WorldWideScience

Sample records for sv diffeomorphisms concentrated

  1. Diffeomorphisms Holder conjugate to Anosov diffeomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gogolev, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    We show by means of a counterexample that a $C^{1+Lip}$ diffeomorphism Holder conjugate to an Anosov diffeomorphism is not necessarily Anosov. The counterexample can bear higher smoothness up to $C^3$. Also we include a result from the 2006 Ph.D. thesis of T. Fisher: a $C^{1+Lip}$ diffeomorphism Holder conjugate to an Anosov diffeomorphism is Anosov itself provided that Holder exponents of the conjugacy and its inverse are sufficiently large.

  2. Diffeomorphic Statistical Deformation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Hansen, Mads/Fogtman; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for constructing diffeomorphic statistical deformation models in arbitrary dimensional images with a nonlinear generative model and a linear parameter space. Our deformation model is a modified version of the diffeomorphic model introduced by Cootes et al....... The modifications ensure that no boundary restriction has to be enforced on the parameter space to prevent folds or tears in the deformation field. For straightforward statistical analysis, principal component analysis and sparse methods, we assume that the parameters for a class of deformations lie on a linear...... with ground truth in form of manual expert annotations, and compared to Cootes's model. We anticipate applications in unconstrained diffeomorphic synthesis of images, e.g. for tracking, segmentation, registration or classification purposes....

  3. Homological stability of diffeomorphism groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander; Madsen, Ib Henning

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we prove a stability theorem for block diffeomorphisms of 2d -dimensional manifolds that are connected sums of S d ×S d . Combining this with a recent theorem of S. Galatius and O. Randal-Williams and Morlet’s lemma of disjunction, we determine the homology of the classifying space ...

  4. On diffeomorphism invariance for lattice theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corichi, A.; Zapata, J.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of the diffeomorphism constraint in the quantization of lattice formulations of diffeomorphism invariant theories of connections. It has been argued that in working with abstract lattices one automatically takes care of the diffeomorphism constraint in the quantum theory. We use two systems in order to show that imposing the diffeomorphism constraint is imperative to obtain a physically acceptable quantum theory. First, we consider 2+1 gravity where an exact lattice formulation is available. Next, general theories of connections for compact gauge groups are treated, where the quantum theories are known - for both the continuum and the lattice - and can be compared. (orig.)

  5. Computing Diffeomorphic Paths for Large Motion Interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dohyung; Jeffrey, Ho; Vemuri, Baba C

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for computing a path of diffeomorphisms between a pair of input diffeomorphisms. Direct computation of a geodesic path on the space of diffeomorphisms Diff (Ω) is difficult, and it can be attributed mainly to the infinite dimensionality of Diff (Ω). Our proposed framework, to some degree, bypasses this difficulty using the quotient map of Diff (Ω) to the quotient space Diff ( M )/ Diff ( M ) μ obtained by quotienting out the subgroup of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms Diff ( M ) μ . This quotient space was recently identified as the unit sphere in a Hilbert space in mathematics literature, a space with well-known geometric properties. Our framework leverages this recent result by computing the diffeomorphic path in two stages. First, we project the given diffeomorphism pair onto this sphere and then compute the geodesic path between these projected points. Second, we lift the geodesic on the sphere back to the space of diffeomerphisms, by solving a quadratic programming problem with bilinear constraints using the augmented Lagrangian technique with penalty terms. In this way, we can estimate the path of diffeomorphisms, first, staying in the space of diffeomorphisms, and second, preserving shapes/volumes in the deformed images along the path as much as possible. We have applied our framework to interpolate intermediate frames of frame-sub-sampled video sequences. In the reported experiments, our approach compares favorably with the popular Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework (LDDMM).

  6. Atomic disintegrations for partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, Ale Jan

    2017-01-01

    Shub and Wilkinson and Ruelle and Wilkinson studied a class of volume preserving diffeomorphisms on the three dimensional torus that are stably ergodic. The diffeomorphisms are partially hyperbolic and admit an invariant central foliation of circles. The foliation is not absolutely continuous; in

  7. Diffeomorphisms of elliptic 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungbok; McCullough, Darryl; Rubinstein, J Hyam

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns the diffeomorphism groups of 3-manifolds, in particular of elliptic 3-manifolds. These are the closed 3-manifolds that admit a Riemannian metric of constant positive curvature, now known to be exactly the closed 3-manifolds that have a finite fundamental group. The (Generalized) Smale Conjecture asserts that for any elliptic 3-manifold M, the inclusion from the isometry group of M to its diffeomorphism group is a homotopy equivalence. The original Smale Conjecture, for the 3-sphere, was proven by J. Cerf and A. Hatcher, and N. Ivanov proved the generalized conjecture for many of the elliptic 3-manifolds that contain a geometrically incompressible Klein bottle. The main results establish the Smale Conjecture for all elliptic 3-manifolds containing geometrically incompressible Klein bottles, and for all lens spaces L(m,q) with m at least 3. Additional results imply that for a Haken Seifert-fibered 3 manifold V, the space of Seifert fiberings has contractible components, and apart from a small...

  8. Proinflammatory Effect of High Glucose Concentrations on HMrSV5 Cells via the Autocrine Effect of HMGB1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuening Chu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peritoneal fibrosis, in which inflammation and apoptosis play crucial pathogenic roles, is a severe complication associated with the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis (PD using a glucose-based dialysate. Mesothelial cells (MCs take part in the inflammatory processes by producing various cytokines and chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 8 (IL-8. The apoptosis of MCs induced by high glucose levels also contributes to complications of PD. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1 is an inflammatory factor that has repeatedly been proven to be related to the occurrence of peritoneal dysfunction.Aim: In this study, we aimed to explore the effect and underlying mechanism of endogenous HMGB1 in high-glucose-induced MC injury.Methods: The human peritoneal MC line, HMrSV5 was cultured in high-glucose medium and incubated with recombinant HMGB1. Cellular expression of HMGB1 was blocked using HMGB1 small interfering RNA (siRNA. Apoptosis and production of inflammatory factors as well as the potential intermediary signaling pathways were examined.Results: The major findings of these analyses were: (1 MCs secreted HMGB1 from the nucleus during exposure to high glucose levels; HMGB1 acted in an autocrine fashion on the MCs to promote the production of MCP-1 and IL-8; (2 HMGB1 had little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis of the MCs; and (3 HMGB1-mediated MCP-1 and IL-8 production depended on the activation of MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, endogenous HMGB1 plays an important role in the inflammatory reaction induced by high glucose on MCs via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, but it seems to have little effect on high-glucose-induced apoptosis.

  9. Periodic diffeomorphisms on homotopy E (4) surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 3. Periodic Diffeomorphisms on Homotopy (4) Surfaces. Hongxia Li. Volume 124 Issue 3 August 2014 pp 437-445. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/124/03/0437-0445 ...

  10. p-Forms and diffeomorphisms: Hamiltonian formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulieu, Laurent; Henneaux, Marc

    1987-07-01

    The BRST charges corresponding to various (equivalent) ways of writing the action of the diffeomorphism group on p-form gauge fields are canonically related by a canonical transformation in the extended phase space which is explicitly constructed. The occurrence of higher order structure functions is pointed out. Also at: Centro de Estudios Cientificos de Santiago, Casilla 16443, Santiago 9, Chile.

  11. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  12. Dynamics and bifurcations of random circle diffeomorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zmarrou, H.; Homburg, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss iterates of random circle diffeomorphisms with identically distributed noise, where the noise is bounded and absolutely continuous. Using arguments of B. Deroin, V.A. Kleptsyn and A. Navas, we provide precise conditions under which random attracting fixed points or random attracting

  13. SvABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wala, Jeremiah A; Bandopadhayay, Pratiti; Greenwald, Noah

    2018-01-01

    Structural variants (SVs), including small insertion and deletion variants (indels), are challenging to detect through standard alignment-based variant calling methods. Sequence assembly offers a powerful approach to identifying SVs, but is difficult to apply at scale genome-wide for SV detection...... due to its computational complexity and the difficulty of extracting SVs from assembly contigs. We describe SvABA, an efficient and accurate method for detecting SVs from short-read sequencing data using genome-wide local assembly with low memory and computing requirements. We evaluated Sv...... complex somatic rearrangements with chains of short (applied SvABA to 344 cancer genomes from 11 cancer types and found that short templated-sequence insertions occur in ∼4% of all somatic rearrangements. Finally, we...

  14. Non-stationary compositions of Anosov diffeomorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenlund, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by non-equilibrium phenomena in nature, we study dynamical systems whose time-evolution is determined by non-stationary compositions of chaotic maps. The constituent maps are topologically transitive Anosov diffeomorphisms on a two-dimensional compact Riemannian manifold, which are allowed to change with time—slowly, but in a rather arbitrary fashion. In particular, such systems admit no invariant measure. By constructing a coupling, we prove that any two sufficiently regular distributions of the initial state converge exponentially with time. Thus, a system of this kind loses memory of its statistical history rapidly

  15. Collocation for diffeomorphic deformations in medical image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2018-01-01

    Diffeomorphic deformation is a popular choice in medical image registration. A fundamental property of diffeomorphisms is in vertibility, implying that once the relation between two points A to B is found, then the relation B to A is given per definition. Consistency is a measure of a numerical a...

  16. Simvastatin (SV) metabolites in mouse tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.A.; Vickers, S.

    1990-01-01

    SV, a semisynthetic analog of lovastatin, is hydrolyzed in vivo to its hydroxy acid (SVA), a potent inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HR). Thus SV lowers plasma cholesterol. SV is a substrate for mixed function oxidases whereas SVA undergoes lactonization and β-oxidation. Male CD-1 mice were dosed orally with a combination of ( 14 C)SV and ( 3 H)SVA at 25 mg/kg of each, bled and killed at 0.5, 2 and 4 hours. Labeled SV, SVA, 6'exomethylene SV (I), 6'CH 2 OH-SV (II), 6'COOH-SV (III) and a β-oxidized metabolite (IV) were assayed in liver, bile, kidneys, testes and plasma by RIDA. Levels of potential and active HR inhibitors in liver were 10 to 40 fold higher than in other tissues. II and III, in which the configuration at 6' is inverted, may be 2 metabolites of I. Metabolites I-III are inhibitors of HR in their hydroxy acid forms. Qualitatively ( 14 C)SV and ( 3 H)SVA were metabolized similarly (consistent with their proposed interconversion). However 3 H-SVA, I-III (including hydroxy acid forms) achieved higher concentrations than corresponding 14 C compounds (except in gall bladder bile). Major radioactive metabolites in liver were II-IV (including hydroxy acid forms). These metabolites have also been reported in rat tissues. In bile a large fraction of either label was unidentified polar metabolites. The presence of IV indicated that mice (like rats) are not good models for SV metabolism in man

  17. Pesin’s entropy formula for stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培东

    1996-01-01

    Pesin’s entropy formula relating entropy and Lyapunov exponents within the context of random dynamical systems generated by (discrete or continuous) stochastic flows of diffeomorphisms (including solution flows of stochastic differential equations on manifolds) is proved.

  18. A new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin, E-mail: rabin@bose.res.in [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Mitra, Arpita, E-mail: arpita12t@bose.res.in [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, JD Block, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata-700 098 (India); Mukherjee, Pradip, E-mail: mukhpradip@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Barasat Government College, Barasat, West Bengal (India)

    2014-10-07

    We provide a new formulation of non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance. It is generated by localising the usual global Galilean symmetry. The correspondence with the type of diffeomorphism invariant models currently in vogue in the theory of fractional quantum Hall effect has been discussed. Our construction is shown to open up a general approach of model building in theoretical condensed matter physics. Also, this formulation has the capacity of obtaining Newton–Cartan geometry from the gauge procedure.

  19. Commentaar op art. 563 Sv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoops, G.G.J.; van Laanen, F.; Melai, A.L.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Schrijvers verschaffen een wetenschappelijk commentaar op art. 563 Sv, betreffende de tenuitvoerlegging van andere straffen dan de bij art. 562 Sv bedoelde straffen ingeval van een veroordeelde wiens geestvermogens ziekelijk zijn gestoord.

  20. Entropy for frame bundle systems and Grassmann bundle systems induced by a diffeomorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Weniang(孙文祥)

    2002-01-01

    ALiao hyperbolic diffeomorphism has equal measure entropy and topological entropy to that ofits induced systems on frame bundles and Grassmann bundles. This solves a problem Liao posed in 1996 forLiao hyperbolic diffeomorphisms.

  1. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms and higher-spin algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, E [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Blencowe, M P; Stelle, K S [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.

    1990-03-01

    We show that there exists a one-parameter family of infinite-dimensional algebras that includes the bosonic d=3 Fradkin-Vasiliev higher-spin algebra and the non-Euclidean version of the algebra of area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the two-sphere S{sup 2} as two distinct members. The non-Euclidean version of the area preserving algebra corresponds to the algebra of area-preserving diffeomorphisms of the hyperbolic space S{sup 1,1}, and can be rewritten as lim{sub Nyieldsinfinity} su(N,N). As an application of our results, we formulate a new d=2+1 massless higher-spin field theory as the gauge theory of the area-preserving diffeomorphisms of S{sup 1,1}. (orig.).

  2. Extended Virasoro algebra and algebra of area preserving diffeomorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelyan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of area preserving diffeomorphism plays an important role in the theory of relativistic membranes. It is pointed out that the relation between this algebra and the extended Virasoro algebra associated with the generalized Kac-Moody algebras G(T 2 ). The highest weight representation of these infinite-dimensional algebras as well as of their subalgebras is studied. 5 refs

  3. Diffeomorphisms, Anomalies and the Fefferman-Graham Ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwimmer, A.; Theisen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Using the Weyl transfomations induced by diffeomorphisms we set up a cohomological problem for the Fefferman-Graham coefficients. The cohomologically nontrivial solutions remove the ambiguity and give the nonlocal terms in the effective action responsible for the trace anomalies. (author)

  4. Diffeomorphic image registration with automatic time-step adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru; Klein, S.; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an automated Euler's time-step adjustment scheme for diffeomorphic image registration using stationary velocity fields (SVFs). The proposed variational problem aims at bounding the inverse consistency error by adaptively adjusting the number of Euler's step required to r...... accuracy as a fixed time-step scheme however at a much less computational cost....

  5. Space-Time Diffeomorphisms in Noncommutative Gauge Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Román Juarez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In previous work [Rosenbaum M. et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 (2007, 10367–10382] we have shown how for canonical parametrized field theories, where space-time is placed on the same footing as the other fields in the theory, the representation of space-time diffeomorphisms provides a very convenient scheme for analyzing the induced twisted deformation of these diffeomorphisms, as a result of the space-time noncommutativity. However, for gauge field theories (and of course also for canonical geometrodynamics where the Poisson brackets of the constraints explicitely depend on the embedding variables, this Poisson algebra cannot be connected directly with a representation of the complete Lie algebra of space-time diffeomorphisms, because not all the field variables turn out to have a dynamical character [Isham C.J., Kuchar K.V., Ann. Physics 164 (1985, 288–315, 316–333]. Nonetheless, such an homomorphic mapping can be recuperated by first modifying the original action and then adding additional constraints in the formalism in order to retrieve the original theory, as shown by Kuchar and Stone for the case of the parametrized Maxwell field in [Kuchar K.V., Stone S.L., Classical Quantum Gravity 4 (1987, 319–328]. Making use of a combination of all of these ideas, we are therefore able to apply our canonical reparametrization approach in order to derive the deformed Lie algebra of the noncommutative space-time diffeomorphisms as well as to consider how gauge transformations act on the twisted algebras of gauge and particle fields. Thus, hopefully, adding clarification on some outstanding issues in the literature concerning the symmetries for gauge theories in noncommutative space-times.

  6. Breaking diffeomorphism invariance and tests for the emergence of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anber, Mohamed M.; Aydemir, Ufuk; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    If general relativity is an emergent phenomenon, there may be small violations of diffeomorphism invariance. We propose a phenomenology of perturbatively small violations of general relativity by the inclusion of terms which break general covariance. These can be tested by matching to the parameterized post-Newtonian formalism. The most sensitive tests involve pulsar timing and provide an extremely strong bound, with a dimensionless constraint of order 10 -20 relative to gravitational strength.

  7. Fast Template-based Shape Analysis using Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Chupin , Marie; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for the analysis of anatomical variability relies on the estimation of a representative template of the population, followed by the study of this population based on the parameters of the deformations going from the template to the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping framework is widely used for shape analysis of anatomical structures, but computing a template with such framework is computationally expensive. In this paper w...

  8. Diffeomorphic Iterative Centroid Methods for Template Estimation on Large Datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Cury , Claire; Glaunès , Joan Alexis; Colliot , Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A common approach for analysis of anatomical variability relies on the stimation of a template representative of the population. The Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping is an attractive framework for that purpose. However, template estimation using LDDMM is computationally expensive, which is a limitation for the study of large datasets. This paper presents an iterative method which quickly provides a centroid of the population in the shape space. This centr...

  9. Diffeomorphisms as symplectomorphisms in history phase space: Bosonic string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouletsis, I.; Kuchar, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the history phase space G of a covariant field system and its history group (in the sense of Isham and Linden) is analyzed on an example of a bosonic string. The history space G includes the time map T from the spacetime manifold (the two-sheet) Y to a one-dimensional time manifold T as one of its configuration variables. A canonical history action is posited on G such that its restriction to the configuration history space yields the familiar Polyakov action. The standard Dirac-ADM action is shown to be identical with the canonical history action, the only difference being that the underlying action is expressed in two different coordinate charts on G. The canonical history action encompasses all individual Dirac-ADM actions corresponding to different choices T of foliating Y. The history Poisson brackets of spacetime fields on G induce the ordinary Poisson brackets of spatial fields in the instantaneous phase space G 0 of the Dirac-ADM formalism. The canonical history action is manifestly invariant both under spacetime diffeomorphisms Diff Y and temporal diffeomorphisms Diff T. Both of these diffeomorphisms are explicitly represented by symplectomorphisms on the history phase space G. The resulting classical history phase space formalism is offered as a starting point for projection operator quantization and consistent histories interpretation of the bosonic string model

  10. Large chiral diffeomorphisms on Riemann surfaces and W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandelloni, G.; Lazzarini, S.

    2006-01-01

    The diffeomorphism action lifted on truncated (chiral) Taylor expansion of a complex scalar field over a Riemann surface is presented in the paper under the name of large diffeomorphisms. After an heuristic approach, we show how a linear truncation in the Taylor expansion can generate an algebra of symmetry characterized by some structure functions. Such a linear truncation is explicitly realized by introducing the notion of Forsyth frame over the Riemann surface with the help of a conformally covariant algebraic differential equation. The large chiral diffeomorphism action is then implemented through a Becchi-Rouet-Stora (BRS) formulation (for a given order of truncation) leading to a more algebraic setup. In this context the ghost fields behave as holomorphically covariant jets. Subsequently, the link with the so-called W-algebras is made explicit once the ghost parameters are turned from jets into tensorial ghost ones. We give a general solution with the help of the structure functions pertaining to all the possible truncations lower or equal to the given order. This provides another contribution to the relationship between Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) flows and W-diffeomorphims

  11. Diffeomorphism invariance in the Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriushcheva, N.; Kuzmin, S.V.; Racknor, C.; Valluri, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that when the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is considered without any non-covariant modifications or change of variables, its Hamiltonian formulation leads to results consistent with principles of General Relativity. The first-class constraints of such a Hamiltonian formulation, with the metric tensor taken as a canonical variable, allow one to derive the generator of gauge transformations, which directly leads to diffeomorphism invariance. The given Hamiltonian formulation preserves general covariance of the transformations derivable from it. This characteristic should be used as the crucial consistency requirement that must be met by any Hamiltonian formulation of General Relativity

  12. On the perfectness of C^{∞,s}-diffeomorphism groups on a foliated manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Lech

    2008-01-01

    The notion of \\(C^{r,s}\\) and \\(C^{\\infty,s}\\)-diffeomorphisms is introduced. It is shown that the identity component of the group of leaf preserving \\(C^{\\infty,s}\\)-diffeomorphisms with compact supports is perfect. This result is a modification of the Mather and Epstein perfectness theorem.

  13. Spontaneous Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation, massive modes, and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, Robert; Fung Shuhong; Kostelecky, V. Alan

    2008-01-01

    Theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation contain massless Nambu-Goldstone modes, which arise as field excitations in the minimum of the symmetry-breaking potential. If the shape of the potential also allows excitations above the minimum, then an alternative gravitational Higgs mechanism can occur in which massive modes involving the metric appear. The origin and basic properties of the massive modes are addressed in the general context involving an arbitrary tensor vacuum value. Special attention is given to the case of bumblebee models, which are gravitationally coupled vector theories with spontaneous local Lorentz and diffeomorphism violation. Mode expansions are presented in both local and spacetime frames, revealing the Nambu-Goldstone and massive modes via decomposition of the metric and bumblebee fields, and the associated symmetry properties and gauge fixing are discussed. The class of bumblebee models with kinetic terms of the Maxwell form is used as a focus for more detailed study. The nature of the associated conservation laws and the interpretation as a candidate alternative to Einstein-Maxwell theory are investigated. Explicit examples involving smooth and Lagrange-multiplier potentials are studied to illustrate features of the massive modes, including their origin, nature, dispersion laws, and effects on gravitational interactions. In the weak static limit, the massive mode and Lagrange-multiplier fields are found to modify the Newton and Coulomb potentials. The nature and implications of these modifications are examined.

  14. The Koslowski–Sahlmann representation: gauge and diffeomorphism invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglia, Miguel; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    The discrete spatial geometry underlying loop quantum gravity (LQG) is degenerate almost everywhere. This is at apparent odds with the non-degeneracy of asymptotically flat metrics near spatial infinity. Koslowski generalized the LQG representation so as to describe states labeled by smooth non-degenerate triad fields. His representation was further studied by Sahlmann with a view to imposing gauge and spatial diffeomorphism invariance through group averaging methods. Motivated by the desire to model asymptotically flat quantum geometry by states with triad labels which are non-degenerate at infinity but not necessarily so in the interior, we initiate a generalization of Sahlmann’s considerations to triads of varying degeneracy. In doing so, we include delicate phase contributions to the averaging procedure which are crucial for the correct implementation of the gauge and diffeomorphism constraints, and whose existence can be traced to the background exponential functions recently constructed by one of us. Our treatment emphasizes the role of symmetries of quantum states in the averaging procedure. Semianalyticity, influential in the proofs of the beautiful uniqueness results for LQG, plays a key role in our considerations. As a by product, we re-derive the group averaging map for standard LQG, highlighting the role of state symmetries and explicitly exhibiting the essential uniqueness of its specification. (paper)

  15. Constraining the break of spatial diffeomorphism invariance with Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, L. L.; Benetti, M.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2017-07-01

    The current most accepted paradigm for the early universe cosmology, the inflationary scenario, shows a good agreement with the recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and polarization data. However, when the inflation consistency relation is relaxed, these observational data exclude a larger range of red tensor tilt values, prevailing the blue ones which are not predicted by the minimal inflationary models. Recently, it has been shown that the assumption of spatial diffeomorphism invariance breaking (SDB) in the context of an effective field theory of inflation leads to interesting observational consequences. Among them, the possibility of generating a blue tensor spectrum, which can recover the specific consistency relation of the String Gas Cosmology, for a certain choice of parameters. We use the most recent CMB data to constrain the SDB model and test its observational viability through a Bayesian analysis assuming as reference an extended ΛCDM+tensor perturbation model, which considers a power-law tensor spectrum parametrized in terms of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, and the tensor spectral index, nt. If the inflation consistency relation is imposed, r=-8 nt, we obtain a strong evidence in favor of the reference model whereas if such relation is relaxed, a weak evidence in favor of the model with diffeomorphism breaking is found. We also use the same CMB data set to make an observational comparison between the SDB model, standard inflation and String Gas Cosmology.

  16. Constraining the break of spatial diffeomorphism invariance with Planck data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, L.L.; Benetti, M.; Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: leilagraef@on.br, E-mail: micolbenetti@on.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, R. Gen. José Cristino, 77—São Cristóvão, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The current most accepted paradigm for the early universe cosmology, the inflationary scenario, shows a good agreement with the recent Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and polarization data. However, when the inflation consistency relation is relaxed, these observational data exclude a larger range of red tensor tilt values, prevailing the blue ones which are not predicted by the minimal inflationary models. Recently, it has been shown that the assumption of spatial diffeomorphism invariance breaking (SDB) in the context of an effective field theory of inflation leads to interesting observational consequences. Among them, the possibility of generating a blue tensor spectrum, which can recover the specific consistency relation of the String Gas Cosmology, for a certain choice of parameters. We use the most recent CMB data to constrain the SDB model and test its observational viability through a Bayesian analysis assuming as reference an extended ΛCDM+tensor perturbation model, which considers a power-law tensor spectrum parametrized in terms of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r , and the tensor spectral index, n {sub t} . If the inflation consistency relation is imposed, r =−8 n {sub t} , we obtain a strong evidence in favor of the reference model whereas if such relation is relaxed, a weak evidence in favor of the model with diffeomorphism breaking is found. We also use the same CMB data set to make an observational comparison between the SDB model, standard inflation and String Gas Cosmology.

  17. A combinatorial approach to diffeomorphism invariant quantum gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum gauge theory in the connection representation uses functions of holonomies as configuration observables. Physical observables (gauge and diffeomorphism invariant) are represented in the Hilbert space of physical states; physical states are gauge and diffeomorphism invariant distributions on the space of functions of the holonomies of the edges of a certain family of graphs. Then a family of graphs embedded in the space manifold (satisfying certain properties) induces a representation of the algebra of physical observables. We construct a quantum model from the set of piecewise linear graphs on a piecewise linear manifold, and another manifestly combinatorial model from graphs defined on a sequence of increasingly refined simplicial complexes. Even though the two models are different at the kinematical level, they provide unitarily equivalent representations of the algebra of physical observables in separable Hilbert spaces of physical states (their s-knot basis is countable). Hence, the combinatorial framework is compatible with the usual interpretation of quantum field theory. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Chern-Simons theories of symplectic super-diffeomorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgin, E.; Sokatchev, E.

    1989-04-01

    We discuss the symplectic diffeomorphisms of a class of supermanifolds and the structure of the underlying infinite dimensional superalgebras. We construct a Chern-Simons (CS) gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions for these algebras. There exists a finite dimensional supersymmetric truncation which is the (2 n -1)-dimensional Hamiltonian superalgebra H-tilde(n). With a central charge added, it is a superalgebra, C(n), associated with a Clifford algebra. We find an embedding of d=3, N=2 anti-de Sitter superalgebra OSp(2|2)+OSp(2|2) in C(4), and construct a CS action for its infinite dimensional extension. We also discuss the construction of a CS action for the infinite dimensional extension of the d=3, N=2 superconformal algebra OSp(2,4). (author). 18 refs

  19. Biological activity of SV40 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis deals with a study on the biological activity of SV40 DNA. The transforming activity of SV40 DNA and DNA fragments is investigated in order to define as precisely as possible the area of the viral genome that is involved in the transformation. The infectivity of SV40 DNA is used to study the defective repair mechanisms of radiation damages of human xeroderma pigmentosum cells. (C.F.)

  20. On the uniform perfectness of equivariant diffeomorphism groups for principal G manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Fukui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We proved in [K. Abe, K. Fukui, On commutators of equivariant diffeomorphisms, Proc. Japan Acad. 54 (1978, 52-54] that the identity component \\(\\text{Diff}\\,^r_{G,c}(M_0\\ of the group of equivariant \\(C^r\\-diffeomorphisms of a principal \\(G\\ bundle \\(M\\ over a manifold \\(B\\ is perfect for a compact connected Lie group \\(G\\ and \\(1 \\leq r \\leq \\infty\\ (\\(r \

  1. Primal-dual convex optimization in large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: LDDMM meets robust regularizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Monica

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a method for primal-dual convex optimization in variational large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping problems formulated with robust regularizers and robust image similarity metrics. The method is based on Chambolle and Pock primal-dual algorithm for solving general convex optimization problems. Diagonal preconditioning is used to ensure the convergence of the algorithm to the global minimum. We consider three robust regularizers liable to provide acceptable results in diffeomorphic registration: Huber, V-Huber and total generalized variation. The Huber norm is used in the image similarity term. The primal-dual equations are derived for the stationary and the non-stationary parameterizations of diffeomorphisms. The resulting algorithms have been implemented for running in the GPU using Cuda. For the most memory consuming methods, we have developed a multi-GPU implementation. The GPU implementations allowed us to perform an exhaustive evaluation study in NIREP and LPBA40 databases. The experiments showed that, for all the considered regularizers, the proposed method converges to diffeomorphic solutions while better preserving discontinuities at the boundaries of the objects compared to baseline diffeomorphic registration methods. In most cases, the evaluation showed a competitive performance for the robust regularizers, close to the performance of the baseline diffeomorphic registration methods.

  2. ε-neighbourhoods of orbits of parabolic diffeomorphisms and cohomological equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resman, Maja

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the analyticity of (directed) areas of ε-neighbourhoods of orbits of parabolic germs. The article is motivated by the question of analytic classification using ε-neighbourhoods of orbits in the simplest formal class. We show that the coefficient in front of the ε 2 term in the asymptotic expansion in ε, which we call the principal part of the area, is a sectorially analytic function in the initial point of the orbit. It satisfies a cohomological equation similar to the standard trivialization equation for parabolic diffeomorphisms. We give necessary and sufficient conditions on a diffeomorphism f for the existence of a globally analytic solution of this equation. Furthermore, we introduce a new classification type for diffeomorphisms implied by this new equation and investigate the relative position of its classes with respect to the analytic classes. (paper)

  3. Bayesian estimation of regularization and atlas building in diffeomorphic image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a generative Bayesian model for diffeomorphic image registration and atlas building. We develop an atlas estimation procedure that simultaneously estimates the parameters controlling the smoothness of the diffeomorphic transformations. To achieve this, we introduce a Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization algorithm, where the expectation step is approximated via Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampling on the manifold of diffeomorphisms. An added benefit of this stochastic approach is that it can successfully solve difficult registration problems involving large deformations, where direct geodesic optimization fails. Using synthetic data generated from the forward model with known parameters, we demonstrate the ability of our model to successfully recover the atlas and regularization parameters. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the atlas estimation problem for 3D brain images.

  4. C*-algebras of holonomy-diffeomorphisms and quantum gravity: I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrup, Johannes; Grimstrup, Jesper Møller

    2013-01-01

    A new approach to a unified theory of quantum gravity based on noncommutative geometry and canonical quantum gravity is presented. The approach is built around a *-algebra generated by local holonomy-diffeomorphisms on a 3-manifold and a quantized Dirac-type operator, the two capturing the kinematics of quantum gravity formulated in terms of Ashtekar variables. We prove that the separable part of the spectrum of the algebra is contained in the space of measurable connections modulo gauge transformations and we give limitations to the non-separable part. The construction of the Dirac-type operator—and thus the application of noncommutative geometry—is motivated by the requirement of diffeomorphism invariance. We conjecture that a semi-finite spectral triple, which is invariant under volume-preserving diffeomorphisms, arises from a GNS construction of a semi-classical state. Key elements of quantum field theory emerge from the construction in a semi-classical limit, as does an almost commutative algebra. Finally, we note that the spectrum of loop quantum gravity emerges from a discretization of our construction. Certain convergence issues are left unresolved. This paper is the first of two where the second paper [1] is concerned with mathematical details and proofs concerning the spectrum of the holonomy-diffeomorphism algebra. (paper)

  5. Accelerated Optimization in the PDE Framework: Formulations for the Manifold of Diffeomorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Yezzi, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimization of cost functionals on the infinite-dimensional manifold of diffeomorphisms. We present a new class of optimization methods, valid for any optimization problem setup on the space of diffeomorphisms by generalizing Nesterov accelerated optimization to the manifold of diffeomorphisms. While our framework is general for infinite dimensional manifolds, we specifically treat the case of diffeomorphisms, motivated by optical flow problems in computer vision. This is accomplished by building on a recent variational approach to a general class of accelerated optimization methods by Wibisono, Wilson and Jordan, which applies in finite dimensions. We generalize that approach to infinite dimensional manifolds. We derive the surprisingly simple continuum evolution equations, which are partial differential equations, for accelerated gradient descent, and relate it to simple mechanical principles from fluid mechanics. Our approach has natural connections to the optimal mass transport problem. This is because one can think of our approach as an evolution of an infinite number of particles endowed with mass (represented with a mass density) that moves in an energy landscape. The mass evolves with the optimization variable, and endows the particles with dynamics. This is different than the finite dimensional case where only a single particle moves and hence the dynamics does not depend on the mass. We derive the theory, compute the PDEs for accelerated optimization, and illustrate the behavior of these new accelerated optimization schemes.

  6. Accelerated Optimization in the PDE Framework: Formulations for the Manifold of Diffeomorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2018-04-04

    We consider the problem of optimization of cost functionals on the infinite-dimensional manifold of diffeomorphisms. We present a new class of optimization methods, valid for any optimization problem setup on the space of diffeomorphisms by generalizing Nesterov accelerated optimization to the manifold of diffeomorphisms. While our framework is general for infinite dimensional manifolds, we specifically treat the case of diffeomorphisms, motivated by optical flow problems in computer vision. This is accomplished by building on a recent variational approach to a general class of accelerated optimization methods by Wibisono, Wilson and Jordan, which applies in finite dimensions. We generalize that approach to infinite dimensional manifolds. We derive the surprisingly simple continuum evolution equations, which are partial differential equations, for accelerated gradient descent, and relate it to simple mechanical principles from fluid mechanics. Our approach has natural connections to the optimal mass transport problem. This is because one can think of our approach as an evolution of an infinite number of particles endowed with mass (represented with a mass density) that moves in an energy landscape. The mass evolves with the optimization variable, and endows the particles with dynamics. This is different than the finite dimensional case where only a single particle moves and hence the dynamics does not depend on the mass. We derive the theory, compute the PDEs for accelerated optimization, and illustrate the behavior of these new accelerated optimization schemes.

  7. Whole brain diffeomorphic metric mapping via integration of sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jia; Younes, Laurent; Qiu, Anqi

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping algorithm for whole brain registration where sulcal and gyral curves, cortical surfaces, and intensity images are simultaneously carried from one subject to another through a flow of diffeomorphisms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the diffeomorphic metric from one brain to another is derived in a shape space of intensity images and point sets (such as curves and surfaces) in a unified manner. We describe the Euler–Lagrange equation associated with this algorithm with respect to momentum, a linear transformation of the velocity vector field of the diffeomorphic flow. The numerical implementation for solving this variational problem, which involves large-scale kernel convolution in an irregular grid, is made feasible by introducing a class of computationally friendly kernels. We apply this algorithm to align magnetic resonance brain data. Our whole brain mapping results show that our algorithm outperforms the image-based LDDMM algorithm in terms of the mapping accuracy of gyral/sulcal curves, sulcal regions, and cortical and subcortical segmentation. Moreover, our algorithm provides better whole brain alignment than combined volumetric and surface registration (Postelnicu et al., 2009) and hierarchical attribute matching mechanism for elastic registration (HAMMER) (Shen and Davatzikos, 2002) in terms of cortical and subcortical volume segmentation. PMID:21281722

  8. Current algebras, measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphism groups, and infinite quantum systems with accumulation points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Takao

    The approach to quantum physics via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group is established. This thesis studies possible infinite Bose gas systems using this approach. Systems of locally finite configurations and systems of configurations with accumulation points are considered, with the main emphasis on the latter. In Chapter 2, canonical quantization, quantization via current algebra and unitary representations of the diffeomorphism group are reviewed. In Chapter 3, a new definition of the space of configurations is proposed and an axiom for general configuration spaces is abstracted. Various subsets of the configuration space, including those specifying the number of points in a Borel set and those specifying the number of accumulation points in a Borel set are proved to be measurable using this axiom. In Chapter 4, known results on the space of locally finite configurations and Poisson measure are reviewed in the light of the approach developed in Chapter 3, including the approach to current algebra in the Poisson space by Albeverio, Kondratiev, and Rockner. Goldin and Moschella considered unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of the line based on self-similar random processes, which may describe infinite quantum gas systems with clusters. In Chapter 5, the Goldin-Moschella theory is developed further. Their construction of measures quasi-invariant under diffeomorphisms is reviewed, and a rigorous proof of their conjectures is given. It is proved that their measures with distinct correlation parameters are mutually singular. A quasi-invariant measure constructed by Ismagilov on the space of configurations with accumulation points on the circle is proved to be singular with respect to the Goldin-Moschella measures. Finally a generalization of the Goldin-Moschella measures to the higher-dimensional case is studied, where the notion of covariance matrix and the notion of condition number play important roles. A

  9. Aanvullend commentaar op art. 511a Sv

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laanen, F.; Melai, A.L.; Groenhuijsen, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    Schr. geeft een actueel wetenschappelijk commentaar op art. 511a Sv. Daarin komt met name de hedendaagse werkingssfeer aan de orde van deze bepaling, waarin is gesteld dat de berechting van strafbare feiten die ingevolge enige wet aan de burgerlijke rechter is opgedragen, ter terechtzitting van de

  10. Generally covariant theories: the Noether obstruction for realizing certain space-time diffeomorphisms in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Josep M

    2003-01-01

    Relying on known results of the Noether theory of symmetries extended to constrained systems, it is shown that there exists an obstruction that prevents certain tangent-space diffeomorphisms being projectable to phase space, for generally covariant theories. This main result throws new light on the old fact that the algebra of gauge generators in the phase space of general relativity, or other generally covariant theories, only closes as a soft algebra and not as a Lie algebra. The deep relationship between these two issues is clarified. In particular, we see that the second one may be understood as a side effect of the procedure to solve the first. It is explicitly shown how the adoption of specific metric-dependent diffeomorphisms, as a way to achieve projectability, causes the algebra of gauge generators (constraints) in phase space not to be a Lie algebra -with structure constants - but a soft algebra - with structure functions

  11. Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adami, H.; Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory. (orig.)

  12. Diffeomorphism-type symmetries of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The infinite-dimensional algebra of diffeomorphism-type symmetries of the self-dual Yang-Mills equations is described as the algebra of 0-cochains with values in a sheaf of germs of holomorphic sections of the (1,0) tangent bundle over the twistor space. It is shown that the extended conformal symmetries are obtained as particular cases of the aforementioned algebra

  13. New phases of D≥2 current and diffeomorphism algebras in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung.

    1990-09-01

    We survey some global results and open issues of current algebras and their canonical field theoretical realization in D ≥ 2 dimensional spacetime. We assess the status of the representation theory of their generalized Kac-Moody and diffeomorphism algebras. Particular emphasis is put on higher dimensional analogs of fermi-bose correspondence, complex analyticity and the phase entanglements of anyonic solitons with exotic spin and statistics. 101 refs

  14. New phases of D ge 2 current and diffeomorphism algebras in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung.

    1990-09-01

    We survey some global results and open issues of current algebras and their canonical field theoretical realization in D {ge} 2 dimensional spacetime. We assess the status of the representation theory of their generalized Kac-Moody and diffeomorphism algebras. Particular emphasis is put on higher dimensional analogs of fermi-bose correspondence, complex analyticity and the phase entanglements of anyonic solitons with exotic spin and statistics. 101 refs.

  15. Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, H.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory.

  16. Random integration of SV40 in SV40-transformed, immortalized human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H; Kaji, H

    1987-02-01

    We have studied the relationship between immortalization of SV40-transformed human embryonic fibroblasts and their SV40 integration sites. From several independently transformed cell pools, we have isolated clones which do not harbor unintegrated SV40 DNA. We have analysed whole-cell DNA from these clones, using the Southern blot method. Our results suggest that no specific integration sites in the cellular genome exist which are a prerequisite for the immortalization process. Although some integration sites were found to be predominant in pre-crisis clones, they could not be detected in the post-crisis clones. This suggests that none of these predominating sites is selected for during the crisis period.

  17. Stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage by rifamycin SV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukiełka, E; Cederbaum, A I

    1995-04-15

    Rifamycin SV is an antibiotic anti-bacterial agent used in the treatment of tuberculosis. This drug can autoxidize, especially in the presence of metals, and generate reactive oxygen species. A previous study indicated that rifamycin SV can increase NADH-dependent microsomal production of reactive oxygen species. The current study evaluated the ability of rifamycin SV to interact with iron and increase microsomal production of hydroxyl radical, as detected by conversion of supercoiled plasmid DNA into the relaxed open circular state. The plasmid used was pBluescript II KS(-), and the forms of DNA were separated by agarose-gel electrophoresis. Incubation of rat liver microsomes with plasmid plus NADH plus ferric-ATP caused DNA strand cleavage. The addition of rifamycin SV produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in DNA-strand cleavage. No stimulation by rifamycin SV occurred in the absence of microsomes, NADH or ferric-ATP. Stimulation occurred with other ferric complexes besides ferric-ATP, e.g. ferric-histidine, ferric-citrate, ferric-EDTA, and ferric-(NH4)2SO4. Rifamycin SV did not significantly increase the high rates of DNA strand cleavage found with NADPH as the microsomal reductant. The stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage was completely blocked by catalase, superoxide dismutase, GSH and a variety of hydroxyl-radical-scavenging agents, but not by anti-oxidants that prevent microsomal lipid peroxidation. Redox cycling agents, such as menadione and paraquat, in contrast with rifamycin SV, stimulated the NADPH-dependent reaction; menadione and rifamycin SV were superior to paraquat in stimulating the NADH-dependent reaction. These results indicate that rifamycin SV can, in the presence of an iron catalyst, increase microsomal production of reactive oxygen species which can cause DNA-strand cleavage. In contrast with other redox cycling agents, the stimulation by rifamycin SV is more pronounced with NADH than with NADPH as the

  18. SV40 Assembly In Vivo and In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Oppenheim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid is a T = 7d icosahedral lattice ∼45 nm in diameter surrounding the ∼5 kb circular minichromosome. The outer shell is composed of 360 monomers of the major capsid protein VP1, tightly bound in 72 pentamers. VP1 is a jellyroll β-barrel, with extending N- and C-terminal arms. The N-terminal arms bind DNA and face the interior of the capsid. The flexible C-arms tie together the 72 pentamers in three distinct kinds of interactions, thus facilitating the formation of a T = 7 icosahedron from identical pentameric building blocks. Assembly in vivo was shown to occur by addition of capsomers around the DNA. We apply a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches to study SV40 assembly. Our in vivo and in vitro studies suggest the following model: one or two capsomers bind at a high affinity to ses, the viral DNA encapsidation signal, forming the nucleation centre for assembly. Next, multiple capsomers attach concomitantly, at lower affinity, around the minichromosome. This increases their local concentration facilitating rapid, cooperative assembly reaction. Formation of the icosahedron proceeds either by gradual addition of single pentamers to the growing shell or by concerted assembly of pentamer clusters.

  19. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms in gauge theory on a non-commutative plane. A lattice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Bigarini, A.; INFN, Sezione di Perugia; Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin; Torrielli, A.

    2007-06-01

    We consider Yang-Mills theory with the U(1) gauge group on a non-commutative plane. Perturbatively it was observed that the invariance of this theory under area-preserving diffeomorphisms (APDs) breaks down to a rigid subgroup SL(2,R). Here we present explicit results for the APD symmetry breaking at finite gauge coupling and finite non-commutativity. They are based on lattice simulations and measurements of Wilson loops with the same area but with a variety of different shapes. Our results confirm the expected loss of invariance under APDs. Moreover, they strongly suggest that non-perturbatively the SL(2,R) symmetry does not persist either. (orig.)

  20. On nonlinear equations associated with Lie algebras of diffeomorphism groups of two-dimensional manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashaev, R.M.; Savel'ev, M.V.; Savel'eva, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nonlinear equations associated through a zero curvature type representation with Lie algebras S 0 Diff T 2 and of infinitesimal diffeomorphisms of (S 1 ) 2 , and also with a new infinite-dimensional Lie algebras. In particular, the general solution (in the sense of the Goursat problem) of the heavently equation which describes self-dual Einstein spaces with one rotational Killing symmetry is discussed, as well as the solutions to a generalized equation. The paper is supplied with Appendix containing the definition of the continuum graded Lie algebras and the general construction of the nonlinear equations associated with them. 11 refs

  1. Evaluation of GMI and PMI diffeomorphic-based demons algorithms for aligning PET and CT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Wang, Hongjun; Zhang, You; Yin, Yong

    2015-07-08

    Fusion of anatomic information in computed tomography (CT) and functional information in 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) is crucial for accurate differentiation of tumor from benign masses, designing radiotherapy treatment plan and staging of cancer. Although current PET and CT images can be acquired from combined 18F-FDG PET/CT scanner, the two acquisitions are scanned separately and take a long time, which may induce potential positional errors in global and local caused by respiratory motion or organ peristalsis. So registration (alignment) of whole-body PET and CT images is a prerequisite for their meaningful fusion. The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of two multimodal registration algorithms for aligning PET and CT images. The proposed gradient of mutual information (GMI)-based demons algorithm, which incorporated the GMI between two images as an external force to facilitate the alignment, was compared with the point-wise mutual information (PMI) diffeomorphic-based demons algorithm whose external force was modified by replacing the image intensity difference in diffeomorphic demons algorithm with the PMI to make it appropriate for multimodal image registration. Eight patients with esophageal cancer(s) were enrolled in this IRB-approved study. Whole-body PET and CT images were acquired from a combined 18F-FDG PET/CT scanner for each patient. The modified Hausdorff distance (d(MH)) was used to evaluate the registration accuracy of the two algorithms. Of all patients, the mean values and standard deviations (SDs) of d(MH) were 6.65 (± 1.90) voxels and 6.01 (± 1.90) after the GMI-based demons and the PMI diffeomorphic-based demons registration algorithms respectively. Preliminary results on oncological patients showed that the respiratory motion and organ peristalsis in PET/CT esophageal images could not be neglected, although a combined 18F-FDG PET/CT scanner was used for image acquisition. The PMI diffeomorphic-based demons

  2. On the question of symmetries in nonrelativistic diffeomorphism-invariant theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Mukherjee, Pradip

    2017-07-01

    A novel algorithm is provided to couple a Galilean-invariant model with curved spatial background by taking nonrelativistic limit of a unique minimally coupled relativistic theory, which ensures Galilean symmetry in the flat limit and canonical transformation of the original fields. That the twin requirements are fulfilled is ensured by a new field, the existence of which was demonstrated recently from Galilean gauge theory. The ambiguities and anomalies concerning the recovery of Galilean symmetry in the flat limit of spatial nonrelativistic diffeomorphic theories, reported in the literature, are focused and resolved from a new angle.

  3. Oltar Sv. Jeronima u crkvi Sv. Šime u Zadru i radionica Bettamelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Goja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available U radu se na temelju arhivskih podataka govori o oltaru Sv. Jeronima u crkvi Sv. Šime u Zadru. Od ranije se zna da je oltar dala podići i o njegovu se uređenju brinula bratovština hrvatskih i albanskih vojnika (Croatti a cavallo i Soldati Albanesi u službi Mletačke Republike, osnovana 1675. godine u Zadru. Novim je arhivskim istraživanjima utvrđeno da je dana 26. rujna 1694. godine bratovština odobrila izdatak u iznosu od 200 srebrnih dukata, namijenjenih venecijanskim klesarima braći Bettamelli kao predujam za izradu oltara te da su radovi na njegovu podizanju započeti u travnju 1696. godine. Na temelju zapisa o gradnji oltara iznijeta je pretpostavka da se grb na istočnom pilastru stipesa oltara, ranije povezivan s predstavnicima obitelji Civran, odnosi na zadarskog plemića i istaknutog zapovjednika u mletačkoj vojsci, Šimuna Fanfognu (Zadar, 7. travnja 1663. - Lendinara, 6. ožujka 1707. koji je obavljao i dužnost prokuratora oltara. Brojni radovi na uređenju oltara i kapele Sv. Jeronima obavljani su i tijekom čitavog 18. stoljeća, a na njima su bili uposleni brojni mjesni majstori različitih struka: graditelji Antonio Piovesana (1742. i Antonio Bernardini (1789., oltarist Girolamo Picco (1756., marangon Domenico Tomaselli (1743., kovač Antonelli (1744. te zlatari Zorzi Cullisich (1738., Nicolò Giurovich (1752. i Giuseppe Rado (1755.. Donose se još neke zanimljivosti vezane uz uređenje oltara i djelovanje bratovštine Sv. Jeronima.

  4. Effect of caffeine on the ultraviolet light induction of SV40 virus from transformed hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, G.B.; Kleinman, L.F.; Little, J.B.; Black, P.H.; Kaplan, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of caffeine on the uv light induction of SV40 virus from two transformed hamster cell lines heterogeneous for the induction of infectious virus was studied. The amount of virus induced was significantly increased in both cell lines when exposure to uv light was followed by treatment with caffeine. Caffeine in the absence of uv irradiation did not stimulate virus induction, nor did it stimulate SV40 replication in a lytic infection. There was an apparent difference in the concentrations of caffeine which maximally stimulated SV40 virus induction in the two cell lines. This effect could not be explained by differences in cell survival after exposure to uv light and caffeine. Since caffeine is known to cause the accumulation of gaps formed in DNA during postreplication repair of uv-irradiated rodent cells, our results support the hypothesis that the formation of gaps or breaks in DNA is an important early step in virus induction

  5. Characterization of SV-40 Tag rats as a model to study prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Curt E; Patel, Brijesh B; Cook, Leah M; Wang, Jun; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Eltoum, Isam A; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Animal models that closely mimic clinical disease in humans are invaluable tools in the fight against prostate cancer. Recently, a Simian Virus-40 T-antigen (SV-40 Tag) targeted probasin promoter rat model was developed. This model, however, has not been extensively characterized; hence we have investigated the ontogeny of prostate cancer and determined the role of sex steroid receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling proteins in the novel SV-40 Tag rat. The SV-40 Tag rat was histopathologically characterized for time to tumor development, incidence and multiplicity and in the ventral, dorsal, lateral and anterior lobes of the prostate. Immunoassay techniques were employed to measure cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sex steroid receptor and growth factor signaling-related proteins. Steroid hormone concentrations were measured via coated well enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and well-differentiated prostate cancer developed as early as 2 and 10 weeks of age, respectively in the ventral prostate (VP) followed by in the dorsolateral (DLP). At 8 weeks of age, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations in SV-40 Tag rats were increased when compared to non-transgenic rats. High cell proliferation and apoptotic indices were found in VP and DLP of transgenic rats. Furthermore, we observed increased protein expression of androgen receptor, IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prostates of SV-40 Tag rats. The rapid development of PIN and prostate cancer in conjunction with the large prostate size makes the SV-40 Tag rat a useful model for studying prostate cancer. This study provides evidence of the role of sex steroid and growth factor proteins in prostate cancer development and defines appropriate windows of opportunity for preclinical trials and aids in the rational design of

  6. Medical image registration by combining global and local information: a chain-type diffeomorphic demons algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaozheng; Yuan, Zhenming; Zhu, Junming; Xu, Dongrong

    2013-01-01

    The demons algorithm is a popular algorithm for non-rigid image registration because of its computational efficiency and simple implementation. The deformation forces of the classic demons algorithm were derived from image gradients by considering the deformation to decrease the intensity dissimilarity between images. However, the methods using the difference of image intensity for medical image registration are easily affected by image artifacts, such as image noise, non-uniform imaging and partial volume effects. The gradient magnitude image is constructed from the local information of an image, so the difference in a gradient magnitude image can be regarded as more reliable and robust for these artifacts. Then, registering medical images by considering the differences in both image intensity and gradient magnitude is a straightforward selection. In this paper, based on a diffeomorphic demons algorithm, we propose a chain-type diffeomorphic demons algorithm by combining the differences in both image intensity and gradient magnitude for medical image registration. Previous work had shown that the classic demons algorithm can be considered as an approximation of a second order gradient descent on the sum of the squared intensity differences. By optimizing the new dissimilarity criteria, we also present a set of new demons forces which were derived from the gradients of the image and gradient magnitude image. We show that, in controlled experiments, this advantage is confirmed, and yields a fast convergence. (paper)

  7. The Fuzzy analogy of chiral diffeomorphisms in higher dimensional quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassarella, Lucio; Schroer, Bert

    2001-06-01

    Our observation that the chiral diffeomorphisms allow an interpretation as modular groups of local operator algebras in the sense of Tomita and takesaki allows us to conclude that the higher deimensional generalizations are certain infinite dimensional groups which act in a 'fuzzy' way on the operator algebras of local quantum physics. These actions do not require any spacetime noncommutativity and are in complete harmony with causality and localization principles. The use of an appropriately defined isomorphism reprocesses these fuzzy actions into partially geometric actions on the holographic image and in this way tightens the relation with chiral structures and makes recent attempts to explain the required universal structure of a would be quantum Bekenstein law in terms of Virasoro algebra structures more palatable. (author)

  8. S-HAMMER: hierarchical attribute-guided, symmetric diffeomorphic registration for MR brain images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Kim, Minjeong; Wang, Qian; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-03-01

    Deformable registration has been widely used in neuroscience studies for spatial normalization of brain images onto the standard space. Because of possible large anatomical differences across different individual brains, registration performance could be limited when trying to estimate a single directed deformation pathway, i.e., either from template to subject or from subject to template. Symmetric image registration, however, offers an effective way to simultaneously deform template and subject images toward each other until they meet at the middle point. Although some intensity-based registration algorithms have nicely incorporated this concept of symmetric deformation, the pointwise intensity matching between two images may not necessarily imply the matching of correct anatomical correspondences. Based on HAMMER registration algorithm (Shen and Davatzikos, [2002]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 21:1421-1439), we integrate the strategies of hierarchical attribute matching and symmetric diffeomorphic deformation to build a new symmetric-diffeomorphic HAMMER registration algorithm, called as S-HAMMER. The performance of S-HAMMER has been extensively compared with 14 state-of-the-art nonrigid registration algorithms evaluated in (Klein et al., [2009]: NeuroImage 46:786-802) by using real brain images in LPBA40, IBSR18, CUMC12, and MGH10 datasets. In addition, the registration performance of S-HAMMER, by comparison with other methods, is also demonstrated on both elderly MR brain images (>70 years old) and the simulated brain images with ground-truth deformation fields. In all experiments, our proposed method achieves the best registration performance over all other registration methods, indicating the high applicability of our method in future neuroscience and clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A LAGRANGIAN GAUSS-NEWTON-KRYLOV SOLVER FOR MASS- AND INTENSITY-PRESERVING DIFFEOMORPHIC IMAGE REGISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Andreas; Ruthotto, Lars

    2017-01-01

    We present an efficient solver for diffeomorphic image registration problems in the framework of Large Deformations Diffeomorphic Metric Mappings (LDDMM). We use an optimal control formulation, in which the velocity field of a hyperbolic PDE needs to be found such that the distance between the final state of the system (the transformed/transported template image) and the observation (the reference image) is minimized. Our solver supports both stationary and non-stationary (i.e., transient or time-dependent) velocity fields. As transformation models, we consider both the transport equation (assuming intensities are preserved during the deformation) and the continuity equation (assuming mass-preservation). We consider the reduced form of the optimal control problem and solve the resulting unconstrained optimization problem using a discretize-then-optimize approach. A key contribution is the elimination of the PDE constraint using a Lagrangian hyperbolic PDE solver. Lagrangian methods rely on the concept of characteristic curves. We approximate these curves using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. We also present an efficient algorithm for computing the derivatives of the final state of the system with respect to the velocity field. This allows us to use fast Gauss-Newton based methods. We present quickly converging iterative linear solvers using spectral preconditioners that render the overall optimization efficient and scalable. Our method is embedded into the image registration framework FAIR and, thus, supports the most commonly used similarity measures and regularization functionals. We demonstrate the potential of our new approach using several synthetic and real world test problems with up to 14.7 million degrees of freedom.

  10. Svømmehaller og krav til energieffektivitet

    OpenAIRE

    Øen, Martin Nerhus

    2010-01-01

    Svømmehaller er en spesiell bygningstype, som med høy innendørs temperatur og luftfuktighet, skiller seg fra andre bygninger som boliger og kontorbygg. Den høye innetemperaturen, forbruket av varmtvann, og fordampning fra svømmebassenget fører til et stort energiforbruk. Svømmehaller er ikke gitt egne krav i Teknisk forskrift til plan- og bygningsloven (TEK), til tross for at energiforbruket kan være tre ganger høyere enn kravene gitt for idrettshaller. Målet med denne rapporten er å finne fo...

