABAS reduced the time of MS before and after correction by 93% and 32%, respectively. ABAS showed high agreement for lung, heart, breast and humeral head, moderate agreement for chest wall and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV: findings from an early infant diagnosis program in south-south region of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoje Chukwuemeka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV in infants provides a critical opportunity to strengthen follow-up of HIV-exposed children and assure early access to antiretroviral (ARV treatment for infected children. This study describes findings from an Early Infant Diagnosis (EID program and the effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT intervention in six health facilities in Cross-River and Akwa-Ibom states, south-south Nigeria. Methods This was a retrospective study. Records of 702 perinatally exposed babies aged six weeks to 18 months who had a DNA PCR test between November 2007 and July 2009 were reviewed. Details of the ARV regimen received to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT, breastfeeding choices, HIV test results, turn around time (TAT for results and post test ART enrolment status of the babies were analysed. Results Two-thirds of mother-baby pairs received ARVs and 560 (80% babies had ever been breastfed. Transmission rates for mother-baby pairs who received ARVs for PMTCT was 4.8% (CI 1.3, 8.3 at zero to six weeks of age compared to 19.5% (CI 3.0, 35.5 when neither baby nor mother received an intervention. Regardless of intervention, the transmission rates for babies aged six weeks to six months who had mixed feeding was 25.6% (CI 29.5, 47.1 whereas the transmission rates for those who were exclusively breastfed was 11.8% (CI 5.4, 18.1. Vertical transmission of HIV was eight times (AOR 7.8, CI: 4.52-13.19 more likely in the sub-group of mother-baby pairs who did not receive ARVS compared with mother-baby pairs that did receive ARVs. The median TAT for test results was 47 days (IQR: 35-58. A follow-up of 125 HIV positive babies found that 31 (25% were enrolled into a paediatric ART program, nine (7% were known to have died before the return of their DNA PCR results, and 85 (67% could not be traced and were presumed to be lost-to-follow-up. Conclusion Reduction of MTCT of HIV is possible with

  13. Abortive translation caused by peptidyl-tRNA drop-off at NGG codons in the early coding region of mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto I; Isaksson, Leif A

    2005-01-01

    In Escherichia coli the codons CGG, AGG, UGG or GGG (NGG codons) but not GGN or GNG (where N is non-G) are associated with low expression of a reporter gene, if located at positions +2 to +5. Induction of a lacZ reporter gene with any one of the NGG codons at position +2 to +5 does not influence......-type or the mutant strain. The inhibitory effect on the pth mutant strain by NGG codons at location +5 was suppressed by overexpression of the Pth enzyme from a plasmid. However, the overexpression of cognate tRNAs for AGG or GGG did not rescue from the growth inhibition associated with these codons early...

  14. Relationship between early administration of abciximab and TIMI flow in STEMI patients undergoing primary angioplasty: findings from a large regional STEMI network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Antonio; Rosiello, Renato; Lucchini, Giuseppe; Tomasi, Luca; Mantovani, Paola; Lettieri, Corrado; Baccaglioni, Nicola; Romano, Michele; Buffoli, Francesca; Izzo, Beatrice; Zanini, Roberto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether in S-T Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) a relationship between early administration of abciximab and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow before and after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 960 consecutive patients exists. From 1 February 2001 onward, in the Province of Mantua it has been operating a 'Cardiology Network for the Acute Infarction Care' having its Hub in the Central Coronary ICU/Cath Lab of Mantua Hospital and being its Spokes centers represented by the emergency rooms and Central Coronary ICUs of the four territorial hospitals. T1 (time from symptoms onset to first medical contact) and T2 (time from first medical contact to angioplasty) are shorter for patients rescued by first aid units rather than for those presented in emergency rooms as well as Ta (time from symptoms onset to abciximab administration). Furthermore, the patients that received abciximab before hospital arrival had less frequently a coronary occlusion [odds ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval (0.57-0.96), P = 0.013]. The patients with T1 less than 4 h are 753/960 (78.4%). For this type of patients, there was a significant Ta difference between the pre-PCI TIMI-flow classes (F = 4.467, df = 3, P = 0.04). Planned contrasts revealed that mean time of TIMI flow 0 (M = 104.2) is statistically different from mean time of TIMI flow 3 (M = 85.7), P = 0.013. Our results suggest that the use of abciximab, free from pharmacokinetic limits of oral P2Y12 inhibitors, should be considered in STEMI patients with early presentation before primary PCI.

  15. Modelling entomological-climatic interactions of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in two Colombian endemic-regions: contributions to a National Malaria Early Warning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiñones Martha L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria has recently re-emerged as a public health burden in Colombia. Although the problem seems to be climate-driven, there remain significant gaps of knowledge in the understanding of the complexity of malaria transmission, which have motivated attempts to develop a comprehensive model. Methods The mathematical tool was applied to represent Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in two endemic-areas. Entomological exogenous variables were estimated through field campaigns and laboratory experiments. Availability of breeding places was included towards representing fluctuations in vector densities. Diverse scenarios, sensitivity analyses and instabilities cases were considered during experimentation-validation process. Results Correlation coefficients and mean square errors between observed and modelled incidences reached 0.897–0.668 (P > 0.95 and 0.0002–0.0005, respectively. Temperature became the most relevant climatic parameter driving the final incidence. Accordingly, malaria outbreaks are possible during the favourable epochs following the onset of El Niño warm events. Sporogonic and gonotrophic cycles showed to be the entomological key-variables controlling the transmission potential of mosquitoes' population. Simulation results also showed that seasonality of vector density becomes an important factor towards understanding disease transmission. Conclusion The model constitutes a promising tool to deepen the understanding of the multiple interactions related to malaria transmission conducive to outbreaks. In the foreseeable future it could be implemented as a tool to diagnose possible dynamical patterns of malaria incidence under several scenarios, as well as a decision-making tool for the early detection and control of outbreaks. The model will be also able to be merged with forecasts of El Niño events to provide a National Malaria Early Warning System.

  16. Ontogenetic Change in the Temporal Region of the Early Permian Parareptile Delorhynchus cifellii and the Implications for Closure of the Temporal Fenestra in Amniotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Haridy

    Full Text Available A juvenile specimen of Delorhynchus cifellii, collected from the Early Permian fissure-fill deposits of Richards Spur, Oklahoma, permits the first detailed study of cranial ontogeny in this parareptile. The specimen, consisting of a partially articulated skull and mandible, exhibits several features that identify it as juvenile. The dermal tuberosities that ornament the dorsal side and lateral edges of the largest skull of D. cifellii specimens, are less prominent in the intermediate sized holotype, and are absent in the new specimen. This indicates that the new specimen represents an earlier ontogenetic stage than all previously described members of this species. In addition, the incomplete interdigitation of the sutures, most notably along the fronto-nasal contact, plus the proportionally larger sizes of the orbit and temporal fenestrae further support an early ontogenetic stage for this specimen. Comparisons between this juvenile and previously described specimens reveal that the size and shape of the temporal fenestra in Delorhynchus appear to vary through ontogeny, due to changes in the shape and size of the bordering cranial elements. The jugal of the juvenile specimen is tri-radiate and similar in outline with those found in other amniotes with temporal fenestrae. The available growth series of D. cifellii shows that the jugal gradually becomes a more robust, tetra-radiate element, as the proportionate size of the temporal fenestra is reduced. Ontogenetic changes of other elements that form the border of the fenestra also contribute to its reduction. This growth series provides valuable new information regarding the ontogenetic trajectory of the temporal fenestra in a Palaeozoic reptile, which may be applicable to the evolutionary event of loss of temporal fenestration in other amniotes.

  17. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolite profiles of neonatal rat hippocampus and brainstem regions following early postnatal exposure to intermittent hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Robert A.; Chen, Xi; Nemani, Krishnamurthy V.; Sirieix, Chrystelle M.; Gimi, Barjor

    2017-03-01

    Most premature infants born at less than 30 weeks gestation are exposed to periods of mild intermittent hypoxia (IH) associated with apnea of prematurity and periodic breathing. In adults, IH associated with sleep apnea causes neurochemical and structural alterations in the brain. However, it is unknown whether IH in the premature infant leads to neurodevelopmental impairment. Quantification of biochemical markers that can precisely identify infants at risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome is essential. In vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) facilitates the quantification of metabolites from distinct regions of the developing brain. We report the changes in metabolite profiles in the brainstem and hippocampal regions of developing rat brains, resulting from exposure to IH. Rat pups were chosen for study because there is rapid postnatal hippocampal development that occurs during the first 4 weeks in the developing rat brain, which corresponds to the first 2-3 postnatal years of development in humans. The brainstem was examined because of our interest in respiratory control disorders in the newborn and because of brainstem gliosis described in infants who succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Metabolite profiles were compared between hypoxia treated rat pups (n = 9) and normoxic controls (n = 6). Metabolite profiles were acquired using the Point-RESolved spectroscopy (PRESS) MRS sequence and were quantified using the TARQUIN software. There was a significant difference in the concentrations of creatine (p = 0.031), total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) (p = 0.028), and total choline (p = 0.001) in the brainstem, and glycine (p = 0.031) in the hippocampal region. The changes are consistent with altered cellular bioenergetics and metabolism associated with hypoxic insult.

  18. The experiments of Ramón M. Termeyer SJ on the electric eel in the River Plate region (c. 1760) and other early accounts of Electrophorus electricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asúa, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ramón M. Termeyer SJ (1737-1814?), a naturalist who experimented with the electric eel in the River Plate region during the 1760s. After going through an enumeration of the chroniclers that since the sixteenth century noticed the benumbing discharge of Electrophorus electricus, the article summarizes the work that immediately preceded Termeyer's and considers as a term of comparison the experiments on the electric eel performed by Bertrand Bajon (fl. 1751-1778) in the French Guyanne. It ends by discussing the meaning of Termeyer's 1781 and 1810 articles in the light of contemporary ideas of animal electricity.

  19. Coupling dynamical and collisional evolution of small bodies:. an application to the early ejection of planetesimals from the Jupiter-Saturn region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnoz, Sébastien; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2003-11-01

    We present a new algorithm designed to compute the collisional erosion of a population of small bodies undergoing a complex and rapid dynamical evolution induced by strong gravitational perturbations. Usual particle-in-a-box models have been extensively and successfully used to study the evolution of asteroids or KBOs. However, they cannot track the evolution of small bodies in rapid dynamical evolution, due to their oversimplified description of the dynamics. Our code is based on both (1) a direct simulation of the dynamical evolution which is used to compute local encounter rates and (2) a classical fragmentation model. Such a code may be used to track the erosional evolution of the planetesimal disk under the action of newly formed giant-planets, a passing star or a population of massive planetary-embryos. We present here an application to a problem related to the formation of the Oort cloud. The usually accepted formation scenario is that planetesimals, originally formed in the giant planet region, have been transported to the Oort cloud by gravitational scattering. However, it has been suggested that, during the initial transport phase, the mutual large encounter velocities might have induced a rapid and intense collisional evolution of the planetesimal population, potentially causing a significant reduction of the Oort cloud formation process. This mechanism is explored with our new algorithm. Because the advantages of our new approach are better highlighted for a population undergoing a violent dynamical evolution, we concentrate in this paper on the planetesimals originally in the Jupiter-Saturn region, although it is known that they are only minor contributors to the final Oort cloud population. A wide range of parameters is explored (mass of the particle disk, initial size-distribution, material strength): depending upon the assumed parameter values, we find that from 15 to 90% of the mass contained in bodies larger than 1 km survives the collisional

  20. Early Treatment of Acute Complex Regional Pain Syndrome after Fracture or Injury with Prednisone: Why Is There a Failure to Treat? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Winston

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS after fracture is a cause of pain, dysfunction, and potentially permanent disability. The evidence for treatment with oral corticosteroids is growing and supported by several international guidelines; however, treatment is not widely offered. Objective. Rapid recognition and treatment of complex regional pain in the upper extremity after acute injury as a disease modifying and potentially curative treatment. Methods. The present study was a case series involving three patients who developed CRPS after a trauma to the neck and/or upper limb. Patients were screened by clinical examination and bone scan and met the Budapest criteria. Results. Resolution of pain, swelling, and disability in all three patients. Discussion. There is increasing support, based on the existing evidence and clinical outcomes, for the use of prednisone to treat the acute phase of CRPS and as a promising treatment to halt the progression of the phenomenon and potentially cure the condition; however, widespread use of prednisone likely remains low, potentially resulting in long-term pain, joint contracture, and disability. A large-scale randomized control trial has not been performed. Conclusion. Corticosteroids can be an effective treatment option for CRPS after fracture.

  1. Impacts of Short-Rotation Early-Growing Season Prescribed Fire on a Ground Nesting Bird in the Central Hardwoods Region of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tyler Pittman

    Full Text Available Landscape-scale short-rotation early-growing season prescribed fire, hereafter prescribed fire, in upland hardwood forests represents a recent shift in management strategies across eastern upland forests. Not only does this strategy depart from dormant season to growing season prescriptions, but the strategy also moves from stand-scale to landscape-scale implementation (>1,000 ha. This being so, agencies are making considerable commitments in terms of time and resources to this management strategy, but the effects on wildlife in upland forests, especially those dominated by hardwood canopy species, are relatively unknown. We initiated our study to assess whether this management strategy affects eastern wild turkey reproductive ecology on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forest. We marked 67 wild turkey hens with Global Positioning System (GPS Platform Transmitting Terminals in 2012 and 2013 to document exposure to prescribed fire, and estimate daily nest survival, nest success, and nest-site selection. We estimated these reproductive parameters in forest units managed with prescribed fire (treated and units absent of prescribed fire (untreated. Of 60 initial nest attempts monitored, none were destroyed or exposed to prescribed fire because a majority of fires occurred early than a majority of the nesting activity. We found nest success was greater in untreated units than treated units (36.4% versus 14.6%. We did not find any habitat characteristic differences between successful and unsuccessful nest-sites. We found that nest-site selection criteria differed between treated and untreated units. Visual concealment and woody ground cover were common selection criteria in both treated and untreated units. However, in treated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with fewer small shrubs (20 cm DBH but not in untreated units. In untreated units wild turkey selected nest-sites with more large shrubs (≥5 cm ground diameter but did not select for small

  2. Promoter interference mediated by the U3 region in early-generation HIV-1-derived lentivirus vectors can influence detection of transgene expression in a cell-type and species-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Samantha L; Fleming, Jane; Rowe, Peter B; Alexander, Ian E

    2003-08-10

    In a previous study using an early-generation VSV-G-pseudotyped lentivirus vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter, we examined transduction efficiency in dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures. In cultures of murine origin, transgene expression was observed solely in the sensory neurons with the stromal cell population failing to show evidence of transduction. In contrast, efficient and sustained transduction of both sensory neurons and the stromal cell population was observed in cultures of human origin. Given the widespread use of murine models in preclinical gene therapy studies, in the current study we investigated the basis of this apparent neuron specificity of lentivirus-mediated transduction in murine DRG cultures. The interspecies differences persisted at high multiplicities of infection, and irrespective of whether lentiviral vector stocks were packaged in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory proteins. Cell-type specificity of CMV promoter expression, tropism of the VSV-G envelope, and blocks to molecular transduction were also precluded as possible mechanisms, thereby implicating transcriptional repression of the internal heterologous promoter. This promoter interference effect was found to be mediated by cis-acting sequences upstream of the core promoter elements located in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeats (LTRs). Deletion of this region, as in late-generation self-inactivating (SIN) lentivirus vectors, relieves this effect. This provides a basis for reevaluating data produced using early-generation U3-bearing lentivirus vectors and for reconciling these with results obtained using more contemporary SIN lentivirus vectors carrying a U3 deletion.

  3. Elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of Cretaceous to Early Paleogene granites and volcanic rocks in the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt (Russian Far East): implications for the regional tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pan; Jahn, Bor-ming; Xu, Bei

    2017-09-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt in Russian Far East is an important Late Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic accretionary orogen related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. This belt was generated by successive accretion of terranes made of accretionary prisms, turbidite basins and island arcs to the continental margin of northeastern Asia (represented by the Bureya-Jiamusi-Khanka Block) from Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. In order to study the tectonic and crustal evolution of this orogenic belt, we carried out zircon U-Pb dating, and whole-rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic analyses on granites and volcanic rocks from the Primorye region of southern Sikhote-Alin. Zircon dating revealed three episodes of granitoid emplacement: Permian, Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleogene. Felsic volcanic rocks (mainly rhyolite, dacite and ignimbrite) that overlay all tectonostratigraphic terranes were erupted during 80-57 Ma, postdating the accretionary process in the Sikhote-Alin belt. The Cretaceous-Paleogene magmatism represents the most intense tectonothermal event in the Sikhote-Alin belt. Whole-rock major and trace elemental data show arc-like affinity for granitoids and volcanic rocks, indicating that they were likely generated in a supra-subduction setting. Their initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.7048 to 0.7114, and εNd(t) values vary from +1.7 to -3.8 (mostly Korean peninsula, Japanese islands and other areas of Russian Far East, particularly along the coastal regions of the Okhotsk and Bering Seas. These rocks constitute an extended magmatic belt along the continental margin of NE Asia. The generation of this belt was ascribed to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  4. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  5. Characterisation of Myocardial Injury via T1 Mapping in Early Reperfused Myocardial Infarction and its Relationship with Global and Regional Diastolic Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarisman, Shah M; Carbone, Angelo; Shirazi, Mitra; Bradley, Julie; Teo, Karen S; Worthley, Matthew I; Worthley, Stephen G

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) advances in imaging techniques, permits the ability to accurately characterise tissue injury post myocardial infarction. Pre-contrast T1 mapping enables this through measurement of pre-contrast T1 relaxation times. We investigate the relationship between T1 characterisation of myocardial injury with global and regional diastolic function. Revascularised acute myocardial infarction patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function on TTE were assessed by 1.5T CMR. Acute regional diastolic wall motion abnormalities, global diastolic function measurements, acute segmental damage fraction with LGE and mean segmental pre-contrast T1 values were assessed on matching short axis slices. Forty-four patients were analysed. Mean LVEF was 62.1±9.4%. No difference between NSTEMI (22/44) and STEMI in mean pre-contrast T1 values of infarcted (1025.0±109.2 vs 1011.0±81.6ms, p=0.70), adjacent (948.3±45.3 vs 941.1±46.6ms, p=0.70) and remote (888.8±52.8 vs 881.2±54.5ms, p=0.66) segments was detected. There was no correlation between pre-contrast T1 of infarcted segments with global diastolic dysfunction (E/A, r(2)=0.216, p=0.06; S/D, r(2)=0.243, p=0.053; E/E', r(2)=0.240, p=0.072), but there was significantly positive, moderate correlation with circumferential diastolic strain rate, (r(2)=0.579, pT1 values revealed no difference between NSTEMI and STEMI patients in terms of tissue characterisation post-myocardial infarction. However, pre-contrast T1 of infarcted tissue is significantly correlated with regional diastolic circumferential strain rate. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  6. Recreation Centers in the Daily Leisure of the Population of Central Non-Black Earth Region Countryside, Mid 1950s – Early 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kometchikov Igor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the mid 1950s – early 1960s the authorities make the effort to overcome material and technological underdevelopment of rural clubs in Central Nechernozemye and to increase the effectiveness of organization of the daily leisure of population by these institutions. In opposition to the departmental structure of the cultural and educational resources, the emphasis is made on the formation of the net of typical public rural clubs, which was combined with the main links of the enlarged collective farm production; on the rise of outer budget financing and the development of public initiative in the process of club functioning. However, under the circumstances of economic weakness of the most part of collective farms in Central Nechernozemye, the reforms lead not to interdepartmental model of solving the problems of the village culture and the enlargement of the range of club leisure, but to the replacement of its complicated verbal forms by the uniformity of cinema, radio and television broadcasts, and as a result to the strengthening of the authorities control over rural clubs. Their potential as of versatile village leisure centres is vanishing day by day, and is replaced by both family leisure and social deviations.