  11. One-step simultaneous detection of Ureaplasma parvum and genotypes SV1, SV3 and SV6 from clinical samples using PlexPCR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, M S; Furfaro, L L; Tucker, R; Tan, L Y; Mokany, E

    2017-08-01

    Ureaplasma spp. are associated with preterm birth. In recent times, it has become apparent that Ureaplasma parvum, but not Ureaplasma urealyticum, is of most relevance. We recently demonstrated this in Australian pregnant women and using high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR, further showed that U. parvum genotype SV6 was of particular significance. However, our assay was unable to identify multiple genotypes in the same sample, required a separate species-level qPCR for low titre samples and was not ideal for diagnostic laboratories due to the nature of HRM PCR result interpretation. Consequently, our current study developed a novel, one-step PlexPCR assay capable of detecting U. parvum and genotypes SV1, SV3 and SV6 in a single reaction directly from clinical samples. We then validated this using vaginal swab DNA from our Australian cohort of pregnant women. The PlexPCR was highly sensitive, detecting all targets to between 0.4 × 10 -5  ng DNA (SV3) and 0.4 × 10 -6  ng DNA (U. parvum, SV1 and SV6). Compared to our HRM PCR, the PlexPCR defined genotype distribution in all seven cases previously reported as 'mixed', and detected another eight cases where multiple genotypes (two) were present in samples previously reported as single genotypes using HRM PCR. Ureaplasma spp. have been associated with prematurity for decades, however, only a minority of studies have examined this beyond the genus level. In those that have, Ureaplasma parvum has been strongly associated with preterm birth. We recently demonstrated this in Australian women and further showed that U. parvum genotype SV6 was of particular significance. Our PlexPCR assay allows rapid detection and concurrent genotyping of U. parvum in clinical samples and may be of particular interest to obstetricians, particularly those caring for women at a high risk of preterm birth, and any other disease phenotypes where U. parvum is of interest. © 2017 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology published by John

  12. Specifications for Testing Procedures at Svåheia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is realized in order to define testing procedures of the SSG pilot in Svåheia location. This will be done by listing all the relevant parameters related to the structure performance.......This report is realized in order to define testing procedures of the SSG pilot in Svåheia location. This will be done by listing all the relevant parameters related to the structure performance....

  13. Morphometric brain characterization of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: diffeomorphic anatomic registration using exponentiated Lie algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wanjie; Li, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Jinhui; Gong, Qiyong; Yang, Yanchun

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have used neuroimaging to characterize treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to explore gray matter structure in patients with treatment-refractory OCD and compare it with that of healthy controls. A total of 18 subjects with treatment-refractory OCD and 26 healthy volunteers were analyzed by MRI using a 3.0-T scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to identify structural changes in gray matter associated with treatment-refractory OCD. A partial correlation model was used to analyze whether morphometric changes were associated with Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores and illness duration. Gray matter volume did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment-refractory OCD patients showed significantly lower gray matter density than healthy subjects in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) and significantly higher gray matter density in the left dorsal striatum (putamen). These changes did not correlate with symptom severity or illness duration. Our findings provide new evidence of deficits in gray matter density in treatment-refractory OCD patients. These patients may show characteristic density abnormalities in the left PCC, MD and dorsal striatum (putamen), which should be verified in longitudinal studies. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymptotic symmetries on the Kerr-Newman horizon without the anomaly of diffeomorphism invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Jun-ichirou

    2008-01-01

    We analyze asymptotic symmetries on the Killing horizon of the four-dimensional Kerr-Newman black hole. We first derive the asymptotic Killing vectors on the Killing horizon, which describe the asymptotic symmetries, and find that the general form of these asymptotic Killing vectors is the universal one possessed by arbitrary Killing horizons. We then construct the phase space associated with the asymptotic symmetries. It is shown that the phase space of an extreme black hole either has the size comparable with a non-extreme black hole, or is small enough to exclude degeneracy, depending on whether or not the global structure of a Killing horizon particular to an extreme black hole is respected. We also show that the classical central charge in the Poisson brackets algebra of these asymptotic symmetries vanishes, which implies that there is not an anomaly of diffeomorphism invariance. By taking into account other results in the literature, we argue that the vanishing central charge on a black hole horizon, in an effective theory, looks consistent with the thermal feature of a black hole. We furthermore argue that the vanishing central charge implies that there are sufficiently many classical configurations that constitute a single macroscopic state, while these configurations are distinguished physically

  15. Tensor-based morphometry with stationary velocity field diffeomorphic registration: application to ADNI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossa, Matias; Zacur, Ernesto; Olmos, Salvador

    2010-07-01

    Tensor-based morphometry (TBM) is an analysis technique where anatomical information is characterized by means of the spatial transformations mapping a customized template with the observed images. Therefore, accurate inter-subject non-rigid registration is an essential prerequisite for both template estimation and image warping. Subsequent statistical analysis on the spatial transformations is performed to highlight voxel-wise differences. Most of previous TBM studies did not explore the influence of the registration parameters, such as the parameters defining the deformation and the regularization models. In this work performance evaluation of TBM using stationary velocity field (SVF) diffeomorphic registration was performed in a subset of subjects from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. A wide range of values of the registration parameters that define the transformation smoothness and the balance between image matching and regularization were explored in the evaluation. The proposed methodology provided brain atrophy maps with very detailed anatomical resolution and with a high significance level compared with results recently published on the same data set using a non-linear elastic registration method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weyl and transverse diffeomorphism invariant spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazi, Denis; Mendonca, E.L.; Santos, A.L.R. dos; Ghosh, Subir

    2017-01-01

    There are two covariant descriptions of massless spin-2 particles in D = 3 + 1 via a symmetric rank-2 tensor: the linearized Einstein-Hilbert (LEH) theory and the Weyl plus transverse diffeomorphism (WTDIFF) invariant model. From the LEH theory one can obtain the linearized new massive gravity (NMG) in D = 2 + 1 via Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction followed by a dual master action. Here we show that a similar route takes us from the WTDIFF model to a linearized scalar-tensor NMG which belongs to a larger class of consistent spin-0 modifications of NMG. We also show that a traceless master action applied to a parity singlet furnishes two new spin-2 self-dual models. Moreover, we examine the singular replacement h_μ_ν → h_μ_ν - η_μ_νh/D and prove that it leads to consistent massive spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1. They include linearized versions of unimodular topologically massive gravity (TMG) and unimodular NMG. Although the free part of those unimodular theories are Weyl invariant, we do not expect any improvement in the renormalizability. Both the linearized K-term (in NMG) and the linearized gravitational Chern-Simons term (in TMG) are invariant under longitudinal reparametrizations δh_μ_ν = ∂_μ∂_νζ, which is not a symmetry of the WTDIFF Einstein-Hilbert term. Therefore, we still have one degree of freedom whose propagator behaves like 1/p"2 for large momentum. (orig.)

  17. Weyl and transverse diffeomorphism invariant spin-2 models in D=2+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazi, Denis; dos Santos, A. L. R.; Ghosh, Subir; Mendonça, E. L.

    2017-09-01

    There are two covariant descriptions of massless spin-2 particles in D=3+1 via a symmetric rank-2 tensor: the linearized Einstein-Hilbert (LEH) theory and the Weyl plus transverse diffeomorphism (WTDIFF) invariant model. From the LEH theory one can obtain the linearized new massive gravity (NMG) in D=2+1 via Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction followed by a dual master action. Here we show that a similar route takes us from the WTDIFF model to a linearized scalar-tensor NMG which belongs to a larger class of consistent spin-0 modifications of NMG. We also show that a traceless master action applied to a parity singlet furnishes two new spin-2 self-dual models. Moreover, we examine the singular replacement h_{μ ν } → h_{μ ν } - η _{μ ν }h/D and prove that it leads to consistent massive spin-2 models in D=2+1. They include linearized versions of unimodular topologically massive gravity (TMG) and unimodular NMG. Although the free part of those unimodular theories are Weyl invariant, we do not expect any improvement in the renormalizability. Both the linearized K-term (in NMG) and the linearized gravitational Chern-Simons term (in TMG) are invariant under longitudinal reparametrizations δ h_{μ ν } = partial _{μ }partial _{ν }ζ , which is not a symmetry of the WTDIFF Einstein-Hilbert term. Therefore, we still have one degree of freedom whose propagator behaves like 1/p^2 for large momentum.

  18. Shape-based diffeomorphic registration on hippocampal surfaces using Beltrami holomorphic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Lok Ming; Wong, Tsz Wai; Thompson, Paul; Chan, Tony; Gu, Xianfeng; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new algorithm to automatically register hippocampal (HP) surfaces with complete geometric matching, avoiding the need to manually label landmark features. A good registration depends on a reasonable choice of shape energy that measures the dissimilarity between surfaces. In our work, we first propose a complete shape index using the Beltrami coefficient and curvatures, which measures subtle local differences. The proposed shape energy is zero if and only if two shapes are identical up to a rigid motion. We then seek the best surface registration by minimizing the shape energy. We propose a simple representation of surface diffeomorphisms using Beltrami coefficients, which simplifies the optimization process. We then iteratively minimize the shape energy using the proposed Beltrami Holomorphic flow (BHF) method. Experimental results on 212 HP of normal and diseased (Alzheimer's disease) subjects show our proposed algorithm is effective in registering HP surfaces with complete geometric matching. The proposed shape energy can also capture local shape differences between HP for disease analysis.

  19. A novel splice variant of supervillin, SV5, promotes carcinoma cell proliferation and cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xueran; Yang, Haoran; Zhang, Shangrong; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Fang; Liang, Chaozhao; Wang, Hongzhi; Fang, Zhiyou

    2017-01-01

    Supervillin is an actin-associated protein that regulates actin dynamics by interacting with Myosin II, F-actin, and Cortactin to promote cell contractility and cell motility. Two splicing variants of human Supervillin (SV1 and SV4) have been reported in non-muscle cells; SV1 lacks 3 exons present in the larger isoform SV4. SV2, also called archvillin, is present in striated muscle; SV3, also called smooth muscle archvillin or SmAV, was cloned from smooth muscle. In the present study, we identify a novel splicing variant of Supervillin (SV5). SV5 contains a new splicing pattern. In the mouse tissues and cell lines examined, SV5 was predominantly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and in proliferating cells, but was virtually undetectable in most normal tissues. Using RNAi and rescue experiments, we show here that SV5 displays altered functional properties in cancer cells, and regulates cell proliferation and cell migration.

  20. Methionine sulfoximine supplementation enhances productivity in GS-CHOK1SV cell lines through glutathione biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Marc; Racher, Andrew J; Young, Robert J; Smales, C Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Lonza Biologics' GS Gene Expression System™, recombinant protein-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines are generated by transfection with an expression vector encoding both GS and the protein product genes followed by selection in MSX and glutamine-free medium. MSX is required to inhibit endogenous CHOK1SV GS, and in effect create a glutamine auxotrophy in the host that can be complemented by the expression vector encoded GS in selected cell lines. However, MSX is not a specific inhibitor of GS as it also inhibits the activity of GCL (a key enzyme in the glutathione biosynthesis pathway) to a similar extent. Glutathione species (GSH and GSSG) have been shown to provide both oxidizing and reducing equivalents to ER-resident oxidoreductases, raising the possibility that selection for transfectants with increased GCL expression could result in the isolation of GS-CHOKISV cell lines with improved capacity for recombinant protein production. In this study we have begun to address the relationship between MSX supplementation, the amount of intracellular GCL subunit and mAb production from a panel of GS-CHOK1SV cell lines. We then evaluated the influence of reduced GCL activity on batch culture of an industrially relevant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell line. To the best of our knowledge, this paper describes for the first time the change in expression of GCL subunits and recombinant mAb production in these cell lines with the degree of MSX supplementation in routine subculture. Our data also shows that partial inhibition of GCL activity in medium containing 75 µM MSX increases mAb productivity, and its more specific inhibitor BSO used at a concentration of 80 µM in medium increases the specific rate of mAb production eight-fold and the concentration in harvest medium by two-fold. These findings support a link between the inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis and recombinant protein production in industrially relevant systems and provide a process-driven method for

  1. A spline-based non-linear diffeomorphism for multimodal prostate registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Jhimli; Kato, Zoltan; Martí, Robert; Oliver, Arnau; Lladó, Xavier; Sidibé, Désiré; Ghose, Soumya; Vilanova, Joan C; Comet, Josep; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for non-rigid registration of transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance prostate images based on a non-linear regularized framework of point correspondences obtained from a statistical measure of shape-contexts. The segmented prostate shapes are represented by shape-contexts and the Bhattacharyya distance between the shape representations is used to find the point correspondences between the 2D fixed and moving images. The registration method involves parametric estimation of the non-linear diffeomorphism between the multimodal images and has its basis in solving a set of non-linear equations of thin-plate splines. The solution is obtained as the least-squares solution of an over-determined system of non-linear equations constructed by integrating a set of non-linear functions over the fixed and moving images. However, this may not result in clinically acceptable transformations of the anatomical targets. Therefore, the regularized bending energy of the thin-plate splines along with the localization error of established correspondences should be included in the system of equations. The registration accuracies of the proposed method are evaluated in 20 pairs of prostate mid-gland ultrasound and magnetic resonance images. The results obtained in terms of Dice similarity coefficient show an average of 0.980±0.004, average 95% Hausdorff distance of 1.63±0.48 mm and mean target registration and target localization errors of 1.60±1.17 mm and 0.15±0.12 mm respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Weyl and transverse diffeomorphism invariant spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazi, Denis; Mendonca, E.L. [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, A.L.R. dos [UNESP-Campus de Guaratingueta-DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Ghosh, Subir [ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, IFT-UNESP, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2017-09-15

    There are two covariant descriptions of massless spin-2 particles in D = 3 + 1 via a symmetric rank-2 tensor: the linearized Einstein-Hilbert (LEH) theory and the Weyl plus transverse diffeomorphism (WTDIFF) invariant model. From the LEH theory one can obtain the linearized new massive gravity (NMG) in D = 2 + 1 via Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction followed by a dual master action. Here we show that a similar route takes us from the WTDIFF model to a linearized scalar-tensor NMG which belongs to a larger class of consistent spin-0 modifications of NMG. We also show that a traceless master action applied to a parity singlet furnishes two new spin-2 self-dual models. Moreover, we examine the singular replacement h{sub μν} → h{sub μν} - η{sub μν}h/D and prove that it leads to consistent massive spin-2 models in D = 2 + 1. They include linearized versions of unimodular topologically massive gravity (TMG) and unimodular NMG. Although the free part of those unimodular theories are Weyl invariant, we do not expect any improvement in the renormalizability. Both the linearized K-term (in NMG) and the linearized gravitational Chern-Simons term (in TMG) are invariant under longitudinal reparametrizations δh{sub μν} = ∂{sub μ}∂{sub ν}ζ, which is not a symmetry of the WTDIFF Einstein-Hilbert term. Therefore, we still have one degree of freedom whose propagator behaves like 1/p{sup 2} for large momentum. (orig.)

  3. Tritium dispersion around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant: boundary simplification by Diffeomorph Conformal Transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghetti, Andre; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. de, E-mail: andre.imef@gmail.com, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    We present progress on research concerning dispersion of tritium around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil). In particular, we are interested in studying how dispersion behaves in scenarios with complex orography. Our proposal is to transform a problem with curvilinear boundaries into an equivalent problem with plane parallel boundaries. We modify the coordinate system through a diffeomorph conformal transformation. Consequently, the operators of the dynamical equations change according to the additional terms from the affine connection. To de ne the transformation it is necessary to satisfy strong constraints, i.e., boundaries shall be 'smooth'. Our main purpose is to solve problems using a semi-analytical resolution. Currently, semi-analytic resolutions are applied only in problems that have domain with parallel planes. As a rst step into this direction in this work we present a numerical resolution. Even with restrictions, our model can be implemented in several situations. A at region is a particular case of a curvilinear domain and can be studied, where the height of the boundary layer above rivers, lakes, basins is typically smaller and thus implies a varying boundary layer height, for instance. Thus, even in at regions variations in the boundary layer occur, which characterizes a case of a curvilinear domain. Our specific interest is the region around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant that need a large source of water for their operation. There are several nuclear power plants worldwide, that are located in mountainous regions, as for example in Japan and Brazil. As one step into a new direction we focus in this work on complex relieves. We present a simulation of tritium dispersion specifically in the area where the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant of is located and where the relief is characterized by a considerable complexity. (author)

  4. Tritium dispersion around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant: boundary simplification by Diffeomorph Conformal Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneghetti, Andre; Bodmann, Bardo E.J.; Vilhena, Marco T. de

    2017-01-01

    We present progress on research concerning dispersion of tritium around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil). In particular, we are interested in studying how dispersion behaves in scenarios with complex orography. Our proposal is to transform a problem with curvilinear boundaries into an equivalent problem with plane parallel boundaries. We modify the coordinate system through a diffeomorph conformal transformation. Consequently, the operators of the dynamical equations change according to the additional terms from the affine connection. To de ne the transformation it is necessary to satisfy strong constraints, i.e., boundaries shall be 'smooth'. Our main purpose is to solve problems using a semi-analytical resolution. Currently, semi-analytic resolutions are applied only in problems that have domain with parallel planes. As a rst step into this direction in this work we present a numerical resolution. Even with restrictions, our model can be implemented in several situations. A at region is a particular case of a curvilinear domain and can be studied, where the height of the boundary layer above rivers, lakes, basins is typically smaller and thus implies a varying boundary layer height, for instance. Thus, even in at regions variations in the boundary layer occur, which characterizes a case of a curvilinear domain. Our specific interest is the region around the Angra Nuclear Power Plant that need a large source of water for their operation. There are several nuclear power plants worldwide, that are located in mountainous regions, as for example in Japan and Brazil. As one step into a new direction we focus in this work on complex relieves. We present a simulation of tritium dispersion specifically in the area where the Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant of is located and where the relief is characterized by a considerable complexity. (author)

  5. Evolutionary models of early-type contact binary SV Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Y; Saio, H [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Science; Sugimoto, Daiichiro

    1978-12-01

    Models of the early-type contact binary system SV Centauri are computed with a binary-star evolution program. The effects of mass exchange, i.e., the effects of mass acceptance as well as mass loss, are properly included. With the initial masses of the component stars as 12.4 and 8.0 M sub(solar mass), the following observed configurations are well reproduced; the component stars are definitely in contact and the rate of mass exchange is 4 x 10/sup -4/ M sub(solar mass)yr/sup -1/. The more massive component is less luminous and has a lower effective temperature. Such features are also reproduced quantitatively. Agreement of the computed models with observation indicates that the binary system SV Cen is actually in the phase of rapid mass exchange preceding the mass-ratio reversal.

  6. ER Operations Installation of Three FLUTe Soil-Vapor Monitoring Wells (MWL-SV03 MWL-SV04 and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copland, John Robin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This installation report describes the May through July 2014 drilling activities performed for the installation of three multi-port soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) at the Mixed Waste Landfill (MWL), which is located at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM). SNL/NM is managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration. The MWL is designated as Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 76 and is located in Technical Area (TA) III (Figure 1-1). The locations of the three soil-vapor monitoring wells (MWL-SV03, MWL-SV04, and MWL-SV05) are shown in Figure 1-2

  7. Electrochemical cleaning of Sv-08G2S wire surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, E.I.; Degtyarev, V.G.; Novikov, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results of industrial tests of the Sv-08G2S wire with different state of surface fwith technological lubrication, after mechanical cleaning, with electrochemically cleaned surface) are presented. Advantages of welding-technological properties of the wire with electroe chemically cleaned surface are shown. An operation principle of the electrochemical cleaning facility is described. A brief specf ification f of the facility is given [ru

  8. Gene expression promoted by the SV40 DNA targeting sequence and the hypoxia-responsive element under normoxia and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Sacramento

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to find suitable DNA-targeting sequences (DTS for the construction of plasmid vectors to be used to treat ischemic diseases. The well-known Simian virus 40 nuclear DTS (SV40-DTS and hypoxia-responsive element (HRE sequences were used to construct plasmid vectors to express the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene (hVEGF. The rate of plasmid nuclear transport and consequent gene expression under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (less than 5% O2 were determined. Plasmids containing the SV40-DTS or HRE sequences were constructed and used to transfect the A293T cell line (a human embryonic kidney cell line in vitro and mouse skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Plasmid transport to the nucleus was monitored by real-time PCR, and the expression level of the hVEGF gene was measured by ELISA. The in vitro nuclear transport efficiency of the SV40-DTS plasmid was about 50% lower under hypoxia, while the HRE plasmid was about 50% higher under hypoxia. Quantitation of reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo, under hypoxia and normoxia, confirmed that the SV40-DTS plasmid functioned better under normoxia, while the HRE plasmid was superior under hypoxia. These results indicate that the efficiency of gene expression by plasmids containing DNA binding sequences is affected by the concentration of oxygen in the medium.

  9. Fetal bovine serum and human constitutive androstane receptor: Evidence for activation of the SV23 splice variant by artemisinin, artemether, and arteether in a serum-free cell culture system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Aik Jiang; Chang, Thomas K.H., E-mail: thomas.chang@ubc.ca

    2014-06-01

    The naturally occurring SV23 splice variant of human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR-SV23) is activated by di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), which is detected as a contaminant in fetal bovine serum (FBS). In our initial experiment, we compared the effect of dialyzed FBS, charcoal-stripped, dextran-treated FBS (CS-FBS), and regular FBS on the basal activity and ligand-activation of hCAR-SV23 in a cell-based reporter gene assay. In transfected HepG2 cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% FBS, basal hCAR-SV23 activity varied with the type of FBS (regular > dialyzed > CS). DEHP increased hCAR-SV23 activity when 10% CS-FBS, but not regular FBS or dialyzed FBS, was used. With increasing concentrations (1–10%) of regular FBS or CS-FBS, hCAR-SV23 basal activity increased, whereas in DEHP-treated cells, hCAR-SV23 activity remained similar (regular FBS) or slightly increased (CS-FBS). Subsequent experiments identified a serum-free culture condition to detect DEHP activation of hCAR-SV23. Under this condition, artemisinin, artemether, and arteether increased hCAR-SV23 activity, whereas they decreased it in cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10% regular FBS. By comparison, FBS increased the basal activity of the wild-type isoform of hCAR (hCAR-WT), whereas it did not affect the basal activity of the SV24 splice variant (hCAR-SV24) or ligand activation of hCAR-SV24 and hCAR-WT by 6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime (CITCO). The use of serum-free culture condition was suitable for detecting CITCO activation of hCAR-WT and hCAR-SV24. In conclusion, FBS leads to erroneous classification of pharmacological ligands of hCAR-SV23 in cell-based assays, but investigations on functional ligands of hCAR isoforms can be conducted in serum-free culture condition. - Highlights: • FBS leads to erroneous pharmacological classification of hCAR-SV23 ligands. • Artemisinin, artemether, and arteether activate hCAR-SV

  10. Is the standard dose rate for de-contamination, 0.23 mc-Sv/hr, truly 1 mSv/year?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Sadaaki

    2014-01-01

    Examined is the validity of the standard dose rates in the title, which have been additionally defined by Ministry of the Environment (ME) to the measures of Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident. The standard 0.23 mc-Sv/hr is the sum of natural ambient dose rate 0.04 mc-Sv/hr in average of Japan as measured with NaI scintillation surveymeter, plus additional accidental exposure dose 1 mSv/y, which is defined equivalent to 0.19 mc-Sv/hr. Here, the equation of addition 0.04+0.19 mc-Sv/hr is not exactly correct because the unit of each dose value has different means as follows. The natural dose is derived from the value 5.8 mc-R/hr (0.038 mc-Sv/hr, effective dose) of the average national natural dose data (2011) of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. However, if the measurement is done with the surveymeter which practically gives 1 cm dose equivalent, the rate is calculated to be 0.06 mc-Sv/hr. When the Fukushima prefectural natural dose rate 6.4 mc-R/hr is employed, the calculation gives 0.07 mc-Sv/hr. ME defines the additional doses to be 0.19 mc-Sv/hr and 1 mSv/y, which are derived from the calculation: (0.19 mc-Sv/hr x 8 hr outdoor + 0.19 mc-Sv/hr x 0.4 indoor, shielded) x 365 d/y= 1 mSv/y. The dose is assumed to be measurable with the surveymeter (1 cm dose equivalent) and thereby calculation, if the source is mainly "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs, gives the effective dose of 0.32 mc-Sv/hr to be managed by the meter. As this, the effective dose unit and 1 cm equivalent dose unit are used for calculation of the administrative standard dose rate of 1 mSv/y, which should be recognized by both radiological experts and administration for the explanation to general public. (T.T.)

  11. pSv3neo transfection and radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parris, C.N.; Masters, J.R.W.; Green, M.H.L.

    1990-01-01

    Immortalisation of human fibroblasts by transfection with a plasmid, pSV3neo, results in an increase in their radioresistance. The change in radiosensitivity may either be a consequence of transformation or due to expression of the SV40 T-antigen in pSV3neo. To investigate these two possibilities, we transfected pSV3neo into cells already transformed and immortalised. The radiosensitivies of three human bladder cancer cell lines were unaltered in clones expressing T-antigen, indicating that the changes observed in fibroblasts probably are a consequence of transformation, and not the presence of SV40 T-antigen. (author)

  12. SV2: accurate structural variation genotyping and de novo mutation detection from whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaki, Danny; Brandler, William M; Sebat, Jonathan

    2018-05-15

    Structural variation (SV) detection from short-read whole genome sequencing is error prone, presenting significant challenges for population or family-based studies of disease. Here, we describe SV2, a machine-learning algorithm for genotyping deletions and duplications from paired-end sequencing data. SV2 can rapidly integrate variant calls from multiple structural variant discovery algorithms into a unified call set with high genotyping accuracy and capability to detect de novo mutations. SV2 is freely available on GitHub (https://github.com/dantaki/SV2). jsebat@ucsd.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  13. Levetiracetam reverses synaptic deficits produced by overexpression of SV2A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nowack

    Full Text Available Levetiracetam is an FDA-approved drug used to treat epilepsy and other disorders of the nervous system. Although it is known that levetiracetam binds the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, how drug binding affects synaptic functioning remains unknown. Here we report that levetiracetam reverses the effects of excess SV2A in autaptic hippocampal neurons. Expression of an SV2A-EGFP fusion protein produced a ∼1.5-fold increase in synaptic levels of SV2, and resulted in reduced synaptic release probability. The overexpression phenotype parallels that seen in neurons from SV2 knockout mice, which experience severe seizures. Overexpression of SV2A also increased synaptic levels of the calcium-sensor protein synaptotagmin, an SV2-binding protein whose stability and trafficking are regulated by SV2. Treatment with levetiracetam rescued normal neurotransmission and restored normal levels of SV2 and synaptotagmin at the synapse. These results indicate that changes in SV2 expression in either direction impact neurotransmission, and suggest that levetiracetam may modulate SV2 protein interactions.

  14. Lorentz-diffeomorphism quasi-local conserved charges and Virasoro algebra in Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG are formulated at first order formalism. In this formalism, the derivation of the entropy of a black hole on bifurcation surface, as a quasi-local conserved charge is problematic. In this paper we overcome these problems by considering the concept of total variation and the Lorentz–Lie derivative. We firstly find an expression for the ADT conserved current in the context of the CSLTG which is based on the concept of the Killing vector fields. Then, we generalize it to be conserved for all diffeomorphism generators. Thus, we can extract an off-shell conserved charge for any vector field which generates a diffeomorphism. The formalism presented here is based on the concept of quasi-local conserved charges which are off-shell. The charges can be calculated on any codimension two space-like surface surrounding a black hole and the results are independent of the chosen surface. By using the off-shell quasi-local conserved charge, we investigate the Virasoro algebra and find a formula to calculate the central extension term. We apply the formalism to the BTZ black hole solution in the context of the Einstein gravity and the Generalized massive gravity, then we find the eigenvalues of their Virasoro generators as well as the corresponding central charges. Eventually, we calculate the entropy of the BTZ black hole by the Cardy formula and we show that the result exactly matches the one obtained by the concept of the off-shell conserved charges.

  15. SvO(2)-guided resuscitation for experimental septic shock: effects of fluid infusion and dobutamine on hemodynamics, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, André Loureiro; Park, Marcelo; Brunialti, Milena Karina; Mendes, Marialice; Rapozo, Marjorie; Fernandes, Denise; Salomão, Reinaldo; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael; Schettino, Guilherme Paula; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar P

    2011-12-01

    The pathogenetic mechanisms associated to the beneficial effects of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO(2))-guided resuscitation during sepsis are unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of an algorithm of SvO(2)-driven resuscitation including fluids, norepinephrine and dobutamine on hemodynamics, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular oxidative stress during a clinically resembling experimental model of septic shock. Eighteen anesthetized and catheterized pigs (35-45 kg) were submitted to peritonitis by fecal inoculation (0.75 g/kg). After hypotension, antibiotics were administered, and the animals were randomized to two groups: control (n = 9), with hemodynamic support aiming central venous pressure 8 to 12 mmHg, urinary output 0.5 mL/kg per hour, and mean arterial pressure greater than 65 mmHg; and SvO(2) (n = 9), with the goals above, plus SvO(2) greater than 65%. The interventions lasted 12 h, and lactated Ringer's and norepinephrine (both groups) and dobutamine (SvO(2) group) were administered. Inflammatory response was evaluated by plasma concentration of cytokines, neutrophil CD14 expression, oxidant generation, and apoptosis. Oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma and myocardial nitrate concentrations, myocardial and vascular NADP(H) oxidase activity, myocardial glutathione content, and nitrotyrosine expression. Mixed venous oxygen saturation-driven resuscitation was associated with improved systolic index, oxygen delivery, and diuresis. Sepsis induced in both groups a significant increase on IL-6 concentrations and plasma nitrate concentrations and a persistent decrease in neutrophil CD14 expression. Apoptosis rate and neutrophil oxidant generation were not different between groups. Treatment strategies did not significantly modify oxidative stress parameters. Thus, an approach aiming SvO(2) during sepsis improves hemodynamics, without any significant effect on inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The beneficial effects associated

  16. Stimulation of NADH-dependent microsomal DNA strand cleavage by rifamycin SV.

    OpenAIRE

    Kukiełka, E; Cederbaum, A I

    1995-01-01

    Rifamycin SV is an antibiotic anti-bacterial agent used in the treatment of tuberculosis. This drug can autoxidize, especially in the presence of metals, and generate reactive oxygen species. A previous study indicated that rifamycin SV can increase NADH-dependent microsomal production of reactive oxygen species. The current study evaluated the ability of rifamycin SV to interact with iron and increase microsomal production of hydroxyl radical, as detected by conversion of supercoiled plasmid...

  17. SV-AUTOPILOT: optimized, automated construction of structural variation discovery and benchmarking pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai Yi; Marschall, Tobias; Paudel, Yogesh; Falquet, Laurent; Mei, Hailiang; Schönhuth, Alexander; Maoz Moss, Tiffanie Yael

    2015-03-25

    Many tools exist to predict structural variants (SVs), utilizing a variety of algorithms. However, they have largely been developed and tested on human germline or somatic (e.g. cancer) variation. It seems appropriate to exploit this wealth of technology available for humans also for other species. Objectives of this work included: a) Creating an automated, standardized pipeline for SV prediction. b) Identifying the best tool(s) for SV prediction through benchmarking. c) Providing a statistically sound method for merging SV calls. The SV-AUTOPILOT meta-tool platform is an automated pipeline for standardization of SV prediction and SV tool development in paired-end next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis. SV-AUTOPILOT comes in the form of a virtual machine, which includes all datasets, tools and algorithms presented here. The virtual machine easily allows one to add, replace and update genomes, SV callers and post-processing routines and therefore provides an easy, out-of-the-box environment for complex SV discovery tasks. SV-AUTOPILOT was used to make a direct comparison between 7 popular SV tools on the Arabidopsis thaliana genome using the Landsberg (Ler) ecotype as a standardized dataset. Recall and precision measurements suggest that Pindel and Clever were the most adaptable to this dataset across all size ranges while Delly performed well for SVs larger than 250 nucleotides. A novel, statistically-sound merging process, which can control the false discovery rate, reduced the false positive rate on the Arabidopsis benchmark dataset used here by >60%. SV-AUTOPILOT provides a meta-tool platform for future SV tool development and the benchmarking of tools on other genomes using a standardized pipeline. It optimizes detection of SVs in non-human genomes using statistically robust merging. The benchmarking in this study has demonstrated the power of 7 different SV tools for analyzing different size classes and types of structural variants. The optional merge

  18. Prediction of CT Substitutes from MR Images Based on Local Diffeomorphic Mapping for Brain PET Attenuation Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Yang, Wei; Lu, Lijun; Lu, Zhentai; Zhong, Liming; Huang, Meiyan; Feng, Yanqiu; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2016-10-01

    Attenuation correction is important for PET reconstruction. In PET/MR, MR intensities are not directly related to attenuation coefficients that are needed in PET imaging. The attenuation coefficient map can be derived from CT images. Therefore, prediction of CT substitutes from MR images is desired for attenuation correction in PET/MR. This study presents a patch-based method for CT prediction from MR images, generating attenuation maps for PET reconstruction. Because no global relation exists between MR and CT intensities, we propose local diffeomorphic mapping (LDM) for CT prediction. In LDM, we assume that MR and CT patches are located on 2 nonlinear manifolds, and the mapping from the MR manifold to the CT manifold approximates a diffeomorphism under a local constraint. Locality is important in LDM and is constrained by the following techniques. The first is local dictionary construction, wherein, for each patch in the testing MR image, a local search window is used to extract patches from training MR/CT pairs to construct MR and CT dictionaries. The k-nearest neighbors and an outlier detection strategy are then used to constrain the locality in MR and CT dictionaries. Second is local linear representation, wherein, local anchor embedding is used to solve MR dictionary coefficients when representing the MR testing sample. Under these local constraints, dictionary coefficients are linearly transferred from the MR manifold to the CT manifold and used to combine CT training samples to generate CT predictions. Our dataset contains 13 healthy subjects, each with T1- and T2-weighted MR and CT brain images. This method provides CT predictions with a mean absolute error of 110.1 Hounsfield units, Pearson linear correlation of 0.82, peak signal-to-noise ratio of 24.81 dB, and Dice in bone regions of 0.84 as compared with real CTs. CT substitute-based PET reconstruction has a regression slope of 1.0084 and R 2 of 0.9903 compared with real CT-based PET. In this method, no

  19. Development of direct reading dosimeters for the dose 0-3 mSv and 0-5 mSv ranges for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaikwad, P.V.; Shirkar, Y.B.; Patil, A.S.; Madgaonkar, P.P.; Kale, K.L.; Guhagarkar, H.V.; Gandhi, D.P.; Gupta, S.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.; Sahni, V.C.

    1998-01-01

    Direct reading dosimeters (DRDs) are widely used to measure cumulative dose received by personnel working at nuclear reactor sites or in other environment having x- and gamma rays. A DRD operates on the principle of gold leaf electroscope, and is a small, rugged, hermetically sealed, self reading type device easily carried by an individual in his pocket. The development of dosimeters suitable for the dose ranges 0-3 mSv and 0-5 mSv is reported

  20. Voxel-based morphometric analysis in hypothyroidism using diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Modi, S; Bagga, D; Kaur, P; Shankar, L R; Khushu, S

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether brain morphological differences exist between adult hypothyroid subjects and age-matched controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) with diffeomorphic anatomic registration via an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were taken in ten healthy controls and ten hypothyroid subjects. The analysis was conducted using statistical parametric mapping. The VBM study revealed a reduction in grey matter volume in the left postcentral gyrus and cerebellum of hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. A significant reduction in white matter volume was also found in the cerebellum, right inferior and middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right inferior occipital gyrus and right temporal gyrus of hypothyroid patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, no meaningful cluster for greater grey or white matter volume was obtained in hypothyroid subjects compared to controls. Our study is the first VBM study of hypothyroidism in an adult population and suggests that, compared to controls, this disorder is associated with differences in brain morphology in areas corresponding to known functional deficits in attention, language, motor speed, visuospatial processing and memory in hypothyroidism. © 2012 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  1. A SEMI-LAGRANGIAN TWO-LEVEL PRECONDITIONED NEWTON-KRYLOV SOLVER FOR CONSTRAINED DIFFEOMORPHIC IMAGE REGISTRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Andreas; Biros, George

    2017-01-01

    We propose an efficient numerical algorithm for the solution of diffeomorphic image registration problems. We use a variational formulation constrained by a partial differential equation (PDE), where the constraints are a scalar transport equation. We use a pseudospectral discretization in space and second-order accurate semi-Lagrangian time stepping scheme for the transport equations. We solve for a stationary velocity field using a preconditioned, globalized, matrix-free Newton-Krylov scheme. We propose and test a two-level Hessian preconditioner. We consider two strategies for inverting the preconditioner on the coarse grid: a nested preconditioned conjugate gradient method (exact solve) and a nested Chebyshev iterative method (inexact solve) with a fixed number of iterations. We test the performance of our solver in different synthetic and real-world two-dimensional application scenarios. We study grid convergence and computational efficiency of our new scheme. We compare the performance of our solver against our initial implementation that uses the same spatial discretization but a standard, explicit, second-order Runge-Kutta scheme for the numerical time integration of the transport equations and a single-level preconditioner. Our improved scheme delivers significant speedups over our original implementation. As a highlight, we observe a 20 × speedup for a two dimensional, real world multi-subject medical image registration problem.

  2. Precise determination of protein extinction coefficients under native and denaturing conditions using SV-AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Andreas; Grassl, Kerstin; Gommert, Janine; Schlesak, Christian; Bepperling, Alexander

    2018-04-17

    The accurate determination of protein concentration is an important though non-trivial task during the development of a biopharmaceutical. The fundamental prerequisite for this is the availability of an accurate extinction coefficient. Common approaches for the determination of an extinction coefficient for a given protein are either based on the theoretical prediction utilizing the amino acid sequence or the photometric determination combined with a measurement of absolute protein concentration. Here, we report on an improved SV-AUC based method utilizing an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with absorbance and Rayleigh interference optics. Global fitting of datasets helped to overcome some of the obstacles encountered with the traditional method employing synthetic boundary cells. Careful calculation of dn/dc values taking glycosylation and solvent composition into account allowed the determination of the extinction coefficients of monoclonal antibodies and an Fc-fusion protein under native as well as under denaturing conditions. An intra-assay precision of 0.9% and an accuracy of 1.8% compared to the theoretical value was achieved for monoclonal antibodies. Due to the large number of data points of a single dataset, no meaningful difference between the ProteomeLab XL-I and the new Optima AUC platform could be observed. Thus, the AUC-based approach offers a precise, convenient and versatile alternative to conventional methods like total amino acid analysis (AAA).

  3. High throughput testing of the SV40 Large T antigen binding to cellular p53 identifies putative drugs for the treatment of SV40-related cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Michele; Rudzinski, Jennifer; Bocchetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    SV40 has been linked to some human malignancies, and the evidence that this virus plays a causative role in mesothelioma and brain tumors is mounting. The major SV40 oncoprotein is the Large tumor antigen (Tag). A key Tag transforming activity is connected to its capability to bind and inactivate cellular p53. In this study we developed an effective, high throughput, ELISA-based method to study Tag-p53 interaction in vitro. This assay allowed us to screen a chemical library and to identify a chemical inhibitor of the Tag binding to p53. We propose that our in vitro assay is a useful method to identify molecules that may be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of SV40-related human cancers

  4. Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping registration of reconstructed 3D histological section images and in vivo MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ceritoglu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of neuroanatomical abnormalities in neuropsychiatric diseases is based largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and post mortem histological analyses of the brain. Further advances in elucidating altered brain structure in these human conditions might emerge from combining MRI and histological methods. We propose a multistage method for registering 3D volumes reconstructed from histological sections to corresponding in vivo MRI volumes from the same subjects: (1 manual segmentation of white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments in histological sections, (2 alignment of consecutive histological sections using 2D rigid transformation to construct a 3D histological image volume from the aligned sections, (3 registration of reconstructed 3D histological volumes to the corresponding 3D MRI volumes using 3D affine transformation, (4 intensity normalization of images via histogram matching and (5 registration of the volumes via intensity based Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric (LDDMM image matching algorithm. Here we demonstrate the utility of our method in the transfer of cytoarchitectonic information from histological sections to identify regions of interest in MRI scans of nine adult macaque brains for morphometric analyses. LDDMM improved the accuracy of the registration via decreased distances between GM/CSF surfaces after LDDMM (0.39±0.13 mm compared to distances after affine registration (0.76±0.41 mm. Similarly, WM/GM distances decreased to 0.28±0.16 mm after LDDMM compared to 0.54±0.39 mm after affine registration. The multistage registration method may find broad application for mapping histologically based information, e.g., receptor distributions, gene expression, onto MRI volumes.

  5. Sequence-selective topoisomerase II inhibition by anthracycline derivatives in SV40 DNA: Relationship with DNA binding affinity and cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capranico, G.; Kohn, K.W.; Pommier, Y.; Zunino, F.

    1990-01-01

    Topoisomerase II mediated double-strand breaks produced by anthracycline analogues were studied in SV40 DNA. The compounds included doxorubicin, daunorubicin, two doxorubicin stereoisomers (4'-epimer and β-anomer), and five chromophore-modified derivatives, with a wide range of cytotoxic activity and DNA binding affinity. Cleavage of 32 P-end-labeled DNA fragments was visualized by autoradiography of agarose and polyacrylamide gels. Structure-activity relationships indicated that alterations in the chromophore structure greatly affected drug action on topoisomerase II. In particular, removal of substituents on position 4 of the D ring resulted in more active inducers of cleavage with lower DNA binding affinity. The stereochemistry between the sugar and the chromophore was also essential for activity. All the active anthracyclines induced a single region of prominent cleavage in the entire SV40 DNA, which resulted from a cluster of sites between nucleotides 4237 and 4294. DNA cleavage intensity patterns exhibited differences among analogues and were also dependent upon drug concentration. Intensity at a given site dependent on both stimulatory and suppressive effects depending upon drug concentration and DNA sequence. A good correlation was found between cytotoxicity and intensity of topoisomerase II mediated DNA breakage

  6. Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified SV40 minichromosomes: the liquid drop model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubochet, J; Adrian, M; Schultz, P; Oudet, P

    1986-03-01

    The structure of SV40 minichromosomes has been studied by cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified thin layers of solution. In high-salt buffer (130 mM NaCl), freshly prepared minichromosomes are condensed into globules 30 nm or more in diameter. On the micrograph, they appear to be formed by the close packing of 10 nm granules which give rise to a 10 nm reflection in the optical diffractogram. The globules can adopt many different conformations. At high concentration, they fuse into a homogeneous 'sea' of closely packed 10 nm granules. In low-salt buffer (less than 10 mM NaCl), the globules open, first into 10 nm filaments, and then into nucleosome-strings. The 'liquid drop' model is proposed to explain the condensed structure of the minichromosome in high-salt buffer: nucleosomes stack specifically on top of one another, thus forming the 10 nm filaments. 10 nm filaments in turn, tend to aggregate laterally. Optimizing both these interactions results in the condensation of 10 nm filaments or portions thereof into a structure similar to that of a liquid. Some implications of this model for the structure of cellular chromatin are discussed.

  7. Genetic influences on ovulation of primary oocytes in LT/Sv strain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Clare A; Auchincloss, Catherine A; Kaufman, Matthew H; Abbott, Catherine M; West, John D

    2004-11-01

    A high proportion of LT/Sv strain oocytes arrest in meiotic metaphase I (MI) and are ovulated as diploid primary oocytes rather than haploid secondary oocytes. (Mus musculus castaneus x LT/SvKau)F1 x LT/SvKau backcross females were analysed for the proportion of oocytes that arrested in MI and typed by PCR for a panel of microsatellite DNA sequences (simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) that differed between strain LT/SvKau and M. m. castaneus. This provided a whole genome scan of 86 genetic markers distributed over all 19 autosomes and the X chromosome, and revealed genetic linkage of the MI arrest phenotype to markers on chromosomes 1 and 9. Identification of these two chromosomal regions should facilitate the identification of genes involved in mammalian oocyte maturation and the control of meiosis.

  8. GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice on a 129/Sv background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Groenink, L.; Oosting, R.S.; Gugten, J. van der; Maes, R.A.A.; Olivier, B.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout (1AKO) mice on a mixed Swiss Websterx129/Sv (SWx129/Sv) and a pure 129/Sv genetic background suggest a differential gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in both strains, independent from the anxious phenotype. To

  9. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Z Salem

    Full Text Available The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS. In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV, the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt, and gp37. In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications.

  10. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Seaborn, Craig P.; Turney, Colin M.; Xue, Jianli; Shang, Hui; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA) has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS). In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter) transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt), and gp37). In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications). PMID:26659470

  11. Analysis of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in control and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, P D; Brandt, P C; Vanaman, T C

    1997-01-01

    It has been long known that neoplastic transformation is accompanied by a lowered requirement for extracellular Ca2+ for growth. The studies presented here demonstrate that human fibroblastic cell lines produce the two commonly found 'housekeeping' isoforms of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), PMCA1b and 4b, and at the expression of both is demonstrably lower in cell lines neoplastically transformed by SV40 than in the corresponding parental cell lines. Western blot analyses of lysates from control (GM00037) and SV40-transformed (GM00637) skin fibroblasts revealed a 138 kDa PMCA whose level was significantly lower in the SV40-transformed cells relative to either total cellular protein or alpha-tubulin. Similar analyses of plasma membrane preparations from control WI-38) and SV40-transformed (WI-38VA13) lung fibroblasts revealed 3-4-fold lower levels of PMCA in the SV40-transformed cells. Competitive ELISAs performed on detergent solubilized plasma membrane preparations indicated at least 3-4-fold lower levels of PMCA in the SV40-transformed cell lines compared to controls. Reverse transcriptase coupled-PCR analyses showed that PMCA1b and PMCA4b were the only isoforms expressed in all four cell lines. The PMCA4b mRNA level detected by Northern analysis also was substantially lower in SV40 transformed skin fibroblasts than in non-transformed fibroblasts. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed levels of PMCA1b and 4b mRNAs to be 5 and 10-fold lower, respectively, in GM00637 than in GM00037 when the levels of PCR products were normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) mRNA. These results demonstrate that the expression of these distinct PMCA genes is substantially lower in SV40 transformed human skin and lung fibroblasts and may be coordinately regulated in these cells.

  12. Test of models for replication of SV40 DNA following UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, S.W.

    1983-01-01

    The replication of SV40 DNA immediately after irradiation of infected monkey cells has been examined. SV40 DNA synthesis is inhibited in a UV fluence-dependent fashion, and the synthesis of completely replicated (Form I) SV40 molecules is more severely inhibited than is total SV40 DNA synthesis. Two models for DNA replication-inhibition have been tested. Experimental results have been compared to those predicted by mathematical models derived to describe two possible molecular mechanisms of replication inhibition. No effect of UV irradiation on the uptake and phosphorylation of 3 H-thymidine nor on the size of the intracellular deoxythymidine triphosphate pool of SV40-infected cells have been observed, validating the use of 3 H-thymidine incorporation as a measure of DNA synthesis in this system. In vitro studies have been performed to further investigate the mechanism of dimer-specific inhibition of completion of SV40 DNA synthesis observed in in vivo. The results of these studies are consistent with a mechanism of discontinuous synthesis past dimer sites, but it is equally possible that the mechanism of DNA replication of UV-damaged DNA in the in vitro system is different from that which occurs in vivo

  13. Optic disc boundary segmentation from diffeomorphic demons registration of monocular fundus image sequences versus 3D visualization of stereo fundus image pairs for automated early stage glaucoma assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Vijay; Hill, Jason; Mitra, Sunanda; Nutter, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Despite the current availability in resource-rich regions of advanced technologies in scanning and 3-D imaging in current ophthalmology practice, world-wide screening tests for early detection and progression of glaucoma still consist of a variety of simple tools, including fundus image-based parameters such as CDR (cup to disc diameter ratio) and CAR (cup to disc area ratio), especially in resource -poor regions. Reliable automated computation of the relevant parameters from fundus image sequences requires robust non-rigid registration and segmentation techniques. Recent research work demonstrated that proper non-rigid registration of multi-view monocular fundus image sequences could result in acceptable segmentation of cup boundaries for automated computation of CAR and CDR. This research work introduces a composite diffeomorphic demons registration algorithm for segmentation of cup boundaries from a sequence of monocular images and compares the resulting CAR and CDR values with those computed manually by experts and from 3-D visualization of stereo pairs. Our preliminary results show that the automated computation of CDR and CAR from composite diffeomorphic segmentation of monocular image sequences yield values comparable with those from the other two techniques and thus may provide global healthcare with a cost-effective yet accurate tool for management of glaucoma in its early stage.

  14. Dissociation of DNA damage and mitochondrial injury caused by hydrogen peroxide in SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adcock Ian M

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since lung epithelial cells are constantly being exposed to reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, the alveolar surface is a major site of oxidative stress, and each cell type may respond differently to oxidative stress. We compared the extent of oxidative DNA damage with that of mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells at the single cell level. Result DNA damage and mitochondrial injury were measured after oxidative stress in the SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cell line challenged with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Single cell analysis of DNA damage was determined by assessing the number of 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG positive cells, a marker of DNA modification, and the length of a comet tail. Mitochondrial membrane potential, ΔΨm, was determined using JC-1. A 1 h pulse of H2O2 induced small amounts of apoptosis (3%. 8-oxo-dG-positive cells and the length of the comet tail increased within 1 h of exposure to H2O2. The number of cells with reduced ΔΨm increased after the addition of H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. In spite of a continual loss of ΔΨm, DNA fragmentation was reduced 2 h after exposure to H2O2. Conclusion The data suggest that SV-40 transformed lung epithelial cells are resistant to oxidative stress, showing that DNA damage can be dissociated from mitochondrial injury.

  15. The Invisibility of Diffeomorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    De Haro, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    I examine the relationship between $(d+1)$-dimensional Poincar\\'e metrics and $d$-dimensional conformal manifolds, from both mathematical and physical perspectives. The results have a bearing on several conceptual issues relating to asymptotic symmetries, in general relativity and in gauge-gravity duality, as follows: (1: Ambient Construction) I draw from the remarkable work by Fefferman and Graham (1985, 2012) on conformal geometry, in order to prove two propositions and a theorem that chara...

  16. Visualization of SV2A conformations in situ by the use of Protein Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Berkley A.; Matagne, Alain; Braennstroem, Annika; Euler, Anne von; Jansson, Magnus; Hauzenberger, Elenor; Soederhaell, J. Arvid

    2008-01-01

    The synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), the brain-binding site of the anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), has been characterized by Protein Tomography TM . We identified two major conformations of SV2A in mouse brain tissue: first, a compact, funnel-structure with a pore-like opening towards the cytoplasm; second, a more open, V-shaped structure with a cleft-like opening towards the intravesicular space. The large differences between these conformations suggest a high degree of flexibility and support a valve-like mechanism consistent with the postulated transporter role of SV2A. These two conformations are represented both in samples treated with LEV, and in saline-treated samples, which indicates that LEV binding does not cause a large-scale conformational change of SV2A, or lock a specific conformational state of the protein. This study provides the first direct structural data on SV2A, and supports a transporter function suggested by sequence homology to MFS class of transporter proteins

  17. Improving Weak Lensing Mass Map Reconstructions using Gaussian and Sparsity Priors: Application to DES SV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, N.; Abdalla, F. B.; Lahav, O.; Lanusse, F.; Starck, J.-L.; Leonard, A.; Kirk, D.; Chang, C.; Baxter, E.; Kacprzak, T.; Seitz, S.; Vikram, V.; Whiteway, L.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Avila, S.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; De Vicente, J.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartley, W. G.; Honscheid, K.; Hoyle, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kuehn, K.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; March, M.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Mapping the underlying density field, including non-visible dark matter, using weak gravitational lensing measurements is now a standard tool in cosmology. Due to its importance to the science results of current and upcoming surveys, the quality of the convergence reconstruction methods should be well understood. We compare three methods: Kaiser-Squires (KS), Wiener filter, and GLIMPSE. KS is a direct inversion, not accounting for survey masks or noise. The Wiener filter is well-motivated for Gaussian density fields in a Bayesian framework. GLIMPSE uses sparsity, aiming to reconstruct non-linearities in the density field. We compare these methods with several tests using public Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data and realistic DES simulations. The Wiener filter and GLIMPSE offer substantial improvements over smoothed KS with a range of metrics. Both the Wiener filter and GLIMPSE convergence reconstructions show a 12% improvement in Pearson correlation with the underlying truth from simulations. To compare the mapping methods' abilities to find mass peaks, we measure the difference between peak counts from simulated ΛCDM shear catalogues and catalogues with no mass fluctuations (a standard data vector when inferring cosmology from peak statistics); the maximum signal-to-noise of these peak statistics is increased by a factor of 3.5 for the Wiener filter and 9 for GLIMPSE. With simulations we measure the reconstruction of the harmonic phases; the phase residuals' concentration is improved 17% by GLIMPSE and 18% by the Wiener filter. The correlation between reconstructions from data and foreground redMaPPer clusters is increased 18% by the Wiener filter and 32% by GLIMPSE.

  18. Improving Weak Lensing Mass Map Reconstructions using Gaussian and Sparsity Priors: Application to DES SV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey, N.; et al.

    2018-01-26

    Mapping the underlying density field, including non-visible dark matter, using weak gravitational lensing measurements is now a standard tool in cosmology. Due to its importance to the science results of current and upcoming surveys, the quality of the convergence reconstruction methods should be well understood. We compare three different mass map reconstruction methods: Kaiser-Squires (KS), Wiener filter, and GLIMPSE. KS is a direct inversion method, taking no account of survey masks or noise. The Wiener filter is well motivated for Gaussian density fields in a Bayesian framework. The GLIMPSE method uses sparsity, with the aim of reconstructing non-linearities in the density field. We compare these methods with a series of tests on the public Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) data and on realistic DES simulations. The Wiener filter and GLIMPSE methods offer substantial improvement on the standard smoothed KS with a range of metrics. For both the Wiener filter and GLIMPSE convergence reconstructions we present a 12% improvement in Pearson correlation with the underlying truth from simulations. To compare the mapping methods' abilities to find mass peaks, we measure the difference between peak counts from simulated {\\Lambda}CDM shear catalogues and catalogues with no mass fluctuations. This is a standard data vector when inferring cosmology from peak statistics. The maximum signal-to-noise value of these peak statistic data vectors was increased by a factor of 3.5 for the Wiener filter and by a factor of 9 using GLIMPSE. With simulations we measure the reconstruction of the harmonic phases, showing that the concentration of the phase residuals is improved 17% by GLIMPSE and 18% by the Wiener filter. We show that the correlation between the reconstructions from data and the foreground redMaPPer clusters is increased 18% by the Wiener filter and 32% by GLIMPSE. [Abridged

  19. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2C (SV2C) modulates dopamine release and is disrupted in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Amy R; Stout, Kristen A; Ozawa, Minagi; Lohr, Kelly M; Hoffman, Carlie A; Bernstein, Alison I; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Minzheng; Sgobio, Carmelo; Sastry, Namratha; Cai, Huaibin; Caudle, W Michael; Miller, Gary W

    2017-03-14

    Members of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2 (SV2) family of proteins are involved in synaptic function throughout the brain. The ubiquitously expressed SV2A has been widely implicated in epilepsy, although SV2C with its restricted basal ganglia distribution is poorly characterized. SV2C is emerging as a potentially relevant protein in Parkinson disease (PD), because it is a genetic modifier of sensitivity to l-DOPA and of nicotine neuroprotection in PD. Here we identify SV2C as a mediator of dopamine homeostasis and report that disrupted expression of SV2C within the basal ganglia is a pathological feature of PD. Genetic deletion of SV2C leads to reduced dopamine release in the dorsal striatum as measured by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, reduced striatal dopamine content, disrupted α-synuclein expression, deficits in motor function, and alterations in neurochemical effects of nicotine. Furthermore, SV2C expression is dramatically altered in postmortem brain tissue from PD cases but not in Alzheimer disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, or multiple system atrophy. This disruption was paralleled in mice overexpressing mutated α-synuclein. These data establish SV2C as a mediator of dopamine neuron function and suggest that SV2C disruption is a unique feature of PD that likely contributes to dopaminergic dysfunction.

  20. Dynamic VaR Measurement of Gold Market with SV-T-MN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglan Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available VaR (Value at Risk in the gold market was measured and predicted by combining stochastic volatility (SV model with extreme value theory. Firstly, for the fat tail and volatility persistence characteristics in gold market return series, the gold price return volatility was modeled by SV-T-MN (SV-T with Mixture-of-Normal distribution model based on state space. Secondly, future sample volatility prediction was realized by using approximate filtering algorithm. Finally, extreme value theory based on generalized Pareto distribution was applied to measure dynamic risk value (VaR of gold market return. Through the proposed model on the price of gold, empirical analysis was investigated; the results show that presented combined model can measure and predict Value at Risk of the gold market reasonably and effectively and enable investors to further understand the extreme risk of gold market and take coping strategies actively.