  7. Petrosal anatomy and inner ear structures of the Late Jurassic Henkelotherium (Mammalia, Cladotheria, Dryolestoidea): insight into the early evolution of the ear region in cladotherian mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Irina; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Wible, John R; Martin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The petrosal anatomy and inner ear structure of Jurassic cladotherian mammals represent the ancestral morphological conditions (groundplan) from which modern therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) have evolved. We present the reconstruction of the petrosal and inner ear features of the Late Jurassic dryolestoid mammal Henkelotherium guimarotae from high-resolution computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging analysis. This study of Henkelotherium revealed a combination of derived and primitive features, including: cladotherian apomorphies, such as the promontorial sulcus for the internal carotid artery and reduced lateral trough; trechnotherian characters, such as an enclosed cochlear canaliculus for the perilymphatic duct, post-promontorial tympanic sinus and caudal tympanic process; in addition to plesiomorphic mammalian features, such as the cavum supracochleare and prootic canal. The inner ear of Henkelotherium shows a division between the utricle and saccule, a cochlear canal coiled through at least 270°, a distinctive primary bony lamina for the basilar membrane, and a secondary bony lamina. The development of the primary and secondary bony laminae in the cochlear canal is suggested here to be correlated with the concurrent coiling of the bony canal and membranous duct of the inner ear cochlea, apomorphies of the more inclusive cladotherian clade that also represent the ancestral morphotype of modern therian mammals. Because these features are crucial for high-frequency hearing in extant therian mammals, their early appearance in Late Jurassic cladotherians suggests a more ancient origination for high-frequency hearing in mammalian history than previously thought. PMID:19438763

  8. Geochronology and geochemistry of Early Cretaceous igneous units from the central Sulu orogenic belt: Evidence for crustal delamination during a shift in the regional tectonic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Su-Chin; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Lu, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Chun

    2015-11-01

    Widespread Late Mesozoic igneous events in northern China have been intensively investigated over the past decades and provide evidence for regional lithospheric thinning. The underlying mechanism causing lithospheric thinning remains unclear however. This study reports U-Pb zircon ages, geochemical data and isotopic ratios for Cretaceous igneous units from the central Sulu orogenic belt as it occurs in the Shandong Peninsula. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses of magmatic zircons identified a relatively restricted population of ages ranging from 123 ± 2 Ma to 120 ± 2 Ma from four representative samples of igneous units in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the samples revealed LREE and LILE enrichment, HREE depletion, high initial 87Sr/86Sr values ranging from 0.7040 to 0.7096, and low negative εNd(t) values from -22.0 to -12.2. The data suggest lamprophyres derived separately from heterogeneous mantle inputs, which experienced crust-mantle interaction, andesitic porphyrites and syenogranites derived from enriched lithospheric mantle and rhyolites derived from partial melting of an ancient crustal component. Assimilation and fractionation processes did not contribute to lamprophyre formation, but did play an important role in generating andesitic porphyrites, syenogranites and rhyolites. The petrogenetic history of these rocks indicates intensive lithospheric thinning of the upper mantle and lower crust beneath the Sulu orogenic belt at 123-120 Ma. Given the timing and regional tectonic framework in which these units formed, thinning was likely caused by an abrupt change in the direction of the subducting Pacific plate.

  9. Pre-folding fracture development in the Lurestan region of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt: constraints from early fracture sets in the Shabazan and Asmari Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, Amerigo; Tavani, Stefano; D'Assisi Tramparulo, Francesco; Prinzi, Ernesto Paolo; Vitale, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Morsalnejad, Davoud; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    In the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt (FTB), the timing of fracture development with respect to folding is debated. Multiple fracture systems occur in the area. These include "typical" fracture systems that are oriented parallel and orthogonal to the NW-SE strike of the belt, as well as sets oriented N-S and E-W. The interpretation of the N-S and E-W sets is controversial. Despite the general consensus about the first-order relationship between these fractures and inherited N-S striking basement faults, their timing and kinematic significance is not yet fully understood. The ambiguous crosscutting/abutting relationships with the NE-SW and NW-SE sets, together with the difficulty of framing them into the classical scenario of fracturing in foreland basin systems, has led to the development of different hypotheses about the timing of N-S and E-W sets. For the generation of these structures, both pre- and syn-thrusting interpretations have been proposed. In this work, we report on the occurrence of bed-perpendicular fracture sets in the upper part of the Shabazan (Eocene) and in the Asmari (Oligo-Miocene) Formations of the Zagros FTB. These fractures have the peculiarity of being filled with karst material. Such filled fractures are preserved in beds showing variable angles of dip, ranging from horizontal to vertical. Their homogeneous distribution in variably dipping beds around folds undoubtedly point to an origin of these fracture sets predating the tilting of the strata in which they are contained. Therefore, fracture development and related infilling occurred at an early stage, in still flat lying strata, following the deposition of the top Shabazan and Asmari Formations. Such a deposition took place within the general framework of ongoing shortening in the Zagros. This process, occurring since the Late Cretaceous, progressively led to folding of the syn-orogenic Shabazan and Asmari Formations subsequently to the development of the studied filled fractures.

  10. Comparing early years and childhood experiences and outcomes in Scotland, England and three city-regions: a plausible explanation for Scottish 'excess' mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; O'Dowd, John

    2014-10-10

    Negative early years and childhood experiences (EYCE), including socio-economic circumstances, parental health and parenting style, are associated with poor health outcomes both in childhood and adulthood. It has also been proposed that EYCE were historically worse in Scottish areas, especially Glasgow and the Clyde Valley, compared to elsewhere in the UK and that this variation can provide a partial explanation for the excess of ill health and mortality observed among those Scottish populations. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to two large, representative, British birth cohorts (the NCDS58 and the BCS70), to test the independent association of area of residence at ages 7 and 5 with risk of behavioural problems, respiratory problems and reading/vocabulary problems at the same age. Cohort members resident in Scotland were compared with those who were resident in England, while those resident in Glasgow and the Clyde Valley were compared with those resident in Merseyside and Greater Manchester. After adjustment for a range of relevant variables, the risk of adverse childhood outcomes was found to be either no different, or lower, in the Scottish areas. At a national level, the study reinforces the combined association of socio-economic circumstances, parental health (especially maternal mental health) and parenting with child health outcomes. Based on these samples, the study does not support the hypothesis that EYCE were worse in Scotland and Glasgow and the Clyde Valley. It seems, therefore (based on these data), less likely that the roots of the excess mortality observed in the Scottish areas can be explained by these factors.

  11. The Early Morphological Development of the Near Surface Region of Pickled Grade 91 Tubing Exposed to Steam and Its Long Term Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Gorman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve intra-laboratory consistency and experimental repeatability during high temperature oxidation testing, metallic coupons undergo a standardised surface preparation. It is stipulated in international testing standards that grinding of a coupons surface acceptably replicates surface conditions encountered in industrial settings whilst ensuring that each coupons surface is chemically and topographically homogenised [1,2]. Grade 91 steel tubing exposed in the laboratory to flowing steam at 650 °C and 1 bar for up to 3000 h has been compared with Grade 91 tubing exposed in a commercially operated boiler system at elevated pressures at temperatures in the range of 500 to 650 °C for 91 kh. It has been found that a pre-existing surface structure dissimilar from that of the bulk alloy and that of a ground surface, is present on the inside surface of the tubing. The presence of pre-existing surface features in commercially exposed material has implications on the long term morphological development of the oxidation region and may account for some of the discrepancies between observations made in laboratory and service exposures.

  12. Immediate Return to Ambulation and Improved Functional Capacity for Rehabilitation in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following Early Implantation of a Spinal Cord Stimulation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Jesse Goff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a neuropathic pain condition that is characterized by vasomotor, sensory, sudomotor, and motor symptoms. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS has been successfully utilized for the treatment of pain refractory to conventional therapies. We present a case of a previously highly functioning 54-year-old female who developed a rarely reported case of idiopathic CRPS of the right ankle which spontaneously occurred four months after an uncomplicated anterior cervical disc fusion. This condition resulted in severe pain and functional impairment that was unresponsive to pharmacological management. The patient’s rehabilitation was severely stymied by her excruciating pain. However, with the initiation of spinal cord stimulation, her pain was adequately controlled allowing for progression to full unassisted ambulation, advancing functional capacity, and improving quality of life. This case report supports the concept that rapid progression to neuromodulation, rather than delays that occur due to attempts at serial sympathetic blocks, may better control symptoms leading allowing for a more meaningful recovery.

  13. Source contamination and tectonomagmatic signals of overlapping Early to Middle Miocene orogenic magmas associated with shallow continental subduction and asthenospheric mantle flows in Western Anatolia: A record from Simav (Kütahya) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoban, Hakan; Karacık, Zekiye; Ece, Ömer Işık

    2012-05-01

    The disappearances of mafic shoshonitic and ultrapotassic magma prior to Late Oligocene in Western Anatolia post-collisional tectonic settings, and the sudden appearance of Early-Middle Miocene potassic lavas with orogenic geochemical signatures, indicate a striking change of mantle sources during the Early-Middle Miocene period, and require a special explanation. In this regard, the Simav (Kütahya) region of Western Anatolia represents a critical area, where the Early-Middle Miocene mafic potassic (shoshonite, absarokite, ultrapotassic) and high-K calc-alkaline (andesite, dacite-rhyolite, granite) series rocks overlap in the extensional geotectonic setting in a back-arc position. The appraisal of petrological data obtained from Simav igneous complex indicates that there is a remarkable geochemical and isotopic similarity (e.g., negative Eu anomalies; Nb-Ta depletions; high Sr, low Nd and variable Pb isotope compositions) between coevally generated mafic potassic and high-K calc-alkaline magma series. The near primitive mafic potassic (MHKS) lavas with high Sr isotope compositions require a heterogeneous mantle source contaminated with crustal materials. Dragged and delaminated crustal components, caused by shallow continental subduction and the late arrived subducted terrigenous sediments from the Aegean trench are likely candidate sources of continental materials incorporated into the mantle source of the Simav mafic potassic (MHKS) magmas. The nature of these components also played a significant role in the compositional variations of Simav mafic series rocks. The Simav mafic potassic (MHKS) magmas were derived from a crust-contaminated, subduction-modified (metasomatized) EM-II type mantle source, interacting with influxed asthenosphere in a back-arc mantle wedge, whereas mixing of lower crustal silicic melts with underplated potassic mafic magmas resulted in coeval high-K calc-alkaline rocks, matched by the extent of crustal contamination observed in the more

  14. Predictive Power of the NSQIP Risk Calculator for Early Post-Operative Outcomes After Whipple: Experience from a Regional Center in Northern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Henry Y; Kohtakangas, Erica L; Asai, Kengo; Shum, Jeffrey B

    2017-05-02

    NSQIP Risk Calculator was developed to allow surgeons to inform their patients about their individual risks for surgery. Its ability to predict complication rates and length of stay (LOS) has made it an appealing tool for both patients and surgeons. However, the NSQIP Risk Calculator has been criticized for its generality and lack of detail towards surgical subspecialties, including the hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgery. We wish to determine whether the NSQIP Risk Calculator is predictive of post-operative complications and LOS with respect to Whipple's resections for our patient population. As well, we wish to identify strategies to optimize early surgical outcomes in patients with pancreatic cancer. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent elective Whipple's procedure for benign or malignant pancreatic head lesions at Health Sciences North (Sudbury, Ontario), a tertiary care center, from February 2014 to August 2016. Comparisons of LOS and post-operative complications between NSQIP-predicted and actual ones were carried out. NSQIP-predicted complications rates were obtained using the NSQIP Risk Calculator through pre-defined preoperative risk factors. Clinical outcomes examined, at 30 days post-operation, included pneumonia, cardiac events, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), venous thromboembolism (VTE), renal failure, readmission, and reoperation for procedural complications. As well, mortality, disposition to nursing or rehabilitation facilities, and LOS were assessed. A total of 40 patients underwent Whipple's procedure at our center from February 2014 to August 2016. The average age was 68 (50-85), and there were 22 males and 18 females. The majority of patients had independent baseline functional status (39/40) with minimal pre-operative comorbidities. The overall post-operative morbidity was 47.5% (19/40). The rate of serious complication was 17.5% with four Clavien grade II, two grade III, and one grade

  15. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats: instrument capabilities and early science analysis on the quiet Sun, active regions, and flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher S.; Woods, Tom; Caspi, Amir; Dennis, Brian R.; MinXSS Instrument Team, NIST-SURF Measurement Team

    2018-01-01

    Detection of soft X-rays (sxr) from the Sun provide direct information on coronal plasma at temperatures in excess of ~1 MK, but there have been relatively few solar spectrally resolved measurements from 0.5 – 10. keV. The Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat is the first solar science oriented CubeSat mission flown for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, and has provided measurements from 0.8 -12 keV, with resolving power ~40 at 5.9 keV, at a nominal ~10 second time cadence. MinXSS design and development has involved over 40 graduate students supervised by professors and professionals at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Instrument radiometric calibration was performed at the National Institute for Standard and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive X-ray sources. The MinXSS spectra allow for determining coronal abundance variations for Fe, Mg, Ni, Ca, Si, S, and Ar in active regions and during flares. Measurements from the first of the twin CubeSats, MinXSS-1, have proven to be consistent with the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 0.1 – 0.8 nm energy flux. Simultaneous MinXSS-1 and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations have provided the most complete sxr spectral coverage of flares in recent years. These combined measurements are vital in estimating the heating flare loops by non-thermal accelerated electrons. MinXSS-1 measurements have been combined with the Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO-AIA) to further constrain the coronal temperature distribution during quiescent times. The structure of the temperature distribution (especially for T > 5 MK) is important for deducing heating processes in the solar atmosphere. MinXSS-1 observations yield some of the tightest constraints on the high temperature component of the coronal plasma, in the

  16. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers......, networks, labour market pooling and specialised suppliers). However, these factors are not sufficient to explain the early formation of clusters. The dominant theories focus more on explaining ex-post dynamics than their early development. This chapter focuses on the early phase and uses an alternative...

  17. The main features of the interaction of mantle magmas with granulite complexes of the lower crust and their relationship with granitic melts (exemplified by the Early Caledonides of the West Baikal Region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexandr; Khromykh, Sergei; Mekhonoshin, Alexei; Volkova, Nina; Travin, Alexei; Mikheev, Evgeny; Vladimirova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Granulite complexes occurring in the Early Caledonian southern folded framing of the Siberian Craton are deeply eroded fragments of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic accretionary prism, which is an indicator of the early stages of the Paleo-Asian Ocean (Gladkochub et al., 2010). The main feature of the granulite complexes is a wide development of gabbro-pyroxenites composing tectonic plates, synmetamorphic intrusive bodies, and numerous disintegrated fragments (boudins and enclaves), immersed in a metamorphic matrix. The volume of basites reaches 5-10 %, which allows us to consider mantle magmatism as a heat source for the granulite metamorphism. The most studied polygon is Chernorud granulite zone, which is a part of the Olkhon metamorphic terrane, West Baikal Region. Just this polygon was used for considering the problems of interaction of mantle magmas with lower crust granulite complexes and their relationship with granitic melts. The Chernorud Zone is a typical example of the accretionary prism with a predominance of metabasalts (70-80 %), subordinate amounts of marbles, quartzites and metapelites that have been subjected to granulite facies metamorphism and viscoelastic flow of rock masses. Study of two-pyroxene granulites (metabasalts) and garnet-sillimanite gneisses (metapelites) allows us to estimate P-T metamorphic conditions (P = 7.7-8.6 kbar, T = 770-820°C) and their U-Pb metamorphic age (530-500 Ma). Metabasalts correspond in their geochemistry to the island-arc tholeiitic series (Volkova et al., 2010; Gladkochub et al., 2010). Sin-metamorphic gabbro-pyroxenites formed in two stages: 1) Chernorud complex - tectonic slices and body's exhumed from deep earth crust levels (10-12 kb) and composed of arc tholeiitic series rocks (age T ≥ 500 Ma); 2) Ulan-Khargana complex - supply magmatic canals and fragmented tabular intrusions. This rocks composition corresponds to subalkaline petrochemical series (OIB) and U/Pb age is equal to 485±10 Ma (Travin et al., 2009

  18. Paphlagonia Bölgesi’nde Geç Antik ve Erken Bizans Yerleşimi: Sora / Late Antique and Early Byzantine Settlement in Paphlagonia Region: Sora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Gür

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The late antique, early Byzantine settlement area locates at 12 km. distance to southwest of Karabuk Central District, on a sloping land with an altitude of 700 meters piedmont of Keltepe mountain. This settlement area, called as Zora, Zara, Zopran, Sora, Sopran or some other similar names by the researchers, locates within the boundaries of Akören (Kaleköy and Zopran today. This area is one of the five central eparchies bounded to Paphlagonia district of Gangra (Çankırı. Various column headers, inscriptions, sculptures, Hellenistic sepulchres and architectural ruins belonging to Roman age are identified there. The settlement area called as Sora since the 4th century is observed by Doublet (1889, Mendel (1901, Gökoğlu (1952, Marek (1993, 2003, Belke (1996 and Umar (2007, and they found out that it used to be called Zobran in the records of 16th century Ottoman archive. Within the scope of this research, Sora is observed in details for the periods of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman. The life of St. Autonomous, who had came there in the 4th century to proselytize Christianity and became a martyre, their sepulchre constructions, the bishops of the city, architectural plastic works and scriptures are all researched. Moreover, the problem of naming the area which was confusing for many years is tried to be solved by this research beside documenting the present condition of the architectural ruin on their original places. Öz Karabük’ün 12 km. güneybatısında bulunan geç Antik-erken Bizans dönemi yerleşim alanı Sora (günümüzde Zopran ve Akören, Keltepe Dağı’nın eteklerinde ortalama 700 m. rakımda eğimli bir arazi üzerinde yer almaktadır. Araştırmacılar tarafından Zora, Zara, Zopran, Sora, Sopran gibi çeşitli isimlerle adlandırılan yerleşim, günümüzde Akören (Kaleköy ve Zopran sınırlarında kalmaktadır. Sora, Paphlagonia bölgesinde Gangra (Çankırı Metropolitliğine bağlı beş Piskoposluk

  19. Response of a land-terminating sector of the western Greenland Ice Sheet to early Holocene climate change: Evidence from 10Be dating in the Søndre Isortoq region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnek, Alia J.; Briner, Jason P.

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of land-terminating Greenland Ice Sheet margins is expected to increase as tidewater glaciers retreat onto land, yet few studies have characterized the sensitivity of these slow-moving margins to climatic variability. The response of land-terminating ice sheet sectors to climate forcing can be assessed by examining records of paleo-ice margin positions preserved in ice sheet moraine systems. In western Greenland, the extensive Fjord Stade moraine system was deposited by minor readvances or stillstands of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin during early Holocene net recession. Here, we combine new moraine mapping and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating to constrain the timing of Fjord Stade moraine deposition in the Søndre Isortoq region. We find that the Fjord Stade moraines are composed of a western stage and an eastern stage, which we constrain to 9.7 ± 0.7 ka (n = 7; 1 SD) and 9.0 ± 0.3 ka (n = 7; 1 SD), respectively. Synchronous deposition of the Fjord Stade moraine complex across at least 350 km of western Greenland implies a widespread response of the western Greenland Ice Sheet to the 9.3 ka event. Furthermore, these new moraine ages may correlate with Laurentide Ice Sheet-sourced freshwater pulses into the North Atlantic Ocean. We also show that the response of the western Greenland Ice Sheet to early Holocene freshwater forcing was not restricted to fast-flowing, marine-terminating outlet glaciers; the land-terminating margin in the Søndre Isortoq region halted or reversed its pattern of retreat in response to climatic change.

  20. In-hospital mortality of acutely ill medical patients admitted to a resource poor hospital in sub-Saharan Africa and to a Canadian regional hospital compared using the abbreviated VitalPAC Early Warning Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opio, Martin Otyek; Nansubuga, Gertrude; Kellett, John

    2014-02-01

    the development of validated early warning scores that only require the measurement of vital signs at the bedside has provided for the first time a practical and affordable method of comparing the outcomes of similar patients admitted to hospital in the developed and developing world. we compared the outcomes of patients with the same abbreviated version of the VitalPAC early warning score at the time of hospital admission in a Canadian and Ugandan hospital. 844 acutely ill medical patients admitted to Kitovu Hospital, Masaka, Uganda and 48,696 patients admitted to the Thunder Bay Regional Health Sciences Centre (TBRHSC), Ontario, Canada were examined. apart from those patients with an abbreviated ViEWS value of 10 there was no statistically significant difference in the in-hospital mortality of Kitvou and TBRHSC patients with the same score on admission. Using arbitrary ranges of the abbreviated ViEWS the 30day Kaplan-Meier survival curves of Kitovu patients were either the same or better than those of TBRHSC patients. the in-hospital mortality of patients with the same abbreviated ViEWS on hospital admission is similar in TBRHSC and Kitovu Hospital. © 2013.

  1. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1 transgenic (Tg mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr. Morris water maze (MWM was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD. By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  2. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer's Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-10-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer's cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  3. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  4. An amphioxus LIM-homeobox gene, AmphiLim1/5, expressed early in the invaginating organizer region and later in differentiating cells of the kidney and central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, James A.; Holland, Linda Z.; Chastain, Roger A.; Holland, Nicholas D.

    2006-01-01

    A LIM-homeobox gene, AmphiLim1/5, from the Florida amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) encodes a protein that phylogenetic analysis positions at the base of a clade comprising vertebrate Lim1 and Lim5. Amphioxus AmphiLim1/5 is expressed in domains that are a composite of those of vertebrate Lim1 and Lim5, which evidently underwent subfunctionalization after duplication of an ancestral protochordate Lim1/5. During amphioxus development, transcription is first detected in the ectoderm of the blastula. Then, in the gastrula, a second expression domain appears in the mesendoderm just within the dorsal lip of the blastopore, a region known to have organizer properties in amphioxus. This mesendodermal expression corresponds to Lim1 expression in the Spemann organizer of vertebrates. At least one of the functions of vertebrate Lim1 in the organizer is to control the transcription of genes involved in cell and tissue movements during gastrulation, and a comparable early function seems likely for AmphiLim1/5 during gastrular invagination of amphioxus. Later embryos and larvae of amphioxus express AmphiLim1/5 in clusters of cells, probably motoneurons, in the anterior part of the central nervous system, in the hindgut, in Hatschek's right diverticulum (a rudiment of the rostral coelom), and in the wall of the first somite on the left side (a precursor of Hatschek's nephridium). In the early larva, expression continues in neural cells, in Hatschek's nephridium, in the wall of the rostral coelom, in the epidermis of the upper lip, and in mesoderm cells near the opening of the second gill slit. The developmental expression in Hatschek's nephridium is especially interesting because it helps support the homology between this amphioxus organ and the vertebrate pronephros. PMID:16763670

  5. An amphioxus LIM-homeobox gene, AmphiLim1/5, expressed early in the invaginating organizer region and later in differentiating cells of the kidney and central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, James A; Holland, Linda Z; Chastain, Roger A; Holland, Nicholas D

    2006-01-01

    A LIM-homeobox gene, AmphiLim1/5, from the Florida amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) encodes a protein that phylogenetic analysis positions at the base of a clade comprising vertebrate Lim1 and Lim5. Amphioxus AmphiLim1/5 is expressed in domains that are a composite of those of vertebrate Lim1 and Lim5, which evidently underwent subfunctionalization after duplication of an ancestral protochordate Lim1/5. During amphioxus development, transcription is first detected in the ectoderm of the blastula. Then, in the gastrula, a second expression domain appears in the mesendoderm just within the dorsal lip of the blastopore, a region known to have organizer properties in amphioxus. This mesendodermal expression corresponds to Lim1 expression in the Spemann organizer of vertebrates. At least one of the functions of vertebrate Lim1 in the organizer is to control the transcription of genes involved in cell and tissue movements during gastrulation, and a comparable early function seems likely for AmphiLim1/5 during gastrular invagination of amphioxus. Later embryos and larvae of amphioxus express AmphiLim1/5 in clusters of cells, probably motoneurons, in the anterior part of the central nervous system, in the hindgut, in Hatschek's right diverticulum (a rudiment of the rostral coelom), and in the wall of the first somite on the left side (a precursor of Hatschek's nephridium). In the early larva, expression continues in neural cells, in Hatschek's nephridium, in the wall of the rostral coelom, in the epidermis of the upper lip, and in mesoderm cells near the opening of the second gill slit. The developmental expression in Hatschek's nephridium is especially interesting because it helps support the homology between this amphioxus organ and the vertebrate pronephros.

  6. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  7. HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity proximally and at a distance from the point of exposure: protection by rSV40 delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Agrawal, Lokesh; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2009-06-01

    Toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) for substantia nigra (SN) neurons may contribute to the Parkinsonian manifestations often seen in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We studied the neurotoxicity of gp120 for dopaminergic neurons and potential neuroprotection by antioxidant gene delivery. Rats were injected stereotaxically into their caudate-putamen (CP); CP and (substantia nigra) SN neuron loss was quantified. The area of neuron loss extended several millimeters from the injection site, approximately 35% of the CP area. SN neurons, outside of this area of direct neurotoxicity, were also severely affected. Dopaminergic SN neurons (expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, TH, in the SN and dopamine transporter, DAT, in the CP) were mostly affected: intra-CP gp120 caused approximately 50% DAT+ SN neuron loss. Prior intra-CP gene delivery of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) protected SN neurons from intra-CP gp120. Thus, SN dopaminergic neurons are highly sensitive to HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity, and antioxidant gene delivery, even at a distance, is protective.

  8. Efficient eradication of subcutaneous but not of autochthonous gastric tumors by adoptive T cell transfer in an SV40 T antigen mouse model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourquin, Carole; von der Borch, Philip; Zoglmeier, Christine; Anz, David; Sandholzer, Nadja; Suhartha, Nina; Wurzenberger, Cornelia; Denzel, Angela; Kammerer, Robert; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Endres, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    .... In wild-type mice, a dendritic cell vaccine loaded with irradiated tumor cells combined with CpG oligonucleotides induced efficient cytotoxic T cell and memory responses against mGC3 s.c. tumors...

  9. The chicken immediate-early gene ZENK is expressed in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a brain region involved in acoustic imprinting, and is up-regulated after exposure to an auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thode, C; Bock, J; Braun, K; Darlison, M G

    2005-01-01

    The immediate-early gene zenk (an acronym for the avian orthologue of the mammalian genes zif-268, egr-1, ngfi-a and krox-24) has been extensively employed, in studies on oscine birds, as a marker of neuronal activity to reveal forebrain structures that are involved in the memory processes associated with the acquisition, perception and production of song. Audition-induced expression of this gene, in brain, has also recently been reported for the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Whilst the anatomical distribution of zenk expression was described for the quail, corresponding data for the chicken were not reported. We have, therefore, used in situ hybridisation to localise the mRNA that encodes the product of the zenk gene (which we call ZENK) within the brain of the 1-day-old chick. We demonstrate that this transcript is present in a number of forebrain structures including the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH), a region that has been strongly implicated in auditory imprinting (which is a form of recognition memory), and Field L, the avian analog of the mammalian auditory cortex. Because of this pattern of gene expression, we have compared the level of the ZENK mRNA in chicks that have been subjected to a 30-min acoustic imprinting paradigm and in untrained controls. Our results reveal a significant increase (Pimprinting, which is an established model of juvenile learning. In addition, our results indicate that the ZENK mRNA may be used as a molecular marker for MNH, a region that is difficult to anatomically and histochemically delineate.

  10. Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Using mid-altitude regions as observatories of change in snow areas: the Natural Park of Cazorla, Segura y las Villas (South Spain) as study case for early snow regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Soledad; Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Aguillar, Cristina; José Polo, María

    2017-04-01

    Snow plays a key role at the hydrological cycle in semiarid mountainous areas, modifying the energy and water balances that govern the regime of stored water in the snowpack, a key resource for the spring and summer river flow. The Natural and National Park of Sierra Nevada (SNNP), a coastal mountain range up to 3450 m a.s.l. in southern Spain, is a representative example of snow areas in Mediterranean-climate regions; its high altitudinal gradient results in a wide variety of eco-climatic environments, and it is part of the global monitoring network to study climate change. Both monitoring and modelling efforts have been performed to assess this variability and its significant scales; whereas increasing temperature trends have been found, no significant trends are observed so far regarding the precipitation regime both on a seasonal and annual basis, with a highly variable impact on the snow regime in this area, especially in the mid-altitude range. In this context, the study of the snow cover in the neighbouring Natural Park of Cazorla, Segura and Las Villas (CSLVNP), with similar climatic conditions but lower altitudes (up to 2107 m a.s.l.) is proposed as a parallel monitoring site for early warning of impacts of climate change on the snow regime. The CSLVNP is the most extensive protected area in Spain and it is located to the north of SNPN, with less influence of the Mediterranean Sea. This study carried out a first quantification of the snow importance in this area, which exhibits a large transitional zone with a dominant alpine environment, and its relationship with the observed local precipitation-temperature trends. For this, the snow cover fraction on a 30x30 m gridded resolution has been studied during a 5-yr period combining on-site meteorological observations and remote-sensing data analysis, and snow modelling by the distributed and physically based approach for Mediterranean regions proposed by Herrero et al. (2009; 2010). The analysis of the

  12. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent archae...

  13. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  14. Simian virus 40, poliovirus vaccines, and human cancer: research progress versus media and public interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butel, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    From 1955 through early 1963, millions of people were inadvertently exposed to simian virus 40 (SV40) as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines; the virus had been present in the monkey kidney cultures used to prepare the vaccines and had escaped detection. SV40 was discovered in 1960 and subsequently eliminated from poliovirus vaccines. This article reviews current knowledge about SV40 and considers public responses to reports in the media. SV40 is a potent tumour virus with broad tissue tropism that induces tumours in rodents and transforms cultured cells from many species. It is also an important laboratory model for basic studies of molecular processes in eukaryotic cells and mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. SV40 neutralizing antibodies have been detected in individuals not exposed to contaminated poliovirus vaccines. There have been many reports of detection of SV40 DNA in human tumours, especially mesotheliomas, brain tumours and osteosarcomas; and DNA sequence analyses have ruled out the possibility that the viral DNA in tumours was due to laboratory contamination or that the virus had been misidentified. However, additional studies are necessary to prove that SV40 is the cause of certain human cancers. A recently published review article evaluated the status of the field and received much media attention. The public response emphasized that there is great interest in the possibility of health risks today from vaccinations received in the past.

  15. Spiral CT of the head and neck: Advantages of the early arterial phase in tumor detection; Spiral-CT der Kopf-Hals-Region: Vorteile der arteriellen Fruehphase bei der Detektion von Plattenepithelkarzinomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R.; Pauleit, D.; Layer, G.; Kandyba, J.; Kohlbecher, R.; Hortling, N.; Schild, H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany); Baselides, P. [HNO Klinik und Poliklinik, Univ. Bonn (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To determine if scanning in the arterial phase improves detection of squamous cell carcinomas in the pharynx and larynx. Methods: In a prospective clinical study 20 patients with a pharyngeal or laryngeal carcinoma were examined with by spiral CT. 80 ml Iopromid were intravenously injected as a bolus with a rate of 3 ml/sec. Two consecutive spiral CT scans were performed with start-delay times of 20 to 70 seconds respectively. Delineation and contrast enhancement of tumours, cervical lymph nodes and vessels were evaluated. The radiodensities (HU) of tumors, lymph nodes vessels, pharyngeal wall and muscle were measured. Results: Comparing early and late start delay time scans tumor assessment in the early phase was better in 58%, less in 16% and equal in both scans in 26%. 82% of the pathologic lymph nodes had more peripheral enhancement than surrounding muscle tissue. During the arterial phase the measured radiodensities of the common carotid artery and jugular vein were significantly higher than in the second phase. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced special CT permits accurate morphologic assessment (size, infiltration) of pharyngeal and supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, while pathologic lymph nodes already have a sufficient contrast enhancement for the detection. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Evaluierung des Nutzens der arteriellen Fruehphase in der Spiral-CT der Kopf-Hals-Region zur Abgrenzung von Plattenepithelkarzinomen. Methoden: In einer prospektiven klinischen Studie wurden 20 Patienten mit Pharynx- bzw. supraglottischen Larynxkarzinomen in der Spiral-CT (Tomoscan AV, Philips Medizin Systeme) mit einer Doppelspirale untersucht. Die Start-Verzoegerungszeit betrug 20 Sekunden=arteriell Phase und 70 Sekunden=Spaetphase. Alle Patienten erhielten 80 ml Iopromid mit einer Injektionsgeschwindigkeit von 3 ml/s i.v. Die Aufnahmen wurden hinsichtlich Abgrenzbarkeit und Kontrastierung von Tumoren, cervikalen Lymphknoten (LK) und Gefaessen von drei

  16. Immortalization of Werner syndrome and progeria fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, H.; Moses, R.E. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Human fibroblast cells from two different progeroid syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and progeria, were established as immortalized cell lines by transfection with plasmid DNA containing the SV40 early region. The lineage of each immortalized cell line was confirmed by VNTR analysis. Each of the immortalized cell lines maintained its original phenotype of slow growth. DNA repair ability of these cells was also studied by measuring sensitivity to killing by uv or the DNA-damaging drugs methyl methansulfonate, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum. The results showed that both WS and progeria cells have normal sensitivity to these agents.