  1. Properties of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigens encoded by SV40 mutants with deletions in gene A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C N; Tornow, J; Clark, R; Tjian, R

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical properties of the large T antigens encoded by simian virus 40 (SV40) mutants with deletions at DdeI sites in the SV40 A gene were determined. Mutant large T antigens containing only the first 138 to 140 amino acids were unable to bind to the SV40 origin of DNA replication as were large T antigens containing at their COOH termini 96 or 97 amino acids encoded by the long open reading frame located between 0.22 and 0.165 map units (m.u.). All other mutant large T antigens were able to bind to the SV40 origin of replication. Mutants with in-phase deletions at 0.288 and 0.243 m.u. lacked ATPase activity, but ATPase activity was normal in mutants lacking origin-binding activity. The 627-amino acid large T antigen encoded by dlA2465, with a deletion at 0.219 m.u., was the smallest large T antigen displaying ATPase activity. Mutant large T antigens with the alternate 96- or 97-amino acid COOH terminus also lacked ATPase activity. All mutant large T antigens were found in the nuclei of infected cells; a small amount of large T with the alternate COOH terminus was also located in the cytoplasm. Mutant dlA2465 belonged to the same class of mutants as dlA2459. It was unable to form plaques on CV-1p cells at 37 or 32 degrees C but could form plaques on BSC-1 monolayers at 37 degrees C but not at 32 degrees C. It was positive for viral DNA replication and showed intracistronic complementation with any group A mutant whose large T antigen contained a normal carboxyl terminus. These findings and those of others suggest that both DNA binding and ATPase activity are required for the viral DNA replication function of large T antigen, that these two activities must be located on the same T antigen monomer, and that these two activities are performed by distinct domains of the polypeptide. These domains are distinct and separable from the domain affected by the mutation of dlA2465 and indicate that SV40 large T antigen is made up of at least three separate functional

  2. Solid state fermentation and production of rifamycin SV using Amycolatopsis mediterranei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagavalli, M; Ponamgi, S P D; Girijashankar, V; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2015-01-01

    Production of Rifamycin SV from cheaper agro-industrial by-products using mutant strain of Amycolatopsis mediterranei OVA5-E7 in solid state fermentation (SSF) was optimized. Among the agro-based substrates used, ragi bran was found suitable for maximizing the yield of Rifamycin SV (1310 mg 100 g(-1) ds). The yield can be further enhanced to 19·7 g Kg(-1) of dry substrate by supplementing the substrate with deoiled cotton cake (10% w/w) using optimized fermentation parameters such as maintaining 80% moisture, pH 7·0, 30°C incubation temperature, inoculum 25% v/w and carrying the solid state fermenting for 9 days. Manipulating these seven specifications, the end product yield achieved in our experimentation was 20 g of Rifamycin SV Kg(-1) ds. Eventually, an overall 5-fold improvement in Rifamycin SV production was achieved. Antibiotics such as rifamycin are broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs used in large-scale worldwide as human medicine towards controlling diseases. Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain which produces this antibiotic was earlier used in submerged fermentation yielded lower amounts of rifamycin. By employing cheaper agro-industrial by-products, we produced upto 20 g rifamycin SV per Kg dry substrate used under optimized solid state fermentation conditions. Keeping in view, the role of rifamycin in meeting the medical demands of world's increasing population; we successfully used an improved strain on cheaper substrates with optimized fermentation parameters and achieved a 5-fold improvement in rifamycin SV production. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: evidence for cellular aging in pre-crisis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, G H

    1985-10-01

    Pre-crisis SV40-transformed human diploid fibroblast (HDF) cultures have a finite proliferative lifespan, but they do not enter a viable senescent state at end of lifespan. Little is known about either the mechanism for this finite lifespan in SV40-transformed HDF or its relationship to finite lifespan in normal HDF. Recently we proposed that in normal HDF the phenomena of finite lifespan and arrest in a viable senescent state depend on two separate processes: 1) an age-related decrease in the ability of the cells to recognize or respond to serum and/or other mitogens such that the cells become functionally mitogen-deprived at the end of lifespan; and 2) the ability of the cells to enter a viable, G1-arrested state whenever they experience mitogen deprivation. In this paper, data are presented that suggest that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF retain the first process described above, but lack the second process. It is shown that SV40-transformed HDF have a progressively decreasing ability to respond to serum as they age, but they continue to traverse the cell cycle at the end of lifespan. Concomitantly, the rate of cell death increases steadily toward the end of lifespan, thereby causing the total population to cease growing and ultimately to decline. Previous studies have shown that when SV40-transformed HDF are environmentally serum deprived, they likewise exhibit continued cell cycle traverse coupled with increased cell death. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that pre-crisis SV40-transformed HDF still undergo the same aging process as do normal HDF, but they end their lifespan in crisis rather than in the normal G1-arrested senescent state because they have lost their ability to enter a viable, G1-arrested state in response to mitogen deprivation.

  4. Antička baština samostana sv. Frane u Splitu

    OpenAIRE

    Cambi, Nenad

    2005-01-01

    Na mjestu današnjega franjevačkog samostana sv. Frane u Splitu otkriveno je nekoliko starokršćanskih spomenika: dva natpisa (danas izgubljena), sarkofag s prikazom motiva Prelaska Izraelaca preko Crvenoga mora, fragment s prikazom Krista i apostola te najvjerojatnije i motivom Davida i Golijata, pilastar s urezanim križem, fragment akroterija sarkofaga s križem te omanji fragment pluteja s ljiljanom. Današnja crkva sv. Frane uništila je prethodni samostan i crkvu, koje je u XI. st. podigao sp...

  5. White matter abnormalities in young males with antisocial personality disorder Evidence from voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.

  6. Genome-Wide Comparative Functional Analyses Reveal Adaptations of Salmonella sv. Newport to a Plant Colonization Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. de Moraes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of salmonellosis linked to the consumption of vegetables have been disproportionately associated with strains of serovar Newport. We tested the hypothesis that strains of sv. Newport have evolved unique adaptations to persistence in plants that are not shared by strains of other Salmonella serovars. We used a genome-wide mutant screen to compare growth in tomato fruit of a sv. Newport strain from an outbreak traced to tomatoes, and a sv. Typhimurium strain from animals. Most genes in the sv. Newport strain that were selected during persistence in tomatoes were shared with, and similarly selected in, the sv. Typhimurium strain. Many of their functions are linked to central metabolism, including amino acid biosynthetic pathways, iron acquisition, and maintenance of cell structure. One exception was a greater need for the core genes involved in purine metabolism in sv. Typhimurium than in sv. Newport. We discovered a gene, papA, that was unique to sv. Newport and contributed to the strain’s fitness in tomatoes. The papA gene was present in about 25% of sv. Newport Group III genomes and generally absent from other Salmonella genomes. Homologs of papA were detected in the genomes of Pantoea, Dickeya, and Pectobacterium, members of the Enterobacteriacea family that can colonize both plants and animals.

  7. Measuring marine iron(III) complexes by CLE-AdSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Iron(iii) speciation data, as determined by competitive ligand exchange?adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdSV), is reconsidered in the light of the kinetic features of the measurement. The very large stability constants reported for iron(iii) in marine ecosystems are shown to be possibly due to

  8. Reply to Comments on Measuring marine iron(III) complexes by CLE-AdSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2005-01-01

    The interpretation of CLE-AdSV based iron(iii) speciation data for marine waters has been called into question in light of the kinetic features of the measurement. The implications of the re-think may have consequences for understanding iron biogeochemistry and its impact on ecosystem functioning.

  9. Reflection of P and SV waves at the free surface of a monoclinic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The propagation of plane waves in an anisotropic elastic medium possessing monoclinic symmetry is discussed. The expressions for the phase velocity of qP and qSV waves propagating in the plane of elastic symmetry are obtained in terms of the direction cosines of the propagation vector. It is shown that, in general, ...

  10. Effektregnskab for projektet Digitales ll – Det svære valg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Stine

    Effektregnskabet for projektet Digitales ll – Det svære valg er udarbejdet af forskningscenteret INCEVIDA, Aalborg Universitet 2012. Rapporten er gennemført i et samarbejde mellem INCEVIDA, KulturarvNord og Bangsbo Museum. Effektregnskabet tager udgangspunkt i en model for oplevelsesøkonomisk...

  11. Guidance to Achieve Accurate Aggregate Quantitation in Biopharmaceuticals by SV-AUC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Kelly K; Kendrick, Brent S; Gabrielson, John P

    2015-01-01

    The levels and types of aggregates present in protein biopharmaceuticals must be assessed during all stages of product development, manufacturing, and storage of the finished product. Routine monitoring of aggregate levels in biopharmaceuticals is typically achieved by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) due to its high precision, speed, robustness, and simplicity to operate. However, SEC is error prone and requires careful method development to ensure accuracy of reported aggregate levels. Sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation (SV-AUC) is an orthogonal technique that can be used to measure protein aggregation without many of the potential inaccuracies of SEC. In this chapter, we discuss applications of SV-AUC during biopharmaceutical development and how characteristics of the technique make it better suited for some applications than others. We then discuss the elements of a comprehensive analytical control strategy for SV-AUC. Successful implementation of these analytical control elements ensures that SV-AUC provides continued value over the long time frames necessary to bring biopharmaceuticals to market. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Radon concentration measurements in therapeutic spring water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deak, N.; Horvath, A.; Sajo B, L.; Marx, G.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that people undergoing a curative cycle in a given spa, may receive a dose in the range of 400 mSv/year which is many times the average annual dose so that their risk of lung cancer may increase by 3% or more. To determine the risk due to the natural radioactivity, of the most frequented spas in Budapest (H), we selected four and some others located on the country side being of particular interest. Results of the radon concentration in spring water are presented, with the evidence that some spas have a high radon concentration. We conclude that patients receiving treatment may be exposed to an additional dose in the range of 29-76 mSv/year that at the bronchia could be between 445-1182 mSv/year. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. SV3R : un framework pour la gestion de la variabilité des services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutaina Chakir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and expansion of the development paradigm based on service-oriented approaches have been behind the elaboration of new models and methods that aim at facilitating the reuse of services within multiples context of use. This requires providing systematically services with several possible realizations. Among the promising approaches that achieve this objective is the management of variability which has been widely adopted by the software engineering disciplines and whose objective is to facilitate the adaptation or the configuration of software artifacts in a systematic way. Hence, in this work we provide a framework for the development (for and by reuse of services supporting variability, called “SV3R” (Service Variability Representation and Resolution for Reuse. This paper introduces at first the concept of variability. Afterwards, it presents some related work, before giving an overview of the framework SV3R and describing

  14. Validation of the portuguese version of the tampa scale for kinesiophobia heart (TSK-SV heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lima de Melo Ghisi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: It has been shown that kinesiophobia has a negative influence on the outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation and consequently is important for the clinical setting. Objective: The objective of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and psychometrically validate the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia Heart (TSK-SV Heart to Brazilian Portuguese. Methods: The Portuguese version was tested in 300 patients in cardiac rehabilitation. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha, and criterion validity was assessed with respect to patients’ education, income, duration of cardiac rehabilitation, and sex. Results: After intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, one item was excluded. All four areas were considered internally consistent (α >0.7. Significant differences between mean total scores and income (p 37. Conclusions: The Brazilian Portuguese version of TSK-SV Heart demonstrated sufficient reliability, consistency and validity, supporting its use in future studies.

  15. Inhibition of in vitro SV40 DNA replication by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, G.; Wood, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage was found to inhibit SV40 origin-dependent DNA synthesis carried out by soluble humancell extracts. Replication of SV40-based plasmids was reduced to approx. 35% of that in unirradiated controls after irradiation with 50-100 J/m 2 germicidal ultraviolet light, where an average of 3-6 pyrimidine dimer photoproducts were formed per plasmid circle. Inhibition of the DNA helicase activity of T antigen (required for initiation of replication in the in vitro system) was also investigated, and was only significant after much higher fluences, 1000-5000 J/m 2 . The data indicate that DNA damage by ultraviolet light inhibits DNA synthesis in cell-free extracts principally by affecting components of the replication complex other than the DNA helicase activity of T antigen. The soluble system could be used to biochemically investigate the possible bypass or tolerance of DNA damage during replication (author). 21 refs.; 2 figs

  16. SV40 T antigen alone drives karyotype instability that precedes neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, F A; Peabody, D S; Cooper, J L; Cram, L S; Kraemer, P M

    1990-01-01

    To define the role of SV40 large T antigen in the transformation and immortalization of human cells, we have constructed a plasmid lacking most of the unique coding sequences of small t antigen as well as the SV40 origin of replication. The promoter for T antigen, which lies within the origin of replication, was deleted and replaced by the Rous sarcoma virus promoter. This minimal construct was co-electroporated into normal human fibroblasts of neonatal origin along with a plasmid containing the neomycin resistance gene (neo). Three G418-resistant, T antigen-positive clones were expanded and compared to three T antigen-positive clones that received the pSV3neo plasmid (capable of expressing large and small T proteins and having two origins of replication). Autonomous replication of plasmid DNA was observed in all three clones that received pSV3neo but not in any of the three origin minus clones. Immediately after clonal expansion, several parameters of neoplastic transformation were assayed. Low percentages of cells in T antigen-positive populations were anchorage independent or capable of forming colonies in 1% fetal bovine serum. The T antigen-positive clones generally exhibited an extended lifespan in culture but rarely became immortalized. Large numbers of dead cells were continually generated in all T antigen-positive, pre-crisis populations. Ninety-nine percent of all T antigen-positive cells had numerical or structural chromosome aberrations. Control cells that received the neo gene did not have an extended life span, did not have noticeable numbers of dead cells, and did not exhibit karyotype instability. We suggest that the role of T antigen protein in the transformation process is to generate genetic hypervariability, leading to various consequences including neoplastic transformation and cell death.

  17. SV40 late protein VP4 forms toroidal pores to disrupt membranes for viral release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghava, Smita; Giorda, Kristina M; Romano, Fabian B; Heuck, Alejandro P; Hebert, Daniel N

    2013-06-04

    Nonenveloped viruses are generally released from the cell by the timely lysis of host cell membranes. SV40 has been used as a model virus for the study of the lytic nonenveloped virus life cycle. The expression of SV40 VP4 at later times during infection is concomitant with cell lysis. To investigate the role of VP4 in viral release and its mechanism of action, VP4 was expressed and purified from bacteria as a fusion protein for use in membrane disruption assays. Purified VP4 perforated membranes as demonstrated by the release of fluorescent markers encapsulated within large unilamellar vesicles or liposomes. Dynamic light scattering results revealed that VP4 treatment did not cause membrane lysis or change the size of the liposomes. Liposomes encapsulated with 4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-3-indacene-labeled streptavidin were used to show that VP4 formed stable pores in membranes. These VP4 pores had an inner diameter of 1-5 nm. Asymmetrical liposomes containing pyrene-labeled lipids in the outer monolayer were employed to monitor transbilayer lipid diffusion. Consistent with VP4 forming toroidal pore structures in membranes, VP4 induced transbilayer lipid diffusion or lipid flip-flop. Altogether, these studies support a central role for VP4 acting as a viroporin in the disruption of cellular membranes to trigger SV40 viral release by forming toroidal pores that unite the outer and inner leaflets of membrane bilayers.

  18. Early superoxide dismutase alterations during SV40-transformation of human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravard, A; Hoffschir, F; Sabatier, L; Ricoul, M; Pinton, A; Cassingena, R; Estrade, S; Luccioni, C; Dutrillaux, B

    1992-11-11

    The expression of superoxide dismutases (SOD) 1 and 2 was studied in 4 clones of human fibroblasts after their infection by simian virus 40 (SV40), in parallel with the alterations of chromosomes 21 and chromosome 6q arms, carrying the genes that encode for SOD1 and SOD2 respectively. For all clones, a similar scheme with 2 main phases was observed for both chromosome and SOD variations. The first phase, defined as the pre-crisis phase, was characterized by chromosomal instability, but maintenance of normal numbers of chromosome 6q arms and chromosomes 21. The level of SOD2 mRNA was high, while SOD2 activity and immunoreactive protein were low. SOD1 protein and activity were decreased. In the second phase, defined as the post-crisis phase, the accumulation of clonal chromosomal rearrangements led to the loss of 6q arms, while the number of chromosomes 21 remained normal. SOD2 mRNA level was decreased and SOD2 immunoreactive protein and activity remained low. SOD1 protein and activity increased with passages, reaching values similar to those of control cells at late passages. As in established SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell lines, good correlation was found between SOD2 activity and the relative number of 6q arms. These results allow us to reconstruct the sequence of events leading to the decrease of SOD2, a possible tumor-suppressor gene, during the process of SV40-transformation of human fibroblasts.

  19. Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale-shopping version (YBOCS-SV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Priscilla Lourenço; Filomensky, Tatiana Zambrano; Black, Donald W; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-08-01

    The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Shopping Version (YBOCS-SV) is considered the gold standard in the assessment of shopping severity. It is designed to assess cognitions and behaviors relating to compulsive buying behavior. The present study aims to assess the validity of the Brazilian version of this scale. For the study, composed the sample 610 participants: 588 subjects of a general population and 22 compulsive buyers. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the relations and the correlation between the YBOCS-SV, the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS), was assessed using Pearson coefficient, for study of convergent and divergent validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficients were used to assess internal consistency. The results show good to excellent psychometric parameters for the YBOCS-SV in its Brazilian version. With regard to correlations, the YBOCS-SV is inversely and proportionally correlated with CBS and the RCBS, indicating that the YBOCS-SV is an excellent instrument for screening compulsive buying. The YBOCS-SV presented high alpha coefficient of Cronbach's alpha (0.92), demonstrating good reliability. The Brazilian version of the YBOCS-SV is indicated to diagnose compulsive buying disorder, and likely use for the purposes intended in the Brazilian population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated ras oncogene and SV40 T-antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L N; Little, J B

    1992-08-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. Cells transfected with EJ ras alone showed no morphological alterations nor significant changes in radiosensitivity. Cell clones expressing ras and/or SV40 T-antigen showed a reduced requirement for serum supplements, an increase in aneuploidy and chromosomal aberrations, and enhanced growth in soft agar as an early cellular response to SV40 T-antigen expression. The sequential order of transfection with SV40 T-antigen and ras influenced radio-sensitivity but not the induction of morphological changes. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself.

  1. The monetary value of the man-mSv for Korean NPP radiation workers assessed by the radiation aversion factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. I.; Suh, D. H.; Kim, S. I.; Jeong, M. S.; Lim, Y. K.

    2008-01-01

    The monetary value of the man-mSv for operators of Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs) was calculated using a radiation aversion factor based on a survey of NPP workers. Initially, the life expectancy in the population is 79.4 y, the average age of cancer occurrence is 60 y, the average annual wage for an electric worker is 56 000 $ y -1 and the nominal risk coefficient induced by radiation is 4.2 E-5 mSv were used to evaluate the basic monetary value (α base) resulting in 45.6 $ mSv -1 . To investigate the degree of radiation aversion, the subject of the investigation was selected as the working radiation workers in 10 NPPs in Korea (Kori 1-2, Yeonggwang 1-3, Ulchin 1-3 and Wolseong 1-2). In August 2010, with the cooperation of KHNP and partner companies, a total of 2500 survey questionnaires to 10 NPPs (or 250 surveys to each NPP) were distributed to currently employed radiation workers. From these, 2157 responses were obtained between August and October 2010. The assessed radiation aversion factor and the monetary value of the man-mSv from the calculated radiation aversion factor were 1.26 and ∼50 $ in the 0-1 mSv range, 1.38 and ∼200 $ in the 1-5 mSv range, 1.52 and ∼1000 $ in the 5-10 mSv range, 1.65 and ∼4000 $ in the 10-20 mSv range and 1.74 and ∼8500 $ >20 mSv. (authors)

  2. A high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic SV waves via aligned parallel separated thin polymethylmethacrylate plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We designed a high-quality filter that consists of aligned parallel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA thin plates with small gaps for elastic SV waves propagate in metals. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show the transmission spectrum of the elastic SV waves through such a filter has several sharp peaks with flawless transmission within the investigated frequencies. These peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometry parameters of the PMMA plates. Our investigation finds that the same filter performs well for different metals where the elastic SV waves propagated.

  3. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: "Frontal Lobe," "Hippocampus," "Occipital Lobe," "Orbital Gyrus," "Parietal Lobe," "Putamen," and "Temporal Lobe." Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies.

  4. Detection of time-varying structures by large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping to aid reading of high-resolution CT images of the lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Sakamoto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of advanced non-linear registration of serial lung Computed Tomography (CT images using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM. METHODS: FIFTEEN CASES OF LUNG CANCER WITH SERIAL LUNG CT IMAGES (INTERVAL: 62.2±26.9 days were used. After affine transformation, three dimensional, non-linear volume registration was conducted using LDDMM with or without cascading elasticity control. Registration accuracy was evaluated by measuring the displacement of landmarks placed on vessel bifurcations for each lung segment. Subtraction images and Jacobian color maps, calculated from the transformation matrix derived from image warping, were generated, which were used to evaluate time-course changes of the tumors. RESULTS: The average displacement of landmarks was 0.02±0.16 mm and 0.12±0.60 mm for proximal and distal landmarks after LDDMM transformation with cascading elasticity control, which was significantly smaller than 3.11±2.47 mm and 3.99±3.05 mm, respectively, after affine transformation. Emerged or vanished nodules were visualized on subtraction images, and enlarging or shrinking nodules were displayed on Jacobian maps enabled by highly accurate registration of the nodules using LDDMM. However, some residual misalignments were observed, even with non-linear transformation when substantial changes existed between the image pairs. CONCLUSIONS: LDDMM provides accurate registration of serial lung CT images, and temporal subtraction images with Jacobian maps help radiologists to find changes in pulmonary nodules.

  5. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iwatsubo, Takeshi [University of Tokyo, Department of Neuropathology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Fumio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yahaba, Iwate (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Integrative Brain Imaging Center National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: Japanese Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2013-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  6. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  7. SV40 large T-p53 complex: evidence for the presence of two immunologically distinct forms of p53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, J.; Gamble, J.

    1985-01-01

    The transforming protein of SV40 is the large T antigen. Large T binds a cellular protein, p53, which is potentially oncogenic by virtue of its functional involvement in the control of cell proliferation. This raises the possibility that p53 may mediate, in part, the transforming function of SV40 large T. Two immunologically distinct forms of p53 have been identified in normal cells: the forms are cell-cycle dependent, one being restricted to nondividing cells (p53-Go) and the second to dividing cells (p53-G divided by). The authors have now dissociated and probed the multimeric complex of SV40 large T-p53 for the presence of immunologically distinct forms of p53. Here they present evidence for the presence of p53-Go and p53-G divided by complexed with SV40 large T

  8. Host-cell reactivation of ultraviolet-irradiated SV 40 DNA in five complementation groups of xeroderma pigmentosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, P.J.; Eb, A.J. van der

    1976-01-01

    Host-cell reactivation of UV-irradiated double-stranded SV40 DNA was studied in BSC-1 monkey cells, normal human cells, heterozygous Xeroderma pigmentosum xp cells, representative cell strains of the five complemention groups of XP and in XP 'variant' cells. The following percentages of survival of the plaque-forming ability of double-stranded SV40 DNA were found in XP cells compared with the value found in normal monkey and human cells: groupA, 13%; group B, 30%; group C, 18%; group D, 14%; group E, 59%; and in the heterozygous XP cells almost 100%. The survival in XP 'variant' cells was 66%. The survival of single-stranded SV40 DNA in BSC-1 cells was much lower than that of double-stranded SV40 DNA in XP cells of complementation group A, which possibly indicates that some repair of UV damage occurs even in XP cells of group A

  9. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, L.-N.; Little, J.B. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author).

  10. SV40 host-substituted variants: a new look at the monkey DNA inserts and recombinant junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Maxine; Winocour, Ernest

    2011-04-10

    The available monkey genomic data banks were examined in order to determine the chromosomal locations of the host DNA inserts in 8 host-substituted SV40 variant DNAs. Five of the 8 variants contained more than one linked monkey DNA insert per tandem repeat unit and in all cases but one, the 19 monkey DNA inserts in the 8 variants mapped to different locations in the monkey genome. The 50 parental DNAs (32 monkey and 18 SV40 DNA segments) which spanned the crossover and flanking regions that participated in monkey/monkey and monkey/SV40 recombinations were characterized by substantial levels of microhomology of up to 8 nucleotides in length; the parental DNAs also exhibited direct and inverted repeats at or adjacent to the crossover sequences. We discuss how the host-substituted SV40 variants arose and the nature of the recombination mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with activated RAS oncogene and SV40 T-antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, L.-N.; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Three normal human diploid cell strains were transfected with an activated Ha-ras oncogene (EJ ras) or SV40 T-antigen. Multiple clones were examined for morphological alterations, growth requirements, ability to grow under anchorage independent conditions, immortality and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Clones expressing SV40 T-antigen alone or in combination with ras protein p21 were significantly radioresistant as compared with their parent cells or clones transfected with the neo gene only. This radioresistant phenotype persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. These data suggest that expression of the SV40 T-antigen but not activated Ha-ras plays an important role in the radiosensitivity of human diploid cells. The radioresistant phenotype in SV40 T transfected cells was not related to the enhanced level of genetic instability seen in pre-crisis and newly immortalized cells, nor to the process of immortalization itself. (author)

  12. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Masaaki; Morikawa, Katsuma; Suda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Naohito; Matsushita, Sho; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsui, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A ⁎ 02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A ⁎ 02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties

  13. A high-quality narrow passband filter for elastic SV waves via aligned parallel separated thin polymethylmethacrylate plates

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Zhang; Yaolu Liu; Wensheng Yan; Ning Hu

    2017-01-01

    We designed a high-quality filter that consists of aligned parallel polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin plates with small gaps for elastic SV waves propagate in metals. Both the theoretical model and the full numerical simulation show the transmission spectrum of the elastic SV waves through such a filter has several sharp peaks with flawless transmission within the investigated frequencies. These peaks can be readily tuned by manipulating the geometry parameters of the PMMA plates. Our invest...

  14. A monoclonal antibody against SV40 large T antigen (PAb416) does not label Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Daniel J; Czeczok, Thomas W; Bellizzi, Andrew M

    2018-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma represents poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of cutaneous origin. In most studies, the vast majority of Merkel cell carcinomas are Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV)-associated. SV40 polyomavirus immunohistochemistry is typically used in the diagnosis of other polyomavirus-associated diseases, including tubulointerstitial nephritis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, given cross-reactivity with BK and JC polyomaviruses. MCPyV-specific immunohistochemistry is commercially available, but, if antibodies against SV40 also cross-reacted with MCPyV, that would be advantageous from a resource-utilisation perspective. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 39 Merkel cell carcinomas, 24 small-cell lung carcinomas, and 18 extrapulmonary visceral small-cell carcinomas. SV40 large T antigen immunohistochemistry (clone PAb416) was performed; MCPyV large T antigen immunohistochemistry (clone CM2B4) had been previously performed. UniProt was used to compare the amino acid sequences of the SV40, BK, JC and MCPyV large T antigens, focusing on areas recognised by the PAb416 and CM2B4 clones. SV40 immunohistochemistry was negative in all tumours; MCPyV immunohistochemistry was positive in 38% of Merkel cell carcinomas and in 0% of non-cutaneous poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. UniProt analysis revealed a high degree of similarity between SV40, BK, and JC viruses in the region recognised by PAb416. There was less homology between SV40 and MCPyV in this region, which was also interrupted by two long stretches of amino acids unique to MCPyV. The CM2B4 clone recognises a unique epitope in one of these stretches. The PAb416 antibody against the SV40 large T antigen does not cross-react with MCPyV large T antigen, and thus does not label Merkel cell carcinoma. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Transcriptional repression is epigenetically marked by H3K9 methylation during SV40 replication

    OpenAIRE

    Kallestad, Les; Christensen, Kendra; Woods, Emily; Milavetz, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Background We have recently shown that T-antigen binding to Site I results in the replication-dependent introduction of H3K9me1 into SV40 chromatin late in infection. Since H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 are also present late in infection, we determined whether their presence was also related to the status of ongoing transcription and replication. Transcription was either inhibited with 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidizole (DRB) or stimulated with sodium butyrate and the effects on histone m...

  16. Estimation of Wave Conditions at Svåheia SSG Pilot Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Margheritini, Lucia; Stratigaki, V.

    The purpose of the project described in the present report is to estimate the local wave conditions at the proposed location for a SSG pilot at the Svåheia site in the south western part of Norway. Focus is put on estimating the everyday conditions to enable an evaluation of the power production...... potential for the SSG pilot at the proposed location. The work in the project has been performed in three parts: 1. Establishing the offshore wave conditions and bathymetry of the area. 2. Transformation of offshore waves to near shore, through numerical wave modeling. 3. Evaluation of the transformed...... (local) wave conditions and its implications....

  17. Oncogenic transformation of rat lung epithelioid cells by SV40 DNA and restriction enzyme fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya-Grosjean, L.; Lasne, C.; Nardeux, P.; Chouroulinkov, I.; Monier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Rat epithelioid lung cells were transformed with various preparations of SV40 DNA using the Ca 2+ -precipitation technique. The amount of SV40 genetic information integrated into transformed clones was evaluated by DNA-DNA renaturation kinetics. The growth properties on plastic and in soft-agar were examined, as well as the ability to induce tumors in syngeneic newborn animals or in adult nude mice. One particular transformed line, which had received the HpaII/BamHIA (59 per cent) fragment, was found to contain about 3 integrated copies of this fragment per cell and no significant amount of the HpaII/BamHIB (41 per cent fragment). This line which grew to high saturatio densities and efficiently formed clones in low serum on plastic, produced tumors in both syngeneic rats and nude mice. Thus the HpaII/BamHIA fragment, which mainly includes early viral information, was sufficient to impart these properties to rat epithelioid lung cells. (author)

  18. Pleomorphic adenoma cells vary in their susceptibility to SV40 transformation depending on the initial karyotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, B; Thode, B; Bartnitzke, S; Bullerdiek, J; Schloot, W

    1992-07-01

    Chromosomal aberrations involving 8q12 or 12q13-15 characterize two cytogenetic subgroups of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. As the tumors of the two groups differ in their clinical and histologic characteristics, we decided to determine their susceptibility to SV40 transformation. We transfected cell cultures from 13 adenomas with aberrations involving 8q12 and from seven adenomas with involvement of 12q13-15 using an SV40 plasmid coding for the early region of the viral genome. Whereas all cultures with aberrations of 12q13-15 showed transformed foci, only 4 of the 13 cultures with 8q12 abnormalities showed foci of transformed cells. We also observed a much higher immortalization rate in the first group (3/7 vs. 1/13). All successfully transformed tumor cell cultures showed a relatively stable karyotype in the pre-crisis stage and a high mitotic index, were T-antigen positive, and had an extended life span in vitro.

  19. Ultraviolet radiation inactivates SV40 by disrupting at least four genetic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.C.; Cerutti, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The most UV sensitive region within the SV40 viral genome contains the transcriptional promotors and enhancers for the early and late viral genes plus part of the origin of DNA replication. Lesions within this regulatory region are 3.2-fold more effective in inactivating viral DNA than is the same amount of damage randomly distributed throughout the viral genome. The region least sensitive to damage lies within the coding portion of the viral coat protein genes, which are expressed only late in infection and would therefore be transcribed from undamaged progeny viral genomes, provided DNA replication occurs. Damage within this region is only 45% as effective in inactivating viral DNA as are randomly distributed lesions. Thus there is a 7-fold difference in the lethal effect of DNA damage within the most and least sensitive regions of the viral genome. Intermediate sensitivities are observed within the transcribed portion of the viral A gene, coding for the T antigen whose expression is required early in infection, and in a region at the terminus of DNA replication. The sum of the individual sensitivities for all regions of the SV40 genome is equal to the total sensitivity of viral DNA subjected to random damage. (author)

  20. Impaired CK1 delta activity attenuates SV40-induced cellular transformation in vitro and mouse mammary carcinogenesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidrun Hirner

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 is a powerful tool to study cellular transformation in vitro, as well as tumor development and progression in vivo. Various cellular kinases, among them members of the CK1 family, play an important role in modulating the transforming activity of SV40, including the transforming activity of T-Ag, the major transforming protein of SV40, itself. Here we characterized the effects of mutant CK1δ variants with impaired kinase activity on SV40-induced cell transformation in vitro, and on SV40-induced mammary carcinogenesis in vivo in a transgenic/bi-transgenic mouse model. CK1δ mutants exhibited a reduced kinase activity compared to wtCK1δ in in vitro kinase assays. Molecular modeling studies suggested that mutation N172D, located within the substrate binding region, is mainly responsible for impaired mutCK1δ activity. When stably over-expressed in maximal transformed SV-52 cells, CK1δ mutants induced reversion to a minimal transformed phenotype by dominant-negative interference with endogenous wtCK1δ. To characterize the effects of CK1δ on SV40-induced mammary carcinogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing mutant CK1δ under the control of the whey acidic protein (WAP gene promoter, and crossed them with SV40 transgenic WAP-T-antigen (WAP-T mice. Both WAP-T mice as well as WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T bi-transgenic mice developed breast cancer. However, tumor incidence was lower and life span was significantly longer in WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T bi-transgenic animals. The reduced CK1δ activity did not affect early lesion formation during tumorigenesis, suggesting that impaired CK1δ activity reduces the probability for outgrowth of in situ carcinomas to invasive carcinomas. The different tumorigenic potential of SV40 in WAP-T and WAP-mutCK1δ/WAP-T tumors was also reflected by a significantly different expression of various genes known to be involved in tumor progression, specifically of those involved in wnt-signaling and DNA

  1. Epilepsy caused by an abnormal alternative splicing with dosage effect of the SV2A gene in a chicken model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Douaud

    Full Text Available Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is caused by the combination of an individual's enhanced sensitivity with relevant light stimuli, such as stroboscopic lights or video games. This is the most common reflex epilepsy in humans; it is characterized by the photoparoxysmal response, which is an abnormal electroencephalographic reaction, and seizures triggered by intermittent light stimulation. Here, by using genetic mapping, sequencing and functional analyses, we report that a mutation in the acceptor site of the second intron of SV2A (the gene encoding synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A is causing photosensitive reflex epilepsy in a unique vertebrate model, the Fepi chicken strain, a spontaneous model where the neurological disorder is inherited as an autosomal recessive mutation. This mutation causes an aberrant splicing event and significantly reduces the level of SV2A mRNA in homozygous carriers. Levetiracetam, a second generation antiepileptic drug, is known to bind SV2A, and SV2A knock-out mice develop seizures soon after birth and usually die within three weeks. The Fepi chicken survives to adulthood and responds to levetiracetam, suggesting that the low-level expression of SV2A in these animals is sufficient to allow survival, but does not protect against seizures. Thus, the Fepi chicken model shows that the role of the SV2A pathway in the brain is conserved between birds and mammals, in spite of a large phylogenetic distance. The Fepi model appears particularly useful for further studies of physiopathology of reflex epilepsy, in comparison with induced models of epilepsy in rodents. Consequently, SV2A is a very attractive candidate gene for analysis in the context of both mono- and polygenic generalized epilepsies in humans.

  2. Transformation of SV40-immortalized human uroepithelial cells by 3-methylcholanthrene increases IFN- and Large T Antigen-induced transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Easton Marilyn J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simian Virus 40 (SV40 immortalization followed by treatment of cells with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC has been used to elicit tumors in athymic mice. 3-MC carcinogenesis has been thoroughly studied, however gene-level interactions between 3-MC and SV40 that could have produced the observed tumors have not been explored. The commercially-available human uroepithelial cell lines were either SV40-immortalized (HUC or SV40-immortalized and then 3-MC-transformed (HUC-TC. Results To characterize the SV40 - 3MC interaction, we compared human gene expression in these cell lines using a human cancer array and confirmed selected changes by RT-PCR. Many viral Large T Antigen (Tag expression-related changes occurred in HUC-TC, and it is concluded that SV40 and 3-MC may act synergistically to transform cells. Changes noted in IFP 9-27, 2'-5' OAS, IF 56, MxA and MxAB were typical of those that occur in response to viral exposure and are part of the innate immune response. Because interferon is crucial to innate immune host defenses and many gene changes were interferon-related, we explored cellular growth responses to exogenous IFN-γ and found that treatment impeded growth in tumor, but not immortalized HUC on days 4 - 7. Cellular metabolism however, was inhibited in both cell types. We conclude that IFN-γ metabolic responses were functional in both cell lines, but IFN-γ anti-proliferative responses functioned only in tumor cells. Conclusions Synergism of SV40 with 3-MC or other environmental carcinogens may be of concern as SV40 is now endemic in 2-5.9% of the U.S. population. In addition, SV40-immortalization is a generally-accepted method used in many research materials, but the possibility of off-target effects in studies carried out using these cells has not been considered. We hope that our work will stimulate further study of this important phenomenon.

  3. The adaptation of limb kinematics to increasing walking speeds in freely moving mice 129/Sv and C57BL/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Nadjet; Jamon, Marc

    2009-07-19

    The kinematics of locomotion was analyzed in two strains of great importance for the creation of mutated mice (C56BL/6 and 129/Sv). Different behavioral situations were used to trigger sequences of movement covering the whole range of velocities in the mice, and the variations of kinematic parameters were analyzed in relation with velocity. Both stride frequency and stride length contributed to the moving speed, but stride frequency was found to be the main contributor to the speed increase. A trot-gallop transition was detected at speed about 70 cm/s, in relation with a sharp shift in limb coordination. The results of this study were consistent with pieces of information previously published concerning the gait analyses of other strains, and provided an integrative view of the basic motor pattern of mice. On the other hand some qualitative differences were found in the movement characteristics of the two strains. The stride frequency showed a higher contribution to speed in 129/Sv than in C57BL/6. In addition, 129/Sv showed a phase shift in the forelimb and hindlimb, and a different position of the foot during the stance time that revealed a different gait and body position during walking. Overall, 129/Sv moved at a slower speed than C57BL/6 in any behavioral situation. This difference was related to a basal lower level of motor activity. The possibility that an alteration in the dopamine circuit was responsible for the different movement pattern in 129/Sv is discussed.

  4. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W

    2009-01-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen is a potent oncogene able to transform many cell types and has been implicated in leukemia and lymphoma. In this report, we have achieved sporadic SV40 T-antigen expression in mature B cells in mice, by insertion of a SV40 T antigen gene in opposite...... transcriptional orientation in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain locus between the D and J(H) segments. SV40 T-antigen expression appeared to result from retention of the targeted germline allele and concomitant antisense transcription of SV40 large T in mature B cells, leading to chronic lymphocytic...... leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were Ig...

  5. Immune cells in Chernobyl recovery operation workers exposed over 500 mSv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazyka, D.; Byelyaeva, N.; Chumak, A.; Golyarnik, N.; Maznichenko, O.; Kovalenko, Ju.

    2004-01-01

    Immune response parameters were studied in Chernobyl radiation emergency workers exposed to radiation over 500 mSv during 1986. Initial response stage to the radiation exposure was characterised by immunological deficiency with T-cell subsets changes. In the reconstitution period inhibition of immune function was associated with lymphocyte subset changes such as decreased CD3 + and CD4 + cell counts and increased number of somatic mutations in TCR-locus. Late period after the acute radiation exposure in Chernobyl radiation emergency workers is characterized by decreased CD8 + suppressor cell function that could lead to poor proliferation control. Subset analysis of CD34 + cells showed in ARS survivors counts significantly higher than in control especially for the most primitive progenitors with CD34 + CD90 + CD45 -/l ow and CD34 + CD45 - CD38 - phenotypes. (author)

  6. Measurement Invariance of the Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) across Eight Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Kuss, Daria J; Pontes, Halley M; Griffiths, Mark D; Dawes, Christopher; Justice, Lucy V; Männikkö, Niko; Kääriäinen, Maria; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Bischof, Anja; Gässler, Ann-Kathrin; Romo, Lucia; Kern, Laurence; Morvan, Yannick; Rousseau, Amélie; Graziani, Pierluigi; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Lelonek-Kuleta, Bernadeta; Chwaszcz, Joanna; Chóliz, Mariano; Zacarés, Juan José; Serra, Emilia; Dufour, Magali; Rochat, Lucien; Zullino, Daniele; Achab, Sophia; Landrø, Nils Inge; Suryani, Eva; Hormes, Julia M; Terashima, Javier Ponce; Billieux, Joël

    2018-06-08

    The prevalence of mobile phone use across the world has increased greatly over the past two decades. Problematic Mobile Phone Use (PMPU) has been studied in relation to public health and comprises various behaviours, including dangerous, prohibited, and dependent use. These types of problematic mobile phone behaviours are typically assessed with the short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ⁻SV). However, to date, no study has ever examined the degree to which the PMPU scale assesses the same construct across different languages. The aims of the present study were to (i) determine an optimal factor structure for the PMPUQ⁻SV among university populations using eight versions of the scale (i.e., French, German, Hungarian, English, Finnish, Italian, Polish, and Spanish); and (ii) simultaneously examine the measurement invariance (MI) of the PMPUQ⁻SV across all languages. The whole study sample comprised 3038 participants. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and Cronbach's alpha coefficients were extracted from the demographic and PMPUQ-SV items. Individual and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses alongside MI analyses were conducted. Results showed a similar pattern of PMPU across the translated scales. A three-factor model of the PMPUQ-SV fitted the data well and presented with good psychometric properties. Six languages were validated independently, and five were compared via measurement invariance for future cross-cultural comparisons. The present paper contributes to the assessment of problematic mobile phone use because it is the first study to provide a cross-cultural psychometric analysis of the PMPUQ-SV.

  7. Measurement Invariance of the Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV across Eight Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatz Lopez-Fernandez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of mobile phone use across the world has increased greatly over the past two decades. Problematic Mobile Phone Use (PMPU has been studied in relation to public health and comprises various behaviours, including dangerous, prohibited, and dependent use. These types of problematic mobile phone behaviours are typically assessed with the short version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ–SV. However, to date, no study has ever examined the degree to which the PMPU scale assesses the same construct across different languages. The aims of the present study were to (i determine an optimal factor structure for the PMPUQ–SV among university populations using eight versions of the scale (i.e., French, German, Hungarian, English, Finnish, Italian, Polish, and Spanish; and (ii simultaneously examine the measurement invariance (MI of the PMPUQ–SV across all languages. The whole study sample comprised 3038 participants. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were extracted from the demographic and PMPUQ-SV items. Individual and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses alongside MI analyses were conducted. Results showed a similar pattern of PMPU across the translated scales. A three-factor model of the PMPUQ-SV fitted the data well and presented with good psychometric properties. Six languages were validated independently, and five were compared via measurement invariance for future cross-cultural comparisons. The present paper contributes to the assessment of problematic mobile phone use because it is the first study to provide a cross-cultural psychometric analysis of the PMPUQ-SV.

  8. Časopis "Módní svět" a "Lada" v kulturním kontextu

    OpenAIRE

    Šrolová, Kristýna

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses tbe fashion magazine Módní svět (Fashion World) and its enclosure Lada, which it implants into their cultural and historica1 context. The magazine Módní svět (Fashion World) was puhli,hed from 1875 to 1935 and thi, a1,o deline, lhe time circmnscription of tbe themes in tbe thesis. It contextua11y deals with tbe women society during tbe tum of 19th to 20th century, with women's emancipatory movement, with tbe beginning of publishing of rn.agazines for women and fashion mag...

  9. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Masaaki [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Morikawa, Katsuma [Department of Biological Information, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Suda, Tatsuya [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Ohno, Naohito [Laboratory for Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); Matsushita, Sho [Department of Allergy and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Allergy Center, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Akatsuka, Toshitaka [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Handa, Hiroshi, E-mail: handa.h.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Solutions Research Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Matsui, Masanori, E-mail: mmatsui@saitama-med.ac.jp [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-cho, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A{sup ⁎}02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. - Highlights: • We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an influenza virus-derived CTL epitope. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce influenza-specific CTLs in mice without adjuvants. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs induce long-lasting memory CTLs. • Chimeric SV40-VLPs is a promising vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties.

  10. Orwellův svět v roce 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Petrusek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available V červnu 1949 vyšla v nakladatelství Harcourt, Brace v New Yorku kniha, která se zařadila mezi několik zásadních beletristických děl 20. století. Svým politickým vyzněním měla otřást totalitními režimy, tímto zrůdným plodem „instrumentální racionality“ a ad absurdum dovedené byrokracie. Pomineme literaturu, jejímž dominantním literárním tématem je kritika nacismu – třebas Feuchtwangerovu triologii, román I ve smrti sami, Mannův esej Bratr Hitler, ale i alegorický příběh Doktora Fausta či nejslavnější román Heinricha Manna Mefisto, případně kritika latinskoamerických autoritářských režimů – třebas vynikající román Marquézův Podzim patriarchy nebo romány Carpentierovy Výbuch v katedrále a Náprava dle metody. Setrváme především u literárního obrazu a kritiky sovětského systému. Je jistě věcí individuální zkušenosti (osobní i literární a do značné míry subjektivní volby, která díla vybereme. Zdá se nicméně, že nejméně tři patří k neopominutelné „klasice“. Jsou totiž nejen formálně často jmenována, ale stále čtena, jsou živá a zřejmě tedy obsahují jakýsi aktualizující náboj, který jim nedovolí zůstat v řadě strnulé nehybnosti nečtených, leč ctěných klasiků. Myslím, že jde o knihu Artura Koestlera Tma o polednách, která již v roce 1939 odhalila – bez znalosti jakýchkoliv svědeckých či archivních podkladů – mechanismus moskevských procesů, které „otřásly světem“, o žánrově science fiction s titulem 1984 George Orwella a konečně o Solženicynův monument Soustroví Gulag.

  11. SvSXP: a Strongylus vulgaris antigen with potential for prepatent diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla V; Howe, Daniel K; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Toft, Nils; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Lyons, Eugene T; Olsen, Susanne N; Monrad, Jesper; Nejsum, Peter; Nielsen, Martin K

    2013-04-04

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Strongylus vulgaris, the most pathogenic of the large strongyles, is known for its extensive migration in the mesenteric arterial system. The lifecycle of S. vulgaris is characterised by a long prepatent period where the migrating larvae are virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among cyathostomins has led to recommendations of reduced treatment intensity by targeting horses that exceed a predetermined strongyle faecal egg count threshold. One study suggests an apparent increase in prevalence of S. vulgaris on farms where reduced anthelmintic treatment intensity has been implemented. These issues highlight the need for an accurate and reliable assay for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Immunoscreening of a larval S. vulgaris cDNA library using hyperimmune serum raised against S. vulgaris excretory/secretory antigens was performed to identify potential diagnostic antigens. Immunoreactive clones were sequenced, one potential antigen was characterised, expressed as a recombinant protein, initially evaluated by western blot (WB) analysis, the diagnostic potential of the IgG subclasses was evaluated by ELISA, and the diagnostic accuracy evaluated using serum from 102 horses with known S. vulgaris infection status. The clone expressing the potential antigen encoded a S. vulgaris SXP/RAL2 homologue. The recombinant protein, rSvSXP, was shown to be a potential diagnostic antigen by WB analysis, and a target of serum IgGa, IgG(T) and total IgG in naturally infected horses, with IgG(T) antibodies being the most reliable indicator of S. vulgaris infection in horses. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of the ELISA resulted in a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity

  12. Generation of a Vero-Based Packaging Cell Line to Produce SV40 Gene Delivery Vectors for Use in Clinical Gene Therapy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replication-defective (RD recombinant simian virus 40 (SV40-based gene delivery vectors hold a great potential for clinical applications because of their presumed non-immunogenicity and capacity to induce immune tolerance to the transgene products in humans. However, the clinical use of SV40 vectors has been hampered by the lack of a packaging cell line that produces replication-competent (RC free SV40 particles in the vector production process. To solve this problem, we have adapted the current SV40 vector genome used for the production of vector particles and generated a novel Vero-based packaging cell line named SuperVero that exclusively expresses the SV40 large T antigen. SuperVero cells produce similar numbers of SV40 vector particles compared to the currently used packaging cell lines, albeit in the absence of contaminating RC SV40 particles. Our unique SV40 vector platform named SVac paves the way to clinically test a whole new generation of SV40-based therapeutics for a broad range of important diseases.

  13. Identification of potential drug targets in Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium using metabolic modelling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Hassan B.; Fell, David A.; Rossell, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium is an established model organism for Gram-negative, intracellular pathogens. Owing to the rapid spread of resistance to antibiotics among this group of pathogens, new approaches to identify suitable target proteins are required. Based on the genome sequence of ...

  14. N-linked glycosylation of SV2 is required for binding and uptake of botulinum neurotoxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guorui; Zhang, Sicai; Mahrhold, Stefan; Lam, Kwok-ho; Stern, Daniel; Bagramyan, Karine; Perry, Kay; Kalkum, Markus; Rummel, Andreas; Dong, Min; Jin, Rongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A1 (BoNT/A1) is one of the most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents, and exerts its action by invading motoneurons. It is also a licensed drug widely used for medical and cosmetic applications. Here we report a 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of BoNT/A1 receptor-binding domain in complex with its neuronal receptor, the glycosylated human SV2C. We find that the neuronal tropism of BoNT/A1 requires recognition of both the peptide moiety and an N-linked glycan on SV2. This N-glycan—conserved in all SV2 isoforms across vertebrates—is essential for BoNT/A1 binding to neurons and its potent neurotoxicity. The glycan-binding interface on SV2 is targeted by a human BoNT/A1-neutralizing antibody currently licensed as an anti-botulism drug. Our studies reveal a new paradigm of host-pathogen interactions, in which pathogens exploit conserved host post-translational modifications to achieve highly specific receptor binding while also tolerating genetic changes across multiple isoforms of receptors. PMID:27294781

  15. Sigma Virus (DMelSV Incidence in Lines of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Survival following Infection with Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan L. Bentz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is complex and involves both specific and general responses to parasites. In this study we tested for cross-immunity for bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of infection with the vertically transmitted Sigma virus (DMelSV in the progeny of a cross between females transmitting DMelSV at high frequencies and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to Bacillus cereus. There was no significant difference in transmission of DMelSV among selection regimes, though results suggest that the B. cereus selected lines had lower rates of infection by DMelSV. We found a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny, with males consistently less likely to be infected than females. Given a finite energy budget, flies that have experienced immune system challenge may show alterations in other life history traits. Later eclosing progeny were also less likely to be infected than earlier eclosing progeny, indicating a relationship with development time. Finally, there was a significant interaction between the timing of collection and the sex of the progeny, such that later eclosing males were the most resistant group. Increased development time is sometimes associated with increased energy acquisition; from this perspective, increased development time may be associated with acquiring sufficient resources for effective resistance.

  16. PSHA in Israel by using the synthetic ground motions from simulated seismicity: the modified SvE procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirova, T.; Shapira, A.; Eppelbaum, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we updated and modified the SvE approach of Shapira and van Eck (Nat Hazards 8:201-215, 1993) which may be applied as an alternative to the conventional probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) in Israel and other regions of low and moderate seismicity where measurements of strong ground motions are scarce. The new computational code SvE overcomes difficulties associated with the description of the earthquake source model and regional ground-motion scaling. In the modified SvE procedure, generating suites of regional ground motion is based on the extended two-dimensional source model of Motazedian and Atkinson (Bull Seism Soc Amer 95:995-1010, 2005a) and updated regional ground-motion scaling (Meirova and Hofstteter, Bull Earth Eng 15:3417-3436, 2017). The analytical approach of Mavroeidis and Papageorgiou (Bull Seism Soc Amer 93:1099-1131, 2003) is used to simulate the near-fault acceleration with the near-fault effects. The comparison of hazard estimates obtained by using the conventional method implemented in the National Building Code for Design provisions for earthquake resistance of structures and the modified SvE procedure for rock-site conditions indicates a general agreement with some perceptible differences at the periods of 0.2 and 0.5 s. For the periods above 0.5 s, the SvE estimates are systematically greater and can increase by a factor of 1.6. For the soft-soil sites, the SvE hazard estimates at the period of 0.2 s are greater than those based on the CB2008 ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) by a factor of 1.3-1.6. We suggest that the hazard estimates for the sites with soft-soil conditions calculated by the modified SvE procedure are more reliable than those which can be found by means of the conventional PSHA. This result agrees with the opinion that the use of a standard GMPE applying the NEHRP soil classification based on the V s, 30 parameter may be inappropriate for PSHA at many sites in Israel.

  17. Differential effects of simple repeating DNA sequences on gene expression from the SV40 early promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirhaeri, S; Wohlrab, F; Wells, R D

    1995-02-17

    The influence of simple repeat sequences, cloned into different positions relative to the SV40 early promoter/enhancer, on the transient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was investigated. Insertion of (G)29.(C)29 in either orientation into the 5'-untranslated region of the CAT gene reduced expression in CV-1 cells 50-100 fold when compared with controls with random sequence inserts. Analysis of CAT-specific mRNA levels demonstrated that the effect was due to a reduction of CAT mRNA production rather than to posttranscriptional events. In contrast, insertion of the same insert in either orientation upstream of the promoter-enhancer or downstream of the gene stimulated gene expression 2-3-fold. These effects could be reversed by cotransfection of a competitor plasmid carrying (G)25.(C)25 sequences. The results suggest that a G.C-binding transcription factor modulates gene expression in this system and that promoter strength can be regulated by providing protein-binding sites in trans. Although constructs containing longer tracts of alternating (C-G), (T-G), or (A-T) sequences inhibited CAT expression when inserted in the 5'-untranslated region of the CAT gene, the amount of CAT mRNA was unaffected. Hence, these inhibitions must be due to posttranscriptional events, presumably at the level of translation. These effects of microsatellite sequences on gene expression are discussed with respect to recent data on related simple repeat sequences which cause several human genetic diseases.

  18. Star-spot distributions and chromospheric activity on the RS CVn type eclipsing binary SV Cam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenavcı, H. V.; Bahar, E.; Montes, D.; Zola, S.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Frasca, A.; Işık, E.; Yörükoǧlu, O.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time series of high-resolution spectra and high-quality multi-colour photometry, we reconstruct surface maps of the primary component of the RS CVn type rapidly rotating eclipsing binary, SV Cam (F9V + K4V). We measure a mass ratio, q, of 0.641(2) using our highest quality spectra and obtain surface brightness maps of the primary component, which exhibit predominantly high-latitude spots located between 60° - 70° latitudes with a mean filling factor of ˜35%. This is also indicated by the R-band light curve inversion, subjected to rigourous numerical tests. The spectral subtraction of the Hα line reveals strong activity of the secondary component. The excess Hα absorption detected near the secondary minimum hints to the presence of cool material partially obscuring the primary star. The flux ratios of Ca II IRT excess emission indicate that the contribution of chromospheric plage regions associated with star-spots is dominant, even during the passage of the filament-like absorption feature.

  19. Musikterapi med børn med svær autisme - en litteraturgennemgang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Holck

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Faglitteratur om musikterapi med børn med autisme er omfattende og indeholder såvel kvalitative case-beskrivelser som kvantitative forskningsundersøgelser. I artiklen gennemgås faglitteraturen systematisk med henblik på at specifi cere musikterapiens effekt og virkemåder i forhold til denne målgruppe. Vægten ligger på børn med svær autisme, men litteratur om voksne højtfungerende personer med autisme inddrages også. Forskningslitteraturen viser, at det især er inden for områderne koncentration, visuel opmærksomhed, respons og initiativ, samt brug af stemme og tur-tagning, at musikterapi har en effekt. Case-litteraturen begrunder denne effekt med musikkens evne til at være redundant, anvendelse af imitation og responsfremmende teknikker (overraskelse etc., fælles opbyggede samspilsformer, samt det temporale-interaktive element i improvisatorisk musikterapi. Ud fra en interaktionsteoretisk indfaldsvinkel sammenkobles effekten endvidere med, at den musikalske interaktion hjælper musikterapeuten til at fastholde et dynamisk udtryk, hvilket er afgørende i forhold til en klientgruppe, der ofte giver ´flad´ eller stærkt afvigende feedback.

  20. SV40 utilizes ATM kinase activity to prevent non-homologous end joining of broken viral DNA replication products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Sowd

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Simian virus 40 (SV40 and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PK(cs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PK(cs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5' to 3' end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication.