  17. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  18. The importance of early diagnosis of large lipomas in the maxillofacial region Importancia del diagnóstico precoz de los lipomas de células grandes en la región maxilofacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Furtado de Carvalho

    2011-03-01

    prognosis. The pathogenesis is still uncertain, although some authors consider heredity and endocrine disorders as possible causes. Occurs with greater prevalence in obese people, although their metabolism is completely independent of the normal body lipid metabolism. The clinical diagnosis of oral lipoma is the view of a nodular mass, soft, asymptomatic, flat surface, without ulceration and limited growth. The continuing growth of the lesion may cause difficulty in chewing, speech, dental adaptation and change in facial aesthetics of the patient, requiring surgical excision of the lesion. The final diagnosis is by histopathological examination. Aims to present a literature review and clinical cases of a retrospective study of 61 cases of lipomas diagnosed in pathological service between 1978 and 2009, among the 10 573 reports during that same period. It emphasizes the special cases of large lipomas of the maxillofacial region, and the importance of early diagnosis of these lesions. A dental surgeon should be able to diagnose lipomas in an early stage in the maxillofacial area avoiding a massive growth of these lesions.

  19. Early literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from the Danish contribution to the EASE project, a European research project running from 2008 to 2010 on early literacy in relation to the transition from childcare to school. It explores a holistic, inclusive approach to early literacy that resists a narrow...... and schools. The paper also draws on Gee’s (2001, 2003, 2004, 2008) sociocultural approach to literacy, and Honneth’s (2003, 2006) concept of recognition. Emphasizing participation and recognition as key elements, it claims that stakeholders in early liter- acy must pay attention to how diverse early literacy...... opportunities empower children, especially when these opportunities are employed in a project-based learning environ- ment in which each child is able to contribute to the shared literacy events....

  20. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  1. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....... Development of pricing policies is contested at Community level and has taken place in a clash between different policy rationalities. Significantly though, the effects of the pricing policies are closely related to regional mobility systems, e.g. through financing large trans-border infrastructure projects...... and establishing common technical charging systems thus changing the conditions for regional mobility. This paper explores how policies of infrastructure pricing shape new ways of governing mobility which influences trans-border, regional policy-making. The key findings are that there is a tendency to include...

  2. Épocas de plantio da lentilha precoce em quatro regiões de Minas Gerais Sowing dates for early lentil cultivars in four regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Faria Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos cinco ensaios, todos irrigados, em quatro regiões de Minas Gerais: Viçosa, Leopoldina (Zona da Mata, Patos de Minas (Alto Paranaíba, Uberaba (Triângulo e Janaúba (Norte, com o objetivo de determinar a melhor época de plantio da lentilha precoce. Em Viçosa, foram estudadas seis datas de plantio, de 15/3 a 30/5; em Leopoldina, quatro, de 7/4 a 10/6; em Uberaba e Patos de Minas, seis, de 17/2 a 2/6; e em Janaúba, cinco, de 16/5 a 3/8. O intervalo entre datas de plantio foi de, aproximadamente, 20 dias. No ensaio de Viçosa, foi utilizada a cultivar Precoz, plantada no espaçamento entre fileiras de 40 cm, com 30 sementes/m; nos outros ensaios, a Silvina, no espaçamento entre fileiras de 30 cm, com 50 sementes/m. Em geral, os maiores rendimentos foram alcançados quando o plantio foi feito em maio, principalmente na segunda quinzena. Em Viçosa, a lentilha também teve bom desempenho quando plantada na segunda quinzena de março. Em Leopoldina e Janaúba, os dois locais de temperaturas mais altas, o plantio no início de junho não prejudicou o rendimento, se comparado com o da segunda quinzena de maio. Nas épocas de plantio em que foram obtidos os maiores rendimentos, a lentilha precoce, após a emergência, levou entre 28 e 60 dias para iniciar o florescimento; e da emergência até a colheita, entre 92 e 112 dias. O maior rendimento médio foi alcançado em Leopoldina, quando o plantio foi realizado em 27/5: 1.644 kg/ha. O peso de 100 sementes da 'Silvina'variou de 5,5 a 6,3 gramas, quando o plantio foi feito em maio.Trials were conducted in five municipalities of four regions of Minas Gerais State: Viçosa, Leopoldina (Zona da Mata, Patos de Minas (Alto Paranaíba, Uberaba (Triângulo and Janaúba (Norte, in order to determine the best sowing date for early lentil. In Viçosa, six sowing dates were studied from 15th March to 30th May; in Leopoldina, four, from 7th April to 10th June; in Uberaba and Patos de Minas, six

  3. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...... level of social capital leads to a higher propensity to innovate. We find also that being located in an area characterized by a high degree of localized social capital is complementary to firms' investments in internal research and development (R&D) and that such a location positively moderates...

  4. Health related quality of life and symptoms after pelvic lymphadenectomy or radiotherapy vs. no adjuvant regional treatment in early-stage endometrial carcinoma: a large population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Boll, D.; Vos, M.C.; Berg, H. van den; Lybeert, M.L.; Winter, K. de; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Routine lymphadenectomy (LA) in early stage endometrial cancer does not improve survival. However, in the absence of lymph node metastasis, radiotherapy (RT) could be withheld and hence could result in less morbidity. Our aim was to evaluate health related quality of life (HRQL) in

  5. Regional Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Explores ideas about regional planning and provides a framework for developing a secondary level course on regional planning. Claims that such a course can help students understand more about the world around them and improve their attitude toward contributing to the management of change. (BR)

  6. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  7. Will Early Retirement Retire Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James W.

    1976-01-01

    Management should recognize and consider both the advantages of early retirement programs and the countervailing forces of financial conditions, individual attitudes, and age discrimination laws. (Available from American Management Associations, Subscription Services, Box 319, Saranac Lake, NY 12983; $15.00 annually) (Author/MLF)

  8. WE-AB-202-02: Incorporating Regional Ventilation Function in Predicting Radiation Fibrosis After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, F; Jeudy, J; Tseng, H; Zhou, J; D’Souza, W; Zhang, H [University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Senan, S; Sornsen de Koste, J van [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incorporation of pre-therapy regional ventilation function in predicting radiation fibrosis (RF) in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. Methods: 37 stage III NSCLC patients were retrospectively studied. Patients received one cycle of cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by two to three cycles of cisplatin-etoposide concurrently with involved-field thoracic radiotherapy between 46 and 66 Gy (2 Gy per fraction). Pre-therapy regional ventilation images of the lung were derived from 4DCT via a density-change-based image registration algorithm with mass correction. RF was evaluated at 6-months post-treatment using radiographic scoring based on airway dilation and volume loss. Three types of ipsilateral lung metrics were studied: (1) conventional dose-volume metrics (V20, V30, V40, and mean-lung-dose (MLD)), (2) dose-function metrics (fV20, fV30, fV40, and functional mean-lung-dose (fMLD) generated by combining regional ventilation and dose), and (3) dose-subvolume metrics (sV20, sV30, sV40, and subvolume mean-lung-dose (sMLD) defined as the dose-volume metrics computed on the sub-volume of the lung with at least 60% of the quantified maximum ventilation status). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the predictability of these metrics for RF. Results: In predicting airway dilation, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) values for (V20, MLD), (fV20, fMLD), and (sV20, and sMLD) were (0.76, 0.70), (0.80, 0.74) and (0.82, 0.80), respectively. The logistic regression p-values were (0.09, 0.18), (0.02, 0.05) and (0.004, 0.006), respectively. With regard to volume loss, the corresponding AUC values for these metrics were (0.66, 0.57), (0.67, 0.61) and (0.71, 0.69), and p-values were (0.95, 0.90), (0.43, 0.64) and (0.08, 0.12), respectively. Conclusion: The inclusion of regional ventilation function improved

  9. Early discontinuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Felde, Lina; Gichangi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Discontinuation of medical drug treatment is a serious problem in primary care. The need for a better understanding of the processes, including physician-specific mechanisms, is apparent. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between general practitioners' prescribing....... There was a positive association between the prevalence of prescribing for the specific drugs studied (antidepressants, antidiabetics, drugs against osteoporosis and lipid-lowering drugs) and early discontinuation (r = 0.29 -0.44), but not for anti-hypertensive drugs. The analysis of the association between prevalence...... of all drugs and drug-specific early discontinuation showed some degree of positive association - strongest for anti-hypertensive drugs (r = 0.62) and antidepressants (r = 0.43). Conclusion This study confirmed our hypothesis that general practitioners with high levels of prescribing attain higher rates...

  10. Crowdsourced earthquake early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, Sarah E.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Glennie, Craig L.; Murray, Jessica R.; Langbein, John O.; Owen, Susan E.; Heaton, Thomas H.; Iannucci, Robert A.; Hauser, Darren L.

    2015-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) can reduce harm to people and infrastructure from earthquakes and tsunamis, but it has not been implemented in most high earthquake-risk regions because of prohibitive cost. Common consumer devices such as smartphones contain low-cost versions of the sensors used in EEW. Although less accurate than scientific-grade instruments, these sensors are globally ubiquitous. Through controlled tests of consumer devices, simulation of an Mw (moment magnitude) 7 earthquake on California’s Hayward fault, and real data from the Mw 9 Tohoku-oki earthquake, we demonstrate that EEW could be achieved via crowdsourcing.

  11. Factors Controlling Pre-Columbian and Early Historic Maize Productivity in the American Southwest, Part 2: The Chaco Halo, Mesa Verde, Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, and Zuni Archaeological Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical and nutrient analyses of 471 soil samples from 161 sites within four archaeological regions (Pajarito Plateau/Bandelier, Zuni, Mesa Verde, and the Chaco Halo) were combined with historical climate data in order to evaluate the agricultural productivity of each region. In addition, maize productivity and field-life calculations were performed using organic-nitrogen (N) values from the upper 50 cm of soil in each region and a range (1-3%/year) of N-mineralization rates. The endmember values of this range were assumed representative of dry and wet climate states. With respect to precipitation and heat, the Pajarito Plateau area has excellent agricultural potential; the agricultural potentials of the Zuni and Mesa Verde regions are good; and the agricultural potential of the Chaco Halo is poor. Calculations of N mineralization and field life indicate that Morfield Valley in Mesa Verde should be able to provide 10 bu/ac of maize for decades (without the addition of N) when organic N-mineralization rates exceed 2%. Productivity and field-life potential decrease in the following order: Zuni, Mesa Verde, Bandelier, Chaco Halo. The Chaco Halo is very unproductive; e. g., 10 bushels per acre can be achieved within the Halo only from soils having the highest organic N concentration (third quartile) and which undergo the highest rate (3%) of N mineralization. ?? 2010 US Government.

  12. In vitro neurogenesis from neural progenitor cells isolated from the hippocampus region of the brain of adult rats exposed to ethanol during early development through their alcohol-drinking mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Shveta; Jiang, Yin; Younus, Mohammed; Ramzan, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine whether ethanol exposure during early development altered neurogenesis in the brain of adult rats. Pregnant rats were given either ethanol-mixed or mannose-mixed (for control) rodent liquid diet ad libitum. Ethanol drinking continued during pregnancy and nursing. After weaning, the pups (AC(o): pups from control mothers, AE(o): pups from ethanol exposed mothers) received normal diet and water ad libitum for 11 weeks. Then the rats were anesthetized, their brains were collected and the hippocampal samples were processed for isolation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). AC(o) NPCs and AE(o) NPCs were sequentially grown in media containing different growth factors that induced proliferation and differentiation. Neuronal maturation was significantly delayed in ethanol-exposed rats. AC(o) NPCs, up to day 7 of culture, exhibited high beta-catenin-probe binding, an increase in Ca(2+) when exposed to gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and lack of response to glutamate (Glu) exposure. beta-Catenin-probe binding and the stimulatory effects of GABA declined thereafter. AC(o) NPCs, at culture day 29, exhibited high beta-catenin-probe binding, lack of response to GABA and elevated Glu-induced increase in Ca(2+i). Cultures of AE(o) NPCs showed an amplified stimulatory effects of GABA, attenuated stimulatory effects of Glu and attenuated the delayed (culture day 29) increase in the expression of Wnt proteins and beta-catenin-probe binding. This suggests a significant alteration in neurogenesis and synapse formation in adult rats exposed to ethanol at early development through their alcohol-drinking mothers.

  13. Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrissey, Wayne A

    2005-01-01

    ...) to develop a regional tsunami detection and warning network that would guard coastal populations around the Indian Ocean. Those efforts would coincide with the United States goal of upgrading and expanding its tsunami detection and early warning network.

  14. Regional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Groezinger, Gerd; Matiaske, Wenzel

    2009-01-01

    Spatiality is an increasingly important dimension in the social sciences, as a new wave of recent publications shows. Intra-national comparisons have proved to be as fruitful as the better known inter-national analysis. Regional characteristics are found to have considerable influence on individual behaviour. This movement was fostered by methodological advances, e.g. in multi-level techniques. On the data side spatial analysis is supported by a good basic infrastructure in official and semio...

  15. Snakes of the Guianan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The study of snaks from the Guianan region got an early start in 1705 when several species were pictured by Merian. As relatively large proportion of the snakes described by Linnaeus originated from Surinam. Interest for and knowledge of this group of animals steadily increased in the 18th and 19th

  16. Direct single-molecule observations of local denaturation of a DNA double helix under a negative supercoil state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shunsuke; Motooka, Shinya; Usui, Tomohiro; Kawasaki, Shohei; Miyata, Hidefumi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Takeshi; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Mizuno, Akira; Oshige, Masahiko; Katsura, Shinji

    2015-03-17

    Effects of a negative supercoil on the local denaturation of the DNA double helix were studied at the single-molecule level. The local denaturation in λDNA and λDNA containing the SV40 origin of DNA replication (SV40ori-λDNA) was directly observed by staining single-stranded DNA regions with a fusion protein comprising the ssDNA binding domain of a 70-kDa subunit of replication protein A and an enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP) followed by staining the double-stranded DNA regions with YOYO-1. The local denaturation of λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA under a negative supercoil state was observed as single bright spots at the single-stranded regions. When negative supercoil densities were gradually increased to 0, -0.045, and -0.095 for λDNA and 0, -0.047, and -0.1 for SV40ori-λDNA, single bright spots at the single-stranded regions were frequently induced under higher negative supercoil densities of -0.095 for λDNA and -0.1 for SV40ori-λDNA. However, single bright spots of the single-stranded regions were rarely observed below a negative supercoil density of -0.045 and -0.047 for λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA, respectively. The probability of occurrence of the local denaturation increased with negative superhelicity for both λDNA and SV40ori-λDNA.

  17. Emplacement ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic characterization of Mesozoic to early Cenozoic granitoids of the Sikhote-Alin Orogenic Belt, Russian Far East: Crustal growth and regional tectonic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Bor-ming; Valui, Galina; Kruk, Nikolai; Gonevchuk, V.; Usuki, Masako; Wu, Jeremy T. J.

    2015-11-01

    The Sikhote-Alin Range of the Russian Far East is an important accretionary orogen of the Western Pacific Orogenic Belt. In order to study the formation and tectonic evolution of the orogen, we performed zircon U-Pb dating, as well as geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic analyses on 24 granitoid samples from various massifs in the Primorye and Khabarovsk regions. The zircon dating revealed that the granitoids were emplaced from 131 to 56 Ma (Cretaceous to Paleogene). In the Primorye Region, granitoids in the coastal Sikhote-Alin intruded the Cretaceous Taukha Accretionary Terrane from ca. 90 to 56 Ma, whereas those along the Central Sikhote-Alin Fault zone intruded the Jurassic Samarka Accretionary Terrane during ca. 110-75 Ma. The "oldest" monzogranite (131 Ma) was emplaced in the Lermontovka area of the NW Primorye Region. Granitoid massifs along the Central Sikhote-Alin Fault zone in the Khabarovsk Region formed from 109 to 58 Ma. Thus, the most important tectonothermal events in the Sikhote-Alin orogen took place in the Cretaceous. Geochemical analysis indicates that most samples are I-type granitoids. They have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7040 to 0.7083, and initial Nd isotopic ratios, expressed as εNd(t) values, from +3.0 to -5.0 (mostly 0 to -5). The data suggest that the granitoid magmas were generated by partial melting of sources with mixed lithologies, including the subducted accretionary complex ± hidden Paleozoic-Proterozoic basement rocks. Based on whole-rock Nd isotopic data, we estimated variable proportions (36-77%) of juvenile component (=mantle-derived basaltic rocks) in the generation of the granitic magmas. Furthermore, zircon Hf isotopic data (εHf(t) = 0 to +15) indicate that the zircon grains crystallized from melts of mixed sources and that crustal assimilation occurred during magmatic differentiation. The quasi-continuous magmatism in the Sikhote-Alin orogen suggests that the Paleo-Pacific plate subduction was very active in the

  18. [Identification of city areas with an urgent need for early help in Munich: presentation of a new procedure on the basis of data on regional social structures and on the health risks of newborn babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, B; Schunk, M; Lack, N; Mielck, A

    2013-10-01

    In Germany, it is forbidden by law to physically punish children or to harm them mentally. Breaking these rules can result in severe health problems for the children. Home visiting programmes for families with young children are aimed at supporting young families who are facing large social problems, and at enhancing the chances of their children to grow up in a healthy way. Maps showing the regional distribution of the need for these home visiting programmes could be an important tool for local health policy planning. They could help to focus the resources on those families who are in greatest need. The method proposed here for developing such a regional map is based on the following steps: (a) search for data that indicate the potential for child neglect, maltreatment or abuse, and that are available for each zip code in the city of Munich, Germany; (b) based on these data, calculation of a summary score that could indicate high need for these home visits; (c) grouping of the zip code areas according to this score; (d) presentation of the regional distribution in a map. After inspecting different data sources, we could identify 5 variables that could indicate the need for these home visits and that are available for each zip code: index of purchasing power, percentage of the population with low education, percentage of the population with migration background, percentage of single mothers, percentage of new-borns with low birth weight (families should be reached that are in greatest need. If it is not possible to reach all families in the community, it can be recommended to focus on city districts with a high percentage of families in greatest need. As far as we know, this is the first scientifically based method for such a definition of city districts. The method proposed here could serve as starting point, and it would be important to develop it further. It is very flexible, though, and it can easily be transferred to other cities or districts. © Georg Thieme

  19. Regional Traffic Incident Management Programs : implementation guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist organizations and their leaders in implementing and sustaining regional traffic incident management programs, both by examining some successful models, and by considering some of the lessons learned by early ...

  20. Statistical analyses for the purpose of an early detection of global and regional climate change due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect; Statistische Analysen zur Frueherkennung globaler und regionaler Klimaaenderungen aufgrund des anthropogenen Treibhauseffektes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, J.; Staeger, T.; Schoenwiese, C.D.

    2000-03-01

    The report answers the question where, why and how different climate variables have changed within the last 100 years. The analyzed variables are observed time series of temperature (mean, maximum, minimum), precipitation, air pressure, and water vapour pressure in a monthly resolution. The time series are given as station data and grid box data as well. Two kinds of time-series analysis are performed. The first is applied to find significant changes concerning mean and variance of the time series. Thereby also changes in the annual cycle and frequency of extreme events arise. The second approach is used to detect significant spatio-temporal patterns in the variations of climate variables, which are most likely driven by known natural and anthropogenic climate forcings. Furtheron, an estimation of climate noise allows to indicate regions where certain climate variables have changed significantly due to the enhanced anthropogenic greenhouse effect. (orig.) [German] Der Bericht gibt Antwort auf die Frage, wo sich welche Klimavariable wie und warum veraendert hat. Ausgangspunkt der Analyse sind huntertjaehrige Zeitreihen der Temperatur (Mittel, Maximum, Minimum), des Niederschlags, Luftdrucks und Wasserdampfpartialdrucks in monatlicher Aufloesung. Es wurden sowohl Stationsdaten als auch Gitterpunktdaten verwendet. Mit Hilfe der strukturorientierten Zeitreihenzerlegung wurden signifikankte Aenderungen im Mittel und in der Varianz der Zeitreihen gefunden. Diese betreffen auch Aenderungen im Jahresgang und in der Haeufigkeit extremer Ereignisse. Die ursachenorientierte Zeitreihenzerlegung selektiert signifikante raumzeitliche Variationen der Klimavariablen, die natuerlichen bzw. anthropogenen Klimaantrieben zugeordnet werden koennen. Eine Abschaetzung des Klimarauschens erlaubt darueber hinaus anzugeben, wo und wie signifikant der anthropogene Treibhauseffekt welche Klimavariablen veraendert hat. (orig.)

  1. Influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal Regional influence on early consumption of foods other than breast milk in infants less than 6 months of age in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras. Analisaram-se dados de 18.929 crianças da II Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno nas Capitais Brasileiras - 2008. As frequências do consumo de chá, sucos, leite artificial e mingau/papa foram calculadas para as capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras. Curvas do consumo foram obtidas pela análise de logitos e estimativas das razões de prevalência (RP por modelos de Poisson. O consumo de leite artificial foi maior quando comparado aos demais alimentos em todas as capitais. As capitais do Sul apresentaram a maior razão de prevalência para o consumo de chá (RP = 2,37 e as do Nordeste e Sudeste, para o consumo de outros tipos de leite (RP = 1,50 e 1,47 e de suco (RP = 1,57 e 1,55. Nas capitais do Nordeste, o consumo precoce de mingau/papa foi maior (RP = 3,0. A região tem influência no consumo precoce de alimentos, o que deve ser levado em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas.The aim was to assess regional influences on food consumption in infants less than six months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 18,929 infants participating in the Second Survey on Breastfeeding Prevalence in Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District in 2008. Consumption rates for tea, fruit juices, formula milk, and porridge were calculated for the State capitals from the five geographic regions of the country. Food consumption was estimated by logit analyses and Poisson models. Differences in food consumption profile were observed between the different regions: tea was more common in State capitals in the South (RP = 2.37, while non-maternal milk (RP = 1.50 and 1.47 and juices (RP = 1.57 and 1.55 were more frequent in the Northeast and Southeast, respectively. Porridge was more common in the Northeast (RP = 3.0. Brazil's geographic regions

  2. Quality of life in non-early rectal cancer treated by neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy and endoluminal loco-regional resection (ELRR) by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) versus laparoscopic total mesorectal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Paganini, Alessandro M; Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Ursi, Pietro; Bruzzone, Paolo; Picchetto, Andrea; Mattei, Fabrizio I; Lezoche, Emanuele

    2016-02-01

    In selected patients with N0 rectal cancer, endoluminal loco-regional resection (ELRR) by transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) may be an alternative treatment option to laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME). Aim of this study is to evaluate the short- and medium-term quality of life (QoL) from a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data in patients with iT2-iT3 N0-N+ rectal cancer, who underwent ELRR by TEM or LTME after neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy (n-RCT). Thirty patients with iT2-iT3 rectal cancer who underwent ELRR by TEM (n = 15) or LTME (n = 15) were enrolled in this study. The choice for one operation or the other was made on the basis of predefined criteria. QoL was evaluated by EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires at admission, after n-RCT and 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. No statistically significant differences in QoL evaluation were observed between the two groups, both at admission and after n-RCT. At 1 month after surgery, significantly better results in the ELRR group were observed by QLQ-C30 in: Nausea/Vomiting (p = 0.05), Appetite Loss (p = 0.003), Constipation (p = 0.05), and by QLQ-CR38 in: Body Image (p = 0.05), Sexual Functioning (p = 0.03), Future Perspective (p = 0.05) and Weight Loss (p = 0.036). At 6 months after surgery, a statistically significant worse impact after LTME was observed by QLQ-C30 in: Global Health Status (p = 0.05), Emotional Functioning (p = 0.021), Dyspnea (p = 0.008), Insomnia (p = 0.012), Appetite Loss (p = 0.014) and by QLQ-CR38 in Body Image (p = 0.05) and Defecation Problems (p = 0.001). At 1 year, the two groups were homogenous as assessed by QLQ-C30, whereas the QLQ-CR38 still showed better results of ELRR versus LTME in Body Image (p = 0.006), Defecation Problems (p = 0.01), and Weight Loss (p = 0.005). Based on the present series, in selected patients, earlier restoration of patients' functions is observed after ELRR by TEM than after LTME.

  3. Should regional ventilation function be considered during radiation treatment planning to prevent radiation-induced complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Fujun; Jeudy, Jean; Senan, Suresh; van Sornsen de Koste, J R; D'Souza, Warren; Tseng, Huan-Hsin; Zhou, Jinghao; Zhang, Hao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the incorporation of pretherapy regional ventilation function in predicting radiation fibrosis (RF) in stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. Thirty-seven patients with stage III NSCLC were retrospectively studied. Patients received one cycle of cisplatin-gemcitabine, followed by two to three cycles of cisplatin-etoposide concurrently with involved-field thoracic radiotherapy (46-66 Gy; 2 Gy/fraction). Pretherapy regional ventilation images of the lung were derived from 4D computed tomography via a density change-based algorithm with mass correction. In addition to the conventional dose-volume metrics (V20, V30, V40, and mean lung dose), dose-function metrics (fV20, fV30, fV40, and functional mean lung dose) were generated by combining regional ventilation and radiation dose. A new class of metrics was derived and referred to as dose-subvolume metrics (sV20, sV30, sV40, and subvolume mean lung dose); these were defined as the conventional dose-volume metrics computed on the functional lung. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) values and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate these metrics in predicting hallmark characteristics of RF (lung consolidation, volume loss, and airway dilation). AUC values for the dose-volume metrics in predicting lung consolidation, volume loss, and airway dilation were 0.65-0.69, 0.57-0.70, and 0.69-0.76, respectively. The respective ranges for dose-function metrics were 0.63-0.66, 0.61-0.71, and 0.72-0.80 and for dose-subvolume metrics were 0.50-0.65, 0.65-0.75, and 0.73-0.85. Using an AUC value = 0.70 as cutoff value suggested that at least one of each type of metrics (dose-volume, dose-function, dose-subvolume) was predictive for volume loss and airway dilation, whereas lung consolidation cannot be accurately predicted by any of the metrics. Logistic regression analyses showed that dose-function and dose

  4. Requirement for enhancer specificity in immunoglobulin heavy chain locus regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Igor I.; Bagaeva, Ludmila; Young, Faith M.; Bottaro, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The intronic Eμ enhancer has been implicated in immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus transcription, VDJ recombination, class switch recombination (CSR)2 and somatic hypermutation (SHM). How Eμ controls these diverse mechanisms is still largely unclear, but transcriptional enhancer activity is thought to play a central role. Here we compare the phenotype of mice lacking the Eμ element (ΔEμ) with that of mice in which Eμ was replaced with the ubiquitous SV40 transcriptional enhancer (SV40eR mutation), and show that SV40e cannot functionally complement Eμ loss in pro-B cells. Surprisingly, in fact, the SV40eR mutation yields a more profound defect than ΔEμ, with an almost complete block in μ0 germline transcription in pro-B cells. This active transcriptional suppression caused by enhancer replacement appears to be specific to the early stages of B cell development, as mature SV40eR B cells express μ0 transcripts at higher levels than ΔEμ mice, and undergo complete DNA demethylation at the IgH locus. These results indicate an unexpectedly stringent, developmentally-restricted requirement for enhancer specificity in regulating IgH function during the early phases of B cell differentiation, consistent with the view that coordination of multiple independent regulatory mechanisms and elements is essential for locus activation and VDJ recombination. PMID:18490744

  5. Early Historic Shipwreck Archaeology of the Indian Subcontinent Region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    ). Godawaya In ancient times Godawaya was known as Godapavata-patanaha that is mentioned in a Brahmi inscription found in Godawaya (Falk, 2001: 328) dated to the 2nd century CE (Roth, et al. 2001: 296), and in Mahavamsa the etymological identifiable term... the river is debouching in the sea at Ambalantota 3 km west of Godawaya. Along the course of Walawe River a number of ancient settlements and monasteries such as Ridiyagama, Mahanavulupura and Ramba monastic complex have been either excavated...

  6. The Early Neolithic phases of Beidha in a regional context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlott Hoffmann

    2007-01-01

    The paper is a preliminary account of the new analyses of the Beidha material and concentrates on the earliest levels from the site: the pre-architectural levels as well as a sample of material from Phase A1 buildings. A contextual analysis of some of the phase A1 buildings is introduced and the ...

  7. Investigation of the Early Time Resonance Region Scattering Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    hn ( z Fi ai(- 2jz ) imo n (2) n+l exp(-jz) a2 hn (Z) - j ex . ai ( 2jz )’i i-0 and (n + i)a I =i(n- ) For each n , Eqs. 2.4a and 2.4b can be expanded...1975, University of Illinois, Department of Elec- trical Engineering . Ref.-2 APPEN4DIX A POLE SERIES REPRESETATIOtNS OF AN EXPON4ENTIAL Here it is shown

  8. Analysis of regional climate strategies in the Barents region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, S.; Inkeroeinen, J.; Latola, K.; Vaisanen, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    2012-11-15

    Climate change is a global phenomenon with especially harsh effects on the Arctic and northern regions. The Arctic's average temperature has risen at almost twice the rate as elsewhere in the past few decades. Since 1966, the Arctic land area covered by snow in early summer has shrunk by almost a fifth. The Barents Region consists of the northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia (i.e. the European part of Russia). Climate change will cause serious impacts in the Barents Region because of its higher density of population living under harsh climatic conditions, thus setting it apart from other Arctic areas. In many cases, economic activities, like tourism, rely on certain weather conditions. For this reason, climate change and adaptation to it is of special urgency for the region. Regional climate change strategies are important tools for addressing mitigation and adaptation to climate change as they can be used to consolidate the efforts of different stakeholders of the public and private sectors. Regional strategies can be important factors in achieving the national and international goals. The study evaluated how the national climate change goals were implemented in the regional and local strategies and programmes in northern Finland. The specific goal was to describe the processes by which the regional strategies were prepared and implemented, and how the work was expanded to include the whole of northern Finland. Finally, the Finnish preparatory processes were compared to case examples of processes for preparing climate change strategies elsewhere in the Barents Region. This analysis provides examples of good practices in preparing a climate change strategy and implementing it. (orig.)

  9. Neuronal protein gene product 9.5 (IEF SSP 6104) is expressed in cultured human MRC-5 fibroblasts of normal origin and is strongly down-regulated in their SV40 transformed counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vandekerckhove, J

    1991-01-01

    of proteins recovered from 2D gels we have identified PGP 9.5 UCH-L1 as polypeptide IEF SSP 6104 (Mr = 27,000, pI = 5.49) in the comprehensive 2D gel cellular protein database of human embryonal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts [(1989) Electrophoresis 10, 76 115; (1990) Electrophoresis 11, 1072 1113]. This protein...

  10. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  11. Gender and Early Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeidl, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the introduction of gender into early warning will lead to more practical, realistic and usable early warning approaches, especially if early warning is understood as a flexible system that is sensitive to the diverse situations or on the ground necessitating customised solution. A gender-sensitive approach can enhance early warning models in their basic assumption (what we consider as important or not and the questions we are asking), in their modelling (incorporating ...

  12. Early rehabilitation after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhardt, Julie; Godeckeb, Erin; Johnson, Liam; Langhorne, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: \\ud Early rehabilitation is recommended in many guidelines, with limited evidence to guide practice. Brain\\ud neurobiology suggests that early training, at the right dose, will aid recovery. In this review, we highlight\\ud recent trials of early mobilization, aphasia, dysphagia and upper limb treatment in which intervention is\\ud commenced within 7 days of stroke and discuss future research directions.\\ud Recent findings: \\ud Trials in this early time window are few. Althou...

  13. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  14. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  15. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  16. Early successional forest habitats and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Vose; Chelcy Ford

    2011-01-01

    Tree harvests that create early successional habitats have direct and indirect impacts on water resources in forests of the Central Hardwood Region. Streamflow increases substantially immediately after timber harvest, but increases decline as leaf area recovers and biomass aggrades. Post-harvest increases in stormflow of 10–20%, generally do not contribute to...

  17. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia...

  18. Emotional Intersections in Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Nikki A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use qualitative research methods to explore the emotional experiences of three early childhood education leaders directing diverse programs in the Rocky Mountain Region. Application of a poststructural theoretical framework was completed to better understand how leaders' emotion was performed within social and…

  19. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  20. Employment growth and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rikard; Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the potential drivers behind uneven regional development in the context of employment growth in Denmark and Sweden. In particular, we are interested in the roles of urbanization, industrial change and the rise of the new economy as manifested in the growth of the two economies...... in 2002–2007. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to analyse the impact of a number of key industrial sectors on regional employment growth in the two countries. The empirical analysis is based on longitudinal matched employer–employee data retrieved from official registers in each economy from 2002...... to 2007, a period of strong national growth following the crisis of early 2000. Our findings indicate that the two economies follow a similar pattern in addressing total employment growth; but looking at changes in employment levels across the national borders of these two relatively similar open...

  1. Early juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzan, Katherine Anne B; Shaham, Bracha

    2012-05-01

    Early juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is important to recognize as timely diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis. It is a misconception that complications of JIA arise only from long-standing disease and that children will outgrow it. Early aggressive treatment is the paradigm as early disease activity has long-term consequences. There are predictors of persistent disease and joint erosions that may identify patients at higher risk. Control of disease activity within the first 6 months of onset confers improved clinical course and outcomes. The treatment perspective is thus one of early aggressive treatment for induction of disease control and ultimately remission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  3. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  4. Molecular analysis of the murine C4b-binding protein gene. Chromosome assignment and partial gene organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barum, Scott B; Kristensen, Torsten; Chaplin, David D

    1989-01-01

    the nonrepeat and untranslated region spans approximately 12 kb; however, genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that the gene is between 20 and 30 kb in length. Analysis of the 3' genomic sequence demonstrates that this region of the gene has homology with SV-40 late (class II) RNA sequences....

  5. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The concept of cross-border regional innovation systems (CBRIS) surfaced in the literature on economic geography through discourses that highlighted the need of broadening innovation systems to cross-border contexts. Since these early discussions, the theoretical backgrounds of CBRIS have been...... elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration....

  6. Early Marriage in Africa – Trends, Harmful Effects and Interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a ...

  7. Early marriage in Africa–trends, harmful effects and interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    2012-06-16

    Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper ...

  8. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  9. Automatic thoracic body region localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, PeiRui; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, YuBing; Xie, ShiPeng; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Radiological imaging and image interpretation for clinical decision making are mostly specific to each body region such as head & neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and extremities. For automating image analysis and consistency of results, standardizing definitions of body regions and the various anatomic objects, tissue regions, and zones in them becomes essential. Assuming that a standardized definition of body regions is available, a fundamental early step needed in automated image and object analytics is to automatically trim the given image stack into image volumes exactly satisfying the body region definition. This paper presents a solution to this problem based on the concept of virtual landmarks and evaluates it on whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. The method first selects a (set of) reference object(s), segments it (them) roughly, and identifies virtual landmarks for the object(s). The geometric relationship between these landmarks and the boundary locations of body regions in the craniocaudal direction is then learned through a neural network regressor, and the locations are predicted. Based on low-dose unenhanced CT images of 180 near whole-body PET/CT scans (which includes 34 whole-body PET/CT scans), the mean localization error for the boundaries of superior of thorax (TS) and inferior of thorax (TI), expressed as number of slices (slice spacing ≍ 4mm)), and using either the skeleton or the pleural spaces as reference objects, is found to be 3,2 (using skeleton) and 3, 5 (using pleural spaces) respectively, or in mm 13, 10 mm (using skeleton) and 10.5, 20 mm (using pleural spaces), respectively. Improvements of this performance via optimal selection of objects and virtual landmarks and other object analytics applications are currently being pursued. and the skeleton and pleural spaces used as a reference objects

  10. A Nation at the Periphery: Libyan Regionalism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    article places the current Libyan conflict in historical perspective by focusing on the dynamics between the country’s two main regions ( Tripolitania ...early colonial period has much to tell us about the relationship between Libya‟s two main regions, Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. Without at least a...region was known as Tripolitania while its eastern region was called Cyrenaica. The bulk of Libya‟s population is concentrated along the coasts of these

  11. Jamaica on Early Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richason, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Columbus sighted Jamaica during his second voyage and was marooned there for more than a year during his fourth. The succession of early maps of Jamaica betrays its slow development and its unimportance to early colonizers. Modern tourism is the elusive "gold" which the Spanish fortune hunters did not find. (CS)

  12. Early detection of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T. K.; Melle, I.; Auestad, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decades we have seen a new focus on early treatment of psychosis. Several reviews have shown that duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is correlated to better outcome. However, it is still unknown whether early treatment will lead to a better long-term outcome. This st...