  1. SV40 Utilizes ATM Kinase Activity to Prevent Non-homologous End Joining of Broken Viral DNA Replication Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Mody, Dviti; Eggold, Joshua; Cortez, David; Friedman, Katherine L.; Fanning, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) and cellular DNA replication rely on host ATM and ATR DNA damage signaling kinases to facilitate DNA repair and elicit cell cycle arrest following DNA damage. During SV40 DNA replication, ATM kinase activity prevents concatemerization of the viral genome whereas ATR activity prevents accumulation of aberrant genomes resulting from breakage of a moving replication fork as it converges with a stalled fork. However, the repair pathways that ATM and ATR orchestrate to prevent these aberrant SV40 DNA replication products are unclear. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Southern blotting, we show that ATR kinase activity, but not DNA-PKcs kinase activity, facilitates some aspects of double strand break (DSB) repair when ATM is inhibited during SV40 infection. To clarify which repair factors associate with viral DNA replication centers, we examined the localization of DSB repair proteins in response to SV40 infection. Under normal conditions, viral replication centers exclusively associate with homology-directed repair (HDR) and do not colocalize with non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) factors. Following ATM inhibition, but not ATR inhibition, activated DNA-PKcs and KU70/80 accumulate at the viral replication centers while CtIP and BLM, proteins that initiate 5′ to 3′ end resection during HDR, become undetectable. Similar to what has been observed during cellular DSB repair in S phase, these data suggest that ATM kinase influences DSB repair pathway choice by preventing the recruitment of NHEJ factors to replicating viral DNA. These data may explain how ATM prevents concatemerization of the viral genome and promotes viral propagation. We suggest that inhibitors of DNA damage signaling and DNA repair could be used during infection to disrupt productive viral DNA replication. PMID:25474690

  2. Reconstitution of wild type viral DNA in simian cells transfected with early and late SV40 defective genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, F J; Gao, Y; Xu, X

    1993-11-01

    The DNAs of polyomaviruses ordinarily exist as a single circular molecule of approximately 5000 base pairs. Variants of SV40, BKV and JCV have been described which contain two complementing defective DNA molecules. These defectives, which form a bipartite genome structure, contain either the viral early region or the late region. The defectives have the unique property of being able to tolerate variable sized reiterations of regulatory and terminus region sequences, and portions of the coding region. They can also exchange coding region sequences with other polyomaviruses. It has been suggested that the bipartite genome structure might be a stage in the evolution of polyomaviruses which can uniquely sustain genome and sequence diversity. However, it is not known if the regulatory and terminus region sequences are highly mutable. Also, it is not known if the bipartite genome structure is reversible and what the conditions might be which would favor restoration of the monomolecular genome structure. We addressed the first question by sequencing the reiterated regulatory and terminus regions of E- and L-SV40 DNAs. This revealed a large number of mutations in the regulatory regions of the defective genomes, including deletions, insertions, rearrangements and base substitutions. We also detected insertions and base substitutions in the T-antigen gene. We addressed the second question by introducing into permissive simian cells, E- and L-SV40 genomes which had been engineered to contain only a single regulatory region. Analysis of viral DNA from transfected cells demonstrated recombined genomes containing a wild type monomolecular DNA structure. However, the complete defectives, containing reiterated regulatory regions, could often compete away the wild type genomes. The recombinant monomolecular genomes were isolated, cloned and found to be infectious. All of the DNA alterations identified in one of the regulatory regions of E-SV40 DNA were present in the recombinant

  3. Transformation and radiosensitivity of human diploid skin fibroblasts transfected with SV40 T-antigen mutants defective in RB and P53 binding domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LingNah Su; Little, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    A series of human diploid fibroblast cell clones were developed by DNA transfection with either wild-type SV40 T-antigen (SV40T) or T-antigen mutants defective in its various functional domains. Cell clones expressing the wild-type SV40 T were significantly radioresistant as compared with clones transfected with the neo gene only (D o 192 ± 13 vs 127 ± 19). This radioresistance persisted in post-crisis, immortalized cell lines. A series of mutants with point or deletion mutations within each functionally active domain of SV40 T were also examined for their ability to alter radiosensitivity and induce morphological transformation. Cell clones transfected with T-antigen mutants defective in nuclear localization or origin binding showed increased radioresistance similar to clones transfected with wild-type T-antigen, and expressed morphological changes characteristic of SV40 T-transfected cells. (author)

  4. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Grubb, Ane

    I rapporten Når det er svært at være ung i DK – unges beretninger om mistrivsel og ungdomsliv præsenteres resultaterne af et kvalitativt studie af mistrivsel og ungdomsliv blandt 15-24-årige unge i Danmark. Studiet bygger på dybdegående interviews med 33 unge fra forskellige dele af landet, der...... fortæller om deres erfaringer med diverse mistrivselsformer, som ensomhed, selvskadende adfærd og mobning, og om deres besvær med at håndtere de krav, udfordringer og muligheder, der i øvrigt præger det moderne ungdomsliv. Studiet indgår i det treårige forskningsprojekt Når det er svært at være ung i DK...

  5. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Når det er svært at være ung i DK – viden og råd om unges trivsel og mistrivsel er afslutningen på et større forskningsprojekt om unges trivsel og mistrivsel. Hæftet præsenterer forskningsprojektets hovedkonklusioner og giver desuden en række råd og ideer til, hvordan voksne kan hjælpe unge med...... at håndtere mistrivsel. Hæftet er udarbejdet af forskerne Jens Christian Nielsen og Niels Ulrik Sørensen fra Center for Ungdomsforskning. Det er den sidste publikation i forskningsprojektet Når det er svært at være ung i DK, der fra 2008-2011 har belyst unges trivsel og mistrivsel. Projektet bygger både på en...

  6. Når det er svært at være ung i DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik; Ozmec, Martha Nina

    I rapporten Når det er svært at være ung i DK – unges trivsel og mistrivsel i tal offentliggør Center for Ungdomsforskning resultaterne af en stor videnskabelig spørgeskemaundersøgelse om trivsel og mistrivsel blandt 15-24-årige unge i Danmark. Rapporten indgår i det treårige forskningsprojekt Når...... det er svært at være ung i DK, som Center for Ungdomsforskning udfører med støtte fra Egmont Fonden. Rapporten bygger på telefoninterviews med 3.481 unge, der udgør et repræsentativt udsnit af alle 15-24-årige unge i Danmark. I rapporten forfølges de unges trivsel og mistrivsel gennem to spor: 1) Et...

  7. Role of Host-Driven Mutagenesis in Determining Genome Evolution of Sigma Virus (DMelSV; Rhabdoviridae) in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkivska, Helen; Matos, Luis F; Paul, Sinu; Scharfenberg, Brian; Farmerie, William G; Miyamoto, Michael M; Wayne, Marta L

    2016-10-05

    Sigma virus (DMelSV) is ubiquitous in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Host-mediated, selective RNA editing of adenosines to inosines (ADAR) may contribute to control of viral infection by preventing transcripts from being transported into the cytoplasm or being translated accurately; or by increasing the viral genomic mutation rate. Previous PCR-based studies showed that ADAR mutations occur in DMelSV at low frequency. Here we use SOLiD TM deep sequencing of flies from a single host population from Athens, GA, USA to comprehensively evaluate patterns of sequence variation in DMelSV with respect to ADAR. GA dinucleotides, which are weak targets of ADAR, are strongly overrepresented in the positive strand of the virus, consistent with selection to generate ADAR resistance on this complement of the transient, double-stranded RNA intermediate in replication and transcription. Potential ADAR sites in a worldwide sample of viruses are more likely to be "resistant" if the sites do not vary among samples. Either variable sites are less constrained and hence are subject to weaker selection than conserved sites, or the variation is driven by ADAR. We also find evidence of mutations segregating within hosts, hereafter referred to as hypervariable sites. Some of these sites were variable only in one or two flies (i.e., rare); others were shared by four or even all five of the flies (i.e., common). Rare and common hypervariable sites were indistinguishable with respect to susceptibility to ADAR; however, polymorphism in rare sites were more likely to be consistent with the action of ADAR than in common ones, again suggesting that ADAR is deleterious to the virus. Thus, in DMelSV, host mutagenesis is constraining viral evolution both within and between hosts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  8. Role of Host-Driven Mutagenesis in Determining Genome Evolution of Sigma Virus (DMelSV; Rhabdoviridae) in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontkivska, Helen; Matos, Luis F.; Paul, Sinu; Scharfenberg, Brian; Farmerie, William G.; Miyamoto, Michael M.; Wayne, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sigma virus (DMelSV) is ubiquitous in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Host-mediated, selective RNA editing of adenosines to inosines (ADAR) may contribute to control of viral infection by preventing transcripts from being transported into the cytoplasm or being translated accurately; or by increasing the viral genomic mutation rate. Previous PCR-based studies showed that ADAR mutations occur in DMelSV at low frequency. Here we use SOLiDTM deep sequencing of flies from a single host population from Athens, GA, USA to comprehensively evaluate patterns of sequence variation in DMelSV with respect to ADAR. GA dinucleotides, which are weak targets of ADAR, are strongly overrepresented in the positive strand of the virus, consistent with selection to generate ADAR resistance on this complement of the transient, double-stranded RNA intermediate in replication and transcription. Potential ADAR sites in a worldwide sample of viruses are more likely to be “resistant” if the sites do not vary among samples. Either variable sites are less constrained and hence are subject to weaker selection than conserved sites, or the variation is driven by ADAR. We also find evidence of mutations segregating within hosts, hereafter referred to as hypervariable sites. Some of these sites were variable only in one or two flies (i.e., rare); others were shared by four or even all five of the flies (i.e., common). Rare and common hypervariable sites were indistinguishable with respect to susceptibility to ADAR; however, polymorphism in rare sites were more likely to be consistent with the action of ADAR than in common ones, again suggesting that ADAR is deleterious to the virus. Thus, in DMelSV, host mutagenesis is constraining viral evolution both within and between hosts. PMID:27614234

  9. Cerebral disorders of Chernobyl clean-up workers in remote period after irradiation in doses > 1 Sv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomko, M.O.

    2004-01-01

    Neurologic, psychiatric and psychophysiologic (computed EEG) examinations were carried out in 45 men irradiated in doses > 1 Sv. Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out in 35 of them. Prevalence of negative psychopathologic symptoms, domination of low-voltage polymorphous types of EEG were the proves of organic nature of cerebral disorders in these patients. Pathologic changes in brain's structures were confirmed by MRI

  10. Attempts on producing lymphoid cell line from Penaeus monodon by induction with SV40-T and 12S EIA oncogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Prabhakaran, Priyaja; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt of in vitro transformation, transfection mediated expression of Simian virus-40 (T) antigen (SV40-T) and transduction mediated expression of Adenovirus type 12 early region 1A (12S E1A) oncogene were performed in Penaeus monodon lymphoid cells. pSV3-neo vector encoding SV40-T oncogene and a recombinant baculovirus BacP2-12S E1A-GFP encoding 12S E1A oncogene under the control of hybrid promoters were used. Electroporation and lipofection mediated transformation of SV40-T in lymphoid cells confirmed the transgene expression by phenotypic variation and the expression of GFP in co-transfection experiment. The cells transfected by lipofection (≥ 5%) survived for 14 days with lower toxicity (30%), whilst on electroporation, most of the cells succumbed to death (60%) and survived cells lived up to 7 days. Transduction efficiency in primary lymphoid cells was more than 80% within 14 days of post-transduction, however, an incubation period of 7 days post-transduction was observed without detectable expression of 12S E1A. High level of oncogenic 12S E1A expression were observed after 14 day post-transduction and the proliferating cells survived for more than 90 days with GFP expression, however, without in vitro transformation and immortalization. The study put forth the requirement of transduction mediated 'specific' oncogene expression along with telomerase activation and epigenetic induction for the immortalization and establishment of shrimp cell line. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. V. kongres světové literárněvědné bohemistiky

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holanová, Markéta; Jareš, Michal; Pišna, Jan; Segi, Stefan; Soukupová, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2015), s. 793-807 ISSN 0009-0468. [V. kongres světové literárněvědné bohemistiky: Válka a konflikt v české literatuře. Praha, 29.06.2015-04.07.2015] Institutional support: RVO:68378068 Keywords : Czech literature * war and conflict * congress * literary studies Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  12. Klar svækkelse af den faglige organisering de sidste ti år i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2006-01-01

    skyldes især at fagforbundene ikke har kunnet følge med den stigende arbejdsstyrke. Det påpeges desuden, at LO’s dominerende position på det organiserede arbejdsmarked bliver svækket, idet LO’s andel af samtlige fagligt organiserede er markant faldende, fra 73% i 1980 til 65% i dag, hvilket især skyldes...

  13. Branching ratios, CP asymmetries and polarizations of B → ψ(2S)V decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rui, Zhou [North China University of Science and Technology, College of Sciences, Tangshan (China); Li, Ya; Xiao, Zhen-Jun [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-09-15

    We analyze the non-leptonic decays B/B{sub s} → ψ(2S)V with V = (ρ, ω, K*, φ) by employing the perturbative QCD (pQCD) factorization approach. Here the branching ratios, the CP asymmetries and the complete set of polarization observables are investigated systematically. Besides the traditional contributions from the factorizable and non-factorizable diagrams at the leading order, the next-to-leading order (NLO) vertex corrections could also provide considerable contributions. The pQCD predictions for the branching ratios of the B{sub (s)} → ψ(2S)K*, ψ(2S)φ decays are consistent with the measured values within errors. As for B → ψ(2S)ρ, ψ(2S)ω decays, the branching ratios can reach the order of 10{sup -5} and could be measured in the LHCb and Belle-II experiments. The numerical results show that the direct CP asymmetries of the considered decays are very small. Thus the observation of any large direct CP asymmetry for these decays will be a signal for new physics. The mixing-induced CP asymmetries in the neutral modes are very close to sin 2β{sub (s)}, which suggests that these channels can give a cross-check on the measurement of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angle β and β{sub s}. We find that the longitudinal polarization fractions f{sub 0} are suppressed to ∝ 50% due to the large non-factorizable contributions. The magnitudes and phases of the two transverse amplitudes A {sub parallel} and A {sub perpendicular} {sub to} are roughly equal, which is an indication for the approximate light-quark helicity conservation in these decays. The overall polarization observables of B → ψ(2S)K{sup *0} and B{sub s} → ψ(2S)φ channels are also in good agreement with the experimental measurements as reported by LHCb and BaBar. Other results can also be tested by the LHCb and Belle-II experiments. (orig.)

  14. Chimeric SV40 virus-like particles induce specific cytotoxicity and protective immunity against influenza A virus without the need of adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Masaaki; Morikawa, Katsuma; Suda, Tatsuya; Ohno, Naohito; Matsushita, Sho; Akatsuka, Toshitaka; Handa, Hiroshi; Matsui, Masanori

    2014-01-05

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a promising vaccine platform due to the safety and efficiency. However, it is still unclear whether polyomavirus-based VLPs are useful for this purpose. Here, we attempted to evaluate the potential of polyomavirus VLPs for the antiviral vaccine using simian virus 40 (SV40). We constructed chimeric SV40-VLPs carrying an HLA-A*02:01-restricted, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope derived from influenza A virus. HLA-A*02:01-transgenic mice were then immunized with the chimeric SV40-VLPs. The chimeric SV40-VLPs effectively induced influenza-specific CTLs and heterosubtypic protection against influenza A viruses without the need of adjuvants. Because DNase I treatment of the chimeric SV40-VLPs did not disrupt CTL induction, the intrinsic adjuvant property may not result from DNA contaminants in the VLP preparation. In addition, immunization with the chimeric SV40-VLPs generated long-lasting memory CTLs. We here propose that the chimeric SV40-VLPs harboring an epitope may be a promising CTL-based vaccine platform with self-adjuvant properties. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperacetylation and differential deacetylation of histones H4 and H3 define two distinct classes of acetylated SV40 chromosomes early in infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milavetz, Barry

    2004-01-01

    SV40 chromosomes undergoing encapsidation late in infection and SV40 chromatin in virions are hyperacetylated on histones H4 and H3. However, the fate of the SV40 chromosomes containing hyperacetylated histones in a subsequent round of infection has not been determined. In order to determine if SV40 chromosomes undergo changes in the extent of histone acetylation during early infection, we have analyzed SV40 chromosomes isolated 30 min and 3 h postinfection by quantitative ChIP assays, depletion ChIP assays, competitive ChIP assays, and ChIP assays combined with restriction endonuclease sensitivity using antibodies to hyperacetylated histones H4 and H3. We have shown that at 30 min postinfection, the hyperacetylated histones are associated with two distinct classes of SV40 chromosomes. One form is hyperacetylated specifically on histone H4 while a second form is hyperacetylated on both H4 and H3. Both forms of chromosomes appear to contain a nucleosome-free promoter region. Over the course of the next few hours of infection, the class of SV40 chromosomes hyperacetylated on only H4 is reduced or completely eliminated through deacetylation

  16. Radon in a Karstic Region School: Concentrations in Soil Gas and Indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.; Kobal, I.; Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The school presented in this paper exceeded instantaneous indoor radon concentration of 1000 Bqm -3 , obtained within the Slovene radon programme. Thus, additional measurements were performed and the radiation doses of teachers and pupils estimated. Radon concentrations between 1000 and 3000 Bqm -3 during teaching hours were found and the yearly effective doses from 0.75 to 1.1 mSv for the pupils and from 1.1 to 4.2 mSv for the teachers were calculated. In the soil gas radon and thoron concentration ranging from 70 to 150 kBqm -3 were obtained. The school was mitigated during summer 1998. (author)

  17. Subcellular localization of SV2 and other secretory vesicle components in PC12 cells by an efficient method of preembedding EM immunocytochemistry for cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, V A; Ploug, Thorkil; Tao-Cheng, J H

    1996-01-01

    substantially improved the efficiency of the preembedding EM ICC procedures for cell cultures. The advantages and related caveats of this method are discussed. SV2 was distinctly localized on dusters of synaptic vesicles and large dense-cored vesicles (LDCV). The distribution of SV2 on these two types...... of secretory vesicles was compared quantitatively to that of another secretory vesicle-associated transmembrane protein, synaptophysin. In cultures under similar experimental conditions, the ratio of SV2 vs synaptophysin ICC staining on synaptic vesicle dusters was about 1:1, whereas it was about 9:1 on LDCV...

  18. Effects of Enrichment and Litter Parity on Reproductive Performance and Behavior in BALB/c and 129/Sv Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Julia W; Moy, Sheryl S; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Fletcher, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of adding species-appropriate environmental enrichment items to breeding cages of BALB/cAnNCrl and 129S2/SvPasCrl mice. The 3 enrichment conditions were: 1) cotton nesting material; 2) nesting material plus a paper shelter and rolled paper bedding; and 3) an igloo dome with an exercise wheel in addition to the shelter-group enrichments. We measured litter size, litter survival to weaning age, average pup weight at 21 d, and the interlitter interval to evaluate reproductive performance. A random subset of the first- or second-litter offspring from each enrichment condition and strain was assessed in multiple behavioral tests. Enrichment significantly affected anxiety-like behavior and sociability, with the direction of change dependent on strain and sex. Litter parity had greater effects on some reproductive parameters than did the enrichment condition, and this effect was not solely due to a difference between the first compared with subsequent litters. The significant effects of litter parity on the number of pups born and weaned, female pup weight, and interlitter interval were dependent on the enrichment condition in BALB/c but not 129/Sv mice. Offspring from the first or second litter were included in a generational component to investigate whether enrichment effects on reproduction persist in adult offspring after transfer to a different facility for breeding. Natal cage enrichment had no effect on any reproductive parameter in the transferred mice. Overall, additional enrichment beyond nesting material had a beneficial effect on the interlitter interval in BALB/c mice and on the number of pups weaned in 129/Sv mice.

  19. New components for the neutron spectrometer SV5c at the 10H channel of the research reactor FRJ2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmeyer, R.

    1991-02-01

    The following new components have been installed at the neutron time-of-flight spectrometer SV5c: 1. Monochromator with devices for tilting and rotating 10 crystal. The fine-adjustment of the crystal orientation can be done with a computer program which maximizes the neutron intensity at the sample position. 2. 128 x 512 multi-channel time-of-flight electronic 3. Computerized equipment for measuring thermal properties of a sample (adsorption isotherm, sample transmission) 4. Data aquisition, data handling and experiment control software coded in ASYST. (orig.)

  20. Uranium mining and milling by Cogema environmental impact compared to 1 mSv limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhard, S.; Daroussin, J.L.; Pfiffelmann, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    CEA then COGEMA have been operating mines and mills in France since 1948. Total production nears 70000 t of U in the concentrate which were contained in some 85 millions tons of ores (pulp and heap leaching). Many sites are now undergoing remediation and impact on the environment has always been a great concern. (author)

  1. Alterations of DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells transfected with a temperature-sensitive SV40: tetraploidization and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, C A; Mayben, J P; Butler, T D; Haskill, J S; Kaufman, D G

    1992-01-01

    The normal genomic stability of human cells is reversed during neoplastic transformation. The SV40 large T antigen alters the DNA content in human endometrial stromal cells in a manner that relates to neoplastic progression. Human endometrial stromal cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the A209 temperature-sensitive mutant of SV40 (tsSV40), which is also defective in the viral origin of replication. Ninety-seven clonal transfectants from seven different primary cell strains were isolated. Initial analysis revealed that 20% of the clonal populations (19/97) had an apparent diploid DNA content, 35% (34/97) had an apparent tetraploid DNA content, and the remainder were mixed populations of diploid and tetraploid cells. No aneuploid populations were observed. Diploid tsSV40 transformed cells always give rise to a population of cells with a tetraploid DNA content when continuously cultured at the permissive temperature. The doubling of DNA content can be vastly accelerated by the sudden reintroduction of large T antigen activity following a shift from non-permissive to permissive temperature. Tetraploid tsSV40 transfected cells have a lower capacity for anchorage-independent growth and earlier entry into 'crisis' than diploid cells. These results indicate that during the pre-crisis, extended lifespan phase of growth, the SV40 large T antigen causes a doubling of DNA content. This apparent doubling of DNA content does not confer growth advantage during the extended lifespan that precedes 'crisis'.

  2. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin A2 in Complex with the Human Protein Receptor SV2C Reveals Plasticity in Receptor Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gustafsson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs are a family of highly dangerous bacterial toxins, with seven major serotypes (BoNT/A-G. Members of BoNTs, BoNT/A1 and BoNT/B1, have been utilized to treat an increasing number of medical conditions. The clinical trials are ongoing for BoNT/A2, another subtype of BoNT/A, which showed promising therapeutic properties. Both BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 utilize three isoforms of synaptic vesicle protein SV2 (SV2A, B, and C as their protein receptors. We here present a high resolution (2.0 Å co-crystal structure of the BoNT/A2 receptor-binding domain in complex with the human SV2C luminal domain. The structure is similar to previously reported BoNT/A-SV2C complexes, but a shift of the receptor-binding segment in BoNT/A2 rotates SV2C in two dimensions giving insight into the dynamic behavior of the interaction. Small differences in key residues at the binding interface may influence the binding to different SV2 isoforms, which may contribute to the differences between BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A2 observed in the clinic.

  3. Concentrated Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar

    2014-01-01

    This entry summarizes the main theoretical contributions and empirical findings in relation to concentrated ownership from a law and economics perspective. The various forms of concentrated ownership are described as well as analyzed from the perspective of the legal protection of investors......, especially minority shareholders. Concentrated ownership is associated with benefits and costs. Concentrated ownership may reduce agency costs by increased monitoring of top management. However, concentrated ownership may also provide dominating owners with private benefits of control....

  4. A Novel Experimental Set-Up for Improving the Sensitivity of SV Waves to Shallow Surface-Breaking Cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecorari, Claudio [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering

    2006-03-15

    Conventional inspection procedures to detect surface-breaking defects in train axels and thick pipes often employ 45-degree incidence shear vertical (SV) waves as probing tool. Recently obtained theoretical and experimental results indicate that this method is considerably less sensitivity to shallow surface-breaking defects, than the one in which the angle of incidence is selected to be close to the critical angle of the longitudinal wave. This project has confirmed this thesis by experimentally investigating the backscattering of SV waves by surface-breaking cracks as a function o t the angle of incidence. To this end, three cracks of depth approximately equal to 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.7 were introduced on the surface of steel samples with a thickness of 47 mm. These cracks were insonified with transducers operating at 2.25 MHz, 3.5 MHz, and 5 MHz, which correspond to wavelengths in steel of 1.38 mm, 0.88 mm, and 0.62 mm, respectively. The increase in sensitivity has been assessed in the order of 15 dB.

  5. Dedicated sub 0.1 mSv 3DCT using MBIR in children with suspected craniosynostosis: quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Caroline W.; Hulstaert, Tine L.; Belsack, Dries; Buls, Nico; Gompel, Gert van; Nieboer, Koenraad H.; Verhelle, Filip; Maeseneer, Michel de; Mey, Johan de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Buyl, Ronald [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    To retrospectively compare image quality of a lowered dose CT protocol to a standard CT protocol in children with suspicion of craniosynostosis. Forty-eight patients (age 0- 35 months), who presented with a cranial deformity underwent cranial 3D CT to assess sutural patency: between 2009 - 2010, 24 patients were imaged with a standard protocol (CTDIvol 32.18 mGy), from 2011-2012, 24 underwent a low dose protocol (0.94 mGy) combined with iterative reconstruction. Image quality was evaluated by both expert reading and objective analysis. Differences were assessed by independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, interreader agreement by Cohen's Kappa test. Effective dose of the low dose protocol was 0.08 mSv, corresponding to a reduction of 97 %. Image quality was similar in both groups in terms of overall diagnostic acceptability, objective noise measurements, subjective cranial bone edge sharpness and presence of artefacts. For objective sharpness of cranial bone-brain interface and subjective perception of noise, the images of the low dose protocol were superior. For all evaluated structures, interreader agreement was moderate to almost perfect. In the diagnosis of craniosynostosis in children with cranial deformities, a dedicated sub 0.1 mSv cranial 3DCT protocol can be used without loss in image quality. (orig.)

  6. Amplification of oncogenes and integrated SV40 sequences in mammalian cells by the decay of incorporated iodine-125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrfeld, A.; Planas-Bohne, F.; Luecke-Huhle, C.

    1986-01-01

    Iodine-125, in the form of 5-[ 125 I]iododeoxyuridine (I-UdR), was incorporated into the DNA of SV40 transformed Chinese hamster embryo cells. Disintegration of the 125 I led to increased cell killing with increasing dose as measured by the colony-forming ability of single cells. The D37 (the dose at which 37% of the cells survive) amounts to 95 decays per cell, corresponding to 0.66 Gy. Variations in the copy number of specific DNA sequences was measured by using dispersed cell blotting with sensitive DNA hybridizations. A 13-fold amplification of the viral DNA sequences (SV40) and a twofold amplification of two cellular oncogenes of the ras-family (Ki-ras and Ha-ras) were found. Other cellular genes, like the alpha-actin gene, were not amplified, and no variation in gene copy number was detected after incubation of cells with cold I-UdR. We suggest the observed gene amplifications are induced by the densely ionizing radiation emitted by the decay of the incorporated 125 I atoms

  7. Numerical Study on Dynamic Response of a Horizontal Layered-Structure Rock Slope under a Normally Incident Sv Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Zhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Several post-earthquake investigations have indicated that the slope structure plays a leading role in the stability of rock slopes under dynamic loads. In this paper, the dynamic response of a horizontal layered-structure rock slope under harmonic Sv wave is studied by making use of the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua method (FLAC. The suitability of FLAC for studying wave transmission across rock joints is validated through comparison with analytical solutions. After parametric studies on Sv wave transmission across the horizontal layered-structure rock slope, it is found that the acceleration amplification coefficient η, which is defined as the ratio of the acceleration at the monitoring point to the value at the toe, wavily increases with an increase of the height along the slope surface. Meanwhile, the fluctuation weakens with normalized joint stiffness K increasing and enhances with normalized joint spacing ξ increasing. The acceleration amplification coefficient of the slope crest ηcrest does not monotonously increase with the increase of ξ, but decreases with the increase of K. Additionally, ηcrest is more sensitive to ξ compared to K. From the contour figures, it can also be found that the contour figures of η take on rhythm, and the effects of ξ on the acceleration amplification coefficient are more obvious compared to the effects on K.

  8. Application of SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial cells to evaluate potential irritant chemicals for in vitro alternative eye toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Won; Park, Geon-Tae; Bae, Ok-Nam; Noh, Minsoo; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of eye irritation potential is important to human safety, and it is necessary for various cosmetics and chemicals that may contact the human eye. Until recently, the Draize test was considered the standard method for estimating eye irritation, despite its disadvantages such as the need to sacrifice many rabbits for subjective scoring. Thus, we investigated the cytotoxicity and inflammatory response to standard eye irritants using SV40 T-transformed human corneal epithelial (SHCE) cells as a step toward development of an animal-free alternative eye irritation test. MTT and NRU assays of cell viability were performed to investigate the optimal experimental conditions for SHCE cell viability when cells were exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a standard eye irritant at 6.25×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Additionally, cell viability of SHCE cells was examined in response to six potential eye irritants, benzalkonium chloride, dimethyl sulfoxide, isopropanol, SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween 20 at 5×10(-3) to 1×10(-1)%. Finally, we estimated the secretion level of cytokines in response to stimulation by eye irritants in SHCE cells. SHCE cells showed a good response to potential eye irritants when the cells were exposed to potential irritants for 10min at room temperature (RT), and cytokine production increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion from SHCE cells may be well correlated with the concentrations of irritants. Taken together, these results suggest that SHCE cells could be an excellent alternative in vitro model to replace in vivo animal models for eye irritation tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elliptical concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2006-10-10

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used to produce optical devices, including the use of reflective and refractive components or inverse engineering techniques. However, many of these optical components are based on translational symmetries, rotational symmetries, or free-form surfaces. We study a new family of nonimaging concentrators called elliptical concentrators. This new family of concentrators provides new capabilities and can have different configurations, either homofocal or nonhomofocal. Translational and rotational concentrators can be considered as particular cases of elliptical concentrators.

  10. Sjælden immundefekt bag svær atopisk dermatitis i barnealderen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Marquart, Hanne V; Laub, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    Two children are presented with autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome caused by a mutation in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8). The manifestations are typically severe atopic dermatitis, food allergies, elevated serum IgE concentration, viral skin infections and risk of malignancies....... DOCK8 deficiency was first reported in 2009, following the death of the oldest sibling. The youngest sibling was cured after allogenic stem cell transplantation. This case report illustrates the need of awareness of primary immunodeficiency in children with atypical manifestation of atopic dermatitis...... in combination with recurrent infections....

  11. A physical model study of the travel times and conversion point locations of P-SV converted waves in vertical transversely isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration seismology, subsurface medium commonly exhibits anisotropy, characterized by a vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) model. Due to the need of exploring small reservoirs in complex structures, the seismic exploration is extended to deal with anisotropic media. The P-S converted wave seismic exploration is a relatively inexpensive, broadly applicable, and effective way to obtain the S-wave information of the medium. In anisotropic traveltime analysis, the moveout curve of horizontal P-SV event can help to determine the ratio of the P- and SV-wave vertical velocities, the normal moveout (NMO) velocity of SV-waves, and the anisotropy parameters. The P-SV conversion point (CP) location is of great importance to P-SV data binning, NMO corrections and common conversion point (CCP) stacking, and the anisotropy has a more significant effect on the conversion point location than on the moveout. In this study, we attempt to inspect the theoretical non-hyperbolic moveout and CP equations for the P-SV waves reflected from a VTI layer by numerical calculations and physical modeling. We are also interested in visualizing the variations of the conversion point locations from a designed VTI medium. In traveltime analysis, the theoretical moveout curve is accurate up to offsets about one and a half times the reflector depth (x/z=1.5). However, the moveout curve computed by Fermat's principle fits well to the physical data. The CP locations of P-SV waves are similar to those calculated by Fermat's principle and theoretical CP equation, which are verified by the physical modeling.

  12. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  13. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  14. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi; Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro

    2011-01-01

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  15. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  16. Concentrator Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Luque, Antonio L

    2007-01-01

    Photovoltaic solar-energy conversion is one of the most promising technologies for generating renewable energy, and conversion of concentrated sunlight can lead to reduced cost for solar electricity. In fact, photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight insures an efficient and cost-effective sustainable power resource. This book gives an overview of all components, e.g. cells, concentrators, modules and systems, for systems of concentrator photovoltaics. The authors report on significant results related to design, technology, and applications, and also cover the fundamental physics and market considerations. Specific contributions include: theory and practice of sunlight concentrators; an overview of concentrator PV activities; a description of concentrator solar cells; design and technology of modules and systems; manufacturing aspects; and a market study.

  17. Effects of S/V on secondary phase formation on waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Buck, E.C.; Bates, J.K.; Gong, M.; Dietz, N.L.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    Simulated West Valley high-level nuclear waste glass, WV205, was leached with and without buffered media in both deuterated and ordinary water at glass surface area to solution volumes (S/N) of 200--6000 m -1 . Examination of the glass surface after testing for 14 days indicated that the S/V-induced pH change plays a dominant role in the development of the altered surface layer and the secondary phases formed. The changes due to SN-induced pH determine the rate of surface layer formation, the element distribution in the surface layer, and possibly, the identities of the secondary phases. Changes due to SN-induced elemental concentration also influence glass reaction rate in terms of the layer thickness and the elemental distribution in the surface layers

  18. Cat odor exposure induces distinct changes in the exploratory behavior and Wfs1 gene expression in C57Bl/6 and 129Sv mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Sirli; Sütt, Silva; Plaas, Mario; Luuk, Hendrik; Innos, Jürgen; Philips, Mari-Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2007-10-16

    129Sv and C57Bl/6 (Bl6) strains are two most widely used inbred mice strains for generation of transgenic animals. The present study confirms the existence of substantial differences in the behavior of these two mice strains. The exploratory behavior of Bl6 mice in a novel environment was significantly higher compared to 129Sv mice. The exposure of mice to cat odor-induced an anxiety-like state in Bl6, but not in 129Sv mice. The levels of Wfs1 gene expression did not differ in the prefrontal cortex, mesolimbic area and temporal lobe of experimentally naive Bl6 and 129Sv mice. However, after cat odor exposure the expression of Wfs1 gene was significantly lower in the mesolimbic area and temporal lobe of Bl6 mice compared to 129Sv strain. Dynamics of Wfs1 gene expression and exploratory behavior suggest that the down-regulation of Wfs1 gene in Bl6 mice might be related to the increased anxiety. Further studies are needed to test the robustness and possible causal relationship of this finding.

  19. Lithological and seasonal variations in radon concentrations in Cypriot groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasoula Kiliari; Anastasia Tsiaili; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses radon activity concentrations in Cypriot groundwater systems as a function of the background lithology and seasonal/meteorological conditions using an airborne radon monitoring system (ARM) after separation of radon by out-gassing. Radiometric analysis of groundwater samples obtained from non-contaminated systems showed that radon concentration in groundwaters varies strongly (0.1-10 Bq L -1 ) depending mainly on the hosting geological matrix but also to lesser degree on atmospheric/meteorological conditions. The associated excess annual dose has been estimated to range between 10 -6 and 10 -4 mSv y -1 , which is an insignificant contribution to the radiation exposure of the Cypriot population caused by airborne radon (0.5 ± 0.4 mSv y -1 ). (author)

  20. Equilibrium Investment Strategy for DC Pension Plan with Inflation and Stochastic Income under Heston’s SV Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyun Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a portfolio selection problem for a defined contribution (DC pension plan under the mean-variance criteria. We take into account the inflation risk and assume that the salary income process of the pension plan member is stochastic. Furthermore, the financial market consists of a risk-free asset, an inflation-linked bond, and a risky asset with Heston’s stochastic volatility (SV. Under the framework of game theory, we derive two extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations systems and give the corresponding verification theorems in both the periods of accumulation and distribution of the DC pension plan. The explicit expressions of the equilibrium investment strategies, corresponding equilibrium value functions, and the efficient frontiers are also obtained. Finally, some numerical simulations and sensitivity analysis are presented to verify our theoretical results.

  1. p53 levels, cell cycle kinetics and radiosensitivity in two SV40 transformed Wi38VA13 fibroblast strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.; Zoelzer, F.; Streffer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Background: The tumor suppressor protein p53 which can mediate an ionizing radiation-induced G 1 arrest in mammalian cells, forms complexes with SV40 large T antigen (l-T-Ag). We have analyzed the p53 levels, the capability to undergo a G 1 arrest and the radiosensitivity of two SV40 transformed fibroblast strains differing in their large T antigen expression. Material and Methods: One of the two strains (VA13F) is the commercially available form of Wi38VA13, the other (VA13E) arose spontaneously from the original one in our laboratory. Their p53 levels were measured by means of flow cytometry (FCM) and Western blot (WB) with two p53 antibodies (Ab-3, clone PAb240; Ab-6, clone DO-1; both Oncogene Science). Cell cycle distributions were determined flow cytometrically after BrdU labeling at regular time intervals after exposure to 250 kV X-rays. Radiosensitivity was assessed in a clonogenicity assay. Results: The p53 levels of the two strains corresponded to their large T antigen expression, presumably due to complex formation between the two proteins. The strain with a high p53 level did not show a G 1 arrest and had a relatively high radiosensitivity, whereas the strain with a low p53 level showed a significant G 1 arrest and a lower radiosensitivity. Conclusion: These results suggest that 1. complex formation between the large T antigen and p53 reduces the latter's functionality; 2. in these two strains the G 1 arrest is one of the factors determining radiosensitivity. (orig.) [de

  2. Homologous SV40 RNA trans-splicing: Special case or prime example of viral RNA trans-splicing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Poddar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To date the Simian Virus 40 (SV40 is the only proven example of a virus that recruits the mechanism of RNA trans-splicing to diversify its sequences and gene products. Thereby, two identical viral transcripts are efficiently joined by homologous trans-splicing triggering the formation of a highly transforming 100 kDa super T antigen. Sequences of other viruses including HIV-1 and the human adenovirus type 5 were reported to be involved in heterologous trans-splicing towards cellular or viral sequences but the meaning of these events remains unclear. We computationally and experimentally investigated molecular features associated with viral RNA trans-splicing and identified a common pattern: Viral RNA trans-splicing occurs between strong cryptic or regular viral splice sites and strong regular or cryptic splice sites of the trans-splice partner sequences. The majority of these splice sites are supported by exonic splice enhancers. Splice sites that could compete with the trans-splicing sites for cis-splice reactions are weaker or inexistent. Finally, all but one of the trans-splice reactions seem to be facilitated by one or more complementary binding domains of 11 to 16 nucleotides in length which, however occur with a statistical probability close to one for the given length of the involved sequences. The chimeric RNAs generated via heterologous viral RNA trans-splicing either did not lead to fusion proteins or led to proteins of unknown function. Our data suggest that distinct viral RNAs are highly susceptible to trans-splicing and that heterologous viral trans-splicing, unlike homologous SV40 trans-splicing, represents a chance event.

  3. The suitability of 129SvEv mice for studying depressive-like behaviour: both males and females develop learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourbaji, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Natascha; Dormann, Christof; Brandwein, Christiane; Fradley, Rosa; Sheardown, Malcolm; Gass, P

    2010-07-29

    Behavioural studies using transgenic techniques in mice usually require extensive backcrossing to a defined background strain, e.g. to C57BL/6. In this study we investigated whether backcrossing can be replaced by using the 129SvEv strain from which the embryonic stem cells are generally obtained for gene targeting strategies to analyze e.g. depression-like behaviour. For that purpose we subjected male and female 129SvEv mice to two frequently used depression tests and compared them with commonly used C57BL/6 mice. 129SvEv and C57BL/6 mice exhibited differing profiles with regard to locomotion and pain sensitivity. However, in the learned helplessness paradigm, a procedure, which represents a valid method to detect depressive-like behaviour, 129SvEv animals develop a similar level of helplessness as C57BL/6 mice. One great advantage of the 129SvEv animals though, is the fact that in this strain even females develop helplessness, which could not be produced in C57BL/6 mice. In the tail suspension test, both genders of 129SvEv exhibited more despair behaviour than C57BL/6 animals. We therefore suggest that this strain may be utilized in the establishment of new test procedures for affective diseases, since costly and time-consuming backcrossing can be prevented, depressive-like behaviour may be analyzed effectively, and gender-specific topics could be addressed in an adequate way. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved AMD counters quicky type to achieve a level of 0.2 log derivative mSv output in counts refills; Mejora de la AMD en contadores tipo quicky para conseguir un nivel derivado de registro de 0,2 mSV en contajes de salida en recargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravp Perez-Tinao, B.; Marchena Gonzalez, P.; Sollet Danudo, E.

    2011-07-01

    To ensure that no worker receives contract exposed by internal exposure dose computed not exceed 1 mSv / year, the Nuclear Security Council requested the Spanish nuclear power plants and Tecnatom that in 2010 would ensure a level derived from registration in internal dosimetry counts refills output equal to or less than 0.2 mSv, which represented a reduction of AMD computers.

  5. Analysis of the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porwollik Steffen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen that must successfully adapt to the broad fluctuations in the concentration of dissolved dioxygen encountered in the host. In Escherichia coli, ArcA (Aerobic Respiratory Control helps the cells to sense and respond to the presence of dioxygen. The global role of ArcA in E. coli is well characterized; however, little is known about its role in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Results We compared the transcriptional profiles of the virulent wild-type (WT strain (ATCC 14028s and its isogenic arcA mutant grown under anaerobic conditions. We found that ArcA directly or indirectly regulates 392 genes (8.5% of the genome; of these, 138 genes are poorly characterized. Regulation by ArcA in S. Typhimurium is similar, but distinct from that in E. coli. Thus, genes/operons involved in core metabolic pathways (e.g., succinyl-CoA, fatty acid degradation, cytochrome oxidase complexes, flagellar biosynthesis, motility, and chemotaxis were regulated similarly in the two organisms. However, genes/operons present in both organisms, but regulated differently by ArcA in S. Typhimurium included those coding for ethanolamine utilization, lactate transport and metabolism, and succinate dehydrogenases. Salmonella-specific genes/operons regulated by ArcA included those required for propanediol utilization, flagellar genes (mcpAC, cheV, Gifsy-1 prophage genes, and three SPI-3 genes (mgtBC, slsA, STM3784. In agreement with our microarray data, the arcA mutant was non-motile, lacked flagella, and was as virulent in mice as the WT. Additionally, we identified a set of 120 genes whose regulation was shared with the anaerobic redox regulator, Fnr. Conclusion(s We have identified the ArcA regulon in anaerobically grown S. Typhimurium. Our results demonstrated that in S. Typhimurium, ArcA serves as a transcriptional regulator coordinating cellular metabolism, flagella

  6. Evaluation of radon and their daughters concentration and estimative of effective dose in a waste deposits at the ore treatment unity of INB/Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; Avaliacao da concentracao de radonio e seus filhos e estimativa de dose efetiva em um deposito de rejeitos na unidade de tratamento de minerios da INB/Caldas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Marcelino V.A.; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Antunes, Marcos M.; Junior, Joao V.S.; Py Junior, Delcy A., E-mail: marcelino@inb.gov.b, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: ogarcia@inb.gov.b, E-mail: antunes@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Joao@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Pereira, Wagner S. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios; Universidade Federal Fluminense (IB/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    This paper conducts a surveillance of radon and their short half-life daughters gas concentration, inside the warehouse due to these gas inhalation. The results showed that the average concentration inside the warehouse ix approximately 700 Bq/m{sup 3} and the effective dose of an IOE, related to that concentration would be 5.0 mSv/year, therefore being 4 times lower than the established limit of 20 mSv/year

  7. Radon Concentration And Dose Assessment In Well Water Samples From Karbala Governorate Of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawy, I. T.; Hasan, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    There are numerous studies around the world about radon concentrations and their risks to the health of human beings. One of the most important social characteristics is the use of water wells for irrigation, which is a major source of water pollution with radon gas. In the present study, six well water samples have been collected from different locations in Karbala governorate to investigate radon concentration level using CR-39 technique. The maximum value 4.112±2.0Bq/L was in Al-Hurr (Al-Qarih Al-Easariah) region, and the lowest concentration of radon was in Hay Ramadan region which is 2.156±1.4Bq/L, with an average value 2.84±1.65Bq/L. The highest result of annual effective dose (AED) was in Al-Hurr (Al-Qarih Al-Easariah) region which is equal to 15.00±3.9μSv/y, while the minimum was recorded in Hay Ramadan 7.86±2.8μSv/y, with an average value 10.35±3.1μSv/y. The current results have shown that the radon concentrations in well water samples are lower than the recommended limit 11.1Bq/L and the annual effective dose in these samples are lower than the permissible international limit 1mSv/y.

  8. SV-BR-1-GM, a Clinically Effective GM-CSF-Secreting Breast Cancer Cell Line, Expresses an Immune Signature and Directly Activates CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D. Lacher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeted cancer immunotherapy with irradiated, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic cancer cell lines has been an effective approach to reduce tumor burden in several patients. It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. We have previously reported that, in a phase I pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00095862, a subject with stage IV breast cancer experienced substantial regression of breast, lung, and brain lesions following inoculation with clinical formulations of SV-BR-1-GM, a GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor cell line. To identify diagnostic features permitting the prospective identification of patients likely to benefit from SV-BR-1-GM, we conducted a molecular analysis of the SV-BR-1-GM cell line and of patient-derived blood, as well as a tumor specimen. Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. Curiously, despite its presumptive breast epithelial origin, the cell line expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II genes (HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB, in addition to several other factors known to play immunostimulatory roles. These factors include MHC class I components (B2M, HLA-A, HLA-B, ADA (encoding adenosine deaminase, ADGRE5 (CD97, CD58 (LFA3, CD74 (encoding invariant chain and CLIP, CD83, CXCL8 (IL8, CXCL16, HLA-F, IL6, IL18, and KITLG. Moreover, both SV-BR-1-GM cells and the responding study subject carried an HLA-DRB3*02:02 allele, raising the question of whether SV-BR-1-GM cells can directly present endogenous antigens to T cells, thereby inducing a tumor-directed immune response. In support of this, SV-BR-1-GM cells (which also carry the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele treated with

  9. Discrimination of dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease using voxel-based morphometry of white matter by statistical parametric mapping 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomic registration through exponentiated Lie algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Terada, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify brain atrophy specific for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and to evaluate the discriminatory performance of this specific atrophy between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We retrospectively reviewed 60 DLB and 30 AD patients who had undergone 3D T1-weighted MRI. We randomly divided the DLB patients into two equal groups (A and B). First, we obtained a target volume of interest (VOI) for DLB-specific atrophy using correlation analysis of the percentage rate of significant whole white matter (WM) atrophy calculated using the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8) plus diffeomorphic anatomic registration through exponentiated Lie algebra, with segmented WM images in group A. We then evaluated the usefulness of this target VOI for discriminating the remaining 30 DLB patients in group B from the 30 AD patients. Z score values in this target VOI obtained from VSRAD were used as the determinant in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Specific target VOIs for DLB were determined in the right-side dominant dorsal midbrain, right-side dominant dorsal pons, and bilateral cerebellum. ROC analysis revealed that the target VOI limited to the midbrain exhibited the highest area under the ROC curves of 0.75. DLB patients showed specific atrophy in the midbrain, pons, and cerebellum. Midbrain atrophy demonstrated the highest power for discriminating DLB and AD. This approach may be useful for determining the contributions of DLB and AD pathologies to the dementia syndrome.

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. Ambtscriminaliteit aangegeven? : Een onderzoek naar het opvolgen van en kennis over de wettelijke verplichting tot aangifte van artikel 162 Sv misdrijven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries Robbé, E. de; Cornelissens, A.; Ferwerda, H.

    2008-01-01

    Dit is een onderzoek naar de werking van de aangifteplicht bij ambtscriminaliteit (art 162 Sv). Het gaat dan bijvoorbeeld om het aannemen van steekpenningen en misdrijven waarbij ambtenaren een bijzondere ambtsplicht schenden. De aangifteplicht raakt de klokkenluidersregeling en maakt onderdeel uit

  12. Hypothalamic neurosecretory and circadian vasopressinergic neuronal systems in the blind cone-rod homeobox knock out mouse (Crx(-/-) ) and the 129sv wild type mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Møller, Morten

    2013-01-01

    circadian AVP-rhythm. We have in this study of the brown 129sv mouse and the visual blind cone-rod homeobox gene knock out mouse (Crx(-/-) ) with degeneration of the retinal rods and cones, but a preserved non-image forming optic system, studied the temporal Avp-expression in both the neurosecretory...

  13. Evaluation of annual effective dose from indoor radon concentration in Eastern Province, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhia, E.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the indoor radon concentration and to evaluate the annual effective dose received by the inhabitants in Dammam, Al-Khobar, and compare it with new premises built at university of dammam. The research has been carried out by using active detection method; Electronic Radon Detector (RAD-7) a solid state α-detector with its special accessories. The indoor radon concentration measured varies from 10.2 Bqm-3 to 25.8 Bqm-3 with an average value of 18.8 Bqm-3 and 19.7 Bqm-3 to 23.5 Bqm-3 with an average value of 21.7 Bqm-3, in Dammam and Al-khobar dwellings, respectively. In university of dammam the radon concentration varies from 7.4 Bqm-3 to 15.8 Bqm-3 with an average value of 9.02 Bqm-3. The values of annual effective doses were found to be 0.47mSv/y, 0.55mSv/y, and 0.23mSv/y, in Dammam, Al-khobar and university new premises, respectively. The average radon concentration in the old dwellings was two times compared to that in the new premises and it was 25.4 Bqm-3 lower than the world average value of 40 Bqm-3 reported by the UNSCEAR. The annual effective doses in the old dwellings was found to be (0.55mSv/y) two times the doses received at the new premises, and below the world wide average of 1.15mSv/y reported by ICRP (2010). The indoor radon concentration in the study region is safe as far as health hazard is concerned.

  14. Radon Concentration in Caves of Croatia - Assesing Effective Radon Doses for Occupational Workers and Visitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Stanic, D.; Vukovic, B.; Paar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Radon monitoring at potentially highly radioactive location such as caves is important to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers and occasional visitors. In its Publication 65 the ICRP has produced recommendations dealing with exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. Recommended annual effective dose from radon 222Rn and its short-lived progeny for workers should not exceed 20 mSv and for occasional users (visitors) the same recommendation is 1 mSv. Measurements were performed with series of track etched detectors (LR115 - type II) in several caves in Croatia. The obtained values for the radon concentration ranged from ambient values up to several thousand Bq m -3 . Radon concentration was measured in about 20 caves of Velebit and Zumberak mountains and the highest radon concentration was in Lubuska jama (3.8 kBq m -3 ) and cave Dolaca (21.8 kBq m -3 ), respectively. Djurovica cave is especially interesting because of its huge tourist potential due to its location bellow Dubrovnik airport. Its mean annual radon concentration of 17.6 kBq m -3 classifies Djurovica cave among caves with high radon concentration. A visitor during half an hour visit at summer time would receive an effective dose of 30.6 μSv. Calculated mean dose rate of 44 μSv/h means that workers (mainly tourist guides) should limit their time inside cave to 454 hours per year. Manita pec is the only cave open for tourists on the territory of Paklenica National Park. The preliminary radon measurements performed during summer 2010, gave an average radon concentration of 1.1 kBq m -3 . An exposure to average dose rate of 3.7 μSv/h means that the tourist guides would receive an effective dose of 0.42 mSv during summer period according to their working schedule. A visitor during half an hour visits would receive an effective dose of 1.86 μSv. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the Reference Numerical Parameters of the Monthly Method in ISO 13790 Considering S/V Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Kwak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the accuracy of the numerical parameters in the application of the quasi steady-state calculation method. The aim of this study is to derive the reference numerical parameters of the ISO 13790 monthly method by reflecting the surface-to-volume (S/V ratio and the characteristics of the structures. The calculation process was established, and the parameters necessary to derive the reference numerical parameters were calculated based on the input data prepared for the established calculation processes. The reference numerical parameters were then derived through regression analyses of the calculated parameters and the time constant. The parameters obtained from an apartment building and the parameters of the international standard were both applied to the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP and EnergyPlus programs, and the results were analyzed in order to evaluate the validity of the results. The analysis revealed that the calculation results based on the parameters derived from this study yielded lower error rates than those based on the default parameters in ISO 13790. However, the differences were shown to be negligible in the case of high heat capacity.

  16. On the risk to low doses (<100 mSv) of ionizing radiation during medical imaging procedures - IOMP policy statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The science committee of International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) developed a policy statement on the predictions of radiation-induced cancers and cancer deaths in patients exposed to low doses (<100 mSv) of ionizing radiation during medical imaging; this statement has been approved by the IOMP council. In order to attract the attention of medical physicists, an editorial (1) titled 'Risk of Medical Imaging' that includes the said statement has recently been published in Medical Physics journal of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). As stated, IOMP represents 80 national and 6 regional medical physics organizations and 18,000 medical physicists worldwide. The IOMP affiliated bodies/organizations in different countries (such as Association of Medical Physicists of India, AMPI) have been encouraged to reproduce the IOMP statement in their journals/newsletters for the benefit of larger community of medical physicists. The IOMP statement is reproduced below (readers may also go through the supportive literature listed in references). It is hoped that this policy statement will have some deterrent influence on the continued propagation of unproven risk related to medical imaging procedures conducted with small doses.

  17. Limits of transforming competence of SV40 nuclear and cytoplasmic large T mutants with altered Rb binding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Fischer-Fantuzzi, L; Vesco, C

    1993-03-01

    Multiple amino acid substitutions were introduced into the SV40 large T region that harbors the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) binding site and the nuclear transport signal, changing either one or both of these determinants. Mutant activities were examined in a set of assays allowing different levels of transforming potential to be distinguished; phenotypic changes in established and pre-crisis rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) were detected under isogenic cell conditions, and comparisons made with other established rodent cells. The limit of the transforming ability of mutants with important substitutions in the Rb binding site fell between two transformation levels of the same established rat cells. Such cells could be induced to form dense foci but not agar colonies (their parental pre-crises REFs, as expected, were untransformed either way). Nonetheless, agar colony induction was possible in other cell lines, such as mouse NIH3T3 and (for one of the mutants) rat F2408. All these mutants efficiently immortalized pre-crisis REFs. The transforming ability of cytoplasmic mutants appeared to depend on the integrity of the Rb-binding sequence to approximately the same extent as that of the wild-type large T, although evidence of in vivo Rb-cytoplasmic large T complexes was not found. The presence or absence of small t was critical when the transforming task of mutants was near the limit of their abilities.

  18. StralSV: assessment of sequence variability within similar 3D structures and application to polio RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemla, A; Lang, D; Kostova, T; Andino, R; Zhou, C

    2010-11-29

    Most of the currently used methods for protein function prediction rely on sequence-based comparisons between a query protein and those for which a functional annotation is provided. A serious limitation of sequence similarity-based approaches for identifying residue conservation among proteins is the low confidence in assigning residue-residue correspondences among proteins when the level of sequence identity between the compared proteins is poor. Multiple sequence alignment methods are more satisfactory - still, they cannot provide reliable results at low levels of sequence identity. Our goal in the current work was to develop an algorithm that could overcome these difficulties and facilitate the identification of structurally (and possibly functionally) relevant residue-residue correspondences between compared protein structures. Here we present StralSV, a new algorithm for detecting closely related structure fragments and quantifying residue frequency from tight local structure alignments. We apply StralSV in a study of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of poliovirus and demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to determine regions of the protein that are relatively unique or that shared structural similarity with structures that are distantly related. By quantifying residue frequencies among many residue-residue pairs extracted from local alignments, one can infer potential structural or functional importance of specific residues that are determined to be highly conserved or that deviate from a consensus. We further demonstrate that considerable detailed structural and phylogenetic information can be derived from StralSV analyses. StralSV is a new structure-based algorithm for identifying and aligning structure fragments that have similarity to a reference protein. StralSV analysis can be used to quantify residue-residue correspondences and identify residues that may be of particular structural or functional importance, as well as unusual or unexpected

  19. 40K activities and potassium concentrations in tobacco samples of Mexican cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramos, A.; Vazquez, K.; Juarez, F.

    2007-01-01

    Nine brands of tobacco cigarettes manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market were analyzed by γ-spectrometry to certify their nonartificial radioactive contamination. Since natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) 40 K, 232 Th, 235 U, and 239 U (and decay products from the latter three nuclides) are the main sources for human radiation exposure, the aim of this work was to determine the activity of 40 K and potassium concentration. Averages of 40 K and potassium concentration were of 1.29 ± 0.18 Bq x g -1 , and 4.0 ± 0.57%. The annual dose equivalents to the whole body from ingestion and inhalation of 26 Bq 40 K were 0.23 μSv and 15.8 μSv, respectively. The corresponding 50 years committed dose equivalents was 0.23 μSv. The total committed dose to the lungs due to inhalation of 40 K in tobacco was 16 μSv. Potassium concentrations obtained in this work were in the same range of those obtained by INAA, so showing that the used technique is acute, reproducible, and accessible to laboratories equipped with low background scintillation detectors. (author)

  20. SvSXP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, Daniel K.; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny

    2013-01-01

    Strongyle parasites are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Strongylus vulgaris, the most pathogenic of the large strongyles, is known for its extensive migration in the mesenteric arterial system. The lifecycle of S. vulgaris is characterised by a long prepatent period where the migrating larvae...... are virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among...... cyathostomins has led to recommendations of reduced treatment intensity by targeting horses that exceed a predetermined strongyle faecal egg count threshold. One study suggests an apparent increase in prevalence of S. vulgaris on farms where reduced anthelmintic treatment intensity has been implemented...

  1. SV-AUTOPILOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, Wai Yi; Marschall, Tobias; Paudel, Yogesh; Falquet, Laurent; Mei, Hailiang; Schönhuth, Alexander; Maoz Moss, Tiffanie Yael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many tools exist to predict structural variants (SVs), utilizing a variety of algorithms. However, they have largely been developed and tested on human germline or somatic (e.g. cancer) variation. It seems appropriate to exploit this wealth of technology available for humans also for

  2. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiroun, M. I. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg -1 for 2 38T h and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg -1 for 4 0k . No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  3. Determination of radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples around the city of Kutahya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, L.; Cetinkaya, H.; Murat Sac, M.; Ichedef, M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radium and radon has been determined in drinking water samples collected from various locations of Kutahya city, Turkey. The water samples are taken from public water sources and tap water, with the collector chamber method used to measure the radon and radium concentration. The radon concentration ranges between 0.1 and 48.6±1.7 Bq l -1 , while the radium concentration varies from a minimum detectable activity of -1 in Kutahya city. In addition to the radon and radium levels, parameters such as pH, conductivity and temperature of the water, humidity, pressure, elevation and the coordinates of the sampling points have also been measured and recorded. The annual effective dose from radon and radium due to typical water usage has been calculated. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 0.3 and 124.2 μSv y -1 ; the contribution to the annual effective dose due to radium ingestion varies between 0 and 143.3 μSv y -1 ; the dose contribution to the stomach due to radon ingestion varies between 0.03 and 14.9 μSv y -1 . The dose contribution due to radon inhalation ranges between 0.3 and 122.5 μSv y -1 , assuming a typical transfer of radon in water to the air. For the overwhelming majority of the Kutahya population, it is determined that the average radiation exposure from drinking water is less than 73.6μmSv y -1 . (authors)

  4. Repeated Administration of D-Amphetamine Induces Distinct Alterations in Behavior and Metabolite Levels in 129Sv and Bl6 Mouse Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taavi Vanaveski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to characterize the behavioral and metabolomic profiles of repeated administration (for 11 days of d-amphetamine (AMPH, 3 mg/kg i. p., indirect agonist of dopamine (DA, in widely used 129S6/SvEvTac (129Sv and C57BL/6NTac (Bl6 mouse strains. Acute administration of AMPH (acute AMPH induced significantly stronger motor stimulation in Bl6. However, repeated administration of AMPH (repeated AMPH caused stronger motor sensitization in 129Sv compared acute AMPH. Body weight of 129Sv was reduced after repeated saline and AMPH, whereas no change occurred in Bl6. In the metabolomic study, acute AMPH induced an elevation of isoleucine and leucine, branched chain amino acids (BCAA, whereas the level of hexoses was reduced in Bl6. Both BCAAs and hexoses remained on level of acute AMPH after repeated AMPH in Bl6. Three biogenic amines [asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, alpha-aminoadipic acid (alpha-AAA, kynurenine] were significantly reduced after repeated AMPH. Acute AMPH caused in 129Sv a significant reduction of valine, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPC a C16:0, lysoPC a C18:2, lysoPC a C20:4, phosphatidylcholine (PC diacyls (PC aa C34:2, PC aa C36:2, PC aa C36:3, PC aa C36:4 and alkyl-acyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4. However, repeated AMPH increased the levels of valine and isoleucine, long-chain acylcarnitines (C14, C14:1-OH, C16, C18:1, PC diacyls (PC aa C38:4, PC aa C38:6, PC aa C42:6, PC acyl-alkyls (PC ae C38:4, PC ae C40:4, PC ae C40:5, PC ae C40:6, PC ae C42:1, PC ae C42:3 and sphingolipids [SM(OHC22:1, SM C24:0] compared to acute AMPH in 129Sv. Hexoses and kynurenine were reduced after repeated AMPH compared to saline in 129Sv. The established changes probably reflect a shift in energy metabolism toward lipid molecules in 129Sv because of reduced level of hexoses. Pooled data from both strains showed that the elevation of isoleucine and leucine was a prominent biomarker of AMPH-induced behavioral sensitization

  5. Characterization of flood and precipitation events in Southwestern Germany and stochastic simulation of extreme precipitation (Project FLORIS-SV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Ehmele; Michael, Kunz

    2016-04-01

    Several major flood events occurred in Germany in the past 15-20 years especially in the eastern parts along the rivers Elbe and Danube. Examples include the major floods of 2002 and 2013 with an estimated loss of about 2 billion Euros each. The last major flood events in the State of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany occurred in the years 1978 and 1993/1994 along the rivers Rhine and Neckar with an estimated total loss of about 150 million Euros (converted) each. Flood hazard originates from a combination of different meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic processes. Currently there is no defined methodology available for evaluating and quantifying the flood hazard and related risk for larger areas or whole river catchments instead of single gauges. In order to estimate the probable maximum loss for higher return periods (e.g. 200 years, PML200), a stochastic model approach is designed since observational data are limited in time and space. In our approach, precipitation is linearly composed of three elements: background precipitation, orographically-induces precipitation, and a convectively-driven part. We use linear theory of orographic precipitation formation for the stochastic precipitation model (SPM), which is based on fundamental statistics of relevant atmospheric variables. For an adequate number of historic flood events, the corresponding atmospheric conditions and parameters are determined in order to calculate a probability density function (pdf) for each variable. This method involves all theoretically possible scenarios which may not have happened, yet. This work is part of the FLORIS-SV (FLOod RISk Sparkassen Versicherung) project and establishes the first step of a complete modelling chain of the flood risk. On the basis of the generated stochastic precipitation event set, hydrological and hydraulic simulations will be performed to estimate discharge and water level. The resulting stochastic flood event set will be used to quantify the

  6. Scrotal circumference: A predictor of testosterone concentration and certain attributes of seminal vesicles influencing buffalo male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mahmood

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of scrotal circumference (SC with plasma testosterone, seminal vesicles (SVs weight, and its secretion as measurable indicators of fertility and also to sequence and establish phylogenetic relatedness of certain SV protein genes with other species as such integrated approach is lacking. Materials and Methods: Altogether, 59 apparently healthy male buffaloes sacrificed at slaughterhouse were selected (irrespective of breed for measuring SC and collecting blood and paired SVs. The SC was measured at greater curvature using soft thread. In the present study, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol, protein, and glucose in addition to SV fructose, citric acid and proteins in SV fluid were also estimated. The SV tissue was fixed in RNAlater for RNA extraction.Male buffaloes were categorized as per total SV weight into Group I (8.0 g and dentitions-I (≤18 months, II (18-24 months, and III (≥24 months to assess the effect of weight and dentition age on SC, SV weight, and its certain secretions. Data were analyzed using linear model procedure including Tukey HSD test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Variance inflation and condition index were also used to assess multicollinearity. Results: Gross and histomorphological evaluation of SVs did not show any abnormality. Macronutrients (plasma protein, glucose, and cholesterol showed non-significant (p>0.05 variation between groups. The SC and SV weight varied significantly (p<0.05 with a significant positive relationship with plasma testosterone, SV protein, fructose, and citric acid. In addition, testosterone concentration also showed increasing trend from Groups I to III but increased significantly (p<0.05 from Group II to III with positive and significant correlations with SV protein, fructose, and citric acid similar to SV weight and SC. Binders of sperm protein (BSP1, 3, and 5 genes (full length were sequenced and established an

  7. Radon concentration in greehouses of Aomori Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2001-01-01

    222 Rn causes a significant part of natural radiation dose to the general population. We previously surveyed 222 Rn concentrations in dwellings, and indoor and outdoor workplaces in Aomori Prefecture, and found geometric mean concentrations of 13, 22 and 4.4 Bq m -3 , respectively. The annual radiation dose rate of 4.3 mSv y -1 was estimated for people in the prefecture from these data. Since 222 Rn in the environment mainly originates from 226 Ra in the soil, that in cave is known to be higher than that in ordinary environments such as in buildings. Greenhouses are a possible place with high 222 Rn concentration, because of the soil exposed inside. However, the 222 Rn concentration in greenhouses has not yet been reported. We surveyed 222 Rn concentration in greenhouses of Aomori Prefecture. The 222 Rn concentration in 24 greenhouses at six locations in the prefecture were measured for approximately one year with passive Rn detectors using a polycarbonate film for counting α-rays, which could separate concentrations of 222 Rn from 220 Rn. Measurements of 222 Rn concentration and working level for one week carried out with active detectors to get equilibrium factors and the ratio of 222 Rn concentration in working time to non-working time in selected greenhouses. The geometric mean of 222 Rn concentrations in greenhouses was 13 Bq m -3 , and similar to that in dwellings. Significant seasonal variation was observed in 222 Rn concentrations. The geometric mean in June to September was 5.5 Bq m -3 , which was similar to that outside the greenhouses, while that in January to March was 19.5 Bq m -3 . These results showed that the 222 Rn concentration in greenhouses was comparable to that in dwellings. (author)

  8. Increased levels of SV2A botulinum neurotoxin receptor in clinical sensory disorders and functional effects of botulinum toxins A and E in cultured human sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Y

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Yiangos Yiangou1 Uma Anand1,2, William R. Otto2, Marco Sinisi3, Michael Fox3, Rolfe Birch3 Keith A. Foster4, Gaurav Mukerji1,5, Ayesha Akbar1,6, Sanjiv K. Agarwal5, Praveen Anand11Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London; 2Histopathology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, London; 3Peripheral Nerve Injury Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore; 4Syntaxin Ltd, Oxford; 5Department of Urology; 6Department of Gastroenterology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United Kingdom Background: There is increasing evidence that botulinum neurotoxin A may affect sensory nociceptor fibers, but the expression of its receptors in clinical pain states, and its effects in human sensory neurons, are largely unknown.Methods: We studied synaptic vesicle protein subtype SV2A, a receptor for botulinum neurotoxin A, by immunostaining in a range of clinical tissues, including human dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons, peripheral nerves, the urinary bladder, and the colon. We also determined the effects of botulinum neurotoxins A and E on localization of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, and functional sensitivity to capsaicin stimuli in cultured human dorsal root ganglion neurons.Results: Image analysis showed that SV2A immunoreactive nerve fibers were increased in injured nerves proximal to the injury (P = 0.002, and in painful neuromas (P = 0.0027; the ratio of percentage area SV2A to neurofilaments (a structural marker was increased proximal to injury (P = 0.0022 and in neuromas (P = 0.0001, indicating increased SV2A levels in injured nerve fibers. In the urinary bladder, SV2A nerve fibers were found in detrusor muscle and associated with blood vessels, with a significant increase in idiopathic detrusor overactivity (P = 0.002 and painful bladder syndrome (P = 0.0087. Colon biopsies showed numerous SV2A-positive nerve fibers, which were increased in quiescent

  9. A reconnaissance study of radon concentrations in Hamadan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Gillmore

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of a reconnaissance study that used CR-39 alpha track-etch detectors to measure radon concentrations in dwellings in Hamadan, western Iran, significantly, built on permeable alluvial fan deposits. The indoor radon levels recorded varied from 4 (i.e. below the lower limit of detection for the method to 364 Bq/m3 with a mean value of 108 Bq/m3 which is 2.5 times the average global population-weighted indoor radon concentration – these data augment the very few published studies on indoor radon levels in Iran. The maximum radon concentration in Hamadan occurs during the winter period (January to March with lower concentrations during the autumn. The effective dose equivalent to the population in Hamadan is estimated from this study to be in the region of 2.7 mSv/y, which is above the guidelines for dose to a member of the public of 1 mSv/y suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP in 1993. This study supports other work in a number of countries that indicates such permeable "surficial" deposits as being of intermediate to high radon potential. In western Iran, the presence of hammered clay floors, the widespread presence of excavated qanats, the textural properties of surficial deposits and human behaviour intended to cope with winds are likely to be important factors influencing radon concentrations in older buildings.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of sub-mSv prospective ECG-triggering cardiac CT in young infant with complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Zhong, Yu Min; Sun, Ai Min; Wang, Qian; Ouyang, Rong Zhen; Hu, Li Wei; Qiu, Han Sheng; Wang, Shi Yu; Li, Jian Ying

    2016-06-01

    To explore the clinical value and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of sub-mSv low-dose prospective ECG-triggering cardiac CT (CCT) in young infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). A total of 102 consecutive infant patients (53 boys and 49 girls with mean age of 2.9 ± 2.4 m and weight less than 5 kg) with complex CHD were prospectively enrolled. Scans were performed on a 64-slice high definition CT scanner with low dose prospective ECG-triggering mode and reconstructed with 80 % adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm. All studies were performed during free breathing with sedation. The subjective image quality was evaluated by 5-point grading scale and interobserver variability was calculated. The objective image noise (standard deviation, SD) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was calculated. The effective radiation dose from the prospective ECG-triggering mode was recorded and compared with the virtual conventional retrospective ECG-gating mode. The detection rate for the origin of coronary artery was calculated. All patients also underwent echocardiography before CCT examination. 81 patients had surgery and their preoperative CCT and echocardiography findings were compared with the surgical results and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were calculated for separate cardiovascular anomalies. Heart rates were 70-161 beats per minute (bpm) with mean value of 129.19 ± 14.52 bpm. The effective dose of 0.53 ± 0.15 mSv in the prospective ECG-triggering cardiac CT was lower than the calculated value in a conventional retrospective ECG-gating mode (2.00 ± 0.35 mSv) (p ECG-triggering CCT with sub-mSv effective dose provides excellent imaging quality and high diagnostic accuracy for young infants with complex CHD.

  11. STX140, but not paclitaxel, inhibits mammary tumour initiation and progression in C3(1/SV40 T/t-antigen transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Meyer-Losic

    Full Text Available Despite paclitxael's clinical success, treating hormone-refractory breast cancer remains challenging. Paclitaxel has a poor pharmacological profile, characterized by a low therapeutic index (TIX caused by severe dose limiting toxicities, such as neutropenia and peripheral neuropathy. Consequently, new drugs are urgently required. STX140, a compound previously shown to have excellent efficacy against many tumors, is here compared to paclitaxel in three translational in vivo breast cancer models, a rat model of peripheral neuropathy, and through pharmacological testing. Three different in vivo mouse models of breast cancer were used; the metastatic 4T1 orthotopic model, the C3(1/SV40 T-Ag model, and the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model. To determine TIX and pharmacological profile of STX140, a comprehensive dosing regime was performed in mice bearing MDA-MD-231 xenografts. Finally, peripheral neuropathy was examined using a rat plantar thermal hyperalgesia model. In the 4T1 metastatic model, STX140 and paclitaxel significantly inhibited primary tumor growth and lung metastases. All C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice in the control and paclitaxel treated groups developed palpable mammary cancer. STX140 blocked 47% of tumors developing and significantly inhibited growth of tumors that did develop. STX140 treatment caused a significant (P<0.001 survival advantage for animals in early and late intervention groups. Conversely, in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice, paclitaxel failed to inhibit tumor growth and did not increase survival time. Furthermore, paclitaxel, but not STX140, induced significant peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. These results show that STX140 has a greater anti-cancer efficacy, TIX, and reduced neurotoxicity compared to paclitaxel in C3(1/SV40 T-Ag mice and therefore may be of significant benefit to patients with breast cancer.

  12. Arginine-rich cross-linking peptides with different SV40 nuclear localization signal content as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, Mariia; Egorova, Anna; Slita, Anna; Maretina, Marianna; Baranov, Vladislav; Kiselev, Anton

    2017-11-01

    The major barriers for intracellular DNA transportation by cationic polymers are their toxicity, poor endosomal escape and inefficient nuclear uptake. Therefore, we designed novel modular peptide-based carriers modified with SV40 nuclear localization signal (NLS). Core peptide consists of arginine, histidine and cysteine residues for DNA condensation, endosomal escape promotion and interpeptide cross-linking, respectively. We investigated three polyplexes with different NLS content (10 mol%, 50 mol% and 90 mol% of SV40 NLS) as vectors for intranuclear DNA delivery. All carriers tested were able to condense DNA, to protect it from DNAase I and were not toxic to the cells. We observed that cell cycle arrest by hydroxyurea did not affect transfection efficacy of NLS-modified carriers which we confirmed using quantitative confocal microscopy analysis. Overall, peptide carrier modified with 90 mol% of SV40 NLS provided efficient transfection and nuclear uptake in non-dividing cells. Thus, incorporation of NLS into arginine-rich cross-linking peptides is an adequate approach to the development of efficient intranuclear gene delivery vehicles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. New candidate tumor-suppressor gene KLF6 and its splice variant KLF6 SV2 counterbalancing expression in primary hepatocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenzhen, Zhou; De'an, Tian; Limin, Xia; Wei, Yan; Min, Luo

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to detect the expression of newly discovered zinc finger transcriptional factor KLF6 and its splice variant KLF6 SV2 in primary hepatocarcinoma (PHC) tissues and hepatoma cell strains, and to evaluate their clinicopathologic relationship with PHC. Wild-type KLF6 and KLF6 SV2 mRNA expression was determined by RTPCR in 27 cases of PHC tissues and cell strains of HepG2, SMMC7721 and LO2. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were adopted to detect KLF6 protein expression. Positive area ratio of wild-type KLF6 protein expression and its relationship with clinicopathological parameters of PHC was analyzed. Wild-type KLF6 expression in PHC tissues was lower than that in paracancerous tissues. In contrast, KLF6 SV2 mRNA expression was higher in PHC tissues and hepatoma cell strains (p<0.05). Positive area ratio of wild-type KLF6 protein expression was positively correlated with cellular differentiation degree of PHC (p<0.01), but negatively correlated not only with liver cirrhosis, tumor size and extrahepatic metastases (p<0.01), but also with portal vein thrombus and the number of lymph nodes with metastasis (p<0.05). Wild-type KLF6 deletion and inactivation was involved in the growth, cell differentiation and other physiological processes of PHC. The upregulation of KLF6 splice variant might counterbalance the wildtype KLF6 and contribute to the occurrence and development of PHC.

  14. Defective repair of UV-damaged DNA in human tumor and SV40-transformed human cells but not in adenovirus-transformed human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The DNA repair capacities of five human tumor cell lines, one SV40-transformed human cell line and one adenovirus-transformed human cell line were compared with that of normal human fibroblasts using a sensitive host cell reactivation (HCR) technique. Unirradiated and UV-irradiated suspensions of adenovirus type 2 (Ad 2) were assayed for their ability to form viral structural antigens (Vag) in the various cell types using immunofluorescent staining. The survival of Vag formation for UV-irradiated Ad 2 was significantly reduced in all the human tumor cell lines and the SV40-transformed human line compared to the normal human fibroblasts, but was apparently normal in the adenovirus-transformed human cells. D 0 values for the UV survival of Ad 2 Vag synthesis in the tumor and virally transformed lines expressed as a percentage of that obtained on normal fibroblast strains were used as a measure of DNA repair capacity. Percent HCR values ranged from 26 to 53% in the tumor cells. These results indicate a deficiency in the repair of UV-induced DNA damage associated with human tumorigenesis and the transformation of human cells by SV40 but not the transformation of human cells by adenovirus. (author)

  15. Radon concentration in dwellings of Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, C.; Armas, J.H. [La Laguna Univ., Tenerife (Spain). Faculty of Medicine; Poffijn, A. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Lab. voor Kernfysica

    1997-07-01

    A total of 126 radon passive dosemeters were distributed in 63 dwellings on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) to measure the indoor radon concentration in the period April-June 1994. The mean overall indoor concentration was 50 Bq.m{sup -3} with a standard deviation of 17 Bq.m{sup -3}. Applying the conversion factor for the effective dose, recommended by ICRP 65, this results in a mean effective dose of 0.75 mSv.y{sup -1}. The mean radon concentration in single-family houses proves to be higher at the ground floor than in upper levels. The mean radon concentration obtained in bedrooms is higher than in living-rooms, independently of the floor they are located at. Statistically significant differences in the mean radon concentration have been found depending on the soil permeability (P = 0.001) and building materials used (P 0.0006). (author).

  16. Radon concentration in dwellings of Lanzarote (Canary Islands)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinza, C.; Armas, J.H.; Poffijn, A.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 126 radon passive dosemeters were distributed in 63 dwellings on the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands) to measure the indoor radon concentration in the period April-June 1994. The mean overall indoor concentration was 50 Bq.m -3 with a standard deviation of 17 Bq.m -3 . Applying the conversion factor for the effective dose, recommended by ICRP 65, this results in a mean effective dose of 0.75 mSv.y -1 . The mean radon concentration in single-family houses proves to be higher at the ground floor than in upper levels. The mean radon concentration obtained in bedrooms is higher than in living-rooms, independently of the floor they are located at. Statistically significant differences in the mean radon concentration have been found depending on the soil permeability (P = 0.001) and building materials used (P 0.0006). (author)

  17. Modelling of SH- and P-SV-wave fields and seismic microzonation based on response spectra for Talchir basin, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, W.K.; Yanger Walling, M.; Vaccari, F.; Tripathy, T.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-02-01

    The P-SV- and SH-wave field in the Talchir basin is simulated along eight profiles: four profiles strike across the basin and the other four are along the basin. The hybrid method, which combines two computational techniques, modal Summation and finite differences, is used to produce multiphase synthetic seismograms. An M = 6 earthquake is considered, with hypocenter along the North Orissa Boundary Fault (NOBF) at a depth of 5 km and with the focal mechanisms parameters: dip = 90 deg., strike = 160 deg. and rake = 180 deg. The peak acceleration (AMAX) along each profile is determined considering the maximum acceleration obtained at the horizontal components. The response spectra ratio (RSR) as a function of frequency is computed for the eight profiles and the higher amplification is seen to increase in correspondence with the thicker sedimentary cover, especially for the radial component. Higher site amplification for all the profiles is observed in the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.4 Hz. To validate the obtained site-effects, the sources, for the profiles across the basin, are placed near to the southern end of the profile and the site amplifications are recomputed. Even if the spatial distribution of AMAX is mainly controlled by the epicentral distance, i.e. the geometrical spreading prevails on local soil effects, the RSR shows a pattern that can be easily correlated with the local site conditions. The RSR at the intersection of the profiles is dependent not only upon the local lithology and sediment thickness but also upon the epicentral distance. The Talchir basin is classified into three zones based on the RSR values: low RSR zone (1.0 - 1.9), intermediate RSR zone (2.0 - 2.8) and high RSR zone (2.9 - 5.2). The PGA estimated for the bedrock model by Bhatia et al. (1999) for the study region is around 0.05 to 0.10 g while the Indian seismic zonation map estimated it to be in the range from 0.1 to 0.2g. In the present study, that considers the effects of

  18. Periodic diffeomorphisms on homotopy E(4) surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China. E-mail: lihongxia_2002@163.com. MS received 16 February 2013. Abstract. In this paper, we .... restriction of F0 onto Uλ ⊕ Vλ, we obtain a map. Fλ : Uλ ⊕ Vλ → Uλ ⊕ Vλ. Note that Fλ is a S1-equivariant map, where S1 acts on i trivially ...

  19. Diffeomorphism cohomology and gravitational anomalies: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandelloni, G.

    1985-01-01

    Using the spectral sequencies technique, it is studied the local polynomial cohomology space of the operator S deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) - Csup(lambda)(x)deltasub(lambda) -deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x), which is isomorphic to the local functional cohomology of the operator deltasub(GAMMAsub(c1))sup(L) which induces general co-ordinate transformations in four-dimensional space-time. In the Faddeev-Popov (PHI II) charge-one sector, it is found that all the anomalies have the form Δ(x) deltasub(lambda)Csup(lambda)(x)Δ-circumflex(x), where Csup(lambda)(x) is the ghost field, and Δ-circumflex(x) is a PHI II charge-zero anomaly

  20. Comparative human cellular radiosensitivity: I. The effect of SV40 transformation and immortalisation on the gamma-irradiation survival of skin derived fibroblasts from normal individuals and from ataxia-telangiectasia patients and heterozygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlett, C F; Green, M H; Priestley, A; Harcourt, S A; Mayne, L V

    1988-12-01

    We have compared cell killing following 60Co gamma irradiation in 22 primary human fibroblast strains, nine SV40-immortalized human fibroblast lines and seven SV40-transformed pre-crisis human fibroblast cultures. We have examined material from normal individuals, from ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) patients and from A-T heterozygotes. We have confirmed the greater sensitivity of A-T derived cells to gamma radiation. The distinction between A-T and normal cells is maintained in cells immortalized by SV40 virus but the immortal cells are more gamma radiation resistant than the corresponding primary fibroblasts. Cells transformed by plasmids (pSV3gpt and pSV3neo) expressing SV40 T-antigen, both pre- and post-crisis, show this increased resistance, indicating that it is expression of SV40 T-antigen, rather than immortalization per se which is responsible for the change. We use D0, obtained from a straight line fit, and D, estimated from a multitarget curve, as parameters to compare radiosensitivity. We suggest that both have their advantages; D0 is perhaps more reproducible, but D is more realistic when comparing shouldered and non-shouldered data.

  1. Calculation of depleted uranium concentration in dental fillings samples using the nuclear track detector CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, K. H.; Subhi, A. T.; Tawfiq, N. F.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the concentration of depleted uranium in dental fillings samples, which were obtained some hospital and dental office, sale of materials deployed in Iraq. 8 samples were examined from two different fillings and lead-filling (amalgam) and composite filling (plastic). concentrations of depleted uranium were determined in these samples using a nuclear track detector CR-39 through the recording of the tracks left by of fragments of fission resulting from the reaction 2 38U (n, f). The samples are bombarded by neutrons emitted from the neutron source (2 41A m-Be) with flux of ( 10 5 n. cm- 2. s -1 ). The period of etching to show the track of fission fragments is 5 hours using NaOH solution with normalization (6.25N), and temperature (60 o C ). Concentration of depleted uranium were calculated by comparison with standard samples. The result that obtained showed that the value of the weighted average for concentration of uranium in the samples fillings (5.54± 1.05) ppm lead to thr filling (amalgam) and (5.33±0.6) ppm of the filling composite (plastic). The hazard- index, the absorbed dose and the effective dose for these concentration were determined. The obtained results of the effective dose for each of the surface of the bone and skin (as the areas most affected by this compensation industrial) is (0.56 mSv / y) for the batting lead (amalgam) and (0.54 mSv / y) for the filling composite (plastic). From the results of study it was that the highest rate is the effective dose to a specimen amalgam filling (0.68 mSv / y) which is less than the allowable limit for exposure of the general people set the World Health Organization (WHO), a (1 mSv / y). (Author)

  2. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations inside the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m -3 . The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 μSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr -1 limit

  3. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations insidc the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m(-3). The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 microSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr(-1) limit.

  4. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations inside the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m{sup -3}. The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 {mu}Sv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr{sup -1} limit.

  5. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedvall, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected radionuclide in fuels. It's activity concentration in Bq/kg normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from K in emission from combustion is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to man are the U- and Th-isotopes and 210 Pb and 210 Po. 137 Cs is the most common nuclide among the fission products in fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137 Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approx. only a few μSv from inhalation can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 manSv/year. 143 refs

  6. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation, for

  7. The ICRP Proposed Maximum Public Dose Constraints of o.3 mSv/y: a Major Issue for the Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Pierre, S.; Coates, R.

    2004-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently developing a new set of Recommendations on Radiological Protection. A value of 0.3mSv/y for the maximum public dose constraint has been discussed by ICRP. This value represents a major concern for the nuclear industry at large. The primary issue arises from the lack of any new scientific evidence on public health effects from ionising radiation to support, in practice, the proposed reduction by about a factor of 3 (from 1 to 0.3 mSv/y) of the upper bound value for public dose impact from a nuclear activity or site. Such a change would create a de facto limit on public exposure from specific sources at a dose level of about one tenth of average natural background and an even smaller fraction of the typical range of background exposures and exposures from medical sources. This cannot be justified on public health grounds. The WNA supports ICRP's renewed intention, as expressed at the NEA-ICRP Stakeholder Forum in Lanzarote (April 2003), to retain the concept of a public dose limit at 1 mSv/y. We strongly believe that the current system comprising of the dose limit and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools for regulators to address all situations in all countries. The WNA consider that the question of setting an upper bound dose constraint (below 1 mSv/y) at the country/site specific level is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. When considering the potential practical implications of a maximum dose constraint, it is important to look beyond the very low off-site dose impacts (on the public) resulting from annual routine radioactive discharges of nuclear industrial sites. There are many off-site and on-site practical situations, related to public exposures (both workers and the public) and worker classification as well as activities such transportation, decommissioning and site remediation

  8. Predialing the number of cinegraphic frames enables an effective patient dose due to coronary angiography of 0.8 mSv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuon, E.; Schmitt, M.; Dorn, C.; Pfahlberg, A.; Gefeller, O.; Dahm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of a new device for predialing the number of cinegraphic frame before each coronary angiography, with the objective of reducing the patient dose area product (DAP) from coronary angiography, which typically requires 1000 to 2350 cinegraphic frames. That DAP is high and stated to be between 15.6 to 106.3 Gy x cm 2 . Applying the accepted DAP-to-ED conversion factors, for the thoracic region of approximately 0.20 mSv/Gy x cm 2 , this corresponds to a mean effective dose (ED) in the range of 3.1 to 21.3 mSv. Material and Methods: For patients undergoing elective coronary angiography, we compared various parameters of radiation exposure obtained with judicious radiation reducing standard techniques (n=106) and with an additional new rotary switch for predialing the number of cinegraphic frames (n=106). Results: The patient radiation dose was significantly lower with the new device, with the mean DAP reduced to 5.5 from 9.1 Gy x cm 2 . The corresponding reducation of the mean DAP for left ventriculography and coronary angiography was 1.3 from 1.7, and 4.2 from 7.4 Gy x cm 2 , respectively. The number of cinegraphic frames was 98 vs. 184, whereas the number of cinegraphic runs and the fluoroscopy time were comparable. Conclusion: Predialing the cinegraphic frame number before each cinegraphic run enables a reduction of the patients effective dose from coronary angiography to 0.8 mSv, i.e. to 57% of the baseline value and far below typically reported values. (orig.) [de

  9. Investigation of radon and thoron concentrations in a landmark skyscraper in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumasa Inoue; Masahiro Fukushi

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variation of the radon concentration, and the radon and thoron concentrations every 3 months for a year were measured using two types of devices in a landmark skyscraper, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Daiichi Building. In the measurement of temporal variation of the radon concentration using a pulse type ionization chamber, the average radon concentration was 21 ± 13 Bq m -3 (2-68 Bq m -3 ). The measured indoor radon concentration had a strong relationship with the operation of the mechanical ventilation system and the activities of the office workers. The radon concentration also increased together with temperature. Other environmental parameters, such as air pressure and relative humidity, were not related to the radon concentration. In the long-term measurements using a passive radon and thoron discriminative monitor, no seasonal variation was observed. The annual average concentrations of radon and thoron were 16 ± 8 and 16 ± 7 Bq m -3 , respectively. There was also no relationship between the two concentrations. The annual average effective dose for office workers in this skyscraper was estimated to be 0.08 mSv y -1 for 2000 working hours per year. When considering the indoor radon exposure received from their residential dwellings using the annual mean radon concentration indoors in Japan (15.5 Bq m -3 ), the annual average effective dose was estimated to be 0.37 mSv y -1 . This value was 31 % of the worldwide average annual effective dose. (author)

  10. Concentration of some radionuclides in Moringa Oliefera plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd elbagi, W. K. A.

    2013-07-01

    This study has been conducted to determine the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 228 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in samples of Moringaoliefera plants in Khartoum Bahry Elsamrab by using γ ray spectrometry sodium iodide detector and high purity germanium detector. A total of 30 samples, 10 samples from leaves, 10 samples from seeds and 10 samples from soil of samples have been collected. For leaves the radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed with the mean of 2767.266±78.6741 Bq kg - 1 for 238 U, 3486.817±80.98811 Bq kg - 1 for 238 Th and 2273.386±54.152 Bq kg - 1 for 40 K. For seeds the radionuclide activity concentration in samples analyzed with the mean of 2839.224±72.6016 Bq kg - 1 for 238 U, 2844.372±78.74919 Bq kg - 1 for 2 38T h and 2377.005±91.8838 Bq kg - 1 for 40 K. No trace of artificial radionuclide has been determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides has been estimated and found 0.89μSv/year and 0.1015μSv/year for 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K, respectively.(Author)

  11. Radon and radium concentrations in bottled waters: An estimate of ingestion doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1997-01-01

    Concentration levels of Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been analysed in most of the bottled waters commercially available in Spain. Concentrations up to about 600 Bq/m 3 with a geometric mean of 12 Bq/m 3 were observed for Ra-226. For Rn-222 a geometric mean of 1200 Bq/m 3 with values ranging from 52000 to 1400 Bq/m 3 were measured. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The effective dose equivalents due to the intake of Ra-226 present in these waters are expected to range from about 102 to 2 μSv·y -1 . Dose equivalents to the stomach due to Rn-222 intake through water consumption are estimated to reach values around 30 μSv·y -1 . (author)

  12. Role of unsaturated derivatives of spermidine as substrates for spermine synthase and in supporting growth of SV-3T3 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pegg, A E; Nagarajan, S; Naficy, S; Ganem, B

    1991-01-01

    Synthetic unsaturated analogues of the natural polyamine were examined as possible substrates for spermine synthase and as replacements for spermidine in supporting the growth of SV-3T3 cells. It was found that N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-diamino-cis-but-2-ene [the cis isomer of the alkene analogue of spermidine] was a good substrate for spermine synthase, but that the trans isomer [N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-diamino-trans-but-2-ene] and the alkene analogue [N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-diaminobut-2-yne] were ...

  13. Concentrations of radiocesium in foods imported from Russia (1996-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Hideo; Terada, Hiroshi; Izumo, Yoshiro; Miyata, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Endo, Taigo; Yoshida, Akio; Maeda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of radiocesium, 137 Cs and 134 Cs, were determined in foods imported from Russia between 1996 and 1998. A total of 143 samples, including cod roe (47 samples), crab (44), fish, including flatfish and halibut (18), ground fish meat (11), and shrimp (8), were collected in quarantine stations throughout Japan and measured with a high-purity Ge semiconductor detector and spectrometer. The concentrations of both 137 Cs and 134 Cs were determined in 115 of the samples, but only 137 Cs was measured in the other 28 samples. 137 Cs was detected in 24 samples, and the mean concentration was 0.06 Bq/kg in the raw samples and 36.7 Bq/kg in the dry samples. Japanese tsubugai shellfish had the highest concentration (0.50 Bq/kg) among the non-dried foods. Radiocesium was most frequently detected in cod roe (15 raw samples, 0.06 - 0.14 Bq/kg), followed by fish and shellfish, including ground fish meat (7 samples), dried bracken (1 sample), and dried kabanoanatake (a species of mushrooms) (1 sample). The radiocesium concentration in kabanoanatake was the highest in this survey. The concentrations of 134 Cs in all samples was below the limit of detection. The concentrations of radiocesium in foods imported from Russia did not change between 1996 and 1998, and they appeared to be low, the same as in food distributed in Japanese markets. The annual effective dose equivalents in adults were estimated based on the assumption that all of the imported food from Russia was consumed by Japanese people. It was assumed that the amount of intake of each food was 0.5% and that the 137 Cs dose conversion factor was 1.4 x 10 - 5 mSv/Bq. The intake of 134 Cs was assumed to be zero. The results of the estimations were an annual effective dose equivalent of 0.28 x 10-3 μSv for fish/shellfish, of 2.8 x 10-3 μSv for dried bracken, and of 11.9 x 10-3 μSv for dried kabanoanatake. These results overestimated actual intake, and these annual effective dose equivalents appeared to be

  14. Structure and evaluation of antibacterial and antitubercular properties of new basic and heterocyclic 3-formylrifamycin SV derivatives obtained via 'click chemistry' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyta, Krystian; Klich, Katarzyna; Domagalska, Joanna; Przybylski, Piotr

    2014-09-12

    Thirty four novel derivatives of 3-formylrifamycin SV were synthesized via reductive alkylation and copper(I)-catalysed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. According to the obtained results, 'click chemistry' can be successfully applied for modification of structurally complex antibiotics such as rifamycins, with the formation of desired 1,2,3-triazole products. However, when azide-alkyne cycloaddition on 3-formylrifamycin SV derivatives demanded higher amount of catalyst, lower temperature and longer reaction time because of the high volatility of substrates, an unexpected intramolecular condensation with the formation of 3,4-dihydrobenzo[g]quinazoline heterocyclic system took place. Structures of new derivatives in solution were determined using one- and two-dimensional NMR methods and FT-IR spectroscopy. Computational DFT and PM6 methods were employed to correlate their conformation and acid-base properties to biological activity and establish SAR of the novel compounds. Microbiological, physico-chemical (logP, solubility) and structural studies of newly synthesised rifamycins indicated that for the presence of relatively high antibacterial (MIC ~0.01 nmol/mL) and antitubercular (MIC ~0.006 nmol/mL) activities, a rigid and basic substituent at C(3) arm, containing a protonated nitrogen atom "open" toward intermolecular interactions, is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Radon concentrations in some Egyptian dwellings using LR 115 detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, A S [Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Power Plants Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2007-06-15

    Radon, a well-established risk factor for human lung cancer, is present at low concentrations in most homes. Consequently, many countries have established national guidelines for residential radon concentrations. This survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Egypt. Indoor radon survey of a total of 15 randomly selected houses in Qena city, Upper Egypt was carried out. LR 115 detectors were exposed for one year, covering all the seasons. The estimated indoor radon levels varied from 19 to 59 Bq m{sup 3} with an average of 40 Bq m{sup 3}. Using the bare and filtered LR 115 detectors, the average equilibrium factor F was assessed as 0.30 indoors. An average annual effective dose of 0.40 mSv has been estimated and was found to be lower than the ICRP-65.

  16. Radon concentrations in some Egyptian dwellings using LR 115 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Radon, a well-established risk factor for human lung cancer, is present at low concentrations in most homes. Consequently, many countries have established national guidelines for residential radon concentrations. This survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Egypt. Indoor radon survey of a total of 15 randomly selected houses in Qena city, Upper Egypt was carried out. LR 115 detectors were exposed for one year, covering all the seasons. The estimated indoor radon levels varied from 19 to 59 Bq m 3 with an average of 40 Bq m 3 . Using the bare and filtered LR 115 detectors, the average equilibrium factor F was assessed as 0.30 indoors. An average annual effective dose of 0.40 mSv has been estimated and was found to be lower than the ICRP-65

  17. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  18. 210Po concentration analysis on tobacco and cigarettes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco or better known as the cigarette was smoked since ages. Although many efforts had been made by the Ministry of Health to prevent or reduce the cigarette problem, the smokers still consider that cigarette are not harmful to health. This work is conducted to study the concentration of radionuclides alpha in tobacco and tobacco products in Malaysia. The radionuclide sought in this study is 210Po which is an alpha emitter. The sample used are tobacco and cigarettes, the tobacco samples were taken from tobacco farms in Malaysia while the sample branded cigarettes Marlboro and Gudang Garam were bought in the supermarket. The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration of radionuclides 210Po in tobacco and tobacco products as well as to estimate the radioactivity doses contributing to the smokers in Malaysia. The results for Marlboro cigarettes and Gudang Garam were found to be on the average radionuclide concentration of 210Po is 13.3 mBq/g (Marlboro cigarettes) and 11.9 mBq/g (Gudang Garam). From the total concentration of the cigarette, the estimated annual contribution dose to smokers for every 20 cigarettes smoked per day are 111.9 ± 14.7 μSv/year for Marlboro cigarettes and 100.2 ± 3.3 μSv/year for Gudang Garam cigarettes. The average concentration of radionuclides for tobacco leaf tobacco for each area taken is 3.6 mBq / g for Bachok, 2.4 mBq / g for Tumpat and 3.1 mBq / g for Semerak district.

  19. Final report of evaluation of dose and measurement of radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    A mean annual exposure to radon daughters in indoor air was estimated on the basis of measurement of radon concentration in indoor air in Japan from fiscal 1992 to 1996. Doses were estimated by UNSCEAR method. The representative values in this report show the mean values in whole Japan. Each dose in the local area was different reflecting the different concentration of radon daughters. However, the same parameters were used in each area. When mean annual dose of radon daughters was estimated, we used 15.5 Bq m -3 mean annual exposure to radon daughters in indoor air, 5 Bq m -3 that in outdoor air, 0.4 the equilibrium factor indoor, 0.6 the equilibrium factor outdoor and 0.9 of P. The model of UNSCEAR based on these above values gave 0.46 mSv y -1 mean annual dose of radon daughters which were consisted of from 0.38 mSv y -1 in Kanto district to 0.52 mSv y -1 Kyushu, Okinawa district. (S.Y.)

  20. Final report of evaluation of dose and measurement of radon concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A mean annual exposure to radon daughters in indoor air was estimated on the basis of measurement of radon concentration in indoor air in Japan from fiscal 1992 to 1996. Doses were estimated by UNSCEAR method. The representative values in this report show the mean values in whole Japan. Each dose in the local area was different reflecting the different concentration of radon daughters. However, the same parameters were used in each area. When mean annual dose of radon daughters was estimated, we used 15.5 Bq m{sup -3} mean annual exposure to radon daughters in indoor air, 5 Bq m{sup -3} that in outdoor air, 0.4 the equilibrium factor indoor, 0.6 the equilibrium factor outdoor and 0.9 of P. The model of UNSCEAR based on these above values gave 0.46 mSv y{sup -1} mean annual dose of radon daughters which were consisted of from 0.38 mSv y{sup -1} in Kanto district to 0.52 mSv y{sup -1} Kyushu, Okinawa district. (S.Y.)

  1. Follow-up study of the health experience of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) workers exposed to >=50mSv (5 rems) per year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, S.A.; Hudson, D.R.H.; Robie, D.M.; Lushbaugh, C.C.; Rudnick, S.A.; Shy, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated a study of its employees reported to have equalled or exceeded the current occupational limit of 50 mSv per year since 1947. The 3200 employees under study were involved in the post-mining and pre-waste disposal phases of the nuclear fuel cycle. The objective of the study is to identify any excess mortality or morbidity in these employees and to determine whether or not any such increase is attributable to occupational exposure to radiation. Standardized mortality ratios will be developed for all and specific causes by comparing the age and sex adjusted mortality rates in the cohort initially with similarly adjusted rates in the general U.S. population. Exploratory analysis of these parameters, based on currently available data, has shown deficits in the cohort of deaths due to all causes, all malignant neoplasms and diseases of the circulatory system. (U.K.)

  2. Progressive paralysis associated with diffuse astrocyte anaplasia in delta 202 mice homozygous for a transgene encoding the SV40 T antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Revilla, Rubén; Soto-Zárate, Carlos; Ridaura, Cecilia; Chávez-Dueñas, Lucía; Paul, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    A convenient transgenic astrocytoma model in delta202 mice, homozygous for a construct encoding the early region of the SV40 virus genome, is described. In the offspring of crosses between delta202 mice heterozygous for the transgene nearly 60% were transgenic; one third of these developed progressive paralysis starting in the hindlimbs at approximately 35 days of age and died at 90 +/- 30 days of age. In affected mice proliferating-non-neuronal cells immunostained with antibodies to the GFAP, an astrocyte marker, whose number increased with age were found in the white matter of the brain, cerebellum and spinal cord, and progressive degeneration and necrosis of spinal motoneurons was observed that-may explain the paralysis. The early onset and reproducible time course of the neurological disease suggest that homozygous delta202 mice, whose proliferating astrocytes appear to damage spinal motoneurons, are a useful model to study astrocyte differentiation, function and tumorigenesis.

  3. Suitability of digital elevation models generated by uav photogrammetry for slope stability assessment (case study of landslide in Svätý Anton, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnák Miloš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the accuracy of photogrammetrically-derived digital elevation models (DEMs from UAV is essential in many geoscience disciplines. The suitability of different DEM devised for slope stability assessment was evaluated in the example of the landslide in Svätý Anton village in Slovakia. Aerial data was acquired during a one-day field campaign in autumn 2014. The point cloud from 218 images (54,607,748 points was manually classified into 7 different classes for filtering vegetation cover and buildings. Assessment of vertical differences between the UAV derived elevation model and real terrain surface was based on comparison of control points targeted by GPS (337 points and unclassified and ground classified point cloud for raster elevation models with 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cm pixel resolution.

  4. The study of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in dwellings in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Q.; Shimo, M.; Ikebe, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Ths paper aims to make a comparison of different concentrations of thoron ( 220 Rn) progeny and radon ( 222 Rn) progeny in different kinds of dwellings. The potential alpha energy concentrations and the effective dose equivalent caused by thoron and radon progeny, respectively, have also been estimated. The measurements were carried out in 23 dwellings. The results indicate that thoron progeny concentrations indoors might be strongly affected by the type of building material used. Traditional Japanese buildings made with mud may have high thoron progeny concentrations of about 3.52 Bq.m -3 and a concentration ratio of thoron progeny to radon progeny of about 0.5, whereas in concrete dwellings thoron progeny concentrations are about 0.72 Bq.m -3 and the concentration ratio of thoron progeny to radon progeny is about 0.1. The annual effective dose equivalent of thoron progeny is 1.23 mSv in mud dwellings and 0.25 mSv in concrete dwellings. (author)

  5. Maestro di Pico i iluminacije u inkunabuli De Civitate Dei (Nicolas Jenson, Venecija, 1475. u samostanu Sv. Duje u Kraju na Pašmanu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Goja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available U franjevačkom samostanu Sv. Duje u Kraju na otoku Pašmanu čuva se inkunabula „O državi Božjoj“ (De Civitate Dei Sv. Aurelija Augustina koju je 1475. godine u Veneciji tiskao Nicolas Jenson. Inkunabula je na f. 17 (kako je naknadno označena paginacija grafitnom olovkom, tj. stranici incipita – liber primus kao i na više drugih stranica ukrašena lijepim višebojnim iluminacijama renesansnih stilskih karakteristika izrađenih temperom, zlatnim listićima, zlatnim prahom, sepijom, tintom i akvarelom. Iluminacije f. 17 sastoje se od dva fitomorfna inicijala, dekorativnog okvira i slobodnih figurativnih prizora tj. minijatura, dok su pojedine druge stranice ukrašene fitomorfnim i brojnim inicijala tipa littera notabilior visine dva retka izrađenima u crvenoj ili plavoj boji. Dekorativni ornamentirani okvir zaključen trolistima ispunjava gornju i lijevu marginu početne stranice. Osnovu dekoracije čini traka sastavljena od pet tankih linija koja se spiralno povija i tvori kružnice koje su ispunjene cvjetovima, listovima i bobicama u plavoj i zelenoj boji i boji ciklame te stiliziranim zlatnim cvjetovima čička (lat. Arctium lappa; pojedini autori nazivaju ove ukrasne motive bottoni dorati ili gold dots. U gornjem lijevom uglu okvira naslikan je češljugar. Na mjestu gdje započinje tekst lijevog stupca naslikan je unutar pravokutnog polja na zlatnoj pozadini inicijal „I“ sastavljen od fitomorfnih motiva plave, zelene i boje ciklame s osjenčanjima u različitim nijansama. Unutar dekorativnog okvira, na sredini visine inicijala, nalazi se medaljon unutar kojeg je naslikano poprsje Sv. Aurelija Augustina. Dekorativni ornamentirani okvir koji ispunjava gornju marginu ukrašen je na isti način kao i onaj uz desnu ali skromnije. Ime tiskara dodatno je naznačeno tako da je sa gornje i donje strane okvira ukrašeno sa po jednim stiliziranim zlatnim cvijetom čička sa gornje i češljugovine (lat. Dipsacus fullonum sa donje strane

  6. Determination of radon concentration in drinking water resources of villages nearby Lalehzar fault and evaluation the annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Malakootian; Zahra Darabi Fard; Mojtaba Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been measured in 44 drinking water resources, in villages nearby Lalehzar fault in winter 2014. Some samples showed a higher concentration of radon surpassing limit set by EPA. Further, a sample was taken from water distribution networks for these sources of water. Soluble radon concentration was measured by RAD7 device. Range radon concentration was 26.88 and 0.74 BqL -1 respectively. The maximum and minimum annual effective dose for adults was estimated at 52.7 and 2.29 µSvY -1 , respectively. Reducing radon from water before use is recommended to improve public health. (author)

  7. Biological insights into the expression of translation initiation factors from recombinant CHOK1SV cell lines and their relationship to enhanced productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Emma J; Masterton, Rosalyn J; Feary, Marc; Obrezanova, Olga; Zhang, Lin; Young, Robert; Smales, C Mark

    2015-12-15

    Translation initiation is on the critical pathway for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by mammalian cells. Formation of a closed loop structure comprised of mRNA, a number of eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) and ribosomal proteins has been proposed to aid re-initiation of translation and therefore increase global translational efficiency. We have determined mRNA and protein levels of the key components of the closed loop, eIFs (eIF3a, eIF3b, eIF3c, eIF3h, eIF3i and eIF4G1), poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) 1 and PABP-interacting protein 1 (PAIP1), across a panel of 30 recombinant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines with a broad range of growth characteristics and production levels of a model recombinant mAb. We have used a multi-level statistical approach to investigate the relationship between key performance indicators (cell growth and recombinant antibody productivity) and the intracellular amounts of target translation initiation factor proteins and the mRNAs encoding them. We show that high-producing cell lines maintain amounts of the translation initiation factors involved in the formation of the closed loop mRNA, maintaining these proteins at appropriate levels to deliver enhanced recombinant protein production. We then utilize knowledge of the amounts of these factors to build predictive models for and use cluster analysis to identify, high-producing cell lines. The present study therefore defines the translation initiation factor amounts that are associated with highly productive recombinant GS-CHOK1SV cell lines that may be targets for screening highly productive cell lines or to engineer new host cell lines with the potential for enhanced recombinant antibody productivity. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  8. p53-stabilizing Agent CP-31398 Prevents Growth and Invasion of Urothelial Cancer of the Bladder in Transgenic UPII-SV40T Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateshwar Madka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of bladder cancer and its recurrence make it an important target for chemoprevention. About half of invasive urothelial tumors have mutations in p53. We determined the chemopreventive efficacy of a p53-stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in a transgenic UPII-SV40T mouse model of bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC that strongly resembles human TCC. After genotyping, six-week-old UPII-SV40T mice (n = 30/group were fed control (AIN-76A or experimental diets containing 150 or 300 ppm of CP-31398 for 34 weeks. Progression of bladder cancer growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. At 40 weeks of age, all mice were killed; urinary bladders were collected to determine weights, tumor incidence, and histopathology. There was a significant increase in bladder weights of transgenic versus wild-type mice (male: 140.2 mg vs 27.3 mg, P < .0001; female: 34.2 mg vs 14.8 mg, P < .0001. A significant decrease in the bladder tumor weights (by 68.6–80.2%, P < .0001 in males and by 36.9–55.3%, P < .0001 in females was observed in CP-31398-treated mice. Invasive papillary TCC incidence was 100% in transgenic mice fed control diet. Both male and female mice exposed to CP-31398 showed inhibition of invasive TCC. CP-31398 (300 ppm completely blocked invasion in female mice. Molecular analysis of the bladder tumors showed an increase in apoptosis markers (p53, p21, Bax, and Annexin V with a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor in transgenic mice fed CP-31398. These results suggest that p53-modulating agents can serve as potential chemopreventive agents for bladder TCC.

  9. Sub-milliSievert (sub-mSv) CT colonography: a prospective comparison of image quality and polyp conspicuity at reduced-dose versus standard-dose imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Pooler, B.D.; Kitchin, Douglas R.; Kim, David H.; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Pickhardt, Perry J. [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Sciences Center, Departments of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Tang, Jie [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong [University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, E3/311 Clinical Sciences Center, Departments of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-07-15

    To prospectively compare reduced-dose (RD) CT colonography (CTC) with standard-dose (SD) imaging using several reconstruction algorithms. Following SD supine CTC, 40 patients (mean age, 57.3 years; 17 M/23 F; mean BMI, 27.2) underwent an additional RD supine examination (targeted dose reduction, 70-90 %). DLP, CTDI{sub vol}, effective dose, and SSDE were compared. Several reconstruction algorithms were applied to RD series. SD-FBP served as reference standard. Objective image noise, subjective image quality and polyp conspicuity were assessed. Mean CTDI{sub vol} and effective dose for RD series was 0.89 mGy (median 0.65) and 0.6 mSv (median 0.44), compared with 3.8 mGy (median 3.1) and 2.8 mSv (median 2.3) for SD series, respectively. Mean dose reduction was 78 %. Mean image noise was significantly reduced on RD-PICCS (24.3 ± 19HU) and RD-MBIR (19 ± 18HU) compared with RD-FBP (90 ± 33), RD-ASIR (72 ± 27) and SD-FBP (47 ± 14 HU). 2D image quality score was higher with RD-PICCS, RD-MBIR, and SD-FBP (2.7 ± 0.4/2.8 ± 0.4/2.9 ± 0.6) compared with RD-FBP (1.5 ± 0.4) and RD-ASIR (1.8 ± 0.44). A similar trend was seen with 3D image quality scores. Polyp conspicuity scores were similar between SD-FBP/RD-PICCS/RD-MBIR (3.5 ± 0.6/3.2 ± 0.8/3.3 ± 0.6). Sub-milliSievert CTC performed with iterative reconstruction techniques demonstrate decreased image quality compared to SD, but improved image quality compared to RD images reconstructed with FBP. (orig.)

  10. Activity concentration and AACED due to 40K in some selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekara, K.; Radhakrishna, A.P.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    The activity concentrations in soil and medicinal plants, soil to plant transfer factors (TF), and Average Annual Committed Effective Dose (AACED) of 40 K in prominent medicinal plants of Malnad Kerala were estimated. The range of activity concentrations were 144.15 - 558.99 and 405.87 - 2990.75 Bq kg -1 in soil and medicinal plants respectively. The TF was found to vary from 2.34 to 14.84, whereas AACED varied in the range 2.51 - 18.54 mSv y -1 . The study may help to form the database and safety regulations connected with 40 K activity in medicinal plants. (author)

  11. Study of a Greek area with enhanced indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Koukouliou, V.; Kehagia, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on Arnea Chalkidikis, an area in Greece with granitic geological background and indications of possible elevated radon concentration indoors. Data are reported of indoor radon measurements with etched track detectors and those used for dosimetric estimations. Moreover, data are reported on soil gas and soil radon concentrations in Arnea, as well as radon and uranium concentrations in water samples. From the measured radon concentrations in water samples the contribution to the overall dose has been calculated. For a period of 1 month, indoor radon and progeny activity has also been monitored in the dwelling that has the maximum indoor radon concentration in Greece. This dwelling is in Arnea and the dose delivered to the inhabitants has been calculated. Mean annual effective dose due to indoor radon was 4.5 mSv and about 11% of this was due to the use of water. Mean soil gas concentration and soil radon concentration were (90 ± 30) kBq m -3 (P -3 (P -1 (P<0.05). (author)

  12. Radon concentration in dwellings in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Tsuji, N.; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe

    2002-01-01

    To obtain an average dose from 222 Rn to the people in Aomori Prefecture where the first Japan's nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction, we surveyed 222 Rn concentrations in 109 dwellings in the Prefecture from 1992 to 1996. The outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were also measured in gardens of 15 dwellings. The 222 Rn concentrations were measured with passive 222 Rn detectors which used a polycarbonate film for counting α-ray and could separate concentrations of 222 Rn from 220 Rn. Counting efficiencies of the detectors were calibrated with a standard 222 Rn chamber in the Environmental Measurement Laboratory in USA and in the National Radiological Protection Board in UK. Geometric means of 222 Rn concentration were 13 and 4.4 Bq x m -3 in the dwellings and outdoor, respectively. These values were consistent to nationwide survey results in Japan. The 222 Rn concentrations in the dwellings depended on their age. The concentrations were higher in recent dwellings than in older ones. The radiation dose from 222 Rn was estimated, taking into account the occupancy factor for inside and outside of dwellings. The annual dose was 0.32 mSv x y -1 , and 99% of the dose came from the exposure to 222 Rn inside the dwelling. (author)

  13. Natural Radionuclides and 137Cs Concentrations in Rice in Jepara Residence and Internal Dose Estimation Intake by the People

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli-Nirwani; Minarni; Buchari

    2001-01-01

    The measurement of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs concentration in rice in Jepara residence and internal dose estimation intake by people have been conducted. The aim of the research is to determine internal dose estimation of natural radionuclides and 137 Cs intake by people in Jepara residence. By knowing the natural radionuclides and 137 Cs concentrations in rice at Jepara residence, the dose coefficient for adult from ICRP No.72 and the annual intake consumption take from the Indonesian food balance published by BPS, the internal dose from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs intake from food can be calculate concentration of 228 Th, 226 Ra and 137 Cs were found in Bayuran, with the average value was (2.00±0.21) x 10 -5 Bq/kg, (0.09±0.25) x 10 -5 Bq/kg, (19.00±0.06) x 10 -5 Bq/kg respectively the highest 40 K concentration was found in Pandansili with the average was about (8.40 ± 0.34) x 10 -5 Bq/kg. The estimation of equivalent doses from intake of 228 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K, and 137 Cs in rice were the highest in Bayuran the value the average values, respectively, was 0.0039 x 10 -5 μ Sv/yr, 18.09 X 10 -5 μ Sv/yr, 1.63 x 10 -5 μ Sv/yr, 172.38 x 10 -5 μ Sv/yr. Result in this measurement lowest comparing by recommendation IAEA in Safety Series No. 115 in 1996. (author)

  14. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in energy production from peat, wood chips and straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedvall, Robert Hans

    1997-11-01

    In this thesis quantitative analyses of radionuclide concentrations in bioenergy fuels such as peat, wood chips and straw are presented. For comparison a brief description is included of radionuclide concentrations and radiation doses from other sources of power and also from some industrial applications. Radiation is a natural phenomenon and radionuclides occur naturally. The first man-made spread of concentrated radioactivity occurred some 100,000 years ago when the first fireplace was lit, with fallout as a later consequence. Radioactive potassium is found in most materials and is the most easily detected nuclide in fuels. Its activity concentration in Bq kg-1 normally dominates over the concentration of other natural radionuclides. The radiation dose from potassium in the emission is nevertheless negligible. The most important radionuclides in the dose to humans are the U- and Th-isotopes and also 210Pb and 210Po. Of fission products in fallout from the atmospheric nuclear tests and after the Chernobyl accident, 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs was shown to be the most common nuclide. Compared to natural nuclides, the contribution from emission of 137Cs is less than a few percent of the total dose to the population. A total dose of approximately a few μSv from inhalation only can be calculated from the emission of a district heating plant in Sweden. This dose can be compared with the annual dose limit to the public from nuclear industry, which is 0.1 mSv and the global collective effective dose of 5 person Sv a-1.