  13. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  14. Waterford Early Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  15. Rethinking Early Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) says in its current policy paper that, for high-quality early education to exist outside of tiny islands across the country, the following must be addressed: (1) teacher preparation; (2) ongoing professional learning; and (3) disparity in early education teacher pay. To achieve…

  16. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 1, which is comprised of Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and H...

  17. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents in Molecular Biology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-17

    PADPRP has been introduced into the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe under the transcriptional control of the SV40 early promoter. A number of haploid...cleave the Ub-PADPRP Junction. HUMAN POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE IS FUNCTIONAL IN SC.=OSACCHAROMYCES POMBE (MS IN PREP.) The full length cDNA for human

  18. Generation of a synthetic mammalian promoter library by modification of sequences spacing transcription factor binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Jens; Kusk, P.; Johansen, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    The development of a set of synthetic mammalian promoters with different specific activities is described. The library is based on a synthetic promoter, JeT, constructed as a 200 bp chimeric promoter built from fragments of the viral SV40 early promoter and the human beta-actin and ubiquitin C pr...

  19. Californian Genius: Lewis Terman's Gifted Child in Regional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, Clémentine

    2016-01-01

    This article pays attention to the regional embeddedness of early research on giftedness, looking principally at the works of Lewis Terman and his peers, between the 1910s and 1930s. The rhetoric, ideology, and aesthetics of giftedness in those early works were, I argue, stamped by the context and imaginary of Progressive-Era California and shaped…

  20. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  1. Regional Alternative Transportation Evaluation, Region 6

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Region 6 (Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming) RATE found that visitors to many stations enjoy activities that...

  2. Early Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  3. Early stage colon cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2013-01-01

    .... After resection of malignant pedunculated colon polyps or early stage colon cancers, long-term repeated surveillance programs can also lead to detection and removal of asymptomatic high risk advanced...

  4. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... inside of your baby's mouth healthy and prevents tooth decay. If you are bottle-feeding your baby: Give babies, ages newborn to ...

  5. Early warning scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    A free app available from the Apple App Store is aimed at supporting health professionals in Wales to use the National Early Warning Score (NEWS). The tool helps staff identify patients who are developing serious illness.

  6. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  7. Overview of Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eligible babies and toddlers learn the basic and brand-new skills that typically develop during the first ... Services in Natural Environments Transition to Preschool Public Awareness & the Referral System Early Intervention, Then and Now ...

  8. Guideline for Early Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vries, de, Maaike

    2006-01-01

    .... During the last years, the demand for early interventions has been increasing. International literature has shown that the psychosocial effects of disaster and military deployment may last for years...

  9. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  10. Embracing early literacy indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik; Jensen, Anders Skriver

    2010-01-01

    Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres.......Abstract til paper om early literacy indikatorer. Det paper abstractet er knyttet til var en del af et inviteret, selvorganiseret symposium som afrapporterede EASE-projektet (www.ease-eu.com) på OMEP's 26. verdenskongres....

  11. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires.

  12. Local, Regional or Global?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    to be consistent with models of internationalization that incorporate different assumptions about strategic choice and global competition. Preliminary results show that large multinationals follow home region oriented internationalization paths, although much of the regional effect reported by previous studies...

  13. CONCEPTS OF REGIONALIZATION, REGIONAL SUBSYSTEMS, REGIONAL COMPLEXES AND REGIONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CONTEMPORARY IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei D. Voskressenski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article examines theoretical aspects of regional dimension in international relations and the ways to apply in practice the results of world politics’ analysis from the viewpoint of regional and macro-regional levels. It also considers the key discussion points on regions and macro-regions in the world and Russian research literature. The author concludes that this is exactly the new IR concepts of regional level which should become the prototype of original Russian regional and country studies. These studies need to have a higher degree of theoretical conceptualization of regional level as their basis. Such an approach will enable the researchers to draw deep and unconventional conclusions of practical use especially as far as the non-Western parts of the world which are traditionally less examined by Western researchers, theorists and practitioners are concerned.

  14. Regional planning handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Regional Transportation Planning is long-range (20+ years), area-wide, and involves federal, state, regional, and local agencies; Native American Tribal Governments, public entities, private and community based organizations, and individuals working ...

  15. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod

    2006-01-01

    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  16. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify...

  17. Regional disparities in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Czabán, Vera

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, exacerbating regional disparities in the European Union as well as the newly joined Eastern European states have led to a growing interest in examining the spatial embeddedness of development. Hungary, a small and very monocentric country, has experienced rapid growth in the region of its capital city and its surrounding, whereas formerly lagging regions continued to fall behind. This thesis examines growing regional disparities in Hungary in order to provide a more compr...

  18. Regional manpower planning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Erens; P. Salamink; C.A. Van der Merwe CA

    2003-01-01

    Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is b...

  19. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia....... Focusing on a crucial period of global history that has been neglected in the field of International Relations, the book reveals profound differences between the early modern era and the more familiar colonial conquests of the second half of the nineteenth century. It will be interest to students......, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and Russia to explore patterns of cross-cultural exchange and civilizational encounters. The authors analyze a series of regional international orders which were primarily defined by local interests, agendas and institutions, with European interlopers often playing...

  20. Sensitivity of simian virus 40-transformed C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts to lysis by murine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Karjalainen, H E; Tevethia, S S

    1987-02-15

    The susceptibility of mouse cells expressing full-length or truncated transforming protein (T antigen) of simian virus 40 (SV40) to lysis by murine natural killer (NK) cells was assessed. For these studies, C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts (B6/MEF) were transformed by transfection with SV40 DNA encoding the entire T antigen. The transformed cell lines were tested for susceptibility to lysis by nonimmune CBA splenocytes as a source of NK cells and to lysis by C57BL/6, SV40-specific cytolytic T cells (CTL). It was found that 13 of 15 clonally derived, SV40-transformed H-2b cell lines were susceptible to lysis by NK cells. However, there was some variation in their susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. There was no correlation between susceptibility to lysis by SV40-specific CTL and to lysis by NK cells. Cells transfected with a plasmid which encodes only the N-terminal half of the SV40 T antigen were consistently less susceptible to lysis by NK cells, suggesting that expression of only the N-terminus of the T antigen was insufficient for optimal susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed by human adenovirus type 5 E1 region DNA were also found to be susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. Lysis of SV40-transformed cells by nonimmune CBA splenocytes was mediated by NK cells because: lysis was augmented when the effector cells were treated with interferon before assay; and lysis was abrogated when the effector cells were obtained from mice that had been depleted of NK activity by treatment with antiserum against the asialo GM1 surface marker. These results indicate that primary mouse cells which are transformed by SV40 and which express the native T antigen are susceptible to lysis by mouse NK cells. Conversely, cells transformed by a plasmid encoding only the N-terminal half of the T antigen express reduced susceptibility to lysis by NK cells.

  1. Malignant transformation in a defined genetic background: proteome changes displayed by 2D-PAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogiatzi Fotini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer arises from normal cells through the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations. Cancer development can be studied by direct genetic manipulation within experimental models of tumorigenesis. Thereby, confusion by the genetic heterogeneity of patients can be circumvented. Moreover, identification of the critical changes that convert a pre-malignant cell into a metastatic, therapy resistant tumor cell, however, is one necessary step to develop effective and selective anti-cancer drugs. Thus, for the current study a cell culture model for malignant transformation was used: Primary human fibroblasts of the BJ strain were sequentially transduced with retroviral vectors encoding the genes for hTERT (cell line BJ-T, simian virus 40 early region (SV40 ER, cell line BJ-TE and H-Ras V12 (cell line BJ-TER. Results The stepwise malignant transformation of human fibroblasts was analyzed on the protein level by differential proteome analysis. We observed 39 regulated protein spots and therein identified 67 different proteins. The strongest change of spot patterns was detected due to integration of SV40 ER. Among the proteins being significantly regulated during the malignant transformation process well known proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA as well as the chaperones mitochondrial heat shock protein 75 kDa (TRAP-1 and heat shock protein HSP90 were identified. Moreover, we find out, that TRAP-1 is already up-regulated by means of SV40 ER expression instead of H-Ras V12. Furthermore Peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6, Annexin A2 (p36, Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI-2 and Keratin type II cytoskeletal 7 (CK-7 were identified to be regulated. For some protein candidates we confirmed our 2D-PAGE results by Western Blot. Conclusion These findings give further hints for intriguing interactions between the p16-RB pathway, the mitochondrial chaperone network and the cytoskeleton. In summary, using a cell culture model for malignant

  2. Assessing the accuracy of a regional land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Clerke; Raymond Czaplewski; Jeff Campbell; Janet Fahringer

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Region USDA Forest Service recently completed the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The Assessment is a broad scale interagency analysis and sharing of existing information relative to the natural and human resources of the region. The SAA encompasses over 36 million acres extending from Northern Virginia to Northern Alabama. It was clear early in the...

  3. Regional integration and development in Africa: Between the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since independence in the late 50s and early 60s, regional integration in Africa has been identified as an important strategy for the acceleration of development in the continent. The reality of the post-Cold War international economic world order also stimulates the intensification and fine-tuning of existing regional ...

  4. Constructing Regional advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asheim, Bjørn T.; Boschma, Ron; Cooke, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary sect...... economic development within and between regions in action lines appropriate to incorporate the basic principles behind related variety and differentiated knowledge bases.......This paper presents a regional innovation policy model based on the idea of constructing regional advantage. This policy model brings together concepts like related variety, knowledge bases and policy platforms. Related variety attaches importance to knowledge spillovers across complementary...

  5. Local resection of early rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the National Danish screening programme for colorectal cancer will result in the detection of more early rectal cancers (ERC), which may be considered for local excision. For the low risk≤T1 cancer, the oncological outcome at local excision in smaller patient series has shown......, where rescue surgery may be considered. The establishment of a regional or national clinical database is necessary to improve the local treatment of ERC....

  6. Early diagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Debeljak

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the detection of premalignant changes of bronchial mucosa and early stages of lung cancer frequent chest X-ray, spiral low dose computed tomography, fluorescence bronchoscopy, sputum cytology (also with automated systems with genetic and molecular changes in the sputum cells and bronchial mucosa were used. These screening methods of the high-risk groups for lung cancer achieved: earlier diagnosis of lung cancer in lower stage, higher operability, longer 5-year survival, but without mortality reduction.Conclusions: In the clinical practice we can examine higher risk groups for lung cancer in randomised control trials with multimodality approach: frequent chest low-dose fast spiral computed tomography, sputum cytology with genetic and molecular examinations and fluorescence bronchoscopy. Smoking cessation remains the best means to achieve mortality reduction from lung cancer.

  7. Complex regional pain syndrome underdiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 may be diagnosed by history and physical exam with no further testing. Several different diagnostic criteria have undergone validity testing: the 1993 IASP criteria, Bruehl's criteria, and Veldman's criteria; there is no compelling reason to recommend 1 set of criteria over the others. Some cases of CRPS type 1 may be preventable. Some cases of CRPS type 1 in post-stroke upper extremity hemiplegia (also known as shoulder-hand syndrome) may be prevented by early inpatient rehabilitation and avoidance of shoulder trauma to the affected arm. Some cases of post-fracture CRPS type 1 may be prevented with 500 mg vitamin C daily started upon diagnosis of fracture and continued through healing.

  8. The Environment of Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yo

    2013-12-01

    A hydrologic routing model was applied to the Noachian cratered highlands to establish the climatic conditions required to maintain lakes and valley networks on early Mars. We used the ratio of precipitation and evaporation (the X-ratio) to express climatic conditions. Simulations were conducted using various X-ratios. The results from the lake analysis showed that many of the lakes that were not identified as overflowing probably overflowed as well. Because overflowing lakes can place constrain on possible climatic condition of early Mars, it is essential to identify as many overflowing craters as possible to understand the environment of early Mars. The multiple regression analyses indicate that incision depth is strongly influenced by gradient and weakly related to discharge. The factors determining incision depend partly on the type of channel bed. However, post-flow modification of the valleys precludes direct determination of bed morphology. We found through both lake and incision depth analysis that climatic conditions on early Mars were at least as moist as those that occurred in the Great Basin region during the Pleistocene (X ≤ 4). We also report on two studies motivated by the occurrence of sinuous paleochannels on Mars. Unconfined meanders require cohesive channel banks, which is obtained commonly by a vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment load. The Quinn River, Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through lacustrine sediments resulting in the river having both bed and banks composed of sediment containing at least 40% mud. In addition, ion chromatography data and SEM images indicate the presence of high solute concentrations. In the absence of vegetation, bank cohesion is provided by mud with salts aiding flocculation and possibly providing additional cohesion through cementation. A 1D depth-averaged linearized meander evolution model was calibrated using the field data collected at the Quinn River. Both approaches gave similar

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagnosing CRPS can be difficult, but early diagnosis is very important. The doctor will take a medical history and do a physical examination. Other tests may include: A test to show temperature changes and lack ...

  10. A Comparison of the Beliefs and Priorities of Early Intervention Providers and the Families They Serve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, James E.

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the perceptions and beliefs held by parents of children, aged three to five years, receiving early intervention to those of early interventionists. The participants included parents whose children were receiving early intervention provided by a regional education services agency in Southeastern Pennsylvania and the…

  11. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  12. Gamma rays from star-forming regions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Romero

    2008-01-01

    Star-forming regions have been tentatively associated with gamma-ray sources since the early days of the COS B satellite. After the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, the statistical evidence for such an association has became overwhelming. Recent results from Cherenkov telescopes indicate that some high-energy sources are produced in regions of active star formation like Cygnus OB2 and Westerlund 2. In this paper I will briefly review what kind of stellar objects can produce gamma-ray emission i...

  13. Introduction to "Early psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGorry, Patrick; Nordentoft, Merete; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Early intervention in psychiatry has taken a long time to emerge as a key strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality. In other fields of medicine it has received consistent support and great efforts are expended to educate the public about the value of early diagnosis and the benefits of timely...... intervention. There is finally substantial momentum behind similar endeavours in psychotic disorders, which, now they have reached "proof of concept" stage, could begin to be extended across the spectrum of serious mental disorders. There is also ambivalence and resistance to this evidence-based reform which...

  14. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine...... for considerable cultural and economic continuity rather than devastation and unrelenting decline. Much new, and increasingly non-elite, architectural evidence and an ever-growing corpus of material culture indicate that Syria-Palestine entered a new age of social richness in the early Islamic period, even...

  15. Early life vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazerai, Loulieta; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria

    2016-01-01

    the first period of life and provide a pertinent alternative in infant vaccinology. To address this, infant mice were vaccinated with three different adenoviral vectors and the CD8+ T-cell response after early life vaccination was explored. We assessed the frequency, polyfunctionality and in vivo...... cytotoxicity of the elicited memory CD8+ T cells, as well as the potential of these cells to respond to secondary infections and confer protection. We further tested the impact of maternal immunity against our replication-deficient adenoviral vector during early life vaccination. Overall, our results indicate...

  16. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in the fingerprint region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Uffe Visbech; Petersen, Christian Rosenberg; Kubat, Irnis

    The mid-infrared spectral region is of great technical and scientific interest because most molecules display fundamental vibrational absorptions in this region, leaving distinctive spectral fingerprints. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that launching intense ultra-short pulses with a central...... the potential of fibres to emit across the mid-infrared molecular fingerprint region, which is of key importance for applications such as early cancer diagnostics, gas sensing and food quality control....

  17. Features of integrative process in formation of the Arctic region

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Kharlampeva

    2013-01-01

    Features of integrative process in formation of the Arctic region Nadezhda Kharlampieva, Saint-Petersburg State University Article is devoted to the Arctic - the new region of contemporary international relations system where global issues of world politics are solved. Discussion around the Arctic in the early 21st century can be characterized within four policy-academic thesis formulated by contemporary development and 'open region' concepts. From the view point of world political analysis, ...

  18. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  19. Regional Stability & Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    It seems that regional decision makers during the last two decades has been unable to produce a sustainable peacebuilding plan for the region and it is questionable whether any remarkable change will occur in the near future. Some would argue that the political differences are simply too far apart...... for an all-inclusive regional peacebuilding plan. The cultural, ethnic, and historically determined tensions are too many and too strong, and regional peacebuilding in a top-down approach can be viewed as a Gordian knot. Politicians from the states in the region have already faced, and will most definitely...... to the process of peacebuilding, this could prove as a useful tool, and for this reason politicians, officials, and persons in general with an interest in this region will benefit from the perspectives presented here....

  20. Physically based landslide warning at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Mergili, Martin; Glade, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Albeit advancements in the past within the field of geotechnical engineering have led to an increasing in situ damage control in many parts of the world, heavy rainstorms still cause severe damage by triggering landslides. Landslides are usually restricted to the local scale when taking into consideration single events, however, they often tend to occur spatially abundant which makes them a regional phenomenon. This makes the necessity of regional-scale early warning systems (EWS) indispensable. When dealing with landslide EWS, it is impossible to cover all potential early warning situations. Although the calculation of rainfall thresholds is the most common approach for assessing regional landslide early warning, they only represent a simplification of the physical processes involved. In most cases, indeed, there is more than just this one causative factor involved. Here, we present an early prototype for a regional, physically based landslide EWS driven by real-time spatio-temporal rainfall data. Instead of assuming uniform rainfall over a certain area, an automated geostatistical approach is suggested which allows approximating real-time spatially distributed, hourly rainfall predictions based on gauged rainfall data available on the internet. The methodology presented in this study is especially suitable for the implementation in warning systems that contain predefined thresholds and for landslides related to a progressive increase of soil saturation and/or a rising groundwater table. The transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based slope stability (TRIGRS) model is used in a modified way to compute transient pore-pressure changes and associated changes in the factor of safety due to rainfall infiltration. The geotechnical properties involved are probabilistically integrated within certain predefined ranges to account for the inherent spatial uncertainties. The result is an automatically generated probability of failure raster map that is updated hourly based

  1. The Femarnbelt Tunnel: Regional Development Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Lundhus, Peter

    2011-01-01

    structures (bridges/ tunnels) spanning international waterways. They concentrate traffic flows and create strong transport corridors and are the basis of new regional development regimes. In early 2011, following almost two years of extensive work on different conceptual designs for the fixed link...... it was decided that an immersed tunnel should form the basis for the continuous planning of the project, including the environmental impact studies. Completion of the link is scheduled for 2020...

  2. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  3. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Early Learning AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of public..., is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and development, families..., researchers of early learning, stakeholders who work with early learning and development for young children...

  4. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  5. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  6. European Regional Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Brian Canizaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, beginning with the publication in 2003 of Liane Lefaivre and Alexander Tzonis’ 'Critical Regionalism', followed by my 'Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity and Tradition 'in 2007, there has been a quiet resurgence in the discourse of architectural regionalism.' 'Leuven University Press’s 'Regionalism and Modernity: Architecture in Western Europe 1914–1940 'continues in this direction, with eleven chapters devoted to variations of the regionalist tendency in European architecture focused primarily on Belgium and France, but also Great Britain, Italy, and Germany.

  7. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  8. Regional manpower planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Erens

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Particular problems come to the fore when planning development at the regional level. These range from the complexities of the multifarious interactions between the sect oral and local components of the region to the necessity of achieving extensive participation of regional stakeholders in the planning process. In this paper a methodology for regional manpower planning is proposed. The methodology is designed to accommodate the full range of problems by applying a systems approach which is based on the disciplines of operations research and strategic planning.

  9. Approaching Regional Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Shah, Ali; Kazmi, Atia

    The report contains ideas on enhanced cooperation on both security and economy. It is a particular relevant read for regional political decision makers, institutions, private companies, and researchers that wish to gain insight into the present and future political and economic developments...... of Afghan-Pakistani relations and to the region in general. Military institutions, officers and officials facing deployment in the region as well as universities and scholars with ongoing research and programmes in the region will also benefit from output of the stabilization project that this report...

  10. Styringskapaciteten i regional arbejdsmarkedspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte

    This book discovers the potential in regional labour market policy. It raises the question whether the regional labour market councils seek for and follows deliberative proces norms when they formulate the regional policy, and the more theoretical question about whether corporatism is compatible...... with deliberative proces norms at all. The conclusion is that if certain circumstances are fullfilled such as 1) competence to decide the policy, 2) trust from the central level and 3) an orientation towards a regional identity then there actually exists an institutional basis for deliberation....

  11. Creativity: The Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  12. Teaching polymorphism early

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Is it possible to teach dynamic polymorphism early? What techniques could facilitate teaching it in Java. This panel will bring together people who have considered this question and attempted to implement it in various ways, some more completely than others. It will also give participants...

  13. Early hominin auditory capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G; Thackeray, J Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-09-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats.

  14. Prenatal depression: Early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryl A; Lieser, Carol

    2015-07-15

    Frequently undiagnosed and untreated, prenatal depression affects approximately one in four childbearing women. Screening and appropriate management is essential to prevent adverse consequences to both the woman and her unborn infant. Early conversations between the woman and her nurse practitioner are essential to making medical management decisions.

  15. Early Developments in Crystallography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    molecules to treat different diseases, make materials of desired properties and attempt to understand unknown territories far away from the Earth such as the exploration of the surface of. Mars. In this article, we will try to trace the early historical events in the development of X-ray crystallography, and the Indian contributions ...

  16. Early Mover Advantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Maasland (Emiel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyze empirically whether and if so to what extent later entrants in the European mobile telephony industry have a disadvantage vis-à-vis incumbents and early mover entrants. To analyze this question we consider a series of static models and a dynamic model of market

  17. Early Childhood--Love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sylvia

    1976-01-01

    If children are to love themselves and others, they must experience love early. And they need to be taught the value of love, since it tends to fall victim to other lesser emotions. Provides suggestions for helping young children to grow in love. (Author/RK)

  18. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  19. Early hominin auditory capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Rosa, Manuel; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Lorenzo, Carlos; de Ruiter, Darryl J.; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo; Conde Valverde, Mercedes; Jarabo, Pilar; Menter, Colin G.; Thackeray, J. Francis; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sensory capacities in past life forms have offered new insights into their adaptations and lifeways. Audition is particularly amenable to study in fossils because it is strongly related to physical properties that can be approached through their skeletal structures. We have studied the anatomy of the outer and middle ear in the early hominin taxa Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus and estimated their auditory capacities. Compared with chimpanzees, the early hominin taxa are derived toward modern humans in their slightly shorter and wider external auditory canal, smaller tympanic membrane, and lower malleus/incus lever ratio, but they remain primitive in the small size of their stapes footplate. Compared with chimpanzees, both early hominin taxa show a heightened sensitivity to frequencies between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz and an occupied band of maximum sensitivity that is shifted toward slightly higher frequencies. The results have implications for sensory ecology and communication, and suggest that the early hominin auditory pattern may have facilitated an increased emphasis on short-range vocal communication in open habitats. PMID:26601261

  20. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  1. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  2. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal whe...

  3. Early intervention in psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csillag, Claudio; Nordentoft, Merete; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges to their implementa......AIM: Early intervention in psychosis (EIP) is a well-established approach with the intention of early detection and treatment of psychotic disorders. Its clinical and economic benefits are well documented. This paper presents basic aspects of EIP services, discusses challenges...... implemented EIP services into the mental healthcare system have generated evidence, concepts and specific strategies that might serve as guidance or inspiration in other countries or systems where EIP is less well developed or not developed at all. Previous experience has made clear that evidence of clinical...... benefits alone is not enough to promote implementation, as economic arguments and political and social pressure have shown to be important elements in efforts to achieve implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Users' narratives, close collaboration with community organizations and support from policy-makers and known...

  4. Regional Size, Wealth and EU Regional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pavía

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los fondos de convergencia tienen como objetivo estimular el crecimiento de las regiones menos desarrolladas dentro de la Unión Europea. Para que una región pueda ser elegida debe ser catalogada como NUTS-2. Sin embargo, como es bien conocido, el valor que toma cualquier variable no es independiente de la escala espacial (y temporal utilizada. El objetivo de este artículo es mostrar la gran sensibilidad que muestra el criterio utilizado en la UE para seleccionar regiones de convergencia y evaluar el impacto que tendría en la distribución del presupuesto entre los diferentes países la utilización de una división territorial diferente.

  5. macro-regional, local y micro- regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se propone analizar las implicaciones del desarrollo en los niveles macro-regional, local y micro- regional, a partir de la hipótesis central de la teoría del desarrollo que plantea que el desarrollo económico traerá consigo el desarrollo político y social. Después de hacer de un acercamiento conceptual al desarrollo, se repasan brevemente las teorías del desarrollo existentes como herramientas de análisis de la realidad. En la discusión se concluye que los procesos de desarrollo locales y regionales requieren de una transformación sustancial de las relaciones negociadas entre los agentes económicos y los actores políticos. Ante el paulatino retroceso que en las sociedades contemporáneas está teniendo el Estado de bienestar, uno de los principales retos es el empoderamiento de las organizaciones sociales y comunitarias para que desempeñen activamente su rol en los procesos de desarrollo local y regional.

  6. Tourism of Khmelnytskyi region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Шоробура

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of tourism in Khmelnytskyi region, its priority areas, types, including cultural-educational, environmental, sportrecreative and others have been revealed in the article. The basic tasks of tourism development in the region, aimed at the formation and protection of the tourism-recreational sector, market of competitive services, attraction of maximum number of tourists to the region, etc. have been cleared out. The attention is focused on the main tourist potential of Khmelnytskyi region, including National Nature Park «Podilski Tovtry», National historical-cultural nature reserve «Kamianets», «Samchyky», Medzhybizh regional historical-ethnographic museum-fortress, sanatorium-resort facilities based on mineral waters and others. The attention is paid to the increase in income from tourism. Traditional hospitality of the population of the region, especially in rural areas, provides the possibility to combine tourists’ accommodation with the study of rural customs and traditions directly in the villages. Tourism in Khmelnytskyi region will be attractive to all tourists who want to eat healthy food, to stay outdoors and enjoy the beauty of the region. Also the article tells us about the development of other directions and familiarizes tourists with other enticements of Khmelnytskyi region using the positive brand of Kamianets-Podilskyi. All three potential areas of tourism development (historical tourism in Kamianets-Podilskyi, recreational tourism on rivers, lakes and in the forests, as well as rural tourism can be combined within the global promotion of nature and traditions of the region. It is indicated that Khmelnytskyi is a promising tourist region of Ukraine. The main problems of the region are inadequate tourism infrastructure, accommodation facilities, food and roads. The experience of the tourism cluster «Oberih» (Protective Charm proves the perspectives of agritourism. Developing these two areas together, we

  7. Latent BK virus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, P; Rotola, A; de Lellis, L; Corallini, A; Secchiero, P; Albini, A; Benelli, R; Parravicini, C; Barbanti-Brodano, G; Cassai, E

    1996-06-11

    We have analyzed by PCR skin lesions from classic, endemic and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), as well as from KS-derived cell lines, the presence of ubiquitous transforming viruses. BK virus (BKV), a transforming human papovavirus which has been associated with human tumors, was detected in 100% of KS skin lesions and 75% of KS cell lines. KS specimens contained a full-length, intact BKV early region, but minor rearrangements were observed in some tumors. BKV was also detected with a high prevalence (57-67%) in genital tissues and sperm, thus fulfilling the role of a sexually transmitted agent in KS. The closely related JC virus (JCV), which has never been associated with human malignancies, was present in 11-20% of KS specimens and was detected with a low prevalence (0-21%) in genital tissues and sperm. Simian virus 40 (SV40) was not detected in any KS lesions. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA sequences were detected in 20-25% of KS lesions. Malignant human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 and benign HPV types 6 and 11 were detected in KS specimens with a similar prevalence of 11-83%, suggesting that the presence of HPV-transforming sequences is not a specific trait of HPV interaction with KS tissue. Furthermore, JCV, SV40, HSV and HPV DNA sequences were not detected in KS cell lines, suggesting that these viruses are not associated to KS neoplastic cells in KS tissue. KS cell lines were also negative for DNA sequences of KS-HV, the novel herpesvirus detected in primary KS lesions. The constant association of BKV DNA with KS lesions and KS cell lines suggests that BKV-transforming functions may participate in the development of KS.

  8. Regional Governance Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Dijkstra, Lewis; Lapuente, Victor

    2014-01-01

    high-performing regions in Italy and Spain (for example, Bolzano, País Vasco) rank amongst the best European Union regions, others perform well below the European Union average. The index is highly correlated with sub-national levels of socio-economic development and levels of social trust, yet...

  9. Global, Local, or Regional?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Alain; Geisler Asmussen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the main insights arising from the ‘regional strategy’ literature. It also develops the contours of a new, rich research agenda for future international strategy scholarship, whereby the region should be introduced as an explicit, third geographic level of analy...

  10. Introduction - regional monitoring programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Hutto; C. John Ralph

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the initiation of regional or statewide monitoring programs that are less extensive than national efforts such as the Breeding Bird Survey. A number of regional programs have been in existence for a decade or more, so the papers in this section represented an effort to bring together the collective experience of the people who had...

  11. The Scandinavian regional model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Lidström, Anders; Røiseland, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This article maps how the sub-national regional levels of governance in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have changed from a high degree of institutional convergence to a pattern of institutional divergence. It analyses the similarities and differences in the changes in regional governance and discusse...

  12. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  13. Bridging regional innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2013-01-01

    to assess the progress of integration in the regions, as well as the effect of cross-border innovation policies. Consequently, important questions are left unanswered, including the central research question of this paper: does the sudden removal of significant physical barriers directly impacts......The topics of regional innovation systems (RIS) and cross-border regions attract increasing attention, but few studies combine the themes. Further, the existing empirical studies of cross-border innovation and knowledge creation analyse one case at one point in time, thus, making it difficult...... collaboration activity in cross-border innovation systems? This paper examines regional integration in the Oresund Region over time. It deals with a specific part of the RIS, as it analyses research collaboration between actors from the Danish and Swedish sides, with a specific emphasis on the biotech industry...

  14. Crisis and Regional Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    , Tunisia, Egypt …. ), where the crisis referred to could be humanitarian, environmental, economic, political … Europe, too, has also according to mass media, been a victim of a crisis, the financial one. Could ‘crisis’ be a beginning of enhanced regional integration? This paper will try to look...... at the processes of regional integration in relation to ‘crisis’ in Africa and Europe. First, this paper will look at the concept of ‘crisis’, before it moves on to discuss ‘regional integration’ and the correlation between the two, emphasizing the approaches of neo-functionalism and federal theory....... This is the basis for two short case studies of African and European regional integration. The paper tentative answers to the question: will the crisis in Africa and Europe respectively further or block regional integration? With a ‘that depends’. But the use of Federalism theory and neo-functionalism is seen...

  15. The Regional Dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl

    2013-01-01

    is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global......Global perspectives and national approaches have dominated studies of climate-change communication, reflecting the global nature of climate change as well as the traditional research focus on national media systems. In the absence of a global public sphere, however, transnational issue attention...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...

  16. Early Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Chang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For women in the early stages of pregnancy, the intrauterine gestational sac cannot yet be seen. Both adnexal regions, the posterior cul-de-sac and the cervical canal should therefore be imaged to avoid missing the very rare cases of early cervical pregnancy. Color Doppler ultrasound can locate the exact site of implantation and confidently confirm the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Early diagnosis is important for early intervention and reduces the associated major complications.

  17. Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmanová, Zuzana; Kreutzer, Susanne; Hellenthal, Garrett; Sell, Christian; Diekmann, Yoan; Díez-Del-Molino, David; van Dorp, Lucy; López, Saioa; Kousathanas, Athanasios; Link, Vivian; Kirsanow, Karola; Cassidy, Lara M; Martiniano, Rui; Strobel, Melanie; Scheu, Amelie; Kotsakis, Kostas; Halstead, Paul; Triantaphyllou, Sevi; Kyparissi-Apostolika, Nina; Urem-Kotsou, Dushka; Ziota, Christina; Adaktylou, Fotini; Gopalan, Shyamalika; Bobo, Dean M; Winkelbach, Laura; Blöcher, Jens; Unterländer, Martina; Leuenberger, Christoph; Çilingiroğlu, Çiler; Horejs, Barbara; Gerritsen, Fokke; Shennan, Stephen J; Bradley, Daniel G; Currat, Mathias; Veeramah, Krishna R; Wegmann, Daniel; Thomas, Mark G; Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Burger, Joachim

    2016-06-21

    Farming and sedentism first appeared in southwestern Asia during the early Holocene and later spread to neighboring regions, including Europe, along multiple dispersal routes. Conspicuous uncertainties remain about the relative roles of migration, cultural diffusion, and admixture with local foragers in the early Neolithization of Europe. Here we present paleogenomic data for five Neolithic individuals from northern Greece and northwestern Turkey spanning the time and region of the earliest spread of farming into Europe. We use a novel approach to recalibrate raw reads and call genotypes from ancient DNA and observe striking genetic similarity both among Aegean early farmers and with those from across Europe. Our study demonstrates a direct genetic link between Mediterranean and Central European early farmers and those of Greece and Anatolia, extending the European Neolithic migratory chain all the way back to southwestern Asia.

  18. Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping: A New Framework for Innovation-Based Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Schwerdtner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To foster sustainable regional development, many regions rely on innovations. To safeguard the generation of innovations and their market introduction, companies have increasingly used technology roadmapping and open innovation. The project INNOrural (Innovations for sustainable rural development expanded these concepts by applying them to regions. This led to the rise of the “Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping” framework for innovation-based regional development (ROIR. This framework was tested by conducting two innovation roadmapping processes in the model region of Märkisch-Oderland (MOL, Germany: the certification of regional wood fuel and the establishment of a competence center for precision farming technology. Both innovation ideas were selected during the roadmapping process by applying a sustainability assessment. After 12 months, two complete roadmaps were ready for implementation. Key principles of ROIR were identified, including the use of a clear and replicable sustainability assessment method, the involvement of all relevant stakeholder groups in the early process and the cooperation between regional and subject experts. Generally, the broader adaptation of ROIR for additional regions will be useful. Nevertheless, the ROIR processes need to be evaluated in depth to develop a better understanding and to provide evidence of the benefits and limitations of this approach.

  19. Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lei, D; Liu, Y; Tan, Y; Gu, X

    1998-02-01

    To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.

  20. Early Years Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Waldfogel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by examining gaps in school readiness between low-, middle-, and high-income children, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies in the USA and UK. We find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are present in both countries before children enter school and then decompose these gaps to identify the factors that account for the poorer scores of low-income children. We then consider what role early years policy could play in tackling these gaps, drawing on the best available evidence to identify promising programs.