  15. Measurement of radon concentration in old metalliferous mines in San Luis, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, Roberto M.; Lacerda, Tiago; Rosas, Juan P. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Da Silva, Almy A.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P. O. Box 66318, 05314-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rizzotto, Marcos; Valladares, Diego L.; Velasco, Hugo [GEA, Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL), Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Yoshimura, Elisabeth M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P. O. Box 66318, 05314-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Radon levels in two old mines in San Luis, Argentina, were measured and analyzed. La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine are today used as tourism mines. CR-39 nuclear track detectors were used for this purpose. Measurements were performed during both winter and summer seasons. The findings show that in these environments, significant radon concentrations are subject to large seasonal fluctuations, due to the strong dependence on natural ventilation with the outside temperature variations. For both mines, high concentration values of {sup 222}Rn were observed in summer and low values in winter; with an extreme ratio of 2.5 times between summer and winter seasons for Los Condores mine. The radiation dose and environmental health risk of {sup 222}Rn concentrations to both guides and visitors were estimated for both seasons and compared with dose and action level values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The radon contribution to the effective dose rate for visitors has been previously assessed for the warm season. The values are 0.38±0.07 mSv y{sup -1} and 0.05±0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for La Carolina and Los Condores, respectively. These values were obtained assuming an accumulated annual time underground of 20 h. For the guides these values are 11±2 mSv y{sup -1} and 1.45±0.5 mSv y{sup -1} for La Carolina and Los Condores, respectively, assuming an accumulated annual time underground of 600 h. The occupational dose rate limit suggested by the ICRP is 20 mSv y{sup -1}. As these values indicate the dose is an order of magnitude lower in Los Condores than La Carolina mine. This is because this mine, due to its characteristics, is more ventilated than La Carolina mine. This is important because actions can be taken to lower the radon accumulation in La Carolina gold mine, for example by opening new ducts to increase air circulation. Finally, in this work, seasonal variations of the dose rate are assessed and

  16. A comparative study of indoor radon concentrations between dwellings and schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapdan, E.; Altinsoy, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship of radon concentrations between dwellings and the schools located in the same regions and to obtain related indoor average radon concentration dwelling–school correction factor for similar locations. The research has been carried out by determining indoor radon concentrations at schools and dwellings located at the same districts in the selected two separate research fields called The Former Adapazari region and The New Adapazari region in the city of Adapazari using a total of 81 Cr-39 passive radon detectors for 75 days. The average radon concentrations have been determined for the dwellings and the schools in 15 districts of the Former Adapazari region as 59.9 Bq m −3 and 57.1 Bq m −3 , respectively. The results in 4 districts of the New Adapazari region were 63.5 Bq m −3 for the dwellings and 61.0 Bq m −3 for the schools. Moreover, the annual effective doses were calculated as 1.33 mSv/y and 1.41 mSv/y for the dwellings of Former Adapazari and New Adapazari, respectively. It was seen that the doses received in the dwellings are about four times the doses received in the schools. The indoor radon concentration dwelling–school correction factor was found to be 1.04±0.01 for the research area.

  17. Concentration Of 228Th, 226Ra, And 40K Radionuclides In Drinking Water In Southern Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutarman; Warsono, Asep; Wahyudi

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water on several places in Southern Sumatera (1997-1999) have been carried out. The sample were collected from the Province of Lampung (Kalianda, Bandar Lampung, Kotabumi, Talangpadang, Kotaagung, Liwa, Manggala, and Pakuanratu), and the Province of Southern Sumatera (Palembang-1, Palembang-2, Plaju, Lahat, and Sekayu). Measurements of 228 Th, 226 Ra, and 40 K concentrations in drinking water using the gamma spectrometer with the HP-Ge detector. The results of measurement showed that the concentration was the range of undetectable ( 228 Th concentration, the range of undetectable ( 226 Ra, radionuclide and the range of undetectable (< 128.96 mBq/l) to (880.54 n 22.75) mBq/l with average of (412.12 n 5.02) mBq/l, and the data mentioned above were still far under the maximum permissible concentration. The estimated of annual dose equivalent effective in drinking water was 0.03 mSv/year for public (5 mSv/year)

  18. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauria, Dejanira C.; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2001-01-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  19. Indoor radon concentrations and radon doses at three districts of Ankara, Turkey and raising public awareness on the issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Kildir; Inci Goekmen; Ali Goekmen

    2016-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations at METU, CIGDEM and DOSTLAR in Ankara were measured using electrets. The statistical analysis of the data indicated a lognormal distribution of radon concentrations, with no significant difference between CIGDEM and DOSTLAR with geometric means of GM = 87.5 and 54.5 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations did not change seasonally at CIGDEM which contain modern buildings, but at the slum district DOSTLAR, with poor insulation of houses a seasonal variation was observed. Annual effective radon doses were estimated (0.4-8.4 mSv). Public awareness about indoor radon was raised. (author)

  20. Investigation of radon concentration in drinking water from wells in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, H. I. M.

    2009-07-01

    Radon( 2 ''2''2Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is released into the surrounding environment. The presence of this gas in water mainly depends on its source in building material, soil and rocks. The main reason for radon determination in water comes from the fact that radon and its daughters are suspected to be directly responsible of hung cancer and some kidney diseases. This study covers the area Khartoum, state (Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman). The study investigated the levels of radon concentration in water of 72 wells from Khartoum state was performed using gamma spectrometry system. The results showed that radon levels range between 1.6 and 345 Bq/L with mean value of 59 Bq/I. Comparing these values with global data indicates acceptable levels that can be observed for most of the samples. It is observed that 14 locations of the sites exceed the recommended levels adopted by some countries (Sweden, Finland, Slovak and Russia). On the basis of the results obtained, the annual effective dose received by the public due to ingestion of radon was calculated and found to be below the WHO reference dose level of 0.1 mSv.y - ''1, except 14 sites exceed the recommended levels. Three age categories were considered for dose estimation (1 years, 10 years and adults). The mean value of dose for the one year age is 0.49 mSv.y -1 and the mean value of dose for 10 years age 0.13 mSv.y - ''1 while the mean value obtained for adult is 0.11 mSv.y - ''1. (Author)

  1. Indoor radon concentration measurements in Tarqumia Girl Schools at Western Hebron Region, Palestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabyneh, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, radon-222 in indoor air was surveyed in 62 rooms located in four governmental schools, for girls, in Tarqumia town that lies in the north western part of Hebron city in Palestine. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from the inhalation of radon and its daughters by 2318 pupils and 102 staff members occupying the surveyed rooms were also measured. TASTRAK, a solid state nuclear track detector, has been used to measure the indoor radon concentrations at those schools thus, 124 radon detectors were distributed in the four school buildings. The radon detectors stayed for 70 days between February 2006 and April 2006. The results showed that the radon concentration and the annual effective dose equivalent in these schools were varied from 12 to 232.5 Bq/m 3 with an average of 34.1 Bq/m 3 and 0.62 to 12.0 mSv/y with an average of 1.76 mSv/y, respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in Tarqumia secondary girls school, Al-aqsa elementary girls school, Umsalama elementary girls school and Tarqumia elementary girls school were 35.8, 26.7, 25.9 and 47.8 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the mean values of the annual effective dose equivalent for the above mentioned were 1.85, 1.38, 1.34 and 2.47 mSv/y, respectively. It has been found from these results that, most of the values were of nominal state values (that is less than the allowed global values) and in few places, the concentration was higher than the allowed global values, therefore, the annual effective dose higher than annual global level values (1.3 mSv/y) was resulted. Poor ventilation and old buildings were, most mobility, the main cause of these high radon concentrations. Improving ventilation of these places will increase air exchange rates with the out side, thereby resulting in reduced concentration. In general, the results showed that protection against radiological hazards would not be necessary for pupils and staff members occupying the rooms of the investigated schools

  2. Enhancement of SV40 transformation by treatment of C3H2K cells with uv light and caffeine. I. Combined effect of uv light and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, T.; Anzai, K.; Andoh, T.

    1975-01-01

    Treatment of cultured mouse cells, C3H2K, with uv light and/or caffeine enhanced the frequency of SV40-induced transformation. This enhancement depends upon the doses of uv and caffeine and the mode of combination of these agents. Irradiation of cells with increasing doses of uv just before infection resulted in approximately 2-fold enhancement of the transformation frequency up to a dose of 90 ergs/mm 2 and 3.3-fold at 150 ergs/mm 2 . Addition of 1 mM caffeine to the medium for 4 days subsequent to infection brought about a 2-fold enhancement. When cells were irradiated and treated with 1 mM caffeine, the enhancement was approximately 4-fold up to a uv dose of 90 ergs/mm 2 and 5.9-fold at 150 ergs/mm 2 . When 0.1 to 4 mM caffeine was added for 4 days postinfection, the absolute number of transformations increased, and an enhancement ratio of 1.3 to 6.8 resulted. After the addition of the same increasing doses of caffeine to uv-irradiated cells (75 ergs/mm 2 ), the enhancement of transformation frequency was even higher ranging 2.0 to 13.3. The transformation frequencies thus obtained by the double treatment were always higher than those predicted if uv and caffeine acted additively. The transformation frequency was little affected by the addition of dibutyrylcyclic AMP and theophylline

  3. Rat bone marrow progenitor cells transduced in situ by rSV40 vectors differentiate into multiple central nervous system cell lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Bianling; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Strayer, David S

    2006-12-01

    Using bone marrow-directed gene transfer, we tested whether bone marrow-derived cells may function as progenitors of central nervous system (CNS) cells in adult animals. SV40-derived gene delivery vectors were injected directly into femoral bone marrow, and we examined transgene expression in blood and brain for 0-16 months thereafter by immunostaining for FLAG epitope marker. An average of 5% of peripheral blood cells and 25% of femoral marrow cells were FLAG(+) throughout the study. CNS FLAG-expressing cells were mainly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and periventricular subependymal zone (PSZ). Although absent before 1 month and rare at 4 months, DG and PSZ FLAG(+) cells were abundant 16 months after bone marrow injection. Approximately 5% of DG cells expressed FLAG, including neurons (48.6%) and microglia (49.7%), and occasional astrocytes (1.6%), as determined by double immunostaining for FLAG and lineage markers. These data suggest that one or more populations of cells resident within adult bone marrow can migrate to the brain and differentiate into CNS-specific cells.

  4. First molecular data and the phylogenetic position of the millipede-like centipede Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882 (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varpu Vahtera

    Full Text Available Edentistoma octosulcatum Tömösváry, 1882, is a rare, superficially millipede-like centipede known only from Borneo and the Philippines. It is unique within the order Scolopendromorpha for its slow gait, robust tergites, and highly modified gizzard and mandible morphology. Not much is known about the biology of the species but it has been speculated to be arboreal with a possibly vegetarian diet. Until now its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Otostigminae has been based only on morphological characters, being variably ranked as a monotypic tribe (Arrhabdotini or classified with the Southeast Asian genus Sterropristes Attems, 1934. The first molecular data for E. octosulcatum sourced from a newly collected specimen from Sarawak were analysed with and without morphology. Parsimony analysis of 122 morphological characters together with two nuclear and two mitochondrial loci resolves Edentistoma as sister group to three Indo-Australian species of Rhysida, this clade in turn grouping with Ethmostigmus, whereas maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses of the molecular data on their own ally Edentistoma with species of Otostigmus. A position of Edentistoma within Otostigmini (rather than being its sister group as predicted by the Arrhabdotini hypothesis is consistently retrieved under different analytical conditions, but support values within the subfamily remain low for most nodes. The species exhibits strong pushing behaviour, suggestive of burrowing habits. Evidence against a suggested vegetarian diet is provided by observation of E. octosulcatum feeding on millipedes in the genus Trachelomegalus.

  5. Differential protein expression, DNA binding and interaction with SV40 large tumour antigen implicate the p63-family of proteins in replicative senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelloul, Siham; Tarunina, Marina; Barnouin, Karin; Mackay, Alan; Jat, Parmjit S

    2002-02-07

    P53 activity plays a key role in mammalian cells when they undergo replicative senescence at their Hayflick limit. To determine whether p63 proteins, members of the family of p53-related genes, are also involved in this process, we examined their expression in serially passaged rat embryo fibroblasts. Upon senescence, two truncated DeltaNp63 proteins decreased in abundance whereas two TAp63 isoforms accumulated. 2-D gel analysis showed that the DeltaNp63 proteins underwent post-translational modifications in both proliferating and senescent cells. Direct binding of DeltaNp63 proteins to a p53 consensus motif was greater in proliferating cells than senescent cells. In contrast p63alpha isoforms bound to DNA in a p53 dependent manner and this was higher in senescent cells than proliferating cells. An interaction of p63alpha proteins with SV40 large tumour antigen was also detected and ectopic expression of DeltaNp63alpha can extend the lifespan of rat embryo fibroblasts. Taken together the results indicate that p63 proteins may play a role in replicative senescence either by competition for p53 DNA binding sites or by direct interaction with p53 protein bound to DNA.

  6. Analysis of proviral integration in human mammary epithelial cell lines immortalized by retroviral infection with a temperature-sensitive SV40 T-antigen construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, A C; Davies, S C; Burman, J; O'Hare, M J

    1994-06-15

    A panel of eight conditionally immortal lines derived by infection of human breast epithelial cells with an amphotropic retrovirus transducing a ts mutant of SV40 large T-antigen was analyzed with respect to individual retroviral integration patterns. Each line contained multiple integration sites which were clonal and stable over extended passage. Similar integration patterns were observed between individual lines arising separately from the same stock of pre-immortal cells, suggesting a common progenitor. Retroviral integration analysis of pre-immortal cells at different stages of pre-crisis growth showed changes indicative of a progressive transition from polyclonality to clonality as the cells approached crisis. Each of the immortal lines contained a sub-set of the integration sites of their pre-immortal progenitors, with individual combinations and copy numbers of sites. Since all the cell lines appeared to originate from single foci in separate flasks, it is likely that each set arose from a common clone of pre-immortal cells as the result of separate genetic events. There was no evidence from this analysis to suggest that specific integration sites played any part either in the selection of pre-crisis clones or in the subsequent establishment of immortal lines.

  7. Domestic gas contribution to natural radon concentration in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronel, G.; Sajo B, L.

    1996-01-01

    The technique for measuring the concentration of radon in gas sold commercially for domestic use is presented. It is shown that the contribution is not significant, 5.5±1.4 (Bq/m 3 ), nevertheless it could reach in some cases significant values of intervention (200 Bq/m 3 ). The results indicate that the additional dose to which the population is exposed is approximately 26% of the natural background calculated in approximately 0,28 mSv/year. By assuming a lineal proportionality between dose and risk, the increase of the possibility of catching lethal leukemia or cancer is 16 cases for every million of population. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig

  8. Pb-210 concentrations in cigarettes tobaccos and radiation doses to the smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.N.A.; Alaamer, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a source of radiation exposure due to the concentrations of natural radionuclides in the tobacco leaves. From the health point of view, measurement of 210 Pb and 210 Po contents in cigarette tobacco is important to assess the radiological effects associated with the tobacco smoking for the smokers. In the present study, activity concentrations of 210 Pb, which is a 210 Po precursor in the 238 U-decay series, were measured in cigarette tobaccos. Samples of nine different commonly sold brands of cigarette tobaccos were analysed by employing a planar high purity germanium (HPGe) low background detector. Activity concentrations of 210 Pb were measured from its gamma peak at 47 keV. Mean activity concentration of 210 Pb was measured to be 13 ± 4 Bq kg -1 from all samples analysed. The annual committed effective dose for a smoker and the collective committed effective dose corresponding to annual cigarettes production were estimated to be 64 ± 20 μSv and 0.6 x 10 2 man-Sv, respectively. (authors)

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in bird tissues, their foods and feeding areas near Ravenglass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, V.P.W.

    1987-08-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about an apparent decline in the numbers of waterfowl, waders and gulls in the Ravenglass estuary, particularly of the black-headed gulls nesting on the Drigg dunes; it was suggested this might be due to the radionuclide concentrations in their diet and general environment. Oystercatchers and shelduck had some of the highest concentrations of Cs-137 in their tissues, yet their breeding and numbers remained unaffected. Calculations of the total dose equivalent to the whole body of gulls spending 4 months in the estuary before laying eggs, amounted to 2.8 mSv (≅ 2.4 m Gy), and to the gut lining 40.3 mSv. As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 m Gy d -1 has been found to be necessary to retard the growth of chicks or cause 50% mortality among gull chick embryos before full development, radionuclide concentrations at Ravenglass were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have any effect. 12 species of marine invertebrates were also analysed, but no evidence was found that radionuclides from Sellafield were being accumulated in any species to the point where concentrations were of potential importance to birds feeding on them. (author)

  10. Study on radon concentration in groundwater of Sira and Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Karthik Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on radon concentration in groundwater samples collected from different villages of Sira and Tiptur taluk of Tumkur district has been conducted using emanometry method, and the effective dose to the public was estimated. The geometric mean of the activity concentration of dissolved radon was found to be 39.13 ± 1.99 and 3.78 ± 0.05 Bq/L for Sira and Tiptur taluk, respectively. The total annual effective dose for adult, children, and infants was also estimated and was found to be 0.20, 0.18, and 0.31 mSv/year, respectively, in Sira taluk and 0.019, 0.017, and 0.029 mSv/year in Tiptur taluk, respectively. Water samples were also analyzed for the physicochemical parameters to assess the quality of drinking water and also to understand the influence of these parameters on dissolved radon concentration. Poor correlation was observed between dissolved radon concentration and pH in both taluks.

  11. Radon concentration of waters in Greece and Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Alpha Guard are connected via plastic radon proof tubes. Forced degassing of radon gas is performed by circulating the air in the set up with the use of a pump. Water sampling (to avoid radon escape) was driven by a strict protocol. Water taps were opened for 10 minutes before drawing the sample. Glass storage vessels of 200 to 1000 ml, with adjustment glass stoppers with standard NS 29/32 grounding, as well as sealing rings and granted security clamps for taper grounding, were completely filled slowly and immediately closed (to avoid the formation of air bubbles). Similar procedure (except tap opening) was followed for underground and surface waters. Laboratory measurements were performed at least one hour after drawing the sample in order to assure the full decay of any thoron content and to the minimum achievable time interval, so as the radon content to be the highest possible to allow higher precision. For the measurement the glass stopper was removed and immediately exchanged with the degassing cap. Afterwards water quantity was reduced to about half and measured. From the measurements, the mean annual equivalent dose rate (aEDr) delivered to stomach due to ingestion and the contribution to aEDr due to inhalation of radon in drinking water were calculated as using the EURATOM 2001 dose conversion factor (0.00144 mSv/Bq). Radon concentrations in drinking waters ranged between (1.1+/-0.5) Bq/L and (15+/4) Bq/L. Only three samples collected from the radon prone area of Arnea Chalkidikis presented high radon concentrations (120+/20 Bq/L, 320+/-40 Bq/L, 410+/-50 Bq/L). Radon concentrations in underground waters ranged between (1.2+/-0.7) Bq/L and (14.7+/-1.1) Bq/L. The corresponding concentration range in surface waters was (2.7+/-0.8) Bq/L and (24+/-6) Bq/L. The radon concentrations in thermal waters (some of which are used for drinking) were quite higher (in the range of (220+/-20) to (340+/-40) Bq/L). In both countries, no correlation of radon in underground waters

  12. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  13. Measurement of indoor radon-thoron and their progeny levels in dwellings and radon concentrations in ground water of Hassan city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2014-01-01

    The indoor radon and thoron concentrations in dwellings of Hassan city have been measured by using LR-115 type-Il Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were carried in summer season from March to May-2013. The radon and thoron activity concentration in the corresponding dwellings has been found to vary from 7.4 to 45.7 Bqm -3 and 5.4 to 34.9 Bqm -3 with a median of 23.59±11 Bqm -3 and 14.47±8 Bqm -3 respectively. The overall average radon concentrations are found to be less than the lower reference level of 200 Bq m -3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The annual effective dose received due to radon and its progeny by the inhabitants in the dwellings under study has also been calculated which found to vary from 0.320 ±0.4 to 1.86 ±1.1 mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.957±0.8 mSv -1 . The obtained results are much lower than the upper reference level of 10 mSv y -1 (ICRP 2007). Radon in bore well water at different locations of Hassan city was determined using the emanometry technique and exposure dose from ingestion of drinking water was estimated. The radon concentration in ground water was found to vary from 19.49 to 60.74 Bq l -1 with an average value of 47.16±14Bq l -1 . From this study it is evident that, the recorded ground water radon concentration values are higher than MCL of 11 Bq l -1 proposed by USEPA. The total dose due to inhalation and ingestion of 222 Rn in ground water ranges from 0.053 mSv y -1 to 0.165mSv y -1 with an average value of 0.127±0.038mSv y -1 . (author)

  14. Activation of histamine H4 receptor inhibits TNFα/IMD-0354-induced apoptosis in human salivary NS-SV-AC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegajev, Vasili; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Salem, Abdelhakim; Rozov, Stanislav; Stark, Holger; Nordström, Dan C E; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease affecting exocrine glands. Our recent studies revealed diminished histamine H4 receptor (H₄R) expression and impaired histamine transport in the salivary gland epithelial cells in SS. The aim was now to test if nanomolar histamine and high-affinity H₄R signaling affect apoptosis of human salivary gland epithelial cell. Simian virus 40-immortalized acinar NS-SV-AC cells were cultured in serum-free keratinocyte medium ± histamine H₄R agonist HST-10. Expression and internalization of H₄R were studied by immunofluorescence staining ± clathrin inhibitor methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD). Apoptosis induced using tumor necrosis factor-α with nuclear factor-κB inhibitor IMD-0354 was studied using phase contrast microscopy, Western blot, flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). HST-10-stimulated H₄R internalization was inhibited by MβCD. Western blotting revealed diminished phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK, but unchanged levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase pERK1/2 in H₄R-stimulated samples compared to controls. qRT-PCR showed up-regulated expression of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma-extra large/Bcl-xL mRNAs and proteins, whereas pro-apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein/BAX remained unchanged in H4R-stimulated samples. H₄R stimulation diminished cleavage of PARP and flow cytometry showed significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect of H₄R stimulation on apoptosis. As far as we know this is the first study showing inhibitory effect of H₄R activation on apoptosis of human salivary gland cells. Diminished H₄R-mediated activation may contribute to loss of immune tolerance in autoimmune diseases and in SS in particular.

  15. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner

  16. Geophysical fingerprints of shallow cultural structures from microgravity and GPR measurements in the Church of St. George, Svätý Jur, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panisova, Jaroslava; Murín, Igor; Pašteka, Roman; Haličková, Jana; Brunčák, Peter; Pohánka, Vladimír; Papčo, Juraj; Milo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Recording of the historic edifice using the state-of-the-art geodetic and geophysical techniques brings easier visualisation in form of a three-dimensional (3D) model, thus allowing better understanding of its historical construction by the public and non-experts. We have applied this approach at the Church of St. George, one of the most significant religious buildings in south-western Slovakia, which dominates a silhouette of the town Svätý Jur. The geodetic survey allowed to record the actual state of the church. The church exterior was surveyed using a total station. Due to the intricate shape of the interior components of the church, it was decided to use a terrestrial laser scanner to generate the point cloud data, which were processed into floor plan, elevations, sectional 2D drawings and 3D model. The geophysical survey was carried out in the interior of the church in order to identify potential subsurface anthropogenic structures. Microgravity and ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were selected as the most effective geophysical tools for such task. In microgravity data processing we focused on the calculation and removal of the gravitational effects of the building masses. The main negative gravity anomalies of interest in the nave, which also have been confirmed by GPR measurements, are interpreted as medieval crypts. Another very important outcome of the geophysical survey is the discovery of the west wall foundations of the oldest Romanesque construction. From each geophysical data acquired we derived 3D polygonal models, which are compared to achieve more realistic picture of the subsurface structures. Verification of these structures by means of archaeological excavation has not been carried out yet.

  17. Insertion of liver enriched transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) in a vector which contains simian virus (SV40) promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nbaheen, M.; Pourzand, C.; Tyrrell, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    One way of targeting gene expression in vivo is to control transcription using a tissue-specific regulatory system. Tissue specific promoters or enhancers are in use in transgenic animals and could be utilized in medical for gene therapy. At present the usual method for selection of a tissue-specific promoter is to identify a gene, which is expressed at unusually high level in the target tissue, and then to use the promoter for this gene to drive expression of another therapeutic gene in the target tissue. This approach is logical but does not always lead to high levels of gene expression. A second approach is to investigate the scope for discovery of synthetic specific promoters using a target tissue. The objective of the work described in this paper was to use both approach to design plasmid DNA expression vectors that would carry liver-specific promoter/enhancer linked to reporter gene (i.e. luciferase). Then transfect these vectors to both liver-derived and non-liver cell lines. This is followed by evaluation of the liver-specificity of each construct by measuring the basal level expression of the reporter gene (i.e. luciferase activity) in both cell lines. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) is liver-enriched transcription factor used to design new synthetic enhancers by inserting a tandem array of 1', 3' or 5' repeats of the HNF-4 binding site upstream of the SV40 promoter linked to the luciferase reporter gene within an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based vector, p 706. The results of transfection revealed that unexpectedly the HNF-4 binding sites in these constructs act as a repressor rather than enhancer of the liver-specific expression of the luciferase gene. (author)

  18. Epidermal cell-shape regulation and subpopulation kinetics during butyrate-induced terminal maturation of normal and SV40-transformed human keratinocytes: epithelial models of differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano-Coico, L; Steinberg, M; Higgins, P J

    1990-10-15

    Recent data indicate that malignant human epidermal cells may be appropriate targets for sodium butyrate (NaB)-mediated differentiation therapy. The response of pre- and post-crisis populations of SV40-transformed human keratinocytes (SVKs) to this differentiation-inducing agent was assessed, therefore, within the framework of NaB-directed normal human keratinocyte (NHK) maturation. NaB augmented cornified envelope (CE) production in NHK and pre-crisis SVK cultures; the time-course and efficiency of induced maturation were similar in the 2 cell systems. In NHKs, the percentage of amplifying ("B" substate) cells decreased with time in NaB correlating with increases in both "C" stage keratinocytes and CEs. The latter formed over one or 2 layers of nucleated basal-like cells. Inductions were accompanied by immediate cell cycle blocks (in both the G1 and G2/M phases), reorganization within the actin cytoskeleton, and transient early increases in cellular actin content. Increased NHK and pre-crisis SVK cytoskeletal-associated actin reached a maximum approximately 48 hr after NaB addition and preceded development of CEs. The CE precursors, thus, probably reside in the "B" substate. Post-crisis SVKs, in contrast, were refractive to NaB-induced terminal maturation or cell-cycle perturbation, failed to initiate actin filament rearrangements, and retained a basal cell-like phenotype. Stable transformation of human SVKs in post-crisis phase, therefore, appears to be associated with loss of maturation "competence" within the "B" keratinocyte subpopulation.

  19. Highly concentrating Fresnel lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritchman, E.M.; Friesem, A.A.; Yekutieli, G.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of concave Fresnel lens capable of concentrating solar radiation very near the ultimate concentration limit is considered. The differential equations that describe the lens are solved to provide computed solutions which are then checked by ray tracing techniques. The performance (efficiency and concentration) of the lens is investigated and compared to that of a flat Fresnel lens, showing that the new lens is preferable for concentrating solar radiation. (author)

  20. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, H.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Agarwal, R.K.

    1986-11-01

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  1. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  2. Concentration of 222Rn in drinking water of the Zacatecas City, measured by liquid scintillation and associated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo B, C. A.; Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Rios M, C.; Saucedo A, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    A study was carried out to determine the concentration of 222 Rn in samples of drinking water collected from different homes in the Zacatecas city, Mexico, whose main source of supply is groundwater. The 222 Rn radioactive gas is a product of the decay series of 238 U and is considered one of the main sources of natural radiation, since it contributes almost half of the radiation dose that a person will receive throughout his life. The 222 Rn originates in the rocks of the aquifers and dissolves in the water, which is later integrated into the distribution network of the public supply that supplies the entire population. Exposure to ionizing radiation that 222 Rn and its offspring emit can damage the DNA molecule, inducing the possible appearance of cancer. Has been demonstrated by various epidemiological studies carried out in uranium mines workers in different parts of the world, that this exposure increases the incidence of lung cancer, placing 222 Rn and their offspring as the second main cause of this type of cancer, after smoking habit. Using the technique of solvent extraction of 222 Rn in water and liquid scintillation spectrometry, water collected from 14 different households was sampled and analyzed. The average of the measured activity of 222 Rn was 2.09 Bq/L and the annual effective dose per water intake attributable to that concentration of 6.07 mSv/a. The concentration of 222 Rn in water and the annual effective dose are below 11 Bq/L and 50 mSv/a, such concentrations are the maximum limits established by the Unites States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the ICRP, respectively. The concentration of 222 Rn that is transferred from the water to the air inside a house was also calculated and the radiation dose that this concentration causes by inhalation, being 0.209 Bq/m 3 and 1,463 μ Sv a, respectively. (Author)

  3. Measurements of radon activity concentrations in air at Niska spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrovic, F.; Vuckovic, B.; Ninkovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured in the recreational-tourist center of Niska Banja. Alpha Guard PQ 2000/ MC50 instrumentation (Genitron instruments, Frankfurt) was used. The observed indoor radon concentrations in the air of the Radon Hotel pool lay within the range of 0.980-1.908 kBq/m 3 and were directly dependent on the exhalation of radon from thermomineral waters. Radon concentrations were also measured outdoors, at locations for capping thermomineral water, as well as at locations for draining used water from the Radon Hotel pool. Outdoor radon concentrations as high as over 500 Bq/m 3 were observed. Gamma dose rates were measured in parallel and found to lie within the range of 72-420 nSv/h. The gamma doses correlated well with the observed radon levels. The largest gamma dose rates in air were measured in the pool of Radon Hotel and at the site where this thermomineral water is being capped

  4. High indoor radon concentrations in some Swedish waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.; Hagberg, N.; Mjoenes, L.; Heiberg, A.

    2002-01-01

    High indoor radon concentrations in buildings used for water treatment are not uncommon. When raw water is processed in an open system radon escapes from the water to the indoor air of the premises. It is not unusual that the staff of the waterworks have their offices in the building where the water is processed. If large volumes of water are processed and the evaporated radon can reach the workplaces the indoor radon concentration can be very high even if the radon concentration of the raw water is moderate. Groundwaters from aquifers in bedrock and soil and surface water that has been infiltrated through deposits of sand or gravel have the potential to cause high indoor radon levels. In surface water emanating directly from a lake or a river the radon concentrations are normally too low to cause problems. Three waterworks in central Sweden have been studied, Ludvika, Fredriksberg and Kolbaeck. The radon concentrations in the raw water of these waterworks are from 85 Bq/l to 300 Bq/l. Average indoor radon concentrations exceeding 17,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured in Ludvika with peaks of almost 37,000 Bq/m 3 . In Kolbaeck radon concentrations up to 56,000 Bq/m 3 have been measured. It is quite possible that employees of waterworks can receive doses exceeding 20 mSv per year (calculated according to ICRP:s dose conversion convention). Measurements of radon and gamma radiation from the waterworks are reported and methods to lower the indoor radon concentrations are discussed. (author)

  5. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose of foodstuffs on the island of Tenerife (Spain))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, F.; Hernandez-Armas, J.; Catalan, A.; Fernandez-Aldecoa, J. C.; Landeras, M. I.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 26 different food types and 12 elaborated diets were analysed by low-level gamma spectrometry to measure their content of 238 U( 234 Th), 228 Ra( 228 Ac), 226 Ra( 214 Pb), 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K. The concentrations of these radionuclides measured in some imported foodstuffs were compared with those measured in some locally produced ones. Moreover, the concentrations found in the analysed foodstuffs and composite diets were compared with the data available in literature from other locations, such as Egypt (Brazil)) (Poland)) and Hong Kong. 40 K contributed highest to the daily dose produced by the intake of comestibles. The largest 40 K concentrations were measured in the chickpeas and beans with 380 ± 30 and 380 ± 20 Bq kg -1 fresh weights, respectively. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured only above detection limits in the potatoes and sweet potatoes. A mean annual effective dose of 362 μSv with a standard deviation of 110 μSv was calculated from the composite diets. (authors)

  6. Variation of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in different outdoor and indoor environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Janevik, Emilija; Taleski, Vaso [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Boev, Blazo [Goce Delcev University, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Stip (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Zunic, Zora S. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' ' Vinca' ' , Belgrade (Serbia); Ivanova, Kremena; Tsenova, Martina [National Center of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Ristova, Mimoza [University in Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematic, Institute of Physics, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Ajka, Sorsa [Croatian Geological Survey, Zagreb (Croatia); Bossew, Peter [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Subject of this study is an investigation of the variations of indoor radon concentration and ambient dose equivalent rate in outdoor and indoor environments of 40 dwellings, 31 elementary schools and five kindergartens. The buildings are located in three municipalities of two, geologically different, areas of the Republic of Macedonia. Indoor radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track detectors, deployed in the most occupied room of the building, between June 2013 and May 2014. During the deploying campaign, indoor and outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were measured simultaneously at the same location. It appeared that the measured values varied from 22 to 990 Bq/m{sup 3} for indoor radon concentrations, from 50 to 195 nSv/h for outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates, and from 38 to 184 nSv/h for indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. The geometric mean value of indoor to outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates was found to be 0.88, i.e. the outdoor ambient dose equivalent rates were on average higher than the indoor ambient dose equivalent rates. All measured can reasonably well be described by log-normal distributions. A detailed statistical analysis of factors which influence the measured quantities is reported. (orig.)

  7. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  8. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-01-01

    222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

  9. Evaluation of radon concentration in well and tap waters in Bursa (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Akkaya, G.; Kilic, N.; Yalcin, S.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2012-01-01

    222 Rn measurements in water samples collected from 27 wells and 19 taps that were supplied from the investigated wells were conducted using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser at sites across several geologic formations within the city of Bursa (Turkey). The measured radon concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 53.64 Bq l -1 for well water and from 0.91 to 12.58 Bq l -1 for tap water. Of the 27 sites sampled, only 7 had radon levels above the safe limit of 11.1 Bq l -1 recommended by the USEPA. In general, all determined concentrations were well below the 100 Bq l -1 revised reference level proposed by the European Union. These values of radon concentrations in water samples are compared with those reported from other countries. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The minimum and the maximum annual mean effective doses due to 222 Rn intake through water consumption were 0.02 μSv a -1 and 1.11 μSv a -1 , respectively. (authors)

  10. Knockdown of AMPKα decreases ATM expression and increases radiosensitivity under hypoxia and nutrient starvation in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Takuma; Urushihara, Yusuke; Shiga, Soichiro; Takeda, Kazuya; Jingu, Keiichi; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2018-01-22

    Presence of unperfused regions containing cells under hypoxia and nutrient starvation contributes to radioresistance in solid human tumors. It is well known that hypoxia causes cellular radioresistance, but little is known about the effects of nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity. We have reported that nutrient starvation induced decrease of mTORC1 activity and decrease of radiosensitivity in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217, and that nutrient starvation induced increase of mTORC1 activity and increase of radiosensitivity in human liver cancer cell lines, HepG2 and HuH6 (Murata et al., BBRC 2015). Knockdown of mTOR using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for mTOR suppressed radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone in HepG2 cells, which suggests that mTORC1 pathway regulates radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone. In the present study, effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity were investigated using the same cell lines. LM217 and HepG2 cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on cellular radiosensitivity, mTORC1 pathway including AMPK, ATM, and HIF-1α, which are known as regulators of mTORC1 activity, and glycogen storage, which is induced by HIF-1 and HIF-2 under hypoxia and promotes cell survival. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, AMPK activity and ATM expression were increased in LM217 cells and decreased in HepG2 cells compared with AMPK activity under nutrient starvation alone or ATM expression under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, radiosensitivity was decreased in LM217 cells and increased in HepG2 cells compared with radiosensitivity under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, knockdown of AMPK decreased ATM activity and increased radiation sensitivity in LM217 cells. In both cell lines, mTORC1 activity was decreased under hypoxia and nutrient starvation. Under hypoxia alone, knockdown of mTOR slightly increased ATM

  11. Characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines established from CEA424/SV40 T antigen-transgenic mice with or without a human CEA transgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nöckel, Jessica; Engel, Natasja K van den; Winter, Hauke; Hatz, Rudolf A; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Kammerer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. Patients with gastric cancer at an advanced disease stage have a poor prognosis, due to the limited efficacy of available therapies. Therefore, the development of new therapies, like immunotherapy for the treatment of gastric cancer is of utmost importance. Since the usability of existing preclinical models for the evaluation of immunotherapies for gastric adenocarcinomas is limited, the goal of the present study was to establish murine in vivo models which allow the stepwise improvement of immunotherapies for gastric cancer. Since no murine gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines are available we established four cell lines (424GC, mGC3, mGC5, mGC8) from spontaneously developing tumors of CEA424/SV40 T antigen (CEA424/Tag) mice and three cell lines derived from double-transgenic offsprings of CEA424/Tag mice mated with human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic (CEA424/Tag-CEA) mice (mGC2 CEA , mGC4 CEA , mGC11 CEA ). CEA424/Tag is a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse strain harboring the Tag under the control of a -424/-8 bp CEA gene promoter which leads to the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the glandular stomach. Tumor cell lines established from CEA424/Tag-CEA mice express the well defined tumor antigen CEA under the control of its natural regulatory elements. The epithelial origin of the tumor cells was proven by morphological criteria including the presence of mucin within the cells and the expression of the cell adhesion molecules EpCAM and CEACAM1. All cell lines consistently express the transgenes CEA and/or Tag and MHC class I molecules leading to their susceptibility to lysis by Tag-specific CTL in vitro. Despite the presentation of CTL-epitopes derived from the transgene products the tumor cell lines were tumorigenic when grafted into C57BL/6, CEA424/Tag or CEA424/Tag-CEA-transgenic hosts and no significant differences in tumor take and tumor growth were observed in the different hosts

  12. Determination of radionuclide concentration of landfill at Eliozu, Port Harcourt, Rivers State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avwiri, G.O.; Nte, F.U.; Olanrewaju, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the radionuclide concentration from landfill around Eliozu in Port-Harcourt area of River State has been carried out. This study assessed the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclide: 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K. 10 soil and 10 water samples collected from the respective reclaimed part of the Eliozu landfill were analyzed using the gamma-ray spectrometry Nal(TI) detector system. The mean activity concentration for soil was found to be 27.41±9.97Bq/kg for 238 U, 19.27±8.14 Bq/Kg for 232 Th and 326.08±66.74Bq/Kg for 40 K. The average specific activity concentration obtained for 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K for the water samples were 7.92±2.69Bq/l, 6.96±2.37Bq/l and 24.77±8.33 Bq/l. Absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be between the range of 23.53nGy.h -1 and 50.39nGy.h -1 with a mean of 38.17±12.45nGy.h -1 for soil and between the range of 6.62nGy.h -1 and 10.71nGy.h -1 with a mean 9.03±3.07nGy.h -1 for water. This value is less than the world average of 55nGy.h -1 for soil. Inhabitants around the landfill are subjected to equivalent radiation exposure (effective dose rate) ranging between 0.2061 and 0.4414mSv.y -1 with a mean of 0.3344±0.1091mSv.y -1 and ranging between 0.0580 and 0.0938mSv.y -1 with a mean of 0.0791±0.0269mSv.y -1 for soil and water. The results comparable to those reported for environment in Nigeria and the world is relatively high due to the presence of medical wastes co-disposed with other wastes in these areas. The results indicated that the observed radiation dose of the terrestrial soils and water from Eliozu reclaimed landfill is minimal and seem to have no high exposure for either inhabitant in and around the landfill.

  13. Concentration of caesium isotopes in foodstuffs in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Rubel, B.; Muszynski, W.; Kurowski, W.; Swietochowska, J.; Smagala, G.

    2000-01-01

    One of the sources of the radioactive doses obtained by people resulting from the radiological contamination of the environment, is the transfer of radionuclides to the organism via ingestion. Radioactive isotopes in foodstuffs appear as a result of nuclear activities on the globe, mainly because of nuclear explosion and, recently, after the Chernobyl accident. Since the early sixties the network of Service for Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in Poland systematically controlled all kinds of important food products. Radiochemical methods and gamma spectrometry has been used to determination the activity of radioactive isotopes. This contribution reports of the determination of 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentration in milk, meat, vegetables, fruits, cereals and 'forest products' during period 1985-1999. In 1985 the average 137 Cs level was below 1 Bq/kg (except forest products). Moreover, no regional differences were observed the whole territory of Poland. After the Chernobyl accident situation changed completely. Average activity of 137 Cs in milk was 25 Bq/l in May 1986, 20-25 Bq/kg in beef and 10-15 Bq/kg in pork (summer months). Also fruit picked up in June and July was contaminated, mainly currents. The contamination of vegetables was less important. The activity of cesium isotopes in forest mushrooms and wild game were much higher than in other tested foodstuffs. From the 1987 level of radioactive contamination was decreasing gradually. In 1999 the activity of 137 Cs of vegetables, cereals, fruit was on level as it has been in 1985 as for meat and milk it is higher. Level of radiocesium in 'forest products' is still high. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radiocesium was on level 0.088 mSv in 1986 and 0.006 mSv in 1999. (author)

  14. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is involved in the TNF-α-induced fusion of human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Julian; Mohr, Marieke; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2018-04-10

    In addition to physiological events such as fertilisation, placentation, osteoclastogenesis, or tissue regeneration/wound healing, cell fusion is involved in pathophysiological conditions such as cancer. Cell fusion, which applies to both the proteins and conditions that induce the merging of two or more cells, is not a fully understood process. Inflammation/pro-inflammatory cytokines might be a positive trigger for cell fusion. Using a Cre-LoxP-based cell fusion assay we demonstrated that the fusion between human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells was induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The gene expression profile of the cells in the presence of TNF-α and under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was analysed by cDNA microarray analysis. cDNA microarray data were verified by qPCR, PCR, Western blot and zymography. Quantification of cell fusion events was determined by flow cytometry. Proteins of interest were either blocked or knocked-down using a specific inhibitor, siRNA or a blocking antibody. The data showed an up-regulation of various genes, including claudin-1 (CLDN1), ICAM1, CCL2 and MMP9 in M13SV1-Cre and/or MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cells. Inhibition of these proteins using a blocking ICAM1 antibody, CLDN1 siRNA or an MMP9 inhibitor showed that only the blockage of MMP9 was correlated with a decreased fusion rate of the cells. Likewise, the tetracycline-based antibiotic minocycline, which exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, was also effective in both inhibiting the TNF-α-induced MMP9 expression in M13SV1-Cre cells and blocking the TNF-α-induced fusion frequency of human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells. The matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) is most likely involved in the TNF-α-mediated fusion of human M13SV1-Cre breast epithelial cells and human MDA-MB-435-pFDR1 cancer cells. Likewise, our data indicate that the tetracycline

  15. Determination of activity concentration levels of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in drinking water in a gold mine in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awudu, A R; Darko, E O; Schandorf, C; Hayford, E K; Abekoe, M K; Ofori-Danson, P K

    2010-08-01

    The study of the activity concentration levels of uranium, thorium and potassium in drinking water from different locations in a gold mine in the Ashanti Region of Ghana was conducted using gamma spectrometry. The mean outdoor absorbed gamma dose rates at 1 m from the water were 0.524 nGy h, 0.422 nGy h, and 0.252 nGy h for groundwater, surface water, and treated water, respectively. The results obtained for the activity concentration levels of U and Th are found to be within the maximum acceptable concentration levels of 3.0 Bq L and 0.6 Bq L, respectively, recommended by the World Health Organization. The overall mean outdoor gamma dose rate is 0.41 nGy h and the corresponding outdoor annual effective dose obtained for adult members of the public for drinking water from the mines is 3.58 muSv y. This value is found to be within the 10.0 muSv per annum (0.01 mSv per annum) for public exposure control set by the World Health Organization. Therefore, the mining activities on drinking water studied did not show any significant radiological health implications on the public.

  16. Groundwater radon, radium and uranium concentrations in Regiao dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, R.M.R.; Lauria, D.C.; Ferreira, A.C.; Sracek, O.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water from Regiao dos Lagos, a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro state, was analysed for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 222 Rn, 238 U, major ion concentrations, and physico-chemical parameters were also measured. Concentrations values ranged from -1 for 226 Ra, from -1 for 228 Ra and from -4 to 8.0x10 -2 Bq l -1 for 238 U. Detectable 222 Rn concentrations (>3 Bq l -1 ) were found only in two samples. The spatial distribution of Ra concentration delineated one distinct area and some hot spots with high Ra concentration. Low pH value is the most important water parameter linked to high radium concentration. This is probably related to limited adsorption of radium on soil ferric oxides and hydroxides at low pH range. There was a significant correlation between uranium concentrations and electrical conductivity values, and also between uranium concentrations and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Cl, indicating sea water impact. Uranium concentrations were lower than maximum contaminant level for drinking water, whereas 17 out of the 88 ground water samples had levels of radium that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The total annual effective dose for adult due to the water consumption reaches values up to 0.8 mSv

  17. Radon concentrations in the water of Misasa area (Tottori Pref.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Mifune, Masaaki

    1997-02-01

    UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation) Report (1988, 1993) indicated that the internal exposure dose of absorption of radon (Rn-222) and the short-lived decay product nucleus occupied about half of 2.4 m Sv of the global average of annual dose of natural radiation source. It is said to be the largest factor of radiation dose of natural radiation. Sample collection and the method, the elution properties by the concentration of Rn-222 in water and the comparison of characteristics among the different methods are explained. The detection limit of concentration of radon in water by OPTI-FLUOR direct method using the liquid scintillator spectrometer was 1.5 Bq/l for 20 mins counting. The maximum radon concentrations determined by this method showed 1700 Bq/l of the spring water in Misasa area, 400 Bq/l of the small water supply system and well and 18 Bq/l of Mitoku river. (S.Y.)

  18. Radon concentration in outdoor occupational environments in Aomori Prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyogi, T.; Ueda, S.; Hisamatsu, S.; Sakurai, N.; Inaba, J.

    2004-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in outdoor workplaces were measured in Aomori Prefecture, Japan as a part of a program on measurement of natural radiation background dose to people in the prefecture where Japan's first nuclear fuel cycling facilities are now under construction. 222 Rn concentrations were measured in 116 outdoor workplaces by passive Rn detectors for 10 months, which represented agricultural, forestry, fishery and construction/transportation workplaces. The 222 Rn concentrations in outdoor workplaces were generally lower than those in indoor environments. The dose to workers was estimated by using the results of the passive detectors as well as diurnal variation of 222 Rn and equilibrium factor measured with active-type detectors. The average dose from 222 Rn and its progenies to people in Aomori Prefecture was estimated as 0.39 mSv x y -1 based on the obtained results and results in indoor environments. The contribution of 222 Rn in outdoor workplaces to the total dose was 3.3% because of low occupancy ratio. (author)

  19. Determination of tritium concentrations in humans before the development of a nuclear power plant in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizman, Serdar; Yilmaz, Adnan; Keser, Recep

    2015-01-01

    The most widely used method to determine the level of tritium in humans is testing urine. Tritium concentrations in urine samples of 100 persons aged 18-66 years selected randomly from a pilot region in Turkey were analysed. The average activity concentration of urine samples was 4.66 ± 1.94 Bq L(-1) and the maximum activity concentration was 27.91 Bq L(-1). The minimum detectable activity was 2.38 Bq L(-1). The annual effective dose from tritium was also evaluated on the basis of the measurement results and reference values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The effective doses for males and females were 4.56 and 3.54 nSv, respectively. These results were lower than the permissible annual effective dose for members of the public.

  20. Underscreening in concentrated electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A; Perez-Martinez, Carla S; Smith, Alexander M; Perkin, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Screening of a surface charge by an electrolyte and the resulting interaction energy between charged objects is of fundamental importance in scenarios from bio-molecular interactions to energy storage. The conventional wisdom is that the interaction energy decays exponentially with object separation and the decay length is a decreasing function of ion concentration; the interaction is thus negligible in a concentrated electrolyte. Contrary to this conventional wisdom, we have shown by surface force measurements that the decay length is an increasing function of ion concentration and Bjerrum length for concentrated electrolytes. In this paper we report surface force measurements to test directly the scaling of the screening length with Bjerrum length. Furthermore, we identify a relationship between the concentration dependence of this screening length and empirical measurements of activity coefficient and differential capacitance. The dependence of the screening length on the ion concentration and the Bjerrum length can be explained by a simple scaling conjecture based on the physical intuition that solvent molecules, rather than ions, are charge carriers in a concentrated electrolyte.

  1. Concentration of radiocaesium in grain following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyar, B.; Czegledi, P.; Kerekes, A.; Kovacs, L.; Sohar, J.; Sztanyik, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements and dose assessments in Hungary after the Chernobyl accident have shown that the consumption of baker's ware contributes significantly to the internal dose of man. Flour and bread have been contaminated mainly due to radiocaesium deposition onto the of cereals at the end of April and beginning of May, 1986. Because of the different seasonal and growing conditions of biomass, the interception fraction of the standing winter wheat became higher than that of the summer wheat. Therefore, the contribution of grain to the internal dose was relatively high in Hungary where near to 90 per cent of flour and bread is produced from winter wheat in comparison with other countries. The average concentration of 137 Cs in winter grain harvested in summer 1986 was 32 Bq/kg with a range of 11-140 Bq/kg. The bran contained almost half of the total radiocaesium of the grain with about 20 per cent of the weight. The 40 K concentration of grain was 149 Bq/kg. The 137 Cs concentration in white bread commonly used in Hungary was 22 Bq/kg in average. The concentrations found in bread samples from the whole country showed a high variation due to the uneven deposition of radioactive substances. The 137 Cs concentration in winter grain was 0.0075±0.0017 Bq/kg normalized to 1 Bq/m 2 deposition density. The 137 Cs concentration in grain harvested in 1987 or later became less than 1 Bq/kg. It suggests that the root uptake of radiocaesium by cereals must be very small. The per caput committed effective dose equivalent due to consumption of baker's ware was estimated as 50 micro-Sv. (author)

  2. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  3. Quantitative and Visual Assessments toward Potential Sub-mSv or Ultrafast FDG PET Using High-Sensitivity TOF PET in PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Spencer C; Bahroos, Emma; Hawkins, Randall A; Nardo, Lorenzo; Ravanfar, Vahid; Capbarat, Emily V; Seo, Youngho

    2018-06-01

    reduction in either injection dose for the same time or total scan time for the same injected dose. This "ultra-sensitivity" PET system provides a path to clinically acceptable extremely low-dose FDG PET studies (e.g., sub 1 mCi injection or sub-mSv effective dose) or PET studies as short as 1 min/bed (e.g., 6 min of total scan time) to cover whole body without compromising diagnostic performance.

  4. 210Po and 210Pb concentrations in fish consumed in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mamish, S.; Budeir, Y.; Nashwaty, A

    2001-01-01

    Edible part of 36 types of sea fish collected from local market (Lattakia, Tartus, Banias) and seven types of river fish (Euphrate river and Mzerib lake) have been analyzed for sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb. Results of analysis have shown that sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb concentrations in sea fish varied between 0.27 and 27.48 Bq/kg and between 0.05 and 0.38 Bq/kg, respectively while for river fish concentrations were relatively low and varied between 0.61 and 3.08 Bq/kg for sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and between 0.04 and 0.10 Bq/kg for sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb. In addition, the Syrian adults daily intakes of sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po and sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Pb have been estimated and found to be 6.0 and 0.24 mBq respectively. These intakes are much less than those reported in other areas in the world. The collective dose was also determined and found to be about 5.09 man.Sv for polonium sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 and 2.93 man.Sv for lead sup 2 sup 1 sup 0. (author)

  5. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K. Prabhath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spectrometry was performed for estimation of polonium. Radiochemical recovery was ascertained by the addition of 209Po tracer. Radiochemical recovery of 209Po tracer was ranged from 14.7 to 98.1 %. The 210Po concentration in the samples was in the range of 0.08–0.23 Bq kg−1 on measured date and the corresponding daily dose, calculated on normalized date which is at mid-point of the shelf life of the sample, was ranged from 0.04 to 0.89 μSv d−1 as per the recommended daily consumption. The annual committed effective dose estimated based on the average of daily dose was found to be 150 μSv.

  6. 222Radon concentration and irradiation dose inside the department of nuclear medicine in Wuhan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoli; Wang Changyin; Gao Jianhua; Zou Xiaofeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Inspecting the high radioactivity area in department of nuclear medicine in Wuhan region and estimating the irradiation dose on relevant doctors. Methods: Select six 'three A' hospitals' high radioactivity area in department of nuclear medicine and common residential houses as examples. A half-year surveillance using 222 Rn detector (type LIH-2) was performed. Results: In high radioactivity rooms, imaging rooms residential houses, the average 222 Rn concentration are 27.8, 48.2, 27.1 (Bq·m -3 ) respectively. Effective dose equivalent absorbed by doctors in high radioactivity room and imaging room are 0.16 and 0.28 mSv. The authors estimated that the effective dose equivalent of doctors in these two room and common residents per year are 0.84, 0.70 and 0.64 mSv respectively. Conclusions: Doctors in imaging room and high radioactivity room are exposed to a relatively higher annual effective dose than common residents. But they are still within the normal range. Only two imaging rooms have high 222 Rn concentrations, which will cause potential harm

  7. Measurement of potential alpha energy concentration in some schools in Shillong city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maibam, Deveshwori; Sharma, Yubaraj; Saxena, Atul; Walia, Devesh; Diengdoh, Evamary; Rapmai, Aibora K.

    2011-01-01

    Radon and its progeny account for more than 50% of total natural radiation exposure to humans and are considered to an important cause of lung cancer (UNSCEAR, 2008). Indoor radon levels are much higher than outdoor levels hence the importance of assessing radon levels in indoor environments, particularly schools which serve as a significant source of radon exposure both for children and the staffs. Children have smaller lung volumes and higher breathing rates therefore an augmented radon concentration results to a higher radiation dose in children. In our study, potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of 20 schools in Shillong region has been measured using the SSNTD method with LR-115 type 2 detectors. The detectors in bare mode were placed in class rooms at different floors of each school during winter and summer season. The detectors in bare mode were placed in class rooms at diff rent floors of each school during winter and summer season. The PAEC (mWL) at each of the selected schools are calculated and it ranges from 2.56 - 58.2 mWL (Arithmetic mean) and 2.34 - 58.18 mWL (Geometric mean). And the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) ranges from 0.74 - 17.85 mSv.y -1 . This preliminary study shows that the AEDE values of the schools under study are below the prescribed action limit by AERB i.e. 30 mSv.y -1 . (author)

  8. Radon concentrations in houses around the Plomin coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.; Sokolovic, E.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of radon activity concentration in houses around the Plomin coal-fired power plant (Istrian Peninsula) started in the winter of 1990 upon the assumption that certain old houses in this region were built using mortar and plaster prepared from slag and ash. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation carried out in the winter of 1990 and spring of 1991, when the difference between radon levels in old and newly built houses was first noted, and the subsequent data obtained by radon measurements in 40 selected houses in the period from 1992 to 1994. The average annual radon activity concentrations in the old houses ranged from 55 Bqm -3 to 426 Bqm -3 (mean value 146 ± 91 Bqm -3 ) and in more recently built houses from 16 Bqm -3 to 67 Bqm -3 (mean value 36 ± 13 Bqm -3 ). The average annual effective doses from inhalation of radon progeny for the inhabitants living in the old and newly built houses were estimated to be 2.7 mSv and 0.7 mSv, respectively. (Author)

  9. Photovoltaic static concentrator analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonacid, G.; Luque, A.; Molledo, A. G.

    1984-12-01

    Ray tracing is the basis of the present analysis of truncated bifacial compound parabolic concentrators filled with a dielectric substance, which are of interest in photovoltaic applications where the bifacial cells allow higher static concentrations to be achieved. Among the figures of merit for this type of concentrator, the directional intercept factor plays a major role and is defined as the ratio of the power of the collector to that at the entry aperture, in a lossless concentrator illuminated by light arriving from a given direction. A procedure for measuring outdoor, full size panels has been developed, and a correction method for avoiding the effect of unwanted diffuse radiation during the measurements is presented.

  10. CMAQ predicted concentration files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — model predicted concentrations. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Muñiz-Unamunzaga, M., R. Borge, G. Sarwar, B. Gantt, D. de la Paz, C....

  11. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  12. Concentrations of Indicator Organisms

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...

  13. Concentrated Differential Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Dwork, Cynthia; Rothblum, Guy N.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Concentrated Differential Privacy, a relaxation of Differential Privacy enjoying better accuracy than both pure differential privacy and its popular "(epsilon,delta)" relaxation without compromising on cumulative privacy loss over multiple computations.

  14. Industrialisation et concentration urbaine

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal , Abdelhak

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the determinants of the urban concentration and their effect at different levels of development. The empirical analysis focuses on the developing countries over the period 1950-2000 grouped by level of per capita income. The results confirm the existence of specific trajectories of urbanization rate and urban primacy which differs meaningfully according to the stage of development considered. Certain factors encourage urbanization and its concentration in ...

  15. Solar concentrators. Concentradores solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almanza, R.; Valdes, A.; Lopez, S.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents different types of geometries used in concentrators. Some comments are made on the theoretical and experimental analysis necessary to evaluate the geometries and on the type of laboratory equipment needed to obtain experimental data. At the end of the report a description of how to build parabolic trough mirrors is made. The experience gained by the authors, who have been working in this subject for the past five years, is summarized, showing some of the problems related with such concentrators.

  16. Concentration factors for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.; Lauer, R.; Melzer, M.; Siebert, W.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration factors are defined as operators allowing to calculate the specific activity of fish meat from a given concentration of an element in the water. This parameter depends among others from the content of stable isotopes and homologues in the different waters. If this parameter is reasonably to be used for model calculations it must be referred to water with all of its content substances, these calculations also being based on this type of 'water'. (orig.) [de

  17. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  18. A nationwide survey of radon concentration in Japan. Indoor, outdoor and workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Tetsuya; Oikawa, Shinji; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Abukawa, Johji; Higuchi, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace radon concentrations were surveyed in Japan. These surveys were conducted to estimate the natural radiation dose due to radon and its progeny for the general public. The radon concentration was measured using passive type radon monitor. The number of radon monitors were installed at indoor, outdoor and workplace for 940 houses, 705 points and 705 sites, respectively. The radon concentration was measured for one year at each measurement site. Annual mean radon concentration was obtained from four quarters measurements of 47 prefectures in Japan. The nationwide indoor, outdoor and workplace annual mean radon concentration were 15.5 Bq m -3 , 6.1 Bq m -3 and 20.8 Bq m -3 , respectively. Their radon concentration shows approximately a logarithmic normal distribution. Workplace showed relatively high radon concentration compared with other environments, may be due to construction materials and low ventilation rate. The indoor radon concentration found to be seasonal variation and architectural dependences. Seasonal variation and regional distribution of outdoor radon concentration was also observed. From the results of these radon surveys, the annual effective dose to the general public due to radon and its progeny was estimated to be 0.49 mSv y -1 in Japan. (author)

  19. Study of the specific concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra in some seasonings marketed in Rio de Janeiro City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Leandro B.; Silva, Ademir X. da [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Lima, Marco A.F., E-mail: rgarcez@nuclear.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biologia

    2017-07-01

    The seasoning are vegetables substances used in foods to enhance their flavor, aroma and color. This work presents an investigation of the activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in 28 samples of seasoning utilized by brazilian population. The seasoning samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The analysis shows that the activity concentration of {sup 40}K was measured in all samples and ranges from 21.0 Bq/kg to 1288 Bq/kg. The highest concentration activity of {sup 40}K was measured to 'cheiro verde', a local seasoning made of chives (Allium Schoenoprasum) and parsley (Petroselinum Crispum), while annatto, made with the fruit of Bixa Orelhana, had the lowest activity concentration. Brazil nut (Bertholletia Excelsa) presented the highest concentrations for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra with 24 Bq/kg and 25.7 Bq/kg, respectively and black pepper (Piper Nigrum) presented the highest concentration for {sup 224}Ra with 33.9 Bq/kg. The highest effective dose for members of the public due to ingestion was 23.5 μSv/y due to Brazil nut and the lowest effective dose was found for annatto: 0.13 μSv/y. The syrian seasoning sample present specific concentration of 6.1±1.1 Bq/kg for {sup 137}Cs and 0.08 μSv/y of effective dose. The values found in this work do not represent a risk to human health. (author)

  20. Study of the specific concentrations of 40K, 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra in some seasonings marketed in Rio de Janeiro City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Leandro B.; Silva, Ademir X. da; Lima, Marco A.F.

    2017-01-01

    The seasoning are vegetables substances used in foods to enhance their flavor, aroma and color. This work presents an investigation of the activity concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in 28 samples of seasoning utilized by brazilian population. The seasoning samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The analysis shows that the activity concentration of 40 K was measured in all samples and ranges from 21.0 Bq/kg to 1288 Bq/kg. The highest concentration activity of 40 K was measured to 'cheiro verde', a local seasoning made of chives (Allium Schoenoprasum) and parsley (Petroselinum Crispum), while annatto, made with the fruit of Bixa Orelhana, had the lowest activity concentration. Brazil nut (Bertholletia Excelsa) presented the highest concentrations for 226 Ra and 228 Ra with 24 Bq/kg and 25.7 Bq/kg, respectively and black pepper (Piper Nigrum) presented the highest concentration for 224 Ra with 33.9 Bq/kg. The highest effective dose for members of the public due to ingestion was 23.5 μSv/y due to Brazil nut and the lowest effective dose was found for annatto: 0.13 μSv/y. The syrian seasoning sample present specific concentration of 6.1±1.1 Bq/kg for 137 Cs and 0.08 μSv/y of effective dose. The values found in this work do not represent a risk to human health. (author)

  1. Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1993-05-01

    A survey of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m 3 and 26.5 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

  2. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  3. 210Po activity concentrations in mussels at Aegean Turkish Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekkin, F.; Tanbay, A.; Vener, V.

    2000-01-01

    In Turkey mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are consumed in relatively large quantities. Therefore, analyses of mussel samples from different sampling sites in Aegean Sea were performed in order to evaluate the ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb by the Turkey population. Polonium analyses were performed with a complete dissolution of the sample in mineral acids. Polonium isotopes were plated onto a copper discs in 0.5 M HCl solution in the presence of ascorbic acid using a technique modified from Flynn (1968). The alpha activity measurements of polonium isotopes plated on copper discs were performed with ZnS(Ag) detector. The highest concentrations was found in Karaburun mussels as 254 Bq.kg -1 and the lowest one was at Inciralti as 18 Bq.kg -1 . Based on these 210 Po activity concentrations, annual dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in mussels would vary widely, from 136 to 10 mSv.y -1 . It is concluded that in mussels living in the Aegean Sea a wide range of internal radiation dose exists and it is essentially sustained by 210 Po food-chain transfer. (author)

  4. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  5. RX: a nonimaging concentrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, J C; Benítez, P; González, J C

    1995-05-01

    A detailed description of the design procedure for a new concentrator, RX, and some examples of it's use are given. The method of design is basically the same as that used in the design of two other concentrators: the RR and the XR [Appl. Opt. 31, 3051 (1992)]. The RX is ideal in two-dimensional geometry. The performance of the rotational RX is good when the average angular spread of the input bundle is small: up to 95% of the power of the input bundle can be transferred to the output bundle (with the assumption of a constant radiance for the rays of the input bundle).

  6. Parabolic solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Campos-Alvarez, J.; Tellez-Alanis, F.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J.

    2006-08-01

    In this work we present the basis of the solar concentrator design, which has is located at Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. For this purpose, this place is ideal due to its geographic and climatic conditions, and in addition, because it accounts with the greatest constant illumination in Mexico. For the construction of the concentrator we use a recycled parabolic plate of a telecommunications satellite dish (NEC). This plate was totally covered with Aluminum. The opening diameter is of 332 cm, the focal length is of 83 cm and the opening angle is of 90°. The geometry of the plate guaranties that the incident beams, will be collected at the focus. The mechanical treatment of the plate produces an average reflectance of 75% in the visible region of the solar spectrum, and of 92% for wavelengths up to 3μm in the infrared region. We obtain up to 2000°C of temperature concentration with this setup. The reflectance can be greatly improved, but did not consider it as typical practical use. The energy obtained can be applied to conditions that require of those high calorific energies. In order to optimize the operation of the concentrator we use a control circuit designed to track the apparent sun position.

  7. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  8. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  9. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...

  10. Estimated doses related to 222Rn concentration in bunker for radiotherapy and storage of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, Freddy; Carrizales-Silva, Lila; Sajo-Bohus, Laszlo; Diaz, Cruz

    2013-01-01

    It was done a survey in radiotherapy services underground hospitals and clinics of Venezuela and Paraguay in order to estimate the concentrations of radon and its possible consequences on worker occupational exposure. Passive dosimeters were used to assess nuclear traces (NTD type CR-39®). The concentration of 222 Rn is determined based on the density of traces using the calibration coefficient of 1 tr/cm 2 equivalent to 0,434 Bqm -3 per month of exposure. Assuming the most likely environmental conditions and the dose conversion factor equal to 9.0 x 10 -6 mSv h -1 by Bqm -3 , it was determined the average values and estimated the possible risks to health that are on average 3.0 mSva -1 and 150 micro risk cancer

  11. The effects of covering materials on indoor Rn concentrations in offices in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Mui, W.N.; Tang, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    The variation of Rn concentrations in 134 offices with different covering materials cladded on internal building surfaces, including walls, ceilings and floors, were measured. The three commonest combinations (87 sites) of covering materials for the walls, ceilings and floors in Hong Kong are (A): wall paper, fibre board, carpet; (B): paint, paint and plastic tile and (C): paint, fibre board, plastic tile. The average Rn concentrations for combinations (A) and (B) were about the same, while that for combination (C) was significantly lower than those for (A) and (B). A person working in an office with combination (C) can receive an average annual tracheobronchial equivalent dose smaller than one working in an office with combinations (A) and (B) by an amount as large as 0.8 mSv

  12. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebink, Noel C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the

  13. A sub-nationwide survey of outdoor and indoor 222Rn concentrations in China by passive method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yihe; Ikebe, Y.; Iida, T.

    1996-01-01

    From Nov. 1988 to Mar. 1993, cooperated by China and Japan, a survey of outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations in 10 cities which were highly populated in China was carried out by means of passive method. the annual mean of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in 10 cities was 8.8 Bq·m -3 . The highest of 13.5 Bq·m -3 was in Wuhan, the lowest of 3.3 Bq·m -3 was in Chongming Island of Shanghai; and there were no significant differences among the different years in the same areas. During the northwest wind seasons, about 50% of outdoor 222 Rn concentration in Taiwan was contributed by the airflow from the mainland. Typical apartment houses and offices built of brick and concrete were also surveyed for indoor 222 Rn concentration. The annual mean of indoor 222 Rn concentration in the 10 cities was 19.5 Bq·m - 3. The highest of 33.9 Bq·m -3 was observed in Guiyang, the lowest of 9.0 Bq·m -3 was observed in Chongming Island of Shanghai. The outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations showed a clear seasonal pattern with the minimum in summer and the maximum in winter. And they also showed a clear geographic distribution tendency; they were higher in inland than in seashores, and higher in the south than in the north. The ratios of indoor to outdoor 222 Rn concentrations were from 1.1 to 4.6. The annual effective dose equivalents resulting from outdoor and indoor 222 Rn concentrations amounted to about 0.64 mSv·a -1 . The highest was in Guiyang, and the lowest was in Nantong, being 1.12 and 0.39 mSv·a -1 , respectively

  14. The mechanism of thioacetamide-induced apoptosis in the L37 albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat hepatocyte-derived cell line occurs without DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulera, S J; Sattler, C A; Gast, W L; Heath, S; Festerling, T A; Pitot, H C

    1998-10-01

    The hepatotoxicant thioacetamide (TH) has classically been used as a model to study hepatic necrosis; however, recent studies have shown that TH can also induce apoptosis. In this report we demonstrate that 2.68+/-0.54% of the albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat hepatocytes undergo TH-induced apoptosis, a level comparable to other in vivo models of liver apoptosis. In addition, TH could induce apoptosis and necrosis in the L37 albumin-SV40 T-antigen transgenic rat liver-derived cell line. Examination of dying L37 cells treated with 100 mM TH by electron microscopy revealed distinct morphological characteristics that could be attributed to apoptosis. Quantitation of apoptosis by FACS analysis 24 h after treatment with 100 mM TH revealed that 81.3+/-1.6% of the cells were undergoing apoptosis. In contrast, when L37 cells were treated with 250 mM TH, cells exhibited characteristics consistent with necrotic cell death. DNA fragmentation ladders were produced by growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis; however, in 100 mM TH-induced apoptosis, DNA fragmentation ladders were not observed. Analysis of endonuclease activity in L37 cells revealed that the enzymes were not inactivated in the presence of 100 mM TH. The data presented in this report indicate that the L37 cell line could be used to study the mechanism of TH-induced apoptosis that was not mediated through a mechanism requiring DNA fragmentation.

  15. Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori; Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m -3 and 40.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m -3 and 13.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

  16. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m{sup -3} (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  17. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  18. Radonuclide concentrations in bees and honey in the vicinity of Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Honeybees are effective monitors of environmental pollution; they forage for P len and nectar over a large area (congruent 7 km 2 ), accumulate contaminants from air, water, plants, and soil, and return to a fixed location (the hive) for sampling. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), in fact, has maintained a network of honeybee colonies within and around LANL for 16 years (1979 to 1994); the objectives for maintaining this honeybee network were to (1) determine the bioavailability of radionuclides in the environment, and (2) the committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to people who may consume honey from these beehives (Los Alamos and White Rock/Pajarito Acres lownsites). Of all the radionuclides studied over the years, tritium (314) was consistently picked up by the bees and was most readily transferred to the honey. Tritium in honey collected from hives located within LANL, for example, ranged in concentration from 0.07 Bq mL -1 (1.9 pCi mL -1 ) to 27.75 Bq mL -1 (749.9 pCi mL -1 ) (LANL Neutron Science Center); the average concentration of 3 H in honey Collected from hives located around the LANL area (perimeter) ranged in concentration from 0.34 Bq mL -1 (9.3 pCi mL -1 ) (White Rock/Pajarito Acres townsite) to 3.67 Bq mL -1 (99.3 pCi mL -1 ) (Los Alamos townsite). Overall, the CEDE-based on the average concentration of all radionuclides measured over the years-from consuming 5 kg (11 lbs) of honey collected from hives located within the townsites of Los Alamos and White Rock/Pajarito Acres, after regional (background) as been subtracted, was 0.074 μSv y -1 (0.0074 mrem y -1 ) and 0.024 pSv y -1 (0.0024 mrem y -1 ), respectively. The highest CEDE, based on the mean + 2 standard deviations (95% confidence level), was 0.334 fiSv y -1 (0.0334 mrem y -1 ) (Los Alamos townsitc)

  19. Equilibrium states and the ergodic theory of Anosov diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    For this printing of R. Bowen's book, J.-R. Chazottes has retyped it in TeX for easier reading, thereby correcting typos and bibliographic details. From the Preface by D. Ruelle: "Rufus Bowen has left us a masterpiece of mathematical exposition... Here a number of results which were new at the time are presented in such a clear and lucid style that Bowen's monograph immediately became a classic. More than thirty years later, many new results have been proved in this area, but the volume is as useful as ever because it remains the best introduction to the basics of the ergodic theory of hyperbolic systems."

  20. Higher-order Spatial Accuracy in Diffeomorphic Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Henry O.; Sommer, Stefan

    -jets. We show that the solutions convergence to optimal solutions of the original cost functional as the number of particles increases with a convergence rate of O(hd+k) where h is a resolution parameter. The effect of this approach over traditional particle methods is illustrated on synthetic examples......We discretize a cost functional for image registration problems by deriving Taylor expansions for the matching term. Minima of the discretized cost functionals can be computed with no spatial discretization error, and the optimal solutions are equivalent to minimal energy curves in the space of kk...

  1. Sub-subleading soft gravitons and large diffeomorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Miguel [Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias,Montevideo 11400 (Uruguay); Laddha, Alok [Chennai Mathematical Institute,Siruseri 603103 (India)

    2017-01-10

    We present strong evidence that the sub-subleading soft theorem in semi-classical (tree level) gravity discovered by Cachazo and Strominger is equivalent to the conservation of asymptotic charges associated to a new class of vector fields not contained within the previous extensions of BMS algebra. Our analysis crucially relies on analyzing the hitherto established equivalences between soft theorems and Ward identities from a new perspective. In this process we naturally (re)discover a class of ‘magnetic’ charges at null infinity that are associated to the dual of the Weyl tensor.

  2. Diffeomorphism Group Representations in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldin, Gerald A. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sharp, David H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-20

    We explore the role played by the di eomorphism group and its unitary representations in relativistic quantum eld theory. From the quantum kinematics of particles described by representations of the di eomorphism group of a space-like surface in an inertial reference frame, we reconstruct the local relativistic neutral scalar eld in the Fock representation. An explicit expression for the free Hamiltonian is obtained in terms of the Lie algebra generators (mass and momentum densities). We suggest that this approach can be generalized to elds whose quanta are spatially extended objects.

  3. Nonrelativistic trace and diffeomorphism anomalies in particle number background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Using the heat kernel method, we compute nonrelativistic trace anomalies for Schrödinger theories in flat spacetime, with a generic background gauge field for the particle number symmetry, both for a free scalar and a free fermion. The result is genuinely nonrelativistic, and it has no counterpart in the relativistic case. Contrary to naive expectations, the anomaly is not gauge invariant; this is similar to the nongauge covariance of the non-Abelian relativistic anomaly. We also show that, in the same background, the gravitational anomaly for a nonrelativistic scalar vanishes.

  4. Double covering of diffeomorphisms for superstrings in generic curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Sijacki, D.

    1986-01-01

    The embedding of the superstring in a generic curved space involves the use of world-spinors behaving according to the (infinite) unitary representations of SL-bar(10,R), the double-covering of the linear group on R 10 . A supersymmetric extrension is provided by the embedding of GL-bar(10,R) in the supergroup GQ-bar(10,R) whose flat limit reproduces Poincare supersymmetry

  5. Numerical simulation of nonlinear continuity equations by evolving diffeomorphisms

    KAUST Repository

    Carrillo, José A.

    2016-09-22

    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for nonlinear continuity equations, which is based on the gradient flow formulation of an energy functional with respect to the quadratic transportation distance. It can be applied to a large class of nonlinear continuity equations, whose dynamics are driven by internal energies, given external potentials and/or interaction energies. The solver is based on its variational formulation as a gradient flow with respect to the Wasserstein distance. Positivity of solutions as well as energy decrease of the semi-discrete scheme are guaranteed by its construction. We illustrate this property with various examples in spatial dimension one and two.

  6. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  7. Tritium concentration monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shono, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    A device for measuring the concentration of tritium in gaseous wastes in a power plant and a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is reduced in the size and improved in performance. The device of the present invention pressurizes a sampling gas and cools it to a dew point. Water content in the sampling gas cooled to the dew point is condensated and recovered to a fine tube-like water content recovering container. The concentration of the recovered condensates is measured by a tritium density analyzer. With such procedures, since the specimen is pressurized, the dew point can be elevated. Accordingly, the size of the cooling device can be decreased, enabling to contribute to the reduction of the size of the entire device. Further, since the water content recovering device is formed as a fine tube, the area of contact between the specimen gas and the liquid condensated water can be reduced. Accordingly, evaporation of the liquid condensates can be prevented. (I.S.)

  8. 210Po and 210Pb concentration of cigarettes traded in Hungary and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Tibor; Somlai, Janos; Nagy, Katalin; Szeiler, Gabor

    2007-01-01

    It is known that tobacco leaves may contain 210 Pb and 210 Po in significant concentrations. The cumulative alpha-radiation dose due to the radioactive content of inhaled cigarette smoke and the increasing number of lung cancer cases explain the importance of the investigation. The present study investigated the activity concentrations of these two radionuclides in 29 Hungarian cigarette samples. The relation between 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity and nicotine/tar content of these cigarettes was also examined. 210 Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a PIPS detector after chemical leaching and spontaneous deposition of 210 Po on a high nickel-content (25%) stainless steel disk. The 210 Pb activity was calculated from the 210 Po originated from the decay of 210 Pb after a waiting period of eight months. The 210 Po activity concentrations of the measured types of cigarettes ranged from 10.0 to 33.5 mBq/cigarette, and the activity of 210 Pb varied from 9.6 to 32.5 mBq/cigarette. The average annual committed effective dose is estimated to be 185.6±70.6μSv/y and 58.7±22.7μSv/y due to cigarette smoking (20 cigarettes/day) for 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively

  9. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.; Albuquerque Brocchi, E. de

    1990-01-01

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  10. Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.

  11. Electrolyte Concentrates Treat Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Wellness Brands Inc. of Boulder, Colorado, exclusively licensed a unique electrolyte concentrate formula developed by Ames Research Center to treat and prevent dehydration in astronauts returning to Earth. Marketed as The Right Stuff, the company's NASA-derived formula is an ideal measure for athletes looking to combat dehydration and boost performance. Wellness Brands also plans to expand with products that make use of the formula's effective hydration properties to help treat conditions including heat stroke, altitude sickness, jet lag, and disease.

  12. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO 2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO 2 gasification. (author) [pt

  13. An assessment method of dose equivalent due to indoor 220Rn progeny by using 220Rn concentration measured at a 20 cm distance from wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Guo, Q.; Yamasaki, T.

    1996-01-01

    A pair of passive cup monitors with a different air exchange openings was developed for measuring simultaneously 222 Rn and 220 Rn concentrations. Indoor 220 Rn concentrations were very high in traditional Japanese dwellings with soil walls. The 220 Rn concentration decreases exponentially with the distance from wall. The effective diffusion coefficient of 220 Rn in dwelling and the exhalation rate of 220 Rn from wall were evaluated from the distribution of the 220 Rn concentrations. Then, indoor 220 Rn progeny concentration could be estimated from the 220 Rn concentration at a 20 cm distance from wall. From the results of the surveys. the average annual effective dose equivalent due to 220 Rn progeny was expected to be 0.67 mSv/year in the traditional Japanese dwellings. (author)

  14. Reduction of radon concentration in a basement workplace: study of the problem and characterization of the main parameters affecting the radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaberto, E.M.; Magnoni, M.; Righino, F.; Costa Laia, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work is described the method used for the mitigation of high radon concentrations found in a basement workplace, the ARPA laboratory used for the metrology of EMF. In this lab was in fact measured a radon concentration up to 1900 Bq/m 3 , a value largely exceeding the Italian limit for workplaces (500 Bq/m 3 ). The basement workplace affected by radon is a room of around 500 m 3 with no windows and only one door, during work usually close, and therefore with a very low ventilation rate. In this workplace, usually two persons spent about 6 hour per day. Therefore their exposure to the radon and its decay products can attain a considerable value. For this people, accordingly to the accepted dosimetric models, an effective dose of several mSv per year could be estimated (ICRP Publication n. 65, 1993). It is thus important to reduce the radon concentration to acceptable levels, i.e. at least lower than 500 Bq/m 3 . This paper deals not only with the simple method used for the remedial action, but also to the investigation of the relevant parameters affecting the radon concentration. In particular, the monitoring of the radon concentration before and after the remedial action, allowed the calculation of the radon entry rates (Bq/s) and the ventilation rates (s-1) in the different experimental condition

  15. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jaseem, Q.Kh., E-mail: qjassem@kacst.edu.sa [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Almasoud, Fahad I. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Ababneh, Anas M. [Physics Dept., Faculty of Science, Islamic University in Madinah, Al-Madinah, P.O. Box 170 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Hobaib, A.S. [Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23 Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185 Bq/L (5 pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750 Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000 Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2–18 Bq/m{sup 3} and 70–1000 nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3 mSv which is below the 1 mSv limit. - Highlights: • Radiological assessment of groundwater treatment plant was performed. • Radium Removal efficiency was calculated for different stages during water treatment. • Radium concentrations in sludge were measured and found to exceed the national limit for radioactive waste. • Air radon concentrations and dose rates were monitored in the water treatment plant. • The Reverse Osmosis (RO) unit was found to record the highest air radon concentrations and dose rates.

  16. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  17. Censored correlated cytokine concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Benn, Christine Stabell; Jørgensen, Mathias J

    2013-01-01

    ) can be used to describe the relative concentration between two cytokines, and the GMR ratio (GMRR) can be used to compare two groups. The problem is how to estimate GMRRs from censored distributions.We evaluated methods, including simple deletion and substitution, in simulated and real data. One...... stacking method that uses clustered variance-covariance estimation allowing homogeneous (Stackc) or inhomogeneous (Stackh) variances. We compare it with direct estimation of the bivariate Tobit likelihood function (Bitobit) and multiple imputation. We assess sensitivity to inhomogeneity and non...

  18. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  19. Uranium concentration in fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, J.; Uyeda, C.

    1988-01-01

    Recently it is known that fossil bones tend to accumulate uranium. The uranium concentration, C u in fossils has been measured so far by γ ray spectroscopy or by fission track method. The authors applied secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, to detect the uranium in fossil samples. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of semi-quantitative analyses of uranium in fossils, and to study the correlation between C u and the age of fossil bones. The further purpose of this work is to apply SIMS to measure the distribution of C u in fossil teeth

  20. Theory of Concentrated Vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alekseenko, Sergey; Kuibin, Pavel; Okulov, Valery

    This book presents comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide field of concentrated vortices observed in nature and technique. The methods for research of their kinematics and dynamics are considered. Special attention is paid to the flows with helical symmetry. The authors have describ...... models of vortex structures used for interpretation of experimental data which serve as a ground for development of theoretical and numerical approaches to vortex investigation. Achievements in the fields of stability analysis, waves on vortices and vortex breakdown are also presented....

  1. Complex concentrate pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Scheele, R.D.; Strachan, D.M.; Toste, A.P.

    1991-03-01

    After removal of the transuranics (TRU) by the TRUEX process, complex concentrate waste will be grouted for final storage. The purpose of this project, conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is to support a future decision to grout the complexant waste without destruction of the organic contents. It has been demonstrated that grouts with acceptable parameters for the Transportable Grout Facility can be made using actual waste. The acceptability of these grouts from a regulatory view seems to be less of a problem than previously. None of the organics found in the waste have been found on the EPA hazardous chemicals list. Two potential problems with the processing of the complex concentrate wastes were identified during the use of the TRUEX process on samples of several milliliters. One was the amount of foam that is generated during acid addition to the alkaline waste. Some of this foam appears to be of a waxy nature but does redissolve when the waste is strongly acid. The second potential problem is that noticeable amounts of NO x gases are generated. No quantitative measure of the NO x gas generation was made. The problem relates to processing the waste in B-plant where there are no facilities to handle NO x gases. 5 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  3. Luminescent solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Tosun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC is a device that has luminescent molecules embedding or topping polymeric or glass waveguide to generate electricity from sunlight with a photovoltaic cell attachment. LSCs can be employed both in small and large scale projects, independent on the direction or angle of the surface with respect to the sun, promising more freedom for integration in urban environments compared to the traditional PV systems. The aim of the SEB&C PDEng project is to investigate the applicability of this innovative technology in the built environment and to bridge the gap of knowledge linking societal, design and technological aspects. The final goal is to exhibit potential application concepts of LSC developed by co-creative methods at SPARK campus which is a hub for open innovation in built environment. Necessity of a paradigm shift towards sustainable and smart cities came into being due to the significant increase in energy demand of the buildings. The challenge is to increase renewable sources in the energy mix while designing aesthetic environments. Thus, building integrated renewable energy technologies represent a great opportunity to help overcome this current challenge. Smart energy, energy efficiency and use of renewable sources are key aspects to be considered nowadays and many innovative technologies need further exploitation to be commercially viable, such as luminescent solar concentrator.

  4. Measurement of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides in the soil samples of Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq Bukhari, A.; Saiyad Musthafa, M.; Syed Mohamed, H.E.; Krishnamoorthy, R.; Shahul Hameed, M.M.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uranium ( 238 U), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) are considered to be Primordial radionuclides which are widely distributed in the earth's crust. Gamma-radiation from these radionuclides represents the main external source of irradiation for the human body. Human beings are exposed outdoors to the natural terrestrial radiation that originates predominantly from the upper 30 cm of the soil. A pilot project was therefore initiated aiming at systematically measuring the terrestrial gamma radiation in Tiruchirappalli city, Tamil Nadu, South India and to establish baseline data on the terrestrial background radiation level determining its contribution to the annual effective dose equivalent to the human population. The natural radioactivity concentrations were studied in soil samples collected from 50 locations in Tiruchirappalli city. The concentration varies significantly over different soil types and the highest radioactivity was measured over soil types of granite origin followed by red soil and alluvial loam. The mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil samples are found to be 81.78 Bq.kg -1 , 32.62 Bq.kg -1 , and 551.35 Bq.kg -1 respectively. The calculated gamma dose from the soil is in the range between 38.86nGy.h -1 and 240.59 nGy.h -1 with a mean value of 89.76 nGy.h -1 . The mean annual effective dose to the population from outdoor terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be 0.11mSv.y -1 which is low as compared with the maximum permissible effective dose equivalent of 1mSv.y -1 (ICRP,1991). In the present study it is observed that the major sources of gamma radiation in soils are mainly derived from rocky area with granite basement. (author)

  5. Indoor radon concentrations in the coastal and central regions of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, Perko; Antovic, Nevenka; Svrkota, Ranko

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first systematic indoor radon survey in Montenegro, in 10 municipalities of its coastal and central regions. In rural areas one home was randomly selected in each 5 x 5 km square of a regular grid covering the territory of Montenegro, while in urban areas the basic grid was subdivided into 0.5 x 0.5 km squares, and in each of them one building was selected and one dwelling within the building. In each of these 434 homes, radon measurements were performed twice a year, using passive dosimeters placed in the living room or bedroom on the ground floor or the first floor. The CR-39 nuclear track detectors were exposed each time for about six months. The annual average radon concentrations in the surveyed homes are found to be log normally distributed (GM = 49.6 Bq m -3 , GSD 3.2) within the range 2-2,208 Bq m -3 . Their arithmetic mean is 105 Bq m -3 and median 41.4 Bq m -3 . Radon concentrations above the action level of 400 Bq m -3 are detected in 5.6% of the surveyed homes. Most of these 24 homes are detached single-family houses, and the majority are rural. Radon concentrations were generally higher in detached family houses than in apartment buildings, in older than in newer houses, and higher in rural than in urban homes. As to the domestic radon exposure, this survey indicates reinforced concrete as the most favorable and stones as the most unfavorable of the building materials commonly used in Montenegro. The lowest average effective dose is in urban homes on the Montenegrin Coast (0.80 mSv y -1 ), while the highest is in the rural area of the Niksic municipality (7.31 mSv y - 1 ) , which is abundant in bauxite deposits. (author)

  6. Evaluation of influence of fertilizers in radium concentration from tomato culture; Avaliacao da influencia dos fertilizantes nos teores de radio encontrados na cultura do tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, Dejanira C. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao Radiologica Ambiental; Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Alleluia, Irene B. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Meio Ambiente; Perez, Daniel V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Analises de Solos e Plantas

    2001-07-01

    The fertilizer contribution to radio uptake by tomato plants was assessed. Tomato and soil samples from four different plantations were analyzed: two using organic fertilizer and two using phosphate fertilizer. The Ra concentrations in eight of the most used tomato fertilizers were determined. The concentration values ranged from 14 to 221 Bq/kg of Ra-226 and from 25 to 176 Bq/kg of Ra-228. Owing to the low Ra concentration and to the used fertilizer quantities, the fertilizers would not increase significantly the Ra soil concentration. However, the highest soil to plant concentration ratios were found in the plantations using phosphate fertilizers. This outcome pointed out the higher Ra availability in the phosphate fertilizer plantations than in the organic fertilizer plantations, showing a possible positive influence of phosphate fertilizers for the tomato Ra uptake. Due to the phosphate fertilizer used, the dose could increase from 0,05 Sv/year to 0,24 Sv/year. However this increase is not significant face the ingestion average worldwide effective dose. (author)

  7. Pushing concentration of stationary solar concentrators to the limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Zhang, Weiya

    2010-04-26

    We give the theoretical limit of concentration allowed by nonimaging optics for stationary solar concentrators after reviewing sun- earth geometry in direction cosine space. We then discuss the design principles that we follow to approach the maximum concentration along with examples including a hollow CPC trough, a dielectric CPC trough, and a 3D dielectric stationary solar concentrator which concentrates sun light four times (4x), eight hours per day year around.

  8. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  9. Stress concentration at notches

    CERN Document Server

    Savruk, Mykhaylo P

    2017-01-01

    This book compiles solutions of linear theory of elasticity problems for isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches. It contains an overview of established and recent achievements, and presents the authors’ original solutions in the field considered with extensive discussion. The volume demonstrates through numerous, useful examples the effectiveness of singular integral equations for obtaining exact solutions of boundary problems of the theory of elasticity for bodies with cracks and notches. Incorporating analytical and numerical solutions of the problems of stress concentrations in solid bodies with crack-like defects, this volume is ideal for scientists and PhD students dealing with the problems of theory of elasticity and fracture mechanics. Stands as a modern and extensive compendium of solutions to the problems of linear theory of elasticity of isotropic and anisotropic bodies with sharp and rounded notches; Adopts a highly reader-friendly layout of tables, charts, approximation ...

  10. Concentration solar thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, F.

    2011-01-01

    As the production of electricity by concentration solar power (CSP) installations is said to be a source of energy for the future, the author discusses past experiments (notably the French Thermis project), and the different techniques which are currently being used. He indicates the regions which appear to be the most appropriate for this technique. He presents the three main techniques: parabolic cylinder, tower, and Stirling cycle installations. He discusses the issue of intermittency. He proposes an assessment of prices and of their evolution, and indicates the investments made in different installations (in Italy, Spain, Germany and Portugal). He comments the case of hybrid installations (sun and gas), evokes the Desertec project proposed by the German industry which comprises a set of hybrid installations. He notices that there is no significant technological evolution for this process

  11. Concentrating solar thermal power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, Hans

    2013-08-13

    In addition to wind and photovoltaic power, concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) will make a major contribution to electricity provision from renewable energies. Drawing on almost 30 years of operational experience in the multi-megawatt range, CSP is now a proven technology with a reliable cost and performance record. In conjunction with thermal energy storage, electricity can be provided according to demand. To date, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity of 1.3 GW are in operation worldwide, with an additional 2.3 GW under construction and 31.7 GW in advanced planning stage. Depending on the concentration factors, temperatures up to 1000°C can be reached to produce saturated or superheated steam for steam turbine cycles or compressed hot gas for gas turbine cycles. The heat rejected from these thermodynamic cycles can be used for sea water desalination, process heat and centralized provision of chilled water. While electricity generation from CSP plants is still more expensive than from wind turbines or photovoltaic panels, its independence from fluctuations and daily variation of wind speed and solar radiation provides it with a higher value. To become competitive with mid-load electricity from conventional power plants within the next 10-15 years, mass production of components, increased plant size and planning/operating experience will be accompanied by technological innovations. On 30 October 2009, a number of major industrial companies joined forces to establish the so-called DESERTEC Industry Initiative, which aims at providing by 2050 15 per cent of European electricity from renewable energy sources in North Africa, while at the same time securing energy, water, income and employment for this region. Solar thermal power plants are in the heart of this concept.

  12. Review of the thesis: Remnyova S.V. Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vasiliy Vladimirovich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the thesis “Crime prevention in Leningrad and the Leningrad Region between the later 1950s and the first half of the 1960s” (St. Petersburg, 2016. 254 p. for a Candidate Degree in History by S.V. Remneva as well as the structure and logic of work, the validity of the conclusions, the merits of research and its controversial points. Special attention was paid to the analysis of interaction between the public and law enforcement agencies in crime fighting in the second half of the 1950s and the first half of the 1960s. In conclusion the reviewer pays attention on the idea that the presented facts, assessments and results can be used to develop textbooks on the history of crime, the history of law enforcement community, the history of Leningrad and the Leningrad Region.

  13. Analysis of antibody aggregate content at extremely high concentrations using sedimentation velocity with a novel interference optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Kristian; Krause, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies represent the most important group of protein-based biopharmaceuticals. During formulation, manufacturing, or storage, antibodies may suffer post-translational modifications altering their physical and chemical properties. Such induced conformational changes may lead to the formation of aggregates, which can not only reduce their efficiency but also be immunogenic. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the amount of size variants to ensure consistency and quality of pharmaceutical antibodies. In many cases, antibodies are formulated at very high concentrations > 50 g/L, mostly along with high amounts of sugar-based excipients. As a consequence, all routine aggregation analysis methods, such as size-exclusion chromatography, cannot monitor the size distribution at those original conditions, but only after dilution and usually under completely different solvent conditions. In contrast, sedimentation velocity (SV) allows to analyze samples directly in the product formulation, both with limited sample-matrix interactions and minimal dilution. One prerequisite for the analysis of highly concentrated samples is the detection of steep concentration gradients with sufficient resolution: Commercially available ultracentrifuges are not able to resolve such steep interference profiles. With the development of our Advanced Interference Detection Array (AIDA), it has become possible to register interferograms of solutions as highly concentrated as 150 g/L. The other major difficulty encountered at high protein concentrations is the pronounced non-ideal sedimentation behavior resulting from repulsive intermolecular interactions, for which a comprehensive theoretical modelling has not yet been achieved. Here, we report the first SV analysis of highly concentrated antibodies up to 147 g/L employing the unique AIDA ultracentrifuge. By developing a consistent experimental design and data fit approach, we were able to provide a reliable estimation of the minimum

  14. [Estimation of effective doses derived from radon in selected SPA centers that use geothermal waters based on the information of radon concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Katarzyna; Zmyślony, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal waters contain, among other components, soluble radon gas. Alpha radioactive radon is a health hazard to humans, especially when it gets into the respiratory tract. SPA facilities that use geothermal water can be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. Based on the available literature concerning radon concentrations, we assessed exposure to radon among people - workers and visitors of Spa centers that use geothermal waters. Radon concentrations were analyzed in 17 geothermal centers: in Greece (3 centers), Iran (5), China (4) and India (5). Doses recived by people in the SPA were estimated using the formula that 1 hour exposure to 1 Bq/m3 of radon concentration and equilibrium factor F = 0.4 corresponds to an effective dose of 3.2 nSv. We have found that radon levels in SPAs are from a few to several times higher than those in confined spaces, where geothermal waters are not used (e.g., residential buildings). In 82% of the analyzed SPAs, workers may receive doses above 1 mSv/year. According to the relevant Polish regulations, people receiving doses higher than 1 mSv/year are included in category B of radiation exposure and require regular dosimetric monitoring. Doses received by SPA visitors are much lower because the time of their exposure to radon released from geothermal water is rather short. The analysis of radon concentration in SPA facilities shows that the radiological protection of people working with geothermal waters plays an important role. It seems reasonable to include SPA workers staying close to geotermal waters into a dosimetric monitoring program.

  15. Estimation of effective doses derived from radon in selected SPA centers that use geothermal waters based on the information of radon concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geothermal waters contain, among other components, soluble radon gas. Alpha radioactive radon is a health hazard to humans, especially when it gets into the respiratory tract. SPA facilities that use geothermal water can be a source of an increased radiation dose to people who stay there. Based on the available literature concerning radon concentrations, we assessed exposure to radon among people - workers and visitors of Spa centers that use geothermal waters. Material and Methods: Radon concentrations were analyzed in 17 geothermal centers: in Greece (3 centers, Iran (5, China (4 and India (5. Doses recived by people in the SPA were estimated using the formula that 1 hour exposure to 1 Bq/m3 of radon concentration and equilibrium factor F = 0.4 corresponds to an effective dose of 3.2 nSv. Results: We have found that radon levels in SPAs are from a few to several times higher than those in confined spaces, where geothermal waters are not used (e.g., residential buildings. In 82% of the analyzed SPAs, workers may receive doses above 1 mSv/year. According to the relevant Polish regulations, people receiving doses higher than 1 mSv/year are included in category B of radiation exposure and require regular dosimetric monitoring. Doses received by SPA visitors are much lower because the time of their exposure to radon released from geothermal water is rather short. Conclusions: The analysis of radon concentration in SPA facilities shows that the radiological protection of people working with geothermal waters plays an important role. It seems reasonable to include SPA workers staying close to geotermal waters into a dosimetric monitoring program. Med Pr 2013;64(2:193–198

  16. Comparative Study of Radon Concentration with Two Techniques and Elemental Analysis in Drinking Water Samples of the Jammu District, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Manpreet; Mehra, Rohit; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Rosaline

    2017-10-01

    The level of radon concentration has been assessed using the Advanced SMART RnDuo technique in 30 drinking water samples from Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The water samples were collected from wells, hand pumps, submersible pumps, and stored waters. The randomly obtained 14 values of radon concentration in water sources using the SMART RnDuo technique have been compared and cross checked by a RAD7 device. A good positive correlation (R = 0.88) has been observed between the two techniques. The overall value of radon concentration in various water sources has ranged from 2.45 to 18.43 Bq L, with a mean value of 8.24 ± 4.04 Bq L, and it agreed well with the recommended limit suggested by the European Commission and UNSCEAR. However, the higher activity of mean radon concentration was found in groundwater drawn from well, hand and submersible pumps as compared to stored water. The total annual effective dose due to radon inhalation and ingestion ranged from 6.69 to 50.31 μSv y with a mean value of 22.48 ± 11.03 μSv y. The total annual effective dose was found to lie within the safe limit (100 μSv y) suggested by WHO. Heavy metal analysis was also carried out in various water sources by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and the highest value of heavy metals was found mostly in groundwater samples. The obtained results were compared with Indian and International organizations like WHO and the EU Council. Among all the samples, the elemental analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit.

  17. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Alameda, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E. E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx; Villalba, L.; Renteria Villalobos, M.; Torres Moye, E.; Garcia Leon, M.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Herrera Peraza, E.F.; Sanchez Aroche, D

    2004-07-01

    High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m{sup 3}; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148 Bq/m{sup 3} in 76% of the homes tested. Additionally, liquid scintillation counting showed concentrations of radon in drinking water ranging from 4.3 to 42 kBq/m{sup 3}. The high activity of {sup 238}U in soil found in some places may be a result of the uranium milling process performed 20 years ago in the area. High radon concentrations indoor and in water may be explained by assuming the presence of uranium-bearing rocks underneath of the city, similar to a felsic dike located near Aldama. The estimated annual effective dose of gamma radiation from the soil and radon inhalation was 3.83 mSv.

  18. Uranium-238 and thorium-232 series concentrations in soil, radon-222 indoor and drinking water concentrations and dose assessment in the city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero Sujo, L; Montero Cabrera, M E; Villalba, L; Rentería Villalobos, M; Torres Moye, E; García León, M; García-Tenorio, R; Mireles García, F; Herrera Peraza, E F; Sánchez Aroche, D

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution gamma spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th series in soil samples taken from areas surrounding the city of Aldama, in Chihuahua. Results of indoor air short-time sampling, with diffusion barrier charcoal detectors, revealed relatively high indoor radon levels, ranging from 29 to 422 Bq/m3; the radon concentrations detected exceeded 148 Bq/m3 in 76% of the homes tested. Additionally, liquid scintillation counting showed concentrations of radon in drinking water ranging from 4.3 to 42 kBq/m3. The high activity of 238U in soil found in some places may be a result of the uranium milling process performed 20 years ago in the area. High radon concentrations indoor and in water may be explained by assuming the presence of uranium-bearing rocks underneath of the city, similar to a felsic dike located near Aldama. The estimated annual effective dose of gamma radiation from the soil and radon inhalation was 3.83 mSv.

  19. Study of the specific concentrations of 40K and other radionuclides in the most consumed teas in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Roberto C. da; Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Ademir X. da

    2017-01-01

    Tea is widely consumed worldwide and it is a drink prepared by infusing with parts of plants such as leaves, flowers and roots, usually prepared with hot water, and each variety acquires a defined flavor according to the processing used. This work presents an investigation about the specific concentration of 40 K in 16 tea samples utilized by Brazilian population and the effective dose associated. The tea samples were dried for six hours in an oven at 60°C and placed in 200 ml volume polyethylene pots of low radioactive background, weighed with a scale model Gehaka BG 4000 and sealed to achieve the secular radioactive equilibrium condition. The teas samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The counting time used for sample spectrum acquisition was 30000 seconds. The specific concentration values of potassium 40 ranged from 184 ± 56 Bq/kg Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to 1087 ± 40 Bq/kg Burdock (Arctium lappa), Effective doses ranged from 1.1408 μSv/y by 6.7394 μSv/y. The values presented in this study were below the annual average for effective dose for ingestion for adults. (author)

  20. Study of the specific concentrations of {sup 40}K and other radionuclides in the most consumed teas in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Roberto C. da; Garcêz, Ricardo W.D.; Lopes, José M.; Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: robertofisica2012@hotmail.com [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Tea is widely consumed worldwide and it is a drink prepared by infusing with parts of plants such as leaves, flowers and roots, usually prepared with hot water, and each variety acquires a defined flavor according to the processing used. This work presents an investigation about the specific concentration of {sup 40}K in 16 tea samples utilized by Brazilian population and the effective dose associated. The tea samples were dried for six hours in an oven at 60°C and placed in 200 ml volume polyethylene pots of low radioactive background, weighed with a scale model Gehaka BG 4000 and sealed to achieve the secular radioactive equilibrium condition. The teas samples were measured using gamma spectroscopy technique with a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, a non-destructive nuclear method and with the LabSOCS software for the calculation of the efficiency curve. The counting time used for sample spectrum acquisition was 30000 seconds. The specific concentration values of potassium 40 ranged from 184 ± 56 Bq/kg Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citrates) to 1087 ± 40 Bq/kg Burdock (Arctium lappa), Effective doses ranged from 1.1408 μSv/y by 6.7394 μSv/y. The values presented in this study were below the annual average for effective dose for ingestion for adults. (author)

  1. Preparation of selective molybdenum concentrate from collective coppermolybdenum concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tusupbaev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers possibilities of selective separation of the concentrate of copper and molybdenum from a collective copper-molybdenum concentrate of Aktogay deposit using regrinding and conventional flotation reagents. In the case of conventional flotoreagents, the content of molybdenum in a molybdenum concentrate was 8.0% at extraction effectiveness 83.12%. At 27.96% extraction degree of copper, it’s content in the concentrate equaled to 21.3%. After regrinding, molybdenum content in the concentrate was 24.0% at the extraction effectiveness 59.63%, and copper content in the concentrate was 21.9% at the recovery of 61.23%. Thus, the regrinding of a collective copper-molybdenum concentrate resulted in an increase in the content of molybdenum in molybdenum concentrate by 16%, and the copper concentration increased by 0.6%.

  2. Determination of Radon-222 and Thoron Concentration in Decorative Stone Warehouses Indoor Air and the Received Effective Dose by Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a colorless, odorless, and radioactive gas that can be emitted from decorative stones such as granite, marble, etc. Inhaling radon gas in a long period may cause for incidence of lung cancer among peoples. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, Radon 222 and Thoron concentrations in background and indoor air were measured in four decorative stones warehouse using portable radon meter(RTM1688-2 model. Totally, 24 samples of 24- hours concentrations in indoor air and 24 samples of 4-hours concentrations of Radon 222 and thoron in the background air at three stages were measured. Then, received effective dose of Radon 222 and Thoron was calculated by UNSCEAR equations. Results: The mean radon concentrations for indoor and background air were 74±37 and 34±16 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean radon concentrations for indoor air in decorative stones warehouses for DSW1, DSW2, DSW3 and DSW4 were 72.50±34, 98.25±43, 34.42±18 and 88.92±51 Bq/m3, respectively. The received effective dose mean of Radon 222 and Thoron by the staff at 8 working hours was 0.53±0.18 and 0.05±0.03 mSv/y and in 16 working hours was 1.05±0.36 and 0.11±0.07 mSv/y, respectively. Generally, the mean received effective dose by staff from Radon at 8 and 16 working hours was 0.58±0.2  and 1.16±0.41 mSv/y, respectively. Conclusions: Radon concentration mean in indoor air and the received effective dose mean by staff was lower than the standards level. Decorative stone warehouses were the resources for accumulation of Radon gas that can be reduced by corrective actions.

  3. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Fredrik; García-Pérez, Mónica; Haltiwanger, John; McCue, Kristin; Sanders, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Casual observation suggests that in most U.S. urban labor markets, immigrants have more immigrant coworkers than native-born workers do. While seeming obvious, this excess tendency to work together has not been precisely measured, nor have its sources been quantified. Using matched employer–employee data from the U.S. Census Bureau Longitudinal Employer-Household Dynamics (LEHD) database on a set of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with substantial immigrant populations, we find that, on average, 37% of an immigrant’s coworkers are themselves immigrants; in contrast, only 14% of a native-born worker’s coworkers are immigrants. We decompose this difference into the probability of working with compatriots versus with immigrants from other source countries. Using human capital, employer, and location characteristics, we narrow the mechanisms that might explain immigrant concentration. We find that industry, language, and residential segregation collectively explain almost all the excess tendency to work with immigrants from other source countries, but they have limited power to explain work with compatriots. This large unexplained compatriot component suggests an important role for unmeasured country-specific factors, such as social networks. PMID:25425452

  4. Hvorfor er sproget så svært at forstå, når det er så let at forstå?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Thrane

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to unravel the intricate relationships between syntax and meaning, this paper clears a space between entrenched 'formalist' and 'functionalist' positions from which to defend a view of language as a 2nd order representational system. Building on information-theoretic foundations, it introduces a new first clause on top of the two clauses of Dretske’s (1995: xiii Representational Thesis, thus - All linguistic facts are mental facts (new - All mental facts are representational facts - All representational facts are facts about informational functions Concentrating on language interpretation, it argues that the proper place to look for the functionality of language is as a property of the Language Faculty as standardly conceived. It distinguishes 1°-representations (of situations from 2°-representations (of linguistic structure, claiming that the input to the cognitive interface in language interpretation is a 1°-representation converted from a sequence of 2°-representations at an interface created by a default, abstract representation of the utterance situation. It argues for a purely representational, as opposed to derivational, approach. The syntactic area discussed is that of argument structure and selection, with special reference to the status of hidden arguments and their place in syntactic representations. It is argued that argument selection is independent of, and prior to, assignment of category, case and thematic roles to constituents, and is purely a matter of the selectional properties of predicates with respect to a parameter of optionality. Four constituent types are recognized, two argumental (Complements and Arguments, two non-argumental (Satellites and Parasites; two obligatory (Complements and Parasites,two optional (Arguments and Satellites.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik

    2016-01-01

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of 40 K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept

  6. Dysregulation of autism-associated synaptic proteins by psychoactive pharmaceuticals at environmental concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Xia, Yu; Pfau, Jean C; Thomas, Michael A

    2017-11-20

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurological disorders for which the prevalence in the U.S. is currently estimated to be 1 in 50 children. A majority of cases of idiopathic autism in children likely result from unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. These triggers may include maternal exposure of a developing embryo to environmentally relevant minute concentrations of psychoactive pharmaceuticals through ineffectively purified drinking water. Previous studies in our lab examined the extent to which gene sets associated with neuronal development were up- and down-regulated (enriched) in the brains of fathead minnows treated with psychoactive pharmaceuticals at environmental concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine whether similar treatments would alter in vitro expression of ASD-associated synaptic proteins on differentiated human neuronal cells. Human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells were differentiated for two weeks with 10μM retinoic acid (RA) and treated with environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoxetine, carbamazepine or venlafaxine, and flow cytometry technique was used to analyze expression of ASD-associated synaptic proteins. Data showed that carbamazepine individually, venlafaxine individually and mixture treatment at environmental concentrations significantly altered the expression of key synaptic proteins (NMDAR1, PSD95, SV2A, HTR1B, HTR2C and OXTR). Data indicated that psychoactive pharmaceuticals at extremely low concentrations altered the in vitro expression of key synaptic proteins that may potentially contribute to neurological disorders like ASD by disrupting neuronal development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radon and thoron concentrations in offices and dwellings of the Gunma prefecture, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, M.; Tokonami, S.; Zhuo, W.

    2005-01-01

    A one year survey of indoor radon and thoron concentrations was carried out in offices and dwellings of the Gunma prefecture, Japan. A passive integrating radon and thoron discriminative monitor was used in the survey. The annual mean radon concentration was 22±14 Bq x m -3 , and ranged from 12 to 93 Bq x m -3 among the 56 surveyed rooms. Radon concentration in offices was generally higher than that in the dwellings, with the arithmetic averages of 29 and 17 Bq x m -3 , respectively. Radon concentrations were generally lower in the traditional Japanese wooden houses than those houses built with other building materials. Seasonal variation of indoor radon was also observed in this survey. Compared to summer and autumn, radon concentrations were generally higher in spring and winter. The mean value of thoron to radon ratio was estimated to be 1.3, higher values were observed in the dwellings than in the offices. The annual effective dose from the exposure to indoor radon was estimated to be 0.47 mSv after taking the occupancy factors of offices and dwellings into account. (author)

  8. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  9. Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yenchuan Kuo; Shuying Lai; Chingchung Huang; Yuming Lin

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226 Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226 Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226 Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226 Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq 1 -1 . The 226 Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg -1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg -1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226 Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 μSv. (author)

  10. Long-term decline of radiocesium concentration in seafood from the Ligurian Sea (Northern Italy) after Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallelli, Giovanni; Panatto, Donatella; Perdelli, Fernanda [Istituto di Igiene e Medicina Preventiva, Universitadi Genova, Genova (Italy); Pellegrino, Claudio [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte Liguria, Val d`Aosta (Italy)

    1997-02-28

    The activity of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 40}K in tissues from fish, mollusc and shellfish of the Ligurian sea was measured during 1987-1988. The mean annual concentrations in 1987 were 5.92{+-}4.1 Bq/kg (wet tissue) for {sup 137}Cs and 2.7{+-}1.5 Bq/kg for {sup 134}Cs and 2.46{+-}1.82 and 0.33{+-}0.57 Bq/kg respectively in 1988. The mean value of {sup 40}K activity was 138.6{+-}22.1 Bq/kg. Contamination was significantly higher in the littoral area up to 1000m from the coast (8.39{+-}7.6 and 1.74{+-}2.08 Bq/kg respectively versus 2.91{+-}1.87 and 0.58{+-}0.59 Bq/kg respectively in the open sea). The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) had the highest radioactivity values and could be utilized as an indicator of radioactivity pollution. There were no significant differences regarding the trophic level, the seafood phylum, or the east and west Ligurian sea areas. Long-term reduction in the sea habitat was estimated at about 200 days for {sup 137}Cs and 110 days for {sup 134}Cs, reflecting differences in the physical half-life of these radionuclides. These values were lower than those found in terrestrial foodstuff and could have reflected dilution of the contaminants in the open sea. The effective dose equivalent for the Ligurian population of radiocesium originating from seafood was estimated at 1.3 {mu}Sv in 1987 and 0.5 {mu}Sv in 1988. These values represent 0.8 and 0.3% respectively of the annual dose (180 {mu}Sv/year) due to {sup 40}K intake with the diet.

  11. Long-term decline of radiocesium concentration in seafood from the Ligurian Sea (Northern Italy) after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallelli, Giovanni; Panatto, Donatella; Perdelli, Fernanda; Pellegrino, Claudio

    1997-01-01

    The activity of 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 40 K in tissues from fish, mollusc and shellfish of the Ligurian sea was measured during 1987-1988. The mean annual concentrations in 1987 were 5.92±4.1 Bq/kg (wet tissue) for 137 Cs and 2.7±1.5 Bq/kg for 134 Cs and 2.46±1.82 and 0.33±0.57 Bq/kg respectively in 1988. The mean value of 40 K activity was 138.6±22.1 Bq/kg. Contamination was significantly higher in the littoral area up to 1000m from the coast (8.39±7.6 and 1.74±2.08 Bq/kg respectively versus 2.91±1.87 and 0.58±0.59 Bq/kg respectively in the open sea). The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) had the highest radioactivity values and could be utilized as an indicator of radioactivity pollution. There were no significant differences regarding the trophic level, the seafood phylum, or the east and west Ligurian sea areas. Long-term reduction in the sea habitat was estimated at about 200 days for 137 Cs and 110 days for 134 Cs, reflecting differences in the physical half-life of these radionuclides. These values were lower than those found in terrestrial foodstuff and could have reflected dilution of the contaminants in the open sea. The effective dose equivalent for the Ligurian population of radiocesium originating from seafood was estimated at 1.3 μSv in 1987 and 0.5 μSv in 1988. These values represent 0.8 and 0.3% respectively of the annual dose (180 μSv/year) due to 40 K intake with the diet

  12. Polonium-210 concentration of cigarettes traded in Cuba and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido Flores, O.; Montalvan Estrada, A.; Fabelo Bonet, O.; Barreras Caballero, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the pathways that might contribute significantly to the increase in the radiation dose reaching man, due to the relatively large concentrations of polonium-210 found in tobacco leaves. The results of 200 Po determination on the 11 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes and cigars which constitute over 75% of the total cigarette consumption in Cuba are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in cigarettes, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. 210 Po was determined by gas flow proportional detector after spontaneous deposition of 210 Po on a high copper-content disk. The annual committed equivalent dose for lungs and the annual effective dose for smokers between 12-17 years old and for adults were calculated on the basis of the 210 Po inhalation through cigarette smoke. The results showed concentration ranging from 9.3 to 14.4 mBq per cigarette with a mean value of 11.8 ± 0.6 mBq.Cig -1 . the results of this work indicate that Cuban smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 62 to 98 mBq.d -1 of 210 Po and smokers between 12-17 years old who consume 10 cigarettes daily inhale from 30-50 mBq.d -1 . The average committed equivalent dose for lungs is estimated to be 466 ± 36 and 780 ± 60 μSv.year -1 for young and adult smokers, respectively and annual committed effective dose is calculated to be 60 ± 5 and 100 ± 8 μSv for these two groups of smokers, respectively. (Author)

  13. Determination of the 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb concentrations in the mineral water springs from water parks of Cambuquira and Marimbeiro, Minas Gerais and assessment of the committed effective doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Laíssa A.B. dos; Damatto, Sandra R.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the importance of human life, water quality must be controlled and a very important parameter are the limits of the natural radioactivity of the water consumed. In relation to therapeutic practices based on water intake the radionuclides 210 Pb, 226 Ra and 228 Ra when present, are of great importance because they contribute to the internal irradiation of individuals.The study areas of the present work were the Parque das águas of Cambuquira and Marimbeiro, located in Minas Gerais. Hence, the objective of this work was to determine the 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb concentrations in the springs of these parks and evaluate the committed effective doses due to its consumption.The radionuclides were determined by a radiochemical procedure in four collections at different seasons of the year. The Concentrations ranged from 4 ± 1 mBq / L to 509 ± 32 mBq / L for 226 Ra, from 3.7 ± 0.1 mBq / L to 631 ± 27 mBq / L for 228 Ra and 5 ± 1 mBq / L to 60 ± 5 mBq / L for 210 Pb. The dose for adults from 1.21 x 10 -01 mSv/y for 226 Ra, 3.18 x 10 -01 mSv/y for 228 Ra and for 210 Pb 3.02 x 10 -02 mSv/y. (author)

  14. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  15. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like

  16. Determination of radon activity concentration in drinking water and evaluation of the annual effective dose in Hassan district, Karnataka state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasa, E.; Rangaswamy, D.R.; Sannappa, J.