  1. Samuel Goudsmit - Early Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudsmit, Esther

    2010-03-01

    Samuel Goudsmit, born in 1902 in The Hague, Netherlands, earned his Ph.D. at the University of Leiden in 1926 with Paul Ehrenfest. The present talk will describe some aspects of his background and early formative years in order to provide context for the broad range of his professional life. Sam belonged to a large tribe of paternal and maternal uncles, aunts and first cousins; including his parents, grandparents and sister Ro, they numbered forty. Sam was the first of the tribe to be educated beyond high school. Early interests as a child and later as a university student in the Netherlands prefigured his significant and diverse contributions in several realms including not only physics but also teaching, Egyptology and scientific Intelligence. Bibliographic sources will include: The American Institute of Physics' Oral History Transcripts and photographs from the Emilio Segre visual archives, memoirs and conversations of those who knew Sam and also letters to his daughter, Esther.

  2. Early Permian bipedal reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, D S; Reisz, R R; Scott, D; Henrici, A C; Sumida, S S; Martens, T

    2000-11-03

    A 290-million-year-old reptilian skeleton from the Lower Permian (Asselian) of Germany provides evidence of abilities for cursorial bipedal locomotion, employing a parasagittal digitigrade posture. The skeleton is of a small bolosaurid, Eudibamus cursoris, gen. et sp. nov. and confirms the widespread distribution of Bolosauridae across Laurasia during this early stage of amniote evolution. E. cursoris is the oldest known representative of Parareptilia, a major clade of reptiles.

  3. Early Detection Of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V B Bhatnagar

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Farly detection of cancer is based upon three fundamental assumptions, firstly that the trea'ment of benign and precancerous lesions reduces the incidence of cancer, secondly, that the treatment of in situ cancers is conducive to total cure and thirdly that early diagnosis and management of invasive cancer ensures be.ter survival. When patient seeks medical advice for vague symptoms, which could however be due to a possible malignant tumour at a particular site, the alert clinician should investigate the patient immediately to exclude cancer. At this stage cancer is usually not significantly advanced.Currently the U. I. C. C. (International Union for Cancer Control} is studying the epidemiology of cancers in various countries The importance of this is two folds : Firstly by focussing attention on a section of population vulnerable to a particular cancer an early detection is facilitated Secondly by changing the causative factors responsible to a particular cancer, the incidence of that cancer can be reduced e. g. reduction in lung cancer following campaigns against ciguette smoking and reductioi in breast cancer after campaigns for advocating breast feeding of infants, lowering fat consumption and encouraging self palpation of breast regularly.Indeed early diagnosis of cancer implies diagnosis of cancer in almost a symptomatic stage It involves motiva’ion of the population towards acquisitio : of knowledge, attitude and practice.. Epidemiologies and clinicians should be able to recognise high risk cases exposed to particular neoplasia and knowledge of alarming symptoms should be pro- pogated for wide publicity through common available media and means. Probable cases should have regular clhrcal examination periodically and relevant investigations including radiological, imaging techniques and Bio-Chemical examination should be undertaken as and when desired Suspicious lesions should be investigated by specific tests including smear cytology

  4. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  5. Early Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Development of a design methodology that can handle the vast design space in early building design. •A global design space is modelled from extensive Monte Carlo simulations. •Sensitivity analysis methods applied to guide decision-makers. •Interactive visualizations help the multi......-actor design team explore thousands of building performance simulations. •Metamodels are used to run additional simulations and demonstrate the holistic consequences of input changes....

  6. Coaching in Early Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeroth, Carrie; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Falling scores in math have prompted a renewed interest in math instruction at early ages. By their own admission, early childhood educators are generally underprepared and not always comfortable teaching math. Professional development (PD) in early mathematics is widely considered a main way to increase teachers' skills and efficacy (e.g., Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Munby, Russell, & Martin, 2001; Piasta, Logan, Pelatti, Capps, & Petrill, 2015; Richardson & Placier, 2001; Sarama, Clements, Wolfe, & Spitler, 2016; Sarama & DiBiase, 2004; Zaslow, 2014). However, it has been documented that stand-alone PD is not as effective in changing practice (e.g., Biancarosa & Bryk, 2011; Garet et al., 2008; Guskey, 2000; Hyson & Woods, 2014; Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, 2015; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Zaslow, 2014). Site-embedded ongoing support in the form of coaching or mentoring has been shown to be critical for successful implementation (Neuman & Cunningham, 2009; Powell, Diamond, Burchinal, & Koehler, 2010). In this chapter, we describe coaching models and abstract characteristics of effective coaching from the research. With this background, we provide an in-depth view of the coaching aspect of two large empirical studies in early mathematics. We introduce the theoretical framework from which the coaching models for these projects were developed and describe the research on which they were based. We then summarize how the planned models were instantiated and challenges to their implementation within each project. In the final section, we summarize what we have learned and described implications and challenges for the field. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Early Treatment in Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Figure 1). We conclude the inclusion of L-2 arginine in the resuscitation fluid has a statistically significant early beneficial and pro-3 tective...contribution of the intervention on survival. Statistical Analysis Sample size for rats used in both the acute and chronic experiments was calculated...prolongs survival in a rat model of lethal hypoxemia . Crit Care Med. 2000;28:1968-1972. 6. Giassi LJ, Gilchrist MJ, Graham BA, Gainer JL. Trans-sodium

  8. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  9. Early Archaean hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, S. T.; Nijman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Although many people have written about hydrothermal systems in the early Earth, little real evidence is available. New data from the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa) and greenstone belts of the East Pilbara (Western Australia), provide proof of the existence and nature of hydrothermal systems in the Early Archaean (around 3.4 Ga). Detailed field relationships between vein systems, host rock and overlying sediments are combined with data from fluid inclusions studies on quartz fills in the sediments. An intimate relationship between chert veins and the overlying sediments has been established (the veins are syn-sedimentary). The salinity and temperature of the fluids in the inclusions shows that these are of hydrothermal origin. Similar types of hydrothermal systems, of approximately the same age, have been found at different locations; in the Barberton greenstone belt and at various locations in the East Pilbara. The setting of these hydrothermal systems is not always identical however. Although a felsic substratum is more common, in the North Pole area (Pilbara) the hydrothermal systems rise from a basaltic substratum. In the Barberton greenstone belt, the systems are closely related to shallow intrusive (felsic) bodies. The study of these ancient hydrothermal systems forms an important framework for studies of early life on Earth. This study forms part of an international project on Earth's Earliest Sedimentary Basins, supported by the Foundation Dr. Schürmannfonds.

  10. [Early stimulation > programs evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, C

    2007-09-01

    Early intervention include educational and neuroprotection strategies. Early educational strategies are based on the cerebral plasticity concept. Neuroprotection, initially reserved for molecules preventing cell death phenomena, can be extended now to all actions promoting harmonious development and preventing handicaps, and include organisational, therapeutic and environmental aspects. Early stimulation programs have been first devised in United States for vulnerable children who belong to an unfavorable socio-economic category ; positive effects were recorded in school failure rates and social problems ; programs have also been launched in several countries for premature infants and infants with a low birth weight, population exposed to a high risk of deficiencies. The programs are targetted either to the child, or to the parents, or combined to provide assistance for both the child and the parents. The programs given the best evaluation are NIDCAP Program in Sweden (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program), intended for babies neonatal intensive care units, then a longitudinal, multisite program, known as IHDP (Infant Health and Development Program). It was launched in United States for infants stimulation is maintained and when mothers have a low level of education.

  11. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  12. Water Emission from Early Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarugula, Sreevani; Vieira, Joaquin

    2017-06-01

    The study of dusty star forming galaxies (DSFGs) is important to understand galaxy assembly in early universe. A bulk of star formation at z ˜ 2-3 takes place in DSFGs but are obscured by dust in optical/UV. However, they are extremely bright in far infrared (FIR) and submillimeter with infrared luminosities of 10^{11} - 10^{13} L_{⊙}. ALMA, with its high spatial and spectral resolution, has opened up a new window to study molecular lines, which are vital to our understanding of the excitation and physical processes in the galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) being the second most abundant and bright molecule after hydrogen (H_{2}), is an important tracer of star forming potential. Besides CO, water (H_{2}O) is also abundant and it's line strength is comparable to high-J CO lines in high redshift Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs). Studies have shown H_{2}O to directly trace the FIR field and hence the star forming regions. Moreover, L_{H_{2}O}/L_{IR} ratio is nearly constant for five of the most important water lines and does not depend on the presence of AGN implying that H_{2}O is one of the best tracers of star forming regions (SFRs). This incredible correlation holds for nearly five orders of magnitude in luminosity and observed in both local and high redshift luminous infrared galaxies. In this talk, I will discuss the importance of H_{2}O in tracing FIR field and show the preliminary results of resolved water emission from three high-redshift gravitationally lensed South Pole Telescope (SPT) sources obtained from ALMA cycle 3 and cycle 4. These sources are among the first H_{2}O observations with resolved spatial scales ˜ 1 kpc and will prove to be important for ALMA and galaxy evolution studies.

  13. Newborns health in the Danube Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Sram, Radim J; Ščasný, Milan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EU strategy for the Danube Region addresses numerous challenges including environment, health and socioeconomic disparities. Many old environmental burdens and heavily polluted areas in Europe are located in the Danube Region, consisting of 14 countries, with over 100 million people...... and estimate their effect on early-life health, evaluate economic impact, as well as identify interventions with a potential to harness social norms to reduce emissions, exposures and health risks in the Danube Region. METHODS: Experts in environmental epidemiology, human biomonitoring and social science...... in collaboration with clinicians propose to establish a new large multi-center birth cohort of mother-child pairs from Danube countries, measure biomarkers of exposure and health in biological samples at birth, collect centrally measured climate, air and water pollution data, conduct pre- and postnatal surveys...

  14. Regional Air Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset provides data on regional air quality, including trace level SO2, nitric acid, ozone, carbon monoxide, and NOy; and particulate sulfate, nitrate, and...

  15. Locus control regions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Qiliang; Peterson, Kenneth R; Fang, Xiangdong; Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2002-01-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are operationally defined by their ability to enhance the expression of linked genes to physiological levels in a tissue-specific and copy number-dependent manner at ectopic chromatin sites...

  16. Region 9 Tribal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset of all Indian Reservations in US EPA Region 9 (California, Arizona and Nevada) with some reservation border areas of adjacent states included (adjacent areas...

  17. Connecting to Regional Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulibaly, Souleymane; Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Central Asian food processors face a number of constraints when they attempt to export to the region and beyond. The Central Asian economies in focus here are landlocked, and thus lack easy access to sea transport. In addition, the region's transport network was built to reinforce...... the interdependence of the then Soviet republics, while conflicting economic interests make cross-border cooperation difficult. Based on extensive fieldwork on infrastructure systems and firm export strategies, this paper identifies contemporary infrastructure and transportation issues within the Central Asian region......, and makes a novel attempt to examine how these factors lead to challenges for local food processing producers trying to sell their products in the region and beyond....

  18. Regional Response Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are thirteen in the U.S., each representing a geographic region (including the Caribbean and the Pacific Basin). Composed of representatives from field offices of the agencies that make up the National Response Team, and state representatives.

  19. Aeromagnetic Regional Grid Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several regions are represented in this unique collection of earth surface measurements of magnetic field parameters and their related anomalies. The DNAG Magnetics...

  20. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg, such as a crush injury, fracture or amputation. Other major and minor traumas — such as surgery, ... diagnose complex regional pain syndrome, but the following procedures may provide important clues: Bone scan. This procedure ...

  1. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  2. Regional Snowfall Index (RSI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Climatic Data Center is now producing the Regional Snowfall Index (RSI) for significant snowstorms that impact the eastern two thirds of the U.S. The...

  3. Alterations in right posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Chen, Jan-Kai; Schneider, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    This study compares hippocampal volumes of early blind and sex/age-matched sighted controls through volumetric and localization analyses. Early blind individuals showed a significantly smaller right posterior hippocampus compared with controls. No differences in total hippocampal volumes were found...... between groups and there were no within-group differences for left versus right hippocampus. Sex, age and total brain grey matter volume had no effect on hippocampal volumes. Although extensive navigational training results in structural enhancement of the hippocampus for the sighted, the reduction...... of the posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals suggests the implication of this region in visual spatial memory. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-5...

  4. Archaeological and chemical evidence for early salt production in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flad, Rowan; Zhu, Jiping; Wang, Changsui; Chen, Pochan; von Falkenhausen, Lothar; Sun, Zhibin; Li, Shuicheng

    2005-01-01

    Salt production and trade is thought to be critical to the development of all states and emergent empires. Until now, however, scientific evidence of early salt production has rarely been presented, and no studies of early Chinese salt production have provided unequivocal proof. Here, we report x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses that demonstrate that salt was the primary product during the first millennium before Christ (B.C.) at Zhongba in Central China. This work provides an early example of salt production discovered in China and presents a methodology for evaluating salt production sites in other regions. PMID:16116100

  5. Region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  6. Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Developmental Milestones of Early Literacy Page Content ​In the spirit of making both ... at the well-defined developmental milestones of early literacy. Younger Than 6 Months: Never Too Young Unlike ...

  7. Early Mobilization: Changing the Mindset

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castro, Emily; Turcinovic, Michael; Platz, John; Law, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    .... To assess and improve the mindset of SICU staff toward early mobilization of patients receiving mechanical ventilation before, 6 months after, and 1 year after implementation of early mobilization...

  8. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  9. The characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality of the Nanling region, China (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwen Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available By applying the ‘theory of synchronization’ from the science of complexity to studying the regional regularity of ore formation within the Nanling region of southern China, a characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality has been discovered. During the early and late Yanshanian epoch (corresponding respectively to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, two centers of ore formation emerged successively in the Nanling region; the former is mainly for rare metals (W, Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb and one rare-earth element (La and was generated in the Jurassic period; whereas the latter is mainly for base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Hg, noble metals (Au, Ag, and one radioactive element (U and was generated in the Cretaceous period. Centers of ore formation were brought about by interface dynamics respectively at the Qitianling and Jiuyishan districts in southern Hunan province. The characteristic giant nonlinear target-pattern regional ore zonality was generated by spatio-temporal synchronization process of the Nanling complex metallogenic system. It induced the collective dynamics and cooperative behavior of the system and displayed the configuration of the regional ore zonality. Then dynamical clustering transformed the configuration into rudimentary ordered coherent structures. Phase dynamics eventually defined the spatio-temporal structures of the target-pattern regional ore zonality and determined their localization and distribution. A new methodology for revealing regional ore zonality is developed, which will encourage further investigation of the formation of deep-seated ore resources and the onset of large-scale mineralization.

  10. The characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality of the Nanling region, China (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwen Yu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By applying the ‘theory of synchronization’ from the science of complexity to studying the regional regularity of ore formation within the Nanling region of southern China, a characteristic target-pattern regional ore zonality has been discovered. During the early and late Yanshanian epoch (corresponding respectively to the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, two centers of ore formation emerged successively in the Nanling region; the former is mainly for rare metals (W, Sn, Mo, Bi, Nb and one rare-earth element (La and was generated in the Jurassic period; whereas the latter is mainly for base metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Hg, noble metals (Au, Ag, and one radioactive element (U and was generated in the Cretaceous period. Centers of ore formation were brought about by interface dynamics respectively at the Qitianling and Jiuyishan districts in southern Hunan Province. The characteristic giant nonlinear target-pattern regional ore zonality was generated by spatio-temporal synchronization process of the Nanling complex metallogenic system. It induced the collective dynamics and cooperative behavior of the system and displayed the configuration of the regional ore zonality. Then dynamical clustering transformed the configuration into rudimentary ordered coherent structures. Phase dynamics eventually defined the spatio-temporal structures of the target-pattern regional ore zonality and determined their localization and distribution. A new methodology for revealing regional ore zonality is developed, which will encourage further investigation of the formation of deep-seated ore resources and the onset of large-scale mineralization.

  11. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  12. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  13. Value-Added Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Elected state leaders often prioritize economic prosperity and competitiveness, which provides an important opportunity too rarely taken for investing in early education. In 2003, Pennsylvania recognized the connection between early education and the economy, and smartly embraced early learning as part of its economic prosperity and…

  14. Early Attrition among Suicidal Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, P. W. G.; Meehan, V.; Moore, A.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the level of suicidal ideation in early attrition clients and their reasons for the early termination of their therapy. The cross-sectional design involved early attrition clients (C[subscript A]) who withdrew from therapy before their second session (n = 61), and continuing clients who (C[subscript C]) progressed…

  15. [Early gastric cancer. Clinical contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitu, A; Carletti, N; Durzi, S; Terzi, G; Menghini, L; Degli Albizi, S

    1992-01-01

    The authors report their experience on 37 cases of Early Gastric Cancer on 1978-1990 period. They underline the excellent results obtained with subtotal gastrectomy and lynphectomy without deaths neither returns. They stress the diagnostic precision of endoscopic exam now of first choice in the early diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer.

  16. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  17. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  18. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  19. Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, J; Nicholls, B

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional anaesthesia. There is an ever growing weight of evidence, matched with improving technology, to show that the use of ultrasound has significant benefits over conventional techniques, such as nerve stimulation and loss of resistance. The improved safety and efficacy that ultrasound brings to regional anaesthesia will help promote its use and realise the benefits that regional anaesthesia has over general anaesthesia, such as decreased morbidity and mortality, superior postoperative analgesia, cost-effectiveness, decreased postoperative complications and an improved postoperative course. In this review we consider the evidence behind the improved safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, before discussing its use in pain medicine, paediatrics and in the facilitation of neuraxial blockade. The Achilles' heel of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is that anaesthetists are far more familiar with providing general anaesthesia, which in most cases requires skills that are achieved faster and more reliably. To this ends we go on to provide practical advice on ultrasound-guided techniques and the introduction of ultrasound into a department.

  20. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.