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been determined in 27 drinking water samples of Hassan district and was estimated by using emanometry technique and physicochemical parameters were estimated using standard techniques. The 222 Rn concentrations in water are varying from 0.85 ± 0.2 to 60.74 ± 2.5 Bq l -1 with an average value of 26.5 ± 1.65 Bq l -1 . This study reveals that 66 % of the drinking water samples have radon concentration level in excess of the EPA recommended maximum contamination level of 11.1 Bq l -1 . There is no significant correlation noted between radon concentration and physicochemical parameters. The mean annual effective ingestion doses received from all samples are lower than 0.1 mSv y -1 . (author)

  17. Measurement of the radioactive concentration in consumer's goods containing natural uranium and thorium and evaluation of the exposure by their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Satou, Shigerou; Ohhata, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Ohyama, Ryutaro; Furuya, Hirotaka; Endou, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A number of consumer's goods which contain natural uranium and thorium are circulated in the familiar living environment. Based on various kinds of information sources, 20 kinds of these consumer's goods were collected and their radioactive concentrations were measured by using ICP-MS and Ge semiconductor detector. As this result, it was found that the concentrations of uranium and thorium in the consumer's goods used at home and industries were below 34 Bq/g and below 270 Bq/g, respectively. Next, the concentrations of daughter nuclides were not so different from the ones of uranium or thorium, which showed that the secular radioactive equilibrium held between both concentrations. In addition, the radiation exposures for public consumer were evaluated when four kinds of typical consumer's goods frequently used in daily life are utilized. The results computed by MCNP-4C code were below 250 μSv/y. (author)

  18. Dose assessment from exposure to radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the dwellings of sub-mountainous region of Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, M.; Dr. B. R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab; Kumar, A.; Mehra, R.; Mishra, R.

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with the assessment of annual inhalation dose due to exposure of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations in the villages situated in sub-mountainous region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The distribution of the data and the homogeneity of medians among different seasons and dwellings were assessed with the Shapiro-Wilk test and the Mann-Whitney test. The estimated total annual inhalation dose in these villages varied from 0.5 to 1.9 mSv year -1 which is less than the prescribed limit by ICRP (2008). Thus, the investigated area is safe from irradiation of radon, thoron and their progeny. (author)

  19. Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment in surface soil samples from east and south of Marmara region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Onder; Belivermis, Murat; Topçuoğlu, Sayhan; Cotuk, Yavuz; Coşkun, Mahmut; Cayir, Akin; Küçer, Rahmi

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were measured in surface soil samples from East and South of Marmara region, Turkey. The physico-chemical parameters (organic matter, CaCO3 contents and pH-value) of the soil samples were determined in the samples collected from 100 sampling stations. The average activity concentrations of 137Cs, 40K, 232Th, 238U and 226Ra were found to be 27.46+/-21.84, 442.51+/-189.85, 26.63+/-15.90, 21.77+/-12.08 and 22.45+/-13.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The mean value of total annual external gamma radiation dose equivalent for the natural radionuclides was calculated to be 54.86 microSv. The current data were compared with those found in the other locations of Turkey and different countries.

  20. Concentrating on caustic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Full text: First there was the Beer Battery, which aimed to generate electricity from brewery wastewater using a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Trials at Foster's Yatala brewery in Queensland in 2007 ran into challenges around the cost of electricity and duration of treatment, but they also revealed a new possibility. Komeel Rabaey, a University of Queensland specialist in microbial dynamics with a particular passion for bioelectrochemical systems, recognised the potential to extract sodium hydroxide - caustic soda - out of wastewater in a form suitable for reuse. In 2008 he converted such a system into a lab-scale caustic recovery plant, then upsized it to a one litre test reactor, which is again running at the Yatala brewery. The concept flips wastewater treatment on its head, seeing the discharge as a resource to be harvested rather than a cost and a contaminant load to be managed. “We typically aim to make a concentration of about four per cent caustic. That is what is easily achievable with the system and you will also note a lot of industries use caustic at four per cent,” said Dr Rabaey. “So you can use the wastewater from the plant to drive caustic production, with the extra advantage of removing enormous amounts of sodium.” Sodium hydroxide is a ubiquitous industrial compound used in pH regulation, as a cleaning agent in clean-in-place systems and variously in pulp and paper, textiles and food processing. Dr Rabaey wants to close the loop on caustic. Industries along the Murray-Darling basin, for example, truck in a lot of it from outside the area and then discharge it with their wastewater into the salt-sensitive river system. “If you use a bioelectrochemical system to recover the sodium hydroxide, you are not even importing the sodium into the area but recycling the sodium the whole time on-site,” he told WME. Get the technology right and he reckons a three-year payback on investment is readily achievable. A microbial fuel cell oxidises organics

  1. Analysis of radon concentrations in drinking water in Erbil governorate (Iraqi Kurdistan) and its health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, Asaad H.; Haji, Salih O.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents the results of radon level in drinking water in Erbil governorate and its districts. The measurements were carried out on 42 samples (tap water) of 21 major areas, and alpha track detectors (type Cr-39) were used for the estimations. The average values for radon concentration of tap water were variable from the district to another, and it was found to be (4.693±2.213 Bq/L) with a maximum of 9.61 Bq/L in Hugran region and minimum of 2.01 Bq/L in Haji-Omaran city. In addition, the average annual effective doses, and equilibrium factor between radon and its daughter were measured in each area and it was found to be (11.546±8.566 μSv/Yr) and (0.204±0.06) respectively. On the other hand, this paper presents an evaluation of the inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon and also the contribution of radon concentration in drinking water to indoor radon concentration was estimated. When the results were compared with the internationally recommended reference levels (U.S Environmental Protection Agency limit 11.1 Bq/l), there were no indications of existence of radon problems in the water sources in this survey. Therefore the drinking water in Erbil governorate is safe as far as radon concentration is concerned. (author)

  2. 210Po and 210Pb concentration in drinking water of Bangalore and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiva Prasad, N.G.; Nagaiah, N.; Ashok, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    Drinking water samples collected from different locations of Bangalore and its surrounding area were analysed for the activity concentrations of 210 Po and 210 Pb by employing radiochemical analysis. The measure concentration of 210 Po varies from 0.46 to 36.46 mBq L -1 with a mean of 6.17 mBq L -1 and that of 210 Pb ranges from 1.19 to 56.95 mBq L -1 with a mean of 13.98 mBq L -1 . The activity concentrations of these radionuclides were found to be low at the place Kambasandra and high at Kalkere. The range and the mean value obtained in the present study are well within the guidance value of 100 mBq L -1 as prescribed by World Health Organization. From the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the annual effective dose was calculated for different age groups: for babies (age below 1 y), children (age from 2 to 7 y) and adults (age from 17 y and above) using IAEA dose conversion factors and the prescribed water consumption rates. The total dose received is very much less than the ICRP recommended value of 1000 μ Sv y -1 for all age groups. (author)

  3. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of solid pulmonary nodules in chest x-ray equivalent ultralow dose chest CT - first in-vivo results at dose levels of 0.13 mSv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerli, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Messerli@usz.ch [Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Kluckert, Thomas; Knitel, Meinhard [Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Rengier, Fabian [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany); Warschkow, René [Department of Surgery, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, University Zurich (Switzerland); Leschka, Sebastian [Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen (Switzerland); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, University Zurich (Switzerland); Wildermuth, Simon; Bauer, Ralf W. [Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Computer-aided detection (CAD) of solid pulmonary nodules was compared in 202 patients in standard dose and ultralow dose CT. • The per–nodule sensitivity of CAD was 70% in standard dose CT and 68% in ultralow dose CT. • The per–nodule sensitivity of CAD in standard dose CT was similar to ultralow dose CT in all size subgroups (all p > 0.05). • Adding CAD markings in ultralow dose CT significantly improved the sensitivity of two radiologists from 77% to 88% and from 66% to 79%, respectively. • CAD can serve as an excellent second reader for nodule detection in CT even at dose levels similar to chest X-ray. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine the value of computer-aided detection (CAD) for solid pulmonary nodules in ultralow radiation dose single-energy computed tomography (CT) of the chest using third-generation dual-source CT at 100 kV and fixed tube current at 70 mAs with tin filtration. Methods: 202 consecutive patients undergoing clinically indicated standard dose chest CT (1.8 ± 0.7 mSv) were prospectively included and scanned with an additional ultralow dose CT (0.13 ± 0.01 mSv) in the same session. Standard of reference (SOR) was established by consensus reading of standard dose CT by two radiologists. CAD was performed in standard dose and ultralow dose CT with two different reconstruction kernels. CAD detection rate of nodules was evaluated including subgroups of different nodule sizes (<5, 5–7, >7 mm). Sensitivity was further analysed in multivariable mixed effects logistic regression. Results: The SOR included 279 solid nodules (mean diameter 4.3 ± 3.4 mm, range 1–24 mm). There was no significant difference in per–nodule sensitivity of CAD in standard dose with 70% compared to 68% in ultralow dose CT both overall and in different size subgroups (all p > 0.05). CAD led to a significant increase of sensitivity for both radiologists reading the ultralow dose CT scans (all p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, the use

  4. Guidance on the Use of Hand-Held Survey Meters for radiological Triage: Time-Dependent Detector Count Rates Corresponding to 50, 250, and 500 mSv Effective Dose for Adult Males and Adult Females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, W.E.; Hurtado, J.L.; Lee, C.; Manger, Ryan P.; Hertel, Nolan; Burgett, E.; Dickerson, W.

    2012-01-01

    In June 2006, the Radiation Studies Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a workshop to explore rapid methods of facilitating radiological triage of large numbers of potentially contaminated individuals following detonation of a radiological dispersal device. Two options were discussed. The first was the use of traditional gamma cameras in nuclear medicine departments operated as makeshift wholebody counters. Guidance on this approach is currently available from the CDC. This approach would be feasible if a manageable number of individuals were involved, transportation to the relevant hospitals was quickly provided, and the medical staff at each facility had been previously trained in this non-traditional use of their radiopharmaceutical imaging devices. If, however, substantially larger numbers of individuals (100 s to 1,000 s) needed radiological screening, other options must be given to first responders, first receivers, and health physicists providing medical management. In this study, the second option of the workshop was investigated by the use of commercially available portable survey meters (either NaI or GM based) for assessing potential ranges of effective dose (G50, 50Y250, 250Y500, and 9500 mSv). Two hybrid computational phantoms were used to model an adult male and an adult female subject internally contaminated with 241Am, 60Cs, 137Cs, 131I, or 192Ir following an acute inhalation or ingestion intake. As a function of time following the exposure, the net count rates corresponding to committed effective doses of 50, 250, and 500 mSv were estimated via Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation for each of four different detector types, positions, and screening distances. Measured net count rates can be compared to these values, and an assignment of one of four possible effective dose ranges could be made. The method implicitly assumes that all external contamination has been removed prior to screening and that the measurements be

  5. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of solid pulmonary nodules in chest x-ray equivalent ultralow dose chest CT - first in-vivo results at dose levels of 0.13 mSv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerli, Michael; Kluckert, Thomas; Knitel, Meinhard; Rengier, Fabian; Warschkow, René; Alkadhi, Hatem; Leschka, Sebastian; Wildermuth, Simon; Bauer, Ralf W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Computer-aided detection (CAD) of solid pulmonary nodules was compared in 202 patients in standard dose and ultralow dose CT. • The per–nodule sensitivity of CAD was 70% in standard dose CT and 68% in ultralow dose CT. • The per–nodule sensitivity of CAD in standard dose CT was similar to ultralow dose CT in all size subgroups (all p > 0.05). • Adding CAD markings in ultralow dose CT significantly improved the sensitivity of two radiologists from 77% to 88% and from 66% to 79%, respectively. • CAD can serve as an excellent second reader for nodule detection in CT even at dose levels similar to chest X-ray. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine the value of computer-aided detection (CAD) for solid pulmonary nodules in ultralow radiation dose single-energy computed tomography (CT) of the chest using third-generation dual-source CT at 100 kV and fixed tube current at 70 mAs with tin filtration. Methods: 202 consecutive patients undergoing clinically indicated standard dose chest CT (1.8 ± 0.7 mSv) were prospectively included and scanned with an additional ultralow dose CT (0.13 ± 0.01 mSv) in the same session. Standard of reference (SOR) was established by consensus reading of standard dose CT by two radiologists. CAD was performed in standard dose and ultralow dose CT with two different reconstruction kernels. CAD detection rate of nodules was evaluated including subgroups of different nodule sizes (<5, 5–7, >7 mm). Sensitivity was further analysed in multivariable mixed effects logistic regression. Results: The SOR included 279 solid nodules (mean diameter 4.3 ± 3.4 mm, range 1–24 mm). There was no significant difference in per–nodule sensitivity of CAD in standard dose with 70% compared to 68% in ultralow dose CT both overall and in different size subgroups (all p > 0.05). CAD led to a significant increase of sensitivity for both radiologists reading the ultralow dose CT scans (all p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, the use

  6. Assessment of indoor radon, thoron concentrations, and their relationship with seasonal variation and geology of Udhampur district, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Sharma, Sumit; Mehra, Rohit; Narang, Saurabh; Mishra, Rosaline

    2017-07-01

    Background The inhalation doses resulting from the exposure to radon, thoron, and their progeny are important quantities in estimating the radiation risk for epidemiological studies as the average global annual effective dose due to radon and its progeny is 1.3 mSv as compared to that of 2.4 mSv due to all other natural sources of ionizing radiation. Objectives The annual inhalation dose has been assessed with an aim of investigating the health risk to the inhabitants of the studied region. Methods Time integrated deposition based 222 Rn/ 220 Rn sensors have been used to measure concentrations in 146 dwellings of Udhampur district, Jammu and Kashmir. An active smart RnDuo monitor has also been used for comparison purposes. Results The range of indoor radon/thoron concentrations is found to vary from 11 to 58 Bqm -3 with an average value of 29 ± 9 Bqm -3 and from 25 to 185 Bqm -3 with an average value of 83 ± 32 Bqm -3 , respectively. About 10.7% dwellings have higher values than world average of 40 Bqm -3 prescribed by UNSCEAR. The relationship of indoor radon and thoron levels with different seasons, ventilation conditions, and different geological formations have been discussed. Conclusions The observed values of concentrations and average annual effective dose due to radon, thoron, and its progeny in the study area have been found to be below the recommended level of ICRP. The observed concentrations of 222 Rn and 220 Rn measured with active and passive techniques are found to be in good agreement.

  7. Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Requirements for the protection of people from the harmful consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation, for the safety of radiation sources and for the protection of the environment are established in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 3, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. GSR Part 3 requires that the regulatory body or other relevant authority establish specific reference levels for exposure due to radionuclides in commodities, including food and drinking water. The reference level is based on an annual effective dose to the representative person that generally does not exceed a value of about 1 mSv. International standards have been developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Codex Alimentarius Commission for levels of radionuclides contained in food traded internationally that contains, or could potentially contain, radioactive substances as a consequence of a nuclear or radiological emergency. International standards have also been developed by the WHO for radionuclides contained in drinking water, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. These international standards provide guidance and criteria in terms of levels of individual radiation dose, levels of activity concentration of specific radionuclides, or both. The criteria derived in terms of levels of activity concentration in the various international standards differ owing to a number of factors and assumptions underlying the common objective of protecting public health in different circumstances. This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and

  8. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0-5 cm depth). The highest average (134+137)Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g(-1) of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g(-1) of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h(-1), and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout (137)Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most (137)Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb concentration of cigarettes traded in Hungary and their estimated dose contribution due to smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, Tibor [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary)], E-mail: kt@almos.vein.hu; Somlai, Janos [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary); Nagy, Katalin [Department of Rheumatology, Markhot F. Heves County Hospital, Szechenyi ut 27, H-3300 Eger (Hungary); Szeiler, Gabor [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Pannonia, P.O. Box 158, H-8201 Veszprem (Hungary)

    2007-11-15

    It is known that tobacco leaves may contain {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po in significant concentrations. The cumulative alpha-radiation dose due to the radioactive content of inhaled cigarette smoke and the increasing number of lung cancer cases explain the importance of the investigation. The present study investigated the activity concentrations of these two radionuclides in 29 Hungarian cigarette samples. The relation between {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity and nicotine/tar content of these cigarettes was also examined. {sup 210}Po was determined by alpha spectrometry using a PIPS detector after chemical leaching and spontaneous deposition of {sup 210}Po on a high nickel-content (25%) stainless steel disk. The {sup 210}Pb activity was calculated from the {sup 210}Po originated from the decay of {sup 210}Pb after a waiting period of eight months. The {sup 210}Po activity concentrations of the measured types of cigarettes ranged from 10.0 to 33.5 mBq/cigarette, and the activity of {sup 210}Pb varied from 9.6 to 32.5 mBq/cigarette. The average annual committed effective dose is estimated to be 185.6{+-}70.6{mu}Sv/y and 58.7{+-}22.7{mu}Sv/y due to cigarette smoking (20 cigarettes/day) for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb, respectively.

  10. [Ozone concentration distribution of urban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-quan; Li, Chang-mei; Ma, Gui-xia; Cui, Zhao-jie

    2004-11-01

    The increase of ozone concentration in urban is one of the most important research topics on environmental science. With the increase of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen-carbon compounds which are exhausted from cars, the ozone concentration in urban is obviously increased on sunlight, and threat of photochemistry smog will be possible. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and study the ozone concentration distribution in urban. The frequency-distribution, diurnal variation and monthly variation of ozone concentration were studied on the campus of Shandong University during six months monitoring. The influence of solar radiation and weather conditions on ozone concentration were discussed. The frequency of ozone concentration less than 200 microg/m3 is 96.88%. The ozone concentration has an obvious diurnal variation. The ozone concentration in the afternoon is higher than in the morning and in the evening. The maximum appears in June, when it is the strong solar radiation and high air-temperature. The weather conditions also influence the ozone concentration. The ozone concentration in clear day is higher than in rainy and cloudy day.

  11. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  12. Optical assessment of nonimaging concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timinger, A; Kribus, A; Ries, H; Smith, T; Walther, M

    2000-11-01

    An optical measurement method for nonimaging radiation concentrators is proposed. A Lambertian light source is placed in the exit aperture of the concentrator. Looking into the concentrator's entrance aperture from a remote position, one can photograph the transmission patterns. The patterns show the transmission of radiation through the concentrator with the full resolution of the four-dimensional phase space of geometric optics. By matching ray-tracing simulations to the measurement, one can achieve detailed and accurate information about the geometry of the concentrator. This is a remote, noncontact measurement and can be performed in situ for installed concentrators. Additional information regarding small-scale reflector waviness and surface reflectivity can also be obtained from the same measurement with additional analysis.

  13. Maximum Permissible Concentrations and Negligible Concentrations for pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommentuijn T; Kalf DF; Polder MD; Posthumus R; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1997-01-01

    Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) and Negligible Concentrations (NCs) derived for a series of pesticides are presented in this report. These MPCs and NCs are used by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) to set Environmental Quality Objectives. For some of the

  14. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  15. Antibiotic concentrations in intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmborg, A S

    1985-01-01

    The concentrations in the intestinal mucosa after the initial dose of cefoxitin, piperacillin and clindamycin have been studied. The antibiotics were given at the induction of anesthesia as prophylaxis to patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The concentrations of the antibiotics in serum and intestinal mucosa taken during the operation were determined by the microbiological agar diffusion method. Therapeutic concentrations in intestinal mucosa were maintained during the major part of the operation period. The mean mucosa/serum concentration ratios were for cefoxitin 0.4, for piperacillin 0.5 and for clindamycin 1.2.

  16. Radiological assessment of water treatment processes in a water treatment plant in Saudi Arabia: Water and sludge radium content, radon air concentrations and dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaseem, Q Kh; Almasoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M; Al-Hobaib, A S

    2016-09-01

    There is an increase demand for clean water sources in Saudi Arabia and, yet, renewable water resources are very limited. This has forced the authorities to explore deep groundwater which is known to contain large concentrations of radionuclides, mainly radium isotopes. Lately, there has been an increase in the number of water treatment plants (WTPs) around the country. In this study, a radiological assessment of a WTP in Saudi Arabia was performed. Raw water was found to have total radium activity of 0.23Bq/L, which exceeds the international limit of 0.185Bq/L (5pCi/L). The WTP investigated uses three stages of treatment: flocculation/sedimentation, sand filtration and reverse osmosis. The radium removal efficiency was evaluated for each stage and the respective values were 33%, 22% and 98%. Moreover, the activity of radium in the solid waste generated from the WTP in the sedimentation and sand filtrations stages were measured and found to be 4490 and 6750Bq/kg, respectively, which exceed the national limit of 1000Bq/kg for radioactive waste. A radiological assessment of the air inside the WTP was also performed by measuring the radon concentrations and dose rates and were found in the ranges of 2-18Bq/m(3) and 70-1000nSv/h, respectively. The annual effective dose was calculated and the average values was found to be 0.3mSv which is below the 1mSv limit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Using Light-Weight Concrete on Indoor Radon Concentration in High-Rise Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Koo, S.Y

    1999-07-01

    Light-weight concrete (LWC) (or drywall construction) has been used for partition walls in public housing in Hong Kong for about 10 years. A previous laboratory investigation showed that all types of LWC had considerably smaller Rn exhalation rates than those from normal concrete (NC), and could thus theoretically reduce the indoor Rn concentrations and the corresponding radiation dose from Rn. In the present investigation, a survey of Rn exhalation rates and indoor Rn concentrations at 39 dwelling sites built using LWC were carried out using charcoal canisters and {gamma}-spectroscopy. The mean Rn exhalation rate and the mean Rn concentration were around 1.6 mBq.s{sup -1}.m{sup -2} and 19 Bq.m{sup -3}, respectively, which were significantly smaller thanthe corresponding values of 12 mBq.s{sup -1}.m{sup -2} and 33 Bq.m{sup -3} for NC sites. The statistical t-test showed that both the mean Rn exhalation rate and the mean Rn concentration for NC and LWC sites walls were different at the 100% confidence level. The Rn exhalation rate from an LWC surface was, on average, only about 14% of that from an NC surface, while the Rn concentration in an LWC site was, on average, about 58% of that in an NC site, which were significant. A person living at an LWC site receives an average annual equivalent dose smaller than one living at an NC site by an amount as large as 1 mSv. Therefore, the use of LWC for partition walls can be a simple and economical way to reduce the indoor Rn concentrations and the corresponding radiation dose from Rn. Furthermore, the mean Rn concentration theoretically predicted from the mean Rn exhalation rate agreed excellently with that from measurements. (author)

  18. High annual radon concentration in dwellings and natural radioactivity content in nearby soil in some rural areas of Kosovo and Metohija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulan Ljiljana R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some previous studies on radon concentration in dwellings of some areas of Kosovo and Metohija have revealed a high average radon concentration, even though the detectors were exposed for three months only. In order to better design a larger study in this region, the annual measurements in 25 houses were carried out as a pilot study. For each house, CR-39-based passive devices were exposed in two rooms for the two consecutive six-month periods to account for seasonal variations of radon concentration. Furthermore, in order to correlate the indoor radon with radium in nearby soil and to improve the knowledge of the natural radioactivity in the region, soil samples near each house were collected and 226Ra, 232Th, 40K activity concentration were measured. The indoor radon concentration resulted quite high from the average (163 Bq/m3 and generally it did not differ considerably between the two rooms and the two six-month periods. The natural radionuclides in soil resulted to be distributed quite uniformly. Moreover, the correlation between the226Ra content in soil and radon concentration in dwellings resulted to be low (R2=0.26. The annual effective dose from radon and its short-lived progeny (5.5 mSv, in average was calculated by using the last ICRP dose conversion factors. In comparison, the contribution to the annual effective dose of outdoor gamma exposure from natural radionuclides in soil is nearly negligible (66 mSv. In conclusion, the observed high radon levels are only partially correlated with radium in soil; moreover, a good estimate of the annual average of radon concentration can be obtained from a six-month measurement with a proper choice of exposure period, which could be useful when designing large surveys.

  19. Světový trh kakaa

    OpenAIRE

    Voglová, Karolína

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the global cocoa market. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the global cocoa market and indentify the future prospects of this market. The first chapter deals with the general charakteristics of this commodity, i.e. the history of cocoa growing, types of cocoa, cocoa cultivation and cocoa producing areas, and it is processed by using the methods of synthesis and comparison. Another chapter is the analysis of the global cocoa market, which presents the greates...

  20. Så faldt Damokles-sværdet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    En i udlandet stærkt kritiseret russisk lov om registrering af NGOer, herunder selvangivelse som "udenlandske agent" hvis man modtager støtte fra udlandet, er nu sat i fuld gang, trods kritik bl.a. af den tyske kansler Angela Merkel...

  1. Svær asthma bronchiale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Anna; Backer, Vibeke; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Severe asthma is defined by persistent symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite intensive asthma therapy. The prevalence is estimated to be 5-10% of all asthmatics. Severe asthma is responsible for a major burden of illness including low quality of life and a disproportionate use of health......-care resources. The clinical assessment of severe asthma must include verification of the correct diagnosis, adherence to medication, excluding differential diagnosis and identification and treatment of aggravating co-morbidities and trigger factors....

  2. Decontamination of concentrated medium level radioactive wastes by a chromatographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubel, W.; Mehret, R.; Menzler, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The technical feasibility of partitioning concentrated nitric acid intermediate-level waste (ILWC) solutions from the Purex process into a small volume of high-level waste and a large volume of low-level waste using sorption methods is demonstrated for 1-l and 11-l batches. Cesium-134 and 137 are selectively separated with a decontamination factor (DF) > 1 x 10 5 in a newly developed suspended-bed column filled with the microporous inorganic exchanger ammonium molybdophosphate. The 125 Sb and the actinides and lanthanides (3 +) are retained with DFs between 40 and 1000 on metal oxides of Sb and Mn and on an extraction column containing n-octyl (phenyl)N,N-disobutyl carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide, respectively. Ruthenium-106 and 60 Co are removed in a column loaded with dimethyl glyoxime and have DFs > 20. The amount of secondary wastes arising from absorber materials was estimated on the basis of 1 l experiments to be 300 kg for a 350 t/yr reprocessing plant with an ILWC volume of about 0.5 m 3 /t of heavy metal. One of the main goals was to check out the influence of a scaling up from laboratory scale to pilot plant operations. The hydraulic behaviour of the apparatus was tested for 1, 20, and 100 liters of solutions. The second important aim was to reach a decontamination of the ILWC, sufficient to meet the requirements of regulations limiting the dose to 2 mSv/h at a 1-m distance, calculations with the PROMAX program, for cementing the LLW effluent into 400-l drums at a 10 wt% loading, lead to a value of about 100 μSv/h; thus, this waste can be handled without any shielding. The secondary waste can be treated individually

  3. School concentration and school travel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the research as described in this Doctor’s thesis is twofold. Firstly it is to define in how far Dutch facilities for primary and secondary education were subjected to spatial concentration during recent decades. Secondly it is intended to assess what this concentration implied for

  4. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Kim, Wonjung; Holbrook, N. Michele; Bush, John W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of material. While the most concentrated solutions offer the greatest potential in terms of material transfer, impedance typically increases with concentration, thus making them the most difficult to transport. We develop a general framework for describing systems for which impedance increases with concentration, and consider material flow in four different natural systems: blood flow in vertebrates, sugar transport in vascular plants and two modes of nectar drinking in birds and insects. The model provides a simple method for determining the optimum concentration copt in these systems. The model further suggests that the impedance at the optimum concentration μopt may be expressed in terms of the impedance of the pure (c = 0) carrier medium μ0 as μopt∼2αμ0, where the power α is prescribed by the specific flow constraints, for example constant pressure for blood flow (α = 1) or constant work rate for certain nectar-drinking insects (α = 6). Comparing the model predictions with experimental data from more than 100 animal and plant species, we find that the simple model rationalizes the observed concentrations and impedances. The model provides a universal framework for studying flows impeded by concentration, and yields insight into optimization in engineered systems, such as traffic flow. PMID:23594815

  5. Micro-evaporation electrolyte concentrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.H.; van Delft, K.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of miniaturized chemical analysis systems depends most of the time on the obtainable detection limit. Concentrating the analyte prior to the detection system can enhance the detection limit. In this writing an analyte concentrator is presented that makes use of evaporation to

  6. Radon concentration in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, R.J. de; Put, L.W.; Veldhuizen, A.

    1986-02-01

    In 1000 dwellings, which can be assumed to be an reasonable representation of the average Dutch dwellings, time averaged radon concentrations, radon daughter concentrations and gamma-exposure tempi are determined during a year with passive dosemeters. They are also determined outdoor at circa 200 measure points. (Auth.)

  7. Ion climate and radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busbarna, L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristic values of radon concentration in natural ion climate and in open air were compared and the effect of artificially produced negative ion excess on the radon concentration of air was studied. The results show that the radon concentration measurable at the rise of negative ion excess is smaller than that in the case of natural equilibrium. This effect can be utilized lowering the background of the scintillation chambers, thus increasing their sensitivity. The negative ions of the artificial ion climate lower radon concentration in closed space. The question arises whether only the ion climate is responsible for the effects on the organism and on the nervous system or the radon concentration of the air also contributes to them. (author)

  8. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  9. Ideal flux field dielectric concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Botella, Angel

    2011-10-01

    The concept of the vector flux field was first introduced as a photometrical theory and later developed in the field of nonimaging optics; it has provided new perspectives in the design of concentrators, overcoming standard ray tracing techniques. The flux field method has shown that reflective concentrators with the geometry of the field lines achieve the theoretical limit of concentration. In this paper we study the role of surfaces orthogonal to the field vector J. For rotationally symmetric systems J is orthogonal to its curl, and then a family of surfaces orthogonal to the lines of J exists, which can be called the family of surfaces of constant pseudopotential. Using the concept of the flux tube, it is possible to demonstrate that refractive concentrators with the shape of these pseudopotential surfaces achieve the theoretical limit of concentration.

  10. Measurement of the radon concentration in an underground public facility and dose assessment. Fukuoka Tenjin Shopping Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narazaki, Yukinori; Tokonami, Shinji; Sanada, Tetsuya; Kanno, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured with a passive radon detector from April 1998 through June 1999 in the Fukuoka Tenjin Underground Shopping Center to assess the dose affecting workers because of radon progeny inhalation. The radon concentration during the period was distributed from a range of 1.9 to 13.6 Bq/m 3 . The arithmetic average concentration was estimated to be 6.9±2.4 Bq/ 3 . The radon level was lower than that in dwellings in Japan and other countries. No spatial distribution of radon concentration was found in that area. From continuous measurement, the radon concentration was found to be high from midnight to noon and low in the afternoon. Little difference was noted between the daily average radon concentration and that during working hours. There was no seasonal variation. The equilibrium factor of 0.21±0.10 was obtained during working hours. The activity-weighted size distribution of radon progeny was evaluated by using the number distribution of ambient aerosols and the classical attachment theory. Consequently, the activity median diameter was 150 nm. The unattached fraction of radon progeny was estimated to be 0.025 with an empirical equation. The annual effective dose of workers at the Tenjin center was calculated with the dose conversion factor from the UNSCEAR 1993 report and estimated to be 0.024 mSv/y. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation and radon concentration levels at the radioactive waste repositories 'Richard' and 'Bratrstvi'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Sabol, J.; Janu, M.

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the fact that cosmic rays are shielded off, the photon equivalent dose rates in the corridors of the Richard repository are usually slightly lower than outside. However, in points close to barrels containing radioactive waste, the dose rates can reach values as high as tens of μSv/h. Because of high concentrations of natural radionuclides, the dose rates in the Bratrstvi repository is generally considerably higher, as much as 5 times the normal background value. Radon concentrations exhibit specific time variations which are modified by ventilation. Where ventilation is poor or absent, the radon concentrations are extremely high, viz. up to 30 and 300 kBq/m 3 in the Richard and Bratrstvi repositories, respectively. Personal exposure of workers depend on the total time spent underground and on the ventilation rate. While the contribution from photons can be kept below the relevant limits, the radon-related doses may be significant and even exceed the professional limits if no precautions are taken. (P.A.)

  12. Analysis of radon concentration in drinking water in Baoji (China) and the associated health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinwei, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radon concentration measurements in drinking water from the municipal water supply system and private wells located in Baoji (China)). The measurements were carried out on 69 samples. The mean values of tap water and well water were found to be 12 kBq m -3 with a maximum of 18 kBq m -3 and 41 kBq m -3 with a maximum of 127 kBq m -3 , respectively. The well water samples obtained from different depth-well (water-bearing levels), i.e. shallow well (well depth under 10 m) water, middle well (well depth 10-30 m) water and deep well water, have respective mean values of 24, 34 and 56 kBq m -3 . The contributions of the observed radon concentration in drinking water to indoor radon account for 2.8-13.2% of the mean value of Shaanxi indoor radon concentration and the effective dose to the dweller owing to inhalation of radon emanating from household water is 0.03-0.14 mSv y -1 . (authors)

  13. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  14. Determination of enrichment processes and radon concentration in underground mines of fluorite and coal in Santa Catarina state: criteria for radiation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos

    2008-01-01

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentration of radon not greater than 500 Bq/m 3 in the environment of underground mines is considered to be acceptable internationally and concentrations above 1500 Bq/m 3 require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of this research work are to determine the enrichment processes and the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consists in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. Contents of radium in collected samples of rocks, minerals and underground water were determined and compared with the corresponding radon concentration found in the underground air. It was observed that the coal mines showed low concentrations of radon, which can be explained by the low concentration of radium in rocks (sandstones and siltites in the foot wall and hang wall) and in the coal that composes the mining environment or, yet still, due to the good ventilation system. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public, and corresponding to a risk of fatal cancer after 50 years of work under this condition of 0.2%. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m 3 . The inefficiency of the ventilation

  15. Determination of enrichment processes and the concentrations of radon in underground mines of fluorite and coal in Santa Catarina state: criteria for evaluation of radiological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos

    2008-01-01

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendent in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentration of radon not greater than 500 Bq/m3 in the environment of underground mines is considered to be acceptable internationally and concentrations above 1500 Bq/m3 require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of this research work are to determine the enrichment processes and the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consists in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. Contents of radium in collected samples of rocks, minerals and underground water were determined and compared with the corresponding radon concentration found in the underground air. It was observed that the coal mines showed low concentrations of radon, which can be explained by the low concentration of radium in rocks (sandstones and siltites in the footwall and hang wall) and in the coal that composes the mining environment or, yet still, due to the good ventilation system. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public, and corresponding to a risk of fatal cancer after 50 years of work under this condition of 0.2%. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m3. The inefficiency of the ventilation system

  16. Tank waste concentration mechanism study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Johnson, L.J.

    1994-09-01

    This study determines whether the existing 242-A Evaporator should continue to be used to concentrate the Hanford Site radioactive liquid tank wastes or be replaced by an alternative waste concentration process. Using the same philosophy, the study also determines what the waste concentration mechanism should be for the future TWRS program. Excess water from liquid DST waste should be removed to reduce the volume of waste feed for pretreatment, immobilization, and to free up storage capacity in existing tanks to support interim stabilization of SSTS, terminal cleanout of excess facilities, and other site remediation activities

  17. Evaluation of a C57BL/6J × 129S1/SvImJ Hybrid Nestin-Thymidine Kinase Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying the Functional Significance of Exercise-Induced Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, G F; Majdak, P; Miller, D S; Bucko, P J; Merritt, J R; Krebs, C P; Rhodes, J S

    2015-01-01

    New neurons are continuously generated in the adult hippocampus but their function remains a mystery. The nestin thymidine kinase (nestin-TK) transgenic method has been used for selective and conditional reduction of neurogenesis for the purpose of testing the functional significance of new neurons in learning, memory and motor performance. Here we explored the nestin-TK model on a hybrid genetic background (to increase heterozygosity, and "hybrid vigor"). Transgenic C57BL/6J (B6) were crossed with 129S1/SvImJ (129) producing hybrid offspring (F1) with the B6 half of the genome carrying a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) transgene regulated by a modified nestin promoter. In the presence of exogenously administered valganciclovir, new neurons expressing TK undergo apoptosis. Female B6 nestin-TK mice ( n = 80) were evaluated for neurogenesis reduction as a positive control. Male and female F1 nestin-TK mice ( n = 223) were used to determine the impact of neurogenesis reduction on the Morris water maze (MWM) and rotarod. All mice received BrdU injections to label dividing cells and either valganciclovir or control chow, with or without a running wheel for 30 days. Both the F1 and B6 background displayed approximately 50% reduction in neurogenesis, a difference that did not impair learning and memory on the MWM or rotarod performance. Running enhanced neurogenesis and performance on the rotarod but not MWM suggesting the F1 background may not be suitable for studying pro-cognitive effects of exercise on MWM. Greater reduction of neurogenesis may be required to observe behavioral impacts. Alternatively, new neurons may not play a critical role in learning, or compensatory mechanisms in pre-existing neurons could have masked the deficits. Further work using these and other models for selectively reducing neurogenesis are needed to establish the functional significance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in behavior.

  18. Mineralogical controls on antimony and arsenic mobility during tetrahedrite-tennantite weathering at historic mine sites Špania Dolina-Piesky and Lubietová-Svätodušná, Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor,; #269; inová rAdková, AnežkA; Jamieson, Heather; Lalinská-Voleková, Bronislava; Majzlan, Juraj; Števko, Martin; Chovan, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The legacy of copper (Cu) mining at Špania Dolina-Piesky and Lubietová-Svätodušná (central Slovakia) is waste rock and soil, surface waters, and groundwaters contaminated with antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), Cu, and other metals. Copper ore is hosted in chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and sulfosalt solid-solution tetrahedrite-tennantite {Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13–Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13} that show wide-spread oxidation characteristic by olive-green color secondary minerals. Tetrahedrite-tennantite can be a significant source of As and Sb contamination. Synchrotron-based μ-XRD, μ-XRF, and μ-XANES combined with electron microprobe analyses have been used to determine the mineralogy, chemical composition, element distribution, and Sb speciation in tetrahedrite-tennantite oxidation products in waste rock. Our results show that the mobility of Sb is limited by the formation of oxidation products such as tripuhyite and roméite group mineral containing 36.54 wt% Sb for samples where the primary mineral chemical composition is close to tetrahedrite end-member. Antimony K-edge μ-XANES spectra of these oxidation products indicate that the predominant Sb oxidation state is 5+. Arsenic and Cu are also hosted by amorphous phases containing 6.23 wt% Sb on average and these are intergrown with tripuhyite and roméite. Antimony in this environment is not very mobile, meaning it is not easily released from solid phases to water, especially compared to As, Cu, and S. For samples where the primary sulfosalt is close to tennantite composition, the oxidation products associated with tennantite relicts contain 2.43 wt% Sb and are amorphous. The variable solubility of the secondary minerals that have been identified is expected to influence mobility of Sb and As in near-surface environment.

  19. Fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne; Lunde, Jens; Johansen, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    Hypofibrinogenaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, but the optimal treatment level, the use of preemptive treatment and the preferred source of fibrinogen remain disputed. Fibrinogen concentrate is increasingly used and recommended for bleeding with acquired haemostatic...

  20. Thermodynamic efficiency of solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2010-04-26

    The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics and review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators. We develop an expression for the optical thermodynamic efficiency which combines the first and second laws of thermodynamics. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. We provide examples illustrating the use of this new metric for concentrating photovoltaic systems for solar power applications, and in particular show how skewness mismatch limits the attainable optical thermodynamic efficiency.

  1. Ultra Low Concentration Adsorption Equilibria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahle, John J; Buettner, Leonard C; LeVan, M. D; Schindler, Bryan J

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically this work focuses on novel experimental and modeling methods to characterize and predict at ultra-low chemical vapor concentrations the protection afforded by adsorption-based vapor filtration systems...

  2. Adiabatic theorem and spectral concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenciu, G.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral concentration of arbitrary order, for the Stark effect is proved to exist for a large class of Hamiltonians appearing in nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics. The results are consequences of an abstract theorem about the spectral concentration for self-ad oint operators. A general form of the adiabatic theorem of quantum mechanics, generalizing an earlier result of the author as well as some results of Lenard, is also proved [ru

  3. Thermodynamic efficiency of nonimaging concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis; Bortz, John; Winston, Roland

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of a nonimaging concentrator is to transfer maximal flux from the phase space of a source to that of a target. A concentrator's performance can be expressed relative to a thermodynamic reference. We discuss consequences of Fermat's principle of geometrical optics. We review étendue dilution and optical loss mechanisms associated with nonimaging concentrators, especially for the photovoltaic (PV) role. We introduce the concept of optical thermodynamic efficiency which is a performance metric combining the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The optical thermodynamic efficiency is a comprehensive metric that takes into account all loss mechanisms associated with transferring flux from the source to the target phase space, which may include losses due to inadequate design, non-ideal materials, fabrication errors, and less than maximal concentration. As such, this metric is a gold standard for evaluating the performance of nonimaging concentrators. Examples are provided to illustrate the use of this new metric. In particular we discuss concentrating PV systems for solar power applications.

  4. Assessment of Activity Concentration of Ilmenite and its Contribution to Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa Syed Mohd Ghazi; Ismail Sulaiman; Mohd Rodzi Ali; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Noraisyah Yusof; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2014-01-01

    Ferum Titanium Oxide (FeTiO 3 ) is the Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). This mineral contains radionuclides from uranium decay series like Radium-226 ( 226 Ra) and from thorium decay series nuclide like Radium-228 ( 228 Ra) and also from Potassium-40 ( 40 K). This radionuclide in large quantities will increase the radiation exposure risk to mankind and environment. In-situ measurement using scintillation survey meter show that external dose rate at 1 and 0.05 meter from soil surface was 97.0 ± 23.3 and 117 ± 26 nSv/ hour. This figure nearly the same with the average dose rate for Malaysia but higher than world average (UNSCEAR 2000). Monitoring of U and Th concentration from the air show that the result was below detection limit of < 0.0001 Bq/ m 3 . It show that's no radionuclide transfer or migrate to environment. Activity concentration of natural radionuclide of 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U from the soil was 573 ± 184 Bqkg -1 , 30.6 ± 10.2 Bqkg -1 , 18.8 ± 6.4 Bqkg -1 , and 64.0 ± 34.3 Bqkg -1 . For ilmenite, the activity concentration was 39.0 ± 10.0 Bqkg -1 , 28.0 ± 6.7 Bqkg -1 , 84.0 ± 6.9 Bqkg -1 dan 50.0 ± 7.4 Bqkg -1 for the same natural radionuclide. Effective dose for the public show that the value of 0.17 mSv/ year was lower than the world average effective dose from the natural radioactivity. Radium equivalent for ilmenite and soil was 173 ± 77 and 42.7 ± 0.4 respectively. External Hazard Index is 0.47 ± 0.21 dan 0.36 ± 0.12 for ilmenite and soil. The external radiation hazard index is less than 1, which means it is safe for human to carry out their activities in the area. The estimated cancer risk value was 4.25 x 10 -4 . The probability of increase of cancer risk from the industry is a minor fraction of ICRP values. Event though the result show that the activity from the industry was insignificant to increase the radiation exposure, but all the safety precautions must be follow as per standards and the legislation

  5. SITE SPECIFIC REFERENCE PERSON PARAMETERS AND DERIVED CONCENTRATION STANDARDS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-03-14

    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of

  6. Relationship between postprandial changes in cardiac left ventricular function, glucose and insulin concentrations, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digestion of food is known to alter the hemodynamics of the body significantly. The purpose of this study was to study the postprandial changes in stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO and left ventricular (LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions measured with tissue Doppler imaging, in relation to gastric emptying rate (GER, satiety, and glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy subjects. Methods Twenty-three healthy subjects were included in this study. The fasting and postprandial changes at 30 min and 110 min in CO, heart rate (HR and blood pressure were measured. Moreover, tissue Doppler imaging systolic (S', early (E' and late (A' mitral annular diastolic velocities were measured in the septal (s and lateral (l walls. Glucose and insulin concentrations, and satiety were measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the meal. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15-90 min after ingestion of the meal. Results This study show that both CO, systolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (S's and lateral wall (S'l, the early diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the lateral wall (E'l, the late diastolic longitudinal ventricular velocity of the septum (A's and lateral wall (A'l increase significantly, and were concomitant with increased satiety, antral area, glucose and insulin levels. The CO, HR and SV at 30 min were significantly higher, and the diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, than the fasting. The satiety was correlated to HR and diastolic blood pressure. The insulin level was correlated to HR. Conclusions This study shows that postprandial CO, HR, SV and LV longitudinal systolic and diastolic functions increase concomitantly with increased satiety, antral area, and glucose and insulin levels. Therefore, patients should not eat prior to, or during, cardiac evaluation as the effects of a meal may

  7. Activity concentration and population dose from natural occurring radionuclide (40K) due to consumption of fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, M.K.; Patra, A.K.; Jaison, T.J.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentration of natural occurring radionuclide ( 40 K) in different fresh water fish collected from Moticher lake near Kakrapar, Gujarat. The three types of commonly available fresh water fish in Moticher lake are Notopterus sps, Ophiocephalus sps. and Tor sps. The 40 K activity (Bq/kg flesh wt.) was found to be in the range of 38-100 (Notopterus sps.), 33-123 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 80-116 (Tor sps.) respectively. The ingestion dose (μSv/y) to the adult population around Kakrapar was estimated due to the consumption of fresh water fish and found to be in the range of 7.7-20.5 (Notopterus sps.), 6.8-25.0 (Ophiocephalus sps.) and 16.0-24.0 (Tor sps.) respectively. (author)

  8. Estimation of Low Concentration Magnetic Fluid Weight Density and Detection inside an Artificial Medium Using a Novel GMR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka GOONERATNE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia treatment has been gaining momentum in the past few years as a possible method to manage cancer. Cancer cells are different to normal cells in many ways including how they react to heat. Due to this difference it is possible for hyperthermia treatment to destroy cancer cells without harming the healthy normal cells surrounding the tumor. Magnetic particles injected into the body generate heat by hysteresis loss and temperature is increased when a time varying external magnetic field is applied. Successful treatment depends on how efficiently the heat is controlled. Thus, it is very important to estimate the magnetic fluid density in the body. Experimental apparatus designed for testing, numerical analysis, and results obtained by experimentation using a simple yet novel and minimally invasive needle type spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR sensor, to estimate low concentration magnetic fluid weight density and detection of magnetic fluid in a reference medium is reported.

  9. Indoor radon concentration and its possible dependence on ventilation rate and flooring type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok, G. V.; Nagaiah, N.; Shiva Prasad, N. G.

    2012-01-01

    The results of radon concentration measurements carried out in dwellings with natural ventilation for 1 y in Bangalore are reported. Measurements, covering three sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, night) were performed two times in a month for 1 y at a fixed place of each dwelling at a height of 1 m above the ground surface in selected dwellings. The low-level radon detection system (LLRDS), an active method, was used for the estimation of radon concentration. The measurements were aimed to understand the diurnal variation and the effect of ventilation rate and flooring type on indoor radon concentration. The geometric mean (±geometric standard deviation) of indoor radon concentration from about 500 measurements carried out in 20 dwellings is found to be 25.4 ±1.54 Bq m -3 . The morning, afternoon and night averages were found to be 42.6 ±2.05, 15.3 ±2.18 and 28.5 ±2.2 Bq m -3 , respectively. The approximate natural ventilation rates of the dwellings were calculated using the PHPAIDA-the on-line natural ventilation, mixed mode and air infiltration rate calculation algorithm and their effects on indoor radon concentrations were studied. The inhalation dose and the lung cancer risk due to indoor radon exposure were found to be 0.66 mSv y -1 and 11.9 per 10 6 persons, respectively. The gamma exposure rate was also measured in all the dwellings and its correlation with the inhalation dose rate was studied. (authors)

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mee; Chung, Kun Ho; Ji, Young Yong; Lim, Jong Myung; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Guen Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To protect the public from natural radioactive materials, the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' was established in Korea. There is an annual effective dose limit of 1 mSv for products, but the activity concentration limit for products is not established yet. To suggest the activity concentration limits for consumer goods containing NORM, in this research, we assumed the 'small room model' surrounding the ICRP reference phantom to simulate the consumer goods in contact with the human bodies. Using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, we evaluate the effective dose rate for the ICRP reference phantom in a small room with dimension of phantom size and derived the activity concentration limit for consumer goods. The consumer goods have about 1600, 1200 and 19000 Bq·kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, and the activity concentration limits are about six times comparing with the values of building materials. We applied the index to real samples, though we did not consider radioactivity of {sup 40}K, indexes of the some samples are more than 6. However, this index concept using small room model is very conservative, for the consumer goods over than index 6, it is necessary to reevaluate the absorbed dose considering real usage scenario and material characteristics. In this research, we derived activity concentration limits for consumer goods in contact with bodies and the results can be used as preliminary screening tool for consumer goods as index concept.

  11. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Planta Solar 20 | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL 20 This page provides information on Planta Solar 20, a concentrating solar power Solar's Planta Solar 20 (PS20) is a 20-megawatt power tower plant being constructed next to the PS10 tower and increasing incident solar radiation capture will increase net electrical power output by 10

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Nevada Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Nevada Solar One This page provides information on Nevada Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, participants, and power plant configuration. Acciona Energy's Nevada Solar One is the third largest CSP plant in the world and the first plant

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Projects - Khi Solar One | Concentrating Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power | NREL Khi Solar One This page provides information on Khi Solar One, a concentrating solar power (CSP) project, with data organized by background, parcipants and power plant configuration . Status Date: February 8, 2016 Project Overview Project Name: Khi Solar One Country: South Africa Location

  14. concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia concentration on in situ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this experiment was to distinguish between the effects of dietary roughage: concentrate ratio and rumen ammonia ... several factors which include the potential rate and extent of degradation of the test feedstuff and the prevailing rate of ... diet effects have be,en designed to examine either the influence of dietary ...

  15. Extremely high radon activity concentration in two adits of the abandoned uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary (Sudety Mts., Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of radon activity concentration were conducted for a period of 6 months, from April to September 2011, in the air of two adits constituting part of the disused uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary. Adits no. 19 and 19a in Kowary had been chosen owing to the occurrence within them of the highest documented radon concentrations in Poland, With levels higher than a million Bq m -3 . The main goal of this study was to characterize the level of 222 Rn activity concentration registered in selected workings of this underground space, investigate 222 Rn changes and their characteristics over selected periods of time (an hour, a day, a month, six months) and determine the effective doses, which provided the basis for estimating the risk of exposure to increased ionizing radiation for employees and visitors to the mine. The highest values of 222 Rn activity concentration inside the adits occurred at the time when visitors, guides and other members of the staff were present there. The recorded values of radon activity concentration, regardless of the time and the month when the measurement was performed, remained at an average level of 350-400 kBq m -3 . These values were far above the limit of 1.5 kBq·m -3 recommended by international guidelines. The maximum values ranged from 800 to more than 1000 kBq·m -3 . Radon activity concentration changes occurred only in periods determined by 7-h cycles of connecting and disconnecting the mechanical ventilation. For about 7 h after activating the ventilation system, between 7 a. m. and 2 p. m., and after closing the adit, between 7 p. m. and 2 a. m., 222 Rn activity concentrations decreased to levels even as low as 100 kBq·m-3. However, as early as 3-4 h after disconnecting the ventilation system, there was a sharp rise in the values of 222 Rn activity concentration, to the level higher than 800 kBq·m-3. The risk of receiving a radiation dose higher than the national standard of 1 mSv/year by members of the

  16. Radiocesium concentrations in epigeic earthworms at various distances from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 6 months after the 2011 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Motohiro; Ito, Masamichi T.; Kaneko, Shinji; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Ikeda, Shigeto; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations of radiocesium in epigeic earthworms, litter, and soil samples collected from forests in Fukushima Prefecture 6 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. Radiocesium concentrations in litter accumulated on the forest floor were higher than those in the soil (0–5 cm depth). The highest average 134+137 Cs concentrations in earthworms (approximately 19 Bq g −1 of wet weight with gut contents and 108 Bq g −1 of dry weight without gut contents) were recorded from a plot that experienced an air dose rate of 3.1 μSv h −1 , and earthworm concentrations were found to increase with litter and/or soil concentrations. Average 134 Cs and 137 Cs concentrations (with or without gut contents) were intermediate between accumulated litter and soil. Different species in the same ecological groups on the same plots had similar concentrations because of their use of the same habitats or their similar physiological characteristics. The contribution of global fallout 137 Cs to earthworms with gut contents was calculated to be very low, and most 137 Cs in earthworms was derived from the Fukushima accident. Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms, based on their dry weights, ranged from 0.21 to 0.35, in agreement with previous field studies. -- Highlights: • Radiocesium concentrations in earthworms were intermediate between litter and soil. • Three earthworm species in epigeic groups had similar radiocesium concentrations. • Transfer factors from accumulated litter to earthworms ranged from 0.21 to 0.35

  17. Concentric retinitis pigmentosa: clinicopathologic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, A H; De Castro, E B; Smith, J E; Tang, W X; John, S K; Gorin, M B; Stone, E M; Aguirre, G D; Jacobson, S G

    2001-10-01

    Progressive concentric (centripetal) loss of vision is one pattern of visual field loss in retinitis pigmentosa. This study provides the first clinicopathologic correlations for this form of retinitis pigmentosa. A family with autosomal dominant concentric retinitis pigmentosa was examined clinically and with visual function tests. A post-mortem eye of an affected 94 year old family member was processed for histopathology and immunocytochemistry with retinal cell specific antibodies. Unrelated simplex/multiplex patients with concentric retinitis pigmentosa were also examined. Affected family members of the eye donor and patients from the other families had prominent peripheral pigmentary retinopathy with more normal appearing central retina, good visual acuity, concentric field loss, normal or near normal rod and cone sensitivity within the preserved visual field, and reduced rod and cone electroretinograms. The eye donor, at age 90, had good acuity and function in a central island. Grossly, the central region of the donor retina appeared thinned but otherwise normal, while the far periphery contained heavy bone spicule pigment. Microscopically the central retina showed photoreceptor outer segment shortening and some photoreceptor cell loss. The mid periphery had a sharp line of demarcation where more central photoreceptors were near normal except for very short outer segments and peripheral photoreceptors were absent. Rods and cones showed abrupt loss of outer segments and cell death at this interface. It is concluded that concentric retinitis pigmentosa is a rare but recognizable phenotype with slowly progressive photoreceptor death from the far periphery toward the central retina. The disease is retina-wide but shows regional variation in severity of degeneration; photoreceptor death is severe in the peripheral retina with an abrupt edge between viable and degenerate photoreceptors. Peripheral to central gradients of unknown retinal molecule(s) may be defective

  18. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. PMID:25506608

  19. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan double bags: effect of concentration gradient reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Capelli, Laura; Boiardi, Emanuela; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient (ΔC) across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The ΔC was controlled by using a setup bag called "double bags." Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (T, P, u) and with equal geometrical characteristics (S/V, z), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the ΔC it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion.

  20. Concentrator-solar-cell development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, L.

    1982-07-01

    A program is described which is a continuation of earlier programs for the development of high-efficiency, low-cost, silicon concentrator solar cells. The base-line process steps and process sequences identified in these earlier contracts were evaluated and specific processes reviewed. In particular, emphasis on the use of Czochralski-grown silicon wafers rather than float-zone wafers were examined. Additionally, a study of the trade-offs between textured and nontextured cells was initiated, and the limits within which the low-cost plated nickel copper metallization can be used in concentrator solar cell applications was identified.